These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Correlation cross sections along the international border  

SciTech Connect

The Manitoba-North Dakota (Canada-US) stratigraphic correlation project is a joint study between the Petroleum Branch of Manitoba Energy and Mines and the North Dakota Geological Survey. It is an attempt to correlate the differing stratigraphic terminologies established in the two jurisdictions by providing a reference cross section across the international boundary. The study involves the subsurface correlation of logs of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences in the Manitoba and North Dakota portions of the Williston basin. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences are subdivided for presentation into the following stratigraphic intervals: (a) Cambrian-Ordovician-Silurian, (b) Devonian, (c) Mississippian, (d) Jurassic, and (e) Cretaceous. Wireline logs show the actual stratigraphic correlations. A nomenclature chart is also presented from each sequence. In addition, the sections include a generalized description of lithologies, thicknesses, environments of deposition, and petroleum potential for each geographic area.

Martiniuk, C.D. (Manitoba Energy and Mines, Winnipeg (Canada)); Le Fever, J.A.; Anderson, S.B. (North Dakota Geological Survey, Grand Forks (United States))

1991-06-01

2

The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. Methods A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). Results The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score???22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x2?=?8.53, df?=?1, p?=?0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x2?=?70.63, df?=?4, p??351, OR?=?3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. Conclusions The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students, as well as the strong association with stressful life events, highlights the need for psychological empowerment strategies towards students by institutional counseling services. PMID:24304515

2013-01-01

3

GLUCS: A generalized least-squares program for updating cross section evaluations with correlated data sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluations of cross sections and covariances were used as input for incorporating correlated data sets, particularly ratios. These data are read from Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B-V) formatted files. Measured data sets, including ratios and absolute and relative cross section data, are read and combined with the input evaluations via the least-squares technique. The resulting output evaluations not only updated cross sections and covariances, but also cross-reaction covariances. These output data are written into ENDF/B-V format.

Hetrick, D. M.; Fu, C. Y.

1980-10-01

4

Correlates of subchondral BMD: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Subchondral bone is hypothesized to be important in the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA); however, little is known about the determinants of subchondral bone. This study describes the relationship between tibial subchondral BMD (sBMD) and anthropometric, lifestyle, and structural measures in 740 randomly selected subjects (mean age, 62 yr; range, 50-80 yr; 52% women). We measured medial tibial sBMD by DXA at two regions of interest (ROIs). We also assessed anthropometrics, vitamin D, steps per day by pedometer, joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophytes (by X-ray), cartilage defects, cartilage volume, and bone marrow lesions (BML; by MRI), and hip and spine BMD (by DXA). sBMD using ROI 1 was negatively associated with age and female sex and positively associated with BMI. In multivariable analysis, sBMD was positively correlated with steps per day (r = 0.08, p = 0.025), tibial osteophytes (r = 0.08, p = 0.028), JSN (r = 0.11, p < 0.01), cartilage defects (r = 0.16, p < 0.01), cartilage volume (r = 0.12, p = 0.01), BMLs (r = 0.17, p = 0.013 [tibial]; r = 0.16, p = 0.018 [femoral]), and hip and spine BMD (r = 0.36, p < 0.01 and r = 0.38, p < 0.01, respectively). Similar associations were observed using ROI 2, with vitamin D also associated with sBMD (r = 0.10, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this study identified a large number of factors associated with sBMD, of which the most novel is cartilage defects. Longitudinal studies are required to address causality. PMID:19453266

Dore, Dawn; Quinn, Stephen; Ding, Changhai; Winzenberg, Tania; Jones, Graeme

2009-12-01

5

Factors, Correlates, Problem Areas Affecting Career Decision Making of a Cross-Sectional Sample of Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of the correlates and problem areas affecting career decision making and specifically to test the validity of the O'Neil, Meeker & Borgers' (1978) model. A cross-sectional sample of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students (N=1,436) responded to the Career Factor Checklist (CFC) and…

O'Neil, James M.; And Others

6

Neutron field reconstruction with consideration of the spatial correlation of the cross-section value error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for reconstructing the neutron field in a reactor with consideration of the spatial correlation of the cross-section value error was analyzed. It was shown that this method is more accurate than the classical approach to reconstruction. An efficient way of using this technique was proposed. The efficiency for the RBMK critical test facility was estimated.

Semyonov, A. A.; Druzhaev, A. A.; Schukin, N. V.

2014-12-01

7

Microscopic description of measured reaction cross sections at low projectile energies  

SciTech Connect

Systematic and consistent microscopic description of measured reaction cross sections at low projectile energies is presented. Finite-range Glauber model (GM-F) along with the Coulomb modification is used. The required inputs, namely the neutron and proton density distributions of the relevant projectiles and the targets, are calculated in the relativistic mean field framework. The GM-F reproduces the experiment well. At high projectile energies both the GM-F and the zero-range Glauber model in the optical limit (GM-Z) yield almost identical results; however, the GM-F in general is superior at low projectile energies, as expected.

Bhagwat, A. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. Powai, Bombay 400076 (India); KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Alba Nova University Center, Department of Nuclear Physics, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gambhir, Y. K. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. Powai, Bombay 400076 (India)

2006-02-15

8

Fate of Articles That Warranted Retraction Due to Ethical Concerns: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study journals' responses to a request from the State Medical Association of Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, to retract 88 articles due to ethical concerns, and to check whether the resulting retractions followed published guidelines. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study. Population 88 articles (18 journals) by the anaesthesiologist Dr. Boldt, that warranted retraction. Method According to the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics, we regarded a retraction as adequate when a retraction notice was published, linked to the retracted article, identified the title and authors of the retracted article in its heading, explained the reason and who took responsibility for the retraction, and when the retracted article was freely accessible and marked using a transparent watermark that preserved original content. Two authors extracted data independently (January 2013) and contacted editors-in-chief and publishers for clarification in cases of inadequate retraction. Results Five articles (6%) fulfilled all criteria for adequate retraction. Nine (10%) were not retracted (no retraction notice published, full text article not marked). 79 (90%) retraction notices were published, 76 (86%) were freely accessible, but only 15 (17%) were complete. 73 (83%) full text articles were marked as retracted, of which 14 (16%) had an opaque watermark hiding parts of the original content, and 11 (13%) had all original content deleted. 59 (67%) retracted articles were freely accessible. One editor-in-chief stated personal problems as a reason for incomplete retractions, eight blamed their publishers. Two publishers cited legal threats from Dr. Boldt's co-authors which prevented them from retracting articles. Conclusion Guidelines for retracting articles are incompletely followed. The role of publishers in the retraction process needs to be clarified and standards are needed on marking retracted articles. It remains unclear who should check that retractions are done properly. Legal safeguards are required to allow retraction of articles against the wishes of authors. PMID:24465744

Elia, Nadia; Wager, Elizabeth; Tramèr, Martin R.

2014-01-01

9

A Cross-Sectional Study Examining Youth Smoking Rates and Correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia  

PubMed Central

Georgia has high smoking rates; however, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of youth smoking. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 1,879 secondary and postsecondary school students aged 15 to 24 years in Tbilisi, Georgia, examining substance use, perceived risk, and recreational activities in relation to lifetime and current (past 30 days) smoking. Lifetime and current smoking prevalence was 46.1% and 22.6%, respectively. In secondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, and lower perceived risk (P's ? .001). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, less frequently exercise, and more often going out (P's < .05). In postsecondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, more often going out, and recreational internet use (P's < .0). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male (P's = .04), consuming alcohol, marijuana use, lower perceived risk, and more often going out (P's < .05). Tobacco control interventions might target these correlates to reduce smoking prevalence in Georgian youth. PMID:24738059

Berg, Carla J.; Aslanikashvili, Ana; Djibuti, Mamuka

2014-01-01

10

Recently measured reaction cross sections with low energy fp-shell nuclei as projectiles: Microscopic description  

SciTech Connect

The finite range Glauber model along with the Coulomb modification is used to analyze recently measured reaction cross sections with neutron-deficient Ga, Ge, As, Se, and Br isotopes as low-energy projectiles incident on {sup 28}Si target. The required input, namely the neutron and proton density distributions of the relevant projectiles and the target, are calculated in the relativistic mean-field framework. Though the calculations qualitatively agree with the experiment, on the average, slightly overestimate the cross sections. A phenomenological expression with a single parameter is proposed that consistently improves the agreement with the experiment.

Bhagwat, A. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Alba Nova University Center, Department of Nuclear Physics, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gambhir, Y. K. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

2006-05-15

11

Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

1993-01-01

12

A correlated study between effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energies for neutron beams with continuous spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two practically useful quantities have been introduced to characterize a continuous-energy-spectrum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in the field of quantitative neutron radiography. These quantities are the effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section as defined for a monochromatic energy. Four neutron beams have been used to measure ETM cross sections at effective energies of 29.8, 17.2, 9.8 meV, and at the In resonance energy of 1.46 eV. Results are studied as a function of estimated effective energy, where the effective energy was estimated by a beam quality indicator (BQI) which has been proposed recently. Validity of ETM cross sections as a function of the effective energy is discussed and correlated with recent nuclear data.

Kobayashi, Hisao

1999-11-01

13

Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Drowning represents the third leading cause of fatal unintentional injury in infants (0–1 years). The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supervision during bathing, socio-demographic factors, and Protection Motivation Theory-constructs. To determine correlates of parents who leave their infant unsupervised, logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the parents, 6.2% left their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Parents with older children (OR 1.24; 95%CI 1.00–1.54) were more likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. First-time parents (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.36–0.97) and non-Western migrant fathers (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.05–0.63) were less likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Furthermore, parents who perceived higher self-efficacy (OR 0.57; 95%CI 0.47–0.69), higher response efficacy (OR 0.34; 95%CI 0.24–0.48), and higher severity (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.58–0.93) were less likely to leave their child unsupervised. Since young children are at great risk of drowning if supervision is absent, effective strategies for drowning prevention should be developed and evaluated. In the meantime, health care professionals should inform parents with regard to the importance of supervision during bathing. PMID:23459215

van Beelen, Mirjam E. J.; van Beeck, Eduard F.; den Hertog, Paul; Beirens, Tinneke M. J.; Raat, Hein

2013-01-01

14

Correlates of unsupervised bathing of infants: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Drowning represents the third leading cause of fatal unintentional injury in infants (0-1 years). The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supervision during bathing, socio-demographic factors, and Protection Motivation Theory-constructs. To determine correlates of parents who leave their infant unsupervised, logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the parents, 6.2% left their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Parents with older children (OR 1.24; 95%CI 1.00-1.54) were more likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. First-time parents (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.36-0.97) and non-Western migrant fathers (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.05-0.63) were less likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Furthermore, parents who perceived higher self-efficacy (OR 0.57; 95%CI 0.47-0.69), higher response efficacy (OR 0.34; 95%CI 0.24-0.48), and higher severity (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.58-0.93) were less likely to leave their child unsupervised. Since young children are at great risk of drowning if supervision is absent, effective strategies for drowning prevention should be developed and evaluated. In the meantime, health care professionals should inform parents with regard to the importance of supervision during bathing. PMID:23459215

van Beelen, Mirjam E J; van Beeck, Eduard F; den Hertog, Paul; Beirens, Tinneke M J; Raat, Hein

2013-03-01

15

Target correlation effects on neutron-nucleus total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Second order optical model solutions to the elastic scattering amplitude were used to evaluate total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections for neutron nucleus scattering. Improved agreement with experimental data for total and absorption cross sections is found when compared with first order (coherent approximation) solutions, especially below several hundred MeV. At higher energies, the first and second order solutions are similar. There are also large differences in abrasion cross section calculations; these differences indicate a crucial role for cluster knockout in the abrasion step.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

1991-01-01

16

Correlation of Patient Weight and Cross-Sectional Dimensions with Subjective Image Quality at Standard Dose Abdominal CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: A statistically significant negative linear correlation of 0.46, 0.47, 0.47, 0.58, 0.56, 0.54, and 0.56 between patient weight, anterior abdominal fat thick- ness, anteroposterior and transverse diameter, circumference, cross-sectional area and image quality at standard scanning parameters was found (p<0.01).

Mannudeep K. Kalra; Michael M. Maher; Srinivasa R. Prasad; M. Sikandar Hayat; Michael A. Blake; Jose Varghese; Elkan F. Halpern; Sanjay Saini

2003-01-01

17

b-quark inclusive cross sections and b{bar b} correlations using dimuons from the D0 experiment  

SciTech Connect

Using dimuons collected with the D{null} detector during the 1993- 1995 Tevatron collider run, we have measured the {ital b}-quark cross section and {ital b{anti b}} correlations as given by the difference in azimuthal angle between the two muons. Both measurements agree with the NLO QCD predictions within experimental and theoretical errors.

Vititoe, D.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics; D0 Collaboration

1996-11-01

18

Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We have identified environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish community. The results of this study suggest that residents' self-assessed area reputation is an important underlying mechanism of perceived safety. We also found a difference in crime rates and safety-related concerns between areas with blocks of flats compared with small-scale areas although the neighbourhoods were close geographically. PMID:19586534

Kullberg, Agneta; Karlsson, Nadine; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

2009-01-01

19

Sexual behaviors and their correlates among young people in Mauritius: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in the Indian Ocean region, including Mauritius. National records suggest a prevalence of HIV in Mauritius of < 1% in the general population, which is one of the lowest prevalence rates in southern Africa. However, HIV-positive cases have been increasing recently in Mauritius. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in January 2003 to

Yumiko H Nishimura; Masako Ono-Kihara; Jagdis C Mohith; Renaud NgManSun; Takayuki Homma; Ralph J DiClemente; Delia L Lang; Masahiro Kihara

2007-01-01

20

Inclusive jet cross sections and dijet correlations in D ? ± photoproduction at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction for events containing a D? meson have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 78.6 pb?1. The events were required to have a virtuality of the incoming photon, Q2, of less than 1 GeV2, and a photon–proton centre-of-mass energy in the range 130W?p280 GeV. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading-order

