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Sample records for cross-sectional correlation study

  1. Physical activity and its correlates in children: a cross-sectional study (the GINIplus & LISAplus studies)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity among children is an increasing problem that adversely affects children’s health. A better understanding of factors which affect physical activity (PA) will help create effective interventions aimed at raising the activity levels of children. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of PA with individual (biological, social, behavioral, psychological) and environmental (East vs. West Germany, rural vs. urban regions) characteristics in children. Methods Information on PA and potential correlates was collected from 1843 girls and 1997 boys using questionnaires during the 10-year follow-up of two prospective birth cohort studies (GINIplus and LISAplus). Study regions represent urban and rural sites as well as East and West of Germany. Logistic regression modeling was applied to examine cross-sectional associations between individual as well as environmental factors and PA levels. Results Five of fourteen variables were significantly associated with PA. Among children aged 10, girls tended to be less active than boys, especially with respect to vigorous PA (OR = 0.72 for summer). Children who were not a member of a sports club showed a substantially reduced amount of PA in winter (OR = 0.15). Rural environments promote moderate PA, particularly in winter (OR = 1.88), whereas an increased time outdoors primarily promotes moderate PA in summer (OR = 12.41). Children with abnormal emotional symptoms exhibited reduced physical activity, particularly in winter (OR = 0.60). BMI, puberty, parental BMI, parental education, household income, siblings, TV/PC consumption, and method of arriving school, were not associated with PA. Conclusions When considering correlates of PA from several domains simultaneously, only few factors (sex, sports club membership, physical environment, time outdoors, and emotional symptoms) appear to be relevant. Although the causality needs to be ascertained in longitudinal studies

  2. Does treatment adherence correlates with health related quality of life? findings from a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although medication adherence and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are two different outcome measures, it is believed that adherence to medication leads to an improvement in overall HRQoL. The study aimed to evaluate the association between medication adherence and HRQoL. Methods A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study design was undertaken with hypertension patients attending public hospitals in Quetta city, Pakistan. HRQoL was measured by Euroqol EQ-5D. Medication adherence was assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory. Descriptive statistics was used to tabulate demographic and disease-related information. Spearmans correlation was used to assess the association between the study variables. All analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0. Results Among 385 study patients, the mean age (SD) was 39.02 (6.59), with 68.8% of males dominating the entire cohort. The mean (SD) duration of hypertension was 3.010.939years. Forty percent (n=154) had a bachelors degree level of education with 34.8% (n=134) working in the private sector. A negative and weak correlation (0.77) between medication adherence and EQ-5D was reported. In addition, a negative weak correlation (0.120) was observed among medication adherence and EQ-VAS. Conclusions Correlations among the study variables were negligible and negative. Hence, there is no apparent relationship between the variables. PMID:22545950

  3. Correlation Between Vision and Cognitive Function in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Spierer, Oriel; Fischer, Naomi; Barak, Adiel; Belkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between vision and cognition is not fully understood. Visual impairment in the elderly has been associated with impaired cognitive function, dementia, and Alzheimer disease. The aim was to study the correlation between near visual acuity (VA), refraction, and cognitive state in an elderly population.Subjects ≥75 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Refraction and near VA was tested. Cognitive function was evaluated with a version of the mini-mental state examination for the visually impaired (MMSE-blind). The eye with better VA and no cataract or refractive surgery was analyzed.One-hundred ninety subjects (81.6 ± 5.1 years, 69.5% female) were included. Good VA (≤J3) was associated with high MMSE-blind (>17) (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.57-6.43, P = 0.001). This remained significant adjusting for sex, age, and years of education. Wearing reading glasses correlated significantly with high MMSE-blind after adjustment for sex and age (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.16-3.97, P = 0.016), but reached borderline significance after adjustment for education. There was a trend toward correlation between myopia and better MMSE-blind (r = -0.123, P = 0.09, Pearson correlation).Good VA and wearing glasses seem to correlate with better cognitive function. Reading glasses can serve as a protective factor against cognitive deterioration associated with sensory (visual) deprivation in old age. The association between myopia and cognition requires further investigation. PMID:26817872

  4. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P < 0.02). UHMDRS correlated positively with the ESS score (P < 0.005), and negatively with the percentage of REM sleep. Conclusions: Patients with Huntington disease showed a severe sleep disruption and a high prevalence of periodic limb movements, but no evidence of sleep disordered breathing or REM sleep behavior disorder. Citation: Piano C, Losurdo A, Della Marca G, Solito M

  5. Environmental correlates of physical activity in multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Doerksen, Shawna E; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that is associated with physical inactivity. Understanding the factors that correlate with physical activity is important for developing effective physical activity promotion programs for this population. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study that examined the association between features of the built environment with self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour in adults with MS. Methods Participants with MS (n = 196) were sent a questionnaire packet that included self-report measures of the built environment and physical activity and a pedometer in the mail and were instructed to complete the questionnaires and wear the device for seven days. Participants returned the completed questionnaires in a pre-stamped, pre-addressed envelope. Bivariate correlation analysis was conducted for examining associations between items on the environmental questionnaire with the two measures of physical activity. Stepwise regression analysis was conducted for determining the independent contributions of the significant environmental correlates for explaining variation in physical activity. Results Correlational analysis indicated that presence of shops, stores, markets or other places within walking distance (r = .20; ρ = .18), presence of a transit stop within walking distance (r = .20; ρ = .16), and accessibility of free or low-cost recreation facilities (r = .16; ρ = .15) were related to pedometer, but not self-reported, measured physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that the presence of a transit stop within walking distance independently explained 4% of variance in pedometer measured physical activity. Conclusion Physical activity is an important behaviour to promote among individuals with MS. This study indicated that aspects of the built environment are related to this health promoting behaviour among those with MS. Further research should focus on the longitudinal

  6. Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used. Result The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score > 5) was 55.8% (1,424). Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57), second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02) and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12) had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality. Conclusion A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health. PMID:23270533

  7. A cross-sectional study examining youth smoking rates and correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Aslanikashvili, Ana; Djibuti, Mamuka

    2014-01-01

    Georgia has high smoking rates; however, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of youth smoking. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 1,879 secondary and postsecondary school students aged 15 to 24 years in Tbilisi, Georgia, examining substance use, perceived risk, and recreational activities in relation to lifetime and current (past 30 days) smoking. Lifetime and current smoking prevalence was 46.1% and 22.6%, respectively. In secondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, and lower perceived risk (P's ≤ .001). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, less frequently exercise, and more often going out (P's < .05). In postsecondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, more often going out, and recreational internet use (P's < .0). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male (P's = .04), consuming alcohol, marijuana use, lower perceived risk, and more often going out (P's < .05). Tobacco control interventions might target these correlates to reduce smoking prevalence in Georgian youth. PMID:24738059

  8. Correlation cross sections along the international border

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniuk, C.D. ); Le Fever, J.A.; Anderson, S.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The Manitoba-North Dakota (Canada-US) stratigraphic correlation project is a joint study between the Petroleum Branch of Manitoba Energy and Mines and the North Dakota Geological Survey. It is an attempt to correlate the differing stratigraphic terminologies established in the two jurisdictions by providing a reference cross section across the international boundary. The study involves the subsurface correlation of logs of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences in the Manitoba and North Dakota portions of the Williston basin. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences are subdivided for presentation into the following stratigraphic intervals: (a) Cambrian-Ordovician-Silurian, (b) Devonian, (c) Mississippian, (d) Jurassic, and (e) Cretaceous. Wireline logs show the actual stratigraphic correlations. A nomenclature chart is also presented from each sequence. In addition, the sections include a generalized description of lithologies, thicknesses, environments of deposition, and petroleum potential for each geographic area.

  9. Adult tobacco use practice and its correlates in eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is paucity of data on the smoking habits of rural populations in developing countries. This study aimed to explore cigarette smoking practices of a rural community in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 548 individuals from a random sample of households in a rural town and its surrounding rural districts. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Results Twenty-eight percent (95% CI: 24.3% - 31.6%) of the respondents were current smokers. A total of 105 (68%) smokers expressed an interest to quit while 37 (34%) had tried to quit previously but without success. There was high exposure to second-hand smoke: 285 (52%) homes allowed indoor smoking, and in 181 (33%) indoor smoking took place daily. Current smoking was strongly associated with male sex (OR = 83.0; 95% CI: 11.5 – 599.0), and being a student was found to be protective of smoking (OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.005 – 0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking is prevalent among the male rural town population in Ethiopia. In addition, a high level of exposure to indoor second-hand smoke exists. There is a need for investment in rural tobacco control, including educational campaigns and cost-effective smoking cessation services. PMID:24171800

  10. Prevalence of Tooth Shade and its Correlation with Skin Colour - A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, K.V Halini; Choudhury, Gopal Krishna; Vilekar, Abhishek Madhukar; Das, Sitansu Sekhar; Jena, Debkant; Kataraki, Bharat; B.L, Bhavana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aesthetics has become an important issue in modern society. Tooth shade is one of the factors in determining aesthetics. Studies have revealed that tooth shade is influenced by age, gender, eye colour, skin colour and other factors. Aim The present study was aimed to assess the prevalence of tooth shade and its correlation with skin colour. Materials and Methods A total of 300 subjects aged 18-20 years were evaluated for tooth shade using Vitapan – 3D shade guide. Anterior teeth were checked under natural light and facial skin colour by Lakme liquid foundation make up as a shade guide. Data was analysed using chi square test and spearman’s correlation. Results Out of 300 students, 114 (38.00%) had A2 tooth shade; the least prevalent tooth shade among Chitradurga population was C1 (4.00%). There was a positive correlation between tooth shade and skin colour which was found to be statistically significant (p <0.05). Conclusion The most prevalent tooth shade among Chitradurga population was A2 and least was C1. There was a significant correlation between tooth shade and skin colour with lighter skin tone subjects having lighter tooth shade hence skin colour can be used as a guide for shade selection. PMID:27042590

  11. Correlates of foot pain severity in adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV) is highly prevalent and associated with progressive first metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation and osteoarthritis. The link between structural HV deformity and foot pain is unclear. This study investigated possible explanatory factors surrounding foot pain in HV, including radiographic HV angle and signs of joint degeneration. Methods Participants were 60 adults (53 female) with HV aged 20 to 75 years. Participant demographics and a range of radiographic, clinical and functional measures were considered potential correlates of foot pain. Self-reported foot pain (visual analogue scales and a dichotomous definition) was considered the dependent variable. Multivariate modelling was used to determine which characteristics and measures explained pain, with univariate analyses first used to screen potential variables. Results Approximately 20 to 30% of the variance in foot pain associated with HV could be explained by patient characteristics such as poorer general health status, lower educational attainment and increased occupational physical activity levels, in combination with some dynamic physical characteristics such as hallux plantarflexion weakness and reduced force-time integral under the second metatarsal during gait. Neither increasing lateral deviation of the hallux (HV angle) nor presence of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis was associated with foot pain. Conclusions This study shows that passive structural factors, including HV angle, do not appear to be significant correlates of foot pain intensity in HV. Our data demonstrate the importance of considering patient characteristics such as general health and physical activity levels when assessing foot pain associated with HV. PMID:25028598

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Insufficient Sleep Syndrome in Japanese Young Adults: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Asaoka, Shoichi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insufficient sleep syndrome (ISS), and factors associated with daytime dysfunction in the disorder in Japanese young adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a web-based questionnaire survey was used to assess demographic variables, sleep habits and quality, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 2,276 participants aged 20–25. Results: Eleven percent of participants were classified as having ISS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of ISS was significantly associated with social status (student or full-time employee). The participants with ISS had significantly higher depression scores and lower mental component summary scores than healthy sleepers. In the participants with ISS, a delayed sleep-wake schedule was extracted as a factor associated with worse mental component summary. Conclusions: Results indicate a relatively high proportion of Japanese young adults suffer from ISS, and that the condition is associated with a social status of student or full-time employee. Moreover, a delayed sleep-wake schedule may lead to further deterioration of mental HRQOL in ISS-affected persons. Citation: Morita Y, Sasai-Sakuma T, Asaoka S, Inoue Y. Prevalence and correlates of insufficient sleep syndrome in Japanese young adults: a web-based cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1163–1169. PMID:26094926

  13. Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ompad, Danielle C; Fuller, Crystal M; Chan, Christina A; Frye, Victoria; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC). Methods 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were recruited in NYC between 2000 and 2004 to complete interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results In multivariable logistic regression, non-injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to be heroin dependent, less than daily methamphetamine users and to have a heroin using sex partner in the last two months. Injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to use heroin daily, share injection paraphernalia and less likely to have been in a detoxification program and to have not used marijuana in the last six months. Conclusion The results overall suggest that illicit (or street) methadone use is likely not a primary drug of choice, but is instead more common in concert with other illicit drug use. PMID:18957116

  14. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  15. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  16. Serum aminotransferase ratio is independently correlated with hepatosteatosis in patients with HCV: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Huang-Shen; Chung, Chang-Ming; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chen, Po-Han; Hu, Jing-Hong; Chou, Wen-Nan; Huang, Jui-Chu; Huang, Tung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significant in hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers due to multiple mechanisms, and this worsens the progression of chronic liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio correlates with the status of hepatosteatosis. Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting Community-based annual examination in northern Taiwan. Participants A total of 1354 participants (age 20 years or over) were enrolled after excluding participants with HCV seronegative, laboratory or questionnaires loss, moderate alcohol consumption, liver cirrhosis, tumours and postlobectomy. Outcome measures Fatty liver was diagnosed according to echogenic findings. NAFLD included grades 1–3 fatty liver and high-degree NAFLD defined grades 2–3 fatty liver. Results 580 males and 774 females with a mean age of 47.2 (SD=16.1) years were cross-sectionally studied. The participants with NAFLD have significantly higher levels of ALT/AST ratio, fasting glucose, triglyceride and systolic/diastolic blood pressure than non-NAFLD participants. The association between NAFLD and ALT/AST was significant even when adjusting for the metabolic syndrome (aOR 1.90; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.65; p<0.001). In patients with a high degree of NAFLD, the ALT/AST ratio was still a significant predictor for hepatosteatosis (aOR 2.44; 95% CI 1.58 to 3.77; p<0.001). Conclusions The ALT/AST ratio could be a strong risk of hepatosteatosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:26369802

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Prehypertension and Hypertension among Adults in Northeastern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Wang, Shibin; Su, Yingying; Rao, Wenwang; Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Kou, Changgui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prehypertension is a category between normotension and hypertension that is becoming increasingly common in China. However, limited data are available on the prevalence and correlates of prehypertension in northeastern China. Methods: A cross-sectional study using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods was performed on 17,584 participants. Results: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 36.0% and 30.8% in northeastern China, respectively. As age increased, the prevalence of prehypertension in males declined (p-trend < 0.001), in parallel to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension (p-trend < 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension for females increased as age increased (p-trend < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that age, gender, location, drinking, Body Mass Index (BMI), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia correlated with prehypertension and hypertension (p-trend < 0.05). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in an adult population of northeastern China and some correlates of prehypertension and hypertension. PMID:26712776

  18. Correlates and Predictors of Increasing Waist Circumference in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Abedandi, Robert; Salifu, Zenabankara S.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) has become a disease of public health concern worldwide. Obesity and elevated blood pressure have been shown to be comorbidities of type 2 DM. In this cross-sectional study in Tamale, Ghana, we determined the prevalence of abdominal obesity among type 2 DM patients. Furthermore, we examined the demographic, clinical, and anthropometric predictors of increasing waist circumference in this population. Three hundred type 2 DM patients attending the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana, were recruited for the study. Waist circumference (WC) and hip circumferences were measured appropriately. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were taken from the personal health record files of patients. Demographic data were obtained. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression models were employed to identify predictors of increasing WC. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 77.0% and was significantly higher in women than in men. A positive correlation was observed between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and WC (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), female gender (r = 0.73, P < 0.001), and age (r = 0.20, P < 0.001). A high prevalence of abdominal obesity was observed. Predictors of increasing WC were gender, age, FPG, and WHR.

  19. Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson's disease: an observational cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Polo, V; Satue, M; Rodrigo, M J; Otin, S; Alarcia, R; Bambo, M P; Fuertes, M I; Larrosa, J M; Pablo, L E; Garcia-Martin, E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate visual dysfunction and its correlation with structural changes in the retina in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Patients with PD (n=37) and controls (n=37) were included in an observational cross-sectional study, and underwent visual acuity (VA), colour vision (using the Farnsworth and Lanthony desaturated D15 colour tests) and contrast sensitivity vision (CSV; using the Pelli-Robson chart and CSV 1000E test) evaluation to measure visual dysfunction. Structural measurements of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), and macular and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thicknesses, were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Comparison of obtained data, and correlation analysis between functional and structural results were performed. Results VA (in all different contrast levels) and all CSV spatial frequencies were significantly worse in patients with PD than in controls. Colour vision was significantly affected based on the Lanthony colour test. Significant GCL loss was observed in the minimum GCL+inner plexiform layer. A clear tendency towards a reduction in several macular sectors (central, outer inferior, outer temporal and superior (inner and outer)) and in the temporal quadrant of the RNFL thickness was observed, although the difference was not significant. CSV was the functional parameter most strongly correlated with structural measurements in PD. Colour vision was associated with most GCL measurements. Macular thickness was strongly correlated with macular volume and functional parameters (r>0.70, p<0.05). Conclusions Patients with PD had visual dysfunction that correlated with structural changes evaluated by SD-OCT. GCL measurements may be reliable indicators of visual impairment in patients with PD. PMID:27154474

  20. Prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents: a cross-sectional survey study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Lu, Ciyong

    2014-01-01

    Study objective To investigate the prevalence and the correlates of sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents and to examine the association between the two problems. Design Cross-sectional survey. Participants A total of 3186 school students in grades 7–12 were sampled from the schools in Guangdong. A stratified-cluster random-sampling strategy was used to select the schools. Main outcome measures A self-administered questionnaire was used. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index (PSQI) was used to assess the occurrence of sleep disturbance, and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to identify whether individuals had depressive symptoms. Results The mean PSQI global score was 8.7 (±2.4) points, and 39.6% of the total sample had sleep disturbance. The mean CES-D score of students was 15.2 (±9.4) points, and 6.4% of the students had depressive symptoms. Additionally, girls and older adolescents were more likely to suffer from sleep disturbance, and the students who had depressive symptoms were 2.47 (95% CI 1.61 to 3.79) times more likely to suffer from sleep disturbance. Factors that were correlated with sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms were having a poor relationship with teachers, feeling lonely, suicide ideation and having run away from home. Conclusions Sleep disturbance was determined to be more prevalent among Chinese adolescents with depressive symptoms. Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms were associated with each other, while school factors, family factors and psychosocial adjustment were comprehensively correlated with both. PMID:25079937

  1. Prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a Saudi Arabic population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong D; Bakhotmah, Balkees A; Hu, Frank B; Alzahrani, Hasan Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a Saudi population. The study population consisted of 552 diabetic participants with an average age of 53.4 years. Among this population, 62.7% were male and 94.9% had type 2 diabetes. The average body mass index was 31.1 kg/m2. DPN was diagnosed based on a combination of reduced vibration perception measured by neurothesiometer and/or reduced light touch perception evaluated by the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, as well as neurological symptoms. Information on socio-demographic variables, smoking status, duration of diabetes, and medications was obtained through interviews by physicians. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and clinical markers were assessed following standard procedures. The prevalence of DPN in this population was 19.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-23.5%). In the multivariable analyses, longer duration of diabetes [odds ratio (OR) for every 5-year increase, 2.49, 95% CI, 1.75-3.53], abdominal obesity (OR, 2.53, 95% CI, 1.41-4.55), and higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR for every 1 mmol/L increase, 1.05, 95% CI, 0.99-1.12), creatinine (OR for every 10 µmol/L increase, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.99-1.14) and white blood cell count (OR for every 106/L increase, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.01-1.16) were associated with higher odds of DPN, while oral hypoglycemic medication use was associated with a lower odds of DPN (OR, 0.47, 95% CI, 0.26-0.85). In this large Saudi population, several correlates for DPN, in addition to glycemic control and diabetes duration, were identified, including abdominal obesity, creatinine and white blood cell count. PMID:25184511

  2. Clinical and cognitive correlates of employment among patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gainful employment is one major area of functioning which is becoming an important goal in psychiatric rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. Studies in western countries are pointing to evidence that certain sociodemographic and clinical factors may contribute to employment outcomes in this group of people. However, the area is still largely unexplored in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to examine the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive correlates of employment status among patients with Schizophrenia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. All participants who fulfilled the requirements of the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Study instruments included a demographic data questionnaire, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Trail Making Tests, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Digit Span. Bivariate analyses were done using chi-square for categorical data and t-test for continuous data and multiple logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of employment status. Results A total of 95 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Among the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables studied marital status, educational level, mean scores of negative symptoms, Digit Span and RAVLT and Trail Making Tests were found to show significant association with employment status on bivariate analyses. However, when entered into a logistic regression model, only cognitive variables ie. Trail A and B, Digit Span and RAVLT were significant predictors of employment status. Conclusions The results from this study support the role of cognitive function, particularly, attention, working memory and executive functioning on attaining and maintaining employment in persons with schizophrenia as measured by the RAVLT, Digit Span and Trail Making Tests. These findings may act as preliminary evidence suggesting the importance of integrating

  3. Intraclass correlation and design effect in BMI, physical activity and diet: a cross-sectional study of 56 countries

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Mohd; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and design effect (DE) may help to modify the public health interventions for body mass index (BMI), physical activity and diet according to geographic targeting of interventions in different countries. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of clustering and DE in BMI, physical activity and diet in 56 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Design Cross-sectional study design. Setting Multicountry national survey data. Methods The World Health Survey (WHS), 2003, data were used to examine clustering in BMI, physical activity in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and diet in fruits and vegetables intake (FVI) from low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Multistage sampling in the WHS used geographical clusters as primary sampling units (PSU). These PSUs were used as a clustering or grouping variable in this analysis. Multilevel intercept only regression models were used to calculate the ICC and DE for each country. Results The median ICC (0.039) and median DE (1.82) for BMI were low; however, FVI had a higher median ICC (0.189) and median DE (4.16). For MET, the median ICC was 0.141 and median DE was 4.59. In some countries, however, the ICC and DE for BMI were large. For instance, South Africa had the highest ICC (0.39) and DE (11.9) for BMI, whereas Uruguay had the highest ICC (0.434) for MET and Ethiopia had the highest ICC (0.471) for FVI. Conclusions This study shows that across a wide range of countries, there was low area level clustering for BMI, whereas MET and FVI showed high area level clustering. These results suggested that the country level clustering effect should be considered in developing preventive approaches for BMI, as well as improving physical activity and healthy diets for each country. PMID:26743697

  4. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Mamta; Agarwalla, Rashmi; Mallik, Praveen; Dwivedi, Shridhar; Patvagekar, Bilkish; Pathak, Rambha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Workers represent half the world's population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. Objectives: (1) To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2) To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi. Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. Results: The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91%) were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc). 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99), smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36, CI:1.30-4.27) and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16) for illiterate). Discussion: The prevalence of tobacco use (91%) among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed. PMID:27625442

  5. Prevalence and Positive Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Chinese Patients with Hematological Malignancies: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yi-Long; Wang, Zi-Yue; Wu, Hui; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Positive psychological constructs have been given increasing attention in research on the coping resources of cancer-related distresses. However, little research is available on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hematological malignancies. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and to explore the associations of perceived social support (PSS), hope, optimism and resilience with PTSD symptoms among Chinese patients with hematological malignancies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from July 2013 through April 2014. A total of 225 inpatients with hematological malignancies, which were eligible for the study, completed the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist-Civilian Version, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Adult Hope Scale, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and Resilience Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the correlates of PTSD symptoms. Results Overall, the prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 10.7%. Initially, PSS was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.248, P < 0.01). However, when positive psychological variables were added, optimism was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.452, P < 0.01), and gender had a significant effect on PTSD symptoms. Women were more vulnerable to these symptoms than men (β = 0.123, P < 0.05). When the analysis was performed separately by gender, only optimism showed a significantly negative association with PTSD symptoms in both men (β = -0.389, P < 0.01) and women (β = -0.493, P < 0.01). Conclusions Some patients with hematological malignancies suffer from PTSD symptoms. The positive effects of PSS and optimism on PTSD symptoms suggest that an integrated approach to psychosocial intervention from both external and internal perspectives could have practical significance. Gender difference should be considered in developing potential interventions in reducing cancer-related PTSD

  6. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9) and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0). Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class, who did not participate

  7. Mental health and behaviour of students of public health and their correlation with social support: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Future public health professionals are especially important among students partly because their credibility in light of their professional messages and activities will be tested daily by their clients; and partly because health professionals' own lifestyle habits influence their attitudes and professional activities. A better understanding of public health students' health and its determinants is necessary for improving counselling services and tailoring them to demand. Our aim was to survey public health students' health status and behaviour with a focus on mental health. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among public health students at 1-5-years (N = 194) with a self-administered questionnaire that included standardized items on demographic data, mental wellbeing characterized by sense of coherence (SoC) and psychological morbidity, as well as health behaviour and social support. Correlations between social support and the variables for mental health, health status and health behaviour were characterized by pairwise correlation. Results The response rate was 75% and represented students by study year, sex and age in the Faculty. Nearly half of the students were non-smokers, more than one quarter smoked daily. Almost one-fifth of the students suffered from notable psychological distress. The proportion of these students decreased from year 1 to 5. The mean score for SoC was 60.1 and showed an increasing trend during the academic years. 29% of the students lacked social support from their student peers. Significant positive correlation was revealed between social support and variables for mental health. Psychological distress was greater among female public health students than in the same age female group of the general population; whereas the lack of social support was a more prevalent problem among male students. Conclusions Health status and behaviour of public health students is similar to their non-students peers except for their

  8. Depressive symptoms and alcohol correlates among Brazilians aged 14 years and older: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related disorders, drinking patterns and other characteristics of alcohol use are important public health issues worldwide. This study aims to study these associations in an upper middle-income country, Brazil, and search for related socio-demographic correlations in men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. The sample of 3,007 participants, selected using a multistage probabilistic sampling method, represents the Brazilian population aged 14 and older. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and alcohol dependence was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations assessed using bi-variate analysis were tested using Rao-Scott measures. Gender specific multinomial logistic regression models were developed. Results Among the participants with alcohol dependence, 46% had depressive symptoms (17.2% mild/moderate and 28.8% major/severe; p < 0.01); 35.8% (p = 0.08) of those with alcohol abuse and 23.9% (p < 0.01) of those with a binge-drinking pattern also had depressive symptoms. Alcohol abstainers and infrequent drinkers had the highest prevalence of major/severe depressive symptoms, whereas frequent heavy drinkers had the lowest prevalence of major/severe depressive symptoms. In women, alcohol dependence and the presence of one or more problems related to alcohol consumption were associated with higher risks of major/severe depressive symptoms. Among men, alcohol dependence and being ≥45 years old were associated with higher risks of major/severe depressive symptoms. Conclusions In Brazil, the prevalence of depressive symptoms is strongly related to alcohol dependence; the strongest association was between major/severe depressive symptoms and alcohol dependence in women. This survey supports the possible association of biopsychosocial distress

  9. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. Methods A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). Results The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score ≥ 22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x2 = 8.53, df = 1, p = 0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x2 = 70.63, df = 4, p < 0.001). Similarly, an association was found between the number of life events and clinical depressive symptoms (x2 = 40.06, df = 4, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics confirmed that the responders who reported a high number (n = 12–21) of stressful life events during the previous year (OR = 2.64 95% CI: 1.02, 6.83) and a severe degree of stress due to these events (total LESS score > 351, OR = 3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. Conclusions The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot

  10. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. Methods A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Results The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548). In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7%) of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Conclusion Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand. PMID:19445678

  11. The prevalence and correlations of medical student burnout in the pre-clinical years: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz, Rebecca; Korenstein, Deborah; Fallar, Robert; Ripp, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Burnout is a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and impaired personal accomplishment induced by repeated workplace stressors. Current research suggests that physician burnout may have its origins in medical school. The consequences of medical student burnout include both personal and professional distress, loss of empathy, and poor health. We hypothesized that burnout occurs prior to the initiation of the clinical years of medical education. This was a cross-sectional survey administered to third-year medical students at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) in New York, New York (a traditional-style medical school with a marked division between pre-clinical and clinical training occurring at the beginning of the third year). Survey included an instrument used to measure job burnout, a sleep deprivation screen, and questions related to demographic information, current rotation, psychiatric history, time spent working/studying, participation in extracurricular activities, social support network, autonomy and isolation. Of the 86 medical students who participated, 71% met criteria for burnout. Burnt out students were significantly more likely to suffer from sleep deprivation (p = 0.0359). They were also more likely to disagree with the following statements: "I have control over my daily schedule" (p = 0.0286) and "I am confident that I will have the knowledge and skills necessary to become an intern when I graduate" (p = 0.0263). Our findings show that burnout is present at the beginning of the third year of medical school, prior to the initiation of the clinical years of medical training. Medical student burnout is quite common, and early efforts should be made to empower medical students to both build the knowledge and skills necessary to become capable physicians, as well as withstand the emotional, mental, and physical challenges inherent to medical school. PMID:21781020

  12. Correlation of Skin Changes with Hormonal Changes in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Gowri, B Vijaya; Chandravathi, PL; Sindhu, PS; Naidu, K Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%), followed by hirsutism (62.5%), seborrhea (52.5%), androgenetic alopecia (AGA) (30%), acanthosis nigricans (22.5%) and acrochordons (10%). Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone. PMID:26288423

  13. Socio-demographic correlates of injection drug use among male drug users: a cross sectional study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Sanjeev Raj; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Adhikari, Samaj; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Drug abuse is one of the major public health problems in Nepal. The objective of this study is to explore the factors responsible for the injecting drug use in Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted among drug users in Pokhara sub metropolitan city in Nepal. Taking prevalence of 20% at 95% confidence interval and 20% non-response rate, 448 samples were calculated for face to face interviews. Most of the study participants were >24 year's age. Sixty-one percentage of the participants were unemployed. The largest percentage belonged to Gurung/Rai/Pun (37%) ethnic groups, and had completed secondary level of education (47.5%). In the logistic regression analysis occupation, motivating factors for drug use, ever been to custody, age at first drug use, age at first sex, money spent on drugs, ever been rehabilitated and age of the respondents showed a statistically significant association with injecting drug use status. The respondents having business [Adjusted Odds ratio (aOR) 4.506, 95% CI (1.677-12.104)], service [aOR 2.698, 95% CI (a1.146-6.355], having tragedy/turmoil [aOR 3.867, 95% CI (1.596-9.367)], family problem [aOR 2.010, 95% CI (2.010-53.496)], had sex at >19 years [aOR 1.683, 95% CI (1.017-2.785)], rehabilitated >2 times [aOR 4.699, 95% CI (1.401-15.763)], >24 years age group [aOR 1.741, 95% CI (1.025-2.957)] had higher odds of having injecting habits. Having money spent on drugs >3,000 NRs (300 USD) [aOR 0.489, 95%CI (0.274-0.870), not been to custody (aOR 0.330, 95%CI (0.203-0.537)] and having curiosity for drug use [aOR 0.147, 95% CI (0.029-0.737)] were found to be protective for injecting drug use. This study recommends the harm reduction program specifically focused on drug users of occupational groups like business, service and the youths through public health actions to stop transiting them to injecting drug use. PMID:24705679

  14. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults), with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35), perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10), recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62) and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29). The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727) (p< 0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our findings

  15. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Yoremes (Mayos) in Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Corella-Madueño, María Alba Guadalupe; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Aldana-Madrid, María Lourdes; Almada-Balderrama, Gerardo Javier; Nuñez-Aguirre, Alan Daniel; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Yoremes and to identify associations of T. gondii exposure with sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics of Yoremes. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Yoremes were enrolled in the locality of Tierra Blanca in the municipality of Navojoa in Sonora State, Mexico. Participants We studied 200 Yoremes (Mayos); they are an indigenous ethnic group living in a coastal region in northwestern Mexico. Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in participants using enzyme-linked immunoassays. We used a standardised questionnaire to obtain the characteristics of Yoremes. The association of T. gondii exposure and Yoremes’ characteristics was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 200 Yoremes studied (mean age: 31.50±18.43 years), 26 (13.0%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 19 (73.1%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection did not vary with sex, educational level, occupation or socioeconomic status. In contrast, multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics showed that T. gondii exposure was associated with increasing age (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04; p=0.03) and consumption of squirrel meat (OR=4.99; 95% CI 1.07 to 23.31; p=0.04). Furthermore, seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in Yoremes with a history of lymphadenopathy (p=0.03) and those suffering from frequent abdominal pain (p=0.03). In women, T. gondii exposure was associated with a history of caesarean sections (p=0.03) and miscarriages (p=0.02). Conclusions We demonstrate, for the first time, serological evidence of T. gondii exposure among Yoremes in Mexico. Results suggest that infection with T. gondii might be affecting the health of Yoremes. Results may be useful for an

  16. Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Testosterone in Boys and Young Male Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chang, Jung-Su

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transition from childhood to teenaged years is associated with increased testosterone and a decreased iron status. It is not clear whether higher testosterone levels cause the decreased iron status, and to what extent, obesity-related inflammation influences the iron-testosterone relationship. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of testosterone, iron status, and anti-/proinflammatory cytokines in relation to nutritional status in boys and young adolescent Taiwanese males. Methods In total, 137 boys aged 7~13 yr were included. Parameters for obesity, the iron status, testosterone, and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results Overweight and obese (ow/obese) boys had higher mean serum testosterone, interleukin (IL)-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) levels compared to their normal-weight counterparts (all p<0.05). Mean serum ferritin was slightly higher in ow/obese boys compared to normal-weight boys, but this did not reach statistical significance. A multiple linear regression showed that serum ferritin (β = -0.7470, p = 0.003) was inversely correlated with testosterone, while serum IL-10 (β = 0.3475, p = 0.009) was positively associated with testosterone after adjusting for covariates. When normal-weight boys were separately assessed from ow/obesity boys, the association between testosterone and serum ferritin became stronger (β = -0.9628, p<0.0001), but the association between testosterone and IL-10 became non-significant (β = 0.1140, p = 0.4065) after adjusting for covariates. In ow/obese boys, only IL-10 was weakly associated with serum testosterone (β = 0.6444, p = 0.051) after adjusting for age. Conclusions Testosterone and serum ferritin are intrinsically interrelated but this relationship is weaker in ow/obese boys after adjusting for age. PMID:26646112

  17. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  18. European adults’ physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  19. The environmental correlates of overall and neighborhood based recreational walking (a cross-sectional analysis of the RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Preliminary evidence suggests that recreational walking has different environmental determinants than utilitarian walking. However, previous studies are limited in their assessment of environmental exposures and recreational walking and in the applied modeling strategies. Accounting for individual sociodemographic profiles and weather over the walking assessment period, the study examined whether numerous street network-based neighborhood characteristics related to the sociodemographic, physical, service, social-interactional, and symbolic environments were associated with overall recreational walking and recreational walking in one’s residential neighborhood and could explain their spatial distribution. Methods Based on the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris region, France, n = 7105, 2007–2008 data), multilevel-spatial regression analyses were conducted to investigate environmental factors associated with recreational walking (evaluated by questionnaire at baseline). A risk score approach was applied to quantify the overall disparities in recreational walking that were predicted by the environmental determinants. Results Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported recreational walking over the past 7 days. Their mean reported recreational walking time was 3h31mn. After individual-level adjustment, a higher neighborhood education, a higher density of destinations, green and open spaces of quality, and the absence of exposure to air traffic were associated with higher odds of recreational walking and/or a higher recreational walking time in one’s residential neighborhood. As the overall disparities that were predicted by these environmental factors, the odds of reporting recreational walking and the odds of a higher recreational walking time in one’s neighborhood were, respectively, 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56, 1.62] times and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.87) times higher in the most vs. the least supportive environments (based on the

  20. Exploring correlations between positive psychological resources and symptoms of psychological distress among hematological cancer patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yue; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lie

    2016-07-01

    Hematological cancer patients experience high levels of psychological distress during diagnoses and intensive treatments. The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of positive psychological resources on depressive and anxiety symptoms in hematological cancer patients. This survey was conducted in a hospital during the period from July 2013 to April 2014. A total of 300 inpatients were recruited and finally 227 of them completed the questionnaires. Questionnaires included demographic and clinical variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Life Orientation Scale-Revised, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Resilience Scale-14. Results showed that the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 66.1 and 45.8%, respectively. Both optimism (β = -.479, p < .001) and resilience (β = -.174, p < .05) were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, and optimism (β = -.393, p < .001) was negatively associated with anxiety symptoms. However, resilience (β = -.133, p > .05) was not significantly associated with anxiety symptoms, and self-efficacy was not significantly associated with depressive (β = -.032, p > .05) or anxiety symptoms (β = -.055, p > .05). The results suggest that hematological cancer patients who possess high levels of positive psychological resources may have fewer symptoms of psychological distress. The findings indicate that enhancing positive psychological resources can be considered in developing intervention strategies for decreasing depressive and anxiety symptoms. PMID:26708250

  1. Correlates of Insufficient Physical Activity among Junior High School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in Xi’an, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Hui, Zhaozhao; Terry, Paul D.; Ma, Mei; Cheng, Li; Deng, Fu; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity plays an important role in individual health at all stages of life. However, evidence is lacking regarding the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the related factors to insufficient physical activity (IPA). Methods: A sample of 1060 students aged 12–15 years from nine public junior high schools in China were invited to participate in this study. Physical activity was assessed by a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with IPA. Results: 30.1% boys and 43.0% girls in our sample did not engage in sufficient physical activity. Obesity (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5–2.9) and high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–4.8) were positively associated with IPA, whereas male sex (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5–0.9), underweight status (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.7), and high family support level for physical activity (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6–0.9) showed inverse associations. Age was not associated with IPA. Conclusions: IPA appears to be a considerable problem in this sample of Chinese youth. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are needed and may include improving family support level for physical activity, especially for girls, the obese and those with high SES. PMID:27043607

  2. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with CD4 count in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive adults--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dev, Nishanth; Sahoo, Ratnakar; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Gadpayle, A K; Sharma, S C

    2015-11-01

    Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-positive patients is reported to be high in those with severe immune deficiency. However, there is paucity of literature in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive population. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and study its correlation with CD4 count in this population. In this cross-sectional study, patients presenting to the antiretroviral therapy clinic were screened with thyroid function tests, including thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels at the time of diagnosis. Two hundred and twenty-five HIV-positive and an equal number of healthy volunteers were enrolled. The mean (SD) CD4 count in the study group was 147.1 (84) and 70.7% had advanced immune deficiency with CD4 count <200 cells/µL. The overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 75.5% in the study group and 16% in the control group. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest abnormality noted in almost 53%. Significant correlation was observed between CD4 count and thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels (r = -0.86, r = 0.77, and r = 0.84, respectively, p < 0.0001 for all). The present study demonstrated high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in HIV-positive patients. The dysfunction is subclinical in most cases and correlates well with declining CD4 counts. PMID:25505045

  3. Prevalence of burnout and its correlates among residents in a tertiary medical center in Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakaran, B; Prabhakaran, A; Karunakaran, V

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Residents work in emotionally demanding environments with multiple stressors. The risk for burnout is high in them and it has significant negative consequences for their career. Burnout is also associated with consequences in terms of physical and mental health including insomnia, cardiovascular disease, depression and suicidal ideation. Thus, the study aimed to study the prevalence of burn out and its correlates among interns and residents at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Settings and Design: Cross Sectional Study at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Methods: It was a cross Sectional study of 558 interns and residents of Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Data was collected which included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory [CBI] which assesses burnout in the dimensions of Personal burnout, Work burnout and Patient related burnout, with a cut off score of 50 for each dimension. Age, sex, year of study, department the resident belonged to, or an intern, junior resident or a super speciality senior resident (resident doing super speciality course after their post graduate masters degree) were the correlates assessed. Statistical analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: More than one third of the participants were found to have burnout in one or another dimension of the CBI. Burnout was found to be the highest among the interns in the domains of personal burnout (64.05 %) and patient related burnout (68.62 %) and in junior residents for work related burnout (40%). Super specialty senior residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions. Among the residents, Non Medical/Non Surgical residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions, whereas surgical speciality residents had the highest of personal burnout (57.92 %) and Medical speciality residents had the highest patient related burnout (27.13%). Both medical and

  4. Correlation between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as liver damage markers in HIV infected naive patients: a concordance cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús; Grados-Chavarría, Bernardo Horacio; Fuentes-Allen, José Luis; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alfaro-Mejía, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests could be produced exclusively by direct inflammation in hepatocytes, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mechanisms by which HIV causes hepatic damage are still unknown. Our aim was to determine the correlation between HIV viral load, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of hepatic damage in HIV naive infected patients. We performed a concordance cross-sectional study. Patients with antiviral treatment experience, hepatotoxic drugs use or co-infection were excluded. We used a Pearson's correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between aminotransferases serum levels with HIV viral load. We enrolled 59 patients, 50 men and 9 women seen from 2006 to 2008. The mean (± SD) age of our subjects was 34.24 ± 9.5, AST 37.73 ± 29.94 IU/mL, ALT 43.34 ± 42.41 IU/mL, HIV viral load 199,243 ± 292,905 copies/mL, and CD4+ cells count 361 ± 289 cells/mm3. There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between AST serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.439, P < 0.001); and a weak correlation between ALT serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.276, P = 0.034); after adjusting the confounders in lineal regression model the correlation remained significant. Our results suggest that there is an association between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as markers of hepatic damage; we should improved recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy of hepatic damage in HIV infected patients. PMID:19878552

  5. Correlation between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as liver damage markers in HIV infected naive patients: a concordance cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús; Grados-Chavarría, Bernardo Horacio; Fuentes-Allen, José Luis; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alfaro-Mejía, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests could be produced exclusively by direct inflammation in hepatocytes, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mechanisms by which HIV causes hepatic damage are still unknown. Our aim was to determine the correlation between HIV viral load, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of hepatic damage in HIV naive infected patients. We performed a concordance cross-sectional study. Patients with antiviral treatment experience, hepatotoxic drugs use or co-infection were excluded. We used a Pearson's correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between aminotransferases serum levels with HIV viral load. We enrolled 59 patients, 50 men and 9 women seen from 2006 to 2008. The mean (+/- SD) age of our subjects was 34.24 +/- 9.5, AST 37.73 +/- 29.94 IU/mL, ALT 43.34 +/- 42.41 IU/mL, HIV viral load 199,243 +/- 292,905 copies/mL, and CD4+ cells count 361 +/- 289 cells/mm(3). There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between AST serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.439, P < 0.001); and a weak correlation between ALT serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.276, P = 0.034); after adjusting the confounders in lineal regression model the correlation remained significant. Our results suggest that there is an association between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as markers of hepatic damage; we should improved recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy of hepatic damage in HIV infected patients. PMID:19878552

  6. Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45–70 years): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. Methods A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45–70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire on physical activity. Socio-demographic and social-cognitive correlates were measured with validated instruments; medical correlates were checked by a general practitioner. The study had a cross-sectional design and the data collection ran from March 2005 until August 2006. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of PA. We separated the findings for men from those for women to explore potential gender-specific associations. Results Being female, living in North Limburg or North-Brabant, having a higher educational level, a higher perceived behavioral control, more knowledge about PA advantages, a stronger habitual PA behavior, having more action plans and a stronger intention to engage in PA were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Being older, being a smoker, having a higher body mass index (BMI), having a paid job, observing others being physically active and overestimating one's PA level were associated with being less physically active. Socio-demographic and medical correlates significantly explained 20% of the variance of PA behavior while social-cognitive correlates as attitude explained an additional 4% and intention together with actual control explained another 1% of the variance of PA behavior. Conclusion There may be stable individual differences that influence PA in view of the fact that several socio-demographic and medical factors were not completely mediated by the socio-cognitive factors. The current study may help to focus PA interventions for individuals aged 45–70 years on influential socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates. Physical activity was

  7. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption and its’ association with tobacco smoking among Sri Lankan adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies on alcohol consumption carried out in Sri Lanka are limited to single/few provinces in the island. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption among a larger sample of adults in Sri Lanka. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven of all nine provinces in Sri Lanka, between 2005 and 2006. A nationally representative sample of 5000 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using multi-stage random cluster sampling. Data of 4532 participants were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data analysis included chi-squared test, multiple logistic regression analysis and Spearman correlation using Stata/SE 10.0 (StataCorp LP., Texas, USA) software package. Results Males were 40%; mean age was 46.1 years (±15.1). The overall, urban and rural prevalence (95% CI) of current drinking was 23.7% (21.7 – 25.7), 29.5% (25.7 – 33.3) and 22.2% (19.8 – 24.7) respectively (p = 0.001). Current (M: 48.1%, F: 1.2%, p < 0.0001) and former (M: 21.4%, F: 0.7%, p < 0.0001) drinking was much higher in males. The highest prevalence of drinking in males (58.9%) and females (2.2%) was in the 30 – 39 and <20 year age groups respectively. Lowest prevalence in men (24.6%) and women (0%) was in the >70 years age-group. Hazardous drinking was seen in 5.2% of men and 0.02% of women. Male sex, urban living and current smoking correlated with both current and hazardous drinking. Lower level of education, and age >70 years positively correlated with hazardous drinking. Conclusions Alcohol is predominantly a problem in Sri Lankan males. In males, both current and hazardous drinking positively correlated with urban living, white collar occupation, Burgher ethnicity and current smoking. Hazardous drinking positively correlated with lower level of education and older age. The data shown here are useful in planning interventions simultaneously targeting alcohol and

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Bacterial Vaginosis in Different Sub-Populations of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jespers, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Verstraelen, Hans; Hardy, Liselotte; Buvé, Anne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV), HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit. Results At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7–10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis) and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment. Conclusions Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse. PMID:25289640

  9. Pineal gland calcification, lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and abdominal aorta calcifying atherosclerosis correlate in low back pain subjects: A cross-sectional observational CT study.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Sönmez, Iclal; Cakıt, Burcu Duyur; Koşar, Pınar; Koşar, Uğur

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to assess the possible impact of pineal gland calcification upon the intervertebral disc degeneration and abdominal aorta atherosclerosis in subjects with low back pain, and to investigate the course of these processes with aging. The study was carried out on 81 (66 women and 15 men) subjects: younger than 45 years (group X, n=22), 45-65 years of age (group Y, n=45), and older than 65 years (group Z, n=14). In addition to clinical data, computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain as well as X-ray and CT examination of the lumbar spine were recorded in this study. The degree of disc degeneration and calcification rates of aortic wall and pineal gland were independently determined by two radiologists. Both ratio of calcified pineal gland and density of pineal calcification increased progressively with aging. Also, both the degree of aortic wall calcification and disc degeneration score increased with advancing age. On CT scan, a positive correlation between degree of aortic wall calcification and disc degeneration score was found (r=0.306, p<0.01). Importantly, there was a positive association between calcification of the pineal gland and degenerative disc disease in X-ray or CT study (r=0.378 and r=0.295, p<0.005 and p<0.01, respectively), as well as between abdominal aorta atherosclerosis and pineal calcification (r=0.634, p<0.001). Our findings suggest that there is a significant interaction between pineal gland calcification and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and also abdominal aorta atherosclerosis. However, further studies with a larger subject cohorts are needed. PMID:18215511

  10. Prevalence and correlation of hypertension among adult population in Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Yalew, Worku Awoke; Abitew, Dereje Birhanu

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the most common causes of premature death and morbidity and has a major impact on health care costs. It is an important public health challenge to both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and correlates of hypertension. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014 among 681 adult residents of Bahir Dar city using multistage sampling techniques. An interview-administrated questionnaire and physical measurements such as blood pressure (BP), weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences were employed to collect the data. The data were coded, entered, and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software package. Results A total of 678 responses were included in the analysis resulting in a response rate of 99.6%. The findings declared that 17.6%, 19.8%, and 2.2% of respondents were prehypertension, hypertension stage I, and hypertension stage II, respectively, on screening test. The overall prevalence of hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or known hypertensive patient taking medications) was 25.1%. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age; having ever smoked cigarette; number of hours spent walking/cycling per day; number of hours spent watching TV per day; history of diabetes; adding salt to food in addition to the normal amount that is added to the food during cooking; and body mass index were statistically significant predictors of hypertension. Conclusion One out of every four respondents of the study had hypertension, and more than one out of three cases of hypertension (38.8%) did not know that they had the hypertension; 17.6% of the respondents were in prehypertension stage, which adds to overall future risk of hypertension. Therefore, mass screening for hypertension, health education to prevent substance use, regular exercise, reducing salt consumption, and life style modifications are recommended

  11. Magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia among adult HIV patients receiving first line HAART in Northwestern Tanzania: a cross sectional clinic based study

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Daniel Wilfred; Kilonzo, Semvua Bukheti; Mpondo, Bonaventura Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Moderate to severe anemia is an important clinical problem in HIV patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. The rate of progression and mortality in this sub group of patients is high compared to non anemic patients. In sub Saharan Africa with scale up of Anti retroviral therapy, the magnitude of this problem is not known especially in Tanzania. This study aimed at determining the magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia in HIV patients receiving first line ART in northwestern Tanzania. Methods This was a cross sectional clinic based study, involving adult HIV patients on first line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy at Bugando Medical Centre Care and Treatment Center. The patients’ data were analyzed using STATA version 11 to determine the prevalence of moderate to severe anemia and risk factors that could predict occurrence of anemia. Results In this study 346 patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy were enrolled, of whom 100(40.46%) had moderate to severe anemia. The odds of being anemic were strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 count (< 200 cells/μl) and HIV stage 3&4 at enrollment. Most of the anemic patients had mean corpuscular volume of >100fl. Conclusion The prevalence of moderate to severe anemia is significantly high in this cohort of HIV-infected patients on first line Anti Retroviral Therapy and it is strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 and HIV stage 3 and 4. On clinical grounds this suggests that patients who are initiated on Zidovudine based regimen and those in advanced HIV at enrollment should have regular haemoglobin follow up to identify anemia at its earliest stage to improve the clinical outcome of these patients. PMID:27200131

  12. Prevalence, characteristics and correlates of a positive-dementia screen in patients on antiretroviral therapy in Bamenda, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study we assess the prevalence, characteristics as well as socio-demographic and clinical correlates of a positive screen for HIV-associated dementia in a group of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Bamenda, Cameroon. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire was used to collect data on 400 patients attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital AIDS-treatment Centre. Patients were assessed for neurocognitive function using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) to assess finger-tapping (FT), alternating hand sequence (AHS) and a 4-word recall (4WR), each scored on a maximum of four. Results A total of 297 (74%) participants were females. The total IHDS score ranged from 6–12 with a mean of 9.02 and 85% of subjects screened positive for dementia (≤10 on IHDS). Participants performed worst in the AHS assessment with a mean of 2.25 (IQR: 2–3). In multivariable analyses, screening positive for dementia was significantly associated with having primary education or less (aOR: 8.33, 95%CI: 3.85, 16.67), and having HIV symptoms (aOR: 12.16, 95%CI: 3.08, 48.05). Conclusions A very high proportion of patients on ART screened positive for dementia using the IHDS. This could potentially be an indication of a high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in this population and or a poor performance of the IHDS in patients on ART. Future studies will need to assess the validity of the IHDS in this population of patients on ART and also evaluate long term outcomes in patients with positive dementia screens. PMID:23855622

  13. Correlation between Umbilical Cord Diameter and Cross Sectional Area with Gestational Age and Foetal Anthropometric Parameters.