S. Bhadra; C. D. Catterall; Y. Cui; G. Hartner; S. Miglioranzi; U. Noor; M. Soares; J. Standage; J. Whyte; N. Pavel; A. G. Yagües Molina; P. Antonioli; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; S. de Pasquale; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; A. Margotti; A. Montanari; R. Nania; F. Palmonari; A. Pesci; A. Polini; L. Rinaldi; G. Sartorelli; A. Zichichi; G. Aghuzumtsyan; D. Bartsch; I. Brock; S. Goers; H. Hartmann; E. Hilger; P. Irrgang; H.-P. Jakob; O. M. Kind; U. Meyer; E. Paul; J. Rautenberg; R. Renner; M. Wang; M. Wlasenko; D. S. Bailey; N. H. Brook; J. E. Cole; G. P. Heath; T. Namsoo; S. Robins; M. Capua; S. Fazio; A. Mastroberardino; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; E. Tassi; J. Y. Kim; K. J. Ma; M. Helbich; Y. Ning; Z. Ren; W. B. Schmidke; F. Sciulli; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; J. Figiel; A. Galas; M. Gil; K. Olkiewicz; P. Stopa; D. Szuba; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; T. Bold; I. Grabowska-Bold; D. Kisielewska; J. Lukasik; M. Przybycien; L. Suszycki; J. Szuba; A. Kotanski; W. Slominski; V. Adler; U. Behrens; I. Bloch; K. Borras; G. Drews; J. Fourletova; A. Geiser; D. Gladkov; P. Göttlicher; O. Gutsche; T. Haas; W. Hain; C. Horn; B. Kahle; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; G. Kramberger; H. Lim; B. Löhr; R. Mankel; I.-A. Melzer-Pellmann; C. N. Nguyen; D. Notz; A. E. Nuncio-Quiroz; A. Raval; R. Santamarta; U. Schneekloth; H. Stadie; U. Stösslein; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; W. Zeuner; S. Schlenstedt; G. Barbagli; E. Gallo; C. Genta; P. G. Pelfer; A. Bamberger; A. Benen; F. Karstens; D. Dobur; N. N. Vlasov; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; W. Dunne; J. Ferrando; J. H. McKenzie; D. H. Saxon; I. O. Skillicorn; I. Gialas; T. Carli; T. Gosau; U. Holm; N. Krumnack; E. Lohrmann; M. Milite; H. Salehi; P. Schleper; T. Schörner-Sadenius; S. Stonjek; K. Wichmann; K. Wick; A. Ziegler; C. Collins-Tooth; C. Foudas; C. Fry; R. Gonçalo; K. R. Long; A. D. Tapper; M. Kataoka; K. Nagano; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; A. N. Barakbaev; E. G. Boos; N. S. Pokrovskiy; B. O. Zhautykov; D. Son; J. de Favereau; K. Piotrzkowski; F. Barreiro; C. Glasman; M. Jimenez; L. Labarga; J. Del Peso; J. Terrón; M. Zambrana; F. Corriveau; C. Liu; M. Plamondon; A. Robichaud-Veronneau; R. Walsh; C. Zhou; T. Tsurugai; A. Antonov; B. A. Dolgoshein; I. Rubinsky; V. Sosnovtsev; A. Stifutkin; S. Suchkov; R. K. Dementiev; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; I. I. Katkov; L. A. Khein; I. A. Korzhavina; V. A. Kuzmin; B. B. Levchenko; O. Yu. Lukina; A. S. Proskuryakov; L. M. Shcheglova; D. S. Zotkin; S. A. Zotkin; I. Abt; C. Büttner; A. Caldwell; X. Liu; J. Sutiak; N. Coppola; G. Grigorescu; A. Keramidas; E. Koffeman; P. Kooijman; E. Maddox; H. Tiecke; M. Vázquez; L. Wiggers; N. Brümmer; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; A. Lee; T. Y. Ling; P. D. Allfrey; M. A. Bell; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; A. Cottrell; R. C. E. Devenish; B. Foster; C. Gwenlan; T. Kohno; K. Korcsak-Gorzo; S. Patel; V. Roberfroid; P. B. Straub; R. Walczak; P. Bellan; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; R. Ciesielski; F. Dal Corso; S. Dusini; A. Garfagnini; S. Limentani; A. Longhin; L. Stanco; M. Turcato; E. A. Heaphy; F. Metlica; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; Y. Iga; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; J. C. Hart; H. Abramowicz; A. Gabareen; S. Kananov; A. Kreisel; A. Levy; M. Kuze; S. Kagawa; T. Tawara; R. Hamatsu; H. Kaji; S. Kitamura; K. Matsuzawa; O. Ota; Y. D. Ri; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; V. Monaco; R. Sacchi; A. Solano; M. Arneodo; M. Ruspa; S. Fourletov; J. F. Martin; J. M. Butterworth; R. Hall-Wilton; T. W. Jones; J. H. Loizides; M. R. Sutton; C. Targett-Adams; M. Wing; J. Ciborowski; G. Grzelak; P. Kulinski; P. Luzniak; J. Malka; R. J. Nowak; J. M. Pawlak; J. Sztuk; T. Tymieniecka; A. Ukleja; J. Ukleja; A. F. Zarnecki; M. Adamus; P. Plucinski; Y. Eisenberg; D. Hochman; U. Karshon; M. S. Lightwood; E. Brownson; T. Danielson; A. Everett; D. Kçira; S. Lammers; L. Li; D. D. Reeder; M. Rosin; P. Ryan; A. A. Savin; W. H. Smith; S. Dhawan; S. Menary

2005-01-01

21

Adult criminal involvement: A cross-sectional inquiry into correlates and mechanisms over the life course  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we examine the relative contribution of four domains of predictors that have been linked to adult criminal involvement: (1) socio-demographic characteristics, (2) family-of-origin factors, (3) proximal processes developed during adolescence, and (4) current lifestyle and situational factors. Cross-sectional data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 242 community-recruited adults. Data analysis involved negative binomial regression. Being male, family size, juvenile delinquency, aggression, living with someone involved in illegal activity and recent violent victimization were independently associated with non-violent criminal involvement. Aggression, association with deviant peers, and recent violent victimization were independently associated with violent criminal involvement. Juvenile delinquency and aggression mediated the affect of multiple family-of-origin characteristics on non-violent criminal involvement and aggression mediated the effect of childhood physical abuse on violent criminal involvement. The results emphasize the importance of investigating both antecedents and proximal risk factors predictive of different types of criminal involvement, which, in turn, will assist in developing risk-focused prevention and intervention programs. PMID:24307752

DePadilla, Lara; Perkins, Molly M.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

2013-01-01

22

A Rare Presentation of Lymphoma of the Cervix with Cross-Sectional Imaging Correlation  

PubMed Central

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the cervix is an extremely uncommon entity, with no standard established treatment protocol. A 43-year-old asymptomatic female with a history of dual hit blastic B-cell lymphoma/leukemia in complete remission presented with an incidental cervical mass, which was initially felt to represent a cervical fibroid on computed tomography (CT). It was further evaluated with ultrasound, biopsy, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which demonstrated a growing biopsy-proven lymphomatous mass and new humeral head lesion. The patient was started on chemotherapy to control the newly diagnosed humeral head lesion, which then regressed. She then underwent radiation to the cervix with significant improvement in the cervical lymphoma. A review of cross-sectional imaging findings of lymphoma of the cervix is provided, including how to differentiate it from other more common diseases of the cervix. Clinical awareness of rare cervical masses such as lymphoma is very important in order to achieve timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:24864220

Korivi, Brinda Rao; Jensen, Corey T.; Patnana, Madhavi; Patel, Keyur P.; Bathala, Tharakeswara K.

2014-01-01

23

Prevalence and Correlates of Asthma Among Children in Central St. Petersburg, Russia: Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Aim To estimate the prevalence of asthma among children in central St. Petersburg and to evaluate associations between asthma and socio-demographic, biological, and environmental factors. Methods A cross-sectional study included 1464 children aged 0-18 years from two central districts of St. Petersburg. Parents filled out a questionnaire on children’s respiratory health, characteristics at birth, socio-demographic data, housing situation, and their own history of asthma and allergies. The diagnosis of asthma was based on the results of spirometry in children aged ?5 years and on questionnaire data as reported by parents of younger children. Independent effects of the investigated factors on asthma were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results The estimated prevalence of asthma was 7.4% (95% CI, 6.2-8.8). A history of allergies (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.6), bronchitis, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia in infancy (OR, 12.2; 95% CI, 7.3-20.5), and self-reported parental allergies (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.2-5.8 for one parent and OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 3.0-17.0 for both parents) were associated with childhood asthma. Children whose mothers were out of work also had higher prevalence of asthma than the reference group (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1-10.4). Conclusion The prevalence of asthma is several times higher than what is officially reported for St. Petersburg’s inner city children population. Early life events and socio-demographic and biologic factors were associated with asthma in children. PMID:19090598

Glushkova, Anzhela V.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.

2008-01-01

24

Prevalence and correlates of complementary and alternative medicine use among diabetic patients in Beirut, Lebanon: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies due to difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens and lifestyle changes necessary for disease management. Little is known about the prevalence and mode of CAM use among patients with T2DM in Lebanon. Objective To assess the prevalence and modes of CAM use among patients with T2DM residing in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional survey of T2DM patients was conducted on patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut- a public hospital and a private academic medical center. In a face-to-face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic, diabetes characteristics and types and modes of CAM use. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the prevalence and correlates of CAM use, as well as whether the use was complementary or alternative to mainstream medicine. The main outcome in this study, CAM use, was defined as using CAM at least once since diagnosis with T2DM. Results A total of 333 T2DM patients completed the survey (response rate: 94.6%). Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis with the disease was 38%. After adjustment, CAM use was significantly associated with a “married” status, a longer duration of T2DM, the presence of disease complications, and a positive family history of the disease. Folk foods and herbs were the most commonly used CAM followed by natural health products. One in five patients used CAM as alternative to conventional treatment. Only 7% of CAM users disclosed the CAM use to their treating physician. Health care practitioners were the least cited (7%) as influencing the choice of CAM among users. Conclusion The use of CAM therapies among T2DM patients in Lebanon is prevalent. Decision makers and care providers must fully understand the potential risks and benefits of CAM therapies to appropriately advise their patients. Attention must be dedicated to educating T2DM patients on the importance of disclosing CAM use to their physicians especially patients with a family history of diabetes, and those who have had the disease for a long time. PMID:24906634

2014-01-01

25

Cross Section Flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use slider bars to move a cross section of a cone, cylinder, prism, or pyramid. This activity allows students to explore conic sections and the 3-dimensional shapes from which they are derived. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

26

Genetic determination and correlation of body weight and body mass index (BMI) and cross-sectional geometric parameters of the femoral neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  This study aimed to examine the genetic determination of body weight, body mass index (BMI) and cross-sectional geometric parameters of the femoral neck including cross-sectional area (CSA), cortical thickness (CT), sectional modulus (Z), and buckling ratio (BR), and to test the genetic correlation between body weight\\/BMI and the femoral neck geometric parameters.Methods  A total of 929 healthy subjects from 292 Chinese

Hong Xu; Ji-Rong Long; Yan-Jun Yang; Fei-Yan Deng; Hong-Wen Deng

2006-01-01

27

Postoperative Expansion of Dural Sac Cross-Sectional Area after Unilateral Laminotomy for Bilateral Decompression: Correlation with Clinical Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective Dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCSA) is a way to measure the degree of central spinal canal compression. The objective was to investigate the correlation between the expansion ratio of DSCSA after unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression (ULBD) and the clinical results for lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and radiographs of 103 patients who underwent ULBD for symptomatic spinal stenosis in one year. We compared preoperative and postoperative clinical data and DSCSA and evaluated the correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements. Results There was a significant increase of DSCSA after ULBD (p=0.000) and mean expansion ratio of DSCSA was 203.7±147.2%(range -32.9-826.1%). Clinical outcomes, measured by VAS and ODI were improved significantly not only in early postoperative period, but also in the last follow-up. However, there were no statistically significant correlations between the preoperative DSCSA and clinical symptoms, Perioperative expansion ratio of DSCSA and clinical parameters were also not correlated to the improvement of clinical symptoms significantly in both early postoperative phase and last follow-up. Conclusion Our result indicates that the DSCSA itself has a definite limitation to be correlated to the clinical symptoms, and thus meticulous correlation between the clinical presentation and MRI imaging is essential in determination of surgical treatment.

Chung, Seok-Won; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Baek, Oon-Ki; Lee, Sang-Ho

2014-01-01

28

Correlates of former smoking in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify multilevel correlates of former smoking in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Design Secondary data analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey. Methods We used data from the 2007–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Smoking status (former smoking vs smoker) was described by multilevel correlates of former smoking. A multilevel approach for variable selection for this study was used to understand how multiple levels in society can have an impact on former smoking. The study sample was selected from those respondents of the CCHS that reported they suffered from stroke symptoms. Logistic regression was used to predict former smoking in patients with cerebrovascular disease while controlling for multilevel confounders. Proportions were weighted to reflect the Canadian population. Results There were 172?355 respondents who reported to suffer from stroke. From this sample, 36.5% were smokers and 63.5% were former smokers. Age groups 55–69 and 70–80 and higher education (secondary education +) were positively related to former smoking. Household and vehicle smoking restrictions significantly predicted former smoking. Counselling advice from a physician and having access to a general practitioner were correlates of former smoking. Finally, the use of buproprion was positively related to former smoking. Conclusions There are multilevel correlates of former smoking in smokers with reported stroke symptoms. These correlates include older age groups, higher education, household and vehicle smoking restrictions, pharmacotherapy use (bupropion), access to a general practitioner and counselling advice from a physician. PMID:25609668

Edjoc, Rojiemiahd K; Reid, Robert D; Sharma, Mukul; Balfour, Louise; Procino, Michael

2015-01-01

29

Cross-sectional study of correlation between mandibular incisor crowding and third molars in young Brazilians  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate transversally the clinical correlation between lower incisor crowding and mandible third molar. Study Design: Three hundred healthy volunteers (134 male and 166 female), aged 20.4 (±2.4) years-old were submitted to a complete clinical examination and filled up a questionnaire about gender, age, total teeth number and presence or absence of superior and inferior third molar. After a recent panoramic radiography were evaluated. The multiple logistic regression showed that none of the studied factors influenced the mandibular incisor crowding. Results: The proportion of both molars present or both absent was higher than the other conditions (Chi-square, p<.0001). The multiple logistic regression showed that any of the studied factors, influenced (p>.05) the mandibular incisor crowding. Despite the statistical significance, wear orthodontics appliances showed a little correlation (odds ratios < 1.0) in the mandibular incisor crowding. Conclusion: Presence of maxillary and/or mandibular third molars has no relation with the lower incisor crowding. Key words:Malocclusion, third molars, lower incisor crowding, mandible. PMID:23385508

Karasawa, Lilian H.; Groppo, Francisco C.; Prado, Felippe B.; Caria, Paulo H F.

2013-01-01

30

Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

31

Factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia: a descriptive cross-sectional single-centre study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes. Setting Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital. Participants All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90?years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013. Main outcome measures The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records. Results Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes. PMID:24760351

Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Renganathan, Pukunan; Manaf, Rizal Abdul; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

2014-01-01

32

Morning melatonin serum values do not correlate with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most prevalent autoimmune arthritis worldwide, usually presents with a circannual manner and, meanwhile, follows a circadian rhythm for symptoms like morning stiffness. Therefore, association between RA and some hormones such as melatonin (MLT) and vitamin D, whose serum values are related to body circadian rhythms or seasonal variations, has become more noticeable recently. Since some studies proposed that RA patients show altered MLT circadian rhythms, especially in concordance with symptoms, in this research, we present the correlation between MLT serum values and RA disease activity score (DAS28ESR). The current cross-sectional study was carried out on 80 volunteers (60 patients and 20 healthy controls). Fifty percent of the participants in each group were sampled in cold, and the same percentage were sampled in warm seasons at 8 a.m. Disease activity was estimated utilizing DAS28ESR. Patients with possible known confounders of MLT secretion were excluded. A commercial MLT ELISA kit was employed to measure MLT. Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS-11 software. This study outlined higher serum values of MLT in RA patients compared with controls (P = 0.006, z = -2.73). However, MLT did not correlate with DAS in patients (P = 0.45, r = -0.09). GLM analysis demonstrated that DAS28ESR, age, disease duration, medications, gender, and season of sampling had no influence on serum MLT. However, newly diagnosed RA patients presented higher MLT values than established ones (P = 0.03, t = -2.2). A cutoff point value of 23 pg/mL (63.3 % sensitivity and 90 % specificity) for MLT was computed between patients and controls. This study denoted that morning MLT serum values are higher in RA patients than in healthy volunteers. However, MLT and RA disease activity or other disease characteristics do not correlate. MLT serum values were higher in newly diagnosed RA patients than established ones. PMID:24487422

Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Sahebari, Maryam; Seyyed-Hoseini, Seyyed-Reza

2014-08-01

33

Prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents: a cross-sectional survey study  

PubMed Central

Study objective To investigate the prevalence and the correlates of sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents and to examine the association between the two problems. Design Cross-sectional survey. Participants A total of 3186 school students in grades 7–12 were sampled from the schools in Guangdong. A stratified-cluster random-sampling strategy was used to select the schools. Main outcome measures A self-administered questionnaire was used. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index (PSQI) was used to assess the occurrence of sleep disturbance, and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to identify whether individuals had depressive symptoms. Results The mean PSQI global score was 8.7 (±2.4) points, and 39.6% of the total sample had sleep disturbance. The mean CES-D score of students was 15.2 (±9.4) points, and 6.4% of the students had depressive symptoms. Additionally, girls and older adolescents were more likely to suffer from sleep disturbance, and the students who had depressive symptoms were 2.47 (95% CI 1.61 to 3.79) times more likely to suffer from sleep disturbance. Factors that were correlated with sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms were having a poor relationship with teachers, feeling lonely, suicide ideation and having run away from home. Conclusions Sleep disturbance was determined to be more prevalent among Chinese adolescents with depressive symptoms. Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms were associated with each other, while school factors, family factors and psychosocial adjustment were comprehensively correlated with both. PMID:25079937

Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Lu, Ciyong

2014-01-01

34

Photoionization of Xe inside C{sub 60}: Atom-fullerene hybridization, giant cross-section enhancement, and correlation confinement resonances  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical study of the subshell photoionization of the Xe atom endohedrally confined in C{sub 60} is presented. Powerful hybridization of the Xe 5s state with the bottom edge of C{sub 60} pi band is found that induces strong structures in the 5s ionization, causing the cross section to differ significantly from earlier results that omit this hybridization. The hybridization also affects the angular distribution asymmetry parameter of Xe 5p ionization near the Cooper minimum. The 5p cross section, on the other hand, is greatly enhanced by borrowing considerable oscillator strength from the C{sub 60} giant plasmon resonance via the atom-fullerene dynamical interchannel coupling. Beyond the C{sub 60} plasmon energy range the atomic subshell cross sections display confinement-induced oscillations in which, over the large 4d shape resonance region, the dominant 4d oscillations induce their 'clones' in all degenerate weaker channels known as correlation confinement resonances.

Madjet, Mohamed E.; Renger, Thomas; Hopper, Dale E.; McCune, Matthew A.; Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Rost, Jan-M.; Manson, Steven T. [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Free University, Fabeckstrasse 36a, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri 64468 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik Komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Department Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States)

2010-01-15

35

Effects of instructional strategies using cross sections on the recognition of anatomical structures in correlated CT and MR images.  

PubMed

This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include: (1) cross-sectional images of the head that can be superimposed on radiological images, (2) transparent highlighting of anatomical structures in radiological images, and (3) cross-sectional images of the head with radiological images presented side-by-side. Data collected included: (1) time spent on instruction and on solving test questions, (2) mental effort during instruction and test, and (3) students' performance to identify anatomical structures in radiological images. Participants were 28 freshmen medical students (15 males and 13 females) and 208 biology students (190 females and 18 males). All studies used posttest-only control group design, and the collected data were analyzed by either t test or ANOVA. In self-directed computer-based environments, the strategies that used cross sections to improve students' ability to recognize anatomic structures in radiological images showed no significant positive effects. However, when increasing the complexity of the instructional materials, cross-sectional images imposed a higher cognitive load, as indicated by higher investment of mental effort. There is not enough evidence to claim that the simultaneous combination of cross sections and radiological images has no effect on the identification of anatomical structures in radiological images for novices. Further research that control for students' learning and cognitive style is needed to reach an informative conclusion. PMID:19177385

Khalil, Mohammed K; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E; Su, Yung K; Payer, Andrew F

2008-01-01

36

The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9?years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9) and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0). Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class, who did not participate in organized physical activity and who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for simultaneous BRFCH. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of BRFCH among adolescents, both isolated and simultaneously. The correlates of the presence of BRFCH can contribute to healthy policies among Brazilian adolescents, mainly focusing on high-risk subgroups for a health risk behavior. PMID:22920845

2012-01-01

37

The spectrum and solutions of the generalized BFKL equation for total cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour dipole cross section is the principal quantity in the lightcone s-channel description of the diffractive scattering. Recently we have shown that the dipole cross section satisfies the generalized BFKL equation. In this paper we discuss properties and solutions of our generalized BFKL equation with allowance for the finite gluon correlation radius Rc. The latter is intro- duced in

N. N. Nikolaeva; B. G. Zakharova; L. D. Landau

38

Description of Light Ion Production Cross Sections and Fluxes on the Mars Surface using the QMSFRG Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmosphere of Mars significantly attenuates the heavy ion component of the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR), however increases the fluence of secondary light ions (neutrons, and hydrogen and helium isotopes) because of particle production processes. We describe results of the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation (QMSFRG) model for the production of light nuclei through the distinct mechanisms of nuclear abrasion and ablation, coalescence, and cluster knockout. The QMSFRG model is shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data for nuclear fragmentation cross sections. We use the QMSFRG model and the space radiation transport code, HZETRN to make predictions of the light particle environment on the Martian surface at solar minimum and maximum. The radiation assessment detector (RAD) experiment will be launched in 2009 as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). We make predictions of the expected results for time dependent count-rates to be observed by RAD experiment. Finally, we consider sensitivity assessments of the impact of the Martian atmospheric composition on particle fluxes at the surface.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Schneider, Irene; Hassler, Donald M.

2006-01-01

39

Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45–70 years): a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. Methods A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45–70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire on physical activity. Socio-demographic and social-cognitive correlates were measured with validated instruments; medical correlates were checked by a general practitioner. The study had a cross-sectional design and the data collection ran from March 2005 until August 2006. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of PA. We separated the findings for men from those for women to explore potential gender-specific associations. Results Being female, living in North Limburg or North-Brabant, having a higher educational level, a higher perceived behavioral control, more knowledge about PA advantages, a stronger habitual PA behavior, having more action plans and a stronger intention to engage in PA were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Being older, being a smoker, having a higher body mass index (BMI), having a paid job, observing others being physically active and overestimating one's PA level were associated with being less physically active. Socio-demographic and medical correlates significantly explained 20% of the variance of PA behavior while social-cognitive correlates as attitude explained an additional 4% and intention together with actual control explained another 1% of the variance of PA behavior. Conclusion There may be stable individual differences that influence PA in view of the fact that several socio-demographic and medical factors were not completely mediated by the socio-cognitive factors. The current study may help to focus PA interventions for individuals aged 45–70 years on influential socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates. Physical activity was significantly associated with age, gender, education, BMI, work situation, region of residence, smoking, awareness, advantages, descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, habit, action plans and intention. PMID:24965940

2014-01-01

40

A cross-sectional study of the individual, social, and built environmental correlates of pedometer-based physical activity among elementary school children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Children who participate in regular physical activity obtain health benefits. Preliminary pedometer-based cut-points representing\\u000a sufficient levels of physical activity among youth have been established; however limited evidence regarding correlates of\\u000a achieving these cut-points exists. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of pedometer-based cut-points among\\u000a elementary school-aged children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A cross-section of children in grades 5-7 (10-12 years of

Gavin R McCormack; Billie Giles-Corti; Anna Timperio; Georgina Wood; Karen Villanueva

2011-01-01

41

Correlates of susceptibility to smoking among Mexican origin youth residing in Houston, Texas: A cross-sectional analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Survey data suggest that in Texas Latino youth exhibit higher rates of susceptibility to smoking than youth from other ethnic groups. In this analysis we examined the relationship between susceptibility to smoking and well-known risk factors associated with smoking initiation among a cohort of 11 to 13 year old Mexican origin youth residing in Houston, Texas. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from 1,187 participants who reported they had never smoked, even a puff of a cigarette. The survey assessed peer and family social influence, school and neighborhood characteristics, level of family acculturation and socioeconomic status, and attitudes toward smoking. Bivariate associations, Student's t-tests, and logistic regression analysis were used to examine predictors of susceptibility. Results Overall, 22.1% of the never-smokers were susceptible to smoking. Boys were more likely to be susceptible than girls (25.6% vs. 18.9%), and susceptible children were slightly older than non-susceptible children (12.1 vs. 11.8 years). In addition, multivariate analyses revealed that positive expectations about smoking exerted the strongest influence on susceptibility status (odds ratio = 4.85). Multivariate analyses further revealed that compared to non-susceptible participants, susceptibles were more likely to report peer influences supportive of smoking, lower subjective social status and more detentions at school, more temptations to try smoking and to have a mother and a brother who smokes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that interventions that target positive expectations about smoking may be useful in this population. Furthermore, because youth encounter smoking-initiation risk factors in different social environments, our results underscore the continued need for both family- and school-based primary prevention programs to adequately combat their influence. The results also can be used to inform the development of culturally sensitive programs for Mexican origin youth. PMID:18822130

Wilkinson, Anna V; Waters, Andrew J; Vasudevan, Vandita; Bondy, Melissa L; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Spitz, Margaret R

2008-01-01

42

A cross-sectional and longitudinal investigation of the external correlates of sluggish cognitive tempo and ADHD-inattention symptoms dimensions.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine if the external correlates of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and ADHD-inattention (IN) dimensions were the same in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Teachers and aides rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and depression along with academic impairment in 758 Spanish children (55 % boys) on three occasions (twice at the end of the first grade year [6-week separation] and then again 12-months later at the end of the second grade year). Three of eight SCT symptoms showed substantial loadings on the SCT factor and substantially higher loadings on the SCT factor than the ADHD-IN factor for teachers and aides at each assessment (seems drowsy, thinking is slow, and slow moving). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses yielded similar results with SCT and ADHD-IN factors having different and unique external correlates (higher scores on SCT predicted lower scores on ADHD-HI and ODD while higher scores on ADHD-IN predicted higher scores on ADHD-HI and ODD with SCT and ADHD-IN both uniquely predicting academic impairment and depression). Developmental and methodological reasons are discussed for the failure to find an inconsistent alertness SCT factor (daydreams, alertness fluctuates, absent-minded, loses train of though, and confused). PMID:24671731

Bernad, Maria del Mar; Servera, Mateu; Grases, Gloria; Collado, Susana; Burns, G Leonard

2014-10-01

43

Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study  

PubMed Central

Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults), with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35), perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10), recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62) and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29). The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727) (p< 0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our findings demonstrate the need to expand the design in future studies, aiming to estimate risk and identify possible causal relations. PMID:23290128

2013-01-01

44

Balanced Cross Sections and Retrodeformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate the use of balanced cross sections and retrodeformation to study faults that do not break the surface and their application to tectonics, folding, and earthquake hazards. Introductory materials explain how to construct geologic cross-sections, the idea of balance in a cross-section, and the concept of retrodeformability, whether or not the structures seen in a cross section can be 'undeformed' into their original positions. Using the Kink Method, students will construct a cross-section and test a balanced cross section to see if it is retrodeformable. Instructions, a blank cross section with data, study questions, and a bibliography are provided.

Nicholas Pinter

45

Opportunities for Student Physical Activity in Elementary Schools: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Frequency and Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to describe opportunities for student physical activity (PA) in elementary schools and to identify factors in the school environment associated with higher PA opportunity. Self-report questionnaires were completed by school principals and physical education teachers in 277 schools (88% response) in metropolitan Montreal. Correlates of opportunity were identified using ordinal logistic regression. There was

Tracie A. Barnett; Jennifer OLoughlin; Lise Gauvin; Gilles Paradis; Jim Hanley

2006-01-01

46

Theoretical study of the Compton effect with correlated three-photon emission: From the differential cross section to high-energy triple-photon entanglement  

E-print Network

The three-photon Compton effect is studied. An incoming photon undergoes triple scattering off a free electron, which leads to the emission of three entangled photons. We investigate the properties of both the total cross section, assuming a low-energy cutoff for the detected photons, and the differential cross section. Particular emphasis is laid on evaluating polarization-resolved cross sections. The entanglement of the final three-photon state is analyzed.

E. Lötstedt; U. D. Jentschura

2014-05-07

47

Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in critically ill patients: descriptive cross-sectional database study evaluating concordance with clinical site isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections are related to both increased antibiotic use and risk of adverse outcomes. An in-depth understanding of their epidemiology is essential to reduce occurrence and to improve outcomes by targeted prevention strategies. The objectives of the study were to determine the epidemiology, source and concordance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections with clinical site isolates. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in critically ill adults admitted to a tertiary semi-closed intensive care unit in England to determine the epidemiology, source and concordance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections with clinical site isolates. All nosocomial positive blood cultures over a 4-year study period were identified. Pathogens detected and concordances with clinical site are reported as proportions. Results Contaminant pathogens accounted for half of the isolates. The most common non-contaminant pathogens cultured were Pseudomonas spp. (8.0%), Enterococcus spp. (7.3%) and Escherichia coli (5.6%). Central venous catheter-linked bloodstream infections represent only 6.0% of the positive blood cultures. Excluding contaminants and central venous line infections, in only 39.5% of the bloodstream infections could a concordant clinical site source be identified, the respiratory and urinary tracts being the most common. Conclusions Clinical practice should focus on a) improving blood culture techniques to reduce detection of contaminant pathogens and b) ensuring paired clinical site cultures are performed alongside all blood cultures to better understand the epidemiology and potential implications of primary and secondary discordant health-care associated bloodstream infections.

2014-01-01

48

Physical activity level and its clinical correlates in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Decreased physical activity is associated with higher mortality in subjects with COPD. The aim of this study was to assess clinical characteristics and physical activity levels (PALs) in subjects with COPD. Methods Seventy-three subjects with COPD (67?±?7 yrs, 44 female) with one-second forced expiratory volume percentage (FEV1%) predicted values of 43?±?16 were included. The ratio of total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) was used to define the physical activity level (PAL) (PAL?=?TEE/RMR). TEE was assessed with an activity monitor (ActiReg), and RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. Walking speed (measured over 30-meters), maximal quadriceps muscle strength, fat-free mass and systemic inflammation were measured as clinical characteristics. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to investigate the explanatory values of the clinical correlates to PAL. Results The mean PAL was 1.47?±?0.19, and 92% of subjects were classified as physically very inactive or sedentary. The walking speed was 1.02?±?0.23 m/s, the quadriceps strength was 31.3?±?11.2 kg, and the fat-free mass index (FFMI) was 15.7?±?2.3 kg/m2, identifying 42% of subjects as slow walkers, 21% as muscle-weak and 49% as FFM-depleted. The regression model explained 45.5% (p?correlates of physical activity. Further explorations of the longitudinal effects of the factors characterizing the most inactive subjects are warranted. PMID:24237876

2013-01-01

49

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Erectile Dysfunction, and Their Correlation in Men Aged 50 Years and Above: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in men aged ?50 years. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 1644 men aged >50 years in Beijing. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 and International Prostate Symptom Score were recorded for each patient. Pearson’s chi-square test and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the International Prostate Symptom Scores and lower urinary tract symptoms, and their correlations with erectile dysfunction. Results The incidence rates of erectile dysfunction among men with mild, moderate, and severe lower urinary tract symptoms were 85.7, 93.7, and 97.9%, respectively. Interestingly, the total IIEF-5 score significantly correlated with the total International Prostate Symptom Score (r=?0.335; P<0.01), obstructive symptoms (r=?0.276; P<0.01), and irritative symptoms (r=?0.326; P<0.01). The correlation between the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms and that of erectile dysfunction was consistently maintained (r=0.304; P<0.01). Age significantly correlated with International Prostate Symptom Score (r=0.388; P<0.01), lower urinary tract symptoms severity (r=0.457; P<0.01), total IIEF-5 score (r=?0.533; P<0.01), and erectile dysfunction severity (r=0.529; P<0.01). Conclusions The incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in aging men increase with age, and the severity of erectile dysfunction is positively correlated with the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:25543209

Song, Jian; Shao, Qiang; Tian, Ye; Chen, Shan

2014-01-01

50

Lower urinary tract symptoms, erectile dysfunction, and their correlation in men aged 50 years and above: a cross-sectional survey in beijing, china.  