    PubMed

    Begum, K; Ahmed, M U; Rahman, M M; Hossain, M M; Begum, M; Sarkar, S K; Reza, M T; Hoshneara, M; Beg, A; Sultana, F; Begum, F; Akter, F A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to find out correlation between umbilical cord diameter, cross sectional area with gestational age and foetal anthropometric parameters. This cross sectional study was conducted among healthy women between the 24th and 40th completed weeks of a normal pregnancy in the Department of Radiology & Imaging, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh during the study period, from July 2009 to June 2011. A total of 230 consecutive normal pregnancy patients were included in the study. The diameter & cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord were measured on a plane adjacent to the junction of the umbilical cord and the fetal abdomen, in cross-section, with maximum magnification of the image. The cord was manually circled, and it's cross sectional areas was automatically calculated by the ultrasonograph. The mean±SD age was 24.3±4.7 years with range from 19 to 36 years. The mean gestational age was 32.1±4.5 weeks and more than a half (56.4%) of the pregnant women were nulliparas. A positive significant (p<0.001) correlation were found between umbilical cord diameter with bi-parietal diameter (r=0.548); head circumference (r=0.411); abdominal circumference (r=0.444); femur length (r=0.366) and gestational age gestation age (r=0.643). Similarly, a significant (p<0.001) positive week correlation were found between umbilical cross sectional area with bi-parietal diameter (r=0.3303); head circumference (r=0.3202); abdominal circumference (r=0.2651); femur length (r=0.3307) and gestation age (r=0.4051). A positive significant better correlation was found with umbilical cord diameter than cross sectional area with foetal anthropometric parameters. PMID:27277346

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Testing among Young People Enrolled in Non-Formal Education Centers in Urban Chiang Mai, Thailand: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S. Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV testing is the gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, and care. Despite the established vulnerability of young Thai people to HIV infection, studies examining the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing among the general population of Thai youth are still very limited. This study investigates socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with HIV testing among young Thai people enrolled in Non-formal Education Centers (NFEC) in urban Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. Methods This was a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among young unmarried Thai youth—between the ages of 15 and 24—who were enrolled in NFEC in urban Chiang Mai. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify correlates of “ever tested for HIV” among the sexually active participants. Findings Of the 295 sexually active participants, 27.3% reported “ever tested for HIV;” 65.4% “did not consistently use condom;” and 61.7% “had at least 2 lifetime partners.” We found that “self-efficacy” (AOR, 4.92; CI, 1.22–19.73); “perception that it is easy to find a location nearby to test for HIV” (AOR, 4.67; CI, 1.21–18.06); “having at least 2 lifetime sexual partners” (AOR, 2.05; CI, 1.09–3.85); and “ever been pregnant or made someone pregnant” (AOR, 4.06; CI, 2.69–9.15); were associated with increased odds of having ever been tested. On the other hand, “fear of HIV test results” (AOR, 0.21; CI, 0.08–0.57) was associated with lower odds of ever having been tested for HIV. Conclusion The main finding is that a substantially high proportion of Thai youth is engaged in risky sexual behaviors—yet reports low rates of ever having been tested for HIV. This highlights an urgent need to develop appropriate interventions—based on the identified correlates of HIV testing. There is also an urgent need to enhance HIV testing and to promote safer sexual behaviors among young Thai people—particularly those who are out

  15. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar Silva; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Fernandes, Natalia Maria Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives–BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels). Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence. Results Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%), Caucasians (72%) with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%), with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35–30.89], p = 0.009; patient level), and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96–6.10], p = 0.04; meso level) were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01–25.14; p = 0.04). Conclusions Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously. PMID:26619070

  16. Ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS and correlation with CD4+ cells count among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Jimma town, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS is one of twenty first century’s challenges to human being with protean manifestation affecting nearly all organs of our body. It is causing high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa with numerous ocular complications and blindness. The purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS and their correlation with CD4+Tcells count. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 348 HIV-positive patients presented to Anti-Retroviral Therapy clinics. Data were collected using face-to-face interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigation, and analyzed using SPSS version 13 software. Statistical association test was done and p<0.05 was considered significant. Other statistical tests like student t-test and logistic regression were also done. Results Of 348 patients, 175 were on antiretroviral therapy and 173 were not on therapy. The mean duration of therapy was 27 months. The overall prevalence of ocular manifestations was 25.3%. The commonest ocular manifestation was keratoconjunctivitis sicca (11.3%) followed by blepharitis (3.2%), molluscum contagiosum (2.6%), conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (2.3%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (2.3%), cranial nerve palsies (2%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) (1.2%), and HIV retinopathy (0.6%). HIV retinopathy and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patient with CD4+ count of <200 cells/μl while HZO and molluscum contagiosum were common in patients with CD4+ count of 200–499 cells/μl. Prevalence of ocular manifestation was higher among patients on HAART (32.6%) than those patients not on HAART (17.9%) (p<0.05). There was statistically significant association between ocular manifestation and sex, CD4+Tcells count, and age (p<0.05). CD4+ count, <200 cells/μl and age >35 years were independent risk factors for ocular manifestations. Conclusion The study showed that the prevalence of ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS is

  17. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design. PMID:27293245

  18. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production.

    PubMed

    Friis, H; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exposure and lung function. Many cryolite workers described a group of symptoms appearing after 15 to 30 min of heavy dust exposure: nausea, followed by epigastric pain with relief after spontaneous or provoked vomiting. Thirty-four (33.6 per cent) workers complained of nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea in relation to work, compared to 3.8 per cent of 1752 men participating in the Copenhagen Male Study. PMID:2622142

  19. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted. PMID:25257355

  20. Correlation analysis of optical absorption cross section and rate coefficient measurements in reacting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hessler, J.P.; Ogren, P.J.

    1992-08-31

    A technique was developed for determining relative importance and correlation between reactions making up a complex kinetic system. This technique was used to investigate measurements of optical absorption cross sections and the correlation between cross sections and measured rate coefficients. It is concluded that (1) species, initial conditions, and temporal regions may be identified where cross sections may be measured without interference from the kinetic behavior of the observed species and (2) experiments designed to measure rate coefficients will always be correlated with the absorption cross section of the observed species. This correlation may reduce the accuracy of rate coefficient measurements.

  1. Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA) and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children. Methods A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal) participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status. Results In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01), while participation in sport clubs was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01) in 15-year-olds. No associations with percent time sedentary were observed in either age group. Conclusion Frequency of outdoor play after school is a significant correlate for daily time in MVPA in 9-year-olds, while this correlate is attenuated in favour of participation in sport and exercise in clubs in 15-year-olds. Targeting walking to school or reduced TV viewing time in order to increase time in daily MVPA in children is unlikely to be sufficient. Correlates related to time spent sedentary need further examination. PMID:19735565

  2. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

  3. Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. Results Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. Conclusion A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed

  4. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance. PMID:26335001

  5. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuhei; Tamesue, Dai; Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance. PMID:26335001

  6. Respiratory hazards in hard metal workers: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Bisch, C; Pham, Q T; Mur, J M; Massin, N; Moulin, J J; Teculescu, D; Carton, B; Pierre, F; Baruthio, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted on 513 employees at three hard metal plants: 425 exposed workers (351 men, 74 women) and 88 controls (69 men, 19 women). Cough and sputum were more frequent in workers engaged in "soft powder" and presintering workshops compared with controls (12.5% and 16.5% v 3.5%). Spirometric abnormalities were more frequent among women in sintering and finishing workshops compared with control women (56.8% v 23.8%) and abnormalities of carbon monoxide test were more frequent in exposed groups than in controls; this difference was more pronounced in women (31.4% v 5.6%) than in men (18.5% v 13%). No significant correlation was observed between duration of exposure and age adjusted lung function tests. Slight abnormalities of chest radiographs (0/1, 1/1 according to ILO classification) were more frequent in exposed men than controls (12.8% v 1.9%) and mostly in soft powder workers. In subjects with abnormal chest radiographs FVC, FEV1 and carbon monoxide indices (fractional uptake of CO or CO transfer index or both) were lower compared with those with normal chest radiographs. Although relatively mild, the clinical, radiological, and functional abnormalities uncovered call for a regular supervision of workers exposed to hard metal dust. PMID:2787666

  7. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  8. A study of radar cross section measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Malcolm W.

    1986-11-01

    Past, present, and proposed future technologies for the measurement of radar cross section were studied. The purpose was to determine which method(s) could most advantageously be implemented in the large microwave anechoic chamber facility which is operated at the antenna test range site. The progression toward performing radar cross section measurements of space vehicles with which the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle will be called upon to rendezvous and dock is a natural outgrowth of previous work conducted in recent years of developing a high accuracy range and velocity sensing radar system. The radar system was designed to support the rendezvous and docking of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle with various other space vehicles. The measurement of radar cross sections of space vehicles will be necessary in order to plan properly for Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle rendezvous and docking assignments. The methods which were studied include: standard far-field measurements; reflector-type compact range measurements; lens-type compact range measurement; near field/far field transformations; and computer predictive modeling. The feasibility of each approach is examined.

  9. A study of radar cross section measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Malcolm W.

    1986-01-01

    Past, present, and proposed future technologies for the measurement of radar cross section were studied. The purpose was to determine which method(s) could most advantageously be implemented in the large microwave anechoic chamber facility which is operated at the antenna test range site. The progression toward performing radar cross section measurements of space vehicles with which the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle will be called upon to rendezvous and dock is a natural outgrowth of previous work conducted in recent years of developing a high accuracy range and velocity sensing radar system. The radar system was designed to support the rendezvous and docking of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle with various other space vehicles. The measurement of radar cross sections of space vehicles will be necessary in order to plan properly for Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle rendezvous and docking assignments. The methods which were studied include: standard far-field measurements; reflector-type compact range measurements; lens-type compact range measurement; near field/far field transformations; and computer predictive modeling. The feasibility of each approach is examined.

  10. Correlations in the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Giansiracusa, G.; Lombardo, U.; Sandulescu, N.

    1996-04-01

    The influence of the ground state correlations on the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section is investigated in the framework of an extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory of nuclear matter. The effect of the correlations is to overwhelm the suppression of the in-medium {ital NN} cross section already established in previous approximations. Moreover the resulting cross section exceeds largely, particularly for neutron-proton scattering, the free-space values in the low energy range (up to 200{endash}250 MeV) for nuclear medium densities up to two times the saturation density.

  11. Both pelvic radiography and lateral abdominal radiography correlate well with coronary artery calcification measured by computed tomography in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Daqing; Ruan, Yizhe; Pu, Lei; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Deng, Fei; Yang, Hongling; Li, Guisen; Wang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Lateral abdominal radiograph is suggested as an alternative to coronary artery computed tomography (CT) in evaluating vascular calcification. Simple scoring systems including pelvic radiograph scoring and abdominal scoring system were utilized to study their correlation with coronary artery calcification. Methods In 106 MHD patients, coronary artery CT, lateral abdominal, and pelvic radiograph were taken. The Agatston scoring system was applied to evaluate the degree of coronary artery calcification which was categorized according to Agatston coronary artery calcification score (CACS) ≥ 30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000. Abdominal aortic calcification was scored by 4-scored and 24-scored systems. Pelvic artery calcification was scored by a 4-scored system. Sensitivities and specificities of abdominal aortic calcification scores and pelvic artery calcification scores to predict different categories of coronary artery calcification were analyzed. We studied the diagnostic capability of abdominal aorta calcification and pelvic artery calcification to predict different CACS categories by calculating likelihood ratios. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the area under the curve for each of these testing procedures. Findings The prevalence was 48(45.3%), 15 (14.2%), 11 (10.4%), 11 (10.4%), and 11 (10.4%) for CACs > 0, ≥30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000, respectively. The degree of CACs was positively correlated with patient age, prevalence of diabetes, abdominal aorta scores, and pelvic calcification scores. The areas under the curves for different CACS by all X-ray scoring systems were above 0.70 except pelvic 4-scored system for diagnosing CACS ≥30, without significant difference (P > 0.05). Discussion Both lateral abdominal and pelvic plain radiographs were demonstrated as acceptable alternatives to CT in evaluating vascular calcification. PMID:26932162

  12. Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains—work, travel and leisure—in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Methods Adult participants (n = 640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. Results The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4–47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Conclusions Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide

  13. Rheologic results and their correlation to hemostatic changes in patients with moderate and severe preeclampsia: an observational cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Amr A; Csorba, Roland; Yilmaz, Asli; Tsikoaras, Panagioti; von Tempelhoff, Georg-Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Previous study have shown an association between failure of physiological hemodilution during 2nd trimester and an increased risk for the development of subsequent pregnancy complications such as early birth, birth of a growth retarded newborn (IUGR), low fetal birth weight and preeclampsia. The latter complication in particular goes along with dramatic changes in the placental perfusion as well as systemic maternal blood flow. Severity of preeclampsia may be preceded by distinct impaired hemodilution and reflected by the results of rheological parameters. A subgroup analysis was performed in a community based retrospective study of 4,985 consecutively recorded singleton pregnant women of whom 423 had preeclampsia. Mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin levels and blood rheological results at the time of delivery were assessed and compared in women with moderate and severe preeclampsia. Mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin levels were calculated from the maternal records. Rheological variables included plasma viscosity (KSPV 1 Fresenius) and Red blood cell aggregation in stasis and under low shear conditions (MA1-Aggregometer; Myrenne). According to the definition of the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) 314 women had moderate preeclampsia (74.2%), while 109 had severe preeclampsia due to the presence of a blood pressure>170/110 mmHg (n=41; 9.7%), and/or IUGR<5th percentile (n=28; 6.6%), and/or HELLP-Syndrome (n=10; 2.4%), and/or proteinuria≥5 g/24 h (n=30; 7.1%). Age, BMI, smoking, and maternal weight were comparable in the groups, while gestational age at delivery as well as fetal outcome parameter were statistically significant unfavourable in patients with severe preeclampsia. Mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin level were statistically significantly higher in women who developed severe vs. moderate preeclampsia (m=12.75±0.99 g/dL vs. m=12.50±1.05 g/dL; p=0.033). However, in the ROC calculations a hemoglobin value of 12.05 g/dL revealed best sensitivity (78

  14. Correlation of Salivary pH, Incidence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Status in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, R.C. Jagat; Asifa, Nisha; Prabhu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting many parts of the body. A number of oral diseases have been associated with diabetes mellitus with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal disease. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary pH and incidence of dental caries and periodontal status in diabetes mellitus compared to that of the normal subjects. Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 40 patients divided into 2 groups with group I comprising of 20 known diabetes mellitus patients and group II comprising of 20 non diabetic subjects as control group. The pH of the saliva was determined using a digital pH meter. Dental caries and periodontal status were assessed by DMFT and PDI indices respectively. Results There was a decrease in the mean salivary pH of 6.51 in the study group, compared to the normal mean salivary pH of 7.88 in the control group. The mean DMFT index was higher in the study group (8.10) when compared to that of control group (1.15). The mean PDI score was also higher in the study group (4.0) as compared to that of the control group (0.45). Conclusion The results of the present study concluded that there was a significant relationship between the diabetes mellitus and increased incidence of dental caries and periodontitis and there was also a significant reduction in the salivary pH in diabetes mellitus patients, compared to that of non diabetic subjects. PMID:27134992

  15. The status and correlates of depression and anxiety among breast-cancer survivors in Eastern China: a population-based, cross-sectional case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer presents specific challenges both physiologically and psychologically to women, and consequently affect the patients’ mental health. Psychosocial factors may play important roles in the symptoms and development of mental disorders among breast-cancer survivors. This study assesses the depression and anxiety status of breast-cancer survivors and further identifies the risk factors. Methods A 1:1 matched, case–control study was conducted with a total sample of 222 individuals. Participants were selected from a national epidemiological survey. The Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety. The Social Support Rating Scale and Perceived Social Support Scale were used as measures of social support and perceived social support, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale as a measure of self-esteem. Coping style was assessed using the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. The predictive effect of these psychosocial factors for depression and anxiety was investigated with hierarchical linear regressions. Results Breast-cancer survivors experienced a high level of depressive and anxious symptoms. Multivariate analysis revealed that breast cancer functions as an independent but not a main risk factor of both depression and anxiety. Higher levels of depression and anxiety were positively associated with a higher level of passive coping style, and negatively with perceived social support, objective social support and an active coping style. Conclusions The mental health of breast-cancer survivors should be promoted through the transformation of coping styles and improvement of social support. PMID:24708474

  16. The influence of correlation between initial axis curvature and cross-section rotation on the beam static resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Valeš, Jan

    2015-03-10

    The paper deals with statistical analysis of the resistance of simply supported I-beams subjected to bending. The resistance was solved by applying the geometrically nonlinear solution. The influence of lateral-beam buckling on resistance is studied. Initial geometrical imperfections originating from the first eigenmode of lateral-beam buckling and from the cross section rotation at the stability lost were ascribed to the beams. These imperfections consist of initial axial lateral buckling and rotation of cross sections along the beam axis length. The correlation between the amplitudes of these imperfections is considered to be the parameter of solutions within the interval from -1 to 1. The influence of this correlation on the change of mean values and standard deviations of random resistance of beams with nondimensional slenderness close to 1 is studied. The imperfections mentioned were considered, together with geometrical and material characteristics of cross section and material characteristics of steel, to be random quantities.

  17. The economic burden of pediatric gastroenteritis to Bolivian families: a cross-sectional study of correlates of catastrophic cost and overall cost burden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children less than five years of age. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, 16% of child deaths can be attributed to diarrhea, and the costs associated with diarrhea can weigh heavily on patient families. To address this need, the study goal was to identify predictors of cost burden (diarrhea-related costs incurred as a percentage of annual income) and catastrophic cost (cost burden ≥ 1% of annual household income). Methods From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n = 1,107) of pediatric patients (<5 years old) seeking treatment for diarrhea in six Bolivian hospitals. Caregivers were surveyed on demographics, clinical symptoms, direct (e.g. medication, consult fees), and indirect (e.g. lost wages) costs. Multivariate regression models (n = 551) were used to assess relationships of covariates to the outcomes of cost burden (linear model) and catastrophic cost (logistic model). Results We determined that cost burden and catastrophic cost shared the same significant (p < 0.05) predictors. In the logistic model that also controlled for child sex, child age, household size, rural residence, transportations taken to the current visit, whether the child presented with complications, and whether this was the child’s first episode of diarrhea, significant predictors of catastrophic cost included outpatient status (OR 0.16, 95% CI [0.07, 0.37]); seeking care at a private hospital (OR 4.12, 95% CI [2.30, 7.41]); having previously sought treatment for this diarrheal episode (OR 3.92, 95% CI [1.64, 9.35]); and the number of days the child had diarrhea prior to the current visit (OR 1.14, 95% CI [1.05, 1.24]). Conclusions Our analysis highlights the economic impact of pediatric diarrhea from the familial perspective and provides insight into potential areas of intervention to reduce associated economic burden. PMID:24962128

  18. Studies of 54,56Fe Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Henderson, S. L.; Howard, T. J.; Pecha, R. L.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Liu, S.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-05-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections and γ-ray production cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at several incident energies in the fast neutron region between 1.5 and 4.7 MeV. All measurements were completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL) using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. The facilities at UKAL allow the investigation of both elastic and inelastic scattering with nearly mono-energetic incident neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques were used to detect the scattered neutrons for the differential cross section measurements. The measured cross sections are important for fission reactor applications and also for testing global model calculations such as those found at ENDF, since describing both the elastic and inelastic scattering is important for determining the direct and compound components of the scattering mechanism. The γ-ray production cross sections are used to determine cross sections to unresolved levels in the neutron scattering experiments. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations are presented.

  19. Emergency Department Crowding Disparity: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding. PMID:27478347

  20. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. Methods: We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results: We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion: The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience PMID:25674571

  1. Emergency Department Crowding Disparity: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Cha, Won Chul; Ahn, Ki Ok; Shin, Sang Do; Park, Jeong Ho; Cho, Jin Sung

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding. PMID:27478347

  2. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable. PMID:27247932

  3. Regulatory approval of new medical devices: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Christopher J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the regulatory approval of new medical devices. Design Cross sectional study of new medical devices reported in the biomedical literature. Data sources PubMed was searched between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004 to identify clinical studies of new medical devices. The search was carried out during this period to allow time for regulatory approval. Eligibility criteria for study selection Articles were included if they reported a clinical study of a new medical device and there was no evidence of a previous clinical study in the literature. We defined a medical device according to the US Food and Drug Administration as an “instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in vitro reagent, or other similar or related article.” Main outcome measures Type of device, target specialty, and involvement of academia or of industry for each clinical study. The FDA medical databases were then searched for clearance or approval relevant to the device. Results 5574 titles and abstracts were screened, 493 full text articles assessed for eligibility, and 218 clinical studies of new medical devices included. In all, 99/218 (45%) of the devices described in clinical studies ultimately received regulatory clearance or approval. These included 510(k) clearance for devices determined to be “substantially equivalent” to another legally marketed device (78/99; 79%), premarket approval for high risk devices (17/99; 17%), and others (4/99; 4%). Of these, 43 devices (43/99; 43%) were actually cleared or approved before a clinical study was published. Conclusions We identified a multitude of new medical devices in clinical studies, almost half of which received regulatory clearance or approval. The 510(k) pathway was most commonly used, and clearance often preceded the first published clinical study. PMID:27207165

  4. Cross-sectional study of violence in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Theories of emerging adulthood, the evolutionary perspective, and the presence of turning points in the lives of 19-25-year olds were examined in relation to serious perpetrated violence for a cross-sectional sample of men and women (n=14,098) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave III. Perpetrated, self-reported violence included armed robbery, gang fighting, using a weapon in a fight, pulling a knife or gun on someone, or shooting or stabbing someone. Results showed that 11.3% of emergent adults had perpetrated at least one of these behaviors in the past year. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis partially supported the three theories for both men and women, beyond the contribution of violence in adolescence. The presence of Wave III violence was more likely given the unique contributions of unmarried status and economic risk. Moreover, and consistent with the theory of emerging adulthood, both sensation seeking and depression declined with age and contributed to the acknowledgement of Wave III violence, beyond the contribution of controls for Wave I violence (6 years earlier), demographics, age, gender, unmarried status, and economic risk. Findings of age-related declines and gender differences in prevalence rates were consistent with previous research on nationally representative samples, and with the predictions of the three theories. PMID:19067362

  5. Correlation of firing pin impressions based on congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Song, John; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Comparison of firing pin impressions of cartridge cases is an important part of firearms evidence identification. However, compared with breach face impressions, there is only a limited surface area over which firing pin impressions can be compared. Furthermore, the curvature of firing pin impressions makes it difficult to perform automatic correlations of the surfaces. In this study, a new method and related algorithm named congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) are proposed. Each firing pin impression is sliced into layers and the resulting circular cross-sections are converted to two dimensional linear profiles by a polar coordinate transformation. The differential profile extraction method is used for extracting the high frequency micro-features, or the individual characteristics, for accurate correlation. Three parameters are proposed for determining whether these pairwise firing pin impressions are fired from the same firearm. The cross-correlation function (CCF) is used for quantifying similarity of the pairwise profiles which represent the two correlated firing pin images. If the correlated cartridge pair is fired from the same firearm, the maximum CCF value between each of the profile pairs from the reference and the correlated firing pin impressions will be high. The other two parameters relate to the horizontal (or angular) and vertical range of relative shifts that the profiles undergo to obtain the maximum CCF. These shifts are the phase angle θ which corresponds to a horizontal shift of the 2D profiles and the vertical shift distance of slice section, i.e. where the profiles match in the depth of the impression. These shift parameters are used to determine the congruency of the pairwise profile patterns. When these parameter values and their statistical distributions are collected for analysis, the CMX number is derived as a key parameter for a conclusive identification or exclusion. Validation tests using 40 cartridge cases of three different

  6. Hypovitaminosis D in Delirium: a Retrospective Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jennifer; Hategan, Ana; Bourgeois, James A.; Tisi, Daniel K.; Xiong, Glen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background As vitamin D may have a neuroprotective effect, the authors studied the association of biomarkers of vitamin D status and delirium to see if low vitamin D status was common in delirium cases. Methods Biochemical measures of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-OHD]) and calcium metabolism were used in this retrospective cross-sectional analysis of adult in-patients with delirium, admitted at three Canadian academic hospitals from January 2011 to July 2012. Primary outcome was to determine estimates of the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in this group in whom vitamin D was checked. Results Seventy-one (5.8%) out of 1,232 delirium inpatients had their vitamin D measured. Thirty-nine (55%) showed vitamin D insufficiency (25-OHD of 25-75 nmol/L) and 8 (11%) showed vitamin D deficiency (25-OHD < 25 nmol/L). Mean serum 25-OHD levels were lower in males (57.1±7.7 nmol/L) than in females (78.2±6.1 nmol/L), p = .01, even when controlled for age and season. Men were younger than the women (74.4±2.3 vs. 82.4±1.7, p = .005). Mean age was 78.7±1.5 years, and 33 (47%) were male. Conclusions Although vitamin D is rarely checked during delirium workup and/or management, high rates of hypovitaminosis D were found to be common in the delirium in-patients in whom it was checked. Larger studies would be needed to estimate the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in delirium and whether hypovitaminosis D plays a role in the pathogenesis of delirium. PMID:24278095

  7. Lifestyle factors and multimorbidity: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lifestyle factors have been associated mostly with individual chronic diseases. We investigated the relationship between lifestyle factors (individual and combined) and the co-occurrence of multiple chronic diseases. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of results from the Program of Research on the Evolution of a Cohort Investigating Health System Effects (PRECISE) in Quebec, Canada. Subjects aged 45 years and older. A randomly-selected cohort in the general population recruited by telephone. Multimorbidity (3 or more chronic diseases) was measured by a simple count of self-reported chronic diseases from a list of 14. Five lifestyle factors (LFs) were evaluated: 1) smoking habit, 2) alcohol consumption, 3) fruit and vegetable consumption, 4) physical activity, and 5) body mass index (BMI). Each LF was given a score of 1 (unhealthy) if recommended behavioural targets were not achieved and 0 otherwise. The combined effect of unhealthy LFs (ULFs) was evaluated using the total sum of scores. Results A total of 1,196 subjects were analyzed. Mean number of ULFs was 2.6 ± 1.1 SD. When ULFs were considered separately, there was an increased likelihood of multimorbidity with low or high BMI [Odd ratio (95% Confidence Interval): men, 1.96 (1.11-3.46); women, 2.57 (1.65-4.00)], and present or past smoker [men, 3.16 (1.74-5.73)]. When combined, in men, 4-5 ULFs increased the likelihood of multimorbidity [5.23 (1.70-16.1)]; in women, starting from a threshold of 2 ULFs [1.95 (1.05-3.62)], accumulating more ULFs progressively increased the likelihood of multimorbidity. Conclusions The present study provides support to the association of lifestyle factors and multimorbidity. PMID:24996220

  8. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  9. Health Problems Among the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, RP; Banerjee, A; Nikumb, VB

    2013-01-01

    Background: Estimates of health problems of the elderly in developing countries are required from time to time to predict trends in disease burden and plan health care for the elderly. Developing countries have a poor track record of equitable distribution of health care. Marginalized groups living in urban slums and rural villages have poor penetration of health services. Aims: To identify the geriatric health problems in samples drawn from a slum and a village, and also to explore any gender and urban–rural difference morbidity. Subject and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out by house to house survey of all people aged over 60 years in an urban slum and a village in the field practice area of a teaching hospital. The total elderly population in these two areas was 407, with an almost equal representation from urban slum and rural area. Information (most of them self-reported) was collected in a pre-tested instrument, which has been used earlier in a World Health Organization multicentric study in India. Categorical variables were summarized by percentages. Associations were explored with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Female elders outnumbered the male elders; widows outnumbered widowers. Tobacco use was very high at 58.97% (240/407). Visual impairment (including uncorrected presbyopia) was the most common handicap with prevalence of 83.29% (339/407), with males more affected than females (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.32-4.87). Uncorrected hearing impairment was also common. Urinary complaints were also more common in males (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 0.93-3.04). More rural elders were living alone than their urban counterpart (OR = 2.87, 95% CI 1.23-6.86). History of weight loss was higher in the rural areas, while tendency to obesity was higher in the urban areas. An appreciable number 29.2% (119/407) had unoperated cataract. Prevalence of hypertension was 30.7% (125/407); 12% (49/407) had diabetes; 7.6% (31

  10. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  11. Alcohol Misuse among University Staff: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Awoliyi, Susanna; Ball, David; Parkinson, Norman; Preedy, Victor R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of hazardous drinking among staff in a UK university and its association with key socio-demographic features. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting A university in the UK. Participants All employees on the university employee database were eligible to participate. Those who completed and returned the questionnaire were included in the sample. Respondents were 131 university employees. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures An AUDIT cut-off score of ≥8 was used as a measure of hazardous drinking. AUDIT total score as well as a score of ≥1 in each of the three conceptual domains of alcohol consumption (questions 1–3), dependence symptoms (questions 4–6) and alcohol-related problems (questions 7–10) were used as indicators of levels of drinking and alcohol-related consequences. Secondary outcomes were employees' demographics. Results Over one third (35%) of respondents were classified as hazardous drinkers. Twenty three per cent reported having blackouts after drinking and 14% had injuries or had injured someone. The odds of being a hazardous drinker for an employee in central departments (Human Resources, Registry etc) is only one third of that of an employee in science and health-related departments (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.91). The proportion of hazardous drinkers was higher in males compared to females (43% and 30% respectively), part-time compared to full-time (46% and 34% respectively), and academic compared to non-academic employees (39% and 32% respectively), although these were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Furthermore, age, religion and ethnic origin were not found to be significantly associated with hazardous drinking, although total scores were significantly lower for ethnic minorities compared to white employees (p = 0.019). Conclusions In this study, hazardous drinking was highly prevalent among university employees. However, overt recruiting of staff to address sensitive issues

  12. [Study for differential cross section of ring effect].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Chen, Liang-fu; Su, Lin; Tao, Jin-hua; Li, Shen-shen; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zi-feng

    2010-08-01

    The Ring effect is a significant limitation to the accuracy of the retrieval of trace gas constituents in atmosphere, while using satellite data with differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique. The Ring effect refers to the filling in of Fraunhofer lines, known as solar absorption lines, caused almost entirely by rotational Raman scattering. The inelastic component of the molecular scattering results in a net increase in radiance in the line because more radiation is shifted to the wavelength of an absorption line than shifted from this wavelength to other wavelengths. The rotational Raman scattering by N2 and Oz in the atmosphere is the main factor that leads to Ring effect. Basically, the Ring effect is considered as a pseudo-absorption process in retrieval of trace gas constituents in atmosphere. The solar spectrum measured by OMI/AURA is convolved with rotational Raman cross sections of N2 and O2, divided by the original solar spectrum, with a cubic polynomial subtracted off, to create differential Ring spectrum. This method has been suggested in order to obtain an effective differential Ring cross-section for the DOAS fitting process. The differential Ring spectrum could be used to improve the accuracy of the retrieval of the trace gases concentration. The results in this paper have been in basic agreement with the corresponding results calculated with RTM, and the R2 Statistic is 0. 966 3. PMID:20939324

  13. Scaling study of the pion electroproduction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, T.; Bosted, P.; Bruell, A.; Chudakov, E.; Ent, R.; Fenker, H.; Gaskell, D.; Jones, M. K.; Lung, A. F.; Meekins, D.; Smith, G. R.; Vulcan, W.; Wood, S. A.; Qian, X.; Gao, H.; Kramer, K.; Arrington, J.; El Fassi, L.; Zheng, X. C.; Asaturyan, R.

    2008-11-15

    The {sup 1}H(e, e{sup '}{pi}{sup +})n cross section was measured for arange of four-momentum transfer up to Q{sup 2}=3.91 GeV{sup 2} at values of the invariant mass W above the resonance region. The Q{sup 2} dependence of the longitudinal component was found to be consistent with the Q{sup 2}-scaling prediction for hard exclusive processes. This suggests that the QCD factorization theorem is applicable at rather low values of Q{sup 2}. The transverse term falls off slower than the naive Q{sup -8} expectation and remains appreciable even at Q{sup 2}=3.91 GeV{sup 2}.

  14. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women. PMID:27086430

  15. D0 results on three-jet production, multijet cross-section ratios, and minimum bias angular correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Lee; /Louisiana Tech. U.

    2010-01-01

    We report the measurement of the cross-section for three-jet production and the ratio of inclusive three-jet to two-jet cross-sections, as well as a study of angular correlations in minimum bias events, based on data taken with the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The differential inclusive three-jet cross section as a function of the invariant three-jetmass (M{sub 3jet}) is measured in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1}. The measurement is performed in three rapidity regions (|y| < 0.8, |y| < 1.6 and |y| < 2.4) and in three regions of the third (ordered in p{sub T}) jet transverse momenta (p{sub T3} > 40 GeV, p{sub T3} > 70 GeV, p{sub T3} > 100 GeV) for events with leading jet transverse momentum larger than 150 GeV and well separated jets. NLO QCD calculations are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the measured cross sections. Based on the same data set, we present the first measurement of ratios of multi-jet cross sections in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The ratio of inclusive trijet and dijet cross sections, R{sub 3/2}, has been measured as a function of the transverse jet momenta. The data are compared to QCD model predictions in different approximations. Finally, we present a new way to describe minimum bias events based on angular distributions in {approx}5 million minimum bias p{bar p} collisions collected between April 2002 and February 2006 with the D0 detector. We demonstrate that the distribution of {Delta}{phi} in the detector transverse plane between the leading track and all other tracks is a robust observable that can be used for tuning of multiple color interaction models. Pseudorapidity correlations of the {Delta}{phi} distributions are also studied.

  16. Efficacy of Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty Does Not Correlate with Dural Sac Cross-Sectional Area in Single Level Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Moon, Bongju; Choi, Seung Hyun; Yoon, Young Sul; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN) is a minimally invasive treatment. The efficacy of PEN has been relatively well investigated; however, the relationship between the clinical effectiveness of PEN and the severity of spinal canal stenosis by disc material has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of PEN according to the dural sac cross-sectional area in single level disc disease. Materials and Methods This study included 363 patients with back pain from single level disc disease with and without radiculopathy. Patients were categorized into groups according to spinal canal compromise by disc material: Category 1, less or more than 50%; and Category 2, three subgroups with lesser than a third, between a third and two thirds, and more than two thirds. Clinical outcomes were assessed according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for back pain and leg pain and Odom's criteria at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Results The demographic data showed no difference between groups according to spinal canal compromise by disc material except age (older age correlated with more spinal canal compromise). The dural sac cross-sectional area did not correlate with the VAS scores for back and leg pain after PEN in single level disc disease in Groups 1 and 2. Odom's criteria after PEN were also not different according to dural sac cross-sectional area by disc material. Conclusion PEN is an effective procedure in treating single level lumbar disc herniation without affecting dural sac cross-sectional area. PMID:25837174

  17. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  18. Coherent correlation enhancement of outer shell photoionization cross sections of alkali-like ions

    SciTech Connect

    Amusia, M.Y.; Avdonina, B.; Pratt, R.H.

    1995-08-01

    An alkali-like ion interaction with inner electrons of an alkali-like ion leads to a significant increase in the photoionization cross section of the outer s electron. This occurs not only for ground-state ions with one s electron in the outer shell, but also when the outer s electron is in an excited state. The reason for this amplification, in addition to coherent enhancement in summing of the correlation amplitudes, is that the zero in the direct amplitude occurs below threshold. This leads to a constructive interference with the correlation amplitude above the photoionization threshold, in contrast to a destructive interference in the case of a neutral atom with the same electronic configuration, for which the zero occurs above threshold. Results of this research were published.

  19. Pulmonary functions in tannery workers--a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Vasanthi; Dilara, K; Padmavathi, R

    2014-01-01

    Tannery workers are at potential exposure to detrimental agents rendering them vulnerable to respiratory and dermal problems. Thus by performing pulmonary functions among leather tannery workers, we can decipher the effect of chromium and leather dust on lung functions and also the decline of respiratory functions with increasing years of exposure to leather dust. Pulmonary functions were assessed for 130 tannery workers and compared with the 130 unexposed office workers. Pulmonary function measurements namely FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75% and PEFR were measured using portable data logging Spirometer (KOKO Spirometer). The observed pulmonary functions of Tannery-workers in this study showed a reduction in FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF25-75 and PEFR in relation to their predicted values and also compared to the unexposed. Smokers showed a decline in pulmonary functions compared to the non smokers because smoking acts as an additional risk factor in the development of respiratory illnesses. It is worthy to mention that the pulmonary function values correlate negatively with the duration of exposure to leather dust. So this study could provide base line information based upon which legal implementation of preventive measures could be undertaken. PMID:25906602

  20. Ionization and capture in water: a multi-differential cross sections study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, Christophe; Galassi, Mariel E.; Weck, Philippe F.; Fojón, Omar; Hanssen, Jocelyn; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2012-11-01

    Two quantum mechanical models (CB1 and CDW-EIS) are here presented to provide accurate multiple differential and total cross sections for describing the two most important ionizing processes, namely, ionization and capture induced by heavy charged particles in water. A detailed study of the influence of the target description on the cross section calculations is also provided.

  1. A cross-sectional study of the plantar flexor muscle and tendon during growth.

    PubMed

    Kubo, K; Teshima, T; Hirose, N; Tsunoda, N

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate growth changes in human plantar flexor muscle and tendons. In addition, we ascertained whether growth changes in muscle and tendon were more closely related to skeletal age than chronological age. 22 elementary school children (ESC), 19 junior high school students (JHS), and 23 young adults (ADT) men participated in this study. Maximal strain and hysteresis of tendon structures and cross-sectional area of Achilles tendon were measured using ultrasonography. In addition, skeletal age was assessed using Tanner-Whitehouse III method. Maximal strain of ESC was significantly greater than that of other groups, while no significant difference was observed between JHS and ADT. There was no difference in hysteresis among 3 groups. Relative cross-sectional area (to body mass(2/3)) of ADT was significantly smaller than that of other groups. For ESC and JHS, measured variables of muscle and tendon were significantly correlated to both chronological and skeletal ages. These results suggested that immature musculoskeletal system was protected by more extensible and larger tendon structures in ESC and only by larger tendon structures in JHS, respectively. Furthermore, there were no differences in correlation coefficient values between measured variables of muscle and tendon and chronological or skeletal ages. PMID:24577863

  2. Radar Cross Section Studies/Compact Range Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is given of the achievements of NASA Grant NsG-1613 by Ohio State University from May 1, 1987 to April 30, 1988. The major topics covered are as follows: (1) electromagnetic scattering analysis; (2) indoor scattering measurement systems; (3) RCS control; (4) waveform processing techniques; (5) material scattering and design studies; (6) design and evaluation of design studies; and (7) antenna studies. Major progress has been made in each of these areas as verified by the numerous publications produced.

  3. Radar cross section studies/compact range research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Achievements in advancing the state-of-the-art in the measurement, control, and analysis of electromagnetic scattering from general aerodynamic targets are summarized. The major topics associated with this study include: (1) electromagnetic scattering analysis; (2) indoor scattering measurement systems; (3) RCS control; (4) waveform processing techniques; (5) material scattering and design studies; (6) design and evaluation of standard targets; and (7) antenna studies. Progress in each of these areas is reported and related publications are listed.

  4. Readability of menopause web sites: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Deborah H

    2012-01-01

    More women are frequently referring to the Internet for health information, yet the readability of information about menopause on the Internet has not been widely studied. To address this gap, this study examined the readability of information about menopause on 25 Internet Web sites. Findings included that information on the Web sites had a reading level higher than the recommended sixth-grade level, and culturally appropriate health information was lacking. Health educators and practitioners are in a pivotal role to help women understand information useful for healthcare decisions. Several criteria are discussed to help practitioners evaluate Web sites. PMID:23098043

  5. Historical Note about Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    1985-01-01

    The article discusses a study by L. Terman in which results of the two methods can be compared. Both types of comparisons indicated that CMT (Concept Mastery Test) ability improves considerably with age. This multiple checking of several groups each time versus the same groups over time strengthens the conclusion. (Author/CL)

  6. A study of the fusion and elastic cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, W. H. Z.

    2010-08-04

    This work is complementary to that of Canto et al., improving the approximations made to obtain the local Polarization Potential (PP). We study the Trivially Equivalent Local Polarization Potential (TELPP) obtained directly from the two Coupled Channel Equations (CCE), with the help of Feshbach formalism. The inelastic channel has been associated with a nuclear monopole resonant state of {sup 6}He at the breakup threshold, E{sub B} = 0.973 MeV.

  7. Quantifying consumer portion control practices. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Spence, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Stefan, V; Livingstone, M B E; Gibney, E R; Dean, M

    2015-09-01

    The use of portion control practices has rarely been quantified. The present study aimed to: (1) explore which portion control practices are actually used by the general population and their association with cognitive restraint, demographic background and general health interest (GHI), and (2) examine how the usage of portion control practices predicts the estimated consumption of an energy dense food (i.e. pizza). Twenty-two portion control practices were rated in terms of their frequency of use from 'never' to 'very often' by a representative sample of 1012 consumers from the island of Ireland. Three factors were extracted and named: measurement-strategy scale, eating-strategy scale, and purchasing-strategy scale. The eating-strategy scale score was the highest, while the measurement-strategy scale carried the lowest frequency score. For each strategy scale score, the strongest predictor was GHI, followed by gender. Having higher GHI and being female were independently associated with more frequent portion control. Both the eating-strategy scale score and the purchasing-strategy scale score were negatively associated with pizza portion size consumption estimates. In conclusion, while this study demonstrates that the reported use of portion control practices is low, the findings provide preliminary evidence for their validity. Further studies are needed to explore how portion control practices are used in different kinds of portion size decisions and what their contribution is to the intake of food over an extended period of time. PMID:26048005

  8. Drug Abuse in Paediatric Dentistry: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Meenakshi; Tandon, Sandeep; Chugh, Tina; Sharma, Sanjay; PS, Parmod; Aggarwal, Vishal; Kashyap, Nilotpal

    2014-01-01

    Compared to adult medicine, drug use in children is not extensively researched. Objective: The objective of present study is to find out drug prescribing pattern in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry and Orthodontics in teaching hospitals in Rajasthan, India. Methods: A prospective study was conducted in June 2011. A total of 619 prescriptions were collected randomly. Prescribing pattern was analyzed using WHO basic drug indicator. Results: The average number of drugs and antimicrobial agent prescribed per prescription were 2.24 and 0.81 respectively. Antimicrobial agent contained 81.74% of all prescriptions. Most common groups of drugs prescribed by pedodontist were NSAIDS & Antipyretics (37.7%), Antimicrobial (36.4%) and Vitamins (12.3%). Prophylactic use of antimicrobial agents was 5.5 ± 0.5 days. Fixed dose combination (45.6%) frequently used by brand name. twelve percent generic drugs were used. Most of the drugs were from Essential Drug List especially a only one drug was prescribed. Conclusion: There is a need of mass awareness amongst dentists about good prescribing habit. Every institution must have Drugs and Therapeutic Committees. The five steps of WHO Program on Rational Use of Drugs (RUD) should be followed for rational prescribing of drugs. PMID:24783138

  9. Acute Nonbacterial Gastroenteritis in Hospitalized Children: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shokrollahi, Mohammad Reza; Noorbakhsh, Samileh; Monavari, Hamid Reza; Ghavidel Darestani, Sahar; Vosoughi Motlagh, Ahmad; Javadi Nia, Shima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity in childhood and leads to hospitalization in developed countries, such as Iran. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and viral types (rotavirus, adenovirus, human parechoviruses-1, and human bocavirus) of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in hospitalized children. Patients and Materials: This was a across-sectional prospective study performed at the Pediatric Department of Rasoul Hospital, Tehran, Iran (2009-2011) on 80 hospitalized children with viral AGE. All Stool samples were collected on viral transport media. Human bocavirus (HBoV) was detected using the Real-time PCR TaqMan method. Molecular detection of human parechovirus type 1 (HPeV-1) RNA in stool samples was done using a specific nested reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Rota and adeno virus antigens were sought by rapid chromatographic tests. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Fever was determined in 47.5% of cases (38), nausea and vomiting in 42.5% (34), respiratory symptoms in 16.3% (13), abdominal pain in 76%. Duration of diarrhea was 1-30 days (mean = 6.3 + 4.3 days). No dehydration was observed in 43.5% of subjects, mild dehydration in 33.8%, moderate dehydration in 17.5% and severe dehydration in 5% of cases. Positive rotavirus was found in 48.8% of cases (39), adenovirus in 20% (16), HBoV in 8% (6) and HPeV-1 in 23.2% (19), and adeno and rotaviruses co-infection in 6% (4). The frequency of positive HBoV was significantly lower than adeno and rotaviruses infection (P value = 0.0001). Rotavirus was more frequent in males (P value = 0.003) and in young children (17.49 months vs. 21.44 months) [P value = 0.03, CI = -13.4, 5.5]. Rotavirus infection was related to the degree of dehydration (P value = 0.001) but was not related to the presence of vomiting or fever (P value > 0.5). Conclusions: This study indicates that viral agents, especially rotavirus (48

  10. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-08-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their precise location. Ninety-six (81.4%) online pharmacies did not require a medical prescription from the customer's physician. Online pharmacies rise complex issues in terms of patient-doctor relationship, consumer empowerment, drug quality, regulation and public health implications. PMID:19151103

  11. The correlated and shared gamma frailty model for bivariate current status data: an illustration for cross-sectional serological data.

    PubMed

    Hens, N; Wienke, A; Aerts, M; Molenberghs, G

    2009-09-30

    Frailty models are often used to study the individual heterogeneity in multivariate survival analysis. Whereas the shared frailty model is widely applied, the correlated frailty model has gained attention because it elevates the restriction of unobserved factors to act similar within clusters. Estimating frailty models is not straightforward due to various types of censoring. In this paper, we study the behavior of the bivariate-correlated gamma frailty model for type I interval-censored data, better known as current status data. We show that applying a shared rather than a correlated frailty model to cross-sectionally collected serological data on hepatitis A and B leads to biased estimates for the baseline hazard and variance parameters. PMID:19591117

  12. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. Methods In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. Findings We obtained 911 913 records of hospital visits, of which 324 906 came from 104 830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167 000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67 987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109 509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions – i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to – and apparently had no negative impacts on – the Thai health system and economy. Conclusion We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system. PMID:26769994

  13. Target correlation effects on neutron-nucleus total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Second order optical model solutions to the elastic scattering amplitude were used to evaluate total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections for neutron nucleus scattering. Improved agreement with experimental data for total and absorption cross sections is found when compared with first order (coherent approximation) solutions, especially below several hundred MeV. At higher energies, the first and second order solutions are similar. There are also large differences in abrasion cross section calculations; these differences indicate a crucial role for cluster knockout in the abrasion step.

  14. Studying the Permian cross-section (Volga region) using chemical and isotopic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, Bulat; Georgii, Batalin; Nurgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriya

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stage in the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). It has local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events. The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRF spectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includes the analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretation of the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we used IRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphy and paleogeography. The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity to see small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research.

  15. A study of GEOS-3 terrain data with emphasis on radar cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priester, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Radar cross sections (RCS) of terrain are studied using GEOS 3 radar altimeter data. Maps of RCS for portions of four east coast states (U.S.A.) are presented and used to draw curves of RCS versus inland distance as measured from the land/sea interface. The results show RCS to decay approximately exponentially with inland distance. The GEOS 3 data are also used to develop curves of RCS seasonal variation for the same regions. Observed variations correlate strongly with local potential evaporation. Results also show that farming operations in the state of North Carolina are observable in the RCS data. A restricted method for determining surface roughness features from saturated average return waveforms for some types of terrain is developed. Sensor bias induced by receiver saturation for certain terrain returns is briefly discussed.

  16. Photoionization study of Xe 5s: ionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarthi, G.; Jose, J.; Deshmukh, S.; Radojevic, V.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    We report studies of photoelectron angular distribution and cross-section for photoionization of xenon 5s electrons using the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff (MCTD) approximation. We find that MCTD provides a significantly improved agreement with experiment, compared to some of the other relativistic many body approximations such as the relativistic random phase approximation and the relativistic random phase approximation with relaxation, over the entire photon energy region bracketing the near-threshold 5s Cooper minimum, from the 5s threshold up to about 70 eV. The MCTD results in the length form are in much better agreement with the experiment than those in the velocity form, suggesting residual correlations that must be of importance.

  17. Reference Charts for Fetal Cerebellar Vermis Height: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study of 10605 Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Cignini, Pietro; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Brutti, Pierpaolo; Mangiafico, Lucia; Aloisi, Alessia; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish reference charts for fetal cerebellar vermis height in an unselected population. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study between September 2009 and December 2014 was carried out at ALTAMEDICA Fetal–Maternal Medical Centre, Rome, Italy. Of 25203 fetal biometric measurements, 12167 (48%) measurements of the cerebellar vermis were available. After excluding 1562 (12.8%) measurements, a total of 10605 (87.2%) fetuses were considered and analyzed once only. Parametric and nonparametric quantile regression models were used for the statistical analysis. In order to evaluate the robustness of the proposed reference charts regarding various distributional assumptions on the ultrasound measurements at hand, we compared the gestational age-specific reference curves we produced through the statistical methods used. Normal mean height based on parametric and nonparametric methods were defined for each week of gestation and the regression equation expressing the height of the cerebellar vermis as a function of gestational age was calculated. Finally the correlation between dimension/gestation was measured. Results The mean height of the cerebellar vermis was 12.7mm (SD, 1.6mm; 95% confidence interval, 12.7–12.8mm). The regression equation expressing the height of the CV as a function of the gestational age was: height (mm) = -4.85+0.78 x gestational age. The correlation between dimension/gestation was expressed by the coefficient r = 0.87. Conclusion This is the first prospective cross-sectional study on fetal cerebellar vermis biometry with such a large sample size reported in literature. It is a detailed statistical survey and contains new centile-based reference charts for fetal height of cerebellar vermis measurements. PMID:26812238

  18. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations.

  19. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Manouchehrifar, Mohammad; Derakhshandeh, Niloufar; Shojaee, Majid; Sabzghabaei, Anita; Farnaghi, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED). Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents’ educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. Results: 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male). Children in the 0-4 year(s) age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9%) cases. 29 (7%) cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group). Methadone with 123 (29.7%) cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001), and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001), had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children’s intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child’s family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications. PMID:26862545

  20. How to Use Benchmark and Cross-section Studies to Improve Data Libraries and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, V.; Suchopár, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Svoboda, O.; Tichý, P.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, S.; Tyutyunikov, S.; Vladimirovna, N.; Závorka, L.

    2016-06-01

    Improvements of the Monte Carlo transport codes and cross-section libraries are very important steps towards usage of the accelerator-driven transmutation systems. We have conducted a lot of benchmark experiments with different set-ups consisting of lead, natural uranium and moderator irradiated by relativistic protons and deuterons within framework of the collaboration “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Waste”. Unfortunately, the knowledge of the total or partial cross-sections of important reactions is insufficient. Due to this reason we have started extensive studies of different reaction cross-sections. We measure cross-sections of important neutron reactions by means of the quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources based on the cyclotrons at Nuclear Physics Institute in Řež and at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Measurements of partial cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions were the second direction of our studies. The new results obtained during last years will be shown. Possible use of these data for improvement of libraries, models and benchmark studies will be discussed.