PubMed

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in men aged ?50 years. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 1644 men aged >50 years in Beijing. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 and International Prostate Symptom Score were recorded for each patient. Pearson's chi-square test and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the International Prostate Symptom Scores and lower urinary tract symptoms, and their correlations with erectile dysfunction. Results The incidence rates of erectile dysfunction among men with mild, moderate, and severe lower urinary tract symptoms were 85.7, 93.7, and 97.9%, respectively. Interestingly, the total IIEF-5 score significantly correlated with the total International Prostate Symptom Score (r=-0.335; P<0.01), obstructive symptoms (r=-0.276; P<0.01), and irritative symptoms (r=-0.326; P<0.01). The correlation between the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms and that of erectile dysfunction was consistently maintained (r=0.304; P<0.01). Age significantly correlated with International Prostate Symptom Score (r=0.388; P<0.01), lower urinary tract symptoms severity (r=0.457; P<0.01), total IIEF-5 score (r=-0.533; P<0.01), and erectile dysfunction severity (r=0.529; P<0.01). Conclusions The incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in aging men increase with age, and the severity of erectile dysfunction is positively correlated with the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:25543209

Song, Jian; Shao, Qiang; Tian, Ye; Chen, Shan

2014-01-01

51

Pre-hospital care among victims of road traffic accident in a rural area of Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background: The World Health Organization has estimated that globally almost 1.24 million people die annually on the world's roads. The aim of the study was to assess the attributes of pre-hospital care in road traffic accidents (RTAs) victim brought to the health care establishment and to evaluate the pre-hospital trauma care provided in the rural areas of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3 months duration (June 2014 to August 2014) was conducted in the Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram. The method of sampling was universal sampling and all RTA victims satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. During the entire study duration, total 200 RTA victims were included. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the desired information after the victims of RTAs are stabilized. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee prior to the start of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants (patient/guardian of children) before obtaining any information from them. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 18. Frequency distributions and percentages were computed for all the variables. Results: Majority of the RTA victims 158 (79%) were from the age-group of 15-45 years. Most of the accidents were reported in night time [77 (38.5%)], on week-ends [113 (56.5%)], and involved two-wheelers [153 (76.5%)]. Almost 66 (33%) of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services. Also, only 15 (7.5%) victims were brought to the hospital in the emergency ambulance, of which only 3 victims were accompanied by a doctor. Conclusion: To conclude, the study indicates that a significant proportion of people were unaware about the emergency trauma ambulance services and the existing pre-hospital care services lack in multiple dimensions in a rural area of South India. PMID:25540536

Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Pandian, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Prateek S.

2014-01-01

52

Stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS by healthcare workers at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a cross-sectional descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background The issue of stigma is very important in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Africa since it may affect patient attendance at healthcare centres for obtaining antiretroviral (ARV) medications and regular medical check-ups. Stigmatization creates an unnecessary culture of secrecy and silence based on ignorance and fear of victimization. This study was designed to determine if there is external stigmatization of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) by health care workers (HCWs) at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, South Africa. The study investigated the impact of knowledge of HIV/AIDS by HCWs on treatment of patients, as well as the comfort level and attitude of HCWs when rendering care to PLWHA. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to collect data using an anonymous self-administered structured questionnaire from 334 HCWs. The study was conducted in clinical departments of a large multidisciplinary 922-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in Durban, KZN. Results Overall HCWs had an above average knowledge about HIV/AIDS although some gaps in knowledge were identified. Tests of statistical significance showed that there was association between level of education and knowledge of HIV/AIDs (p ? 0.001); occupation and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p ? 0.001); and gender and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p = 0.004). Test for comfort level was only significant for gender, with males showing more comfort and empathy when dealing with PLWHA (p = 0.003). The study also revealed that patients were sometimes tested for HIV without informed consent before surgery, due to fear of being infected, and there was some gossiping about patients' HIV status by HCWs, thereby compromising patient confidentiality. The majority of HCWs showed a willingness to report incidents of stigmatization and discrimination to higher authorities, for better monitoring and control. Conclusions Although knowledge, attitude and comfort level of HCWs taking care of PLWHA was above average, enforcement of existing antidiscrimination laws and continuing education in medical ethics and healthcare law, would greatly improve the performance of HCWs taking care of PLWHAs. More psychological support and counselling should be provided to HCWs, to further reduce the impact of stigmatization and discrimination against PLWHA. PMID:24564982

2013-01-01

53

International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as "Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle" create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

2009-12-01

54

Microscopic description of recently measured reaction cross sections of neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of the N=20 and N=28 closed shells  

SciTech Connect

The reaction cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei with 7{<=}Z{<=}18 on a {sup 28}Si target at intermediate energies (30-65A MeV) are calculated and are compared with the corresponding recently reported new measurements. A finite-range Glauber model along with a Coulomb modification is used. The required nucleon density distributions of the relevant projectiles and the targets are obtained in the relativistic mean field framework. The calculations reproduce the experiment well. A simple phenomenological modification of the zero-range Glauber model is proposed to incorporate the finite-range effects. This one-parameter expression is found to reproduce the experimental reaction cross sections quite well.

Bhagwat, A. [KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Alba Nova University Center, Department of Nuclear Physics, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gambhir, Y. K. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. Powai, Bombay 400076 (India); Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal 576119 (India)

2008-02-15

55

Prevalence and Correlates of Bacterial Vaginosis in Different Sub-Populations of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV), HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit. Results At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7–10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis) and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment. Conclusions Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse. PMID:25289640

Jespers, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Verstraelen, Hans; Hardy, Liselotte; Buvé, Anne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

2014-01-01

56

Radar cross section of insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

Riley, J. R.

1985-02-01

57

Charge and energy-dependence of the Gaussian description of the triply differential cross sections for equal-energy sharing photo-double-ionization of two-electrons ions  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate triply differential cross sections (TDCSs) for the photo-double-ionization (PDI) of He-like ions, and equal electron energy sharing, by using the SC3 model for the three-body final state. These cross sections are fitted with the usual dipolar Gaussian form which is found able to describe the theoretical TDCS, and could be applied for the interpretation of experimental data even at intermediate photon energies. We determine the dependence of the correlation factor on the excess energy (E{sub f}) and target nuclear charge (Z). We find that its width has an E{sub f}{sup 1/4} dependence near the atomic double-ionization threshold but departs from this law and attains a plateau as the excess energy increases. We compare our results with the predictions of classical and semiclassical Wannier approaches.

Otranto, S. [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Garibotti, C.R. [CONICET and Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina)

2005-03-01

58

Low-energy cross-section calculations of single molecules by electron impact: a classical Monte Carlo transport approach with quantum mechanical description  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state of modeling radio-induced effects at the cellular level does not account for the microscopic inhomogeneity of the nucleus from the non-aqueous contents (i.e. proteins, DNA) by approximating the entire cellular nucleus as a homogenous medium of water. Charged particle track-structure calculations utilizing this approximation are therefore neglecting to account for approximately 30% of the molecular variation within the nucleus. To truly understand what happens when biological matter is irradiated, charged particle track-structure calculations need detailed knowledge of the secondary electron cascade, resulting from interactions with not only the primary biological component—water--but also the non-aqueous contents, down to very low energies. This paper presents our work on a generic approach for calculating low-energy interaction cross-sections between incident charged particles and individual molecules. The purpose of our work is to develop a self-consistent computational method for predicting molecule-specific interaction cross-sections, such as the component molecules of DNA and proteins (i.e. nucleotides and amino acids), in the very low-energy regime. These results would then be applied in a track-structure code and thereby reduce the homogenous water approximation. The present methodology—inspired by seeking a combination of the accuracy of quantum mechanics and the scalability, robustness, and flexibility of Monte Carlo methods—begins with the calculation of a solution to the many-body Schrödinger equation and proceeds to use Monte Carlo methods to calculate the perturbations in the internal electron field to determine the interaction processes, such as ionization and excitation. As a test of our model, the approach is applied to a water molecule in the same method as it would be applied to a nucleotide or amino acid and compared with the low-energy cross-sections from the GEANT4-DNA physics package of the Geant4 simulation toolkit for the energy ranges of 7 eV to 1 keV.

Madsen, J. R.; Akabani, G.

2014-05-01

59

Military Propensity and Enlistment: Cross-Sectional and Panel Analyses of Correlates and Predictors. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper No. 41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines why some young men and women choose military service as well as what factors lead to successful enlisting among those who choose military service. It examines these questions using cross-sectional and longitudinal panel survey data from large nationwide samples of high school seniors, many of whom were followed into young…

Bachman, Jerald G.; Segal, David R.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; O'Malley, Patrick M.

60

Cross-sectional assessment of prevalence and correlates of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections among Afghan National Army recruits  

PubMed Central

Background Few data are available in Afghanistan to shape national military force health practices, particularly with regard to sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). We measured prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among Afghan National Army (ANA) recruits. Methods A cross-sectional sample of male ANA recruits aged 18–35 years were randomly selected at the Kabul Military Training Center between February 2010 and January 2011. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and serum-based rapid testing for syphilis and hepatitis C virus antibody on-site; HIV and HSV-2 screening, and confirmatory testing were performed off-site. Prevalence of each infection was calculated and logistic regression analysis performed to identify correlates. Results Of 5313 recruits approached, 4750 consented to participation. Participants had a mean age of 21.8 years (SD±3.8), 65.5% had lived outside Afghanistan, and 44.3% had no formal education. Few reported prior marijuana (16.3%), alcohol (5.3%), or opiate (3.4%) use. Of sexually active recruits (58.7%, N?=?2786), 21.3% reported paying women for sex and 21.3% reported sex with males. Prevalence of HIV (0.063%, 95% CI: 0.013- 0.19), syphilis (0.65%, 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.93), and HCV (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.58 – 1.12) were quite low. Prevalence of HSV-2 was 3.03% (95% CI: 2.56 - 3.57), which was independently associated with age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)?=?1.04, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.09) and having a television (socioeconomic marker) (AOR?=?1.46, 95% CI: 1.03 – 2.05). Conclusion Though prevalence of HIV, HCV, syphilis, and HSV-2 was low, sexual risk behaviors and intoxicant use were present among a substantial minority, indicating need for prevention programming. Formative work is needed to determine a culturally appropriate approach for prevention programming to reduce STI risk among Afghan National Army troops. PMID:22909128

2012-01-01

61

Stratigraphic Cross Section of Northeast Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of Northeast Texas provide important clues about paleogeography, paleotectonics, and sea level fluctuation. This website describes several of these rock units and the geologic information they supply. An unpublished report with a thorough discussion, map, cross section, and numerous references is provided. Specific topics include Cretaceous stratigraphy, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic correlation, ammonites, Western Interior Seaway, Skull Creek Seaway, paleogeography, and paleotectonics.

Keith, Minor; Cretaceousfossils.com

62

Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of physical activity perception in individuals with recently diagnosed diabetes: results from a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity (PA) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are generally low. Poor PA perception may impede healthy behaviour change in this high risk group. We describe (i) objective PA levels, (ii) the difference between objective and self-reported PA (‘PA disparity’) and the correlates of (iii) PA disparity and (iv) overestimation in recently diagnosed T2DM patients. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 425 recently diagnosed T2DM patients aged 42 to 71, participating in the ADDITION-Plus study in Eastern England, UK. We define ‘PA disparity’ as the non-negative value of the difference (in mathematical terms the absolute difference) between objective and self-reported physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE in kJ · kg-1?·?day-1). ‘Overestimators’ comprised those whose self-reported- exceeded objective-PAEE by 4.91 kJ · kg-1 · day-1(the equivalent of 30 minutes moderate activity per day). Multivariable linear regression examined the association between PA disparity (continuous) and socio-demographic, clinical, health behaviour, quality of life and psychological characteristics. Logistic regression examined the association between PA overestimation and individual characteristics. Results Mean objective and self-reported PAEE levels ± SD were 34.4?±?17.0 and 22.6?±?19.4 kJ · kg-1?·?day-1, respectively (difference in means =11.8; 95% CI?=?9.7 to 13.9 kJ · kg-1?·?day-1). Higher PA disparity was associated with male sex, younger age, lower socio-economic status and lower BMI. PA overestimators comprised 19% (n?=?80), with those in routine/manual occupations more likely to be overestimators than those in managerial/professional occupations. Conclusions T2DM patients with poor physical activity perception are more likely to be male, younger, from a lower socio-economic class and to have a lower BMI. PA overestimators were more likely to be in lower socio-economic categories. Self-monitoring and targeted feedback, particularly to those in lower socio-economic categories, may improve PA perceptions and optimise interventions in T2DM patients. Our findings suggest that strategies for enabling realistic assessment of physical activity levels, through self-monitoring or feedback, warrant further investigation and may help refine and improve physical activity interventions. PMID:23883169

2013-01-01

63

Correlation of magnesium intake with metabolic parameters, depression and physical activity in elderly type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major global public health problem in the worldwide and is increasing in aging populations. Magnesium intake may be one of the most important factors for diabetes prevention and management. Low magnesium intake may exacerbate metabolic abnormalities. In this study, the relationships of magnesium intake with metabolic parameters, depression and physical activity in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes were investigated. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 210 type 2 diabetes patients aged 65?years and above. Participants were interviewed to obtain information on lifestyle and 24-hour dietary recall. Assessment of depression was based on DSM-IV criteria. Clinical variables measured included anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and biochemical determinations of blood and urine samples. Linear regression was applied to determine the relationships of magnesium intake with nutritional variables and metabolic parameters. Results Among all patients, 88.6% had magnesium intake which was less than the dietary reference intake, and 37.1% had hypomagnesaemia. Metabolic syndromes and depression were associated with lower magnesium intake (p?correlated with triglyceride, waist circumference, body fat percent and body mass index (p?

2012-01-01

64

Awareness and correlates of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Although considerable evidence has demonstrated that physical activity is associated with breast cancer prevention, few studies have assessed the level of awareness of this association. Awareness is a key first step to successful of behavior change. Increasing awareness may contribute to promote physical activity and prevent breast cancer at the population level. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of awareness about the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women. Methods 1,000 Japanese women aged 20–69 years (mean age: 44.3?±?13.4 years) who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Awareness of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention, knowledge of breast cancer (symptom, risk factor, screening), exposure to information about physical activity and cancer, a self-reported physical activity, and sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, having a child, education level, employment status, and household income) were obtained. Force-entry logistic regression analysis was used. Results The prevalence of awareness was 31.5% (95%?CI: 28.6-34.4). Factors significantly associated with awareness included sociodemographic variables, exposure to information, and knowledge of breast cancer. Being married (AOR, 95% CI: 1.75, 1.05–2.92) was positively related to awareness, while having children (0.65, 0.36–0.86) was negatively related. College graduates or those with higher levels of education (1.50, 1.01–2.22) were significantly more likely to be aware than those who had not graduated high school. Moreover, exposure to information (2.11, 1.51–2.95), and high knowledge of symptoms (2.43, 1.75–3.36) were positively associated with awareness. Finally, low knowledge of risk factors (0.30, 0.22–0.40) was negatively associated with awareness. Conclusions Japanese women through internet-based study were poorly aware of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention. Awareness was especially low among individuals with children and higher knowledge of risk factors whereas high in married women, those with higher educational level, exposure to information, and greater knowledge of symptoms. The findings suggest that strategies to increase the awareness about the preventive role of physical activity are needed for breast cancer prevention in consideration of subgroups with low awareness. PMID:24998296

2014-01-01

65

Self-reported sexually transmitted infections and their correlates among men who have sex with men in Norway: an Internet-based cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The incidences of reportable sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased since the late 1990 s in Norway. The objectives of our study were to assess factors, associated with recent selected STI among MSM, living in Norway in order to guide prevention measures. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional Internet-based survey during 1-19

Irena Jakopanec; Barbara Schimmer; Andrej M Grjibovski; Elise Klouman; Preben Aavitsland

2010-01-01

66

The bboverline production cross section and angular correlations in ppoverline collisions at /sqrt(s)=1.8 TeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of the bboverline production cross section and angular correlations using the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron ppoverline Collider operating at /sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. The /b quark production cross section for yb<1.0 and pTb>6 GeV//c is extracted from single muon and dimuon data samples. The results agree in shape with the next-to-leading order QCD calculation of heavy flavor production but are greater than the central values of these predictions. The angular correlations between /b and boverline quarks, measured from the azimuthal opening angle between their decay muons, also agree in shape with the next-to-leading order QCD prediction.

Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Akimov, V.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bean, A.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Briskin, G.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Canelli, F.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Connolly, B.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; De, K.; Del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Di Loreto, G.; Doulas, S.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Estrada, J.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Fleuret, F.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gilmartin, R.; Ginther, G.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, J. A.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, C.; Hebert, C.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Ito, A. S.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Juste, A.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Landsberg, G.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lu, J. G.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lundstedt, C.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, R. D.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Meng, X. C.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mihalcea, D.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Nagy, E.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Negroni, S.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Olivier, B.; Oshima, N.; Padley, P.; Pan, L. J.; Para, A.; Parashar, N.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Patwa, A.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pope, B. G.; Popkov, E.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Reay, N. W.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Schwartzman, A.; Sculli, J.; Sen, N.; Shabalina, E.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Simak, V.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Slattery, P.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Song, X. F.; Sorín, V.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Soustruznik, K.; Souza, M.; Stanton, N. R.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Stutte, L.; Sznajder, A.; Taylor, W.; Tentindo-Repond, S.; Thomas, T. L. T.; Thompson, J.; Toback, D.; Trippe, T. G.; Turcot, A. S.; Tuts, P. M.; van Gemmeren, P.; Vaniev, V.; Van Kooten, R.; Varelas, N.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, H.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Whiteson, D.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V. D.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.

2000-08-01

67

Cross Section of Sagittal Otolith  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Cross section of a sagittal otolith from a juvenile Chinook salmon 79 days after emergence. The letters represent: H = hatch, E = emergence, FF = first feed, FW = freshwater residence, TDCK = tidal delta check, and D = tidal delta residence (40x objective)....

68

Documentation of Uncertainties in Experimental Cross Sections for EXFOR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documentation of uncertainties and covariances in experimental nuclear reaction cross sections has been assessed. Following consideration of the importance of covariances for nuclear data in various nuclear applications, and presentation of a simple numerical example to demonstrate this point, the minimum basic concepts (mean, covariance, standard derivation, partial uncertainties, micro- and macro-correlation coefficients) are introduced. A deterministic approach to propagating the covariances in primary measured parameters (e.g., counts) to the derived cross sections is discussed, using a neutron-induced activation cross section measurement as an example. Finally, various approaches to documentation (publication, compilation) of experimental cross sections to facilitate their use in future evaluations are mentioned.

Otuka, N.; Smith, D. L.

2014-06-01

69

Family and home correlates of children's physical activity in a multi-ethnic population: the cross-sectional child heart and health study in england (CHASE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The influence of the family and home environment on childhood physical activity (PA) and whether this differs between ethnic\\u000a groups remains uncertain. This paper investigates associations between family and home factors and childhood PA in a multi-ethnic\\u000a population and explores whether associations differ between ethnic groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional study of 9-10 year-old schoolchildren, in which PA was objectively measured by Actigraph

Alison M McMinn; Esther MF van Sluijs; Claire M Nightingale; Simon J Griffin; Derek G Cook; Chris G Owen; Alicja R Rudnicka; Peter H Whincup

2011-01-01

70

Early Mesoderm Development Cross Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the context of a cross section between the amniotic cavity and yolk sac, this FlashTM animation depicts mesoderm formation and differentiation into somites, dermatomes, myotomes, sclerotomes, notochord and coelom. Simultaneous development of neural tube, gut and vitelline duct is also displayed.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2011-07-07

71

Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging  

E-print Network

Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

2014-01-01

72

Nuclear cross sections from strong relativity  

SciTech Connect

Some time age, a geometrization of the nuclear field (in particular, inside hadrons) was proposed, which - on the basis of the classical methods of General Relativity - allowed a unified description of gravitational and strong forces. Such as non-phenomenological approach yielded already interesting results in connection, e.g., with the general behavior of hadrons constituents and the spectrum of mesons. In this note the author aims to show how it is possible to get from that theory also some information about nuclear cross-sections.

Italiano, A. (Univ. Messina (Italy) Inst. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Messina (Italy))

1991-06-01

73

LUMEN Cross-Section Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Loyola University Medical Education Network (LUMEN) presents this anatomy tutorial. The site is divided up into categories of cross-sectional images of the human body: Head and Neck, Upper Limb, male and female Thorax, Abdomen, male and female Pelvis, and Lower Limb. By clicking on each section, users select a cross-section of that part of the anatomy, and by clicking on each number, can find out the specific name of that area. Users can also choose to see an illustration of the area (by choosing âÂÂImageâÂÂ), or an image from a CAT scan (by choosing âÂÂCTâÂÂ). This is an excellent resource for students in any health care or allied medical field, including nursing or nursesâ aides, patient care assistants, and diagnostic imaging technicians.

Mcnulty, John A.

2010-07-20

74

Inverse Compton Cross Section Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of advanced machines working in the quantum regime (ELI-NP, IRIDE, e - ? and ? - ? colliders) requires to set the fundamentals needed to have an accurate prediction of the radiation qualities after the Compton scattering. Due to the high energy of the electron beam in the cases above mentioned, the quantum effects, referred as inverse Compton, which occur during the collision with the laser radiation, are not negligible. We present a rigorous method to obtain the inverse Compton cross section in the general case of not null initial momentum of the electrons from a pure QED calculation, avoiding the usual approaches based on the derivation of this cross section either from the Klein and Nishina formula and the Lorentz transformations or throught Feynman diagrams and Mandelstam invariants. In the derivation of the cross section from the transition amplitude we pay particular attention to the long time behavior of the system evolution. Proceeding in this way we obtain the transition probability in the time unit, which integrated over the solid angle of emission defines spectrum and number of the scattered photons.

Curatolo, C.; Lanz, L.; Petrillo, V.

75

Correlates of consistent condom use among men who have sex with men recruited through the Internet in Huzhou city: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that men who have sex with men (MSM) are currently a group at high risk of HIV infection in China. Our study aims to know the factors affecting consistent condom use among MSM recruited through the internet in Huzhou city. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 410 MSM living in Huzhou city via the Internet. The socio-demographic profiles (age, education level, employment status, etc.) and sexual risk behaviors of the respondents were investigated. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the differences between consistent condom users and inconsistent condom users. Variables with significant bivariate between groups’ differences were used as candidate variables in a stepwise multivariate logistic regression model. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows 17.0, and a p value?

2013-01-01

76

Neutron cross sections: Volume 2, Neutron cross section curves  

SciTech Connect

Data is presented only for total (i.e., integrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy. The energy range has been limited to 0.01 eV to 200 MeV in order to exclude crystalline and magnetic effects for slow neutrons and relativistic effects for high energy neutrons. Angular distributions and partial reaction cross sections to specific excited states are not included. However, isometric state production cross sections have been included for isometric states with a half-life > 1 sec. Data which have been measured for a broad incident-neutron spectrum, e.g., Maxwellian are not included. A list of the reaction types included in this volume is given at the end of this section. Sums and ratios of specific reactions are not included (e.g., {sigma}{sub n,np+n,d} or {sup 235}U {sigma}{sub n,f}/{sup 239}Pu {sigma}{sub n,f}). A table of references to data for energies greater than 200 MeV is given in Appendix A. In this volume, the data have been grouped into sections corresponding to the element of the target nucleus in the neutron-induced reaction. These sections are ordered in increasing atomic number (Z). Within a section, graphical data are presented for the natural element followed by the isotopes of that element in order of increasing atomic mass (A). The bibliographic pages follow at the end of each section.

McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

1988-01-01

77

Deeply virtual Compton Scattering cross section measured with CLAS  

SciTech Connect

The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Including and extending the information provided by the form factors and the parton distribution functions, they describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark in the nucleon eN --> e'N'g, is the exclusive process most directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.9-GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing us to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region : 1.0 < Q2 < 4.6 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58 and 0.09 < -t < 2.0 GeV2. In this paper, we show preliminary results of unpolarized cross sections and of polarized cross section differences for the DVCS channel.

Guegan, Baptistse [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay

2014-09-01

78

Family and home correlates of children's physical activity in a multi-ethnic population: the cross-sectional child heart and health study in england (CHASE)  

PubMed Central

Background The influence of the family and home environment on childhood physical activity (PA) and whether this differs between ethnic groups remains uncertain. This paper investigates associations between family and home factors and childhood PA in a multi-ethnic population and explores whether associations differ between ethnic groups. Methods Cross-sectional study of 9-10 year-old schoolchildren, in which PA was objectively measured by Actigraph GT1 M accelerometers for ?7 days to estimate average activity counts per minute (CPM). Information on 11 family and home environmental factors were collected from questionnaires. Associations between these factors and CPM were quantified using multi-level linear regression. Interactions with ethnicity were explored using likelihood ratio tests. Results 2071 children (mean ± SD age: 9.95 ± 0.38 years; 47.8% male) participated, including 25% white European, 28% black African-Caribbean, 24% South Asian, and 24% other ethnic origin. Family PA support and having a pet were associated with higher average CPM (adjusted mean difference: 6 (95%CI:1,10) and 13 (95%CI:3,23), respectively) while car ownership and having internet access at home were associated with lower average CPM (adjusted mean difference: -19 (95%CI:-30,-8) and -10 (95%CI:-19,0), respectively). These associations did not differ by ethnicity. Although the number of siblings showed no overall association with PA, there was some evidence of interaction with ethnicity (p for ethnicity interaction = 0.04, 0.05 in a fully-adjusted model); a positive significant association with number of siblings was observed in white Europeans (per sibling CPM difference 10.3 (95% CI 1.7, 18.9)) and a positive non-significant association was observed in black African-Caribbeans (per sibling CPM difference: 3.5 (-4.2, 11.2)) while a negative, non-significant association was observed in South Asians (per sibling CPM difference -6.0 (-15.5, 3.4)). Conclusions Some family and home environmental factors have modest associations with childhood PA and these are mostly similar across different ethnic groups. This suggests that targeting these factors in an intervention to promote PA would be relevant for children in different ethnic groups. PMID:21324105

2011-01-01

79

Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. Results Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. Conclusion A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed to that observed in previously studied populations. The results suggest that low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling should not be neglected and may help identify those who might benefit from early intervention. PMID:23448191

2013-01-01

80

Absorption cross section in Lifshitz black hole  

E-print Network

We derive the absorption cross section of a minimally coupled scalar in the Lifshitz black hole obtained from the new massive gravity. The absorption cross section reduces to the horizon area in the low energy and massless limit of s-wave mode propagation, indicating that the Lifshitz black hole also satisfies the universality of low energy absorption cross section for black holes.

Taeyoon Moon; Yun Soo Myung

2012-10-05

81

Correlation of White Matter Diffusivity and Anisotropy with Age during Childhood and Adolescence: A Cross-sectional Diffusion-Tensor MR Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE To evaluate differences in white matter diffusion properties as a function of age in healthy children and adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS Echo-planar diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 33 healthy subjects aged 5–18 years who were recruited from a functional imaging study of normal language development. Results of neurologic, psychologic, and structural MR imaging examinations were within the normal range for all subjects. The trace of the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy in white matter were correlated as a function of age by using Spearman rank correlation. RESULTS Statistically significant negative correlation of the trace of the apparent diffusion coefficient with age was found throughout the white matter. Significant positive correlation of fractional anisotropy with age was found in the internal capsule, corticospinal tract, left arcuate fasciculus, and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. CONCLUSION Diffusion-tensor MR imaging results indicate that white matter maturation assessed at different ages involves increases in both white matter density and organization during childhood and adolescence. The trace of the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy may reflect different physiologic processes in healthy children and adolescents. PMID:11756728

Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Wilke, Marko; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Holland, Scott K.

2008-01-01

82

SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium  

SciTech Connect

A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01

83

Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)  

E-print Network

.). Anthropometry Height was measured to the nearest 0.5 cm with a portable Harpenden stadiometer, and weight was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg with a beam balance scale. Assessment of physical activityPage 2 of 7 (page number not for citation purposes) correlates... influences on PA in children, and was partly based on a previously validated self-report instru- ment [29]. All children completed the questionnaire indi- vidually and a researcher was available at all times to assist if the child wanted help to correctly...

Nilsson, Andreas; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Froberg, Karsten; Sardinha, Luis B; Piehl-Aulin, Karin; Ekelund, Ulf

2009-09-07

84

Personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural south-west England: a cross-sectional analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the health risks, physical inactivity is common. Identifying the correlates of physical activity to inform the design of interventions to reduce the disease burden associated with physical inactivity is a public health imperative. Rural adults have a unique set of characteristics influencing their activity behaviour, and are typically understudied, especially in England. The aim of this study was to identify the personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural villages. Methods The study used baseline data from 2415 adults (response rate: 37.7%) participating in the first time period of a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, conducted in 128 rural villages from south-west England. Data collected included demographic characteristics, social factors, perception of the local environment, village level factors (percentage male, mean age, population density, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and sport market segmentation), and physical activity behaviour. Random effects (“multilevel”) logistic regression models were fitted to the binary outcome whether individuals met physical activity guidelines, and random effects linear regression models were fitted to the continuous outcome MET-minutes per week leisure time physical activity, using the personal, social, environmental, and village-level factors as predictors. Results The following factors both increased the odds of meeting the recommended activity guidelines and were associated with more leisure-time physical activity: being male (p?=?0.002), in good health (p?correlates of physical activity behaviour by focusing on a population exposed to unique environmental conditions. It highlights potentially important correlates of physical activity that could be the focus of interventions targeting rural populations, and demonstrates the need to examine rural adults separately from their urban counterparts. PMID:24261335

2013-01-01

85

Neutron average cross sections of Np237  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports Np237 neutron resonance parameters obtained from the simultaneous analysis of time-of-flight data measured at the GELINA, ORELA, KURRI, and LANSCE facilities. A statistical analysis of these resonances relying on average R-matrix and optical model calculations was used to establish consistent l-dependent average resonance parameters involved in the description of the unresolved resonance range of the Np237 neutron cross sections. For neutron orbital angular momentum l=0, we obtained an average radiation width =39.3±1.0 meV, a neutron strength function 104S0=1.02±0.14, a mean level spacing D0=0.60±0.03 eV, and a potential scattering length R'=9.8±0.1 fm.

Noguere, G.