  1. Patterns of Heterotypic Continuity Associated With the Cross-Sectional Correlational Structure of Prevalent Mental Disorders in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Zald, David H.; Hakes, Jahn K.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Mental disorders predict future occurrences of both the same disorder (homotypic continuity) and other disorders (heterotypic continuity). Heterotypic continuity is inconsistent with a view of mental disorders as fixed entities. In contrast, hierarchical-dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, in which each form of psychopathology is hypothesized to have both unique and broadly shared etiologies and mechanisms, predict both homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Objective To test predictions derived from a hierarchical-dimensional model of psychopathology that (a) heterotypic continuity is widespread, even controlling for homotypic continuity, and (b) the relative magnitudes of heterotypic continuities recapitulate the relative magnitudes of cross-sectional correlations among diagnoses at baseline. Design Assess 10 prevalent diagnoses in the same persons 3 years apart. Setting Representative sample of adults in the United States. Participants The 28,958 participants in the National Epidemiologic Study of Alcohol and Related Condition aged 18–64 years who were assessed in both waves. Main Outcome Measure Diagnoses from reliable and valid structured interviews. Results Bivariate associations of all pairs of diagnoses from wave 1 to wave 2 exceeded chance levels for all homotypic (tetrachoric ρ = 0.41 – 0.79, median = 0.54) and for nearly all heterotypic continuities (tetrachoric ρ = 0.07 – 0.50, median = 0.28), adjusted for sex and age. Significant heterotypic continuity was widespread even when all other wave 1 diagnoses (including the same diagnosis) were simultaneous predictors of each wave 2 diagnosis. The rank correlation between age and sex adjusted tetrachoric ρs for cross-sectional associations among wave 1 diagnoses and heterotypic associations from wave 1 to wave 2 diagnoses was ρ = .86. Conclusions and Relevance For these prevalent mental disorders, heterotypic continuity was nearly universal and not an artifact of failure to

  2. b-quark inclusive cross sections and b{bar b} correlations using dimuons from the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Vititoe, D.L.; D0 Collaboration

    1996-11-01

    Using dimuons collected with the D{null} detector during the 1993- 1995 Tevatron collider run, we have measured the {ital b}-quark cross section and {ital b{anti b}} correlations as given by the difference in azimuthal angle between the two muons. Both measurements agree with the NLO QCD predictions within experimental and theoretical errors.

  3. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Umesh R.; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October–November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14–16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46–4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28–4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13–4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05–2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on

  4. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO) standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants <6 months old. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for anemia with non-anemic group as a reference. Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76). Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of

  5. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders. PMID:26371020

  6. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-09-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders. PMID:26371020

  7. Drug use, mental health and problems related to crime and violence: cross-sectional study1

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Bourdreaux, Janet Titus; Fernandes, Ivan Filipe de Almeida Lopes; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Tarifa, Rosana Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the correlation between disorders related to the use of alcohol and other drugs and symptoms of mental disorders, problems related to crime and violence and to age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study carried out with 128 users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs, in the city of São Paulo, interviewed by means of the instrument entitled Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Short Screener. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to verify the correlation between the variables. Results: using univariate regression models, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and problems related to crime/violence proved significant and were included in the multiple model, in which only the internalizing symptoms and problems related to crime and violence remained significant. Conclusions: there is a correlation between the severity of problems related to alcohol use and severity of mental health symptoms and crime and violence in the study sample. The results emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary and intersectional character of attention to users of alcohol and other drugs, since they live in a socially vulnerable environment. PMID:26626010

  8. TEM studies of oxidized NiAl and Ni3Al cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Ruhle, M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections of oxide scale/(Ni-Al) intermetallics were prepared by a new method and studied using primarily TEM. The cross sections were prepared by encasing an oxidized metal specimen sandwich in a low-melting-temperature zinc alloy. Observations of oxidized zirconium-doped beta-NiAl cross sections revealed crystallographic voids beneath an adherent Al2O3 scale. The oxide-metal interface was incoherent, but a high dislocation density in the metal near the interface suggested that a large tensile stress was induced by the attached oxide scale. A duplex Al2O3-NiAl2O4 scale formed on zirconium-doped and zirconium/boron-doped gamma-prime-Ni3Al alloys. Additional results are presented involving oxidation mechanisms and oxide-metal interface structures.

  9. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  10. Theoretical study of evaporation cross sections in the synthesis of very neutron-deficient nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chengbin; Zhang Jinjuan; Ren, Z. Z.

    2011-07-15

    The synthesis of rare-earth neutron-deficient nuclei with large Z/N ratio {approx_equal}0.88 is studied within the framework of the standard statistical model. The fusion cross sections are calculated on the basis of the nuclear reaction video model. The deexcitation process is calculated with the help of the statistical code alice. It is found that the excitation functions can be predicted using a few exited experimental data by carefully choosing the input parameters in the statistical model. The results obtained show that a satisfactory description of the experimental evaporation cross sections requires a great reduction in the theoretical fission barriers.

  11. A cross sectional study of two independent cohorts identifies serum biomarkers for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD).

    PubMed

    Petek, Lisa M; Rickard, Amanda M; Budech, Christopher; Poliachik, Sandra L; Shaw, Dennis; Ferguson, Mark R; Tawil, Rabi; Friedman, Seth D; Miller, Daniel G

    2016-07-01

    Measuring the severity and progression of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is particularly challenging because muscle weakness progresses over long periods of time and can be sporadic. Biomarkers are essential for measuring disease burden and testing treatment strategies. We utilized the sensitive, specific, high-throughput SomaLogic proteomics platform of 1129 proteins to identify proteins with levels that correlate with FSHD severity in a cross-sectional study of two independent cohorts. We discovered biomarkers that correlate with clinical severity and disease burden measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Sixty-eight proteins in the Rochester cohort (n = 48) and 51 proteins in the Seattle cohort (n = 30) had significantly different levels in FSHD-affected individuals when compared with controls (p-value ≤ .005). A subset of these varied by at least 1.5 fold and four biomarkers were significantly elevated in both cohorts. Levels of creatine kinase MM and MB isoforms, carbonic anhydrase III, and troponin I type 2 reliably predicted the disease state and correlated with disease severity. Other novel biomarkers were also discovered that may reveal mechanisms of disease pathology. Assessing the levels of these biomarkers during clinical trials may add significance to other measures of quantifying disease progression or regression. PMID:27185459

  12. Health Impact of Domestic Violence against Saudi Women: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Dosary, Ahmad Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Domestic violence is a major public health problem. A wide range of health hazards result from violence against women directly, or from its long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to determine health related consequences of domestic violence against women. Method A community based cross-sectional study was carried through online survey; convenience sample was taken during the period between December 2013 and February 2014. 421 women completed the survey, who met the inclusion criteria and accepted willing to be a part of this study. The data was collected through online survey website. A validated Arabic version of NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire (NOVAQ) was used as a tool to assess domestic violence among the study sample. Analysis was performed using SPSS, version 18.0. Results A total of 421 women participated in the survey. There was no significant correlation between socio-demographic characteristics and being abused or not. However, by further analysis we found more sexual abuse among non-working women P=0.048. There was significant correlation between abused women and general health status, doctor visits, depression, insomnia, and somatic symptoms. Conclusion The consequences of abuse are profound, extending beyond the health of individual to affect the well-being of entire community. So, we recommend to increase community awareness through national awareness campaign, national prevalence survey of domestic violence and well trained health professionals for assessing domestic violence cases. PMID:27103898

  13. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

  14. Photoionization of Xe inside C{sub 60}: Atom-fullerene hybridization, giant cross-section enhancement, and correlation confinement resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Madjet, Mohamed E.; Renger, Thomas; Hopper, Dale E.; McCune, Matthew A.; Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Rost, Jan-M.; Manson, Steven T.

    2010-01-15

    A theoretical study of the subshell photoionization of the Xe atom endohedrally confined in C{sub 60} is presented. Powerful hybridization of the Xe 5s state with the bottom edge of C{sub 60} pi band is found that induces strong structures in the 5s ionization, causing the cross section to differ significantly from earlier results that omit this hybridization. The hybridization also affects the angular distribution asymmetry parameter of Xe 5p ionization near the Cooper minimum. The 5p cross section, on the other hand, is greatly enhanced by borrowing considerable oscillator strength from the C{sub 60} giant plasmon resonance via the atom-fullerene dynamical interchannel coupling. Beyond the C{sub 60} plasmon energy range the atomic subshell cross sections display confinement-induced oscillations in which, over the large 4d shape resonance region, the dominant 4d oscillations induce their 'clones' in all degenerate weaker channels known as correlation confinement resonances.

  15. Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

  16. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-07-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from dementia (n = 114) and receiving institutionalised care were studied in a cross-sectional design. The assessments included masticatory performance, which was measured objectively with a two-colour gum mixing ability test, and cognition, which was assessed with a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the correlation with general cognition was influenced by the scores for dependency in activities of daily living. The association between verbal fluency and masticatory performance was not significantly affected by secondary variables. An unexpected limitation of this study was the high dropout rate for the mixing ability test. The clinical implications of these findings are profound; care professionals should endeavour to maintain and stimulate mastication in older persons with dementia in an attempt to preserve cognition. PMID:25711519

  17. The influence of age on lip-line cant in adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jung Suk; Kim, Cheol Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to assess the direction and degree of lip-line cant in Korean adult orthodontic patients and to identify the effects of sex and age on changes in the cant severity. Methods In this cross-sectional retrospective study, lip-line cant was measured in the frontal photographs of 585 Korean patients (92 men and 493 women) aged 18-48 years. The outcome variables (direction and degree of lip-line cant) were assessed in terms of predictor variables (sex, age, sagittal skeletal relationship, and menton deviation angle). Results The direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to sex, age, or skeletal classification. Patients had 1.6° of lip-line cant on average before orthodontic treatment. Middle-aged adults displayed a significant trend toward a lower degree of lip-line cant compared to younger adults (p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the degree of lip-line cant was weakly negatively correlated with age (p < 0.001). Conclusions While the direction of lip-line cant did not differ according to the parameters explored here, the degree of cant was correlated with age in adults, independent of menton deviation. Specifically, middle-aged adults tended to display significantly lower degrees of lip-line cant than did younger adults. PMID:27019822

  18. Lack of correlation between intracavitary thrombosis detected by cross sectional echocardiography and systemic emboli in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccheri, M; Castelli, G; Cecchi, F; Nannini, M; Santoro, G; Troiani, V; Zuppiroli, A; Dolara, A

    1989-01-01

    The correlation between intracavitary thrombosis detected by cross sectional echocardiography and systemic embolism was studied in 126 consecutive patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were examined from January 1980 to September 1987. A total of 1041 serial echocardiograms were obtained with 3.5 and 5 MHz transducers. The mean follow up period was 41.2 months. The survival rate was 88% at two years and 56% at five years. Echocardiography showed intracavitary thrombi in 14 (11.1%) patients; 13 were mural and 11 were localised at the apex of the left ventricle. Twelve patients (8.4%) had systemic emboli; this corresponded to an incidence of new embolic events of 1.4 for 100 patient-years. Patients with intracavitary thrombi or systemic emboli were treated with oral anticoagulants, as were nine in functional class IV of the New York Heart Association, for 61 patient-years. The cumulative observation period for the whole population study was 418 patient-years. None of the patients with intracavitary thrombosis had embolic complications and none of those with embolism had intracavitary thrombi. Rates of intracavitary thrombosis and systemic embolism in this series were low and there was no overlap between the two events. This may have been because the patients did not have severe dilated cardiomyopathy, because echocardiography did not detect all the thrombi, or because patients were treated with oral anticoagulants. The presence of intracardiac thrombosis detected by cross sectional echocardiography is not predictive of systemic embolism in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Criteria for the use of the anticoagulant treatment remain largely empirical in these cases. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:2757871

  19. PBL and Critical Thinking Disposition in Chinese Medical Students--A Randomized Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, XiangYun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon; Sun, Baozhi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU) were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the…

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study about Meaning Access Processes for Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievas, Francisco; Justicia, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the effect of meaning frequency, referred to as ''dominance'' in the semantic priming paradigm, where ambiguous words (primes) were processed in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to target words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph…

  1. Students' Needs, Teachers' Support, and Motivation for Doing Homework: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Idit; Kaplan, Avi; Gueta, Gila

    2010-01-01

    Self-determination theory provided the theoretical framework for a cross-sectional investigation of elementary and junior high school students' autonomous motivation for homework. More specifically, the study focused on the role of teachers' support of students' psychological needs in students' motivation for homework in the two school systems.…

  2. Influence of the Visual Attention Span on Child Reading Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Valdois, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span deficit hypothesis was found successfully to account for variability in developmental dyslexia (Bosse, Tainturier & Valdois, 2007). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 417 typically developing children from first, third and fifth grades examining the role of VA span on the development of reading skills. A battery…

  3. Request Strategies: Cross-Sectional Study of Iranian EFL Learners and Australian Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalilifar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    This study was a cross-sectional investigation into the request strategies used by Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language and Australian native speakers of English. The sample involved 96 BA and MA Persian students and 10 native speakers of English. A Discourse Completion Test (DCT) was used to generate data related to the request…

  4. Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

  5. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  6. Factors Associated with Women's Antenatal Plans to Use a Baby Walker: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Rachel; Kendrick, Denise; Collier, Jacqueline; Woods, Amanda; Wattse, Kim; Dewey, Michael; Chen, Chih-Mei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of these analyses was to explore maternal antenatal decisions about baby walker use, factors associated with these decisions and the relationship between antenatal plans to use a walker and postnatal walker use. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Mothers-to-be (n = 1174) participating in a cluster randomised…

  7. Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

  8. Cross-sectional TEM studies of DIGM in irradiated Au-Cu bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Y.; Alexander, D.E.; Rehn, L.E.

    1992-11-01

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy was used to study diffusion-induced gain boundary migration (DIGM) in irradiated and annealed Au/Cu bilayers. Using this technique, in combination with small probe x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, DIGM alloyed zones in Au were identified in an irradiated sample.

  9. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  10. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil

    Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  11. Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

  12. Effects of instructional strategies using cross sections on the recognition of anatomical structures in correlated CT and MR images.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E; Su, Yung K; Payer, Andrew F

    2008-01-01

    This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include: (1) cross-sectional images of the head that can be superimposed on radiological images, (2) transparent highlighting of anatomical structures in radiological images, and (3) cross-sectional images of the head with radiological images presented side-by-side. Data collected included: (1) time spent on instruction and on solving test questions, (2) mental effort during instruction and test, and (3) students' performance to identify anatomical structures in radiological images. Participants were 28 freshmen medical students (15 males and 13 females) and 208 biology students (190 females and 18 males). All studies used posttest-only control group design, and the collected data were analyzed by either t test or ANOVA. In self-directed computer-based environments, the strategies that used cross sections to improve students' ability to recognize anatomic structures in radiological images showed no significant positive effects. However, when increasing the complexity of the instructional materials, cross-sectional images imposed a higher cognitive load, as indicated by higher investment of mental effort. There is not enough evidence to claim that the simultaneous combination of cross sections and radiological images has no effect on the identification of anatomical structures in radiological images for novices. Further research that control for students' learning and cognitive style is needed to reach an informative conclusion. PMID:19177385

  13. Risk of bias versus quality assessment of randomised controlled trials: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dryden, Donna M; Hooton, Nicola; Krebs Seida, Jennifer; Klassen, Terry P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the risk of bias tool, introduced by the Cochrane Collaboration for assessing the internal validity of randomised trials, for inter-rater agreement, concurrent validity compared with the Jadad scale and Schulz approach to allocation concealment, and the relation between risk of bias and effect estimates. Design Cross sectional study. Study sample 163 trials in children. Main outcome measures Inter-rater agreement between reviewers assessing trials using the risk of bias tool (weighted κ), time to apply the risk of bias tool compared with other approaches to quality assessment (paired t test), degree of correlation for overall risk compared with overall quality scores (Kendall’s τ statistic), and magnitude of effect estimates for studies classified as being at high, unclear, or low risk of bias (metaregression). Results Inter-rater agreement on individual domains of the risk of bias tool ranged from slight (κ=0.13) to substantial (κ=0.74). The mean time to complete the risk of bias tool was significantly longer than for the Jadad scale and Schulz approach, individually or combined (8.8 minutes (SD 2.2) per study v 2.0 (SD 0.8), P<0.001). There was low correlation between risk of bias overall compared with the Jadad scores (P=0.395) and Schulz approach (P=0.064). Effect sizes differed between studies assessed as being at high or unclear risk of bias (0.52) compared with those at low risk (0.23). Conclusions Inter-rater agreement varied across domains of the risk of bias tool. Generally, agreement was poorer for those items that required more judgment. There was low correlation between assessments of overall risk of bias and two common approaches to quality assessment: the Jadad scale and Schulz approach to allocation concealment. Overall risk of bias as assessed by the risk of bias tool differentiated effect estimates, with more conservative estimates for studies at low risk. PMID:19841007

  14. Oral and salivary changes among renal patients undergoing hemodialysis: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, A.; Reddy, S. S.; Umesh, L.; Devi, B. K. Y.; Santana, N.; Rakesh, N.

    2013-01-01

    We wanted to assess oral and salivary changes in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and to understand the correlation of such changes with renal insufficiency. The cross-sectional study was performed among 100 ESRD patients undergoing HD. Among these, 25 patients were randomly selected to assess the salivary changes and compared with 25 apparently healthy individuals who formed the control group. Total duration of the study was 15 months. Oral malodor, dry mouth, taste change, increased caries incidence, calculus formation, and gingival bleeding were the common oral manifestations. The flow rates of both unstimulated as well as stimulated whole saliva were decreased in the study group. The pH and buffer capacity of unstimulated whole saliva was increased in the study group, but stimulated whole saliva did not show any difference. ESRD patients undergoing HD require special considerations during dental treatment because of the various conditions inherent to the disease, their multiple oral manifestations and the treatment side-effects. PMID:23716919

  15. The grief process and job loss: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Archer, J; Rhodes, V

    1993-08-01

    This study assessed the applicability of the grief process to job loss. A pilot study of 10 unemployed men was used to establish a structured interview, and its content analysis, based on a description of the grief process derived from studies of bereavement. Other measures assessed the degree of attachment to the former job. The main study involved 60 men who had lost their jobs during the previous eight years. Individual grief items were found in some of these people, varying in frequency from 10 to 80 per cent. Principal components analysis revealed a general grief component, representing most of the specific items. Twenty-seven per cent of the sample fulfilled a criterion for a clear grief-like response. An overall grief score based on the interview answers was significantly correlated with three different measures of job attachment, and also with questionnaire measures of depression and anxiety. These measures were unrelated to the length of time since job loss, apparently providing no support for stage theories or for more general assumptions of adaptation. However, the cross-sectional nature of the sample complicates this conclusion. PMID:8401991

  16. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  17. Association between tumor size and Breslow's thickness in malignant melanoma: a cross-sectional, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ramírez, David; Ojeda-Vila, Teresa; Ríos-Martín, Juan J; Nieto-García, Adoración; Ferrándiz, Lara

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of tumor diameter in explaining variations in tumoral invasion and in the initial prognosis for patients with malignant melanoma (MM). This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study that recruited between 2000 and 2009 patients with primary in-situ MM (Tis) and invasive cutaneous MM. Tis and MMs with a Breslow's thickness less than 1 mm (T1) were grouped (Tis-T1) and tumors with a Breslow's thickness 1 mm or more were also analyzed in combination (T2-T4). The tumor size was measured after routine formalin tissue fixation. Primary outcomes were the correlation between Breslow's thickness and tumor size, and the role of tumor size in explaining variations in Breslow's thickness, as assessed by the Pearson correlation test and logistic binary regression with calculation of the odds ratios. A total of 1610 MM patients were included and analyzed. The Pearson correlation between tumor size and Breslow's thickness was 0.42, with a determination coefficient of R2=0.18 (P>0.01). Correlations between tumor size and thickness were stronger in patients aged 30-60 years (r=0.42, R2=0.1764, P<0.001) and in tumors arising on the upper limbs (r=0.55, R2=0.3025). The odds ratio of identifying a T2-T4 stage MM in patients with tumors larger than 1 cm in size was 2.76 (95% confidence interval 2.25-3.39, P<0.001). Even though a direct, positive, and strong association between tumoral size and Breslow's thickness might be expected in melanoma cases, the strength of this association has been moderate. Tumor size explains a low burden of the variation observed in the Breslow's thickness. PMID:26237766

  18. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  19. Identifying Drivers of Overall Satisfaction in Patients Receiving HIV Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Bich N.; Westbrook, Robert A.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study seeks to understand the drivers of overall patient satisfaction in a predominantly low-income, ethnic-minority population of HIV primary care patients. The study’s primary aims were to determine 1) the component experiences which contribute to patients’ evaluations of their overall satisfaction with care received, and 2) the relative contribution of each component experience in explaining patients’ evaluation of overall satisfaction. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 489 adult patients receiving HIV primary care at two clinics in Houston, Texas, from January 13–April 21, 2011. The participation rate among eligible patients was 94%. The survey included 15 questions about various components of the care experience, 4 questions about the provider experience and 3 questions about overall care. To ensure that the survey was appropriately tailored to our clinic population and the list of component experiences reflected all aspects of the care experience salient to patients, we conducted in-depth interviews with key providers and clinic staff and pre-tested the survey instrument with patients. Results Patients’ evaluation of their provider correlated the strongest with their overall satisfaction (standardized β = 0.445, p<0.001) and accounted for almost half of the explained variance. Access and availability, like clinic hours and ease of calling the clinic, also correlated with overall satisfaction, but less strongly. Wait time and parking, despite receiving low patient ratings, did not correlate with overall satisfaction. Conclusions The patient-provider relationship far exceeds other component experiences of care in its association with overall satisfaction. Our study suggests that interventions to improve overall patient satisfaction should focus on improving patients’ evaluation of their provider. PMID:22912770

  20. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Del Prado-Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2007-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102) randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52%) and most belonged to the 20–35 age group (45%). Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%), easy fatigability (46.1%) and cough (40.2%). Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02), and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008). number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022), use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033), incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041), sex (p = 0.002) and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005) were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037) and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029). The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers. PMID:17877808

  1. Prevalence of Iron deficiency anemia in children with liver cirrhosis: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zareifar, Soheila; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Rahanjam, Najmeh; Farahmand Far, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the many complications reported for cirrhosis, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has attracted much attention. This type of anemia, in contrast to other types of anemia, is easy to treat prophylactically, but if left untreated can lead to a poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemoglobin and serum iron levels among patients with liver cirrhosis for the early diagnosis of IDA and to avoid unnecessary testing and iron supplementation. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 88 children diagnosed with cirrhosis were included, and the values of hemoglobin, serum iron levels and relationship between serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), prothrombine time (PT), international normalization ratio (INR), total and direct bilirubin and hepatic enzymes were estimated using paired t test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Forty-six (52.3%) of 88 children were girls and 42 (47.7%) were boys. Forty-eight (54.5%) patients had anemia and 8 (9%) had iron deficiency anemia (5 boys, 5.6%, and 3 girls, 3.4%). No relationships were observed between iron deficiency anemia and the patient’s age or gender, whereas there was a relationship between iron deficiency and severity and duration of the disease, although the correlation was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The high frequency of iron deficiency anemia in children with cirrhosis (9%) suggests that timely screening should be used for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26261697

  2. Health Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors in Menopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asrami, Fereshte Shabani; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining health promoting lifestyle behaviors of age-specific groups of women provides valuable information for designing health promotion intervention programs. Hence the present study was conducted to assess health promoting lifestyle behaviors in menopausal women. Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional study examined health promoting lifestyle behaviors in 400 menopausal women admitted to health care centers in Neka city-north of Iran-from March 2015 to July 2015. Health promoting lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a demographic characteristics form and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II) through simple convenience sampling. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistics at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: The mean score of participants’ health promoting lifestyle behaviors was 136.43±19.61, ranging from 88 to 194. The logistic regression test revealed women’s health promoting lifestyle behaviors to be significantly related to their place of residence (P=0.009, odds ratio=1.73) and their spouse’s level of education (P=0.027, odds ratio=0.58). The Pearson correlation test showed significant relationships between mean score of the six sub-scale of health promoting lifestyle behaviors with each other (P<0.001). Conclusion: These findings have implications for addressing the role of men to promote health promoting lifestyle behaviors among rural menopausal women.

  3. Exploring Health Literacy in Medical University Students of Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Lu, Lu; Bai, Ruixue; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important in public health and healthcare, particularly in effective communication between patients and health professionals. Although most medical students will eventually work as health professionals after graduation, research on health literacy of medical students is scarce. This study aimed to assess the health literacy level of medical students in Chongqing, China, and its influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 1,275 participants (250 males and 1,022 females) who majored in five different disciplines were involved. The Health Literacy Questionnaire was used as the survey tool. The junior students obtained the highest scores, whereas the freshman students had the lowest scores on each scale. The average score of males was higher than that of females except in "feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers," and the average score of students who reside in urban areas was higher than that of students in rural areas. Moreover, the average score of engineering students was higher than that of medical or health sciences students. Multiple linear regression models (Radj2 = 0.435, P = 0.000) showed that the grade, socioeconomic status, and parent's highest level of education were positively correlated with health literacy. In conclusion, the health literacy levels of the medical students are insufficient and need improvement. PMID:27050169

  4. Exploring Health Literacy in Medical University Students of Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Lu, Lu; Bai, Ruixue; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important in public health and healthcare, particularly in effective communication between patients and health professionals. Although most medical students will eventually work as health professionals after graduation, research on health literacy of medical students is scarce. This study aimed to assess the health literacy level of medical students in Chongqing, China, and its influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 1,275 participants (250 males and 1,022 females) who majored in five different disciplines were involved. The Health Literacy Questionnaire was used as the survey tool. The junior students obtained the highest scores, whereas the freshman students had the lowest scores on each scale. The average score of males was higher than that of females except in “feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers,” and the average score of students who reside in urban areas was higher than that of students in rural areas. Moreover, the average score of engineering students was higher than that of medical or health sciences students. Multiple linear regression models (Radj2 = 0.435, P = 0.000) showed that the grade, socioeconomic status, and parent’s highest level of education were positively correlated with health literacy. In conclusion, the health literacy levels of the medical students are insufficient and need improvement. PMID:27050169

  5. Knowledge about HIV prevention and transmission among recently diagnosed tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with Tuberculosis (TB) are a vulnerable group for acquiring HIV infection. Therefore, countries with a concentrated HIV epidemic and high prevalence of TB should provide adequate information about HIV prevention to TB patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the level of knowledge on HIV prevention and transmission among newly diagnosed TB patients in Lima, Peru. The survey evaluated knowledge about HIV infection and prevention and was administered before HIV counseling and blood sampling for HIV testing were performed. Results A total of 171 TB patients were enrolled; mean age was 31.1 years, 101 (59%) were male. The overall mean level of knowledge of HIV was 59%; but the specific mean level of knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention was only 33.3% and 41.5%, respectively. Age and level of education correlated with overall level of knowledge in the multivariate model (P-value: 0.02 and <0.001 respectively). Conclusions The study shows inadequate levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention among newly-diagnosed TB patients in this setting, and underscores the need for implementing educational interventions in this population. PMID:24373517

  6. Awareness and Performance of Iranian Nurses with Regard to Health Economics: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Mazloom, Reza; Najar, Ali Vafaee; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health costs have risen everywhere, worldwide, and nurses play a pivotal role in cost savings and in contributing to the financial stability of hospitals. Aim: This study evaluated the awareness and performance of Iranian nursing staff, with regard to health economics. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 nurses who worked in three teaching hospitals in Mashhad (Iran) were selected for this descriptive cross-sectional study, and data were gathered via a 27-item questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, multiple regression analysis, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 78% (n = 39) of nurses did not have a good awareness of health economics. The overall mean score for economic awareness was 5.9 ± 2.1 (possible range, 0-16), and for economic performance was 26.6 ± 4 (possible range, 0-44). There was a significant relationship between the economic awareness and performance of nurses, and nurses in higher positions had a greater awareness of health economics. Conclusions: Considering the inadequacy of the health economics awareness and performance of nurses, it is essential that efforts are made to enhance their knowledge and behavior with regard to economic issues and cost saving in all the fields of nursing, through the use of continuing education courses and workshops. PMID:26605201

  7. The Association Between Glycosylation of Immunoglobulin G and Hypertension: A Multiple Ethnic Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youxin; Klarić, Lucija; Yu, Xinwei; Thaqi, Kujtim; Dong, Jing; Novokmet, Mislav; Wilson, Jim; Polasek, Ozren; Liu, Youqin; Krištić, Jasminka; Ge, Siqi; Pučić-Baković, Maja; Wu, Lijuan; Zhou, Yong; Ugrina, Ivo; Song, Manshu; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Xiuhua; Zeng, Qiang; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Aulchenko, Yurii; Lauc, Gordan; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    More than half of all known proteins, and almost all membrane and extra-cellular proteins have oligosaccharide structures or glycans attached to them. Defects in glycosylation pathways are directly involved in at least 30 severe human diseases.A multiple center cross-sectional study (China, Croatia, and Scotland) was carried out to investigate the possible association between hypertension and IgG glycosylation. A hydrophilic interaction chromatography of fluorescently labeled glycans was used to analyze N-glycans attached to IgG in plasma samples from a total of 4757 individuals of Chinese Han, Croatian, and Scottish ethnicity.Five glycans (IgG with digalactosylated glycans) significantly differed in participants with prehypertension or hypertension compared to those with normal blood pressure, while additional 17 glycan traits were only significantly differed in participants with hypertension compared to those of normal blood pressure. These glycans were also significant correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP).The present study demonstrated for the 1st time an association between hypertension and IgG glycome composition. These findings suggest that the individual variation in N-glycosylation of IgG contributes to pathogenesis of hypertension, presumably via its effect on pro- and/or anti-inflammatory pathways. PMID:27124023

  8. Factors influencing the satisfaction of rural physician assistants: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Filipova, Anna A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors that attract physician assistants (PAs) to rural settings, and what they found satisfying about their practice and community. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All PAs who were practicing in both nonmetropolitan counties and rural communities in metropolitan counties, in a single midwestern US state, served as the population for the study. A total of 414 usable questionnaires were returned of the 1,072 distributed, a 39% response rate. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and robust regression analyses were used. Statistical models were tested to identify antecedents of four job satisfaction factors (satisfaction with professional respect, satisfaction with supervising physician, satisfaction with authority/ autonomy, and satisfaction with workload/salary). The strongest predictor of all four job satisfaction factors was community satisfaction, followed by importance of job practice. Additionally, the four job satisfaction factors had some significant associations with importance of socialization, community importance, practice attributes (years of practice, years in current location, specialty, and facility type), job responsibilities (percentage of patient load not discussed with physician, weekly hours as PA, inpatient visits), and demographics (marital status, race, age, education). PMID:24598896

  9. Effects of Instructional Strategies Using Cross Sections on the Recognition of Anatomical Structures in Correlated CT and MR Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E.; Su, Yung K.; Payer, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include:…

  10. How Does Chronic Back Pain Influence Quality of Life in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Dong Jun; Lee, Kyu Yeol; Park, Ye Soo; Cho, Kyu Jung; Lee, Jae Hyup; Rhim, Hyou Young

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A cross-sectional study. Purpose To explore the impact of chronic low back pain (CLBP) on individuals' quality of life; to understand current treatment practices and level of satisfaction with treatment in patients with CLBP. Overview of Literature Assessing subjective, patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life is essential to health care research. Methods Influences of the CLBP were analyzed via a questionnaire, which contained the character of CLBP, effect of pain management, Korean version Oswestry Disability Index (K-ODI) and Korean version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v2). Results Of 3,121 subjects who responded, 67.3% had moderate to severe pain; 43.5% presented prolonged CLBP of more than two years; and 32.4% had suffered from sleep disturbance due to pain. 22.8% of the patients were not satisfied with current pain management. The mean K-ODI score was 37.63; and it was positively correlated with the mean pain intensity (r=0.6, p<0.001). The SF-12v2 result was negatively correlated with mean pain intensity (PCS: r=-0.5, p<0.001; MCS: r=-0.4, p<0.001) and also negatively correlated with the K-ODI score (PCS: r=-0.75, p<0.001; MCS: r=-0.5, p<0.001). The conformity between patients and doctors in pain assessment was fair (κ=0.2463). Conclusions CLBP negatively affects quality of life. Of total 22.8% of the patients were not satisfied with current pain management. Such needs to be taken more seriously by doctors for improvement of satisfaction and quality of life in patients with CLBP. PMID:24967049

  11. A Cross-sectional, Comparative Study of Insight in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Patients in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Arul Saravanan; Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Kanradi, Haridas; Sharma, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study insight correlates in schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission among out-patients attending the Psychiatry Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, naturalistic study, adult patients with schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission (n = 80; schizophrenia-40, mania-20, bipolar depression-20) were compared on insight measures and clinical correlates. Materials and Methods: Scale to Assess the Unawareness of Mental Disorders (SUMD) was used as the main tool to assess current and past measures of insight. Hogan's Drug Attitude Inventory was used to assess the drug attitude and compliance. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Young's Mania Rating Scale, and HAMD were used to rate psychopathology. Clinical Global Improvement was used as a screening tool for remission. Statistical Analysis: For comparison of the three clinical groups, analysis of variance and Chi-square test were used. In the post-hoc analysis, the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch test was used to find the group difference. Results: About 40% in the schizophrenia group were unaware of their mental illness as against none in the bipolar group. The awareness of mental disorder for the current period, the awareness of the achieved effects of medications, and the awareness of social consequence was better in the bipolar group. The drug attitude (compliant positive attitude) increased as the SUMD item scale decreased or in other words, as the insight improved. Conclusions: Insight, both current and retrospect, showed significant differences between the schizophrenia and bipolar patients. Insight is significantly correlated with the observed compliance and drug attitude of the patient groups. PMID:27335515

  12. Communicating Ebola through social media and electronic news media outlets: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa

    2016-09-01

    Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity. PMID:25656678

  13. Child wellbeing and income inequality in rich societies: ecological cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Kate E

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations between child wellbeing and material living standards (average income), the scale of differentiation in social status (income inequality), and social exclusion (children in relative poverty) in rich developed societies. Design Ecological, cross sectional studies. Setting Cross national comparisons of 23 rich countries; cross state comparisons within the United States. Population Children and young people. Main outcome measures The Unicef index of child wellbeing and its components for rich countries; eight comparable measures for the US states and District of Columbia (teenage births, juvenile homicides, infant mortality, low birth weight, educational performance, dropping out of high school, overweight, mental health problems). Results The overall index of child wellbeing was negatively correlated with income inequality (r=−0.64, P=0.001) and percentage of children in relative poverty (r=−0.67, P=0.001) but not with average income (r=0.15, P=0.50). Many more indicators of child wellbeing were associated with income inequality or children in relative poverty, or both, than with average incomes. Among the US states and District of Columbia all indicators were significantly worse in more unequal states. Only teenage birth rates and the proportion of children dropping out of high school were lower in richer states. Conclusions Improvements in child wellbeing in rich societies may depend more on reductions in inequality than on further economic growth. PMID:18024483

  14. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age. PMID:27068128

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Kristen R.; Pears, Suzanne; Heffernan, Scott J.; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan. Methods Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas) at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P < 0.01 considered significant. Results Male (n = 49, 1.5–28.5 years) and female (n = 60, 1.8–24.6 years) baboons were included in the study. Age was significantly correlated with systolic (R2 = 0.23, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001), with blood pressure increasing with age. Age was also highly correlated with core augmentation index (R2 = 0.17, P < 0.001) and core pulse pressure (R2 = 0.30, P < 0.001). Creatinine and urea were significantly higher in older animals compared to young animals (P < 0.001 for both). Older animals (>12 years) had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years) baboons (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species. PMID:27427971

  16. Electroencephalographic Abnormalities in Clozapine-Treated Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Nishant; Desarkar, Pushpal; Nizamie, Haque

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our study was to examine the electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities associated with clozapine treatment. It was a cross-sectional study on 87 psychiatric patients on clozapine treatment. 32 channel digital EEG was recorded and analysed visually for abnormalities. EEG abnormalities were observed in 63.2% of patients. Both slowing and epileptiform activities were noted in 41.4% of patients. The EEG abnormalities were not associated with dose or duration of clozapine exposure. PMID:22216049

  17. Mn doped InSb studied at the atomic scale by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mauger, S. J. C.; Bocquel, J.; Koenraad, P. M.; Feeser, C. E.; Parashar, N. D.; Wessels, B. W.

    2015-11-30

    We present an atomically resolved study of metal-organic vapor epitaxy grown Mn doped InSb. Both topographic and spectroscopic measurements have been performed by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The measurements on the Mn doped InSb samples show a perfect crystal structure without any precipitates and reveal that Mn acts as a shallow acceptor. The Mn concentration of the order of ∼10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} obtained from the cross-sectional STM data compare well with the intended doping concentration. While the pair correlation function of the Mn atoms showed that their local distribution is uncorrelated beyond the STM resolution for observing individual dopants, disorder in the Mn ion location giving rise to percolation pathways is clearly noted. The amount of clustering that we see is thus as expected for a fully randomly disordered distribution of the Mn atoms and no enhanced clustering or second phase material was observed.

  18. Neuroimaging of Cognitive Dysfunction and Depression in Aging Retired NFL Players: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A.; Womack, Kyle B.; Strain, Jeremy; Didehbani, Nyaz; Bartz, Elizabeth; Conover, Heather; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Lu, Hanzhang; Cullum, C. Munro

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess for the presence of cognitive impairment and depression in aging former NFL players, and identify neuroimaging correlates of these dysfunctions. Design Comparison of aging NFL players with cognitive impairment and depression to those without these dysfunctions and with matched healthy controls Setting Research center in the North Texas region of the United States. Patients We performed a cross-sectional study of retired professional football players with and without a history of concussion recruited from the North Texas region, along with age-, education-, and IQ-matched controls. We studied thirty-four retired NFL players (mean age 62) neurologically and neuropsychologically. A subset of 26 also underwent detailed neuroimaging; imaging data in this subset were compared to imaging data acquired in 26 healthy matched controls. Main Outcome Measures Neuropsychological measures, clinical diagnoses of depression, neuroimaging measures of white matter pathology, and a measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Results Of the 34 participants, 20 were cognitively normal, 4 were diagnosed with a fixed cognitive deficit, 8 with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and 2 with dementia; 8 were diagnosed with depression. Of the subgroup in which neuroimaging data were acquired, cognitively impaired (CI) participants showed greatest deficits on tests of naming, word finding, and visual/verbal episodic memory. We found significant differences in white matter abnormalities in CI players and depressed players compared to their respective controls. Regional blood flow differences in the CI group (left temporal pole, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus) corresponded to regions associated with impaired neurocognitive performance (problems with memory, naming and word finding). Conclusions Cognitive deficits and depression appear to be more common in aging NFL players compared to controls. These deficits are correlated with white matter abnormalities and changes in

  19. Change of water consumption and its potential influential factors in Shanghai: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Different water choices affect access to drinking water with different quality. Previous studies suggested social-economic status may affect the choice of domestic drinking water. The aim of this study is to investigate whether recent social economic changes in China affect residents’ drinking water choices. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate residents’ water consumption behaviour in 2011. Gender, age, education, personal income, housing condition, risk perception and personal preference of a certain type of water were selected as potential influential factors. Univariate and backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the relation between these factors and different drinking water choices. Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001. Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test. Results The percentage of tap water consumption remained relatively stable and a preferred choice, with 58.99% in 2001 and 58.25% in 2011. The percentage of bottled/barrelled water consumption was 36.86% in 2001 and decreased to 25.75% in 2011. That of household filtrated water was 4.15% in 2001 and increased to 16.00% in 2011. Logistic regression model showed strong correlation between one’s health belief and drinking water choices (P < 0.001). Age, personal income, education, housing condition, risk perception also played important roles (P < 0.05) in the models. Drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents. Conclusions Personal health belief, housing condition, age, personal income, education, taste and if worm ever founded in tap water affected domestic drinking water choices in Shanghai. PMID:22708830

  20. Assessment of health status of adolescent burn victims undergoing rehabilitation: a cross-sectional field study.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, Júlia Teixeira; de Carvalho, Viviane Fernandes; Sabatés, Ana Llonch; Paggiaro, André Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Teenagers may experience physiological and psychological changes when they suffer from a severe burn. The aim of this study was to assess the state of health of teenagers who were undergoing a rehabilitation process following a severe burn. A cross-sectional field study was carried out with 63 teenagers and young adults who had suffered burns. The tests applied were social, demographic, and clinical instruments. The specific tests included the Burn Specific Health Scale-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Functional Independence Measurement. The results were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, variance analysis, and Cronbach's reliability analysis. The social and demographic analysis of the population has shown a prevalence of female (60.3%), single subjects (93.7%), and ages between 12 and 20 years (mean age of 15.95 years). The mean total body surface area burn was 23.84%, with accidents as the main causative factor (92.10%). More than half (52.4%) reported functional and aesthetic effects after the burn, with 81% concerned about the visible scar. Cronbach's reliability analysis has shown statistically confident results for all the instruments as applied. The multivariate analysis showed a correlation between the work domain and marital status, whereas there was no evidence to show a correlation between sex, age, physical or aesthetic sequelae or visibility of burns, and depression, self-esteem, functional independence, or current state of health. The results obtained prove the reliability of the instruments applied, making it possible to assess the state of teenagers and young adults health during the rehabilitation process. PMID:24297081

  1. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  2. Isomeric Cross-Section Study of Neutron-Induced Reactions on Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Vlastou, R.; Galanopoulos, S.; Papadopoulos, C. T.; Kokkoris, M.; Serris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Demetriou, P.

    2009-01-28

    The {sup 72}Ge(n,{alpha}){sup 69m}Zn, {sup 74}Ge(n,{alpha}){sup 71m}Zn, {sup 76}Ge(n,2n){sup 75g+m}Ge reaction cross sections have been measured from 9.6 to 11.4 MeV and studied, along with data from literature, within the frame of the statistical model using the code EMPIRE-II.

  3. Comparative study of tip cross-sections for efficient galloping energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yaowen; Zhao, Liya; Tang, Lihua

    2013-02-01

    This letter presents a comparative study of different tip cross-sections for small scale wind energy harvesting based on galloping phenomenon. A prototype device is fabricated with a piezoelectric cantilever and a tip body with various cross-section profiles (square, rectangle, triangle, and D-shape) and tested in a wind tunnel. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the square-sectioned tip for the low cut-in wind speed of 2.5 m/s and the high peak power of 8.4 mW. An analytical model is established and verified by the experimental results. It is recommended that the square section should be used for small wind galloping energy harvesters.

  4. A Study on 19F( n,α) Reaction Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uğur, F. A.; Tel, E.; Gökçe, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, cross sections of neutron induced reactions have been investigated for fluorine target nucleus. The calculations have been made on the excitation functions of 19F ( n,α), 19F( n,xα) reactions. Fluorine (F) and its molten salt compounds (LiF) can serve as a coolant which can be used at high temperatures without reaching a high vapor pressure and also the molten salt compounds are also a good neutron moderator. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  5. Measuring the acute cardiovascular effects of shisha smoking: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jaffery, Ali; Haq, Adnaan; Bacon, Jenny; Madden, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the acute cardiovascular effects of smoking shisha. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in six shisha cafes. Participants smoked shisha for a period between 45 min (minimum) and 90 min (maximum). The same brand of tobacco and coal was used. Setting London, UK. Participants Participants were those who had ordered a shisha to smoke and consented to have their blood pressure, heart rate and carbon monoxide levels measured. Excluded subjects were those who had smoked shisha in the previous 24 h, who smoke cigarettes or who suffered from cardiorespiratory problems. Main outcome measures Blood pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer. Pulse was measured by palpation of the radial artery. Carbon monoxide levels were obtained via a carbon monoxide monitor. These indices were measured before the participants began to smoke shisha and after they finished or when the maximum 90 min time period was reached. Results Mean arterial blood pressure increased from 96 mmHg to 108 mmHg (p < 0.001). Heart rate increased from 77 to 91 bpm (p < 0.001). Carbon monoxide increased from an average of 3 to 35 ppm (p < 0.001). A correlation analysis showed no relationship between carbon monoxide and the other indices measured. Conclusion The acute heart rate, blood pressure and carbon monoxide levels were seen to rise significantly after smoking shisha. The weak correlation between carbon monoxide levels and the other variables suggests that carbon monoxide levels had not contributed to their significant increase. PMID:25057403

  6. Osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lampropoulos, C E; Kalamara, P; Konsta, M; Papaioannou, I; Papadima, E; Antoniou, Z; Andrianopoulou, A; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P G

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To estimate the correlation between osteoporosis and vascular calcification in postmenopausal women and the influence of calcium/vitamin D supplements on vascular calcification. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including 29 women with osteoporosis (15 not taking supplements) and 18 age-matched, non-osteoporotic women. They were evaluated for cardiovascular risk factors and blood tests, lateral X-ray of lumbar spine (assessment of abdominal aorta calcification, AAC) and carotid ultrasound (increased intima media thickness (iIMT) or calcified plaques) were performed. Results In univariate analysis, osteoporotic women were 16 times more likely to develop AAC (odds ratio (OR) 15.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-135.4) and seven times more likely to develop iIMT (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.8-25.4) compared to normal individuals. The odds of developing AAC and iIMT were increased each year after menopause (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.2 and OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.3, respectively) and with aging (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.1-1.47 and OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.3, respectively). Calcified plaques were significantly correlated with osteoporosis (p = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, osteoporosis was an independent risk factor for AAC (OR 13.3, 95% CI 1.3-134.4) and iIMT (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.1-19.9). Low doses of supplements did not appear to affect vascular calcification (p = 0.6). Conclusions Osteoporosis is associated with increased calcification of the abdominal aorta and carotids. Low doses of supplements do not appear to cause any increase in vascular calcification in osteoporotic women. PMID:27045323

  7. Association between Maternal and Child Nutritional Status in Hula, Rural Southern Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Negash, Canaan; Whiting, Susan J.; Henry, Carol J.; Belachew, Tefera; Hailemariam, Tewodros G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal and child under nutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. The aim of this baseline survey was to determine the association between selected maternal characteristics, maternal nutritional status and children’s nutritional status. Methods and Findings A survey with a cross sectional design was conducted between September and October 2012 in Hula, Ethiopia. The study subjects were 197 mothers of children between the ages of 6 and 23 months. Weight and height (mothers) or recumbent length (children) were measured using calibrated, standardized techniques. Seven percent of children were below -2 weight for height Z score (WHZ), 11.5% were below -2 height for age Z score (HAZ) and 9.9% were below -2 weight for age Z score (WAZ). Maternal anthropometrics were associated with child nutritional status in the bivariate analysis. Maternal BMI (r = 0.16 P = 0.02) and educational status (r = 0.25 P = 0.001) were correlated with WHZ of children while maternal height (r = 0.2 P = 0.007) was correlated with HAZ of children. After multivariate analysis, children whose mothers had salary from employment had a better WHZ score (P = 0.001) and WAZ score (P<0.001). Both maternal BMI and maternal height were associated with WHZ (P = 0.04) and HAZ (P = 0.01) score of children. Conclusion Having a mother with better nutritional status and salaried employment is a benefit for the nutritional status of the child. The interrelationship between maternal and child nutritional status stresses the value of improving maternal nutritional status as this should improve both maternal and child health outcomes. Therefore strategies to improve nutritional status of children should also include improving the nutritional status of the mother and empowering her financially. PMID:26588687

  8. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Alrefae, Majed; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    Propylene, a by-product of biomass burning, thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is a ubiquitous molecule found in the environment and atmosphere. Accurate infrared (IR) cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500 cm-1 and at gas temperatures between 296 and 460 K. We recorded these spectra at spectral resolutions ranging from 0.08 to 0.5 cm-1 and measured the integrated band intensities for a number of vibrational bands in certain spectral regions. We then compared the integrated band intensities measured at room temperature with values derived from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) databases. Our results agreed well with the results reported in the two databases with a maximum deviation of about 4%. The peak cross-sections for the primary bands decreased by about 20-54% when the temperature increased from 296 to 460 K. Moreover, we determined the integrated band intensities as a function of temperature for certain features in various spectral regions; we found no significant temperature dependence over the range of temperatures considered here. We also studied the effect of temperature on absorption cross-section using a Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser system. We compared the DFG results with those obtained from the FTIR study at certain wavenumbers over the 2850-2975 cm-1 range and found a reasonable agreement with less than 10% discrepancy.

  9. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol. PMID:25800078

  10. Epicardial Fat and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mookadam, Farouk; Goel, Ramil; Alharthi, Mohsen S.; Jiamsripong, Panupong; Cha, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background: The association between visceral obesity and cardiovascular risk has been well described. Some studies show a proportional relationship between the presence of visceral obesity and epicardial fat. Measuring the amount of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) can be a novel parameter that is inexpensive and easy to obtain and may be helpful in cardiovascular risk stratification. However, the relationship between epicardial fat and cardiac function and that between epicardial fat and cardiac risk factors is less well described. Objectives: To evaluate the association between echocardiographic epicardial fat and the morphologic and physiologic changes observed at echocardiography and to evaluate the association between epicardial fat and cardiac risk factors. A cross-sectional study of 97 echocardiographic studies (females, n = 42) was conducted. Two groups were identified: epicardial fat ≥ 5 mm (group I) and <5 mm (group II). Results: Epicardial fat >5 mm was associated with LA enlargement, with lower ejection fraction, increased left ventricular mass, and abnormal diastolic function. On a multivariable regression analysis, all these parameters also correlated individually with EAT thickness independent of age. Hyperglycemia (DM), systolic hypertension, and lipid parameters for metabolic syndrome showed a trend for positive association, but this was not statistically significant. The association was not significant even for higher cutoff limits of EAT thickness. Conclusion: Epicardial fat >5 mm is associated with cardiac abnormalities on echocardiography. This is a sensitive assessment of body fat distribution, is easily available at echocardiography, and is simple to acquire at no added cost. Further studies looking at the appropriate cut-off thickness of EAT and the sites of measurement to be used are needed. Comparison of this simple and inexpensive measure with other measures of obesity, such as waist-hip ratio, body mass index, Dexa scan of visceral fat

  11. Quantum and semiclassical studies on photodetachment cross sections of H- in a harmonic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-Jun, Zhao; Wei-Long, Liu; Meng-Li, Du

    2016-03-01

    The photodetachment cross section of H- in a linear harmonic oscillator potential is investigated. This system provides a rare example that can be studied analytically by both quantum and semiclassical methods with some approximations. The formulas of the cross section for different laser polarization directions are explicitly derived by both the traditional quantum approach and closed-orbit theory. In the traditional quantum approach, we calculate the cross sections in coordinate representation and momentum representation, and get the same formulas. We compare the quantum formulas with closed-orbit theory formulas, and find that when the detachment electron energy is larger than , where ω is the frequency of the oscillator potential, the quantum results are shown to be in good agreement with the semiclassical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11421063 and 11474079), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2009011004), and the Program for the Top Young Academic Leaders of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi Province, China.

  12. Erythromelanosis Follicularis Faciei et Colli - A Cross-sectional, Descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Shagufta; Yaseen, Atiya; Mukhija, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli (EFFC) has always been reported as a rare disorder, and more data are needed to define its etiology and epidemiology. Objectives: To present a descriptive study of this disorder from Kashmir and present a review of literature on the same. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 14 patients with clinical lesions suggestive of EFFC, presenting to our dermatology outpatient clinic between May 2013 and April 2015. After obtaining informed consent from all patients, the demographic and clinical data were collected and punch biopsies were taken which after being fixed in formalin were stained for hematoxylin and eosin. The study was approved by Institutional Review Board. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 12 to 35 years with a mean age of 24.8 years. Females outnumbered males in a ratio of 1.3:1. Family history was positive in one case, and one patient had unilateral presentation. The classical triad of erythema, pigmentation, and follicular papules were present in 100% patients. Telangiectasias were observed in 28.57% patients only. Classical sites described were involved in all the cases (100%). In addition, lesions were found to involve eyebrows (28.57%), forehead (28.57%), upper lips (14.28%), and pinna (21.42%). Keratosis pilaris was present in all patients (100%); most common sites affected were upper arms and thighs. Two (14.28%) had generalized distribution. Histopathology in all correlated well with clinical findings. Conclusion: EFFC has always been reported as a rare disorder, but we believe that it is not so. The reason could be either lack of awareness of the disease by the patient due to its generally asymptomatic nature or under-recognition by the physicians. Awareness about the disease on part of dermatologist and recognition of clinical presentation is important for correct diagnosis and to help find more effective therapeutic modalities. PMID:27293252

  13. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  14. A cross-sectional study on perception of stigma by Chinese schizophrenia patients

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhibin; Wang, Heqiu; Feng, Bin; Gu, Chenyu; Ma, Yongchun; Chen, Hong; Li, Bingling; Liu, Lanying

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this cross-sectional study, we sought to assess the extent of internalized stigma among inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China and to investigate whether education level correlated with the experience of stigma. Methods Schizophrenia patients were evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) scale and the Stigma Scale for Mental Illness (SSMI-C). Patients were categorized into high education and low education groups, according to their educational levels. Results One hundred thirty-three subjects were included in the study. Their mean course of illness was 4.32±6.14 years (range: 1 month to 15 years). Their mean BPRS score was 19.87±5.46, their mean PANSS score was 44.11±13.1, and their mean CGI-S score was 2.22±0.81. In addition, their mean SSMI-C score was 6.49±0.9. The mean SSMI-C score of patients who have received high school education or above was 7.15±0.98, which was markedly higher than that of patients who have received middle school education or below, which was 5.75±0.79 (P<0.05). Before the study most patients (92.5%, 123/133) took atypical drugs. Conclusion Education level impacts on the perception of stigma by schizophrenia patients, and more psychoeducation should be undertaken to improve patients’ knowledge about schizophrenia. PMID:24707179

  15. Common Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index Correlate with Local but Not Global Atheroma Burden: A Cross Sectional Study Using Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Khan, Faisel; Lambert, Matthew A.; Adamson, Carly L.; Gardner, Michael; Gandy, Stephen J.; Ramkumar, Prasad Guntur; Belch, Jill J. F.; Struthers, Allan D.; Rauchhaus, Petra; Morris, Andrew D.; Houston, J. Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Background Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA). Methods 50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR). The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0 = normal, 1 = <50%, 2 = 50–70%, 3 = 70–99%, 4 = vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated. Results The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (β 0.32, p = 0.045), however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (β 0.42 p = 0.01) with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (β −0.39, p = 0.012), which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (β 0.13 p = 0.45), while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (β −0.45 p = 0.005). Conclusion ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral

  16. Autonomic control of cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Irina W.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Karavaev, Antoly S.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.; Gridnev, Vladimir I.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Bezruchko, Boris P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the features of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods We studied 185 postmenopausal women aged 59.3±8.5 years (mean±SD) and 104 premenopausal women aged 45.1±5.8 years. Standard indices of heart rate variability (HRV) (mean heart rate, coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the NN interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram with normal sinus rhythm) (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), proportion derived by dividing RR50, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms, by the total number of NN intervals (PNN50), and power of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands in absolute values and percentages of total spectral power) and index S of synchronization between the 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and photoplethysmogram were compared between these two groups at rest. We assessed the following sex hormones: estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. Results Mean heart rate and power of LF and HF bands were significantly different (p<0.05) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The autonomic indices were similar in women with natural and surgical menopause. Some indices (coefficient of variation, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, and power of LF and HF bands) showed weak correlation with menopause time in women with natural menopause. In women with surgical menopause, a moderate statistically significant correlation was observed only between menopause time and S index (r=−0.41, p=0.039). In premenopausal women, only testosterone correlated weakly with coefficient of variation, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, and power of HF band. In postmenopausal women, no correlations were found. We did not find any significant relationship between autonomic indices and hot flashes, assessed by hot

  17. Correlation among soluble receptors for advanced glycation end-products, soluble vascular adhesion protein-1/semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (sVAP-1) and cardiometabolic risk markers in apparently healthy adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gurecká, Radana; Koborová, Ivana; Csongová, Melinda; Šebek, Jozef; Šebeková, Katarína

    2016-08-01

    In non-diabetics, low levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycations end products (sRAGE) associate with an increased risk of development of diabetes, cardiovascular afflictions, or death. The majority of studies in non-diabetics report an inverse relationship between measures of obesity, cardiometabolic risk factors and sRAGE and/or endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) levels. To elucidate whether this inconsistency is related to the metabolically healthy obese phenotype, or a different impact of the risk factors in presence and absence of obesity, we analyzed data from 2206 apparently healthy adolescents (51 % girls) aged 15-to-19 years. The association of sRAGE levels with soluble vascular adhesion protein-1/semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase (sVAP-1/SSAO) was also investigated. Centrally obese, including metabolically healthy, adolescents present significantly lower sRAGE and esRAGE, but not sVAP-1, levels in comparison with their lean counterparts. An increasing number of cardiometabolic risk factors did not associate with significant changes in sRAGE, esRAGE or sVAP-1 levels either in lean or in obese subjects. In multivariate analyses, WHtR, hsCRP, markers of glucose homeostasis, renal function, adiponectin, and sVAP-1 associated significantly with sRAGE and esRAGE. SVAP-1 correlated significantly with glycemia, adiponectin, hsCRP, and sRAGE. Thus, in adolescents, a decline in sRAGE and esRAGE precedes the development of metabolic syndrome. When combined, standard and non-standard cardiometabolic risk factors explain only minor proportion in a variability of sRAGE and esRAGE (8 %-11 %); or sVAP-1 (12 %-20 %). Elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying early decline in sRAGE and esRAGE levels in obese adolescents and their clinical impact with regard to future cardiometabolic health requires further studies. PMID:27300745

  18. Determinants of vulnerability in early childhood development in Ireland: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Margaret; Madden, Jamie; Staines, Anthony; Perry, Ivan J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Early childhood development strongly influences lifelong health. The Early Development Instrument (EDI) is a well-validated population-level measure of five developmental domains (physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive skills, and communication skills and general knowledge) at school entry age. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of EDI as an indicator of early development in Ireland. Design A cross-sectional design was used. Setting The study was conducted in 42 of 47 primary schools in a major Irish urban centre. Participants EDI (teacher completed) scores were calculated for 1243 children in their first year of full-time education. Contextual data from a subset of 865 children were collected using a parental questionnaire. Primary and secondary outcome measures Children scoring in the lowest 10% of the population in one or more domains were deemed ‘developmentally vulnerable’. Scores were correlated with contextual data from the parental questionnaire. Results In the sample population, 29% of children were not developmentally ready to engage in school. Factors associated with increased risk of vulnerability were being male OR 2.1 (CI 1.6 to 2.7); under 5 years OR 1.5 (CI 1.1 to 2.1) and having English as a second language OR 3.7 (CI 2.6 to 5.2). Adjusted for these demographics, low birth weight, poor parent/child interaction and mother's lower level of education showed the most significant ORs for developmental vulnerability. Calculating population attributable fractions, the greatest population-level risk factors were being male (35%), mother's education (27%) and having English as a second language (12%). Conclusions The EDI and linked parental questionnaires are promising indicators of the extent, distribution and determinants of developmental vulnerability among children in their first year of primary school in Ireland. PMID:23674442

  19. Study of Nurses’ Knowledge about Palliative Care: A Quantitative Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Prem, Venkatesan; Karvannan, Harikesavan; Kumar, Senthil P; Karthikbabu, Surulirajan; Syed, Nafeez; Sisodia, Vaishali; Jaykumar, Saroja

    2012-01-01

    Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in palliative care. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and knowledge related to pain and palliative care. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the knowledge about palliative care amongst nursing professionals using the palliative care knowledge test (PCKT). Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire- PCKT developed by Nakazawa et al., which had 20 items (statements about palliative care) for each of which the person had to indicate ‘correct’, ‘incorrect’, or ‘unsure.’ The PCKT had 5 subscales (philosophy- 2 items, pain- 6 items, dyspnea- 4 items, psychiatric problems- 4 items, and gastro-intestinal problems- 4 items). Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA, and correlations were done using Karl-Pearson's co-efficient using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: The overall total score of PCKT was 7.16 ± 2.69 (35.8%). The philosophy score was 73 ± .65 (36.5%), pain score was 2.09 ± 1.19 (34.83%), dyspnea score was 1.13 ± .95 (28.25%), psychiatric problems score was 1.83 ± 1.02 (45.75%), and gastro-intestinal problems score was 1.36 ± .97 (34%). (P = .00). The female nurses scored higher than their male counterparts, but the difference was not significant (P > .05). Conclusions: Overall level of knowledge about palliative care was poor, and nurses had a greater knowledge about psychiatric problems and philosophy than the other aspects indicated in PCKT. PMID:23093828

  20. Study of the neon interaction cross section using the Glauber model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Suhel; Chauhan, Deeksha; Usmani, A. A.; Khan, Z. A.

    2016-05-01

    Working within the framework of the Coulomb-modified correlation expansion for the Glauber model S-matrix, we calculate the interaction cross section (σI) of neon isotopes, 17-32Ne, on 12C at 240 MeV/nucleon. The calculations involve i) up to the two-body density term in the correlation expansion, and ii) the single Gaussian approximation for the nucleon-nucleon amplitude. The colliding nuclei are described with Slater determinants consisting of the harmonic oscillator single-particle wave functions. The sole input of the density of each colliding nucleus, the oscillator constant, is fixed from the respective root-mean-square (rms) radius calculated using the relativistic mean-field approach. It is found that the calculated results for σI generally provide fairly good agreement with the experimental data except for 31Ne, for which the required rms neutron radius comes closer to the one obtained earlier using the extended (halo-like) neutron density distribution. This finding is also supported by our predicted differential cross section of 31Ne on 12C at 240 MeV/nucleon. However, as expected, the results of the present analysis are unable to discriminate between the halo and non-halo structure of 31Ne. In conclusion, our results suggest that the present calculations can be considered as a good starting point to predict the rms matter radii of exotic neutron-rich nuclei.

  1. A study on analytic parametrizations for proton-proton cross-sections and asymptotia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, M. J.; Silva, P. V. R. G.

    2013-12-01

    A comparative study on some representative parametrizations for the total and elastic cross-sections as a function of energy is presented. The dataset comprises pp and \\bar{p}p scattering in the c.m. energy interval 5 GeV-8 TeV. The parametrization for the total cross-section at low and intermediate energies follows the usual reggeonic structure (non-degenerate trajectories). For the leading high-energy pomeron contribution, we consider three distinct analytic parametrizations: either a power (P) law, or a log-squared (L2) law or a log-raised-to-γ (Lγ) law, where the exponent γ is treated as a real free fit parameter. The parametrizations are also extended to fit the elastic (integrated) cross-section data in the same energy interval. Our main conclusions are the following: (1) the data reductions with the logarithmic laws show strong dependence on the unknown energy scale involved, which is treated here either as a free parameter or fixed at the energy threshold; (2) the fit results with the P law, the L2 law (free scale) and the Lγ law (fixed scale and exponent γ above 2) are all consistent within their uncertainties and with the experimental data up to 7 TeV, but they partially underestimate the high-precision TOTEM measurement at 8 TeV (3) once compared with these results, the L2 law with fixed scale is less consistent with the data and, in the case of a free scale, this pomeron contribution decreases as the energy increases below the scale factor (which lies above the energy cutoff); (4) in all cases investigated, the predictions for the asymptotic ratio between the elastic and total cross-sections, within the uncertainties, do not exceed the value 0.430 (therefore, below the black-disc limit) and the results favor rational limits between 1/3 and 2/5. We are led to conclude that the rise of the hadronic cross-sections at the highest energies still constitutes an open problem, demanding further and detailed investigation.

  2. Hand tactile discrimination, social touch and frailty criteria in elderly people: A cross sectional observational study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Isabel; Nogueira, Dália; de Azevedo Reis, Elisabeth; da Lapa Rosado, Maria; Vânia Nunes, Maria; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is a common syndrome among elderly and sensory decline may exacerbate functional decline. The hand function, the manual dexterity, the performance of the daily living skills and the social interactions are determined, in a large degree, by sensory integrity. However, hand tactile sensory deterioration has been little explored in frailty. We performed a cross sectional observational study with 181 of institutionalized elders. From the initial sample we selected 50 subjects (68-99 years) who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Our goals were (1) to analyse the relationship between tactile discrimination (TD) of the hand, avoidance behaviours and attitudes towards social touch (BATST) and phenotype frailty criteria (unintentional weight loss, self-perception of exhaustion, decrease grip strength - GS, slow walking speed, low level of physical activity), (2) to explore whether other variables can contribute to explain the differences between pre-frail and frail elders. The results showed that increasing age is related to decline of TD of the hand (p=0.021) and to decrease in GS (p=0.025); women have significantly lower level of GS (p=0.001); TD decrease is correlated with higher avoidance BATST (p=0.000) and with lower GS (p=0.000); Lower GS corresponds to more avoidance BATST (p=0.003). Hand TD also can differentiate frail and pre-frail elderly subjects in this sample (p=0.037). Decreased TD of the hand may have implications on the functionality and on interpersonal relationships. TD of the hand also explains frailty levels in this sample. Hand TD should be used in assessment and intervention protocols in pre-frail and frail elders. PMID:27259030

  3. Outcome and Predicting Factor Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Khajavikhan, Javaher; Vasigh, Aminolah; Khani, Ali; Kokhazade, Taleb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major and challenging problem in critical care medicine. Aim To assess the outcome and predicting factor following severe TBI. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective and cross-sectional study. Data were collected from two sections; one section consisting of a questionnaire answered by the patients and other section from the patient records. The instruments used included the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), SF-36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Results The mortality rate of the patients was 46.2%. The quality of life (QOL) of the patients in most dimension were impaired and (58%) of patients had unfavourable QOL. About (37.5%) of patients with anxiety and (27.5%) had a depression. A significant correlation was found between age, GCS arrival, length of ICU stay, mechanical ventilation, VAP & ARDS and pupil reactivity with QOL, GOS, HAD-A and HAD-D (p<0.05, p< 0.001). GCS arrival a predicate factor for QOL and GOS (p <0.001, OR: 1.75, 1.94 respectively); length of ICU stay a predicate factor for QOL and GOS (p <0.05, OR : 1.11, 1.28 respectively); mechanical ventilation a predicate factor for GOS (p <0.001, OR : 1.78); ventilation associated pneumonia (VAP) & acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pupil reactivity a predicate factor for GOS (p <0.05, OR : 1.36; p<0.001, OR: 1.94 respectively). The GCS arrival and ICU stay a predicate factor for HAD-A (p<0.05, OR: 1.73, 1.38 respectively). Conclusion With respect to results advanced in pre hospital, medical and surgical care for the decrease in mortality rates of Head trauma (HT), the use of trauma triage tools and strict enforcement of traffic rules are necessary. PMID:27042518

  4. Measuring the adequacy of antenatal health care: a national cross-sectional study in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To propose an antenatal care classification for measuring the continuum of health care based on the concept of adequacy: timeliness of entry into antenatal care, number of antenatal care visits and key processes of care. Methods In a cross-sectional, retrospective study we used data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2012. This contained self-reported information about antenatal care use by 6494 women during their last pregnancy ending in live birth. Antenatal care was considered to be adequate if a woman attended her first visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, made a minimum of four antenatal care visits and underwent at least seven of the eight recommended procedures during visits. We used multivariate ordinal logistic regression to identify correlates of adequate antenatal care and predicted coverage. Findings Based on a population-weighted sample of 9 052 044, 98.4% of women received antenatal care during their last pregnancy, but only 71.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 69.7 to 73.2) received maternal health care classified as adequate. Significant geographic differences in coverage of care were identified among states. The probability of receiving adequate antenatal care was higher among women of higher socioeconomic status, with more years of schooling and with health insurance. Conclusion While basic antenatal care coverage is high in Mexico, adequate care remains low. Efforts by health systems, governments and researchers to measure and improve antenatal care should adopt a more rigorous definition of care to include important elements of quality such as continuity and processes of care. PMID:27274597

  5. Premature adult mortality in urban Zambia: a repeated population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Timæus, Ian M; Banda, Richard; Thankian, Kusanthan; Banda, Andrew; Lemba, Musonda; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To measure the sex-specific and community-specific mortality rates for adults in Lusaka, Zambia, and to identify potential individual-level, household-level and community-level correlates of premature mortality. We conducted 12 survey rounds of a population-based cross-sectional study between 2004 and 2011, and collected data via a structured interview with a household head. Setting Households in Lusaka District, Zambia, 2004–2011. Participants 43 064 household heads (88% female) who enumerated 123 807 adult household members aged between 15 and 60 years. Primary outcome Premature adult mortality. Results The overall mortality rate was 16.2/1000 person-years for men and 12.3/1000 person-years for women. The conditional probability of dying between age 15 and 60 (45q15) was 0.626 for men and 0.537 for women. The top three causes of death for men and women were infectious in origin (ie, tuberculosis, HIV and malaria). We observed an over twofold variation of mortality rates between communities. The mortality rate was 1.98 times higher (95% CI 1.57 to 2.51) in households where a family member required nursing care, 1.44 times higher (95% CI 1.22 to 1.71) during the cool dry season, and 1.28 times higher (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54) in communities with low-cost housing. Conclusions To meet Zambia's development goals, further investigation is needed into the factors associated with adult mortality. Mortality can potentially be reduced through focus on high-need households and communities, and improved infectious disease prevention and treatment services. PMID:26940113

  6. Underlying Factors Associated with Anemia in Amazonian Children: A Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marly A.; Scopel, Kézia K.G.; Muniz, Pascoal T.; Villamor, Eduardo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although iron deficiency is considered to be the main cause of anemia in children worldwide, other contributors to childhood anemia remain little studied in developing countries. We estimated the relative contributions of different factors to anemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. Methodology We obtained venous blood samples from 1111 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in the frontier town of Acrelândia, northwest Brazil, to estimate the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency by measuring hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Children were simultaneously screened for vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies; intestinal parasite infections; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and sickle cell trait carriage. Multiple Poisson regression and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were used to describe associations between anemia and the independent variables. Principal Findings The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron-deficiency anemia were 13.6%, 45.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. Children whose families were in the highest income quartile, compared with the lowest, had a lower risk of anemia (aPR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.37–0.98). Child age (<24 months, 2.90; 2.01–4.20) and maternal parity (>2 pregnancies, 2.01; 1.40–2.87) were positively associated with anemia. Other associated correlates were iron deficiency (2.1; 1.4–3.0), vitamin B12 (1.4; 1.0–2.2), and folate (2.0; 1.3–3.1) deficiencies, and C-reactive protein concentrations (>5 mg/L, 1.5; 1.1–2.2). Conclusions Addressing morbidities and multiple nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers and improving the purchasing power of poorer families are potentially important interventions to reduce the burden of anemia. PMID:22574149

  7. Recreational Screen-Time Among Chinese Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Hardy, Louise L.; Ding, Ding; Baur, Louise A.; Shi, Hui-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization in China has led to a proliferation of electronic entertainment media among youth. Prolonged screen time (ST; includes watching television and playing on computers, video game consoles, or mobile phones) is linked to poor health profiles. The aim of this study was to report recreational ST behaviors and ST correlates among Chinese adolescents living in two regions with different degrees of urbanization. Methods A cross-sectional, school-based survey (n = 3461 adolescents; aged 12–14 years old) living in inner-city Shanghai and a peri-urban region of Hangzhou. Students completed a questionnaire including family characteristics, daily ST, and information on family environment related to screen use. Recreational ST was categorized into two groups according to recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics (< or ≥2 h/day). Parents reported their own ST and also reported educational attainment as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Results ST was higher among boys than girls and on weekends than weekdays. Peri-urban girls were more likely to exceed 2 h/day ST compared to inner-city girls on weekends. Having a father with no university degree, mother’s TV viewing ≥2 h/day, no ST rules at home, and eating meals in front of the TV were associated with higher ST on both weekdays and weekends, and regional differences were found for weekend ST. Conclusions TV viewing and playing on the computer were the most prevalent ST behaviors among Chinese adolescents. Mobile phone playing was less prevalent but persistent throughout the week. More population-level surveillance and research is needed to monitor the trends in ST behaviors and to better understand the characteristics of those who are at risk. PMID:24930472

  8. Mindfulness and satisfaction in physical activity: A cross-sectional study in the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Tsafou, Kalliopi-Eleni; De Ridder, Denise Td; van Ee, Raymond; Lacroix, Joyca Pw

    2016-09-01

    Both satisfaction and mindfulness relate to sustained physical activity. This study explored their relationship. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 398 Dutch participants who completed measures on trait mindfulness, mindfulness and satisfaction with physical activity, physical activity habits, and physical activity. We performed mediation and moderated mediation. Satisfaction mediated the effect of mindfulness on physical activity. Mindfulness was related to physical activity only when one's habit was weak. The relation of mindfulness with satisfaction was stronger for weak compared to strong habit. Understanding the relationship between mindfulness and satisfaction can contribute to the development of interventions to sustain physical activity. PMID:25631662

  9. Quality of life among immigrants in Swedish immigration detention centres: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Bjerneld, Magdalena; Källestål, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Background Detention of immigrants negatively affects their health and well-being. Quality of life (QOL) is a broad concept incorporating the self-evaluation of one's own health and well-being that can provide an understanding of the health and well-being of immigrant detainees. The aim of this study was to estimate QOL among immigrant detainees in Sweden and to assess its relationship with the services provided in detention centres and with the duration of detention. Design All immigrants in all five existing Swedish detention centres (N=193) were invited to participate in the study (n=127). In this cross-sectional study, QOL was measured using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, which was administered by the first author. The questionnaire contained four additional questions measuring participants’ satisfaction with the services provided in detention. Associations between QOL domain scores and service satisfaction scores were assessed using regression analysis. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to measure the degree of association between the duration of detention and QOL scores. Results The mean QOL domain scores (out of 100) were 47.0, 57.5, 41.9, and 60.5 for the environmental, physical, psychological, and social domains, respectively. The level of support detainees received from detention staff was significantly positively associated with detainees’ physical (βadjusted 3.93, confidence interval [CI] 0.06–7.80) and psychological (βadjusted 5.72, CI 1.77–9.66) domain scores. There was also significant positive association between detainees’ satisfaction with the care they received from detention staff and the domain scores. The general health score in the WHOQOL-BREF was significantly associated with the detainees’ ability to understand the Swedish or English languages. Although not statistically significant, a longer duration of detention was negatively correlated with QOL scores. Conclusion Immigrant detainees report low QOL

  10. A cross-sectional study of insight and family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors predicting treatment outcome in pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) include disease severity, functional impairment, comorbid disorders, insight, and family accommodation (FA). Treatment of pediatric OCD is often only partly successful as some of these predictors are not targeted with conventional therapy. Among these, insight and FA were identified to be modifiable predictors of special relevance to pediatric OCD. Despite their clinical relevance, insight and FA remain understudied in youth with OCD. This study examined the clinical correlates of insight and FA and determined whether FA mediates the relationship between symptom severity and functional impairment in pediatric OCD. Methods This was a cross-sectional, outpatient study. Thirty-five treatment-naive children and adolescentswith DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD (mean age: 13.11 ± 3.16; 54.3% males) were included. Standard questionnaires were administered for assessing the study variables. Insight and comorbidities were assessed based on clinician’s interview. Subjects were categorized as belonging to a high insight or a low insight group, and the differences between these two groups were analyzed using ANOVA. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated for the remaining variables of interest. Mediation analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling. Results Relative to those in the high insight group, subjects in the low insight group were younger, had more severe disease and symptoms, and were accommodated to a greater extent by their families. In addition, comorbid depression was more frequent in subjects belonging to the low insight group. Family accommodation was positively related to disease severity, symptom severity, and functional impairment. Family accommodation totally mediated the relationship between symptom severity and functional impairment. Conclusions Results support the differences in the diagnostic criteria between adult and

  11. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy method and studies of implant damage in single crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, D.P.; Kuryliw, E.; Siebein, K.; Jones, K.S.; Chodelka, R.; Elliman, R.

    2006-07-15

    Few transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of single crystal diamond have been reported, most likely due to the time and difficulty involved in sample preparation. A method is described for creating a TEM cross section of single crystal diamond using a focused ion beam and in situ lift-out. The method results in samples approximately 10 {mu}m long by 3 {mu}m deep with an average thickness of 100-300 nm. The total time to prepare a cross-sectional TEM sample of diamond is less than 5 h. The method also allows for additional thinning to facilitate high resolution TEM imaging, and can be applied to oddly shaped diamond samples. This sample preparation technique has been applied to the study of ion implantation damage in single crystal diamond and its evolution upon annealing. High-pressure-high-temperature diamonds were implanted with Si{sup +} at an energy of 1 MeV and a temperature of 30 deg. C. One sample, with a (110) surface, was implanted with a dose of 1x10{sup 14} Si cm{sup -2} and annealed at 950 deg. C for 10 and 40 min. No significant defect formation or evolution was discernible by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Another sample, with a (100) orientation, was implanted with 1 MeV at 1x10{sup 15} Si cm{sup -2} and annealed at 1050 deg. C for 10 min. Prior to annealing, a heavily damaged but still crystalline region was observed. Upon annealing, the sample showed no signs of conversion either to an amorphous form of carbon or to graphite. This is unexpected as the energy and dose are above the previously reported graphitization threshold for diamond. Higher annealing temperatures and possibly a high vacuum will be required for future study of defect formation, evolution, and phase transformations in ion-implanted single crystal diamond.

  12. Cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes in OR Tambo district, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yogeswaran, Parimalaranie; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Anthony Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives South Africa has pledged to the sustainable development goal of promoting good health and well-being to all residents. While this is laudable, paucity of reliable epidemiological data for different regions on diabetes and treatment outcomes may further widen the inequalities of access and quality of healthcare services across the country. This study examines the sociodemographic and clinical determinants of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in individuals attending primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, South Africa. Design A cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Primary healthcare setting in OR Tambo district, South Africa. Participants Patients treated for T2DM for 1 or more years (n=327). Primary outcome measure Prevalence of uncontrolled T2DM. Secondary outcome measure Determinants of uncontrolled T2DM (glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7%). Results Out of the 327 participants, 274 had HbA1c≥7% (83.8%). Female sex (95% CI 1.3 to 4.2), overweight/obesity (95% CI 1.9 to 261.2), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% CI 4.4 to 23.8), sedentary habits (95% CI 7.2 to 61.3), lower monthly income (95% CI 1.3 to 6.5), longer duration of T2DM (95% CI 4.4 to 294.2) and diabetes information from non-health workers (95% CI 1.4 to 7.0) were the significant determinants of uncontrolled T2DM. There was a significant positive correlation of uncontrolled T2DM with increasing duration of T2DM, estimated glomerular filtration rate and body mass index. However, a significant negative correlation exists between monthly income and increasing HbA1c. Conclusions We found a significantly high prevalence (83.8%) of uncontrolled T2DM among the patients, possibly attributable to overweight/obesity, sedentary living, lower income and lack of information on diabetes. Addressing these determinants will require re-engineering of primary healthcare in the district. PMID:27473948

  13. Preparation of multilayered materials in cross-section for in situ TEM tensile deformation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, M. A., LLNL

    1997-05-13

    The success of in-situ transmission electron microscopy experimentation is often dictated by proper specimen preparation. We report here a novel technique permitting the production of cross-sectioned tensile specimens of multilayered films for in-situ deformation studies. Of primary importance in the development of this technique is the production of an electron transparent micro-gauge section using focused ion beam technology. This microgauge section predetermines the position at which plastic deformation is initiated; crack nucleation, growth and failure are then subsequently observed.

  14. Serum perfluoroalkyl acids concentrations and memory impairment in a large cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Valentina; Leonardi, Giovanni; Brayne, Carol; Armstrong, Ben; Fletcher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the cross-sectional association between serum perfluorooctanate (PFOA), perfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) concentrations with self-reported memory impairment in adults and the interaction of these associations with diabetes status. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based in Mid-Ohio Valley, West Virginia following contamination by a chemical plant. Participants The C8 Health Project collected data and measured the serum level of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) of 21 024 adults aged 50+ years. Primary outcome measure Self-reported memory impairment as defined by the question ‘have experienced short-term memory loss?’ Results A total of 4057 participants self-reported short-term memory impairment. Inverse associations between PFOS and PFOA and memory impairment were highly statistically significant with fully adjusted OR=0.93 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.96) for doubling PFOS and OR=0.96 (95% CI 0.94 to 0.98) for doubling PFOA concentrations. Comparable inverse associations with PFNA and PFHxS were of borderline statistical significance. Inverse associations of PFAAs with memory impairment were weaker or non-existent in patients with diabetes than overall in patients without diabetes. Conclusions An inverse association between PFAA serum levels and self-reported memory impairment has been observed in this large population-based, cross-sectional study that is stronger and more statistically significant for PFOA and PFOS. The associations can be potentially explained by a preventive anti-inflammatory effect exerted by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist effect of these PFAAs, but confounding or even reverse causation cannot be excluded as an alternative explanation. PMID:23794579

  15. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    PubMed Central

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  16. Forearm pressure distribution during ambulation with elbow crutches: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of patients require permanent walking aids to maintain mobility. Current elbow crutches are not designed for long-term use, and overuse is often associated with hematoma formation and pain along the forearm. We therefore hypothesized that the highest pressures between the forearm and crutch cuff during walking and stance are located in the ulnar region and that the level of weight-bearing, forearm circumference and kinematic parameters influence peak pressure values and pressure distribution. Methods Ten healthy adults participated in a cross-sectional study. A pressure sensor array was attached to the forearm of each participant separating the forearm into four quadrants (lateral, ulnar, intermediate and medial). Measurements were taken during crutch gait and during partial and full weight-bearing stance. A three-dimensional motion analysis system with reflective markers attached to the subject’s body and to the crutches was used to obtain kinematic data. Results The mean pressure on the forearm during crutch gait was 37.5 kPa (SD 8.8 kPa). Highest mean pressure values were measured in the ulnar (41.0 kPa, SD 9.6 kPa) and intermediate (38.0 kPa, SD 9.0 kPa) quadrants. The center of pressure was mainly located in an oblique lamellar area in these two quadrants. With increasing weight-bearing on the crutches during stance, we observed a shift of the peak pressures towards the ulnar quadrant. The circumference of the forearm correlated with the peak pressure in the medial and intermediate quadrants during crutch gait (P < 0.05). Peak pressures on the forearm showed a trend towards correlation with crutch abduction, but no association with other kinematic parameters was detected. Conclusion The pressure load on the forearm during crutch-assisted gait is located predominantly over the ulna and may be linked to a range of secondary conditions caused by crutch use including hematoma formation and pain. PMID:24731773

  17. Consumption of fruit and vegetables among elderly people: a cross sectional study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that low consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess FV consumption and the variables that influence it among elderly individuals in Iran aged 60 and over. Methods This was a cross-sectional study to investigate FV intake by a randomly-selected sample of members of elderly centers in Tehran, Iran. A multidimensional questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, daily consumption of FV, knowledge, self-efficacy, social support, perceived benefits, and barriers against FV. Data were analyzed using t-tests, one way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation, and logistic regression. Results In total, 400 elderly individuals took part in the study. The mean age of the participants was 64.07 (SD = 4.49) years, and most were female (74.5%). The mean number of FV servings per day was 1.76 (SD = 1.15). Ninety-seven percent of participants (n = 388) did not know the recommended intake was at least five servings of FV per day. Similarly, 88.3% (n = 353) did not know the size of a single serving. The most frequent perceived benefits of and barriers against FV consumption were availability and expense, respectively. Knowledge (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.39-0.88), perceived benefits (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.88-0.96) and barriers (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.14), self-efficacy (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.83-0.95) and family support (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.83-0.99) were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that FV intake among elderly individuals in Iran was lower than the recommended minimum of five daily servings and varied greatly with age, marital status, educational attainment, and income level. The results also indicated that low perceived benefits, low self-efficacy, and perceived barriers could lead to lower consumption of FV. It seems that in order to improve FV

  18. Estimation of Gestational Age, Using Neonatal Anthropometry: A Cross-sectional Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Thawani, Rajat; Faridi, M.M.A.; Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Kumar, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Prematurity is a significant contributor to neonatal mortality in India. Conventionally, assessment of gestational age of newborns is based on New Ballard Technique, for which a paediatric specialist is needed. Anthropometry of the newborn, especially birthweight, has been used in the past to predict the gestational age of the neonate in peripheral health facilities where a trained paediatrician is often not available. We aimed to determine if neonatal anthropometric parameters, viz. birthweight, crown heel-length, head-circumference, mid-upper arm-circumference, lower segment-length, foot-length, umbilical nipple distance, calf-circumference, intermammary distance, and hand-length, can reliably predict the gestational age. The study also aimed to derive an equation for the same. We also assessed if these neonatal anthropometric parameters had a better prediction of gestational age when used in combination compared to individual parameters. We evaluated 1,000 newborns in a cross-sectional study conducted in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital in Delhi. Detailed anthropometric estimation of the neonates was done within 48 hours after birth, using standard techniques. Gestational age was estimated using New Ballard Scoring. Out of 1,250 consecutive neonates, 1,000 were included in the study. Of them, 800 randomly-selected newborns were used in devising the model, and the remaining 200 newborns were used in validating the final model. Quadratic regression analysis using stepwise selection was used in building the predictive model. Birthweight (R=0.72), head-circumference (R=0.60), and mid-upper arm-circumference (R=0.67) were found highly correlated with gestation. The final equation to assess gestational age was as follows: Gestational age (weeks)=5.437×W–0.781×W2+2.815×HC–0.041×HC2+0.285×MUAC–22.745 where W=Weight, HC=Head-circumference and MUAC=Mid-upper arm-circumference; Adjusted R=0.76. On validation, the predictability of this equation is 46% (±1 week), 75

  19. Religiosity and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study on Filipino Christian Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Colet, Paolo C; Qubeilat, Hikmet; Al-Otaibi, Jazi; Coronel, Erwin I; Suminta, Roderick C

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to measure the religiosity and health-related quality of life of Filipino Christian HD patients. A cross-sectional study of 100 HD patients was conducted. The Duke University Religion Index and the Ferrans and Powers QLI Dialysis Version-III were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson r correlation. Attendance to organizational religious activities and NORA were found to be correlated with some of the dimensions of HRQoL. Intrinsic religiosity showed a strong, positive correlation with HRQoL. It is essential to attend to and nourish their religious needs. Holistic approach in providing care to HD patients, with emphasis on spiritual care, is encouraged to improve their total health. PMID:26289995

  20. Associations Between Sleep Quality and Migraine Frequency: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Hsu, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Migraine has been associated with sleep disturbances. Relationship between sleep quality and migraine frequency is yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate sleep disturbances among low-frequency, moderate-frequency, high-frequency, and chronic migraineurs, with and without auras, with well-controlled confounding variables.This cross-sectional controlled study included 357 subjects from an outpatient headache clinic in Taiwan. Standardized questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic, migraine, sleep, depression, anxiety, and restless leg syndrome characteristics in all participants. According to frequency of migraine attacks, patients were divided into 4 groups: with 1 to 4 migraine days per month, 5 to 8 migraine days in a month, 9 to 14 migraine days in a month, and >14 migraine days per month. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and subgroup items were used to evaluate sleep quality. The association between migraine frequency and sleep quality was investigated using multivariable linear regression and logistic regression.The PSQI total score was highest in patients with high frequent migraine (10.0 ± 3.4) and lowest in controls (7.0 ± 3.4) with a significant trend analysis (P for trend = 0.006). Migraine frequency had an independent effect on the items "Cannot get to sleep within 30 minutes" (P < 0.001), "Wake up in the middle of the night or early morning" (P < 0.001), "Bad dreams" (P = 0.001), "Pain" (P = 0.004), and "Quality of sleep" (P < 0.001). The result showed the effect of migraine frequency in both the aura-present (P for trend = 0.008) and the aura-absent subgroups (P for trend = 0.011).High migraine frequency correlates with poor sleep quality and a higher prevalence of poor sleepers. These associations occur in migraine with aura and without aura. PMID:27124064

  1. Concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in Finland: a cross-sectional population study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also the concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers. The aims of this study were to investigate the proportion of male and female CSOs at the population level; to investigate who the CSOs were concerned about; and to investigate sociodemographic factors, gender differences, gambling behaviour, and health and well-being among CSOs and non-CSOs. Methods The data (n = 4484) were based on a cross-sectional population study. Structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2011–2012. The data were weighted based on age, gender and residency. The respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that at least one of their significant others (father, mother, sister/brother, grandparent, spouse, own child/children, close friend) had had gambling problems. Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests, and logistic regression analysis. Results Altogether, 19.3% of the respondents were identified as CSOs. Most commonly, the problem gambler was a close friend (12.4%) of the CSO. The percentage of close friends having a gambling problem was larger among male CSOs (14.4%) compared with female CSOs (10.3%; p ≤ 0.001), while the percentage of partners with gambling problem was larger among females (2.6%) than among males (0.8%; p ≤ 0.001). In the best fitting model, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male CSO was 2.03 (1.24–3.31) for past-year gambling problems, 1.46 (1.08–1.97) for loneliness and 1.78 (1.38–2.29) for risky alcohol consumption. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female CSO was 1.51 (1.09–2.08) for past-year gambling involvement, 3.05 (1.18-7.90) for past-year gambling problems, 2.21 (1.24–3.93) for mental health problems, 1.39 (1.03–1.89) for loneliness and 1.97 (1.43–2.71) for daily smoking. Conclusions CSOs of problem gamblers often experience cumulating problems such as their own risky gambling behaviour

  2. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  3. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-05-01

    The cross sections of the 162Er(α,γ)166Yb and 162,164,166Er(α,n)165,167,169Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between Ec.m. = 11.21 MeV and Ec.m. = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T9 = 3 GK). The 162Er(α,n)165Yb, 164Er(α,n)167Yb and 166Er(α,n)169Yb reactions were studied between Ec.m. = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, Ec.m. = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and Ec.m. = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  4. Systematic study of deformation effects on fusion cross-sections using various proximity potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Tapan; Kalita, Kushal

    2014-06-01

    The influence of static quadrupole and hexadecapole (positive & negative) deformation of targets are studied using eleven different versions of nuclear potentials. The height and position of the interaction barrier for the reactions induced by spherical projectile (16O) on the deformed targets such as 166Er, 154Sm and 176Yb have been estimated. It is found that the nucleus-nucleus potential strongly depends on the value of the deformation parameters and orientation of the target. The experimental fusion cross-section of the reactions 16O + 176Yb, 16O +166Er and 16O +154Sm are investigated by applyingWong's formula using various parameterizations of the proximity potential as well as an assessment of the results of a multi-dimensional barrier penetration model (BPM). The fusion cross-sections by Prox 77, Prox 88, Prox 00, Prox 00DP, Denisov DP, Bass 80, CW 76 and AW 95 potentials are found to be better than the rest in comparison to experimental data.

  5. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-05-02

    The cross sections of the {sup 162}Er(α,γ){sup 166}Yb and {sup 162,164,166}Er(α,n){sup 165,167,169}Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between E{sub c.m.} = 11.21 MeV and E{sub c.m.} = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T{sub 9} = 3 GK). The {sup 162}Er(α,n){sup 165}Yb, {sup 164}Er(α,n){sup 167}Yb and {sup 166}Er(α,n){sup 169}Yb reactions were studied between E{sub c.m.} = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, E{sub c.m.} = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and E{sub c.m.} = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  6. Application of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) in Albanian hospitals: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gabrani, Adriatik; Hoxha, Adrian; Simaku, Artan; Gabrani, Jonila (Cyco)

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the reliability and validity of the translated version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) by evaluating its psychometric properties and to determine possible differences among nurses and physicians regarding safety attitudes. Design A cross-sectional study utilising the Albanian version of the SAQ and a demographic questionnaire. Setting Four regional hospitals in Albania. Participants 341 healthcare providers, including 132 nurses and 209 doctors. Main outcome measure(s) The translation, construct validity and internal validity of the SAQ. The SAQ includes six scales and 30 items. Results A total of 341 valid questionnaires were returned, for a response rate of 70%. The confirmatory factor analysis and its goodness-of-fit indices (standardised root mean square residual 0.075, root mean square error of approximation 0.044 and comparative fit index 0.97) showed good model fit. The Cronbach's α values for each of the scales of the SAQ ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. The percentage of hospital healthcare workers who had a positive attitude was 60.3% for the teamwork climate, 57.2% for the safety climate, 58.4% for job satisfaction, 37.4% for stress recognition, 59.3% for the perception of management and 49.5% for working conditions. Intercorrelations showed that the subscales had moderate-to-high correlations with one another. Nurses were more hesitant to admit and report errors; only 55% of physicians and 44% of nurses endorsed this statement (χ2=4.9, p=0.02). Moreover, nurses received lower scores on team work compared with doctors (N 45.7 vs D 52.3, p=0.01). Doctors denied the effects of stress and fatigue on their performance (N 46.7 vs D 39.5, p<0.01), neglecting the workload. Conclusions The SAQ is a useful tool for evaluating safety attitudes in Albanian hospitals. In light of the health workforce's poor recognition of stress, establishing patient safety programmes should be a priority among policymakers in Albania. PMID:25877270

  7. Epidemiological features of alcohol use in rural India: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to estimate the proportion of adults in Sehore District, India, who consumed alcohol, and the proportion who had behaviours consistent with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Among men who drank, we identified individual-level, household-level and community-level factors associated with AUDIT scores. Men with AUDs (AUDIT score ≥8) reported on whether and where they had sought treatment, and about alcohol-related internal stigma. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Rural villages and urban wards in Sehore District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Participants n=3220 adult (≥18 years of age) residents of Sehore District. Primary outcome measure Score on the AUDIT. Results Nearly one in four men (23.8%) had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months, while few (0.6%) women were consumers. Among drinkers, 33.2% (95% CI 28.6% to 38.1%) had AUDIT scores consistent with hazardous drinking, 3.3% (95% CI 2.1% to 5.1%) with harmful drinking and 5.5% (95% CI 3.8% to 8.0%) with dependent drinking. We observed that AUDIT scores varied widely by village (intraclass correlation=0.052). Among men who had recently consumed alcohol, AUDIT scores were positively associated with depression, having at least one child, high-quality housing, urban residence, tobacco use and disability. AUDIT scores were negatively associated with land ownership, out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure and participation in the national employment programme. While 49.2% of men with AUDs felt embarrassed by their problems with alcohol, only 2.8% had sought treatment in the past 12 months. Conclusions A need exists for effectively identifying and treating adults with AUDs. Health promotion services, informed by commonly-expressed stigmatised beliefs held among those affected by AUDs and which are targeted at the most affected communities, may be an effective step in closing the treatment gap. PMID:26685035

  8. Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Duran, Bonnie M; Montgomery, Juliann M

    2004-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American women to determine prevalence of lifetime and past-year IPV and partner injury; examine IPV in relation to pregnancy; and assess demographic and socioeconomic correlates of past-year IPV. Methods Participants were recruited from a tribally-operated clinic serving low-income pregnant and childbearing women in southwest Oklahoma. A self-administered survey was completed by 312 Native American women (96% response rate) attending the clinic from June through August 1997. Lifetime and past-year IPV were measured using modified 18-item Conflict Tactics Scales. A socioeconomic index was created based on partner's education, public assistance receipt, and poverty level. Results More than half (58.7%) of participants reported lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV; 39.1% experienced severe physical IPV; 12.2% reported partner-forced sexual activity; and 40.1% reported lifetime partner-perpetrated injuries. A total of 273 women had a spouse or boyfriend during the previous 12 months (although all participants were Native American, 59.0% of partners were non-Native). Among these women, past-year prevalence was 30.1% for physical and/or sexual IPV; 15.8% for severe physical IPV; 3.3% for forced partner-perpetrated sexual activity; and 16.4% for intimate partner injury. Reported IPV prevalence during pregnancy was 9.3%. Pregnancy was not associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 0.9). Past-year IPV prevalence was 42.8% among women scoring low on the socioeconomic index, compared with 10.1% among the reference group. After adjusting for age, relationship status, and household size, low socioeconomic index remained strongly associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 10.7). Conclusions Native American women in our sample experienced

  9. A Study of Morbidity Pattern in Street Sweepers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sabde, Yogesh D; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2008-01-01

    Background: Street sweepers play an important role in maintaining the health and hygiene within the cities. This job exposes the street sweepers to a variety of risk factors such as dust, toxins and diesel exhaust pollution, which make them vulnerable to develop certain occupational diseases. Therefore, it was thought necessary to study the morbidity profile in this occupational group. Objectives: To study the prevalence of morbidities among street sweepers and comparison group. Study Design: A cross-sectional study with a comparison group. Study Setting: Nagpur Municipal Corporation, Nagpur. Subjects: The study included two groups: (1) A study group comprising 273 street sweepers. (2) A comparison group comprising 142 class IV workers working in the office buildings of Nagpur Municipal Corporation, Nagpur. Materials and Methods: A pretested proforma was used to record the necessary information such as clinical history, sociodemographic factors, findings of clinical examination and investigations performed. Results and Conclusions: The important morbidities detected among street sweepers were the following: anemia (20.5%), hypertension (9.5%), upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) (7.3%) and chronic bronchitis (5.9%). In the comparison group, important morbidities detected were the following: anemia (20.4%), hypertension (11.3%), hyperacidity (9.9%), URTI (7.0%) and refractive error (7.0%). Chronic bronchitis was detected in two subjects (1.4%) of the comparison group. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was significantly high among street sweepers than that of subjects of the comparison group. Therefore, it is recommended that further studies with a larger sample size be undertaken to identify the factors responsible for higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis among the street sweepers. PMID:19876494

  10. The Status of Cross Section Measurements for Neutron-induced Reactions Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with lunar rocks and meteorites produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) allow production rates to be measured routinely in well-documented lunar rocks and meteorites. These measurements are analyzed using theoretical models to learn about the object itself and the history of the cosmic rays that fell on it. Good cross section measurements are essential input to the theoretical calculations. Most primary cosmic ray particles are protons so reliable cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. A cross section is deemed accurate if measurements made by different experimenters using different techniques result in consistent values. Most cross sections for proton induced reactions are now well measured. However, good cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions are still needed. These cross sections are required to fully account for all galactic cosmic ray interactions at depth in an extraterrestrial object. When primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interact with an object many secondary neutrons are produced, which also initiate spallation reactions. Thus, the total GCR contribution to the overall cosmogenic nuclide archive has to include the contribution from the secondary neutron interactions. Few relevant cross section measurements have been reported for neutron-induced reactions at neutron energies greater than approximately 20 MeV. The status of the cross section measurements using quasi-monoenergetic neutron energies at iThemba LABS, South Africa and white neutron beams at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos are reported here.

  11. Cross section measurements for γ-process studies using a LEPS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szücs, T.; Kiss, GG; Rauscher, T.; Török, Zs; Halász, Z.; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Somorjai, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the ongoing experiments at ATOMKI related to our systematic γ-process studies. These studies are intended to enlarge the limited experimental database from α-induced reactions on nuclei in the heavier mass range of the γ -process. In all presented cases the activation method was used. The details of the cross section measurements and preliminary results on115In(α,n)118mSb, 115In(α,γ)119Sb 162Er(α,n)165Yb, 162Er(α,γ)166Yb, 164Er(α,n)167Yb, 166Er(α,n)169Yb 191Ir(α,n)194Au, 191Ir(α,γ)195Au, 193Ir(α,n)196mAu, 193Ir(α,n)196Au reactions are presented.

  12. A cross-sectional study of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether process employees

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.R.; Bodner, K.M.; Kolesar R.C.; Uhlmann, C.S.; Van Peenen, P.F.D.; Dickson, D.S.; Flanagan, K.