2010-04-01

86

Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC) remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC) in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania. HIV prevalence from ANC surveys in 2000 and 2002 was 10.5% and 10.8% respectively. In previous rounds urban residence, residential mobility, the length of time sexually active before marriage, time since marriage and age of the partner were associated with HIV infection. Methods A third round of HIV sentinel surveillance was conducted at ante-natal clinics in Mwanza region, Tanzania during 2006. We interviewed women attending 27 ante-natal clinics. In 15 clinics we also anonymously tested women for syphilis and HIV infection and linked these results to the questionnaire data. Results HIV prevalence was 7.6% overall in 2006 and 7.4% at the 11 clinics used in previous rounds. Geographical variations in HIV prevalence, apparent in previous rounds, have largely disappeared but syphilis prevalence is still higher in rural clinics. HIV prevalence has declined in urban clinics and is stable in rural clinics. The correlates of HIV infection have changed over time. In this round older age, lower gravidity, remarriage, duration of marriage, sexual activity before marriage, long interval between last birth and pregnancy and child death were all associated with infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence trends concur with results from a community-based cohort in the region. Correlates of HIV infection have also changed and more proximate, individual level factors are now more important, in line with the changing epidemiology of infection in this population. PMID:20836872

2010-01-01

87

A cross-sectional examination of socio-demographic and school-level correlates of children’s school travel mode in Ottawa, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Active school transport (AST) is an important source of children’s daily physical activity (PA). However, decreasing rates of AST have been reported in multiple countries during the last decades. The purpose of the present study was to examine the socio-demographic and school-level correlates of AST. Methods A stratified sample of children (N?=?567, mean age?=?10.0 years; 57.8% female) was recruited in the Ottawa area. Four sources of data were used for analyses: 1) child questionnaire including questions on school travel mode and time; 2) parent questionnaire providing information on household socio-demographic characteristics; 3) school administrator survey assessing school policies and practices pertaining to PA; and 4) school site audit performed by the study team. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify socio-demographic and school-level correlates of AST while controlling for school clustering. Results Individual factors associated with higher odds of AST were male gender (OR?=?1.99; 95% CI?=?1.30-3.03), journey time <5 minutes vs. >15 minutes (OR?=?2.26; 95% CI?=?1.17-4.37), and 5–15 minutes vs. >15 minutes (OR?=?2.27; 95% CI?=?1.27-4.03). Children were more likely to engage in AST if school administrators reported that crossing guards were employed (OR?=?2.29; 95% CI?=?1.22-4.30), or if they expressed major or moderate concerns about crime in the school neighbourhood (OR?=?3.34; 95% CI?=?1.34-8.32). In schools that identified safe routes to school and where traffic calming measures were observed, children were much more likely to engage in AST compared to schools without these features (OR?=?7.87; 95% CI?=?2.85-21.76). Moreover, if only one of these features was present, this was not associated with an increased likelihood of AST. Conclusion These findings suggest that providing crossing guards may facilitate AST. Additionally, there was a synergy between the identification of safe routes to school and the presence of traffic calming measures, suggesting that these strategies should be used in combination. PMID:24886211

2014-01-01

88

Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in HIV-positive patients: a cross-sectional study among newly diagnosed patients in Yaoundé, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric complications of HIV disease, and in turn it is associated with worse HIV-related outcomes. Data on depression among HIV-infected patients in Cameroon are scarce. In this study, we report the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods Interviews were conducted with 100 newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients at three referral hospitals of Yaoundé. Depression was assessed using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A positive depression screen was defined as PHQ-9 score greater than 9. Results The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 63% (95% CI: 53.2 to 71.8), the majority having symptoms corresponding to moderate depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that probable depressed patients were more likely than those who were not depressed to have had experience of alcohol abuse (OR: 19.03, 95% CI 3.11-375.85; p?=?0.0083), and a 100 CD4 cells/mm3 fewer was associated with a 2.9 times increase of the odds of probable depression (95% CI 1.88-4.84; p?

2013-01-01

89

Clinical, Functional and Health-Related Quality of Life Correlates of Clinically Significant Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36). Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD) (defined cut-off?8). Results 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc), and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. Conclusion High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ manifestations. PMID:24587375

Nguyen, Christelle; Ranque, Brigitte; Baubet, Thierry; Bérezné, Alice; Mestre-Stanislas, Caroline; Rannou, François; Papelard, Agathe; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Revel, Michel; Moro, Marie-Rose; Guillevin, Loïc; Poiraudeau, Serge; Mouthon, Luc

2014-01-01

90

Nuclear Science and Technology, November 2000. NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS  

E-print Network

Nuclear Science and Technology, November 2000. 1 NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS FOR 238 U UP and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk, Russia A.Ventura ENEA, Nuclear Data Center and INFN, Bologna Section of the statistical description that includes direct, pre-equilibrium and equilibrium mechanisms of nuclear reactions

91

Rheologic results and their correlation to hemostatic changes in patients with moderate and severe preeclampsia: An observational cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Previous study have shown an association between failure of physiological hemodilution during 2nd trimester and an increased risk for the development of subsequent pregnancy complications such as early birth, birth of a growth retarded newborn (IUGR), low fetal birth weight and preeclampsia. The latter complication in particular goes along with dramatic changes in the placental perfusion as well as systemic maternal blood flow. Severity of preeclampsia may be preceded by distinct impaired hemodilution and reflected by the results of rheological parameters. A subgroup analysis was performed in a community based retrospective study of 4,985 consecutively recorded singleton pregnant women of whom 423 had preeclampsia. Mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin levels and blood rheological results at the time of delivery were assessed and compared in women with moderate and severe preeclampsia. Mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin levels were calculated from the maternal records. Rheological variables included plasma viscosity (KSPV 1 Fresenius) and Red blood cell aggregation in stasis and under low shear conditions (MA1-Aggregometer; Myrenne). According to the definition of the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) 314 women had moderate preeclampsia (74.2%), while 109 had severe preeclampsia due to the presence of a blood pressure >170/110 mmHg (n = 41; 9.7%), and/or IUGR <5th percentile (n = 28; 6.6%), and/or HELLP-Syndrome (n = 10; 2.4%), and/or proteinuria ?5 g/24 h (n = 30; 7.1%). Age, BMI, smoking, and maternal weight were comparable in the groups, while gestational age at delivery as well as fetal outcome parameter were statistically significant unfavourable in patients with severe preeclampsia. Mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin level were statistically significantly higher in women who developed severe vs. moderate preeclampsia (m = 12.75 ± 0.99 g/dL vs. m = 12.50 ± 1.05 g/dL; p = 0.033). However, in the ROC calculations a hemoglobin value of 12.05 g/dL revealed best sensitivity (78%) and specificity (33.8%) in women with subsequent diagnosis of severe preeclampsia, whereas sensitivity was 100% for a value >10.95 g/dL. There were no statistically significant differences for none of the rheological parameters at the time of delivery between groups of patient with moderate v.s severe preeclampsia. Severe preeclampsia and IUGR, however, was associated with statistically significantly higher RBC aggregation as compared to patients with moderate preeclampsia. Plasma viscosity was statistically significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with Fibrinogen values (r = 1.69), leukocyte-(r = 0.11) and platelets-count (r = 0.127), and hemoglobin/hematocrit values in particular (r = 0.23/0.26). Although mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin concentration are higher in patients with subsequent development of severe preeclampsia, due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this parameter clinical use for identifying women at risk is of limited value. On the other hand, a hemoglobin value below 11.0 g/dL excluded the risk for severe preeclampsia to 100%. Blood rheological parameters at the time of delivery in the absence of IUGR are not markedly influenced by severity of preeclampsia. PMID:23089882

Soliman, Amr A; Csorba, Roland; Yilmaz, Asli; von Tempelhoff, Georg-Friedrich

2012-10-22

92

Direct processes effects on deuteron activation cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extended analysis of reaction mechanisms involved in deuterons interaction with target nuclei from 27Al till 231Pa, at incident energies up to 60 MeV, is presented. Increased attention is devoted to direct processes, concerning the breakup, stripping, and pickup contributions to the deuteron activation cross sections. Finally, the pre-equilibrium and evaporation cross sections, corrected for the initial flux leakage towards direct processes, have completed the deuteron interaction analysis. The overall agreement of the measured data and model calculations proves the correctness of nuclear mechanism description.

Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

2014-09-01

93

Cross Sections of Gamma-Proton Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the University of Pennsylvania betatron, the energy dependences of the gamma-p cross sections of C, Al, Co, Ni, and Cb have been measured. The cross-section curves exhibit the resonance character found in gamma-n reactions. The significant parameters of each of the curves are tabulated. From the data of this paper and the known gamma-n cross-section data, the sum of

J. Halpern; A. K. Mann

1951-01-01

94

Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

1994-01-01

95

{sup 16}O neutron cross section evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This work has resulted from a need to compute more accurately the neutron scattering cross sections and angular distributions for {sup 16}O. Several oxygen evaluations have been performed in the past with R-Matrix theory, including ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI. ENDF/B-VI is an improvement over ENDF/B-V, but still underpredicts in general the forward scattering of neutrons below 2.5 MeV. R-Matrix theory is used in describing cross sections at and near the resonance energies; but may not always be adequate in describing cross sections between resonances, especially when they are widely spaced. The optical (potential well) model of the nucleus is very good in representing cross sections that vary smoothly with energy, but not at describing all of the detailed resonance cross sections. A combination of the potential well model and R-Matrix theory was used for this work to represent cross sections with isolated resonances with large spacings between them. The total neutron cross section of oxygen-16 below 3.0 MeV has widely separated resonances and a dip in the cross section at 2.35 MeV. In the vicinity of resonances, where cross sections vary rapidly with energy, R-Matrix theory has been successful in fitting experimental data. In the region between resonances, an analytical procedure with physical basis is needed that agrees with data over a wide range of energies bracketing regions where experimental measurements are lacking.

Caro, E. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1998-06-01

96

The Primitive Streak, Cross Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FlashTM animation is the third of a seven part series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays the cross section, which is conducive to observing invagination. Epiblast cells ingress through the middle of the germ disc, to differentiate into either endoderm or mesenchymal mesoderm. The endoderm proliferates to drive the hypoblast into the extraembryonic endoderm of the yolk sac. The mesenchyme spreads between the epiblast and endoderm. Although not drawn to scale, the progressive thickening from lateral to paraxial mesoderm is depicted. To open the animation using Internet Explorer follow these steps. (1.) Click the link for the animation. (2.) A dialog box may pop up that begins with the statement "Windows cannot open this file:" If this box does not appear proceed to step four. If it does choose "Select the program from a list," then click OK. (3.) Another dialog box will pop up that lists different programs. Make sure "Internet Explorer" is selected, then click OK. (4.) Internet Explorer will pop up. Beneath the toolbars at the top of the window a yellow bar will appear that reads "To help protect your security, Internet Explorer has restricted this webpage from running scripts or Active X controls that could access your computer. Click here for options..." Pass the cursor over this yellow bar and click the right mouse button. (5.) A dialog box will pop up. Left click the option "Allow Blocked Content." (6.) Another dialog box will appear labeled "Security Warning" asking you to confirm that you want to run the content. Click "Yes." (7.) The Flash animation will appear in the Internet Explorer Window. (8.) Instructions for navigating the lesson are provided by the first frame of the animation.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2011-06-23

97

Electron impact double ionization cross sections of light elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple user-friendly semiempirical model is proposed to calculate electron impact double ionization cross sections of He, Li, Li+, B+, C+, C3+, O, O2+, O3+, Ne, Ne+, Ne2+, Na, Mg, Al3+, S, and Arq+ (q=0-7) targets for the incident electron energies from threshold to 106 eV. The contributions in the total double ionization cross sections from the direct double ionization and inner-shell ionization processes are taken into account on the basis of experimental data considered. The results of the present analysis are compared with the available experimental data and theoretical calculations. The model is found successful for the description of experimental cross sections. Since, this model may be a prudent selection to meet the demand level in plasma modeling due to its simple inherent structure.

Talukder, M. R.; Haque, A. K. F.; Uddin, M. A.

2009-06-01

98

K-shell photoionization cross sections - Calculations and simple fitting formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple analytic formulas are proposed to fit the theoretical Hartree-Dirac-Slater K-shell photoionization cross sections of atoms and ions with atomic number of 26 or higher. It is shown that the criterion of Kamrukov et al. (1983) permits the description of many cross sections for a variety of atoms and ions. Fitting parameters are shown for the photoionization cross sections of

I. M. Band; M. B. Trzhaskovskaia; D. A. Verner; D. G. Iakovlev

1990-01-01

99

Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.  

SciTech Connect

Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

2008-04-01

100

Evaluation of the /sup 238/U neutron total cross section  

SciTech Connect

Experimental energy-averaged neutron total cross sections of /sup 238/U were evaluated from 0.044 to 20.0 MeV using regorous numerical methods. The evaluated results are presented together with the associated uncertainties and correlation matrix. They indicate that this energy-averaged neutron total cross section is known to better than 1% over wide energy regions. There are somwewhat larger uncertainties at low energies (e.g., less than or equal to 0.2 MeV), near 8 MeV and above 15 MeV. The present evaluation is compard with values given in ENDF/B-V.

Smith, A.; Poenitz, W.P.; Howerton, R.J.

1982-12-01

101

Photoionisation cross sections for Fe XVII  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the first close-coupling photoionisation calculation of Fe XVII, and provides accurate total and partial cross sections for photon energies up to 450 Ryd. The total and first partial photoionisation cross sections, the latter obtained when the Fe XVIII ion is left in the 2s(22p^5;^2P^o) ground state, are dominated by resonance structure for photon energies in the range from threshold to excitation of the first excited state (2s2p(6;^2S) ) of Fe XVIII. This is the first time that such structure has been determined. The background cross section is found to be in good agreement (to within 10%) with the results of Verner and co-workers for the total cross section, and for the partial cross sections corresponding to 2p and 2s photoejection, respectively.

Leo, P. J.; Bell, K. L.; Keenan, F. P.

1998-05-01

102

Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

Jorgensen, Leland H.

1958-01-01

103

Core Description, Stratigraphic Correlation, and Mapping: A capstone project for an undergraduate course in Sedimentary Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is intended as a long-term (3 weeks1 month) lab exercise near the end of a combined Stratigraphy/Sedimentology course. The project utilizes real world data provided by CONSOL Energy of Pittsburgh, PA, and the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey. This project has been assigned once and is being revised. Instructions have been left somewhat vague in an attempt to force students into discovering some of the more mechanical details of this process themselves. By the latter third of the course, students have described sedimentary rocks in detail and have constructed vertical sections of rock at several outcrops around campus. The course is moving from Sedimentology/Petrology into Stratigraphy. This project is designed to illustrate the basic principles of lithostratigraphy, which are covered concurrently in the lecture portion of the class. The project 'unfurls' over several weeks. If students are provided with the entire project at one time they generally get overwhelmed, so the project is presented piecemeal, allowing the students to expand the project as they complete one section. Step 1: Core description 40 feet of core from the Conemaugh Group of southwestern Pennsylvania is made available to the students. They must describe the core, define lithologic units, identify specific sedimentary structures, and construct a stratigraphic column. (Students struggle with detail versus efficiency of completion, given one full lab period (3 hours) and a week to complete the assignment, many students will get lost in the detail) The goal is to build familiarity with the type of data available to geologists as they go about constructing maps for resource estimates. Additionally, the lithologies present in this core will be similar to those described in the geologist and drilling logs necessary to complete the next step. Each step is evaluated independently in this step concern is primarily with identification of basic lithologies (coal, sandstone, shale, limestone). Step 2: construction of strip logs for 25 core holes in northern West Virginia. Students are provided with a location map, logs for 25 holes, and elevation data. They must construct strip logs suitable for correlation, deciding upon scale and detail of presentation. Students are provided with a CD including the location map and a .pdf for each drill record. The logs vary between the simplicity of driller data (60' of "blue" shale) and the detail of geologist descriptions, students must balance the detail and simplicity. Additionally, students were faced with "long" logs (i.e. greater than 500') and "short" logs (i.e. less than 100'). This turned out to be extremely difficult, some students got very lost, producing long detailed logs that left them without much time for the last two steps. Students are again provided with a week to construct the strip logs, including the lab time for the week. Strip logs are evaluated for detail, accuracy, and utility (in many cases too much detail can be as confusing as too little). Step 3: construction of stratigraphic cross sections. The first time this project was assigned, there was little guidance provided to students beyond "choosing logs that covered the largest stratigraphic interval." This exceeded the grasp of most students so additional guidance will be provided in the next iteration of this project. A generalized stratigraphic column illustrating the basic characteristics of the Monongahela and Conemaugh groups will be provided to assist students with recognition of the basic formations. Students will be required to construct a stratigraphic cross section through selected wells on the west side of the project area. This cross section will demonstrate the use of marker beds and the lateral continuity of stratigraphic units. The second cross section will run east-west onto the western flank of the Chestnut Ridge anticline. The datum for this cross section will be surface elevation. This cross section will illustrate the problems of stratigraphic correlation when combined with geological structures. The rock becomes consistently older as one proceeds towards the axis of the anticline. The prominent red beds and the absence of coals, in the eastern portion of the map area indicate the presence of the Chestnut Ridge Anticline. Evaluation of the cross sections will be based upon the accuracy of the correlations. Students are allowed a week to produce cross sections (including lab). The stratigraphic cross section should accurately delineate the Redstone, Pittsburgh, and Sewickley coals. These occur in sequence and are fairly easy to identify. Successful completion of the east-west cross section will require identification of the approximate stratigraphic position of the Monongahela-Conemaugh contact. Step 4: construction of isopach maps. Students are then required to identify specific coal and sandstone units within their cross sections, correlate those across the map region and construct isopach maps of those units. This requires that the students now extend what they have learned from the previous three weeks, extend those correlations to the core holes not included in the basic stratigraphic analysis. The thickness of the coal and sandstone should be identified and isopach maps constructed. The first iteration of this project produced problems similar to those encountered in step 3. Better guidance and evaluation of the cross sections and allowing students less input on the choice of stratigraphic units to isopach should reduce the confusion. Step 5: (optional) Interpretation and report writing : the first iteration of this project was running concurrently with a term paper. Instead of two separate projects, an interpretive report will be required. This is still in the planning stage and has not been assigned to students.