    1982-11-01

    Human exposures to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether have been associated with hematological and neurological abnormalities. Recent animal toxicology studies have also reported testicular atrophy. To determine whether employees potentially exposed to ethyl glycol monomethyl ether during manufacturing and packaging had a higher prevalence of anemia, leukopenia, or sterility than an in-plant comparision group, a cross-sectional study was conducted at the Michigan Division of Dow Chemical U.S.A. Blood samples on 65 of 97 potentially exposed and control white males, and semen samples from a subset of 15 were analyzed. With the possible exception of smaller testicular size, no gross abnormalities or clinically meaningful differences in hematological or fertility indices were noted. Results of regression modeling suggested that white blood cells and hemoglobin might be decreased at higher exposure levels.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of loneliness among Chinese service industry migrant workers: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Baoliang; Xu, Yanmin; Jin, Dong; Zou, Xiaowei; Liu, Tiebang

    2016-06-01

    Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers (MWs) who are employed in service industry are a rapidly growing population in urban China. Like other MWs, service industry MWs (SIMWs) are generally excluded from the mainstream of city societies, but unlike other MWs, they are more marginalized in cities. Social isolation increases the feelings of loneliness; however, there are little empirical data on the epidemiology of loneliness of SIMWs. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of loneliness among SIMWs in Shenzhen, China. By using respondent-driven sampling, 1979 SIMWs were recruited and administered with standardized questionnaires to collect data on sociodemographics, physical health, and migration-related characteristics. Loneliness and social support were measured with a single-item self-report question "Do you feel lonely often?" and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), respectively. 18.3% of SIMWs reported feeling lonely often. Being aged 60 years or older (odds ratio [OR] = 2.30), marital status of "others" (OR = 2.77), being physically ill in the last 2 weeks (OR = 1.46), migrating alone (OR = 1.97), working >8 hours/day (OR = 1.06), MSPSS inside family subscale score ≤18 (OR = 1.80), and MSPSS outside family subscale score ≤38 (OR = 1.50) were significantly associated with increased risk of loneliness in SIMWs. Loneliness is prevalent in Chinese SIMWs and should be seen as a major public health issue. The high prevalence and many negative health consequences of loneliness highlight the importance of routine screening, evaluation, and treatment of loneliness in this vulnerable population. PMID:27310992

  14. Association between Retinal Arteriolar and Venule Calibre with Prevalent Heart Failure: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Mitchell, Paul; Liew, Gerald; Plant, Adam J.; Wang, Sarah B.; Au, Cheryl; Chiha, Joseph; Kovoor, Pramesh; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Burlutsky, George; Gopinath, Bamini

    2015-01-01

    Background There is evidence to suggest that microvascular disease, particularly diabetic retinopathy, plays a role in the pathogenesis of HF. However, whether changes in retinal vessel calibre predicts HF is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of retinal microvascular structure with prevalent heart failure (HF). Methods The Australian Heart Eye Study (AHES) is a cross-sectional study that surveyed 1680 participants who presented to a tertiary referral hospital for the evaluation of potential coronary artery disease by coronary angiography. Retinal vessel calibre was graded using retinal photography and participants’ self-reported echocardiography-confirmed HF was obtained via an extensive medical questionnaire. Results There were 107 participants (8.1%) with prevalent self-reported HF. Persons with wider retinal arteriolar calibre (comparing highest versus lowest tertile or reference) were more likely to have prevalent HF (OR 3.5; 95% CI, 1.7–7.2) when adjusted for age and sex. After further adjustment for body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, triglycerides and estimated glomerular filtration rate, this association remained significant (OR 4.5; 95% CI, 2.0–9.8). After further stratification, this association remained significant among participants with diabetes (OR 10.3; 95% CI, 2.7–39.3) but not in those without diabetes (OR 2.7; 95% CI, 0.9–7.5). The strength of this association was not dependent on the length of history of diabetes, or retinopathy status. There was no significant association between retinal venular calibre and prevalence of HF. Conclusions Wider retinal arteriolar diameter was significantly and independently associated with prevalent HF in participants of a cross-sectional study. This association was significant stronger among participants with diabetes compared to without diabetes. No association was found between retinal venule calibre with prevalent HF. PMID:26659133

  15. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  16. Cross-Sectional Study of Periodontal Care and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in an Insured Population

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Leslie; Reid, Robert J.; Inge, Ronald; Newton, Katherine M.; Hujoel, Philippe; Chaudhari, Monica; Genco, Robert J.; Barlow, William E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compare GHb among people with diabetes who have and have not received periodontal care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This cross-sectional study linked 5 years of electronic medical record and dental insurance data for dually insured patients with diabetes, ages 40–70 years (n = 5,103). We assessed the association between annual mean GHb (%) and periodontal care (a proxy for periodontitis) defined using claim codes. Among patients who received periodontal care, we assessed the association between GHb and periodontal treatment intensity. We determined associations using linear regression adjusted for potential confounders and tested for effect modification by age, sex, insulin use, diabetes severity, BMI, and smoking. RESULTS Mean GHb was 7.66%; 38% of participants received periodontal care during the 5 years. After multivariate adjustment, patients who received periodontal care had a GHb level 0.08 percentage points higher than patients who did not (P = 0.02). In stratified analyses, the association was present for women (0.18 percentage points higher GHb with periodontal care, P < 0.001) but not significant for men (0.008 percentage points lower, P = 0.86). In patients who received periodontal care, those with one, and with two or more, surgical treatments had GHb 0.25 (P = 0.04) and 0.36 (P = 0.002) percentage points lower, respectively, than patients without periodontal surgeries. CONCLUSIONS This population-based cross-sectional study showed small associations between periodontal care (a proxy for periodontitis) and higher GHb. Well-controlled longitudinal studies or clinical trials are needed to evaluate causality and temporal trends. Sub-analyses suggest that further investigation of this association among women, and by intensity of periodontal treatment, may be of interest. PMID:20504894

  17. Causal Attribution and Illness Perception: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mexican Patients with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment. PMID:25525628

  18. Comparative study of silicon nanowire transistors with triangular-shaped cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Bo; Sun, Lei; Xu, Hao; Han, Jing-Wen; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Sheng-Dong

    2015-04-01

    Nanowire transistors with triangular cross sections (TNWTs) are proposed and studied. Working mechanisms of TNWTs and impacts of physical parameters are investigated with technology computer aided design (TCAD) tools. It is found that TNWT’s current mostly concentrates in channel center, and expands to corners of the triangle at a higher gate voltage. TNWTs with a longer channel length show better subthreshold slope and lower drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), which allows low gate work function to be maintained. Moreover, we have also investigated the influence of the base corner angle on device’s performance. We find that TNWTs with a large angle provide better tolerance of short channel effects, and TNWTs with a moderate angle can lead to higher drive current.

  19. Perception of brittle nails in dermatologic patients: a cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    Gequelim, Giulio Cesar; Kubota, Cynthia Yone; Sanches, Sarah; Dranka, Daniela; Mejia, Marcelo Murilo; Sumiya, Fernando Mitsuo; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde

    2013-01-01

    Brittle Nails Syndrome is characterized by fragility of the nail plate, affecting 27% of women. We evaluated dermatology patients in a cross-sectional study about perception of nail fragility. One hundred and thirtyeight women were included, with median age of 36.5 years. Nail examination showed changes in 57% and 49% reported nail fragility. The first three fingernails were the most affected. Onychoschizia was related to onychophagia (OR = 3.29), housework (OR = 2.95) and water contact (OR = 2.44). Onychorrhexis had the strongest association with nail fragility perception (OR = 17.89). The fragility was more perceived by those who were black, of mixed race and atopic, and was associated with depressed mood. PMID:24474124

  20. Theoretical study of the photodissociation cross sections and the photodissociation dynamics of HOCl

    SciTech Connect

    Nanbu, Shinkoh; Iwata, Suehiro

    1992-03-05

    Potential energy surfaces for electronic ground and excited states of HOCl, which are related to the experimentally observed photoabsorption between 400 and 200 nm, were calculated with the ab initio molecular orbital (MO) configuration interaction (CI) method. The transition dipole moment surfaces between these states were also calculated. Two types of model calculations were carried out for evaluation of the theoretical photodissociation cross section. Theoretical spectra exhibit two peaks at about 335 and 245 nm. They are in better agreement with the experimental results than those in the previous study. The present calculation supports the assumption that the HOCl molecule in the stratosphere may contribute to ozone depletion. The rotational state distributions of the product OH({sup 2}II) were explored with classical trajectory calculations. The rotational state distributions are dependent on the excited state. 36 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Numerical studies of nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves in uniform waveguides with arbitrary cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Fan, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear guided waves have been investigated widely in simple geometries, such as plates, pipe and shells, where analytical solutions have been developed. This paper extends the application of nonlinear guided waves to waveguides with arbitrary cross sections. The criteria for the existence of nonlinear guided waves were summarized based on the finite deformation theory and nonlinear material properties. Numerical models were developed for the analysis of nonlinear guided waves in complex geometries, including nonlinear Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method to identify internal resonant modes in complex waveguides, and Finite Element (FE) models to simulate the nonlinear wave propagation at resonant frequencies. Two examples, an aluminum plate and a steel rectangular bar, were studied using the proposed numerical model, demonstrating the existence of nonlinear guided waves in such structures and the energy transfer from primary to secondary modes.

  2. Bayesian methods of confidence interval construction for the population attributable risk from cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Pirikahu, Sarah; Jones, Geoffrey; Hazelton, Martin L; Heuer, Cord

    2016-08-15

    Population attributable risk measures the public health impact of the removal of a risk factor. To apply this concept to epidemiological data, the calculation of a confidence interval to quantify the uncertainty in the estimate is desirable. However, because perhaps of the confusion surrounding the attributable risk measures, there is no standard confidence interval or variance formula given in the literature. In this paper, we implement a fully Bayesian approach to confidence interval construction of the population attributable risk for cross-sectional studies. We show that, in comparison with a number of standard Frequentist methods for constructing confidence intervals (i.e. delta, jackknife and bootstrap methods), the Bayesian approach is superior in terms of percent coverage in all except a few cases. This paper also explores the effect of the chosen prior on the coverage and provides alternatives for particular situations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26799685

  3. Frequencies and Associations of Narcolepsy-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. Results: We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Conclusions: Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. Citation: Kim LJ, Coelho FM, Hirotsu C, Araujo P, Bittencourt L, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Frequencies and associations of narcolepsy-related symptoms: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1377–1384. PMID:26235160

  4. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Nehra, Karan; Jayan, Balakrishna; Poonia, Anish; Bhattal, Hiteshwar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This cross-sectional retrospective study was designed to assess the relationships among breastfeeding duration, nonnutritive sucking habits, convex facial profile, nonspaced dentition, and distoclusion in the deciduous dentition. Materials and methods: A sample of 415 children (228 males, 187 females) aged 4 to 6 years from a mixed Indian population was clinically examined by two orthodontists. Information about breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits was obtained by written questionnaire which was answered by the parents. Results: Chi-square test did not indicate any significant association among breastfeeding duration, convex facial profile, and distoclusion. Statistically significant association was observed between breastfeeding duration and nonspaced dentition and also between breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits. Nonnutritive sucking habits had a statistically significant association with distoclusion and convex facial profile (odds ratio 7.04 and 4.03 respectively). Nonnutritive sucking habits did not have a statistically significant association with nonspaced dentition. Conclusion: The children breastfed < 6 months had almost twofold increased probability for developing sucking habits and nonspaced dentition, respectively, than the children who had breastfeeding > 6 months duration. It can also be hypothesized that nonnutritive sucking habits may act as a dominant variable in the relationship between breastfeeding duration and occurrence of convex facial profile and distoclusion in deciduous dentition. How to cite this article: Agarwal SS, Sharma M, Nehra K, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):162-166. PMID:27365941

  5. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Shokry, Shereen M; El Wakeel, Eman E; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ (2) = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ (2) = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ (2) = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ (2) = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ (2) = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ (2) = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism. PMID:27034672

  6. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shokry, Shereen M.; El Wakeel, Eman E.; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2 = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ2 = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ2 = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ2 = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2 = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ2 = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism. PMID:27034672

  7. Study of the cross section determination with the PRISMA spectrometer: The 40Ar + 208Pb case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatović, T.; Szilner, S.; Corradi, L.; Montanari, D.; Pollarolo, G.; Fioretto, E.; Gadea, A.; Goasduff, A.; Jelavić Malenica, D.; Mărginean, N.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Soić, N.; Stefanini, A. M.; Ur, C. A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.

    2016-04-01

    The PRISMA spectrometer's response function was successfully applied to match three angular and magnetic settings over a wide angular range for measurements of quasi-elastic reactions in 40Ar + 208Pb . The absolute scale of cross sections has been obtained by using the Rutherford cross section at the forward angles and the information from the energy distributions measured with the spectrometer without and with coincidences with the CLARA γ-array. The semi-classical model GRAZING has been used to test the unfolding procedure and for comparison with the corrected cross sections.

  8. Studies of the dependence of the microwave radar cross section on ocean surface variables during the FASINEX experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, D. A.; Li, Fuk

    1988-01-01

    The ability of theoretical radar cross section (RCS) models to predict the absolute magnitude of the ocean radar cross section under a wide variety of sea and atmospheric conditions was studied using experimental data from the FASINEX Experiment. This consists of RCS data from a Ku-band scatterometer mounted on an aircraft (10 separate flights were conducted), a wide variety of atmospheric measurements (including stress) and sea conditions. Theoretical models are tested. Where discrepancies are observed, revisions are hypothesized and evaluated.

  9. Prevalence of osteoporosis and its reproductive risk factors among Jordanian women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shilbayeh, Sireen

    2003-11-01

    Extensive differences in the osteoporosis epidemiological pattern among geographic and ethnic groups have been reported. The evidence concerning association of multiple pregnancies, lactations, and other menstrual history factors with low bone mineral density (BMD) remains inconclusive. Previous local studies addressing these issues in Jordan are very restricted. We present a cross-sectional study of Jordanian women who visited outpatient clinics between August 2000 and August 2002 at two community hospitals in Amman City. BMD measurement was performed for all subjects, while comprehensive appraisal of clinical issues related to reproductive status and past medical history was carried out using a structured questionnaire administered to 50% of the subjects. We also attempted to examine the current hypothesis of possible influence of hyperlipidemia and thyroid abnormalities on decreased BMD. According to WHO criteria, 119 (29.6%) were identified as having osteoporosis, 176 (43.8%) were osteopenic, and 107 (26.6%) had normal BMD. The multiple-linear regression analyses at different bone sites revealed that age, years of menopause, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) have strong independent associations with decreased BMD at all lumbar and femoral neck regions. The negative effect associated with number of children (live births) and frequency of lactations was only evident at femoral neck. Although years of menstruation, age at menopause, days of menstrual cycle, number of pregnancies, and duration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were positively correlated with BMD, they had weaker associations than previous variables. Moreover, in the final multivariable logistic regression model, variables which rendered significantly independent risk factors after adjustment for age and BMI were: current smokers of more that 25 cigarettes/day, postmenopausal women irrespective of HRT use, menopausal years of > or =5 year intervals, natural

  10. Studies of jet cross-sections and production properties with the ATLAS and CMS detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, Nuno

    2016-07-01

    Several characteristics of jet production in pp collisions have been measured by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC. Measurements of event shapes and multi-jet production probe the dynamics of QCD in the soft regime and can constrain parton shower and hadronisation models. Measurements of multi-jet systems with a veto on additional jets probe QCD radiation effects. Double-differential cross-sections for threeand four-jet final states are measured at different centre-of-mass energies of pp collisions and are compared to expectations based on NLO QCD calculations. The distribution of the jet charge has been measured in di-jet events and compared to predictions from different hadronisation models and tunes. Jet-jet energy correlations are sensitive to the strong coupling constant. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime. Work supported by the Beatriu de Pinós program managed by Agència de Gestió d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca with the support of the Secretaria d'Universitats i Recerca of the Departament d'Economia i Coneixement of the Generalitat de Catalunya, and the Cofund program of the Marie Curie Actions of the 7th R&D Framework Program of the European Union. Work partially supported by MINECO under grants SEV-2012-0234, FPA2013-48308, and FPA2012-38713, which include FEDER funds from the European Union.

  11. A study of the ability of the D0 detector to measure the single jet inclusive cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Astur, R.V.

    1992-12-31

    The D0 experiment began accumulating data at the Fermilab Tevatron in May of 1992. Protons are collided with antiprotons at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and an expected peak luminosity of 5 {times} 10{sup 30} cm{sup {minus}2} sec{sup {minus}1}. The D0 detector is an all-purpose detector that will have exceptional jet reconstruction capabilities derived from superior calorimetry and nearly 4{pi} angular coverage. One of the many physics measurements that will be made at D0 is the inclusive jet cross section. Comparison of this cross section with theoretical predictions allows us to test the accuracy of the standard model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This comparison is usually in the form of a measurement of the differential cross section with respect to the transverse energy of the jet. The extended angular coverage of the D0 detector allows measurements of the differential cross section as a function of jet rapidity as well. Recently completed calculations of the next-to-leading-order contribution to the inclusive cross section result in predictions with reduced theoretical errors. In addition, recent fits to data from deep inelastic scattering and single photon experiments further restrict the quark and gluon structure functions of the proton which are necessary in the theoretical predictions of the cross section. It may be that an experimental measurement of the inclusive cross section would favor some of these fits over others. We have studied extensive computer simulations of both the Tevatron and the D0 detector in order to determine D0`s ability to reconstruct the inclusive cross section. We present a discussion of this analysis as presently understood.

  12. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Page, Matthew J.; Shamseer, Larissa; Altman, Douglas G.; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Tricco, Andrea C.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Li, Lun; Reid, Emma K.; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Moher, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews (SRs) can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%). Few SRs (7%) searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary

  13. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  14. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27-2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  15. Period Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors of Hypertension in Rural Maharashtra: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Todkar, Sampatti Sambhaji; Gujarathi, Venktesh V; Tapare, Vinay S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is most common cardiovascular disease and it account for large proportion of all cardiovascular deaths and disability worldwide. Research Questions: What is the level of prevalence of hypertension in rural area? What are the soociodemographic factors associated with hypertension? Objectives: To find out prevalence of hypertension in rural area. Study Design: A community-based cross-sectional study setting: Rural Health Training Centre Paithan, field practice area of govt. medical college Aurangabad, Maharashtra. Participants: 1297 persons aged 19 years and above. Study Period: June 2005 to December 2006. Materials and Methods: A house-to-house survey was conducted by the author himself, interviewed the participants by systematic random sampling method, using pretested structured standard questionnaire. Two independent blood pressure (BP) readings were taken in sitting position by visiting each participant at their home. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP more than or equal to 140 mm of Hg or diastolic BP more than or equal to 90 mm of Hg or those individuals currently taking antihypertensive treatment. Statistical Tests: Percentiles, Chi Square test, Chi-Square for linear trend, multiple logistic regression analysis on SPSS software Version 10. Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in the study subjects was 7.24%. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified various factors significantly associated with hypertension were age, sex, BMI, additional salt intake, smoking, DM, alcohol consumption, and higher socioeconomic status. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of hypertension in study subjects was 7.24%. PMID:20049292

  16. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27–2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57–0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  17. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  18. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  19. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41-55 dBA) and severely (71-90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat. PMID:26904137

  20. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  1. Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Błachnio, A; Przepiórka, A; Pantic, I

    2015-09-01

    Facebook has become a very popular social networking platform today, particularly among adolescents and young adults, profoundly changing the way they communicate and interact. However, some reports have indicated that excessive Facebook use might have detrimental effects on mental health and be associated with certain psychological problems. Because previous findings on the relationship between Facebook addiction and depression were not unambiguous, further investigation was required. The main objective of our study was to examine the potential associations between Internet use, depression, and Facebook intrusion. A total of 672 Facebook users took part in the cross-sectional study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used. For collecting the data, the snowball sampling procedure was used. We showed that depression can be a predictor of Facebook intrusion. Our results provides additional evidence that daily Internet use time in minutes, gender, and age are also predictors of Facebook intrusion: that Facebook intrusion can be predicted by being male, young age, and an extensive number of minutes spent online. On the basis of this study, it is possible to conclude that there are certain demographic - variables, such as age, gender, or time spent online - that may help in outlining the profile of a user who may be in danger of becoming addicted to Facebook. This piece of knowledge may serve for prevention purposes. PMID:25963476

  2. Spinal pain and nutrition in adolescents - an exploratory cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spinal pain is an important health issue for adolescents resulting in functional limitations for many and increasing the risk of spinal pain in adulthood. Whilst human and animal studies suggest nutrition could influence spinal pain, this has not been investigated in adolescents. The objective of this exploratory cross sectional study was to evaluate associations between diet and adolescent spinal pain. Methods This study surveyed the spinal pain (neck and back) and nutrition (specific nutrients, broad food groups, diet quality and dietary pattern) of 1424 male and female adolescents at 14 years of age, in Western Australia. Results Back or neck pain were experienced by around half of the adolescents, with females more likely to experience spinal pain. Nutrition differed between sexes and deviated from optimal intakes. Vitamin B12, eggs, cereals and meat consumption were related to spinal pain in sex specific multivariate analyses including primary carer education level and adolescent waist girth and smoking. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that certain aspects of diet may have an association with spinal pain in adolescence. PMID:20587071

  3. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R.; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41–55 dBA) and severely (71–90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat. PMID:26904137

  4. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Setting Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. Objective This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. Results 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. Conclusions The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates. PMID:26641654

  5. Sedative Drug Use among King Saud University Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayed, Ahmed A; Al-Rashoudi, Abdualltef H; Al-Eisa, Abdulrhman A; Addar, Abdullah M; Al-Hargan, Abdullah H; Al-Jerian, Albaraa A; Al-Omair, Abdullah A; Al-Sheddi, Ahmed I; Al-Nowaiser, Hussam I; Al-Kathiri, Omar A; Al-Hassan, Abdullah H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Medical students experience significant psychological stress and are therefore at higher risk of using sedatives. There are currently no studies describing the prevalence of sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sedative drug use among medical students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional convenience sampling study gathered data by anonymous questionnaire from students enrolled at the King Saud University College of Medicine in 2011. The questionnaires collected data regarding social and demographic variables, sleep patterns, and the use of stimulant and sedative drugs since enrollment. Sedatives were defined as any pharmaceutical preparations that induce sleep. Results and Discussion. Of the 729 students who returned questionnaires, 17.0% reported sedative drug use at some time since enrollment. Higher academic year, lower grade point average, regular exercise, fewer hours of sleep per day, poorer quality of sleep, and the presence of sleeping disorders were found to be significantly associated with sedative drug use. Conclusions. Further study is required to increase our understanding of sedative drug use patterns in this relatively high-risk group, as such understanding will help in the development of early intervention programs. PMID:24551449

  6. Relationship between cigarette smoking and radiographic knee osteoarthritis in Chinese population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Deng, Zhen-Han; Yang, Ye; Ding, Xiang; Xie, Dong-Xing; Wang, Yi-Lun; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate the cross-sectional association between cigarette smoking and radiographic knee Osteoarthritis (OA) in Chinese population. A total of 3,789 subjects (1,796 females and 1,993 males) participated in this study. A subject was diagnosed with radiographic knee OA if Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade ≥2 in at least one leg. The smoking status was classified into four levels based on the daily smoking habit: (1) 0/day; (2) 1-10/day; (3) 11-20/day; and (4) >20/day. Linear trend and multivariable logistic regression were conducted for statistical analysis. The prevalence of radiographic knee OA was 28.4 % among the subjects of this study. An inverse association was observed between cigarette smoking and radiographic knee OA in the linear trend test. Such association remained valid after adjusting the factors of age, gender, body mass index, betel quilt chewing status, physical activity, alcohol drinking status, mean total energy intake and educational level in the multivariable logistic regression. This study suggested a negative association between cigarette smoking and radiographic knee OA in the Chinese population. The findings of this study need to be confirmed by further prospective research. PMID:25588371

  7. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  8. Population dynamics and tuberculosis: a cross sectional study of an overlooked disease in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bishri, Jamal; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Adnan, Mubarki; Tariq, Malik; Abdullah, Harthi; Abdulgoni, Thubaiti; Bander, Guraibi; Altalhi, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Background: International travel, migration and human population movements facilitate the spread of tuberculosis (TB). Objective: To study the impact of poorly screened expatriates working in Saudi Arabia on the local incidence of TBs. Patients and methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Chest Disease Hospital, Taif. All confirmed cases of TB from June 2009 to May 2010 admitted to the hospital were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were diagnosed cases of TB (pulmonary & extra-pulmonary) in patients between the ages of 14 to 65 years. Patients with HIV and coexistent malignancies were excluded. The age, gender and ethnic group of each patient was recorded, and patients were divided into two groups. Of the two groups, Group A consisted of Taif residents and group B of patients referred from other cities in the country. Results: Of the 686 cases studied, 370 (54%) were Saudi nationals (Group A = 80 & Group B = 290) and 316 (46%) cases were from other countries. Males outnumbered females and most of the patients were aged 20 to 29 years. The number of cases from the areas close to the pilgrimage sites, i.e. Makah (233) and Jeddah (275), outnumbered those in Taif (110). Conclusions: Our study identifies an increased prevalence of TB cases in areas close to the pilgrimage (Group B). The higher proportion of non-Saudi TB patients in group B is most likely explained by the higher number of poorly screened illegal expatriates in the region. PMID:24454274

  9. Association between Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics and Depression in Chinese Population: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhikun; Yang, Xin; Wang, Anxin; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Song, Qiaofeng; Wang, Xizhu

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the association between ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and depression. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study of 6,851 participants aged 20 years or older (3,525 men and 3,326 women) living in Tangshan City, China. Information on the seven CVH metrics (including smoking, body mass index, dietary intake, physical activity, blood pressure, total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose) was collected via questionnaires, physical examination and laboratory test. Depression status was assessed using the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and a score of 16 or above was considered depression. The relationship between CVH metrics and depression was analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 6,851 participants, 525 (7.7%) were in depression status. After adjustment for potential confounders, men in the highest quartile of ideal CVH metric summary score had a reduced likelihood of having depression compared to those in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28–0.75, p = 0.002). A similar trend was found among women, even though the association was not significant (AOR = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.46–1.18, p = 0.211). This study suggested that better CVH status is associated with a lower risk of depression especially in Chinese male and young population. PMID:26176196

  10. Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Magnesium Concentrations in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Akio; Ohkido, Ichiro; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Mafune, Aki; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium concentration is a proven predictor of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Recent reports have indicated that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use affects serum magnesium levels, however few studies have investigated the relationship between PPI use and magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to clarify the association between PPI use and serum magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. We designed this cross sectional study and included 1189 hemodialysis patients in stable condition. Associations between PPI and magnesium-related factors, as well as other possible confounders, were evaluated using a multiple regression model. We defined hypomagnesemia as a value < 2.0 mg/dL, and created comparable logistic regression models to assess the association between PPI use and hypomagnesemia. PPI use is associated with a significantly lower mean serum magnesium level than histamine 2 (H2) receptor antagonists or no acid-suppressive medications (mean [SD] PPI: 2.52 [0.45] mg/dL; H2 receptor antagonist: 2.68 [0.41] mg/dL; no acid suppressive medications: 2.68 [0.46] mg/dL; P = 0.001). Hypomagnesemia remained significantly associated with PPI (adjusted OR, OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.14–3.69; P = 0.017). PPI use is associated with an increased risk of hypomagnesemia in hemodialysis patients. Future prospective studies are needed to explore magnesium replacement in PPI users on hemodialysis. PMID:26618538

  11. Respiratory health of young shipyard welders and other tradesmen studied cross sectionally and longitudinally.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, D J; Cotes, J E; el Gamal, F M; Wollaston, J F

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effectiveness of current measures for protecting shipyard welders and caulker/burners (WCBs) from the respiratory effects of fumes. METHODS--Shipyard tradesmen born after 1953 (cohort 1), and 181 older men, subjects of a previous study (cohort 2), were assessed, then followed up after an average interval of 6.7 years. The respiratory associations with shipyard trades were assessed cross sectionally and longitudinally and an estimate made of the likely effects of selection bias. Cohort 1 comprised 90% of the 462 eligible WCBs and 239 other tradesmen; there were 31 exclusions. At follow up 139 of 146 men still in the shipyard and 43% of those who had left were reassessed. The lapses were mainly due to migration. All members of cohort 2 were followed up for respiratory symptoms (from MRC questionnaire), were recorded, and indices reflecting all aspects of lung function were measured. RESULTS--At the initial assessment and independent of smoking, trade as a WCB was associated with increased prevalences of chronic cough, phlegm, and wheeze, a reduced transfer factor, and an enhanced age related deterioration in peak expiratory flow (measured cross sectionally). Continued work as a WCB was associated with enhanced deterioration in lung function despite some amelioration of respiratory symptoms; the deterioration was influenced by whether or not exhaust ventilation had been used for every weld. The effects of fume on forced expiratory volume, flow-volume curvilinearity, mean transit time, and moment ratio were independent of and at least as large as those due to smoking. Enhanced deterioration in peak expiratory flow was confined to WCBs who smoked. These effects of trade, but not those of smoking, were nearly independent of atopy. CONCLUSION--In WCBs the working practices over the period of the study did not prevent the development of mild respiratory impairment. In WCBs who used exhaust ventilation at all times, the impairment seemed to reverse

  12. Cross-sectional study of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in human fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge on the normative spinal growth is relevant in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. The present study determines the height, transverse and sagittal diameters, cross sectional area, and volume of individual C1–S5 vertebral bodies. Material and methods Using the methods of computed tomography (CT), digital image analysis, and statistics, the size of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17–30 weeks was examined. Results All the 5 examined parameters changed significantly with gestational age (p < 0.01). The mean height of vertebral bodies revealed an increase from the atlas (2.39 ±0.54 mm) to L2 (4.62 ±0.97 mm), stabilized through L3–L4 (4.58 ±0.92 mm, 4.61 ±0.84 mm), and then was decreasing to S5 (0.43 ±1.06 mm). The mean transverse diameter of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (1.20 ±1.96 mm) to L1 (6.24 ±1.46 mm), so as to stabilize through L2–L3 (6.12 ±1.65, 6.12 ±1.61 mm), and finally was decreasing to S5 (0.26 ±0.96 mm). There was an increase in sagittal diameter of vertebral bodies from the atlas (0.82 ±1.34 mm) to T7 (4.76 ±0.85 mm), its stabilization for T8–L4 (4.73 ±0.86 mm, 4.71 ±1.02 mm), and then a decrease in values to S5 (0.21 ±0.75 mm) was observed. The values for cross-sectional area of vertebral bodies were increasing from the atlas (2.95 ±5.25 mm2) to L3 (24.92 ±11.07 mm2), and then started decreasing to S5 (0.48 ±2.09 mm2). The volumetric growth of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (8.60 ±16.40 mm3) to L3 (122.16 ±74.73 mm3), and then was decreasing to S5 (1.60 ±7.00 mm3). Conclusions There is a sharp increase in size of fetal vertebral bodies between the atlas and the axis, and a sharp decrease in size within the sacral spine. In human fetuses the vertebral body growth is characterized by maximum values in sagittal diameter for T7, in transverse diameter for L1, in height for L2, and in both cross-sectional area and volume for

  13. Flatfoot and obesity in school-age children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Demneh, E; Azadinia, F; Jafarian, F; Shamsi, F; Melvin, J M A; Jafarpishe, M; Rezaeian, Z

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity exerts abnormally high stresses on developing foot structures which can lead to structural deformity of the foot. Screening for foot problems in children with overweight helps detect interior risks restricting normal lifestyle in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of excess weight on the structure and function of the developing foot in students aged 7-14 years. A total of 667 participants were recruited for this cross-sectional study via a multi-level cluster sampling method (randomization was used within each cluster). All subjects (340 boys and 327 girls) attended primary and secondary schools in Isfahan City, Iran. The children's feet were evaluated using clinical assessments and footprint-based measures whilst fully weight bearing. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of flatfoot between normal weight, overweight and obese groups (P < 0.001); participants who were more overweight had flatter feet. Children with higher weight also had a more pronated heel, less dorsiflexion range and higher reported pain within physical activity. This study indicated that childhood obesity is associated with structural foot and ankle deformities and activity-related foot pain. PMID:26639935

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiac comorbidities: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Mohit; Shah, Parth S; Shah, Arti D; Francis, Stani A; Patel, Nihar V; Kothari, Kavit K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health issue with cigarette smoking being an important risk factor. COPD affects pulmonary blood vessels, right ventricle, as well as left ventricle leading to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH), cor-pulmonale (COR-P), right and left ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiography provides a rapid, noninvasive, portable, and accurate method to evaluate cardiac functions. Early diagnoses and intervention for cardiac comorbidities would reduce mortalities. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study. Total 50 patients of moderate to severe COPD according to GOLD guidelines were taken from Department of Respiratory Medicine, Smt. B. K. Shah Medical Institute and Research Centre, Vadodara. All patients underwent investigations such as chest X-ray PA view, ECG, and spirometry followed by two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: We investigated 49 males and 1 female patients ranging from 35 to 80 years of age. Twenty-nine individuals were of moderate COPD and twenty-one of severe COPD. Of these cases 29 had left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) changes, 24 were diagnosed with PH and 16 had changes of COR-P. The study showed the linear relation between the severity of LVDD, PH, and COR-P with the severity of COPD. Conclusion: Our study put emphasis on early cardiac screening of all COPD patients which will be helpful in the assessment of the prognosis and will further assist in identifying the individuals likely to suffer increase morbidity and mortality.

  15. Factors Affecting Happiness: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Iranian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Mehrdadi, Amir; Sadeghian, Shahnaz; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Happiness is one of the most important concepts in the mental health that has an impact on different aspects of young people. Aim The present study was conducted to identify the factors influencing on happiness among young persons in Liam, Iran during 2014. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young population 15-29-year-old. Multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select the participants. Data were collected using two demographic and Oxford Happiness Inventory. SPSS software Package 14 was used to analyse the data. Results A total of 500 young people, including 272 men and 228 women were enrolled. The Mean ± SD of the participants’ age was 20 ± 2.18 years. There was a significant relationship between the happiness score and location in urban and rural, employment status and physical activity. There was not a significant relationship between gender, marital status and education level with happiness score among participants. Conclusion The age groups, type of occupation, physical activity and place of residence were factors associated with happiness in young persons. However, there was not significant relationship between gender, marital status and education level with a happiness score among study participants. PMID:27437333

  16. Salivary cotinine concentrations in daily smokers in Barcelona, Spain: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Marcela; Fernandez, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Pascual, José A; Schiaffino, Anna; Agudo, Antoni; Ariza, Carles; Borràs, Josep M; Samet, Jonathan M

    2009-01-01

    Background Characterizing and comparing the determinant of cotinine concentrations in different populations should facilitate a better understanding of smoking patterns and addiction. This study describes and characterizes determinants of salivary cotinine concentration in a sample of Spanish adult daily smoker men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2004 and December 2005 in a representative sample of 1245 people from the general population of Barcelona, Spain. A standard questionnaire was used to gather information on active tobacco smoking and passive exposure, and a saliva specimen was obtained to determine salivary cotinine concentration. Two hundred and eleven adult smokers (>16 years old) with complete data were included in the analysis. Determinants of cotinine concentrations were assessed using linear regression models. Results Salivary cotinine concentration was associated with the reported number of cigarettes smoked in the previous 24 hours (R2 = 0.339; p < 0.05). The inclusion of a quadratic component for number of cigarettes smoked in the regression analyses resulted in an improvement of the fit (R2 = 0.386; p < 0.05). Cotinine concentration differed significantly by sex, with men having higher levels. Conclusion This study shows that salivary cotinine concentration is significantly associated with the number of cigarettes smoked and sex, but not with other smoking-related variables. PMID:19728886

  17. Polish medical students' perceptions of the nursing profession: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Marcinowicz, Ludmiła; Foley, Mary; Zarzycka, Danuta; Chlabicz, Sławomir; Windak, Adam; Buczkowski, Krzysztof

    2009-09-01

    This study explored perceptions of the nursing profession held by medical students in Poland. Specifically, this study aimed to: (i) elicit medical students' opinions about the nursing profession; (ii) identify what skills and abilities they perceive as important for nurses and (iii) ascertain what nursing functions are considered a major component of the nurse's job. A cross-sectional study, based on the social construct of role theory, was conducted in medical universities from 2005 to 2006 in three cities situated in different regions of Poland: Białystok, Bydgoszcz and Kraków. A total of 900 medical students, 300 students in each region, in medical school years 1, 3 and 6 completed the Professional Nursing Image Survey. The most favourable nurse characteristics were: 'professional reliability', 'demonstration of good technical skills' and the personal characteristics of friendliness and courteousness. Medication administration, recording vital signs and administering intravenous therapy were most frequently identified as a major part of the nurses' role. In conclusion, the opinions of Polish medical students suggest that nursing therapeutic activities trump independent nursing practice activities. PMID:19000084

  18. Psychological Violence in the Health Care Settings in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Tamizi, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Hatam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence that can affect professional performance and job satisfaction of health care workers. Although several studies have been conducted in Iran, but there is no consensus regarding current status of such violence. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological violence among healthcare workers employed at teaching hospitals in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 5874 health professionals were selected using multistage random sampling. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: It was found that 74.7% of the participants were subjected to psychological violence during the past 12 months. Totally, 64.5% of psychological violence was committed by patients’ families, but 50.9% of participants had not reported the violence, and 69.9% of them believed that reporting was useless. Conclusions: The results are indicative of high prevalence of psychological violence against healthcare workers. Considering non-reporting of violence in more than half of participants, use of an appropriate reporting system and providing training programs for health professionals in order to prevent and manage workplace violence are essential. PMID:25830157

  19. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. Results The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. Conclusion There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended. PMID:25437631

  20. Knowledge, perceptions and use of generic drugs: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Oliveira, Jéssica Nathalia Soares; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the level of knowledge, perceptions and usage profile for generic drugs among laypersons. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 278 volunteers (180 women and 98 men, aged 37.1±15.8 years). A questionnaire was drawn up with questions on their use, perceptions and knowledge of generic drugs. Results Most respondents (99.6%) knew that generic drugs exist, but only 48.6% were able to define them correctly, while 78.8% of the respondents had some information about generics. This information was obtained mainly through television (49.3%). In terms of generic drug characteristics, 79.1% stated that they were confident about their efficacy, 74.8% believed that generic drugs have the same effect as branded medications, 88.8% said that generics were priced lower than branded medications, and 80.2% stated that they bought generic drugs because of price. With regard to drugs prescribed by medical practitioners, 17.6% of the participants said that their doctors never prescribed generics and only 7.5% confirmed that their doctors always prescribed generics. Conclusion For the lay public, the sample in this study has sufficient knowledge of generic drugs in terms of definition, efficacy and cost. Consequently, the volunteers interviewed are very likely to use generics. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that programs should be implemented in order to boost generic drug prescriptions by medical practitioners. PMID:25295444

  1. Associations between Green Space and Health in English Cities: An Ecological, Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space. PMID:25775020

  2. [Nursing needs of renal transplanted adolescents, a descriptive cross sectional study in a Swiss hospital].

    PubMed

    Kleinknecht, Michael; Neuhaus, Thomas J; Landolt, Markus A

    2009-06-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the five-year graft survival of adolescents after renal transplantation is significantly lower than in children. This may be due to poor adherence to the post-transplant regime in adolescents. It has been shown that nurses can provide support to renal transplanted adolescents with positive effects on their adherence. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to gain knowledge about important topics of nurses' support to adolescent renal transplant patients. Twenty-seven adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years were interviewed and given a questionnaire based on a focus group discussion. Each of the provided 43 topics was rated on its importance. Results showed that responses corresponding to the judgment "very important" ranged from 20 % to 100 %. Information about illness and therapy was given highest priority, followed by the provision of support services as well as information and the support of planning and managing the personal way of living. These topics can be seen as a set of relevant variables that may be used for focused assessment, and for planning of nursing interventions. With regard to clinical practice it is necessary to develop nursing strategies and patient and family education programs based on the results of this study. PMID:19496030

  3. Association between serum soluble corin and hyperglycaemia: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Peng, Hao; Zhang, Qiu; Zhang, Peipei; Tian, Yunfan; Chao, Xiangqin; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Decreased natriuretic peptides are risk factors for diabetes. As a physiological activator of natriuretic peptides, corin may play a role in glucose metabolism. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis in a general population of China. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A population study in Suzhou, China. Participants A total of 2498 participants aged above 30 years were included in the study. Outcome measures The association between serum soluble corin and hyperglycaemia was examined in men and women, using non-conditional logistic regression models, respectively. Results Serum soluble corin, in men and women, was significantly higher in participants with hyperglycaemia than in those without (all p<0.001). OR of hyperglycaemia positively and significantly increased with serum soluble corin quartiles, in men (p for trend <0.001) and in women (p for trend=0.050), even after multivariate adjustment. Participants with a serum soluble corin, in men (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.23) and women (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.61), over the median level, were more likely to have hyperglycaemia compared with the remaining participants, after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusions Hyperglycaemia was significantly and positively associated with increased serum soluble corin in men and women. Our findings suggest that serum soluble corin may be a risk factor or a biomarker of hyperglycaemia. PMID:26700277

  4. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco; Huici, Omar; Lander, Flemming; Bælum, Jesper; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution. PMID:16630337

  5. Factors Associated With Scoliosis in Schoolchildren: a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Marina Pegoraro; Sanchis, Geronimo José Bouzas; de Assis, Sanderson José Costa; dos Santos, Rafael Gomes; Pereira, Silvana Alves; Sousa, Klayton Galante; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of scoliosis and to analyze the factors associated with scoliosis in schoolchildren aged between 7 and 17 years. Methods This is a cross-sectional and quantitative study with stratified random selection of public school students in the city of Santa Cruz, Brazil. The presence of scoliosis was examined, as well as the flexibility of the posterior muscle chain, socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometry, lifestyle habits, sexual maturation, and ergonomics of school furniture. In order to identify factors associated with scoliosis, the variables were divided in biological, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and ergonomic factors, and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) were estimated by means of Poisson regression analysis. Results Two hundred and twelve pupils participated in this study (mean age 11.61 years, 58% female). The prevalence of scoliosis was 58.1% (n = 123) and associated with female sex (PR 2.54; 95% CI, 1.33–4.86) and age between 13 and 15 years (PR 5.35; 95% CI, 2.17–13.21). Sleeping in a hammock was inversely associated with scoliosis (PR 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.81). Conclusions Scoliosis seems to be positively associated with female sex and age between 13 and 15 years, whereas the habit of sleeping in a hammock is negatively associated with the onset of scoliosis. PMID:25716134

  6. Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    de Oliva Costa, Edméa Fontes; Santos, Shirley Andrade; de Abreu Santos, Ana Teresa Rodrigues; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; de Andrade, Tarcísio Matos

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS) and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369). The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio–OR = 6.47), those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76), and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68). CONCLUSION: There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted. PMID:22760894

  7. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease: A cross-sectional observational study from North India

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Anita; Mehta, Anurag; Sharma, Mamta; Salhan, Sudha; Kalaivani, Mani; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Juneja, Rajnish

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the birth prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease (CHD) using echocardiography in babies born in a community hospital of North India. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study conducted over a period of 3 years. Newborns born over a specific 8-h period of the day were recruited in the study. They underwent routine clinical examination and pulse oximetry, followed by screening echocardiography for diagnosing a CHD. Results: A total of 20,307 newborns were screened, among which 874 had abnormal echocardiograms; 687 had insignificant CHDs, 164 had significant CHDs, and 24 had other abnormal cardiac findings. The birth prevalence of significant CHDs was 8.07 per 1000 live births; 131 newborns had an acyanotic CHD (79.9%) and 33 a cyanotic CHD (20.1%). Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was the most common acyanotic CHD, present in 116 newborns, giving a prevalence of 5.7/1000 live births. Among the cyanotic CHD, transposition of great arteries was most common (prevalence 0.34/1000 live births). Conclusion: The CHD birth prevalence in our study is similar to the reported worldwide birth prevalence. Acyanotic CHD (mostly VSD) is seen in about three-fourths of babies born with CHD. The more sinister cyanotic CHD is present in remaining 25%. PMID:27625516

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study Investigating Cystic Hydatidosis in Slaughtered Cattle of Western Province in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Fredrick; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Muma, John Bwalya; Munyeme, Musso; Mweemba Munang'andu, Hetron

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2007 to November 2008 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in slaughtered cattle from two abattoirs in Mongu, Western Province, Zambia, using prospective and retrospective data. Out of the 4061 cattle examined during postmortem inspection, 84 (2.1%) were positive for hydatidosis. No cases were detected from Kaoma and Shangombo districts; however, prevalence ranged from 0.6% to 2.5% in districts where it was present. Sex was found to be positively associated with hydatidosis (P = 0.035) with female cattle being more likely to have hydatidosis (OR = 1.62). In the retrospective study (1994 to 2007), annual prevalence of hydatidosis ranged from 1.56% (n = 12,641) in 2006 to 4.7% (n = 2633) in 2001 with an overall prevalence of 3% (4689/158,456). This value is comparable to that observed in cattle slaughtered between October 2007 and November 2008 (2.1%). Hydatidosis was observed in the lungs (51.2%), liver (47.6%), and kidneys (1.2%). The percentage of viable cysts was 43.7%. This study confirms the presence of hydatidosis in cattle in Western Province of Zambia and estimates economic losses due to organ condemnations. Data presented herein provides a useful baseline for developing policy and intervention measures. PMID:27335848

  9. Study of the Standard Model W angular coefficients and associated helicity cross sections at hadron colliders.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strologas, John

    2002-04-01

    We present the Standard Model prediction for the W angular coefficients and the corresponding helicity cross sections at hadron colliders. There are eight angular coefficients, four of which are present in high transverse momentum events associated with the production of a jet, while the last three ones are related to gluon loops and they are T-odd and P-odd, thus a probable source of CP violation in W production and decay. All angular coefficients are ratios of the W helicity cross sections and the unpolarized total W cross section. If the W is produced with zero transverse momentum, its spin is parallel to the beam-axis and only one coefficient survives, giving us the familiar formula (dσ/(dp_T^Wd\\cosθ)=(1±\\cosθ)^2, where θ is the azimuthal angle of the final state charged lepton in the W^mp rest frame), if only valence quarks contribute to the W production. In the case of W production with non-trivial transverse momentum, the differential W cross section is more involved and also a function of the polar angle of the charged lepton. We discuss a method of experimentally extracting the W angular coefficients and helicity cross sections using W+jet events at next-to-leading order in QCD (gluon loops), without dividing the data with any Monte Carlo isotropic gauge boson decays, as it was proposed in the past.

  10. Theoretical and experimental study on electron interactions with chlorobenzene: Shape resonances and differential cross sections.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Varella, Márcio T do N; Sanchez, Sergio d'A; Ameixa, João; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Bettega, Márcio H F

    2016-08-28

    In this work, we report theoretical and experimental cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by chlorobenzene (ClB). The theoretical integral and differential cross sections (DCSs) were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials (SMCPP) and the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The calculations with the SMCPP method were done in the static-exchange (SE) approximation, for energies above 12 eV, and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation, for energies up to 12 eV. The calculations with the IAM-SCAR method covered energies up to 500 eV. The experimental differential cross sections were obtained in the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer VG-SEELS 400, in Lisbon, for electron energies from 8.0 eV to 50 eV and angular range from 7(∘) to 110(∘). From the present theoretical integral cross section (ICS) we discuss the low-energy shape-resonances present in chlorobenzene and compare our computed resonance spectra with available electron transmission spectroscopy data present in the literature. Since there is no other work in the literature reporting differential cross sections for this molecule, we compare our theoretical and experimental DCSs with experimental data available for the parent molecule benzene. PMID:27586926

  11. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of diabetes in Indian women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data from high-income countries suggest that women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are more likely to develop diabetes later in life. Objective We investigated the association between pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PE&E) during pregnancy and the risk of diabetes in Indian women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting India. Methods Data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005–2006), a cross-sectional survey of women aged 15–49 years, are used. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE&E were obtained from 39 657 women who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey. The association between PE&E and self-reported diabetes status was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, frequency of TV watching, sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Results The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of PE&E in women with diabetes was 1.8% (n=207; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0; p<0.0001) and 2.1% (n=85; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.3; p<0.0001), respectively, compared with 1.1% (n=304; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) and 1.2% (n=426; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) in women who did not report any PE&E symptoms. In the multivariable analysis, PE&E was associated with 1.6 times (OR=1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; p<0.0001) and 1.4 times (OR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.77; p=0.001) higher risk for self-reported diabetes even after controlling for dietary intake, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions HDP is strongly associated with the risk of diabetes in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women. These findings are important for a country which is already tackling the burden of young onset of diabetes in the population. However, longitudinal medical histories and a clinical measurement of diabetes are needed in this low-resource setting. PMID:27496230

  12. A Cross-sectional Study of Clinical, Histopathological and Direct Immunofluorescence Spectrum of Vesiculobullous Disorders

    PubMed Central

    S., Arundhathi; S., Ragunatha; K.C., Mahadeva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Accurate diagnosis of vesiculobullous lesions of skin requires evaluation of clinical, histopathologic and immunofluorescence findings. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 68 patients to evaluate the clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) features in the diagnosis of cutaneous vesiculobullous disorders. The patients with vesiculobullous lesions were subjected to clinical examination regarding socio-demographic and clinical data. Two biopsy specimens were taken, one from intact vesicle for histopathological study and another from perilesional normal looking skin or oral mucosa for DIF. Results: Vesiculobullous lesions constituted 22.08% of total number of skin biopsies. The most common clinical diagnosis was pemphigus vulgaris (PV) in 36 cases, followed by bullous pemphigoid (BP) in 8 cases, pemphigus foliaceous (PF) in 6 cases, and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) in 4 cases. Characteristic histopathological features were present in 26 cases of PV, 9 cases of BP and 4 cases of PF, and 17.7% showed non- specific changes. DIF was positive in 24 cases of PV, 9 cases of BP and 3 cases of PF, and negative in 34.92% of cases. Conclusion: Clinical, histopathological and DIF features together or in combination help in the final diagnosis of vesiculobullous disorders. Individually, none of these methods are diagnostic in each and every case. PMID:24551638

  13. Tobacco Smoking Habits Among First Year Medical Students, University of Prishtina, Kosovo: Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Çuperjani, Frederik; Elezi, Shkëlzen; Lila, Albert; Daka, Qëndresë; Dakaj, Qëndrim; Gashi, Sanije

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco smoking remains the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world, requiring intensified national and international public health response. World Health Organization (WHO) has urged health professional organizations to encourage and support their members to be models for not using tobacco products and promote tobacco-free culture. Healthcare students are the future authority of the health society, they are in a position to play a vital role and have impact on social norms related to smoking. Aim: To determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo, so that recommendations can be made for its cessation among healthcare providers and thereafter the community. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administrated questionnaire prepared for this purpose. A total of 284 first year healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo were enrolled in the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22. Results: All respondents completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 100% (general medicine=180, dentistry = 104). The prevalence of students who have ever smoked was 53.2%. However, only 8.9% (9.1% M vs. 8.7% F) of the general medicine students and 5.8% (4.8% M vs. 6.5% F) of dentistry students declared that smoke tobacco every day. Overall, the research shows that the prevalence of occasional smokers among medical students in Kosova is quite high. PMID:26236164

  14. Hypercobalaminaemia is associated with hepatic and neoplastic disease in cats: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When increased serum cobalamin concentrations are encountered clinically they are usually attributed to parenteral supplementation, dietary factors, or otherwise ignored. However, recently, hypercobalaminaemia has been associated with numerous diseases in humans, most notably neoplastic and hepatic disorders. The aim of this retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was to determine the significance of increased cobalamin in cats. Results In total, 237 records were retrieved and 174 cats, of various ages and sexes met the inclusion criteria. A total of 42 cats had increased serum cobalamin concentration, and had not received prior supplementation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased serum cobalamin concentration was positively related to pedigree breed (pedigree breeds more likely to have increased cobalamin concentration, odds ratio [OR] 4.24, 95% CI 1.78-10.15, P = 0.001), to having liver disease (OR 9.91, 95% CI 3.54-27.68), and to having a solid neoplasm (OR 8.54, 95% CI 1.10-66.45). Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that increased serum cobalamin concentrations should not be ignored in cats with no history of supplementation, and investigation for underlying hepatic or neoplastic disease is warranted. PMID:25103858

  15. Low back pain in adolescent and associated factors: A cross sectional study with schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mônica R. O. G. C. M.; Badaró, Ana Fátima V.; Dall'Agnol, Marinel M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of low back pain nonspecific and associated factors in schoolchildren. Method: This cross-sectional study investigated 343 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, of both sexes of public schools. The questionnaire included questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, type of school transportation, body mass index and low back pain. The outcome was defined as discomfort localized below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds in the last 12 months. Results : The prevalence of low back pain in the last year was 57% (n=195) among participants, with no significant difference between the sexes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.37). Advancing age and body mass index were associated with the presence of low back pain in the bivariate analysis. The remaining seated at school in usual days was considered one of the main activities that trigger symptoms that lasted up to seven days for the majority (80%) of adolescents. Conclusions: The high prevalence of low back pain presented, indicating that it is a common condition among these adolescents. There was no difference between the sexes, but had influence of age and body mass index. Our results point to the need for the development epidemiological studies of low back pain among children and adolescents. PMID:25372002

  16. Physical abuse in basic-education schools in Aden governorate, Yemen: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ba-Saddik, A S; Hattab, A S

    2013-04-01

    Physical abuse in school has lifelong consequences affecting child health and educational achievements. A study was designed to assess the prevalence of physical abuse experienced by pupils in basic-education schools in Aden, Yemen, and to examine the risk factors associated with it. A cross-sectional study covering 1066 pupils in 7th-9th grades from 8 schools in different districts of Aden governorate were randomly selected. Answering an anonymous self-administered questionnaire, 55.7% of pupils reported physical abuse at least once in their school lifetime (73.2% of males versus 26.6% of females). Teachers were the main perpetrators (45.4%). A statistically significant association was found between physical abuse and sex, age group, family type and father's education. Significant predictors of physical abuse on multivariate regression were male sex (OR=7.89) and extended family type (OR=1.36). Physical abuse in basic-education schools requires serious consideration by educational authorities, families and the community at large. PMID:23882958

  17. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Results: Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types. PMID:27386426

  18. Tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Curto, Ariadna; Fernández, Esteve

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis in the city of Barcelona in Spain. Design setting and participants We carried out an observational cross-sectional study in 2011. We selected a systematic sample of 2442 private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis on 40 public roads regulated by traffic lights in all 10 districts of Barcelona. We calculated the prevalence rates and 95% CIs of smoking and SHS exposure in cars, and the corresponding ORs adjusting for the potential confounding variables. Results The prevalence of tobacco consumption was 5.5% (95% CI 4.6% to 6.4%) and was greater for commercial vehicles (9.8%; 95% CI 7.1% to 12.5%). The prevalence of SHS exposure was 5.2% (95% CI 3.8% to 6.6%) and 2.2% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.9%) of passengers under 14 years of age were exposed to SHS in vehicles. Conclusions This study highlights the need to promote public health measures aimed at reducing tobacco consumption in vehicles, especially in the presence of children, as well as enforcement of the current Spanish law against smoking in commercial vehicles and taxis. PMID:22119753

  19. Injecting Drug Users and Their Health Seeking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Tuhin; Bhuiyan, Faiz Ahmed; Islam, Md. Serajul; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Nessa, Hurun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR) age of the participants were 32.5 ± 21.3 and 33 (27–38) years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior. PMID:25692067

  20. Young Children's Ritualistic Compulsive-Like Behavior and Executive Function: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Ada H; Dahan, Dana

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether the development of executive function in young children could add to the explained variance in child ritualistic behavior beyond child and maternal traits previously found to have explanatory power. Routinized, ritualistic behavior is common and normative in young children between the ages of 2 and 5, after which it subsides. In this cross-sectional study, maternal reports on 1345 children between the ages of 2 and 6 included child variables such as temperament, fears, and behavioral problems. Mother's characteristics included perfectionism, her attachment style, and trait anxiety. The sample included ultra-orthodox families, an understudied minority, and thus it was possible to compare their ritualistic behavior with that of children from other rearing environments. Ultraorthodox children had more ritualistic behavior than age-matched children. This finding offers support for an environmental influence on level of ritualistic behavior in children. For the entire sample, we found that young children's ritualistic behavior was associated with shy and emotional temperament, fears, pervasive developmental behavioral problems, and that executive function delays in shifting and emotion regulation had an additional contribution. Ritualistic child behavior was only weakly related to maternal variables. The results were consistent with a maturational process for the trajectory of ritualistic behavior, rather than with an environmentally induced behavior. The development of executive function may be the process mediating the decline of ritualistic behavior over development. PMID:25725602

  1. Nurse competence between three generational nurse cohorts: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Meretoja, Riitta; Numminen, Olivia; Isoaho, Hannu; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-08-01

    Research indicates significant differences between nurse cohorts in many work-related factors. This study compared nurse competence between three generational cohorts comprising the current nursing workforce. The Nurse Competence Scale was used to collect data for this cross-sectional study from 2052 nurses in a university hospital in Finland. Data were analysed statistically. Significant differences were found between nurse cohorts in their competence. The length of work experience had a significant impact on the development of competence. The oldest cohort, with the longest work experience, had the highest competence scores (70.1 on a visual analogue scale), and the youngest had the lowest (59.0). All cohorts were most competent in patient-related nursing tasks, in maintenance of professional competence and in ethical care. Nurses were weakest in the development of nursing practice and the use of evidence-based knowledge. Targeted interventions in teaching-coaching for different nurse generations are needed to ensure the maintenance of nurse competence and high-quality patient care. PMID:24689751

  2. Public support for tobacco control policy extensions in Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. This study assessed community support for plain packaging and smoking bans in outdoor locations in Australia. Design Analytical cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 2005 Western Australian adults participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Random household telephone numbers were used to obtain a representative sample. Outcome measures Support for plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans at outdoor venues by demographic characteristics. Results Around half of the survey respondents supported plain packaging and almost a further quarter reported being neutral on the issue. Only one in three smokers disagreed with the introduction of a plain packaging policy. A majority of respondents supported smoking bans at five of the six nominated venues, with support being strongest among those with children under the age of 15 years. The venues with the highest levels of support were those where smoke-free policies had already been voluntarily introduced by the venue managers, where children were most likely to be in attendance, and that were more limited in size. Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. PMID:22382124

  3. Rapid Diagnostic Algorithms as a Screening Tool for Tuberculosis: An Assessor Blinded Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ratzinger, Franz; Bruckschwaiger, Harald; Wischenbart, Martin; Parschalk, Bernhard; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro; Lagler, Heimo; Indra, Alexandra; Graninger, Wolfgang; Winkler, Stefan; Krishna, Sanjeev; Ramharter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background A major obstacle to effectively treat and control tuberculosis is the absence of an accurate, rapid, and low-cost diagnostic tool. A new approach for the screening of patients for tuberculosis is the use of rapid diagnostic classification algorithms. Methods We tested a previously published diagnostic algorithm based on four biomarkers as a screening tool for tuberculosis in a Central European patient population using an assessor-blinded cross-sectional study design. In addition, we developed an improved diagnostic classification algorithm based on a study population at a tertiary hospital in Vienna, Austria, by supervised computational statistics. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the previously published diagnostic algorithm for our patient population consisting of 206 patients was 54% (CI: 47%–61%). An improved model was constructed using inflammation parameters and clinical information. A diagnostic accuracy of 86% (CI: 80%–90%) was demonstrated by 10-fold cross validation. An alternative model relying solely on clinical parameters exhibited a diagnostic accuracy of 85% (CI: 79%–89%). Conclusion Here we show that a rapid diagnostic algorithm based on clinical parameters is only slightly improved by inclusion of inflammation markers in our cohort. Our results also emphasize the need for validation of new diagnostic algorithms in different settings and patient populations. PMID:23185397

  4. Iranian Nurses’ Views on Barriers and Facilitators in Patient Education: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanli, Somayeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a major factor in patient-centered care, patient education has a great impact on the quality of care provided by nurses; however, clinical nurses’ performance with regard to patient education is not satisfactory. This study is an attempt to investigate barriers and facilitators in patient education from nurses’ point of view. Methods: 122 nurses at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences participated in this descriptive-cross sectional study. Sampling was based on the census method. The questionnaire used to collect data included questions about nurses’ demography, barriers (10 questions), and facilitators (10 questions) in patient education. The questionnaire was designed to be completed independently. To analyze the data, the researchers used descriptive statistics, including frequency, mean and standard deviation. Results: The highest scores related to barriers to patient education were: nurses’ insufficient knowledge, patients’ physical and emotional unpreparedness, and lack of a proper environment for education. The most important facilitators, on the other hand, were: enhancement of instructing nurses’ knowledge and skills, motivating nurses, and a step-by-step approach to patient education. Conclusion: It is important that nurses be prepared and motivated to train their patients. By satisfactory patient education on the part of nurses, patients will be more willing to cooperate in the treatment process. PMID:26156926

  5. Burn Injury-Specific Home Safety Assessment: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arshi, Shahnam; Bazargani, Homayoun Sadeghi; Mohammadi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of injury specific home safety investigation and to examine the home safety status focused on burn related safety in a rural population in the North-West of Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 265 rural households of rural Meshkinshahr, Iran. Cluster sampling method was used in 38 clusters with 7 households in each cluster. Clusters were selected on a probability proportional to size (PPS) basis using the available health census database called D-Tarh. Data were analyzed using the statistical software package STATA 8. Results Possible risks were explored in fields of house structure; cooking and eating attitudes and behaviors; cooking appliances, specific appliances such as picnic gas burners, valors (traditional heaters), samovars (traditional water boilers), and air-heating appliances. Many safety concerns were explored needing to draw the attention of researchers and public health policy makers. Conclusion Injury specific home safety surveys are useful and may provide useful information for safety promotion interventions. PMID:23209574

  6. Are proton pump inhibitors a new antidiabetic drug? A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Boj-Carceller, Diana; Bocos-Terraz, Pilar; Moreno-Vernis, Miguel; Sanz-Paris, Alejandro; Trincado-Aznar, Pablo; Albero-Gamboa, Ramón

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on glycemic control (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of consecutive in-patients admitted to hospital in any department during the first semester of the year 2010 who had a recent HbA1c measurement. The study excluded those with a diagnosis of hyperglycemic decompensation, diabetic onset or pregnancy. It compared HbA1c levels of those taking PPIs and those not. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients were recruited. The average HbA1C level was 7.0% ± 1.2%. Overall PPI consumption was 55.7%. HbA1c was significantly lower in individuals who took PPIs: -0.6%, 95% CI: -0.12 to -0.83. People who used PPIs with some type of insulin therapy had a HbA1c reduction by -0.8%, 95% CI: -0.12 to -1.48. For the rest of subgroup analysis based on the antidiabetic drug used, PPI consumption always exhibited lower HbA1c levels. CONCLUSION: PPIs seems to be consistently associated with better glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. HbA1c reduction observed is similar to incretin-based therapies. PMID:22174957

  7. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition. Early intervention might be unnecessary if self-correction of the malocclusion occurs during the transition from the primary to the permanent dentition. Most studies are cross-sectional and in those of longitudinal design, the results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Malocclusions may or may not influence the quality of life in children and adolescents. Thus, evaluations of the influence of different malocclusions on quality of life will certainly underpin a broader understanding and knowledge about how malocclusions affect the daily life of young patients. This information may also be important when it comes to assessing the most appropriate time for starting orthodontic treatment, not only from a professional point of view, but also, most importantly, from the patients' perspective. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusions, and to document changes occurring during the development of the dentition, from the primary dentition stage at age 3, through the mixed dentition at age 7, to the early permanent dentition at age 11.5 years. Further aims were to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of malocclusions on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to investigate how malocclusions affect the quality of life in a cohort of children, aged 11.5 years, whose dental care is provided by the Swedish Public Dental Service. PMID:26642595

  8. Reproductive Life Planning: A Cross-Sectional Study of What College Students Know and Believe.

    PubMed

    Kransdorf, Lisa N; Raghu, T S; Kling, Juliana M; David, Paru S; Vegunta, Suneela; Knatz, Jo; Markus, Allan; Frey, Keith A; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Mayer, Anita P; Files, Julia A

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a reproductive life plan (RLP) to promote individual responsibility for preconception health. The objectives of this study were to determine existing awareness of RLPs in a cohort of reproductive-age adults and to evaluate their knowledge level and beliefs about reproductive life planning. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey study of adults ages 18-40 years old seeking care at the student health center of a large public university. Participation was voluntary. Survey responses were analyzed by age and gender. Results A total of 559 surveys were collected and analyzed. Only 24 % of participants had heard of an RLP although a majority (62.9 %) agreed that it is important to develop an RLP. Most respondents (85.4 %) preferred to receive information about reproductive life planning from a primary care provider or obstetrician-gynecologist, while only 4.2 % of patients surveyed reported ever being actually asked about an RLP by their healthcare provider. Among those who agreed that an RLP was important, knowledge of specific aspects of an RLP was lacking. Conclusions In our cohort of reproductive-age adults, general health literacy regarding RLPs was poor. Most of the young adults who responded to our survey did not know what an RLP was and even fewer had ever discussed one with their health provider. PMID:26679707

  9. The learning style preferences of chiropractic students: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P.; Abi-Arrage, David; McPhie, Christopher; Johnston, Samara; Williams, Christopher; Rice, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of our study were to measure the learning style preferences of chiropractic students and to assess whether they differ across the 5 years of chiropractic study. Methods A total of 407 (41.4% females) full-degree, undergraduate, and postgraduate students enrolled in an Australian chiropractic program agreed to participate in a cross-sectional survey comprised of basic demographic information and the Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire, which identifies learning preferences on four different subscales: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. Multivariate analysis of variance and the χ2 test were used to check for differences in continuous (VARK scores) and categorical (VARK category preference) outcome variables. Results The majority of chiropractic students (56.0%) were found to be multimodal learners. Compared to the other learning styles preferences, kinesthetic learning was preferred by a significantly greater proportion of students (65.4%, p < .001) and received a significantly greater mean VARK score (5.66 ± 2.47, p < .001). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time chiropractic students have been shown to be largely multimodal learners with a preference for kinesthetic learning. While this knowledge may be beneficial in the structuring of future curricula, more thorough research must be conducted to show any beneficial relationship between learning style preferences and teaching methods. PMID:24350945

  10. Effect of Infertility on the Quality of Life, A Cross- Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility is a major life crisis which causes serious mental problems and stressful experience of infertile couples. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the quality of life in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: In a cross - sectional study compared the quality of life in 450 women attending both public and private health centers in Ilam, western of Iran, in 2013. Participants were divided in two groups’ fertilities and infertilities women. Data was collected by trained research midwives using demographic and SF-36 questionnaires. SPSS software Package 16 was used to analyze the data of this project. Differences were regarded statistically significant with an alpha error of 0.05. Results: Significant difference was reported in mean age between fertile and infertile women (p=0.003). Mean scores of all Mental dimensions of quality of life were higher in fertile women in comparison with infertile women. This difference was statistically significant (58.35±19.43 vs 56.56±13.18 respectively) (p= 0.000).The mean score of all physical dimensions have not statistically significant difference in fertile and infertile women (79.77± 23.19 vs 74.96±23.45 respectively) (p= 0.441). Conclusion: In most infertile women, the mean score of Mental dimensions of quality of life is lower in comparison with fertile women, therefore, it is necessary the used of counseling and treatment programs in infertile women. PMID:25478412

  11. Positive lifestyle changes around the time of pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    O'Keeffe, Linda M; Dahly, Darren L; Murphy, Marion; Greene, Richard A; Harrington, Janas M; Corcoran, Paul; Kearney, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of positive lifestyle behaviours before and during pregnancy in Ireland. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based study in Ireland. Participants A total of 718 women of predominantly Caucasian origin from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), Ireland, were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures Positive lifestyle behaviour changes before and during pregnancy in Ireland on alcohol consumption, smoking, folate use and nutrition. Results Of 1212 women surveyed, 718 (59%) responded. 26% were adherent to all three recommendations on alcohol consumption, smoking and folate use before pregnancy. This increased to 39% for the same three behaviours during pregnancy, with greater increases in adherence observed among women with the lowest adherence before pregnancy. Age, education and ethnicity gaps in adherence before pregnancy appeared to narrow during pregnancy. Adherence to all seven food pyramid guidelines was less than 1% overall, and less than 1% of participants met all four micronutrient guidelines on vitamin D, folate, calcium and iron intake around the time of pregnancy. Conclusions Low levels of healthy lifestyle behaviours before pregnancy and low levels of positive lifestyle behaviours during pregnancy demonstrate an urgent need for increased clinical and public health efforts to target deleterious health behaviours before, during and after pregnancy. PMID:27154477

  12. Maintenance of empathy levels among first and final year medical students: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bangash, Areeb Sohail

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to quantify the levels of empathy amongst medical students in the first year and final year of the medical curriculum at a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study, comprising of participating students in their first year and final year of the medical curriculum at Ziauddin University Medical College, was carried out, using the Empathy Quotient (EQ) scale consisting of 60 questions through a self-administered questionnaire. The results were collected anonymously over a time period of six months from a sample of 171 participants. Results : According to our analysis, we found 82.67% of fifth year students and 80.21% of first years showing average or above average levels of empathy. Female mean scores were 42±9.60 while males were 38.7±9.358 (P=0.03). No association was found between empathy and age of the participants (p=0.77). Conclusion: We found no significant difference in the levels of empathy between the first and fifth year medical students. However, it was shown that females exhibited higher levels of empathy than males. PMID:24358858

  13. Homocysteine and Carotid Plaque Stability: A Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Yuming; Li, Wen; Zhao, Xingquan; Liang, Wannian

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study aimed to explore the possible association of plasma total homocysteine with carotid plaque stability. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2010 to 2011. A stratified random sample of 2,919 Chinese participants aged 40 years or older was enrolled. Plasma total homocysteine levels were measured and carotid plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the association of homocysteine levels to the progression of carotid plaque development, while adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors. Results The mean level of plasma homocysteine in the subjects was 14.9 µmol/l. Along with increase in homocysteine level, the risk of advanced carotid plaque elevated (odds ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.09–1.51) after adjusting for age, sex, and other potential confounders. Stratified by sex, higher homocysteine level was strongly associated with advanced carotid plaque in men (OR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.17–1.70), but not in women. Conclusion The findings suggest that plasma level of homocysteine may be associated with advanced carotid plaque, which constitutes high risks of stroke, in male Chinese adults. PMID:24736609

  14. A Cross-sectional Study of Bleeding Phenotype in Haemophilia A Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Paroskie, Allison; Gailani, Dave; DeBaun, Michael R.; Sidonio, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Haemophilia A carriers have historically been thought to demonstrate normal haemostasis. However, recent data demonstrates that despite normal factor VIII, haemophilia A carriers demonstrate an increased bleeding tendency. We tested the hypothesis that obligate haemophilia carriers demonstrate an increase in bleeding symptoms. A cross sectional study was performed comparing haemophilia A carriers to normal women. Questionnaire assessment included a general bleeding questionnaire, condensed MCMDM-1VWD bleeding assessment tool and Pictorial Bleeding Assessment Chart (PBAC). Laboratory assessment included complete blood count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen activity, FVIII activity (FVIII:C), von Willebrand factor antigen level, ristocetin cofactor, platelet function analyser-100™ and ABO blood type. 44 haemophilia A carriers and 43 controls were included. Demographic features were similar. Laboratory results demonstrated a statistically significant difference only in FVIII:C (82.5 versus 134%, p value < 0.001). Carriers reported a higher number of bleeding events, and both condensed MCMDM-1 VWD bleeding scores (5 versus 1, p value < 0.001) and PBAC scores (423 versus 182.5, p value = 0.018) were significantly higher in carriers. Haemophilia A carriers exhibit increased bleeding symptoms when compared to normal women. Further studies are necessary to fully understand the bleeding phenotype in this population and optimize clinical management. PMID:25832012

  15. CRY1 and CRY2 genetic variants in seasonality: A longitudinal and cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Kaunisto, Mari; Partonen, Timo

    2016-08-30

    Cryptochromes are key components of the circadian clocks that generate and maintain seasonal variations. The aim of our study was to analyze the associations of CRY1 and CRY2 genetic variants with the problematicity of seasonal variations, and whether the problematicity of seasonal variations changed during the follow-up of 11 years. Altogether 21 CRY1 and 16 CRY2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and analyzed in 5910 individuals from a Finnish nationwide population-based sample who had filled in the self-report on the seasonal variations in mood and behavior in the year 2000. In the year 2011, 3356 of these individuals filled in the same self-report on the seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Regression models were used to test whether any of the SNPs associated with the problematicity of seasonal variations or with a change in the problematicity from 2000 to 2011. In the longitudinal analysis, CRY2 SNP rs61884508 was protective from worsening of problematicity of seasonal variations. In the cross-sectional analysis, CRY2 SNP rs72902437 showed evidence of association with problematicity of seasonal variations, as did SNP rs1554338 (in the MAPK8IP1 and downstream of CRY2). PMID:27267441

  16. Testing for loss of protective sensation in patients with foot ulceration: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wood, William A; Wood, Michael A; Werter, Scott A; Menn, Joseph J; Hamilton, Scott A; Jacoby, Richard; Dellon, A Lee

    2005-01-01

    Current recommendations for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation include screening at-risk individuals by testing for loss of protective sensation at eight sites using 10-g (5.07) nylon monofilaments. Yet measurement of the cutaneous pressure threshold to differentiate one-point from two-point static touch stimuli may allow identification of these at-risk individuals earlier in the clinical course of diabetic neuropathy. The present study tested this hypothesis using a prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter design that included sensibility testing of 496 patients with diabetic neuropathy, 17 of whom had a history of ulceration or amputation. Considering the cutaneous pressure threshold of the 5.07 Semmes-Weinstein nylon monofilament to be equivalent to the 95 g/mm(2) one-point static touch measured using the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (Sensory Management Services LLC, Baltimore, Maryland), only 3 of these 17 patients with a history of foot ulceration or amputation would have been identified using the Semmes-Weinstein nylon monofilament screening technique. In contrast, using the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device, all 17 patients were identified as having abnormal sensibility, defined as greater than the 99% confidence limit for age, for two-point static touch on the hallux pulp. We conclude that patients at risk for foot ulceration can best be identified by actual measurement of the cutaneous sensibility of the hallux pulp. PMID:16166466

  17. Patient safety education and baccalaureate nursing students' patient safety competency: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam-Ju; Jang, Haena; Park, Su-Yeon

    2016-06-01

    This cross-sectional study examines baccalaureate nursing programs in South Korea to determine how and to what extent patient safety education was delivered, and to assess nursing students' patient safety competency. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) student evaluation survey and a Patient Safety Competency Self-Evaluation tool were used. We distributed 234 surveys to senior students in four nursing schools; 206 (88%) students responded to the survey. The majority of students (81.6%) reported that they had received patient safety education during coursework. Patient safety education was delivered primarily by lecture rather than during laboratory or simulation sessions. The degree of coverage of QSEN competency and the students' self-reported competency in total and attitude scores showed statistical differences among nursing schools. Students' attitude score was significantly higher than skill and knowledge. Our results confirm the need to revise the nursing curriculum and to use various teaching methods to deliver patient safety education more comprehensively and effectively. Furthermore, there is a need to develop an integrated approach to ensuring students' balanced competency. PMID:26306563

  18. Electron excitation and autoionisation cross sections for elements of chemically peculiar stars: Study of bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predojević, B.; Pejčev, V.; Šević, D.; Marinković, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Electron impact excitation from the ground state of bismuth atoms has been studied. A beam of electrons was scattered from a beam of atoms and the intensity of scattered electrons was measured for scattering angles up to 150° and incident electron energies of 40 and 60 eV. Obtained intensities were used for the calculation of relative differential cross sections (DCS). In addition, we recorded the energy loss-spectra at different incident electron energies and scattering angles. These spectra were analysed in order to identify the energy levels of bismuth atom below and above (autoionisation) the first ionization limit in electron spectroscopy. The presence of bismuth was confirmed in spectra of the chemically peculiar (CP) magnetic Ap 73 Dra and HR 465 and nonmagnetic Hg-Mn HR 7775 and χ Lupi stars. The obtained results for relative DCS and identified autoionised energy levels of bismuth were analysed and compared with previous experimental and theoretical data. The connection between our investigations of bismuth and astrophysical measurements are discussed.

  19. Lower socioeconomic status, adiposity and negative health behaviours in youth: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Manlhiot, Cedric; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Dobbin, Stafford; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding obesity and its modifiable risk factors in youth is key to addressing the burden of cardiovascular disease later in life. Our aim was to examine the associations among adiposity, negative health behaviours and socioeconomic status in youth from the Niagara Region. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional observational study of 3467 grade 9 students during their mandatory health and physical education class to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (postal code), self-reported health behaviour and adiposity in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. Results Median household income was $63 696 and overall percentage below the after-tax low-income cut-off was 4.2%. Negative health behaviours (especially skipped meals, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, higher screen time) were associated with lower income neighbourhoods, however, the absolute effect was small. Those participants in the lowest income quintile had a significantly greater body mass index z-score than those in the highest (0.72±1.19 vs 0.53±1.12), but the overall trend across quintiles was not statistically significant. A similar trend was noted for waist-to-height ratio. The lowest income neighbourhoods according to after-tax low-income cut-off had small but statistically significant associations with higher adiposity compared with the middle or highest income neighbourhoods. Conclusions Obesity prevention efforts should target modifiable behaviours, with particular attention to adolescents from lower income families and neighbourhoods. PMID:25986642

  20. Suicidal ideation among medical students of Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Osama, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammad Yousuful; Hussain, Syed Ather; Masroor, Syed Muhammad Zia; Burney, Muhammad Usman; Masood, Muhammad Atif; Menezes, Ritesh G; Rehman, Razaur

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have investigated suicidal ideation among medical students in the developing world. We found only one report on suicidal ideation among medical students in Pakistan published in the year 2005. The present cross-sectional survey on suicidal ideation conducted in July 2013 involved 331 medical students of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. In the past one year, suicidal ideation was found in 118 (35.6%) students. Forty-six (13.9%) of all the students had made a plan in their life time to commit suicide while 16 (4.8%) of the 331 students tried to commit suicide at some point of time in their life. More females than males pondered suicide while first year medical students formed the majority of those with suicidal ideation. The single greatest risk factor predisposing to suicidal ideation was substance abuse. This was followed jointly by parental neglect and previous psychiatric disorder. Campaigns against substance abuse and counseling of vulnerable students will help in eradicating suicidal intent. PMID:25287803

  1. Dental Students' Learning Experiences and Preferences Regarding Orofacial Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Teich, Sorin T; Alonso, Aurelio A; Lang, Lisa; Heima, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Pain is a global health problem, the effects of which range from diminished quality of life to pain management costs and loss of work and productivity. Pain in the head and neck region is defined as a separate entity: orofacial pain (OFP). However, some graduates from dental schools have reported feeling less competent in their ability to diagnose OFP than in other areas of dentistry. The aims of this study were to assess how students at one U.S. dental school had learned about OFP and to identify the teaching methods and venues they would like to see enhanced in the school's OFP curriculum. A cross-sectional four-question survey was administered to 140 dental students in their third and fourth years; the survey had a response rate of 53%. Most students reported having gained their OFP knowledge mainly in dental school, and 91.9% selected didactic courses as the main teaching method in which they had learned about this topic. Clinical education was the main teaching venue these students said they would like to see enhanced in order to gain more knowledge in most forms of OFP; this result aligned with their learning preferences in general. These findings may help dental schools design their OFP curricula to take account of students' preferences as well as practical limitations regarding availability of clinical experiences. PMID:26427780

  2. Association of dental infections with systemic diseases in Brazilian Native Indigenous: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lívia S F; Santos, Jean N; Vieira, Carolina L Z; Caramelli, Bruno; Ramalho, Luciana M P; Cury, Patricia R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between dental infections and systemic diseases in the Indigenous population of Brazil. A representative sample of 225 Indigenous (≥19 years) was assessed. The T-test and bivariate and logistic models were used to assess the associations of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity with dental caries and destructive periodontal disease. After adjustments for covariates, dental caries were associated with hypertension (odds ratio = 1.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.66; P = .04). Individuals with destructive periodontal disease had a higher systolic blood pressure (124 ± 20.34 mm Hg) than those without destructive periodontal disease (117.52 ± 16.54 mm Hg; P = .01). In conclusion, dental infections were found to be associated with hypertension in the present population. Thus, patients diagnosed with hypertension should be referred for dental evaluation and vice versa. PMID:27039160

  3. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection among healthy cats at shows in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus has been recognised as an important cause of chronic large-bowel diarrhoea in purebred cats in many countries, including Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the proportion of animals with T. foetus infection among clinically healthy cats in Norway and to assess different risk factors for T. foetus infection, such as age, sex, former history of gastrointestinal symptoms and concurrent infections with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium sp. Methods The sample population consisted of 52 cats participating in three cat shows in Norway in 2009. Samples were examined for motile T. foetus by microscopy, after culturing and for T. foetus-DNA by species-specific nested PCR, as well as for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Results By PCR, T. foetus-DNA was demonstrated in the faeces of 11 (21%) of the 52 cats tested. DNA-sequencing of five positive samples yielded 100% identity with previous isolates of T. foetus from cats. Only one sample was positive for T. foetus by microscopy. By IFAT, four samples were positive for Giardia cysts and one for Cryptosporidium oocysts, none of which was co-infected with T. foetus. No significant associations were found between the presence of T. foetus and the various risk factors examined. Conclusions T. foetus was found to be a common parasite in clinically healthy cats in Norway. PMID:21689400

  4. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH. PMID:27039390

  5. HIV Testing and Tolerance to Gender Based Violence: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R. S.; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00–6.19); tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05–4.32) and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23–1.80). In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families. PMID:23991005

  6. Restless Legs Syndrome among Pakistani Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Khalid; Farhan, Rabeea; Surani, Arif Anwer

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a chronic distressing disease characterized by an urge to move the legs with an unpleasantsensation during periods of rest. The global prevalence estimates of RLS range from 2.5% to 15%. Method. This cross-sectional study was conducted at various hospitals in Karachi during August 13 to March 14. The visitors who had accompanied patients to Outpatient Department or had come to visit admitted patients were approached conveniently. Subjects were interviewed regarding the essential criteria of RLS and its attributes. Results. The sample size was 390 with 56% being females. The point prevalence of RLS was estimated to be 23.6%. The prevalence in females was twice as high as compared to males. Smoking and low level of education were associated with RLS (P < 0.001). Among RLS positive individuals, 50.1% reported frequency of their symptoms to be greater than 16 days per month and 64.1% graded their symptom severity as mild to moderate. About 37% of RLS positive individuals consulted a general physician for their symptoms. Conclusion. RLS is highly prevalent and underdiagnosed condition among Pakistani population. Efforts must be directed to raise the awareness of this condition among physicians and general population.

  7. A cross-sectional study on vaccine coverage and seroprevalence in schoolchildren in Andorra.

    PubMed

    Portella, E; Goicoechea, J; Penella, J

    1993-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on vaccine coverage and vaccine effectiveness was carried out on a randomized sample of the cohort of schoolchildren born in 1983 attending school in Andorra, prior to the introduction of a Systematic Immunisation Plan that included centralised import and delivery of vaccines to vaccinating clinics, surveillance of the cold-chain during vaccine delivery, and a clearly-defined immunization schedule against diphtheria, tetanus, -pertussis, polio, mumps, rubella and measles. Vaccine coverage was estimated from vaccination card records; history of disease and sociodemographic variables were obtained through a questionnaire to the children's parents and vaccine effectiveness was estimated through serum antibody testing. Vaccine coverage levels for DTP and OPV were 97.8% for both. Protective serum antibody prevalence was correspondingly high except for the polio viruses. The authors suggest that decreased vaccine effectiveness, probably due to poor preservation of the cold chain, might be the cause of this finding. In countries or regions with an otherwise developed organisation of health services, an important issue like this can still be overlooked. PMID:8212915

  8. Phonological Recoding in Error Detection: A Cross-sectional Study in Beginning Readers of Dutch

    PubMed Central

    Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the development of phonological recoding in beginning readers of Dutch, using a proofreading task with pseudohomophones and control misspellings. In Experiment 1, children in grades 1 to 3 rejected fewer pseudohomophones (e.g., wein, sounding like wijn ‘wine’) as spelling errors than control misspellings (e.g., wijg). The size of this pseudohomophone effect was larger in grade 1 than in grade 2 and did not differ between grades 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, we replicated the pseudohomophone effect in beginning readers and we tested how orthographic knowledge may modulate this effect. Children in grades 2 to 4 again detected fewer pseudohomophones than control misspellings and this effect decreased between grades 2 and 3 and between grades 3 and 4. The magnitude of the pseudohomophone effect was modulated by the development of orthographic knowledge: its magnitude decreased much more between grades 2 and 3 for more advanced spellers, than for less advanced spellers. The persistence of the pseudohomophone effect across all grades illustrates the importance of phonological recoding in Dutch readers. At the same time, the decreasing pseudohomophone effect across grades indicates the increasing influence of orthographic knowledge as reading develops. PMID:24386453

  9. A Population- and Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study of Renal Function in Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Miller, Iben M; Carlson, Nicholas; Mogensen, Ulla B; Ellervik, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2016-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory skin diseases hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and psoriasis have been linked to cardiovascular risk factors and the latter has also been linked to possible renal dysfunction. Since basement membrane thinning in the skin of HS patients has been described, we speculated whether similar basement membrane defects might occur in renal tissue. Our objective was to investigate a possible association between HS and renal dysfunction. We performed a hospital and population-based cross-sectional study using estimated Glomerular-Filtration-Rate (eGFR) to assess renal function. Thirty-two hospital individuals with HS, 430 population individuals with HS, and 20,780 population individuals without HS were (controls) identified. The age-, sex-, smoking-, BMI-, hypertension- and diabetes-adjusted analysis revealed a statistically significant higher eGFR for the hospital group with HS and a mean difference in eGFR of 6.81 (1.27-12.35) ml/min/1.73 m2 between the hospital group with HS and the population group without HS. The observed higher eGFR in the hospital group with HS indicates a possible association of HS and renal dysfunction. PMID:25710874

  10. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Kareshki, Hossein; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses' professional competence is a crucial factor in clinical practice. Systematic evaluation of nurses’ competence and its related factors are essential for enhancing the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to assess the nurses’ competence level and its possible relationship with their personality and emotional intelligence. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, short form of Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, and the short 10-item version of Big Five Factor Inventory, were administered simultaneously to a randomized stratified sample of 220 nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Majority of nurses rated themselves as "good" and "very good", with the highest scores in "managing situations" and "work role" dimensions of nurse competence. A relatively similar pattern of scores was seen in competence dimensions, personality and emotional intelligence, among male and female nurses. Emotional intelligence and personality scores showed a significant relationship with nurses’ competence, explaining almost 20% of variations in nurse competence scores. Conclusion: Iranian nurses evaluated their overall professional competence at similar level of the nurses in other countries. Knowledge about the nurses’ competence level and its related factors, including personality and emotional intelligence, may help nurse managers in enhancing nurses' professional competence through appropriate task assignments and conducting in-service educational programs, thus improving the health status of patients. PMID:27354976

  11. Unique muscularity in cyclists' thigh and trunk: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ema, R; Wakahara, T; Yanaka, T; Kanehisa, H; Kawakami, Y

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the influence of regular training in competitive cycling on individual muscle volume of the thigh and psoas major cross-sectionally and longitudinally. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the trunk and right thigh were obtained from eight experienced varsity male cyclists (experience: > 4 years) and 10 untrained men (experiment 1), and from 12 (10 males, two females) varsity cyclists before and after competitive cycling training for 6 months (experiment 2). From the MR images, the volumes of each of the quadriceps femoris and hamstrings, total adductors, gracilis, sartorius, and psoas major were determined. The volumes of the monoarticular thigh muscles, semitendinosus, and psoas major muscles were significantly greater in the experienced cyclists than in the untrained men (experiment 1), and increased significantly after the competitive training for 6 months (experiment 2). In contrast, the volumes of the other biarticular thigh muscles were similar among the experienced cyclists and untrained men (experiment 1), and did not change by competitive cycling training (experiment 2). The results indicate that competitive cycling training induces muscle-specific hypertrophy of the synergistic muscles, especially between the monoarticular and biarticular muscles, leading to quantitative profiles of the musculature in experienced cyclists. PMID:26148051

  12. Cross sectional study of young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing

    PubMed Central

    MacFadyen, Lynn; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To examine young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing and to determine the association, if any, between this and their smoking behaviour. Design Cross sectional, quantitative survey, part interview and part self completion, administered in respondents' homes. Setting North east England. Participants Stratified random sample of 629 young people aged 15 and 16 years who had “opted in” to research through a postal consent procedure. Results There was a high level of awareness of and involvement in tobacco marketing among the 15-16 year olds sampled in the study: around 95% were aware of advertising and all were aware of some method of point of sale marketing. Awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing were both significantly associated with being a smoker: for example, 30% (55/185) of smokers had received free gifts through coupons in cigarette packs, compared with 11% (21/199) of non-smokers (P<0.001). When other factors known to be linked with teenage smoking were held constant, awareness of coupon schemes, brand stretching, and tobacco marketing in general were all independently associated with current smoking status. Conclusions Teenagers are aware of, and are participating in, many forms of tobacco marketing, and both awareness and participation are associated with current smoking status. This suggests that the current voluntary regulations designed to protect young people from smoking are not working, and that statutory regulations are required. PMID:11230063

  13. Basic Competence of Intensive Care Unit Nurses: Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Ritmala-Castrén, Marita; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Critical care patients benefit from the attention of nursing personnel with a high competence level. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the self-assessed basic competence of intensive care unit nurses and related factors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A basic competence scale (Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale version 1, Likert scale 1-5, 1 = poor and 5 = excellent) was employed among Finnish intensive care unit nurses (n = 431). Intensive care unit nurses' self-assessed basic competence was good (mean 4.19, SD 0.40). The attitude and value base of basic competence was excellent whereas experience base was the poorest compared to the knowledge base and skill base of intensive and critical care nursing. The strongest factor explaining nurses' basic competence was their experience of autonomy in nursing care (F value 60.85, β 0.11, SE 0.01, and P ≤ 0.0001). Clinical competence was self-rated as good. Nurses gave their highest competence self-ratings for ICU patient care according to the principles of nursing care. The ICU nurses also self-rated their professional competence as good. Collaboration was self-rated as the best competence. In basic and continuing education and professional self-development discussions it is meaningful to consider and find solutions for how to improve nurses' experienced autonomy in nursing. PMID:26557676

  14. Job Demands, Job Resources, and Job Performance in Japanese Workers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    NAKAGAWA, Yuko; INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; TSUNO, Kanami; TOMIOKA, Kimiko; NAKANISHI, Mayuko; MAFUNE, Kosuke; HIRO, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, and demographic survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, decision latitude (β=0.107, p=0.001) and extrinsic reward (β=0.158, p<0.001) were positively and significantly associated with job performance while supervisor support (β=−0.102, p=0.002) was negatively and significantly associated with job performance. On the other hand, psychological demands or co-worker support was not significantly associated with job performance. These findings suggest that higher decision latitude and extrinsic reward enhance job performance among Japanese employees. PMID:25016948

  15. Evaluation of Intervention Reach on a Citywide Health Behavior Change Campaign: Cross-Sectional Study Results.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about dissemination strategies that contribute to health information recognition. This study examined (a) health campaign exposure and awareness (slogan and logo recognition); (b) perceived communication channels; (c) differences between perceptions of researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials; and (d) differences in campaign awareness and communication channels, according to Japanese community demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey (N = 508) was conducted in Tokigawa, Japan, in 2013. The Small Change Campaign focused on increasing physical activity and improving dietary habits. Information dissemination was carried out using leaflets, newsletters, posters, website, local public relations magazines, health classes, events, and online newsletters. The participants completed a survey assessing their campaign awareness (i.e., slogan and logo) and exposure to the informational materials presented during the campaign. Fewer than half (45.4%) knew the slogan, and only 24.4% were aware of the logo. Public relations magazines, leaflets, and newsletters were significantly better-perceived health communication channels. Researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials were equally recognized (p = .34, w = .08). Furthermore, women and those who were employed were significantly more aware of the slogan, logo, and communication materials. Further research should explore effective communication strategies for community-based health promotion intervention via randomized control trials. PMID:25869407

  16. Retaining vets in farm animal practice: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Adam, K; Baillie, S; Rushton, J

    2015-06-20

    Concerns have been raised about a potential shortage of farm animal vets in the UK. There is no apparent lack of new graduates willing to work with farm animals, but practices report difficulties in recruiting and retaining experienced farm animal vets. Retention of vets in farm animal practice has been identified as a key issue for the sustainability of veterinary businesses and livestock health. A cross-sectional study design was used to identify factors associated with vets remaining in farm animal practice. Data were collected via an online questionnaire covering employment, education, personal background and future plans. The target population was vets with experience of farm animal work in the UK. 380 responses were included in the analysis. Working in a practice where accommodation was provided and an increasing number of years since graduation were associated with significantly lower odds of remaining in farm animal practice, while working in a practice where staff appraisals were carried out; coming from a family with a commercial farm; spending more time on farm work and being on call with an experienced vet in the first job after graduation increased the odds of remaining in farm work. Gender was not significantly associated with retention. PMID:26002092

  17. A cross sectional study of leptospirosis and fetal death in Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vado-Solis, Ignacio; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Segura-Correa, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly to low income human population. Acute leptospiral infection during pregnancy has been associated with spontaneous abortion and fetal death during the first trimester and the abortion may occur as consequence of systemic failure. Objective: To estimate the frequency of Leptospira interrogans infection in women with spontaneous abortion in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Methods: A cross sectional study on women with spontaneous abortion was conducted. Serum samples were tested for Leptospirosis by the microaglutination test, to estimate the frequency of the infecting serovar. The indirect ELISA IgM was used to detect recent infection by L. interrogans. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue of placenta for PCR detection of L. interrogans. Results: Overall frequency of infection with L. interrogans in the 81 women with abortion was 13.6%. Five of the 12 serovars evaluated were found and included. Two of the 11 women with abortion and positive to microaglutination test were also positive to the ELISA IgM test. None samples were positive for PCR Leptospira diagnosis. Conclusion: two women could be associated with spontaneous abortion due to leptospirosis, because they showed antibodies against L. interrogans in the microaglutination test and ELISA IgM assays. Differences between regions were found with respect to the prevalences of lesptospirosis. PMID:27226658

  18. Cultural desire need not improve with cultural knowledge: A cross-sectional study of student nurses.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Anton Neville; Raymond, Anita; Jacob, Elisabeth; Jones, Janet; McGrail, Matthew; Drysdale, Marlene

    2016-07-01

    Cultural desire is considered to be a prerequisite for developing cultural competence. This study explored cultural desire among student nurses towards Aboriginal peoples and its association with participation in a one-semester unit on Aboriginal health through a cross-sectional survey. Our main outcome, cultural desire, was measured using two items level of agreement with Aboriginal health being an integral component of the nursing curriculum and an expressed interest in Aboriginal health. 220 (74.58%) student nurses completed the survey. Completing the Aboriginal Health and wellbeing unit did not influence students' opinions on inclusion of the unit as part of the nursing curriculum (odds ratio OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.43-1.29) or their overall cultural desire (mean difference = -0.69, 95% CI -1.29 to -0.08, p = 0.026). Students who completed the unit reported a higher understanding of Aboriginal health (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.35-4.08) but lower interest levels in the subject (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.24-0.84). Further research is necessary to explore how and when cultural desire might develop in nurses who are trained in cultural competence particularly in the contexts of post-colonial disparities and political conflict. PMID:27428699

  19. Gestational Hypertension and Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ledda, Caterina; Fiore, Maria; Santarelli, Lory; Bracci, Massimo; Mascali, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Maria Grazia; Busà, Alfredo; Ferrante, Margherita; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. High blood pressure (BP) with diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg and/or systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg arising after week 22 of pregnancy and resolving after delivery is defined as gestational hypertension (GHY). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether occupational and/or environmental exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticide affects GHY. Women at approximately 22 weeks of gestation were recruited. OP pesticide exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy was classified into four categories: no exposure, indirect exposure, domestic exposure, and occupational exposure. Application of the exclusion criteria left 2203 participants (mean age 30.4 ± 11.6 years). Data analysis showed that in women with indirect OP pesticide exposure the incidence of GHY was slightly higher than that in the world population, whereas domestic exposure involved a 7% increase and occupational exposure a 12% increase. Analysis of the pesticides used by participants highlighted a possible role for malathion and diazinon (adjusted OR 1.09 and 1.14, resp.). Further investigation of exposed workers and the general population is clearly warranted given the broad diffusion of OP pesticides and their possible public health impact, maybe by including a wider range of health outcomes. PMID:26339602

  20. Tooth size discrepancy in a Libyan population, a cross-sectional study in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Bugaighis, Iman; Karanth, Divakar

    2015-01-01

    Objetives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the tooth size discrepancy (TSD) in a group of Libyan schoolchildren, and to compare TSD between sexes. Material and Methods: The sample comprised 333 Libyan schoolchildren (162 males with a mean (SD) age of 14.4 (1.1) years, and 171 females with a mean age of 14.1 (1.1) years). Anterior and overall TSD ratios were computed using descriptive statistics. Sex differences were statistically assessed using an independent t-test (P<0.05). Results: Males showed significantly wider MD tooth width compared to females (P<0.05), except for the maxillary first premolars and mandibular central incisors. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the paired (right and left sides) tooth measurements except for the maxillary and mandibular central and lateral incisors as well as mandibular canines. The mean (SD) for overall and anterior TSD ratios were 91.3% (2.1) and 78.2% (2.6), respectively, with no significant sex differences for both variables (P> 0.05). The percentages of participants showing more than 2 SD variation for the anterior and overall ratios comprised 3% and 4.2% of the total sample, respectively. Conclusions: The anterior and overall TSD ratios for the examined subjects were established and showed no significant sexual dimorphism. Key words:Tooth size discrepancy, Libyan, schoolchildren. PMID:25810819

  1. Association between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ping; Xu, Cheng-Fu; Wan, Xing-Yong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Xu, Gen-Yun; Li, You-Ming

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among subjects who presented for a health examination at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. FLD was diagnosed based on an ultrasonography examination. Serum AFP levels were measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 9800 subjects enrolled, 2601 were diagnosed with FLD. Subjects with FLD had higher serum AFP levels than those without the disease. Subjects with high serum AFP levels had a higher prevalence of FLD, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Univariate logistic analysis showed that elevated serum AFP levels were associated with an increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.057, 95%CI: 1.031-1.084). However, after adjusting for covariates, AFP no longer remained significantly associated with the risk factors for FLD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum AFP levels are significantly associated with FLD and that AFP acts as a cofactor, but not as an independent factor, for FLD. PMID:25206293

  2. Minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian ragpickers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Kriebel, David

    2006-01-01

    Background Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage. Their life and working conditions are extremely difficult. We examined minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) among a cohort of ragpickers in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. Methods Ragpickers were matched by sex, age, and years of schooling with a sample of non-ragpickers from the same poor neighborhoods. The cross-sectional study gathered data by interview on 990 individuals in 2004. MPD were assessed using a standard self-reporting questionnaire, the SRQ-20. Results The prevalence of MPD among ragpickers was 44.7%, higher than reported by neighborhood controls (33.6%; p < 0.001). MPD were more common among females, those of lower economic level, smokers and alcoholics. Among occupational characteristics, MPD prevalence was associated with frequent static postures, low job satisfaction and recent work accidents. Conclusion Ragpickers more frequently report MPD than other poor workers living in the same neighborhoods, with many of the same life conditions. Improving the work lives of these precarious workers should address not only the physical hazards of their jobs but their mental and emotional health as well. PMID:16734911

  3. Cross-sectional small intestinal surveillance of maintenance hemodialysis patients using video capsule endoscopy: SCHEMA study

    PubMed Central

    Hosoe, Naoki; Matsukawa, Shigeaki; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Naganuma, Makoto; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Ida, Yosuke; Tsuchiya, Yoshitsugu; Hibi, Toshifumi; Ogata, Haruhiko; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Small intestinal pathology in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been studied in only a small number of retrospective case series. One method for noninvasively surveying small intestinal disorders is video capsule endoscopy (VCE). The primary aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of small intestinal abnormalities among asymptomatic maintenance HD outpatients using VCE. The secondary aim was to assess the clinical impact of these abnormalities. Patients and methods: This study consisted of two phases. In phase I, a cross-sectional study, a cohort of patients who received maintenance HD three times weekly at an outpatient hemodialysis clinic were studied using VCE. Phase II was a prospective cohort study with follow up for 1 year after VCE. Results: Fifty-six patients were enrolled in this study, and two were excluded from analysis due to capsule retention in the stomach. The prevalence of small bowel abnormalities in HD patients was 64.8 % (35/54) (95 % confidential interval 52.1 % – 77.6 %). Of 54 patients, 21 (38.9 %) had mucosal lesions, 10 (18.5 %) had vascular lesions, and 4 (7.4 %) had both lesion types. During the 1-year follow-up period, events occurred in four patients. A small bowel-associated event was observed in one patient, who underwent laparoscopy-assisted small intestinal partial resection 3 months after diagnosis by VCE. All patients in whom events were seen had small bowel abnormalities; no events were observed in the VCE-negative group. Conclusions: Although asymptomatic maintenance HD patients had a high prevalence of small bowel abnormalities (64.8 %), they did not have a high incidence of small bowel-associated events during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:27227120

  4. Non-response in a cross-sectional study of respiratory health in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsen, Regine; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Henneberger, Paul K; Gundersen, Gølin Finckenhagen; Torén, Kjell; Kongerud, Johny; Fell, Anne Kristin Møller

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Declining participation in epidemiological studies has been reported in recent decades and may lead to biased prevalence estimates and selection bias. The aim of the study was to identify possible causes and effects of non-response in a population-based study of respiratory health in Norway. Design The Telemark study is a longitudinal study that began with a cross-sectional survey in 2013. Setting In 2013, a random sample of 50 000 inhabitants aged 16–50 years, living in Telemark county, received a validated postal questionnaire. The response rate was 33%. In this study, a random sample of 700 non-responders was contacted first by telephone and then by mail. Outcome measures Response rates, prevalence and OR of asthma and respiratory symptoms based on exposure to vapours, gas, dust or fumes (VGDF) and smoking. Causes of non-response. Results A total of 260 non-responders (37%) participated. Non-response was associated with younger age, male sex, living in a rural area and past smoking. The prevalence was similar for responders and non-responders for physician-diagnosed asthma and several respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of chronic cough and use of asthma medication was overestimated in the Telemark study, and adjusted prevalence estimates were 17.4% and 5%, respectively. Current smoking was identified as a risk factor for respiratory symptoms among responders and non-responders, while occupational VGDF exposure was a risk factor only among responders. The Breslow-Day test detected heterogeneity between productive cough and occupational VGDF exposure among responders. Conclusions The Telemark study provided valid estimates for physician-diagnosed asthma and several respiratory symptoms, while it was necessary to adjust prevalence estimates for chronic cough and use of asthma medication. Reminder letters had little effect on risk factor associations. Selection bias should be considered in future investigations of the relationship between

  5. The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Minami; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3) examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p < .001), subjective job performance (β = 0.116, p < .001), and job satisfaction (β = 0.079, p = .002), even after adjusting for covariates (β = 0.083, p < .001; β = 0.104, p < .001; β = 0.060, p = .015, respectively). The results indicate that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance

  6. The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Koichiro; Nishimoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Minami; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3) examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p < .001), subjective job performance (β = 0.116, p < .001), and job satisfaction (β = 0.079, p = .002), even after adjusting for covariates (β = 0.083, p < .001; β = 0.104, p < .001; β = 0.060, p = .015, respectively). The results indicate that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance

  7. A cross-sectional study on oral health status of battery factory workers in Chennai city

    PubMed Central

    Raj, J. Babu Susai; Gokulraj, Sabitha; Sulochana, Konthoujam; Tripathi, Vivek; Ronanki, Susanthi; Sharma, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objective: Some occupational exposures are associated with oral changes in both hard and soft tissues. Presence of oral lesions can interfere with speech, swallowing, and general health of a patient. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the oral health status of battery factory workers in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 subjects were selected in battery factory out of 3500 workers using statistical sample selection formula 4pq/l2 and divided into study and control groups based on acid exposure. The data were recorded on a modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The data were evaluated using Chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 subjects were selected in battery factory out of 3500 workers using statistical sample selection formula 4pq/l2 and divided into study and control groups based on acid exposure. The data were recorded on a modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The data were evaluated using Chi-square test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Oral symptoms such as disturbed taste, dry mouth, oral ulcers, and foul breath were statistically significant between the groups (<0.001). Dental erosion was statistically significant with the duration of working years. Dental erosion was significant among study group compared to control (0.001). Conclusion: The present study showed that selected samples had various oral conditions due to exposure to acids from battery. It was observed that oral health problems were directly related to the duration of acid exposure in the study group. Implementing exhaust ventilation and monitoring the devices help in reducing the acid exposure. Implementation of oral hygiene education and nutritional supplementation helps in improving their oral health. PMID:27114955

  8. Tobacco Chewing and Associated Factors Among Youth of Western Nepal: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Subba, SH; Binu, VS; Menezes, RG; Ninan, J; Rana, MS