Matchen, David L.

104

Parameterized Cross Sections for Pion Production in Proton-Proton Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An accurate knowledge of cross sections for pion production in proton-proton collisions finds wide application in particle physics, astrophysics, cosmic ray physics, and space radiation problems, especially in situations where an incident proton is transported through some medium and knowledge of the output particle spectrum is required when given the input spectrum. In these cases, accurate parameterizations of the cross sections are desired. In this paper much of the experimental data are reviewed and compared with a wide variety of different cross section parameterizations. Therefore, parameterizations of neutral and charged pion cross sections are provided that give a very accurate description of the experimental data. Lorentz invariant differential cross sections, spectral distributions, and total cross section parameterizations are presented.

Blattnig, Steve R.; Swaminathan, Sudha R.; Kruger, Adam T.; Ngom, Moussa; Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

2000-01-01

105

Report on 238Pu(n,x) surrogate cross section measurement  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this year's effort is to measure the {sup 238}Pu(n,f) and {sup 238}Pu(n,2n) cross section from 100 keV to 20 MeV. We designed a surrogate experiment that used the reaction {sup 239}Pu(a,a{prime}x) as a surrogate for {sup 238}Pu(n,x). The experiment was conducted using the STARS/LIBERACE experimental facility located at the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in January 2010. A description of the experiment and status of the data analysis is given. In order to obtain a reliable {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section we designed the experiment using the surrogate ratio technique. This technique allows one to measure a desired, unknown, cross section relative to a known cross section. In the present example, the {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section of interest is determined relative to the known {sup 235}U(n,x) cross section. To increase confidence in the results, and to reduce overall uncertainties, we are also determining the {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section relative to the known {sup 234}U(n,x) cross section. The compound nuclei of interest for this experiment were produced using inelastic alpha scattering. For example, {sup 236}U(a,a{prime}x) served as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,x); analogous reactions were considered for the other cross sections. Surrogate experiments determine the probabilities for the decay of the compound nuclei into the various channels of interest (fission, gamma decay) by measuring particle-fission (p-f) or particle?gamma (p?g) reaction spectra. By comparing the decay probabilities associated with the unknown cross section to that of a known cross section it is possible to obtain the ratio of these cross sections and thus determine the unknown, desired cross section.

Burke, J T; Ressler, J J; Henderson, R A; Scielzo, N D; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Gostic, J; Bleuel, D; Weideking, M; Bernstein, L A

2010-03-31

106

Relative cross section and depolarization of NOCl  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A standard photon counting technique and an argon-ion laser with 4545, 4579, 4727, 4765, 4880, 4965, 5017 and 5145-A lasing lines, providing a measurable Raman spectrum from NOCl, were used in the measurement of the Raman scattering cross section of NOCl at a Raman shift of 334.4 plus or minus 1.6/cm in relation to the N2 Raman cross section. A polarization analyzer and a quartz wedge were placed in front of the entrance slit of the double monochromator for depolarization measurements. Diagrams are plotted to show the scattering cross section and depolarization measurement results.

Hoell, J. M.; Wade, W. R.

1974-01-01

107

Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

Norbury, John W.

2008-01-01

108

NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction  

E-print Network

We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of [1-4], over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

Gábor Somogyi; Paolo Bolzoni; Zoltán Trócsányi

2010-07-23

109

Cross section measurements with monoenergetic muon neutrinos  

E-print Network

The monoenergetic 236 MeV muon neutrino from charged kaon decay at rest (K[superscript +] ? ?[superscript +]?[subscript ?]) can be used to produce a novel set of cross section measurements. Applicable for short- and ...

Spitz, Joshua B.

110

A nuclear cross section data handbook  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

Fisher, H.O.M.

1989-12-01

111

Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

1970-01-01

112

Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

Richards, W. B.

1986-01-01

113

Charmonium cross-sections and the QGP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution we summarize experimental information and theoretical results for the dissociation cross-sections of charmonium by light hadrons, which are of great importance for the identification of a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Recent theoretical predictions for these cross-sections differ by orders of magnitude over the physically relevant energy range. The methods discussed here include a color-dipole model, meson exchange models,

T. Barnes

2003-01-01

114

Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

1978-01-01

115

Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards  

SciTech Connect

Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Bhat, M.R.

1980-01-01

116

Absorption cross section of RN black hole  

E-print Network

The behavior of a charged scalar field in the RN black hole space time is studied using WKB approximation. In the present work it is assumed that matter waves can get reflected from the event horizon. Using this effect, the Hawking temperature and the absorption cross section for RN black hole placed in a charged scalar field are calculated. The absorption cross section $\\sigma _{abs}$ is found to be inversely proportional to square of the Hawking temperature of the black hole.

Sini R.; V. C. Kuriakose

2007-08-23

117

Upper bound on neutrino cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asymptotic bounds on the total cross sections of neutrino (weak) scattering processes are obtained. It is shown that the elastic neutrino-neutrino cross section obeys the following bound in the high energy region: sigma sub T (S) equals ImF(S,0)/S is less than or equal to const. (LogS) squared. Assumptions of analyticity, crossing, unitarity, polynomial boundaries, and a zero-condition on the absorptive part of the scattering amplitude, are used to obtain this bound.

Mickens, R. E.

1975-01-01

118

Cross-sectional area of flexible tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kresch (1977) presented the results of calculations which determined the cross-sectional shapes assumed by flexible, elastic\\u000a tubes for varying transmural pressures. Extensions of these results are presented here in the form of graphs of the cross-sectional\\u000a area as a function of the transmural pressure. Since the circumferential arc length, theX-axis intercept and theY-axis intercept were necessarily computed, and are of

Edward Kresch

1979-01-01

119

Negative ion detachment cross sections. Interim progress report  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below.

Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

1992-10-01

120

Photon scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than one percent with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than one percent with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules.

Ice, G. E.

1977-01-01

121

The s-channel approach to Lipatov's pomeron and hadronic cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We derive a generalized Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov equation, which applies directly to the perturbative QCD component of total cross section. With the gluon correlation radius Rc ? 0.4fm we reproduce the empirical rate of growth of the hadron-nucleon total cross sections. The simultaneous estimate of the triple-pomeron coupling also agrees with the ex- periment.

N. N. Nikolaeva; B. G. Zakharova; L. D. Landau

122

Neutron capture cross sections for nucleosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Maxwellian Neutron capture cross sections important for nucleosynthesis processes in stars are computed from the recommended individual resonance parameters, as well as from the measured energy dependent cross sections. The experimental neutron capture cross sections, spanning the energy range from a few keV to about 500 keV are evaluated in the framework of the Lane-Lynn capture formalism by including several partial waves in the analysis. In addition, in a few cases, the neutron inelastic scattering channels are included. The feasibility of extrapolating the calculations to nuclides off the stability line is examined. The effect of stellar temperature in the range from 10 keV to 50 keV on the Maxwellian neutron capture cross sections is investigated. The Maxwellian capture cross sections at 30-KeV for {sup 93}Nb, {sup 127}I, {sup 141}Pr, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm, {sup 154}Sm, and {sup 181}Ta are computed and are compared with other determinations.

Mughabghab, S.F.

1997-07-01

123

Inclusive parton cross sections in photoproduction and photon structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoproduction of 2-jet events is studied with the H1 detector at HERA. Parton cross sections are extracted from the data by an unfolding method using leading order parton-jet correlations of a QCD generator. The gluon distribution in the photon is derived in the fractional momentum range 0.04 ? x? ? 1 at the average factorization scale 75 GeV 2.

Ahmed, T.; Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Bán, J.; Ban, Y.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bispham, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burton, M.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Droutskoi, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herynek, I.; Hess, M. F.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Horisberger, R.; Hudgson, V. L.; Huet, Ph.; Hütte, M.; Hufnagel, H.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kazarian, S.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J. H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J.-F.; Lebedev, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Link, J.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; List, B.; Lobo, G.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lomas, J.; Lopez, G. C.; Lubimov, V.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Mara?ek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, T.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Migliori, A.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Mroczko, E.; Müller, G.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oakden, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panaro, E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Rick, H.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, H. E.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rüter, K.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Rylko, R.; Sahlmann, N.; Salesch, S. G.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schacht, P.; Schiek, S.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, G.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Sefkow, F.; Seidel, M.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.

1995-02-01

124

Total quadruple photoionization cross section of beryllium  

SciTech Connect

In a quasiclassical framework, we formulate the quadruple ionization by single-photon absorption of the Coulomb five-body problem. We present the quadruple photoionization total cross section of the ground state of beryllium for energies up to 620 eV. Our results for energies close to threshold are in agreement with the Wannier threshold law for four-electron escape. In addition, the agreement of our results with a shape formula provides support for the overall shape of our total quadruple cross section. Finally, we find that the photon energy where the maximum of the total photoionization cross section occurs for single, double, triple, and quadruple photoionization of H, He, Li, and Be, respectively, seems to follow a linear relation with the threshold energy for complete breakup of the respective element.

Emmanouilidou, Agapi [ITS, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-5203 (United States)

2007-11-15

125

Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)  

SciTech Connect

Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

Jung, Andreas W.

2012-01-01

126

The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE  

Microsoft Academic Search

KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section sigma(e+e--->pi+pi-gamma) at the electron-positron collider DAPhiNE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section sigma(e+e--->pi+pi-gamma) for the mass range 0.35

A. Aloisio; F. Ambrosino; A. Antonelli; M. Antonelli; C. Bacci; M. Barva; G. Bencivenni; S. Bertolucci; C. Bini; C. Bloise; V. Bocci; F. Bossi; P. Branchini; S. A. Bulychjov; R. Caloi; P. Campana; G. Capon; T. Capussela; G. Carboni; F. Ceradini; F. Cervelli; G. Chiefari; P. Ciambrone; S. Conetti; E. De Lucia; A. De Santis; P. De Simone; G. De Zorzi; S. Dell'Agnello; A. Denig; A. Di Domenico; C. Di Donato; S. Di Falco; B. Di Micco; A. Doria; M. Dreucci; O. Erriquez; A. Farilla; G. Felici; A. Ferrari; M. L. Ferrer; G. Finocchiaro; C. Forti; P. Franzini; C. Gatti; P. Gauzzi; S. Giovannella; E. Gorini; E. Graziani; M. Incagli; W. Kluge; V. Kulikov; F. Lacava; G. Lanfranchi; J. Lee-Franzini; D. Leone; F. Lu; M. Martemianov; M. Martini; W. Mei; L. Merola; R. Messi; S. Miscetti; M. Moulson; S. Müller; F. Murtas; M. Napolitano; F. Nguyen; M. Palutan; E. Pasqualucci; L. Passalacqua; A. Passeri; V. Patera; F. Perfetto; E. Petrolo; L. Pontecorvo; M. Primavera; P. Santangelo; E. Santovetti; G. Saracino; R. D. Schamberger; B. Sciascia; A. Sciubba; F. Scuri; I. Sfiligoi; A. Sibidanov; T. Spadaro; E. Spiriti; M. Tabidze; L. Tortora; P. Valente; B. Valeriani; G. Venanzoni; S. Veneziano; A. Ventura; R. Versaci; I. Villella; G. Xu

2005-01-01

127

Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 239Pu(n,?) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,?) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission ?-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,?) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

2014-09-01

128

New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

1997-01-01

129

The $?^* ?^*$ total cross section in NLA BFKL  

E-print Network

We study the $\\gamma^* \\gamma^*$ total cross section in the NLA BFKL approach. We have extracted the NLO corrections to the photon impact factor from two recent papers of Balitsky and Chirilli and Chirilli and Kovchegov and used them to build several representations of the total cross section, equivalent within the NLA. We have combined these different representations with two among the most common methods for the optimization of a perturbative series, namely PMS and BLM, and compared their behavior with the energy with the only available experimental data, those from the LEP2 collider.

Dmitry Yu. Ivanov; Beatrice Murdaca; Alessandro Papa

2014-11-16

130

Revised cross section for RHIC dipole magnets  

SciTech Connect

Using the experience gained in designing and building Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) dipole prototype magnets an improved cross section has been developed. Significant features of this design include the use of only three wedges for field shaping and wedge cross sections which are sectors of an annulus. To aid in the understanding of the actual magnets, one has been sectioned, and detailed mechanical and photographic measurements made of the wire positions. The comparison of these measurements with the magnetic field measurements will is presented. 2 refs, 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

1991-01-01

131

Improved cross section calculations for astrophysical applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications are proposed for the semiempirical equations and parameters of Silberberg and Tsao (1973) for partial cross section calculations of proton-nucleus reactions in cosmic rays. These modifications include: adjustment of general parameters; modification of energy dependence; effects of nuclear alpha-particle structure, deuteron emission, and even-charged products; peripheral reactions; fission reactions; averaging cross sections near boundaries of different parameters; elimination of certain special cases; and treatment of the Pt to Pb group that cannot yet be generalized to Z(t) less than 76.

Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

1985-01-01

132

Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

1999-01-01

133

Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

1994-01-01

134

Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

2008-01-01

135

NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS FOR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous compilations of (n,?) cross sections of relevance for neutron capture nucleosynthesis in the big bang and in the slow neutron capture process (s process) have been updated to encompass information available up to December 1998; data references include work in process then and published subsequently. The experimental results for nuclei between H and Bi were critically surveyed, renormalized to

Z. Y. BAO; H. Beer; F. Käppeler; F. Voss; K. Wisshak; T. Rauscher

2000-01-01

136

LSP-Nucleus Elastic Scattering Cross Sections  

E-print Network

We calculate LSP-nucleus elastic scattering cross sections using some representative input in the restricted SUSY parameter space. The coherent matrix elements are computed throughout the periodic table while the spin matrix elements for the proposed $^{207}Pb$ target which has a rather simple nuclear structure. The results are compared to those given from other cold dark matter detection targets.

J. D. Vergados; T. S. Kosmas

1997-01-02

137

Windows in direct dissociative recombination cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model potential curves are used to show that large windows are present in direct dissociative-recombination cross sections from excited molecular-ion vibrational levels. The windows are due to the overlap of vibrational wave functions of the repulsive neutral states with the nodes of the ion vibrational wave function.

Guberman, Steven L.

1986-01-01

138

Neutron scattering lengths and cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of thermal neutron scattering to the study of the structure and dynamics of condensed matter requires a knowledge of the scattering lengths and the corresponding scattering and absorption cross sections of the elements. Ln some cases, values for the individual isotopes are needed as well. This information is required to obtain an absolute normalization ofthe scatteredneutron distributions, tocalculate

Varley F. Sears

1992-01-01

139

Statistical moments of radar cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radar cross section for backscatter from a smooth closed convex surface reflector, as calculated from geometrical optics, is shown to have a mean value equal to A/4, where A is the total surface area of the reflector, and the mean is obtained by averaging over all aspects. Results are also given for the calculation of higher order moments and probability density functions.