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smokeless tobacco is found to be as addictive and harmful as smoking but have not been explored into, especially among youth. Objectives: This study was conducted to find the prevalence of tobacco chewing among college students in Nepal and the factors that have influence over their use. Study design: A cross-sectional study with a self-administered questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Five colleges of different streams in Pokhara city were selected for the study. A total of 816 students participated. The study was conducted during the period of May 2006–February 2007, using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Results: Overall prevalence of ever tobacco chewing was 21.3% (males 30.2% and females 10.9%) among the youth with average age of initiation 15.7 years. Pan masala and gutka were used by 63.6% and frequency of use varied widely and only 5.7% said they were daily users. Reasons cited for chewing were most commonly ‘just like it’ or ‘friends chew’. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed age, ever smoking status, being ever alcoholic, and having friends or family members who chewed were significantly associated with students’ tobacco chewing. Almost one-tenth of the students believed they were addicted to chewing tobacco and 42.5% of them had tried to quit the habit. Conclusion: The study shows a high prevalence of tobacco chewing by Nepali youth. Important factors that influenced the habit were having chewer friends, their own smoking and alcohol status and having family members who chewed. It is pertinent to consider these when formulating cessation and prevention programs PMID:21976798

  9. Clinical Profile of Early Childhood Epilepsy: A Cross Sectional Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Alam, S T; Rahman, M M; Akhter, S

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorder in children. Incidence is highest in children less than 3 years of age. This cross sectional study was conducted at outpatient department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka from January 2010 to December 2010 to explore clinical profile of early childhood epilepsy. Total 50 Children with two or more unprovoked seizure after 28 days up to 36 months of age were included in this study. Majority cases were in the age group of 1 to 12 months (56%) with male predominance (78%). Onset of first seizures was found to be the highest at the age group 0-1 month (50%) with generalized seizures (66%) as the most common type of initial seizures. Highest 16(32%) patients presented with tonic clonic seizure followed by clonic seizure in 15(30%) and tonic in 11(22%) patients. Myoclonic seizure was found to be 4(8%). Only 4(8%) cases were presented with infantile spasm. Majority cases were associated with cerebral palsy (72%). Family history of epilepsy was present in 16%. EEG was done in all patients. Among them 62% were abnormal. Total 21 cases had done CT scan of brain. Among them 6(28.6%) were normal and 15(71.4%) were abnormal. The abnormal findings were cerebral atrophy 73.3%, ventricular dilatation 13.3%, encephalomalacia 6.7% and cerebral infractions were found in 26.7%. In this study majority of cases in 22(44%) were treated with Phenobarbitone (PHB) as a first line drug followed by Valproate (VPA) in 19(38%). Limited study has been conducted on early childhood epilepsy in Bangladesh. The result of this study might be helpful for further large scale study in the field of early childhood epilepsy. PMID:26931257

  10. Musculoskeletal problems and fluoride exposure: A cross-sectional study among metal smelting workers.

    PubMed

    Saha, A; Mukherjee, A K; Ravichandran, B

    2016-09-01

    Frequent and repetitive activities in job and awkward postures are shown as major contributors of musculoskeletal problems in most of the occupational health studies; however, efforts to explore newer risk factor are important to plan interventional measures. In this backdrop, this study examined contribution of fluoride exposure to musculoskeletal complaints. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered questionnaire survey was conducted involving 180 randomly selected subjects from a metal smelting industry. Clinical examination of the subjects was also performed to assess their health status and morbidity details. Assessment of personal exposure to particulate and gaseous fluoride at workplace was conducted. Urinary fluoride level was also examined in post-shift samples collected from study subjects. The mean age of the study subjects was 39.1 (±6.7) years. Majority of the workers (42.5%) were engaged in pot room. About 54% workers were suffering from backache and 66% subjects had joint pain. Exposure of workers to both particulate and gaseous fluoride and post-working shift urinary fluoride level was significantly higher in pot-room workers in comparison with all other workers. It was observed that age (odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.34), drinking untreated water (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.03-2.76), working in pot room (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.13-1.91) and urinary fluoride level (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.81-3.75) had significant effects on musculoskeletal complaints. This study concludes that along with other predictors such as nature of work, posture at work and age of worker, exposure to fluoride also has significant role in the occurrence of musculoskeletal morbidity. PMID:25653036

  11. Elevated oxidative stress among coronary artery disease patients on statin therapy: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Vasudevan, Damodaran M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Statins are a major group of drugs that reduces LDL-C levels, which are proven to have other beneficial effects such as preventing coronary events. The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress and select novel coronary artery disease risk factors among coronary artery disease patients on statins. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, we compared total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL among male coronary artery disease patients on statin therapy (group 2, n = 151) with sex-matched, diabetic patients (group 3, n = 80) as well as healthy controls (group 1, n = 84). Results Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly lower among subjects of group 2 compared to other two groups. The novel risk factors studied did not differ significantly between groups, except for a higher homocysteine level among group 2 subjects compared to the other two groups. Elevated oxidative stress, indicated by lower reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and ascorbic acid as well as higher malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL was observed among group 2 subjects. Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde were found to be independent predictors for coronary artery disease among this study population. Conclusions Though coronary artery disease subjects had healthy lipid profile, oxidative stress, a recognized risk factor for coronary events, was still elevated among this patient group. Novel risk factors were not found to be major predictors for coronary artery disease among the study subjects. PMID:26138179

  12. Occupational Hearing Loss among Chinese Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuewei; Wang, Haijiao; Weng, Shaofan; Su, Wenjin; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yanfei; Yu, Dan; Du, Lili; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Weihong; Shi, Tingming

    2015-01-01

    Background Occupational hearing loss is an increasingly prevalent occupational condition worldwide, and has been reported to occur in a wide range of workplaces; however, its prevalence among workers from municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) remains less clear. This study aimed to investigate the occupational hearing loss among Chinese MSWL workers. Methods A cross-sectional study of 247 workers from 4 Chinese MSWLs was conducted. Noise and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) levels at worksites were determined. We conducted hearing examinations to determine hearing thresholds. A worker was identified as having hearing loss if the mean threshold at 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in either ear was equal to or greater than 25 dB. Prevalence of occupational hearing loss was then evaluated. Using unconditional Logistic regression models, we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of MSWL work associated with hearing loss. Results According to the job title for each worker, the study subjects were divided into 3 groups, including group 1 of 63 workers without MSWL occupational hazards exposure (control group), group 2 of 84 workers with a few or short-period MSWL occupational hazards exposure, and group 3 of 100 workers with continuous MSWL occupational hazards exposure. Both noise and TVOCs levels were significantly higher at worksites for group 3. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds at frequencies of 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz were found in group 3, compared with that in group 1 and group 2. The overall prevalence rate of hearing loss was 23. 5%, with the highest in group 3 (36.0%). The OR of MSWL work associated with hearing loss was 3.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-8.96). Conclusion The results of this study suggest significantly higher prevalence of hearing loss among MSWL workers. Further studies are needed to explore possible exposure-response relationship between MSWL occupational hazards exposure and hearing loss. PMID:26042421

  13. Factors Associated with Fatigue among Men Aged 45 and Older: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Quan; Jing, Meng-Juan; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Zhang, Hui-Shan; Yuan, Le-Xin; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms reported in several studies; but few studies have concentrated on the male population, especially for the middle-aged and older men who are exposed to greater fatigue risk. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of fatigue and identify the risk factors of fatigue among men aged 45 and older in China. Methods: This study was part of a cross-sectional study on community health in Shunde (Guangdong Province, China). A total sample of 1158 men aged 45 and older were included. Sociodemographic characteristics, health and lifestyle factors and the Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) were measured by structured questionnaires through face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to determine the risk factors of fatigue. Results: Approximately 30% of participants experienced fatigue. Older age (≥75 years: adjusted OR 3.88, 95% CI 2.09–7.18), single marital status (1.94, 1.04–3.62), unemployed status (1.68, 1.16–2.43), number of self-reported chronic diseases (≥2 chronic diseases: 2.83, 1.86–4.31), number of individuals’ children (≥4 children: 2.35, 1.33–4.15), hospitalization in the last year (1.61, 1.03–2.52) were all significantly associated with increased risk of fatigue, while regular exercise (0.46, 0.32–0.65) was a protective factor against fatigue. Conclusions: Fatigue was usual in males and several factors were associated with the fatigue. These findings may have implication in risk assessment of fatigue and help in developing and implementing targeted interventions in middle-aged and elderly males. PMID:26404346

  14. Depression and general anxiety in the prisoner of war's children: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Hossein; Razavi-Ratki, Seid Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh Molavi

    2012-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression and general anxiety of the prisoners of war (POW) children. The study was also designed to compare the prevalence of depression and general anxiety amongst the POW's children and normal adults, 20 years after the Iraq-Iran war. Method An analytic cross-sectional study carried out in June 2009 in Yazd (the centre of Yazd province in Iran). The target and sampled population were the children of the Iranian POW who lived in Yazd. One hundred and twenty six POW's children, who were born before 1990 (date of father's freedom) were assessed. The duration of father's captivation was between 29-119 months. Ninety-five subjects accepted to participate. General anxiety and major depression were assessed by Persian version of Hamilton Scale for anxiety and Beck depression Inventory. This study was a combination of the psychological interview and questionnaire. Ninety five of normal adult group were also paired matched and assessed. Result Among 126 POW's children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, the responsive rate was 75.3% (95 participants). The mean age of participants was 28.3 (SD: 5.34).The father's captivation duration were 29-119 months (mean: 79.2, SD: 21.6). The prevalence of depression and general anxiety amongst the POW's children were 48.4% and 79%. The prevalence of depression and general anxiety among the paired group were 21.1% and 63.2%.The differences between two groups were significant (p =0.000). Conclusion In this study we have demonstrated the prevalence of major depression and general anxiety in POW's children and a normal adult sample. The differences of major depression and general anxiety among the two groups were significant. PMID:23482674

  15. Alcohol drinking patterns among high school students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol use is an important risk factor for morbidity, mortality and social harm among adolescents. There is paucity of data on alcohol use among high school students in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with alcohol use among high school students in Ethiopia Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of alcohol use and its predictors among high school students in eastern Ethiopia in April 2010. A sample of students was taken from all schools based on their enrollment size. Prevalence estimates and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Logistic regression was performed to adjust and examine associations. Results A total of 1721 students participated in the study. The mean age of the study population was 16.4 (SD 1.6) years. A total of 372 (22.2%; 95% CI 20.2 - 24.2%) students drink alcohol. Of these, 118 (31.7%) were females and 254 (68.3) males. Multivariate analysis indicated that males (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.45-3.00), older age (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.01-1.34), having friends who used alcohol (OR 10.09; 95% CI 6.84-14.89) and living with people who use alcohol (OR 2.77; 95% CI 1.89-4.07) increased the odds of drinking among students. Conclusion There is a high level of alcohol use among high school students in the study area. Involvement of parents, health workers and school authorities are necessary to avert the problem. Specifically, their involvement in awareness campaigns and peer education training are important to encourage students to avoid alcohol use. PMID:22433230

  16. Prevalence of chronic diseases among physicians in Taiwan: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Li-Ting; Chiu, Yu-Lung; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The health of physicians is an important topic which needs to be addressed in order to provide the best quality of patient care. However, there are few studies on the prevalence of chronic diseases among physicians. In this study, we explored the prevalence of chronic diseases among physicians and compared the probability of chronic diseases between physicians and the general population using a population-based data set in Taiwan. Study design A cross-sectional study. Setting Taiwan. Participants Our study consisted of 1426 practising physicians and 5704 general participants. Primary outcome measures We chose 22 chronic diseases from the Elixhauser Comorbidity index and nine highly prevalent medical conditions in an Asian population for analysis. We used conditional logistic regression analyses to investigate the OR and its corresponding 95% CI of chronic diseases between these two groups. Results The conditional logistic regression analyses showed that physicians had lower odds of peripheral vascular disorders (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.19 to 0.90), uncomplicated diabetes (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.60 to 0.97), complicated diabetes (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.34 to 0.83), renal failure (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.19 to 0.90), liver diseases (OR=0.78, 95% CI=0.66 to 0.94), and hepatitis B or C (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.49 to 0.77) and higher odds of hypertension (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03 to 1.41), hyperlipidaemia (OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.23 to 1.67) and asthma (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.16 to 2.18) than the general population. Conclusions We concluded that although physicians had decreased prevalence of some chronic diseases, they had a significantly increased prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and asthma. PMID:26940106

  17. Touch screen computer health assessment in Australian general practice patients: a cross-sectional study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Mariko Leanne; Sanson-Fisher, Robert William; Russell, Grant; Mazza, Danielle; Makeham, Meredith; Paul, Christine Louise; Inder, Kerry Jane; D'Este, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are leading causes of death globally. Early detection of cancer and risk factors for CVD may improve health outcomes and reduce mortality. General practitioners (GPs) are accessed by the majority of the population and play a key role in the prevention and early detection of chronic disease risk factors. This cross-sectional study aims to assess the acceptability of an electronic method of data collection in general practice patients. The study will describe the proportion screened in line with guidelines for CVD risk factors and cancer as well as report the prevalence of depression, lifestyle risk factors, level of provision of preconception care, cervical cancer vaccination and bone density testing. Lastly, the study will assess the level of agreement between GPs and patients perception regarding presence of risk factors and screening. Methods and analysis The study has been designed to maximise recruitment of GPs by including practitioners in the research team, minimising participation burden on GPs and offering remuneration for participation. Patient recruitment will be carried out by a research assistant located in general practice waiting rooms. Participants will be asked regarding the acceptability of the touch screen computer and to report on a range of health risk and preventive behaviours using the touch screen computer. GPs will complete a one-page survey indicating their perception of the presence of risk behaviours in their patients. Descriptive statistics will be generated to describe the acceptability of the touch screen and prevalence of health risk behaviours. Cohen's κ will be used to assess agreement between GP and patient perception of presence of health risk behaviours. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the human research committees in participating universities. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations as well as practice

  18. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension. PMID:25354710

  19. Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and subclinical vascular disease: Cross-sectional study in older British men.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Tessa J; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A; Halcox, Julian P J; Smith, Kirsten E; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H; Jefferis, Barbara J

    2016-08-01

    Low physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary time (ST) are associated with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among older people. However, their independent contribution and importance of duration of PA and ST bouts remain unclear. We investigated associations between objectively measured PA, ST and non-invasive vascular measures, markers of CVD risk. Cross-sectional study of 1216 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.5years, measured in 2010-2012. Carotid intima thickness (CIMT), distensibility coefficient (DC) and plaque presence were measured using ultrasound; pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and augmentation index (AIx) using a Vicorder. PA and ST were measured using hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers. After adjusting for covariates, each additional 1000 steps per day was associated with a 0.038m/s lower cfPWV (95% CI=-0.076, 0.0003), 0.095 10(-3) kPa(-1) higher DC (95% CI=0.006, 0.185), 0.26% lower AIx (95% CI=-0.40, -0.12) and a 0.005mm lower CIMT (95% CI=-0.008, -0.001). Moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with lower AIx and CIMT, light PA (LPA) with lower cfPWV and CIMT and ST with higher cfPWV, AIx and CIMT and lower DC. LPA and ST were highly correlated (r=-0.62). The independence of MVPA and ST or MVPA and LPA was inconsistent across vascular measures. Bout lengths for both PA and ST were not associated with vascular measures. In our cross-sectional study of older men, all PA regardless of intensity or bout duration was beneficially associated with vascular measures, as was lower ST. LPA was particularly relevant for cfPWV and CIMT. PMID:27261410

  20. Debt Burdens among MSW Graduates: A National Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Intae

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional data reveal alarming financial situations among 2009 MSW graduates from 25 states and their loan decisions (N=260). More than a quarter of the participants owe at least $40,000 in educational loans from their MSW degree, and 30% borrowed at least $30,000 of their total college education debt. Expensive credit cards are used more…

  1. Psychological Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O.; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkinson, Kathryn; Colver, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. Design: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. Participants: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy, aged 8-12 years, identified from population-based…

  2. Prevalence and severity of micronutrient deficiency: a cross-sectional study among adolescents in Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to determine the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies (iron, zinc and folate) in Sri Lankan adolescent school children and the extent to which multiple micronutrient deficiencies exist in this population, a cross-sectional survey (2003) in the Galle district of the micronutrient and ant...

  3. Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ≥ 6mm, R-wave in V6 ≤ 3mm, S-wave in V6 ≥ 3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ≥ 6 mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system “Scranton PHT (SP) score”. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P = 0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it. PMID:25396053

  4. A multicenter cross-sectional study of mental and physical health depression in MHD patients.

    PubMed

    Vettath, R E; Reddy, Y N V; Reddy, Y N V; Dutta, S; Singh, Z; Mathew, M; Abraham, G

    2012-07-01

    Depression is ranked fourth among the disabling diseases affecting people worldwide and is the most common psychological problem in patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The aim of this study is to assess the physical and emotional health status of renal dialysis patients, based on the SF-36 scale in relation to their economic status. Sixty maintenance hemodialysis patients, with a mean age of 40±13 years were included in this cross-sectional study using the SF-36 scale. It comprises 36 questions regarding physical and mental functions, body pain, vitality, etc. An SF-36 score of 50 or less was considered as moderate to severe depression and 51-100 as mild depression to good health. 56.81% of the patients who are below poverty line under dialysis had moderate to severe depression with regard to their health status. A physical health score of up to 50 was seen in 63.63% of patients below poverty line 63.63% (P= 0.16). A mental health score of 0-50 was observed in 61.63% of the cohort studied (P = 0.22). Among the patient with diabetes (28.33%) 55.56% had depression. Dialysis duration was directly associated with deteriorating physical health status and inversely proportional to their mental health status (P<0.05). There are problems in other regular activities due to depressed physical and mental health. The factors that were identified in this study that influence depression such as poverty status, increasing age, vintage and frequency of dialysis and treatment with erythropoietin dosage should be addressed and treated accordingly to improve the quality of life. Improving self-esteem with fruitful employment opportunities, concerted rehabilitation by professionals and easing of economic burden by private-public partnership is an achievable goal. PMID:23162267

  5. Is Cumulated Pyrethroid Exposure Associated With Prediabetes? A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming; Condarco, Guido; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pyrethroids are a class of insecticides used widely for vector control programs. Acute pyrethroid poisoning is rare, but well documented, whereas effects of cumulative exposure are insufficiently described, including possible negative effect on glucose regulation. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation (prediabetes or diabetes). A cross-sectional study was performed among 116 pesticide sprayers from public vector control programs in Bolivia and 92 nonexposed controls. Pesticide exposure (duration, intensity, cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation (defined as HbA1c ≥ 5.6%) was 61.1% among sprayers and 7.9% among nonexposed controls, corresponding to an adjusted odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]) for all sprayers of 11.8 [4.2–33.2] and 18.5 [5.5–62.5] for pyrethroid-exposed only. Among sprayers who had only used pyrethroids, a significant positive trend was observed between cumulative pesticide exposure (total number of hours sprayed) and adjusted OR of abnormal glucose regulation, with OR 14.7 [0.9–235] in the third exposure quintile. The study found a severely increased prevalence of prediabetes among Bolivian pesticide sprayers compared with a control group, but the relevance of the control group is critical. Within the spraying group, an association between cumulative exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation was seen. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. PMID:25275407

  6. Psychiatric disorders among men voluntarily in treatment for violent behaviour: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Heir, Trond

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although violent behaviour and psychopathology often co-occur, there has been little research on psychiatric disorders among men in treatment for intimate partner violence (IPV). This study aimed to examine the prevalence of a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders among men voluntarily attending treatment for IPV. Setting 5 clinics for IPV treatment, located in the east, south and west of Norway, participated in the study. In a cross-sectional design, men attending therapy for violence against a partner went through a face-to-face structured diagnostic interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Participants 222 men contacted the clinic during the inclusion period; 12 men did not attend and 13 men were referred to outpatient clinics. Of the 197 men who were offered therapy, 13 did not provide consent to participate in the study, 2 were excluded and 3 men missed the interview. Results A total of 179 men participated in the study. The majority were ethnic Norwegians (88%). A total of 70.9% of the men fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for at least one ongoing psychiatric disorder. Three categories of disorders stood out with approximately equal prevalences: depressive disorders (40.6%), anxiety disorders (38.5%) including post-traumatic stress disorder (18.4%) and alcohol/substance abuse (40.2%). Antisocial personality disorder was present in approximately 2/10 participants. Comorbidity was high, with nearly half of the men (48.0%) assigned two or more diagnoses. Conclusions Men voluntarily admitted to treatment for IPV harbour a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest a need for screening procedures for psychiatric disorders as well as adoption of treatment interventions according to different types of psychopathologies and therapeutic needs. Limitations include caution in terms of generalisation to other populations not voluntarily admitted to treatment for IPV, and risk of ignoring symptoms not covered by a

  7. Who Has Mycobacterial Disease? A Cross Sectional Study in Agropastoral Communities in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kilale, Andrew Martin; Ngadaya, Esther; Muhumuza, Julius; Kagaruki, Gibson Benard; Lema, Yakobo Leonard; Ngowi, Bernard James; Mfinanga, Sayoki Godfrey; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine and describe clinical symptoms, demographic characteristics and environmental exposures as determinants of pulmonary mycobacterial diseases among patients examined for tuberculosis in agropastoral communities in Northern Tanzania. Methods This was a cross sectional study. Sputum samples were collected from patients attending three hospitals in Tanzania, and were investigated for pulmonary tuberculosis by microscopy between November 2010 and June 2012. The patients were interviewed about background information, and potential exposure to mycobacteria. Results We examined 1,711 presumptive tuberculosis cases where 936 (54.2%) were males and 775 (45.3%) females. Of all the study participants, 277 (16%) were found to have sputum samples positive for mycobacteria; 228 (13%) were smear positive, 123 (7%) were culture positive and 74 (4%) were positive by both smear microscopy and culture. Of the 123 mycobacterial culture positive, 15 (12.2%) had non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Males were more likely than females to be positive for mycobacteria. Factors associated with mycobacterial disease were loss of appetite, age groups below 41 years, and being a male. Among HIV negative patients, loss of appetite, age below 20 years and being a male were associated with being mycobacterial positive. Among HIV positive patients, males and those patients with a persistently coughing family member were more likely to harbor mycobacteria. Conclusion The findings in this study show that both M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains were prevalent in the study community. Some risk factors were identified. Although the reported predictors may improve screening for mycobacterial diseases, their use requires some precaution. PMID:27213532

  8. Multimorbidity in primary care: protocol of a national cross-sectional study in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Déruaz-Luyet, Anouk; N'Goran, A Alexandra; Tandjung, Ryan; Frey, Peter; Zeller, Andreas; Haller, Dagmar M; Rosemann, Thomas; Burnand, Bernard; Bodenmann, Patrick; Senn, Nicolas; Widmer, Daniel; Herzig, Lilli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With the ageing of the population and the general improvement of care, an increasing number of people are living with multiple chronic health conditions or ‘multimorbidity’. Multimorbidity often implies multiple medical treatments. As a consequence, the risk of adverse events and the time spent by patients for their treatments increase exponentially. In many cases, treatment guidelines traditionally defined for single conditions are not easily applicable. Primary care for individuals with multimorbidity requires complex patient-centred care and good communication between the patient and the general practitioner (GP). This often includes prioritising among the different chronic conditions. Methods and analysis The main objectives of this study are to describe the burden related to multimorbidity (disease-related burden and burden of treatment) in primary care and to identify the factors influencing it. Other objectives include evaluating patients’ perception of treatment burden and quality of life, assessing factors influencing that perception, and investigating prioritisation in the management of multimorbidity from the perspectives of GPs and patients. For this cross-sectional study, patient enrolment will take place in GP's private practices across Switzerland. A convenient sample of 100 GPs will participate; overall, 1000 patients with at least three chronic health conditions will be enrolled. Data will be collected as paper-based questionnaires for GPs and delayed telephone interview questionnaires for patients. GPs will provide demographic and practice-related data. In addition, each GP will complete a paper-based questionnaire for each patient that they enrol. Each patient will complete a telephone interview questionnaire. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the research ethics committee of Canton Vaud, Switzerland (Protocol 315/14). The results of the study will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals. PMID

  9. Perceptions and uptake of health insurance for maternal care in rural Kenya: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Jackson Michuki; Kithuka, Peter; Tororei, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Kenya, maternal and child health accounts for a large proportion of the expenditures made towards healthcare. It is estimated that one in every five Kenyans has some form of health insurance. Availability of health insurance may protect families from catastrophic spending on health. The study intended to determine the factors affecting the uptake of health insurance among pregnant women in a rural Kenyan district. Methods This was cross-sectional study that sampled 139 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at a level 5 hospital in a Kenyan district. The information was collected through a pretested interview schedule. Results The median age of the study participants was 28 years. Out of the 139 respondents, 86(62%) planned to pay for their deliveries through insurance. There was a significant relationship between insurance uptake and marital status Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.4(1.4-28.8). Those with tertiary education were more likely to take up insurance AOR 5.1 (1.3-19.2). Knowing the benefits of insurance and the limits the insurance would settle in claims was associated with an increase in the uptake of insurance AOR 7.6(2.3-25.1), AOR 6.4(1.5-28.3) respectively. Monthly income and number of children did not affect insurance uptake. Results Being married, tertiary education and having some knowledge on how insurance premiums are paid are associated with uptake of medical insurance. Information generated from this study if utilized will bring a better understanding as to why insurance coverage may be low and may provide a basis for policy changes among the insurance companies to increase the uptake. PMID:27279952

  10. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vanagas, Giedrius; Bihari-Axelsson, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197). Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p < 0,01). The multivariate analysis shows that high job demands (OR 4,128; CI 2,102–8,104; p < 0,001), patient load more than 18 patients per day (OR 5,863; CI 1,549–22,188; p < 0,01) and young age of GP's (OR 6,874; CI 1,292–36,582; p < 0,05) can be assigned as significant predictors for psychosocial stress. Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's. PMID:15946388

  11. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei-Fen; Shu, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Tong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Lun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of different dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among a middle-aged Chinese population remain extremely scare. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns and investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults aged 45–60 years. The present cross-sectional study includes 2560 participants who reported their dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. We used log-binomial regression analysis to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension risk. Four major dietary patterns were identified and labeled as traditional Chinese, animal food, western fast-food, and high-salt patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of animal food pattern scores had a greater prevalence ratio (PR) for hypertension (PR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.064–1.727; p < 0.05) in comparison to those from the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of high-salt pattern, the highest quartile had a higher prevalence ratio for hypertension (PR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.013–1.635; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings indicated that animal food and high-salt patterns were associated with increased risk of hypertension, while traditional Chinese and western fast-food patterns were not associated with the risk of hypertension. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:27120612

  12. Suicidal ideation among students of a medical college in Western Nepal: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Subba, S H; Sathian, Brijesh; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Pant, Sadip; Arun, M; Kundapur, Rashmi; Jain, Animesh; Lobo, Stany Wilfred; Ravi Shankar, P

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the developed countries to know the magnitude and factors influencing suicidal ideation among medical students, but such data are sparse in developing countries. This cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to find out the prevalence of suicidal ideation and factors influencing such ideation among students of a medical college in Western Nepal. A total of 206 students were selected using random sampling and questioned about their socio-demographic factors, other risk factors and suicidal ideation using a preformed validated questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows Version 16.0 and the EPI Info 3.5.1 Windows Version. Descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis were applied for the statistical methodology. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to examine the association between different variables. Suicidal ideation in the last one year was present in nearly one tenth of the study population and in almost one fifth of them life-time suicidal ideation was present. Factors that were associated with suicidal ideation were primarily dissatisfaction with academic performance, being in the clinical semesters, having history of drug abuse and feeling neglected by parents. Most common reason reported for suicidal ideation was family related followed by self-related. Recognition of suicidal ideation among students and their associated factors can help in detecting it on time, making the right interventions and controlling the problem. Understanding the magnitude of the problem and their epidemiology via scientific study like this would be the first step in this process. PMID:22522041

  13. Diet, metabolic polymorphisms and dna adducts: the EPIC-Italy cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Palli, D; Vineis, P; Russo, A; Berrino, F; Krogh, V; Masala, G; Munnia, A; Panico, S; Taioli, E; Tumino, R; Garte, S; Peluso, M

    2000-08-01

    DNA adducts in peripheral leukocytes are considered a reliable indicator of internal dose exposure to genotoxic agents and, possibly, of cancer risk. We investigated their association with diet and other individual characteristics in healthy adults. The prospective study EPIC-Italy, a section of a larger European project, enrolled 47,749 men and women, aged 35-64 years, in 5 centres: all provided individual information about dietary and life-style habits and a blood sample. In a cross-sectional study, approximately 100 volunteers were randomly selected from each of the three main geographical study areas (Northern, Central and Southern Italy). DNA adducts and four polymorphic metabolic genotypes were determined in peripheral leukocytes by using (32)P-postlabelling technique and PCR methods. Among 309 subjects (153 men), 72.8% had detectable levels of DNA adducts (mean: 8.1 +/- 0.6 per 10(9) nucleotides). Strong negative associations emerged with the reported frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and the intake of antioxidants. DNA adducts were higher in subjects with GSTT1 null genotype (p = 0.05). Significant differences between study centres emerged in multivariate analyses (mean levels: 11.0, 10.0, 7.2, 6.5 and 5.2 for Florence, Naples, Turin, Varese and Ragusa, respectively). A possible opposite seasonal variation was found according to latitude: adduct levels tended to be lower in winter in Florence and the southern centres, and during summer in the two northern centres. Frequent consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced levels of DNA adducts, possibly contributing to the role of diet in modulating cancer risk. PMID:10897053

  14. The Status of Social Well-Being in Iranian Nurses: a Cross- Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari, Naser; Dadkhah, Behrouz; Shamshiri, Mahmood; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Social well-being is one of the important aspects of individual’s health. However, the social aspect of health, or social well-being, has not been attended to as equally as the other aspects. Social well-being is people’s perceptions and experiences in social circumstances as well as the degree of successful responses to social challenges. The aim of the study was to investigate the social well-being of a sample of Iranian nurses. Methods: This study was a cross- sectional conducted in 2013. The study population consisted of all 1200 staff nurses working in all hospitals located in Ardabil, Iran. We invited a random sample of 281 practicing nurses to respond to the 33-item Keyes’s Social Well-Being Questionnaire and the possible range of the total score is 33-165. Higher score reflect better SWB. The quantitative analysis of this study used the Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS version 13.0. Results: The results showed that Participants’ mean score of social well-being was 105.45 (15.87). Social well-being was significantly related to participants’ age, gender, work experience, satisfaction with working in hospital and with income, familiarity with nursing prior to entering it, official position, and type of employment. However, there was no significant relationship between nurses’ social well-being and their marital status, their parents and spouses’ educational status, as well as the type of hospital.Conclusion: Nurses’ social well-being deserves special attention. Effective well-being promotion strategies should be executed for promoting their social well-being particularly in areas of social integration and social acceptance. Moreover, nurses, particularly female nurses, need strong financial, emotional, informational, and social support for ensuring their social well-being. PMID:25717454

  15. Relationship between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Li, Junping; Wang, Peiyu; Li, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies focusing on identification of dietary risk factors for hyperuricemia reported controversial findings. Moreover, evidence for relationship between hyperuricemia and eating and cooking habits remained scanty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1583 participants in a Beijing community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were also performed. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.1 % (20.2 % for males and 7.4 % for females). Among the 1372 subjects included for analysis, 720 (52.5 %) were males and the mean age was 37.7 years. For males, statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and tea intake, breakfast and midnight snack consumption were found, with an odds ratio of 0.56 (high vs. low), 2.14 (often vs. always) and 0.52 (rarely vs. always), respectively. Smoking, fatty liver disease, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were significantly related to increased serum uric acid (SUA), with a coefficient of 20.06, 11.52, 7.29, 18.97 and 13.37 on SUA, respectively. For females, no statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors were observed. In summary, hyperuricemia is highly prevalent among the adult participants in this Chinese community, especially for men. High tea intake and consuming midnight snack rarely are significantly related to decreased risk of hyperuricemia, while often-eating breakfast is associated with increased risk of hyperuricemia compared with always-eating breakfast in males. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings and to establish dietary recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia. PMID:26143162

  16. The Attitude of Medical Students Toward Death: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rafsanjan

    PubMed Central

    Asadpour, Mohammad; Sabzevari, Laya; Ekramifar, Asadollah; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Attitude toward death is one of the most important factors that can influence the behavior related to the health profession. It is thought that physicians are afraid of death more than other groups of specialist. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the attitudes of the medical students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences toward death. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study on 308 medical students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2015. Attitudes were assessed through the questionnaire of death attitude profile-revised. The collected data were analyzed upon arrival to a computer with SPSS version 14, and descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: Attitude toward death was investigated in the 5 dimensions including the fear of death, death avoidance, approach acceptance, neutral acceptance, and escape acceptance. The results showed that the mean and standard deviations of fear of death, death avoidance, natural acceptance, approach acceptance, and escape acceptance were 3.76 ± 1.15, 3.54 ± 1.33, 5.14 ± 0.86, 4.66 ± 0.95, and 3.73 ± 1.25, respectively. It was found that people who have had the experience in dealing with death had less escape of the death attitude. Conclusion: Totally, the results of this study demonstrated that the medical students had good attitudes through 5 dimensions of attitudes toward death. This is probably due to the religious beliefs and also dealing with dying patients. However, it is recommended that training programs should be provided for students in the field of attitudes toward death.

  17. Socioeconomic conditions of elderly people in Kosovo: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Kosovo is the newest state in Europe facing a particularly difficult socioeconomic and political transition. The available evidence on socioeconomic conditions and quality of life of elderly people in Kosovo is scarce notwithstanding the ageing trend due to lowering of fertility rates and a higher life-expectancy. In this context, the aim of our study was to assess the socioeconomic conditions of elderly people in post-war Kosovo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in January-March 2011 including an age- sex-and residence (urban vs. rural)-stratified sample of 1,890 individuals (83.5% response) aged 65 years and over. A structured questionnaire included assessment of socio-demographic and socioeconomic characteristics including educational level and self-perceived poverty. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association of self-perceived poverty with socio-demographic and socioeconomic factors. Results The educational level in this representative sample of elderly people in Kosovo was quite low, particularly among women. About 47% of respondents perceived themselves as poor, or extremely poor (41% of men and 52% of women). In multivariable-adjusted models, self-perceived poverty was higher among older women, low educated individuals, urban residents, and elderly individuals living alone. Conclusions Findings from this study indicate that the socioeconomic situation of the elderly population in Kosovo is rather challenging. Demographic trends coupled with the economic and political transition raise serious concerns about increasing needs for socioeconomic support of elderly people in Kosovo. Specific policies and actions should be considered by a number of stakeholders, including government and civil society in transitional Kosovo. PMID:22776197

  18. Respiratory and skin health among glass microfiber production workers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Only a few studies have investigated non-malignant respiratory effects of glass microfibers and these have provided inconsistent results. Our objective was to assess the effects of exposure to glass microfibers on respiratory and skin symptoms, asthma and lung function. Methods A cross-sectional study of 102 workers from a microfiber factory (response rate 100%) and 76 office workers (73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted. They answered a questionnaire on respiratory health, occupational exposures, and lifestyle factors, and performed spirometry. Measurements of respirable dust were available from 2004 and 2005. Results Workers exposed to glass microfibers experienced increased risk of cough (adjusted OR 2.04), wheezing (adjOR 2.20), breathlessness (adjOR 4.46), nasal (adjOR 2.13) and skin symptoms (adjOR 3.89) and ever asthma (adjOR 3.51), the risks of breathlessness (95%CI 1.68–11.86) and skin symptoms (1.70–8.90) remaining statistically significant after adjustment for confounders. There was an exposure-response relation between the risk of breathlessness and skin symptoms and increasing level of microfiber exposure. Workers exposed to sensitizing chemicals, including phenol-formaldehyde resin, experienced increased risk of cough (3.43, 1.20–9.87) and nasal symptoms (3.07, 1.05–9.00). Conclusion This study provides evidence that exposure to glass microfibers increases the risk of respiratory and skin symptoms, and has an exposure-response relation with breathlessness and skin symptoms. Exposure to sensitizing chemicals increased the risk of cough and nasal symptoms. The results suggest that occupational exposure to glass microfibers is related to non-malignant adverse health effects, and that implementing exposure control measures in these industries could protect the health of employees. PMID:19689806

  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia independently associated with the risk of hypertension: a cross-sectional study from rural China.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Guo, X; Chen, S; Zheng, L; Yang, H; Sun, G; Yu, S; Li, W; Zhou, L; Wang, J; Hu, W; Sun, Y

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the current prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) and its association with hypertension in rural adults of Northeast China. A cross-sectional study was performed in subjects aged⩾35 years in a general Chinese population. Demographic data, laboratory examination of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and self-reported information on lifestyle factors, such as physical activities, current smoking and drinking status, dietary habits and familial factors were collected by trained personnel. A total of 7130 participants (3317 men and 3813 women) were included in this study and the mean Hhcy level of the whole population was 17.39±12.34 mmol l(-1), which was 20.99±14.83 mmol l(-1) in males and 14.19±8.51 mmol l(-1) in females, respectively. Prevalence of Hhcy in total population was 41.3%. Stratified by gender, the prevalence of Hhcy was higher in males than in females (59.0 vs 25.8%, P<0.05). After adjustment for conventional risk factors including age, salt intake, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, dyslipidemia, activity time and family history, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that Hhcy was independently associated with the risk of hypertension in males (odds ratio (OR)=1.501, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.012-2.227; P<0.001), but not in females in this population (OR=1.182; 95% CI, 0.993-1.407; P=0.060). In conclusion, a high prevalence of Hhcy in the general adult population of rural northeast China was detected and Hhcy may be a risk factor for hypertension, particularly in males. PMID:26155996

  20. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus in a cross-sectional study in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Conde-Gonzalez, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Cervantes, Yolanda; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) remains a public health concern worldwide contributing to significant morbidity in developed and developing countries. This cross-sectional database study estimated the overall HAV seroprevalence and the seroprevalence by gender, age, region and socioeconomic status in Mexico. Between January and October 2010, serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1–95 y. Subjects’ gender, age, geographical region and socioeconomic status were extracted from the survey and compiled into a subset database by the Mexican National Institute of Public Health. Anti-HAV antibodies were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. A total of 3658 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort. Overall, the HAV seroprevalence was 84.2%. The HAV seroprevalence rates were similar between females (86.1%) and males (82.2%). The percentage of subjects seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies was highest in adults aged ≥ 20 y (96.9%), followed by adolescents aged 10–19 y (80.1%) and lowest in children aged 1–9 y (45.0%) (p < 0.0001). Regionally, the highest HAV seroprevalence rate was observed in the South (88.8%) followed by Central and Northern Mexico and Mexico City (p = 0.02). The HAV seroprevalence was similar between subjects of high socioeconomic (90.1%) status and of low socioeconomic status (86.6%). This study confirms the intermediate HAV endemicity in Mexico. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to evaluate the inclusion of an effective hepatitis A vaccine from a population-based perspective in addition to continuous efforts to improve hygiene and sanitation that have a substantial impact on the disease burden. PMID:23291940

  1. Nasal and conjunctival screening prior to refractive surgery: an observational and cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Koji; Sotozono, Chie; Sakamoto, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hieda, Osamu; Yamasaki, Toshihide; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate bacterial flora of clinically healthy conjunctiva and nasal cavity among patients prior to refractive surgery, as well as the characteristics of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation. Design Observational and cross-sectional study. Setting A single-centre study in Japan. Participants 120 consecutive patients pre-refractive surgery. Primary and secondary outcome measures methods Samples were obtained from the right conjunctival sac and the nasal cavity of 120 consecutive patients prior to refractive surgery and were then measured for the levels of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics. Patients were interviewed regarding their occupation, family living situation and any personal history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, smoking or contact lens wear. Results Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) (32.5%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.2%) were detected from the conjunctival sac. S. epidermidis was the most commonly isolated (68.3%) in the nasal cavity. Of the 30 patients (25.0%) with colonisation by S. aureus, 2 patients, both of whom were healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis, were found to be positive for MRSA in the nasal cavity. A history of contact lens wear, asthma or smoking, as well as patient gender and age, was not associated with MRSA colonisation. Conclusions There were only 2 patients who were colonised with MRSA, both of whom were healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis. P. acnes was predominantly found in the conjunctival sac. Further study is needed to investigate the involvement between nasal and conjunctival flora, and risk factors for infectious complications. PMID:27160843

  2. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

  3. Quality of Public Hospitals Websites: A Cross-Sectional Analytical Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salarvand, Shahin; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Salarvand, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, hospitals have turned increasingly towards the Internet and develop their own web presence. Hospital Websites could be operating as effective web resources of information and interactive communication mediums to enhance hospital services to the public. Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of websites in Tehran’s public hospitals. Material and methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved all public hospitals in Iran’s capital city, Tehran, with a working website or subsites between April and June, 2014 (N=59). The websites were evaluated using three validated instruments: a localized checklist, Google page rank, and the Alexa traffic ranking. The mentioned checklist consisted of 112 items divided into five sections: technical characteristics, hospital information and facilities, medical services, interactive on-line services and external activities. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The mean website evaluation score was 45.7 out of 224 for selected public hospitals. All the studied websites were in the weak category based on the earned quality scores. There was no statistically significant association between the website evaluation score with Google page rank (P=0.092), Alexa global traffic rank and Alexa traffic rank in Iran (P>0.05). The hospital websites had a lower quality score in the interactive online services and external activities criteria in comparing to other criteria. Due to the low quality level of the studied websites and the importance of hospital portals in providing information and services on the Internet, the authorities should do precise planning for the appreciable improvement in the quality of hospital websites. PMID:27147806

  4. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study among Romanian University Students

    PubMed Central

    NASUI, Bogdana Adriana; POPA, Monica; POPESCU, Codruta Alina

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period. Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the alcohol consumption in Romanian university students, and to describe the behaviours occurring after drinking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 undergraduate students, from a university for medicine and law. Of these students, 35.5% were males and 64.5% were females. The mean age of students was 21.9 ± 3.22 years. Validated anonymous paper questionnaires were completed voluntary by the students. Questionnaires contained demographic items, six questions for determining the level of alcohol consumed in terms of quantity and frequency, and 19 statements or problems resulting from drinking. Results The findings of the study showed that males drunk more units of alcohol/week than females (p<0.001). The prevalence of abstainers was 10.8% in males and 17.6% in women. Heavy drinkers (drinking 5 or more drinks more than once a week) were more common among male (19.3%) than among female students (16.2%). Most frequently, drinking behaviours are related to academic performance, and the possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Conclusion Effective intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent students’ alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behaviour.

  5. Standardizing admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate how hospital capacity was managed focusing on standardizing the admission and discharge processes. Methods This study was set in a 900-bed university affiliated hospital of the National Health Service, near Barcelona (Spain). This is a cross-sectional study of a set of interventions which were gradually implemented between April and December 2008. Mainly, they were focused on standardizing the admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow. Primary administrative data was obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Hospital Database. Main outcome measures were median length of stay, percentage of planned discharges, number of surgery cancellations and median number of delayed emergency admissions at 8:00 am. For statistical bivariate analysis, we used a Chi-squared for linear trend for qualitative variables and a Wilcoxon signed ranks test and a Mann–Whitney test for non-normal continuous variables. Results The median patients’ global length of stay was 8.56 days in 2007 and 7.93 days in 2009 (p < 0.051). The percentage of patients admitted the same day as surgery increased from 64.87% in 2007 to 86.01% in 2009 (p < 0.05). The number of cancelled interventions due to lack of beds was 216 patients in 2007 and 42 patients in 2009. The median number of planned discharges went from 43.05% in 2007 to 86.01% in 2009 (p < 0.01). The median number of emergency patients waiting for an in-hospital bed at 8:00 am was 5 patients in 2007 and 3 patients in 2009 (p < 0.01). Conclusions In conclusion, standardization of admission and discharge processes are largely in our control. There is a significant opportunity to create important benefits for increasing bed capacity and hospital throughput. PMID:22741542

  6. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months. There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior. Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge. Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  7. Assessment of Mental Health among Iranian Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Farahangiz, Saman; Mohebpour, Fatemeh; Salehi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives More mental morbidities were reported in medical students than their nonmedical peers, which may negatively influence their lives and future career. The aim of this study was to assess the mental health status among medical students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Method Two hundred and eight 1st to 4th year Medical students took part in this cross-sectional study. General Health Questionnaire with 28 items (GHQ-28) was used for data collection. We performed descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U test, one way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc and Kruskal Wallis H and Chi square test for statistical analysis. Results The mean age of participants was 20.70 ± 1.14 (mean ± SD) years. More than half of them (54.4%) had total GHQ score above the cut-off point considered as probably abnormal mental health status. Years of education, positive family history and low satisfaction of the medicine discipline affected their mental health. Third and fourth year students had significantly higher mean scores of total GHQ (p-value = 0.009) and anxiety, somatic and social subscales (p-value = 0.001, 0.004 and 0.026). Students with positive family history of mental illness and low satisfaction of field of the study significantly had higher GHQ scores (p-value = 0.012 and < 0.001 respectively). Conclusion Poor mental health prevalence is high among medical students in Shiraz. Proper changes in educational programs and other effective interventions to raise the students’ satisfaction may reduce the effect of other stress reasons and improve their mental health status. PMID:27004057

  8. Prevalence of dysglycemia in Calabar: a cross-sectional observational study among residents of Calabar, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enang, O E; Otu, A A; Essien, O E; Okpara, H; Fasanmade, O A; Ohwovoriole, A E; Searle, J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Population data on dysglycemia are scarce in West Africa. This study aimed to determine the pattern of dysglycemia in Calabar city in South East Nigeria. Design This was a cross-sectional observational study. Methods 1134 adults in Calabar were recruited. A multistage sampling method randomly selected 4 out of 22 wards, and 50 households from each ward. All adults within each household were recruited and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Dysglycemia was defined as any form of glucose intolerance, including: impaired fasting glucose (blood glucose level 110–125 mg/dL), impaired glucose tolerance (blood glucose level ≥140 mg/dL 2 h after consuming 75 g of glucose), or diabetes mellitus (DM), as defined by fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL, or a blood glucose level ≥200 mg/dL, 2 h after a 75 g glucose load. Results Mean values of fasting plasma glucose were 95 mg/dL (95% CI 92.1 to 97.5) for men and 96 mg/dL (95% CI 93.2 to 98.6) for women. The overall prevalence of dysglycemia was 24%. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 9%, the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance 20%, and the prevalence of undiagnosed DM 7%. All values were a few percentage points higher for men than women. Conclusions The prevalence of undiagnosed DM among residents of Calabar is similar to studies elsewhere in Nigeria but much higher than the previous national prevalence survey, with close to a quarter of the adults having dysglycemia and 7% having undiagnosed DM. This is a serious public health problem requiring a programme of mass education and case identification and management in all health facilities. Trial registration number CRS/MH/CR-HREC/020/Vol.8/43 PMID:25452872

  9. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Errea, Renato A.; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D.; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A.; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (p<0.001) whereas the last three years showed higher scores in clinical knowledge (p<0.001). In conclusion, students from this private medical school gained substantial knowledge in NTD throughout the career which seems to be related to improvement in clinical knowledge rather than to socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts. This study assures the feasibility of measuring the level of knowledge of NTD in medical students and stresses the importance of evaluating education on NTD as it may need more emphasis in epidemiological concepts, especially at developing countries such as Peru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases. PMID:26523733

  10. 2005 cross section analysis and recommendations for further studies at Everest, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. A key CCC/USDA goal for this meeting was to discuss the recent (Phase III) environmental studies performed by Argonne at Everest, Kansas, and to obtain KDHE input on the selection of possible remedial approaches to be examined as part of the Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. Argonne distributed a brief Scoping Memo (Argonne 2005) to the CCC/USDA and the KDHE before the meeting to facilitate the intended pre-CAS discussions. As a result of the September meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities for the Everest site, for further assistance in identifying and evaluating remedial alternatives for the CAS. The requested actions include the following: (1) Construction of one or more additional, strategically located interpretive cross sections to improve the depiction of the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater and contaminant movement along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility. (2) Development of technical recommendations for a stepwise pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property. (3) Identification of potential locations for several additional monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. This report presents an update on efforts of the CCC/USDA and Argonne to address the KDHE concerns, and it proposes several additional actions for consideration.

  11. Evaluation of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bathla, Manish; Singh, Manpreet; Kulhara, Paramanand; Chandna, Shalu; Aneja, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing amount of stress in undergraduate dental students leading to anxiety, depression, and suicidal attempts/suicide. Aims: This study aims to evaluate anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students and to find out the various areas of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire (to assess academic and nonacademic areas of stress) and three scales-Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A); Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) and Beck's Suicide Intent Scale (BSI). Descriptive statistics; Pearson's Chi-square test; Multiple ANOVA; Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney test were used to analyze the data at the significant level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: In a total of 258 dental undergraduate students, academic areas of stress that were found to be statistically significant were long teaching hours (P = 0.002); high workload (P ≤ 0.001); frequency of tests (P ≤ 0.001) and competition/fear of failure (P = 0.009). Lack of interest in the profession was a statistically significant nonacademic area for stress (P ≤ 0.001). The students of first and final year reported higher anxiety (HAM-A 13.93 ± 6.908 and 16.44 ± 7.637 respectively) and depression (HDRS 14.29 ± 6.302 and 14.22 ± 5.422); whereas suicidal intent was reported almost the same throughout the study sample (BSI 5.65 ± 5.465). Conclusion: An increasing level of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent due to various stressors in undergraduate dental students indicate a need to modify current education system and timely help to have psychological healthy dental professionals in future. PMID:26097358

  12. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  13. Barriers for Early Detection of Cancer Amongst Urban Indian Women: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Yugantara R.; Quraishi, Sanjay R.; Dhoble, Randheer V.; Sawant, Minaxi R.; Gore, Alka D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a leading cause of death globally. Every year, millions of cancer patients could be saved from premature death and and suffering if they had timely access to early detection and treatment. There are two main components of early detection: early diagnosis and screening. In India, cancers of cervix, breast, mouth/oropharynx are the most frequent cancers in women. These cancers are amenable to early detection. More than two third of the cancer patients are already in an advanced and incurable stage at the time of diagnosis. Objectives: This study was designed with the aim to know the reasons for non availment of cancer screening procedures and early diagnostic facilities. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was planned in Sangli, Miraj and Kupwad Corporation area during October 2013 - March 2014 by a pretested questionnaire. Women of 25 years and above were study subjects selected randomly from a cluster sample of ward with estimated sample size of 559 women. Statistical analysis was done with the help of IBM SPSS 22. Results: Nearly 74% of women said that cancer is curable. For awareness about signs and symptoms, risk factors and screening test 82.3% women scored less than 50% of total score. Only 17.7% women had awareness score more than 50%. But their attitude score was > 50% in 85.2% of women. For practice score, 24.4% women scored > 50%. Significant association was found between awareness, attitude and practice scores and education, occupation and history of cancer in family, friends and neighborhood of respondents. Conclusions: Low awareness is the main barrier for undergoing cancer screening and early detection. There is a need of effective health education programme. PMID:27366310

  14. Asthma and Wheeze Prevalence among Nursing Professionals in Western Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women) and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.9%–11.7%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%–16.6%), respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12–3.39) and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15–2.23) for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11–4.64) and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54–2.64). Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56–2.23), as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65–4.62). This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals. PMID:26690187

  15. Asthma and Wheeze Prevalence among Nursing Professionals in Western Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-12-01

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women) and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.9%-11.7%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%-16.6%), respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12-3.39) and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15-2.23) for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11-4.64) and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54-2.64). Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56-2.23), as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65-4.62). This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals. PMID:26690187

  16. Job satisfaction among public health professionals working in public sector: a cross sectional study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee’s work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee’s organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Results Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Conclusion Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change. PMID:23298253

  17. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Errea, Renato A; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D; Gallardo, Maria Susana; Cornejo, Marilhia; Urquiaga, Jorge F; Montoya, Diego; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-11-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (p<0.001) whereas the last three years showed higher scores in clinical knowledge (p<0.001). In conclusion, students from this private medical school gained substantial knowledge in NTD throughout the career which seems to be related to improvement in clinical knowledge rather than to socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts. This study assures the feasibility of measuring the level of knowledge of NTD in medical students and stresses the importance of evaluating education on NTD as it may need more emphasis in epidemiological concepts, especially at developing countries such as Peru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases. PMID:26523733

  18. A cross-sectional observational study of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Akaateba, Millicent Awialie; Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Yakubu, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ(2)(1)=49.526; p<0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa. PMID:24316503

  19. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months.There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior.Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge.Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  20. Medical errors in primary care clinics – a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient safety is vital in patient care. There is a lack of studies on medical errors in primary care settings. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of diagnostic inaccuracies and management errors in public funded primary care clinics. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in twelve public funded primary care clinics in Malaysia. A total of 1753 medical records were randomly selected in 12 primary care clinics in 2007 and were reviewed by trained family physicians for diagnostic, management and documentation errors, potential errors causing serious harm and likelihood of preventability of such errors. Results The majority of patient encounters (81%) were with medical assistants. Diagnostic errors were present in 3.6% (95% CI: 2.2, 5.0) of medical records and management errors in 53.2% (95% CI: 46.3, 60.2). For management errors, medication errors were present in 41.1% (95% CI: 35.8, 46.4) of records, investigation errors in 21.7% (95% CI: 16.5, 26.8) and decision making errors in 14.5% (95% CI: 10.8, 18.2). A total of 39.9% (95% CI: 33.1, 46.7) of these errors had the potential to cause serious harm. Problems of documentation including illegible handwriting were found in 98.0% (95% CI: 97.0, 99.1) of records. Nearly all errors (93.5%) detected were considered preventable. Conclusions The occurrence of medical errors was high in primary care clinics particularly with documentation and medication errors. Nearly all were preventable. Remedial intervention addressing completeness of documentation and prescriptions are likely to yield reduction of errors. PMID:23267547

  1. The association between neighbourhood greenspace and type 2 diabetes in a large cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bodicoat, Danielle H; O'Donovan, Gary; Dalton, Alice M; Gray, Laura J; Yates, Thomas; Edwardson, Charlotte; Hill, Sian; Webb, David R; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J; Jones, Andrew P

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between neighbourhood greenspace and type 2 diabetes. Design Cross-sectional. Setting 3 diabetes screening studies conducted in Leicestershire, UK in 2004–2011. The percentage of greenspace in the participant's home neighbourhood (3 km radius around home postcode) was obtained from a Land Cover Map. Demographic and biomedical variables were measured at screening. Participants 10 476 individuals (6200 from general population; 4276 from high-risk population) aged 20–75 years (mean 59 years); 47% female; 21% non-white ethnicity. Main outcome measure Screen-detected type 2 diabetes (WHO 2011 criteria). Results Increased neighbourhood greenspace was associated with significantly lower levels of screen-detected type 2 diabetes. The ORs (95% CI) for screen-detected type 2 diabetes were 0.97 (0.80 to 1.17), 0.78 (0.62 to 0.98) and 0.67 (0.49 to 0.93) for increasing quartiles of neighbourhood greenspace compared with the lowest quartile after adjusting for ethnicity, age, sex, area social deprivation score and urban/rural status (Ptrend=0.01). This association remained on further adjustment for body mass index, physical activity, fasting glucose, 2 h glucose and cholesterol (OR (95% CI) for highest vs lowest quartile: 0.53 (0.35 to 0.82); Ptrend=0.01). Conclusions Neighbourhood greenspace was inversely associated with screen-detected type 2 diabetes, highlighting a potential area for targeted screening as well as a possible public health area for diabetes prevention. However, none of the risk factors that we considered appeared to explain this association, and thus further research is required to elicit underlying mechanisms. Trial registration number This study uses data from three studies (NCT00318032, NCT00677937, NCT00941954). PMID:25537783

  2. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Working in general medicine, being in financial difficulty, having sleep problems, not having leisure activity and perceiving oneself in poor mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. Year of study, physical inactivity and family crisis in the past year correlated significantly with depression. Imbalanced diets significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with a lack of alone time. This is the first study to confirm empirically that clinical specialty, financial difficulties and lifestyle factors can increase nursing students' levels of depression and anxiety and symptoms of stress. Prevention, including the early detection and treatment of mental disorder, promises to reduce the prevalence of these indicators among this group. PMID:27527192

  3. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Working in general medicine, being in financial difficulty, having sleep problems, not having leisure activity and perceiving oneself in poor mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. Year of study, physical inactivity and family crisis in the past year correlated significantly with depression. Imbalanced diets significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with a lack of alone time. This is the first study to confirm empirically that clinical specialty, financial difficulties and lifestyle factors can increase nursing students’ levels of depression and anxiety and symptoms of stress. Prevention, including the early detection and treatment of mental disorder, promises to reduce the prevalence of these indicators among this group. PMID:27527192

  4. Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shantanu; King, Marissa; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Krumholz, Harlan M; McKee, Douglas; Brown, Douglas; Ross, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    greater prescribing of marketed drugs than payments for food and beverages or educational materials (484 v 110, P<0.001). Conclusions and study limitations Payments by the manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians were associated with greater regional prescribing of marketed drugs among Medicare Part D beneficiaries. Payments to specialists and payments for speaker and consulting fees were predominantly associated with greater regional prescribing of marketed drugs than payments to non-specialists or payments for food and beverages, gifts, or educational materials. As a cross sectional, ecological study, we cannot prove causation between payments to physicians and increased prescribing. Furthermore, our findings should be interpreted only at the regional level. Our study is limited to prescribing by physicians and the two drug classes studied. PMID:27540015

  5. Urbanicity and Lifestyle Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Diseases in Rural Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Riha, Johanna; Karabarinde, Alex; Ssenyomo, Gerald; Allender, Steven; Asiki, Gershim; Kamali, Anatoli; Young, Elizabeth H.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban living is associated with unhealthy lifestyles that can increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the majority of people live in rural areas, it is still unclear if there is a corresponding increase in unhealthy lifestyles as rural areas adopt urban characteristics. This study examines the distribution of urban characteristics across rural communities in Uganda and their associations with lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases. Methods and Findings Using data collected in 2011, we examined cross-sectional associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors in rural communities in Uganda, with 7,340 participants aged 13 y and above across 25 villages. Urbanicity was defined according to a multi-component scale, and Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between urbanicity and lifestyle risk factors by quartile of urbanicity. Despite all of the villages not having paved roads and running water, there was marked variation in levels of urbanicity across the villages, largely attributable to differences in economic activity, civil infrastructure, and availability of educational and healthcare services. In regression models, after adjustment for clustering and potential confounders including socioeconomic status, increasing urbanicity was associated with an increase in lifestyle risk factors such as physical inactivity (risk ratio [RR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.24), low fruit and vegetable consumption (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.23), and high body mass index (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.77). Conclusions This study indicates that even across rural communities in SSA, increasing urbanicity is associated with a higher prevalence of lifestyle risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. This finding highlights the need to consider the health impact of urbanization in rural areas across SSA. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25072243

  6. Avian influenza seroprevalence and biosecurity risk factors in Maryland backyard poultry: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-01-01

    Major implications on a country's economy, food source, and public health. With recent concern over the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks around the world, government agencies are carefully monitoring and inspecting live bird markets, commercial flocks, and migratory bird populations. However, there remains limited surveillance of non-commercial poultry. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in backyard poultry flocks using a convenience sampling method across three regions of Maryland from July 2011 to August 2011. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza by investigating the prevalence and seroprevalence in this potentially vulnerable population and by evaluating biosecurity risk factors associated with positive findings. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds among 39 registered premises. Analysis indicated bird and flock seroprevalence as 4.2% (11/262) and 23.1% (9/39), respectively. Based on RT-qPCR analysis, none of the samples were found to be positive for AI RNA and evidence of AI hemagglutinin subtypes H5, H7, or H9 were not detected. Although no statistically significant biosecurity associations were identified (p≤0.05), AI seroprevalence was positively associated with exposure to waterfowl, pest control, and location. AI seropositive flocks exposed to waterfowl were 3.14 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those not exposed (p = 0.15). AI seropositive flocks that did not use pest control were 2.5 times as likely to be AI seropositive compared to those that did and AI seropositive flocks located in the Northern region of Maryland were 2.8 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those that were located elsewhere. PMID:23437257

  7. Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy among Unmarried Female University Students: A Cross-sectional Study from China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjing; Long, Lu; Cai, Hui; Wu, Yue; Xu, Jing; Shu, Chang; Wang, Peng; Li, Bo; Wei, Qinyu; Shang, Xuejun; Wang, Xueyi; Zhang, Meimei; Xiong, Chengliang; Yin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9%) of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge. PMID:26091505

  8. How university students view human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination: A cross-sectional study in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huachun; Wang, Wei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yongjie; Zhao, Fanghui; Wang, Shaoming; Zhang, Shaokai; Ma, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The acceptability of HPV vaccination among university students in China is not well understood. Our study was of cross-sectional study design. We collected a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of, attitude toward and acceptability of HPV vaccination. A total of 351 students were included in data analyses, among whom 47.6% were males and 70.0% aged 19-21. Only 10.3% had previously heard of HPV and 5.4% HPV vaccine. Male and female students were equally likely to accept HPV vaccine (71.8 vs 69.4%, p = 0.634) and recommend it to sexual partners (73.1 vs 76.7%, p = 0.441). The great majority of students could only afford RMB 300 (USD 50) or less for HPV vaccination. HPV vaccination acceptance was associated with being in year-one (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)  = 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-6.75), being from a key university (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.07-3.31), having heard of HPV-related morbidities (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.05-3.35), being concerned about HPV-related morbidities (AOR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.16-4.27) and believing the vaccine should be given before first sexual contact (AOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38-4.29). Female students were more likely to anticipate a late uptake of HPV vaccination (p = 0.002). The relatively lower levels of HPV knowledge but higher levels of vaccine acceptance among undergraduates highlighted the need for education on the roles of sexual behaviors in HPV transmission. PMID:26308701

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ohio EMS Providers: A Statewide Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Robert C; Hoet, Armando E; Bell, Christopher; Kelley, Christina; Lu, Bo; Anderson, Sarah E; Stevenson, Kurt B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the nasal carriage prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and the associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Ohio EMS personnel randomly sampled from 84 urban and rural agencies. Surveys assessing demographics, occupational history, health, cohabitation status, and hygiene practice were collected with nasal swabs from those who enrolled. Survey weight adjusted analysis was performed (1) to estimate MRSA nasal carriage prevalence of Ohio EMS providers, and (2) to identify variables associated with MRSA. MRSA was detected in 4.6% (13/280) EMS personnel sampled. After employing a survey-weighted analysis the following risk factors associated with MRSA carriage were identified: those who did not practice frequent hand hygiene after glove use (OR, 10.51; 95% CI, 2.54-43.45; P = 0.0012), living with someone with a recent staphylococcal infection (OR, 9.02; 95% CI, 1.03-78.98; P = 0.0470), and individuals with low frequency of hand washing (< 8 times per shift) (OR, 4.20; 95% CI 1.02-17.27; P = 0.0468). An additional risk factor identified through the logistic regression analysis on the study population was EMS workers with an open wound or skin infection (OR, 6.75; 95% CI, 1.25-36.36; P = 0.0262). However, this was not significant in the survey-weighted analysis. The high prevalence of MRSA in Ohio EMS personnel is both an occupational hazard and patient safety concern. Implementing methods to reinforce CDC guidelines for proper hygiene could decrease MRSA found in the EMS setting. Previous literature suggests that a reduction in MRSA colonization can lead to decreases in transmission and improved health for both patients and personnel. PMID:26516797

  10. The Association between Walking and Perceived Environment in Chinese Community Residents: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yingnan; Usagawa, Tricia; Fu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background The neighborhood environment, as a determinant of walking, has been assessed in several developed countries. However, few studies have investigated these associations in Chinese populations. Objective To examine the association between the perceived neighborhood environment and walking for recreation or transportation purposes among Chinese community residents. Methods We used a multi-stage stratified random sampling design to conduct a cross-sectional study of 1528 Chinese adults in Shanghai. Environmental and walking variables were assessed using a revised Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Chinese subjects and a long version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Self-reported demographic variables including gender, age, employment status, and location of community were also collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the association between the neighborhood environment and walking. Results Based on the results of IPAQ, 13.7% of the overall subjects were physical inactive, which was considered to be lowly active. For all participants, accessibility to services was significantly associated with walking for both recreation and transportation (odds ratio = 1.062, 95% confidence interval: 1.016, 1.110; odds ratio = 1.053; 95% confidence interval: 1.008, 1.100, respectively). In males, accessibility to services was significantly associated both with walking for recreation and walking for transportation. However, a significantly negative association was found between the neighborhood surroundings and walking for recreation. In contrast, females who perceived good traffic safety tended to walk for recreation. Data also revealed a difference between working and retired individuals. Among working participants, perceived environmental variables were not significantly associated with walking for recreation and transportation. Conclusions The association between neighborhood environment and

  11. Polymorphisms in the glutathione pathway modulate cystic fibrosis severity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) clinically manifests with various levels of severity, which are thought to be modulated by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), modifier genes, and the environment. This study verified whether polymorphisms in modifier genes associated with glutathione (GSH) metabolism influence CF severity. Methods A cross-sectional study of 180 CF patients was carried out from 2011 to 2012. We analyzed CFTR mutations, polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions, GSTP1 + 313A > G, GCLC-129C > T, and GCLC-3506A > G) in modifier genes and CF clinical severity as assessed by 28 clinical and laboratory variables. Results Significant associations were found between modifier gene polymorphisms and particular phenotypes or genotype changes. These included GCLC-129C > T with a higher frequency of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid to CC genotype (p = 0.044), and GCLC-3506A > G with a higher frequency of the no-mucoid P. aeruginosa (NMPA) to AA genotype (p = 0.012). The GSTT1 deletion was associated with a higher frequency of the NMPA to homozygous deletion (p = 0.008), GSTP1 + 313A > G with a minor risk of osteoporosis (p = 0.036), and patient age ≤ 154 months (p = 0.044) with the AA genotype. The Bhalla score was associated with GCLC-3506A > G (p = 0.044) and GSTM1/GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms (p = 0.02), while transcutaneous hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels were associated with GSTT1 deletions (p = 0.048). Conclusion CF severity is associated with polymorphisms in GSH pathways and CFTR mutations. PMID:24593045

  12. Fate of Articles That Warranted Retraction Due to Ethical Concerns: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Nadia; Wager, Elizabeth; Tramèr, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study journals' responses to a request from the State Medical Association of Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, to retract 88 articles due to ethical concerns, and to check whether the resulting retractions followed published guidelines. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study. Population 88 articles (18 journals) by the anaesthesiologist Dr. Boldt, that warranted retraction. Method According to the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics, we regarded a retraction as adequate when a retraction notice was published, linked to the retracted article, identified the title and authors of the retracted article in its heading, explained the reason and who took responsibility for the retraction, and when the retracted article was freely accessible and marked using a transparent watermark that preserved original content. Two authors extracted data independently (January 2013) and contacted editors-in-chief and publishers for clarification in cases of inadequate retraction. Results Five articles (6%) fulfilled all criteria for adequate retraction. Nine (10%) were not retracted (no retraction notice published, full text article not marked). 79 (90%) retraction notices were published, 76 (86%) were freely accessible, but only 15 (17%) were complete. 73 (83%) full text articles were marked as retracted, of which 14 (16%) had an opaque watermark hiding parts of the original content, and 11 (13%) had all original content deleted. 59 (67%) retracted articles were freely accessible. One editor-in-chief stated personal problems as a reason for incomplete retractions, eight blamed their publishers. Two publishers cited legal threats from Dr. Boldt's co-authors which prevented them from retracting articles. Conclusion Guidelines for retracting articles are incompletely followed. The role of publishers in the retraction process needs to be clarified and standards are needed on marking retracted articles. It remains unclear who should check that retractions are done

  13. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected patients in Ghana: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Obirikorang, Christian; Quaye, Lawrence; Osei-Yeboah, James; Odame, Enoch Anto; Asare, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in HIV-infected patients is very limited in the Ghanaian setting and may vary across the globe by the different study populations and criteria used. Aim: We investigated the prevalence of MetS among HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at the St. Dominic Hospital, Akwatia, Ghana. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 433 HIV-infected patients (294 on HAART and 139 HAART-naïve) from the period of February 2013 to December 2013. Information on the demographic, clinical, anthropometric characteristics were obtained and lipid profile for each patient was assessed. MetS was assessed based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), World Health Organization (WHO) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 24.5% according to WHO criteria, 48.3% by NCEP-ATP III criteria, and 42.3% by IDF criteria. In general, participants on HAART were significantly associated with higher prevalence of MetS compared to those without HAART (P < 0.05) irrespective of the criteria used. Prevalence of clustering components of MetS was significantly higher among those on HAART when risk scores of 2 and above were used compared with those not on HAART (P < 0.05). Conclusion: HAART recipient developed MetS as indicated by dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and abnormal body fat. It is incumbent on health giver to incorporate MetS assessment as a part of treatment and management plan in patients receiving HAART. PMID:27226681

  14. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  15. Intimate femicide–suicide in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Vetten, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the incidence and patterns of intimate femicide–suicide in South Africa and to describe the factors associated with an increase in the risk of suicide after intimate femicide (i.e. the killing of an intimate female partner). Methods A cross-sectional retrospective national mortuary-based study was conducted at a proportionate random sample of 25 legal laboratories to identify all homicides committed in 1999 of women aged over 13 years. Data were collected from the mortuary file, autopsy report and a police interview. Findings Among 1349 perpetrators of intimate femicide,19.4% committed suicide within a week of the murder. Suicide after intimate femicide was more likely if the perpetrator was from a white rather than an African racial background (odds ratio, OR: 5.8; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.21–27.84); was employed as a professional or white-collar worker rather than a blue-collar worker (OR: 37.28; 95% CI: 5.82–238.93); and owned a legal gun rather than not owning a legal gun (OR: 45.26; 95% CI: 8.33–245.8). The attributable fraction shows that 91.5% of the deaths of legal gun-owning perpetrators and their victims may have been averted if this group of perpetrators did not own a legal gun. Conclusion South Africa has a rate of intimate femicide–suicide that exceeds reported rates for other countries. This study highlights the public health impact of legal gun ownership in cases of intimate femicide–suicide. PMID:18670666

  16. Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: A cross-sectional study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zayeni, Habib; Haji-Abbasi, Asghar; Foumani, Seyed Ali Alavi; Tohidi, Mehdi; Masooleh, Irandokht Shenavar; Parsa, Banafsheh Ghavidel; Aghaei, Mehrdad; Hassankhani, Amir; Parsa, Pooneh Ghavidel; Maafi, Alireza Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a type of pulmonary manifestation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Mostly RA-ILD has no symptoms and is only diagnosed by clinical examination, pulmonary function test (PFT), and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); hence it seems that the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in early stages of RA is of great importance. Therefore, we decided to answer this question whether the evaluation of RA patients without pulmonary symptoms using methods such as PFT and HRCT are justifiable and reasonable or not. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a referral rheumatology clinic in Razi hospital of Rasht, Iran. Forty-four consecutive patients, diagnosed with RA, were enrolled. Physical examination of the joints was performed by an rheumatologist. The activity of RA was evaluated in all patients by Disease Activity Score 28. An expert pulmonologist performed the respiratory examination in all participants. Then, all subjects were referred for chest X-ray, PFT, and HRCT of lungs. Results: Patients included in this study, 9 (20.45%) males and 35 (79.55%) females, were 21–73 years old and their mean age was 49 ± 13 years. Significant relation between PFT and respiratory complaints was observed (P = 0.016). PFT had significant relation with respiratory examinations (P = 0.009). Our results indicated a significant relation between disease activity rate and PFT (P = 0.038). While HRCT had any significant relation with above items. Conclusion: We concluded, using PFT in the respiratory assessment of RA patients can be limited to persons with high disease activity, respiratory complaints, and positive findings in the clinical respiratory examination. PMID:26933307

  17. Paternal Age and General Cognitive Ability—A Cross Sectional Study of Danish Male Conscripts

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, John; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Ehrenstein, Vera; Petersen, Liselotte

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Offspring of older men have impaired cognitive ability as children, but it is unclear if this impairment persists into adulthood. The main objective of this study was to explore the association between paternal age at offspring birth and general cognitive ability as young adults. Design Population-based cross-sectional study with prospectively collected data on obstetric factors and parental education. Setting Nationwide Danish sample. Participants Male conscripts (n = 169,009). Primary and secondary outcome measures General cognitive ability as assessed by the Børge Priens test score, an intelligence test with components related to logical, verbal, numerical and spatial reasoning. Results We observed an inverse U-shaped association between paternal age and general cognitive ability (slightly lower test scores in the offspring of fathers aged less than 25 years and older than 40 years, compared with fathers aged 25 to 29 years). However, after adjustment for maternal age, parental education and birth order the shape of the association changed. Offspring of fathers younger than 20 still showed slightly lower cognitive ability (-1.11 (95% CI -1.68 to -0.54)), but no significant impairments were identified in the men whose fathers were older than 29 years at the time of their birth (e.g. the mean difference in test score in the offspring of fathers aged 40 to 44 years were -0.03 [95% CI (-0.27 to 0.20)] compared with fathers aged 25 to 29 years). Conclusions We did not find that the offspring of older fathers had impaired cognitive ability as young adults. Whereas, we found a tendency that the offspring of teen fathers have lower cognitive ability. Thus, our results suggest that any potentially deleterious effects of older fathers on general cognitive ability as young adults may be counter-balanced by other potentially beneficial factors. PMID:24116230

  18. Violence towards personnel in out-of-hours primary care: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Joa, Torill Skibeli; Morken, Tone

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate (1) the prevalence of occupational violence in out-of-hours (OOH) primary care, (2) the perceived cause of violence, and (3) the associations between occupation, gender, age, years of work, and occupational violence. Design A cross-sectional study using a self-administered postal questionnaire. Setting Twenty Norwegian OOH primary care centres. Subjects Physicians, nurses, and others with patient contact at OOH primary care centres, 536 responders (75% response rate). Main outcome measures Verbal abuse, threats, physical abuse, sexual harassment. Results In total, 78% had been verbally abused, 44% had been exposed to threats, 13% physically abused, and 9% sexually harassed during the last 12 months. Significantly more nurses were associated with verbal abuse (OR 3.85, 95% confidence interval 2.17–6.67) after adjusting for gender, age, and years in OOH primary care. Males had a higher risk for physical abuse (OR 2.36, CI 1.11–5.05) and higher age was associated with lower risk for sexual harassment (OR 0.28, CI 0.14–0.59), when adjusted for background variables. Drug influence and mental illness were the most frequently perceived causes for the last occurring episode of physical abuse, threats, and verbal abuse. Conclusion This first study on occupational violence in Norwegian OOH primary care found that a substantial number of health care workers experience occupational violence from patients or visitors. The employer should take action to prevent occupational violence in OOH primary care. PMID:22348514

  19. Epidemiology of cancers in Lahore, Pakistan, 2010–2012: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Badar, Farhana; Mahmood, Shahid; Yusuf, Muhammed Aasim; Sultan, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the population-level cancer estimates for the Lahore district, which is part of the Punjab Cancer Registry (PCR), Pakistan. The average population per year of Lahore was estimated at 9.8 million in 2010–2012. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The Registry has 19 collaborating centres in Lahore that report their data to the Central Office located within a tertiary care cancer treatment facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Participants Patients belonging to Lahore, of any age-group, and diagnosed with cancer in 2010–2012, were included in the study. They were followed up between July and October 2015 to determine their vital status. Outcome measures Summaries were generated for gender, the basis of diagnosis, diagnoses and deaths. The Age-Standardized Incidence Rates (ASIR) were computed per 100 000 population, by gender and cancer site. Five-year age categories were created from 0–4 until 70–74, followed by 75+ years. Death counts were reported by site. Results Between 2010 and 2012, in Lahore, a total of 15 840 new cancers were diagnosed in 43% male patients and 57% female patients; 93.5% were microscopically confirmed and 6.5% non-microscopically. In females, the ASIR was 105.1 and in males, it was 66.7. ASIRs of leading cancers among women were breast 47.6, ovary 4.9 and corpus uteri 3.6, whereas among men they were prostate 6.4, bladder 5.0, and trachea, bronchus and lung 4.6. A total of 5134 deaths were recorded. Conclusions In Lahore, the ASIR was higher in women than in men. Among women and men, breast cancer and prostate cancer, respectively, were the leading cancer types. These estimates can be used for health promotion and policymaking in the region. PMID:27354082

  20. Cross-sectional study of depression and help-seeking in Uttarakhand, North India

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Kaaren; Goicolea, Isabel; Kermode, Michelle; Singh, Lawrence; Shidhaye, Rahul; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to use a population-based cross-sectional survey to describe depression prevalence, healthcare seeking and associations with socioeconomic determinants in a district in North India. Setting This study was conducted in Sahaspur and Raipur, administrative blocks of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, in July 2014. Participants A population-based sample of 960 people over the age of 18 years was selected in 30 randomised clusters after being stratified by rural:urban census ratios. Primary outcome measures The survey used a validated screening tool, Patient Health Questionnaire, to identify people with depression, and collected information regarding socioeconomic variables and help-seeking behaviours. Depression prevalence and health seeking behaviours were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between risk factors and depression. Results Prevalence of depression was 6% (58/960), with a further 3.9% (37/960) describing a depressive episode of over 2 weeks in the past 12 months. Statistically significant adjusted OR for depression of more than 2 were found for people who were illiterate, classified as Scheduled Caste/Tribe or Other Backward Castes, living in temporary material housing and who had recently taken a loan. While over three quarters of people with depression (79%) had attended a private or government general medical practitioner in the past 3 months, none had received talking therapy (100% treatment gap) and two people (3.3%) had been prescribed antidepressants. Conclusions There are clear associations between social, educational and economic disadvantage and depression in this population. Strategies that address the social determinants of depression, such as education, social exclusion, financial protection and affordable housing for all are indicated. To address the large treatment gap in Uttarakhand, we must ensure access to primary and secondary mental health providers who can

  1. Maternal and paternal satisfaction in the delivery room: a cross-sectional comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger-Lévesque, Marie-Noëlle; Pasquier, Marilou; Roy-Matton, Naomé; Blouin, Simon; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Maternal satisfaction during the birthing process has been well documented, whereas little is known about the fathers’ birth experiences. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the birth satisfaction of mothers and fathers. Design Comparative cross-sectional study. Setting Number of participating centres: one level III maternity centre (2813 births in 2011) in Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. Participants 200 mothers and 200 accompanying fathers/mother's partner recruited 12–24 h after the birth over a 6-week period. Primary and secondary outcome measures The Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) was used for the mother, and it was adapted to the father's perspective. Paired-samples t tests were used for comparing mothers and fathers for the BSS global and thematic scores. Multiple linear regressions (forward stepwise method) were made to identify predicting factors of mothers’ and fathers’ satisfaction. Results Global satisfaction scores for mothers (115.5/150) and fathers (114.4/150) were relatively high and similar (p=0.116). The analysis of subthemes showed that more distress during childbirth was reported by mothers (p<0.001), while less support (p<0.001) and care satisfaction (p<0.001) were reported by fathers. The use of epidural anaesthesia during vaginal birth was the sole concordant lower satisfaction predictor. For mothers, other satisfaction predictors were labour length, tearing and type of anaesthesia used in caesarean section. For fathers, lower satisfaction predictors were instrumental delivery, primary caesarean delivery and infant's distress factors after caesarean section. Conclusions This study highlights differences in mothers’ and fathers’ birth satisfaction and in their predictors. It is thus important to take into account the birth experience of each parent and to support parents accordingly by adapting care provision surrounding childbirth. More research on this topic from the prenatal to the postnatal period is suggested

  2. Overlap between Headache, Depression, and Anxiety in General Neurological Clinics: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Cui-Bai; Jia, Jian-Ping; Wang, Fen; Zhou, Ai-Hong; Zuo, Xiu-Mei; Chu, Chang-Biao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many studies have reported that depression and anxiety have bidirectional relationship with headache. However, few researches investigated the roles of depression or anxiety in patients with headache. We surveyed the prevalence of depression and anxiety as a complication or cause of headache among outpatients with a chief complaint of headache at neurology clinics in general hospitals. Additional risk factors for depression and anxiety were also analyzed. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 11 general neurological clinics. All consecutive patients with a chief complaint of headache were enrolled. Diagnoses of depression and anxiety were made using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and those for headache were made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd Edition. The headache impact test and an 11-point verbal rating scale were applied to assess headache severity and intensity. Logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors of patients with headache for depression or anxiety. Results: A total of 749 outpatients with headache were included. Among them, 148 (19.7%) were diagnosed with depression and 103 (13.7%) with anxiety. Further analysis showed that 114 (15.2%) patients complaining headache due to somatic symptoms of psychiatric disorders and 82 (10.9%) had a depression or anxiety comorbidity with headache. Most patients with depression or anxiety manifested mild to moderate headaches. Poor sleep and severe headache-related disabilities were predictors for either depression or anxiety. Conclusion: Clinicians must identify the etiology of headache and recognize the effects of depression or anxiety on headache to develop specific treatments. PMID:27270532

  3. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (p<0.001). Forty-nine percent indicated having solely interictal headache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (p<0.001), and the occurrence of tension-type headaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy. PMID:25705827

  4. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice. PMID:20651044

  5. Access to Interdental Brushing in Periodontal Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Julie; Bravo, Manuel; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interdental diameter space is largely undefined in adults, which compromises the decision support for daily interdental cleaning during routine practice in individual oral prophylaxis. This study assesses the distribution of diameter access of interdental spaces in an 18- to 25-year-old adult population free of periodontal disease. Methods In March-April 2015, a cross-sectional study using random sampling was performed at the University Lyon 1, France. The interproximal dental spaces of 99 individuals were examined using a colorimetric calibrated probe associated with the corresponding calibrated interdental brush (IDB). Results Of the 2,408 out of 2,608 sites, the overall accessibility prevalence of any interdental brushing was 92.3%. In total, 80.6% of the sites required interdental brushes with smaller diameters (0.6–0.7 mm). In anterior sites, the diameter of the interdental brushes used was smaller (55.8% of IDB with 0.6 mm) than the diameter of the interdental brushes used in posterior sites (26.1% of IDB with 0.6 mm) (p < 0.01). The adjusted ORs indicate a significant association with the location of the sites (approximately doubling the risk of bleeding, i.e., OR = 1.9, in posterior sites). Conclusions Most interdental sites can be cleaned using interdental brushes. Even in healthy people, interdental hygiene requirements are very high. Strengthening the oral hygiene capacity by specifically using interdental brushes can have an effect on the health of the entire population. Screening of the accessibility of the interdental space should be a component of a routine examination for all patients. PMID:27192409

  6. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Mirian; Peres, Marco A; Masiero, Anelise V; Peres, Karen G

    2009-01-01

    Background Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living in the urban area of a medium sized city in Southern Brazil. A questionnaire including socioeconomic, demographic, smoking, alcohol, and use of dental service variables was applied at adults household. Toothache occurred six months previous of the interview was considered the outcome. Poisson regression analyses were performed following a theoretical hierarchical framework. All analysis was adjusted by the sample design effect. Results The response rate was 98.6%. The prevalence of toothache was 18.0% (95% CI 16.0; 20.1). The following variables were associated with toothache after adjustment: female (PR = 1.3 95% CI 1.3; 2.0), black skin colour vs. whites (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.1, 1.9), low per capita income (PR = 1.7 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), smokers (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.2, 1.9) and those who reported alcohol problems (PR = 1.4 95% CI 1.1; 1.9). To be 40 years of age (PR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.7) and use dental service in the last year (RR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.6) were protective factors for toothache. Conclusion The prevalence of toothache in adults of Lages can be considered a major problem of dental public health. PMID:19243630

  7. A descriptive, cross-sectional study characterizing bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis and gout by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Sanchez-Bringas, Guadalupe; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, José Antonio; Pineda, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize bone erosions in metatarsal heads (MTH) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gout by grayscale ultrasound. In a descriptive, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 40 patients with RA and 40 with gout, both diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria, respectively. All patients had bone erosion demonstrated by ultrasound, which was used, following OMERACT criteria, to describe the shape, size, number, border definition, overhanging margin, topography (intra- or extra-articular), and distribution (over dorsal, medial, lateral, or plantar aspect) of the lesions in the MTH. Descriptive statistics were used and a concordance exercise between two ultrasonographers blinded to the diagnosis was performed. Bone erosions in RA were observed most frequently at the plantar and lateral aspect of the fifth MTH, round in 96 %, small-sized (2.43 ± 0.9 mm), intra-articular (100 %), and single (75 %). Few bone erosions had a well-defined border an overhanging margin while in gout were found most frequently in the medial and dorsal aspect of the first MTH, single in 71 %, intra-articular in 100 %, and of median size (4.0 ± 2.3). For shape, 51 % was round and 49 % was oval. A well-defined border was present in 39 %, and an overhanging margin in 62 %. Inter-rater reliability kappa was excellent (0.81, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00). Some characteristics of bone erosions in RA, including shape, size, ill-defined border, and localization in the fifth MTH could distinguish the lesions from gout. Grayscale US has excellent reliability to describe bone erosions in RA and gout. PMID:27393079

  8. High frequency of metabolic syndrome in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Afrand, Mohammadhosain; Khalilzadeh, Saeed hossein; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Ariaeinejad, Azita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disturbances, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. MS exhibits variations among ethnic groups. Zoroastrianism is an ethnic minority which has maintained its isolation and endogamy up to now. So, we evaluated the frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants aged ≥30 years were selected using a systematic random sampling. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waistto- hip ratio (WHR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine and uric acid (UA) were measured. Both revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria were used to diagnose the MS. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The frequency of MS was 69.7% and 74.9% based on JIS and ATPIII criteria, respectively; this was significantly different by age, marital status, job, educational level, and menopausal status (p<0.05). The most prevalent abnormal parameters of MS according to ATPIII and JIS criteria were high WC (95%) and low HDL (87.9%), respectively. Mean LDL, systolic BP, WHR, UA, urea, and creatinine were different between men and women. The difference between the age groups was statistically significant for BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP, TG, WHR and urea (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed a high frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. PMID:27493914

  9. Reclassifying causes of obstetric death in Mexico: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Margaret C; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Darney, Blair G; Torres-Palacios, Luis M; Rhenals-Osorio, Ana L; Sierra, Bertha L Vázquez; Soliz-Sánchez, Patricia N; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe causes of maternal mortality in Mexico over eight years, with particular attention to indirect obstetric deaths and socioeconomic disparities. Methods We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study using the 2006–2013 Búsqueda intencionada y reclasificación de muertes maternas (BIRMM) data set. We used frequencies to describe new cases, cause distributions and the reclassification of maternal mortality cases by the BIRMM process. We used statistical tests to analyse differences in sociodemographic characteristics between direct and indirect deaths and differences in the proportion of overall direct and indirect deaths, by year and by municipality poverty level. Findings A total of 9043 maternal deaths were subjected to the review process. There was a 13% increase (from 7829 to 9043) in overall identified maternal deaths and a threefold increase in the proportion of maternal deaths classified as late maternal deaths (from 2.1% to 6.9%). Over the study period direct obstetric deaths declined, while there was no change in deaths from indirect obstetric causes. Direct deaths were concentrated in women who lived in the poorest municipalities. When compared to those dying of direct causes, women dying of indirect causes had fewer pregnancies and were slightly younger, better educated and more likely to live in wealthier municipalities. Conclusion The BIRMM is one approach to correct maternal death statistics in settings with poor resources. The approach could help the health system to rethink its strategy to reduce maternal deaths from indirect obstetric causes, including prevention of unwanted pregnancies and improvement of antenatal and post-obstetric care. PMID:27147766

  10. Burnout and Work Engagement Among Dental Practitioners in Bangalore City: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mallaiah, Pramila; Krishnamurthy, Archana; Sangha, Ranganath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Burnout is a job-related stress reaction; a potential hazard for personal, professional lives of dentists. Work Engagement (WE) is the antithesis of Burnout and they can co-exist. Aim This study was taken up to know the prevalence of Burnout and WE among dentists in Bangalore, India. Matreials and Methods In a cross-sectional study, all (n=116) dentists practicing in Bangalore East Zone were randomly selected. A structured, self-administered questionnaire revealing dentists’ demographics, practice characteristics, Burnout level [6-item from Maslach Burnout Inventory] and WE [4-item from Utrecht Work Engagement Scale] was used. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results With a response rate of 58.6%, high burnout was seen in 5.15% dentists. Personal Accomplishment was significantly associated with dentists in older age-group (p=0.002), married (p=0.014), MDS qualified (p=0.038), having long working hours (p=0.009) with assistants (p=0.024), more years into practice (0.007), travelling more distance from residence (p=0.021). Significance was also seen for dedication among dentists with assistants (p=0.006), emotional exhaustion among dentist with long working hours (p=0.009), and driving own vehicle (p=0.028). Finally absorption was found significant in dentists practicing solo. Conclusion Higher WE were found but still burnout persisted. Thus, burnout and WE were found to co-exist. PMID:27042589

  11. Portuguese Family Physicians’ Awareness of Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Costs: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Luísa; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Teixeira, Andreia; Couto, Luciana; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Hespanhol, Alberto; Santos, Paulo; Martins, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians’ ability to make cost-effective decisions has been shown to be affected by their knowledge of health care costs. This study assessed whether Portuguese family physicians are aware of the costs of the most frequently prescribed diagnostic and laboratory tests. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of Portuguese family physicians, using computer-assisted telephone interviews for data collection. A Likert scale was used to assess physician’s level of agreement with four statements about health care costs. Family physicians were also asked to estimate the costs of diagnostic and laboratory tests. Each physician’s cost estimate was compared with the true cost and the absolute error was calculated. Results One-quarter (24%; 95% confidence interval: 23%–25%) of all cost estimates were accurate to within 25% of the true cost, with 55% (95% IC: 53–56) overestimating and 21% (95% IC: 20–22) underestimating the true actual cost. The majority (76%) of family physicians thought they did not have or were uncertain as to whether they had adequate knowledge of diagnostic and laboratory test costs, and only 7% reported receiving adequate education. The majority of the family physicians (82%) said that they had adequate access to information about the diagnostic and laboratory test costs. Thirty-three percent thought that costs did not influence their decision to order tests, while 27% were uncertain. Conclusions Portuguese family physicians have limited awareness of diagnostic and laboratory test costs, and our results demonstrate a need for improved education in this area. Further research should focus on identifying whether interventions in cost knowledge actually change ordering behavior, in identifying optimal methods to disseminate cost information, and on improving the cost-effectiveness of care. PMID:26356625

  12. Subjective symptoms related to GSM radiation from mobile phone base stations: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Perretta, Claudio; Navarro, Enrique A; Segura, Jaume; Portolés, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We performed a re-analysis of the data from Navarro et al (2003) in which health symptoms related to microwave exposure from mobile phone base stations (BSs) were explored, including data obtained in a retrospective inquiry about fear of exposure from BSs. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting La Ñora (Murcia), Spain. Participants Participants with known illness in 2003 were subsequently disregarded: 88 participants instead of 101 (in 2003) were analysed. Since weather circumstances can influence exposure, we restricted data to measurements made under similar weather conditions. Outcomes and methods A statistical method indifferent to the assumption of normality was employed: namely, binary logistic regression for modelling a binary response (eg, suffering fatigue (1) or not (0)), and so exposure was introduced as a predictor variable. This analysis was carried out on a regular basis and bootstrapping (95% percentile method) was used to provide more accurate CIs. Results The symptoms most related to exposure were lack of appetite (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.03); lack of concentration (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.89); irritability (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.85); and trouble sleeping (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.84). Changes in –2 log likelihood showed similar results. Concerns about the BSs were strongly related with trouble sleeping (OR =3.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 8.86). The exposure variable remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. The bootstrapped values were similar to asymptotic CIs. Conclusions This study confirms our preliminary results. We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels—independently of the demographic variables and some possible risk factors. Concerns about adverse effects from exposure, despite being strongly related with sleep disturbances, do not influence the direct association between exposure and sleep. PMID:24381254

  13. A cross-sectional study of avian influenza in one district of Guangzhou, 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiming; Peng, Cong; Duan, Xiaodong; Shen, Dan; Lan, Guanghua; Xiao, Wutao; Tan, Hai; Wang, Ling; Hou, Jialei; Zhu, Jiancui; He, Riwen; Zhang, Haibing; Zheng, Lilan; Yang, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zhiwei; Li, Wenhua; Hu, Mailing; Zhong, Jinhui; Chen, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    Since Feb, 2013, more than 100 human beings had been infected with novel H7N9 avian influenza virus. As of May 2013, several H7N9 viruses had been found in retail live bird markets (LBMs) in Guangdong province of southern China where several human cases were confirmed later. However, the real avian influenza virus infection status especially H7N9 in Guangzhou remains unclear. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of avian influenza in commercial poultry farms, the wholesale LBM and retail LBMs in one district of Guangzhou was conducted from October to November, 2013. A total of 1505 cloacal and environmental samples from 52 commercial poultry farms, 1 wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were collected and detected using real-time RT-PCR for type A, H7, H7N9 and H9 subtype avian influenza virus, respectively. Of all the flocks randomly sampled, 6 farms, 12 vendors of the wholesale LBM and 18 retail LBMs were type A avian influenza virus positive with 0, 3 and 11 positive for H9, respectively. The pooled prevalence and individual prevalence of type A avian influenza virus were 33.9% and 7.9% which for H9 subtype was 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively. None was H7 and H7N9 subtype virus positive. Different prevalence and prevalence ratio were found in different poultry species with partridges having the highest prevalence for both type A and H9 subtype avian influenza virus. Our results suggest that LBM may have a higher risk for sustaining and transmission of avian influenza virus than commercial poultry farms. The present study also indicates that different species may play different roles in the evolution and transmission of avian influenza virus. Therefore, risk-based surveillance and management measures should be conducted in future in this area. PMID:25356738

  14. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Ortega, Francisco B; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Femia, Pedro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise levels of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local Association of Fibromyalgia (Granada, Spain). Participants The study comprised 94 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia who did not have other severe somatic or psychiatric disorders, or other diseases that prevent physical loading, able to ambulate and to communicate and capable and willing to provide informed consent. Primary outcome measures Sedentary time and physical activity were measured by accelerometry and expressed as time spent in sedentary behaviours, average physical activity intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent in moderate intensity and in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Results The proportion of women meeting the physical activity recommendations of 30 min/day of MVPA on 5 or more days a week was 60.6%. Women spent, on average, 71% of their waking time (approximately 10 h/day) in sedentary behaviours. Both sedentary behaviour and physical activity levels were similar across age groups, waist circumference and percentage body fat categories, years since clinical diagnosis, marital status, educational level and occupational status, regardless of the severity of the disease (all p>0.1). Time spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA was, however, lower in those with greater body mass index (BMI) (−6.6 min and −7 min, respectively, per BMI category increase, <25, 25–30, >30 kg/m2; p values for trend were 0.056 and 0.051, respectively). Women spent, on average, 10 min less on MVPA (p<0.001) and 22 min less on sedentary behaviours during weekends compared with weekdays (p=0.051). Conclusions These data provide an objective measure of the amount of time spent on sedentary activities and on physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23794573

  15. Exploring Australian women’s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65%) were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (P<0.000) of the education level, income, age, stage of pregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that independent variables explained 33% (adjusted R2) of the variance found between respondents’ knowledge scores. Conclusion Australian pregnant women’s knowledge regarding AGHE for pregnancy and other key dietary recommendations is poor and varies significantly with their demographic profile. The setting of dietary guidelines is not sufficient to ensure

  16. Antibiograms from community-acquired uropathogens in Gulu, northern Uganda - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in clinical practice and empirical treatment is largely employed due to predictability of pathogens. However, variations in antibiotic sensitivity patterns do occur, and documentation is needed to inform local empirical therapy. The current edition of the Uganda Clinical Guidelines recommends amoxicillin or cotrimoxazole as choice drugs for empirical treatment of community-acquired UTI. From our clinical observations, we suspected that this recommendation was not effective in our setting. In order to examine validity, we sought to identify bacteria from community-acquired infections and determine their susceptibility against these antibiotics plus a range of potentially useful alternatives for treatment of UTI. Methods A cross-sectional study of mid-stream urine collected from 339 symptomatic patients over a three-month period at Gulu regional referral hospital. Qualitative culture and identification of bacteria and antibiotic sensitivity testing using the modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was done. Participants’ demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using a standard form. Results were analyzed by simple proportions among related variables and confidence intervals computed using binomial exact distribution. Results Eighty two cultures were positive for UTI. Staphylococcus spp (46.3%) and Escherichia coli (39%) were the most common pathogens. There was high resistance to cotrimoxazole (73.2%), nalidixic acid (52.4%) and amoxicillin (51.2%). The most favorable antibiograms were obtained with gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and levofloxacin where 85.4%, 72.0%, 67.1% of isolates respectively, were either sensitive or intermediate. Only 51% of isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Conclusion There was high resistance to most antibiotics tested in this study. The recommendations contained in the current edition of the Uganda Clinical Guidelines are not in tandem with antibiotic

  17. Reasons for elderly patients GP visits: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Frese, Thomas; Mahlmeister, Jarmila; Deutsch, Tobias; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to describe the frequency of reasons for elderly patients visits to a general practice (GP) setting. Subjects and methods Cross-sectional data from 8,877 randomly selected patients were assessed during a 1-year period by 209 GPs in the German federal state of Saxony. The reasons for visits, performed procedures, and results of visits were documented. In this study, the data of patients aged 65 years and older are analyzed and the procedural and nonprocedural reasons for visits are described. Results In all, 2,866 patients aged 65 years and older were included. The majority of patients (1,807) were female. A total of 4,426 reasons for visits were found, distributed on 363 International Classification of Primary Care-2 codes. In the mean, there were 1.5 reasons for a GP visit from each patient. The top five nonprocedural reasons for visiting the GP were: cough (1.8%), back complaints (1.6%), shoulder complaints (1.3%), knee complaints (1.1%), and dyspnea (1.0% of all reasons for visit). The top five procedural reasons for visiting the GP included follow-up investigations of cardiovascular or endocrine disorders and immunizations. The top 30 nonprocedural reasons for visits covered 21.9% of all reasons for visiting. The top 30 procedural reasons covered 54.3% of all reasons for visits. Conclusion The current work indicates that people aged 65 years and older consult the GP more frequently for procedural than for nonprocedural reasons. The top 30 procedural and nonprocedural reasons for visits cover ~75% of all reasons for visits in these patients. PMID:26893549

  18. Physical maltreatment of children with autism in Henan province in China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guiqin; Chen, Jingqi; Zhang, Wenjing; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yanqin; Wang, Yazhe; Yao, Meiling

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of child physical maltreatment (CPM) in children with autism aged 2-5 years in Henan province (China), and to explore the risk factors for severe CPM in these children. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Psychology Clinic of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between September 2012 and September 2013 with 180 parents of children with autism. Children and parents had no history of any cognitive therapy. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) was used to evaluate the severity of autism in children. Data on parental CPM during the past 3 months were collected from parental self-reporting. Logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors of severe CPM. CPM was self-reported by 88% of the parents of children with autism. One hundred and fifty four of these cases were in the minor CPM group (86%) and 64 in the severe CPM group (36%). Most cases of severe CPM were unlikely to have caused injury. Univariate analyses showed that child's age (p=.018), age started to speak (p=.043) and CARS score (p=.048) were associated with severe CPM. Child's age (p=.011) and CARS score (p=.041) were independently associated with severe CPM. The risk of severe CPM increased with age and CARS score. Our findings showed that CPM is widespread in families of children with autism in Central China and more knowledge should be provided to parents of children with autism, particularly in cases of severe autism (those with high CARS scores). PMID:25957752

  19. Sex differences in the risk profile of hypertension: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Saswata; Mukhopadhyay, Simantini; Barik, Anamitra

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors associated with hypertension among a sample male and female population in India. Setting Cross-sectional survey data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of rural West Bengal, India was used. Participants 27 589 adult individuals (13 994 males and 13 595 females), aged ≥18 years, were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, or if the subject was undergoing regular antihypertensive therapy. Prehypertension was defined as SBP 120–139 mm Hg and DBP 80–89 mm Hg. Individuals were categorised as non-normotensives, which includes both the prehypertensives and hypertensives. Generalised ordered logit model (GOLM) was deployed to fulfil the study objective. Results Over 39% of the men and 25% of the women were prehypertensives. Almost 12.5% of the men and 11.3% of the women were diagnosed as hypertensives. Women were less likely to be non-normotensive compared to males. Odds ratios estimated from GOLM indicate that women were less likely to be hypertensive or prehypertensive, and age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.05; and OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.09 for males and females, respectively) and body mass index (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.97 for males; and OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.60 for females) are associated with hypertension. Conclusions An elevated level of hypertension exists among a select group of the rural Indian population. Focusing on men, an intervention could be designed for lifestyle modification to curb the prevalence of hypertension. PMID:27466234

  20. Fitness Intention and Its Relationship With Eating Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study of Iranian Female Medical College Students

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Emdadi, Shohreh; Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ataee, Mari; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Fitness is a very important goal among young adults that may lead to eating disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing fitness intention based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and its relationship to eating attitudes. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 231 female college students during the winter of 2012. Participants were randomly selected in proportion to their distribution among the different faculties at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data and data was analyzed by SPSS version 21 using a T-test, ANOVA, bivariate correlations, and linear regression at a 95% significant level. Results Nearly 21.6% of the participants had abnormal eating attitudes. The TPB variables accounted for 40% of the variation in fitness intention. Bivariate correlations indicated a positive correlation between fitness intention and eating attitude (r = 0.417, P < 0.05). Conclusions Based on our results, it seems that designing and implementing educational programs to reduce positive attitudes and encourage subjective norms toward fitness may be useful for preventing abnormal eating attitudes. PMID:27284282

  1. Tracking the attentional blink profile: a cross-sectional study from childhood to adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabine; Benasich, April A.; Wirth, Nadine; Keil, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study is the first to examine the developmental trajectory of temporal attention control from childhood to adolescence. We used a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, calling for the identification of two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a distractor stream. In adults, manipulating the lag time within the target doublet typically leads to pronounced impairment in report for T2, when it follows T1 after approximately 200 ms, with one intervening distractor (lag 2); this is referred to as the attentional blink (AB). Participants, however, tend to identify T2 more often when the targets have occurred in a row (“lag-1 sparing”), or are separated by larger lag times, resulting in a hook-shaped accuracy profile. Here, we investigated the extent to which this AB profile undergoes systematic developmental changes in 204 students aged between 6 and 16 years (grades 1–10). T1–T2 lags varied from zero up to seven intervening distractors. Behavioral accuracy in younger children (grades 1–2) was found to f