Gordon, William B.

1993-04-01

140

Atomic (p,n)-threshold cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The (p,n)-threshold cross section is calculated for a light atom wherein the role of an active K-shell electron is included a priori. We find that the usual nuclear threshold law is covered asymptotically well above threshold on the atomic scale.

Feagin, J. M.

1981-12-01

141

NIST XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web program is used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, in any element, compound or mixture, at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV

2003-11-10

142

Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks  

SciTech Connect

We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

Kahler, Albert C. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-28

143

Marine-crossing sections require extensive surveying  

SciTech Connect

Design of the marine-crossing sections of the Vancouver Island, B.C., natural-gas pipeline incorporated measures to preserve or mitigate any damage to the sensitive waters through which it would pass. This article on the project discusses the marine crossing construction: the steps in its design and the options for its construction.

Yamauchi, H.M. (Westcoast Energy Inc., Vancouver (CA))

1990-08-13

144

A reevaluation of radiation damage cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past years, INC models simulating spallation reactions have been undergoing considerable development, and their results are more and more scrutinized by experimental work. Recently, IAEA has led an international collaboration to independently benchmark various INC models. The preliminary results of this collaboration indicate that while the Bertini model performs well in predicting neutron production, it greatly lacks the capability to predict light charged particle emission compared to CEM'03 and INCL. This drives us to completely reevaluate the NCSU radiation damage cross section database, which was developed 7 years ago using a combination of CEM2k and Bertini models for benchmarking experimental data. The reevaluation currently involves just the CEM'03 model in MCNPX due our limited code access. Our preliminary results are in reasonable agreement with the NCSU database for the helium and hydrogen production cross section, but there are obvious differences for the displacement cross section. Such similarities and differences are being investigated, and the validity of the CEM'03 model for predicting radiation damage to materials is being examined. The reevaluated radiation damage cross sections presented in this paper are used in calculating radiation damage to the target assembly currently running at SNS, and the results are compared with those of previous studies.

Lu, W.; Gallmeier, F. X.; Geoghegan, P. J.; Ferguson, P. D.; Wechsler, M. S.

2012-12-01

145

Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dijet production by almost real photons has been studied at HERA with the ZEUS detector. Jets have been identified using the cone algorithm. A cut on x?OBS, the fraction of the photon energy participating in the production of the two jets of highest transverse energy, is used to define cross sections sensitive to the parton distributions in the proton and

S. Bhadra; M. L. Cardy; C.-P. Fagerstroem; W. R. Frisken; K. M. Furutani; M. Khakzad; W. B. Schmidke; R. L. Talaga; H. Zhang; R. Ayad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; F. Palmonari; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; M. Eckert; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; M. Grothe; T. Haas; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. M. Mari; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; R. Schattevoy; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. J. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; N. Cartiglia; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; Q. Zhu; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajac; A. Kotanski; M. Przybycien; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; H. Beier; J. K. Bienlein; C. Coldewey; O. Deppe; K. Desler; G. Drews; M. Flasinski; D. J. Gilkinson; C. Glasman; P. Göttlicher; J. Große-Knetter; B. Gutjahr; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; H. Hultschig; Y. Iga; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; O. Manczak; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; B. Surrow; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; J. F. Zhou; H. J. Grabosch; A. Kharchilava; A. Leich; M. Mattingly; A. Meyer; S. Schlenstedt; N. Wulff; G. Barbagli; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; G. Maccarrone; S. de Pasquale; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; S. Eisenhardt; A. Freidhof; S. Söldner-Rembold; J. Schroeder; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; J. I. Fleck; D. H. Saxon; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; J. Mainusch; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; B. Y. H. Hung; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. P. O. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; Y. Zhang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. del Peso; J. Puga; J. Terron; J. F. de Trocóniz; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; D. Daniels; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; P. E. Luffman; L. Lindemann; J. D. McFall; C. Nath; V. A. Noyes; A. Quadt; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbiendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. Dal Corso; M. de Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; E. Tassi; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; E. Barberis; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. van Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; M. Chiba; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; K. Homma; S. Kitamura; Y. Nakamitsu; K. Yamauchi; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; L. Lamberti; S. Maselli; C. Peroni

1995-01-01

146

Cross sections for positron scattering from ethane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report experimental and theoretical cross sections for positron scattering from the fundamental organic-chemistry molecule ethane (C2H6). The experimental total cross sections (TCSs) were obtained using a linear transmission technique, for energies in the range 0.1-70 eV and with an energy resolution of ˜0.25 eV (full width at half maximum). Agreement, over the common energy range, with the earlier TCS measurements of Floeder [J. Phys. BJPAMA40022-370010.1088/0022-3700/18/16/019 18, 3347 (1985)] is excellent, while both the present results and those of Floeder are consistently higher in magnitude than the data of Sueoka and Mori [J. Phys. BJPAMA40022-370010.1088/0022-3700/19/23/021 19, 4035 (1986)]. The present calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method and were performed in the static plus polarization approximation for energies up to 10 eV. Our calculated elastic integral cross sections (ICSs) indicate a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum at around 1.4 eV in the Ag scattering symmetry, and a virtual state. In addition we calculated from our scattering cross section a scattering length of -13.83a0. Agreement between our measured TCS and calculated elastic ICS is found to be only qualitative, although this is perhaps not so surprising given the TCS below 10 eV in principle includes contributions from rotational, vibrational, and electronic-state excitation and positronium formation whereas the calculation does not.

Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Trainotti, E.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Sanchez, S. d'A.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Lima, M. A. P.; Brunger, M. J.

2013-03-01

147

State-selective cross sections of multiple photoionization in Ne  

SciTech Connect

Valence double photoionization of Ne atom has been investigated by multielectron spectroscopy. Complete information on energy correlation between ejected electrons allows the identification of Ne{sup 2+} final states and their formation mechanism. In addition to simultaneous two-electron emission from the valence shells, indirect processes mediated by singly charged excited states have been observed. We have first obtained direct double-photoionization cross sections state-selectively in a wide photon energy region, by evaluating the contributions of the indirect processes. We have also applied the coincidence spectroscopy to three-electron emission from the valence shells. Even in the three-electron emission, the coincidence analysis enables to observe individual Ne{sup 3+} final states related to the triple-photoionization process and to obtain the state-selective cross sections.

Kaneyasu, T.; Hikosaka, Y.; Shigemasa, E.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Aoto, T.; Ito, K. [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); LCP-MR, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6 and CNRS (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2007-07-15

148

Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.  

PubMed

Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion. PMID:23408647

Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

2013-04-01

149

Photoionization Cross Section of the Propargyl Radical and Some General Ideas for Estimating Radical Cross Sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of velocity map ion imaging, mass spectrometry, and a laser-based vacuum ultraviolet light source was used to perform a new measurement of the absolute photoionization cross section of the propargyl radical. The measurements are in good agreement with the recent determination of Savee et al. [ J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 136, 134307 ], and significantly larger than an earlier determination. The results are discussed and rationalized in terms of some general ideas about absolute photoionization cross sections. The potential utility of these ideas is illustrated by using recent cross section measurements for a number of molecular radicals, including methyl, allyl and 2-propenyl, phenyl, and vinyl.

Xu, Hong; Pratt, S. T.

2013-10-01

150

Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

1985-01-01

151

Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L. [George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States)

2011-06-01

152

Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haight, Robert C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arndt, Richard A [GWU; Briscoe, William J [GWU; Paris, Mark W [GWU; Strakovsky, Igor I [GWU; Workman, Ron L [GWU

2010-01-01

153

Differential cross sections for positron scattering from alkali atoms  

SciTech Connect

Close-coupling calculations for differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic positron-alkali scattering at incident energies between 1 eV and 100 eV will be presented. Particular emphasis is placed on excitation of the resonant (ns){sup 2}S {yields} (np){sup 2}P{sup o} and the optically forbidden (ns){sup 2}S {yields} (n{prime}d){sup 2}D transitions. The results will be compared with first order DWBA calculations to assess the importance of channel coupling in the theoretical description of these collision processes.

DeVries, K.M.; Bartschat, K.; McEachran, R.P. [and others

1993-05-01

154

Inclusive jet cross section at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The authors report preliminary measurements of the central inclusive jet cross section at 1.8 TeV by the D0 and the CDF collaborations at the p{anti p} Fermilab collider. They are based on an integrated luminosity of 92 and 87 pb-1, respectively. The cross sections are measured as a function of jet transverse energy in the pseudorapidity interval 0.1 < 1,711 < 0.7 (CDF), and the two pseudorapidity ranges 1,711 < 0.5 and 0.1 < Inj < 0.7 (D0). D0 reports good agreement with the Next-to-Leading Order QCD predictions currently available. CDF observes an excess above 200 GeV, which can be accommodated with a modification in the gluon distribution function at high x.

NONE

1998-01-01

155

Proton stopping cross sections of liquid water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proton stopping cross section of liquid water for the energy range from 40 keV to 10 MeV is calculated by applying the modified local-plasma model and employing a simple model of liquid water. The calculated stopping cross section of liquid water is about 5.6 percent to 14 percent lower than the calculated vapor-state results for the range of 80 to 500 keV and is about 8.5 percent to 13.4 percent lower than measured vapor-state results. The present results agree well with the measurements for ice crystals. The mechanism of this physical-state effect is also presented.

Xu, Y. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Wilson, J. W.

1985-01-01

156

Photonuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Gallium Isotopes  

E-print Network

The photon induced reactions which are named as photonuclear reactions have a great importance in many field of nuclear, radiation physics and related fields. Since we have planned to perform photonuclear reaction on gallium target with bremmstrahlung photons from clinical linear accelerator in the future, the cross-sections of neutron (photo-neutron ({\\gamma},xn)) and proton (photo-proton ({\\gamma},xn)) productions after photon activation have been calculated by using TALYS 1.2 computer code in this study. The target nucleus has been considered gallium which has two stable isotopes, 69Ga and 71Ga. According to the results, we have seen that the calculations are in harmony in the limited literature values. Furthermore, the pre-equilibrium and compound process contributions to the total cross-section have been investigated.

Serkan Akkoyun; Tuncay Bayram

2014-09-08

157

Inclusive jet cross section at CDF  

SciTech Connect

This contribution reports on preliminary measurements of the inclusive jet production cross section in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using data collected with CDF corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 385 pb{sup -1}. Two analyzes are presented: one uses the longitudinally invariant k{sub T} algorithm to reconstruct the jets, the other uses the midpoint algorithm. Both are limited to jets with rapidity in the range 0.1 < |y{sup jet}| < 0.7. The measured cross sections are in good agreement with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions after including the non-perturbative corrections necessary to account for underlying event and hadronization effects.

Lefevre, R.; Martinez, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE

2005-01-01

158

Neutron cross section measurements at WNR  

SciTech Connect

The Weapons Neutron Research Facility has been used to obtain moderate-resolution total neutron cross section data for H, C, /sup 208/Pb, /sup 232/Th, /sup 238/U, and /sup 242/Pu over the energy range 5 to 200 MeV. Neutrons were produced by bombarding a 2.5-cm diam by 15-cm long Ta target with an 800 MeV pulsed proton beam from LAMPF. A 10.2-cm diam by 15.2-cm thick NE110 proton recoil detector was used at a flight path of 32 meters, giving a time-of-flight resolution of 60 ps/m. The total cross section results are compared to ENDF/BV evaluations and to previous data where possible.

Lisowski, P.W.; Archampaugh, G.F.; Moore, M.S.; Morgan, G.L.; Shamu, R.E.

1980-01-01

159

Electron ionization cross sections for atomic subshells.  

PubMed

Ionization of atoms is the first step in many analytical procedures. The cross section for ionizing a particular atomic shell is essential for calculating the magnitude of analytical signals. Calculations using atomic wave functions for various shells of all elements relevant for X-ray microanalysis over a range of electron energies up to 400 keV were performed. The calculations for high energies above threshold can be considerably simplified by using the mathematical form of the Bethe ridge that dominates the scattering in this region. Corrections for exchange at low energies above threshold are incorporated in these calculations. A selection of results showing the effects of different approximations on ionization cross sections for K, L, and M shells is presented. PMID:12597786

Rez, Peter

2003-02-01

160

Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

1997-01-01

161

Hadronic Cross Section Measurements at Snd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preliminary results on multihadron processes obtained with the SND detector at the e+e? collider VEPP-2000 in the energy range from 1 to 2 GeV are presented. The results are interesting in connection with their contribution to the total hadronic cross section, the muon g-2 and a possibility to study excited vector mesons properties. The nucleon anti-nucleon production was also studied.

Achasov, M. N.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Beloborodov, K. I.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Botov, A. A.; Dimova, T. V.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kardapoltsev, L. V.; Kasaev, A. S.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Kirpotin, A. N.; Koop, I. A.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Kovrizhin, D. P.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kupich, A. S.; Martin, K. A.; Obrazovsky, A. E.; Pakhtusova, E. V.; Rogovsky, Yu. A.; Senchenko, A. I.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Shtol, D. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Silagadze, Z. K.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Surin, I. K.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Usov, Yu. V.; Zemlyansky, I. M.

2014-12-01

162

Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

Pagliarone, C. [Universita di Torino and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

1996-08-01

163

Analytic Fits for Partial Photoionization Cross Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We present a compact, uniform and complete set ofanalytic fits to the partial Hartree-Dirac-Slater photoionizationcross sections for the ground state shells of all atoms and ions ofelements from H to Zn (Z 30). Comparison with experimentand theory demonstrates generally high accuracy of the fits upto energies of 100 keV.Key words: atomic data -- atomic processes1. IntroductionPhotoionization cross sections of

D. G. Yakovlev; D. A. Verner

164

Differential cross-section for positronium formation in electron-atomic hydrogen collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The L=0 and 1 partial wave amplitudes obtained by a two-state coupled static approximation with correlation with the L greater than or equal to 2 Born amplitudes were combined to obtain the differential cross section for positronium formation in electron-atomic hydrogen collisions. For positron energies of 0.64 and 0.75 ryd, minima at the scattering angles of 57 deg and 51 deg are found. Total cross sections for positronium formation for low and intermediate impact energies are given. Measurement of the differential cross section for the process positron + helium yields positronium + helium ion for the detection of possible minima is suggested.

Drachman, R. J.; Omidvar, K.; Mcguire, J. H.

1976-01-01

165

Extracting integrated and differential cross sections in low-energy heavy-ion reactions from backscattering measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We suggest new methods to extract elastic (quasi-elastic) scattering angular distribution and reaction (capture) cross sections from the experimental elastic (quasi-elastic) backscattering excitation function taken at a single angle. A novel Coulomb scattering relation between angular momentum and centrifugal energy is used. The methodology is developed for addressing complementary reaction observables, improving the description of elastic differential cross section.

Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lenske, H.

2014-11-01

166

Ab initio method for calculating total cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for calculating total cross sections without formally including nonelastic channels is presented. The idea is to use a one channel T-matrix variational principle with a complex correlation function. The derived T matrix is therefore not unitary. Elastic scattering is calculated from T-parallel-squared, but total scattering is derived from the imaginary part of T using the optical theorem. The method is applied to the spherically symmetric model of electron-hydrogen scattering. No spurious structure arises; results for sigma(el) and sigma(total) are in excellent agreement with calculations of Callaway and Oza (1984). The method has wide potential applicability.

Bhatia, A. K.; Schneider, B. I.; Temkin, A.

1993-01-01

167

Fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium & heavy nucleus-nucleus systems  

E-print Network

Existing data on near-barrier fusion excitation functions of medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems have been analyzed using a simple diffused barrier formula derived assuming the Gaussian shape of the barrier height distributions. Fusion cross section is obtained by folding the Gaussian barrier distribution with the classical expression for the fusion cross section for a fixed barrier. The energy dependence of the fusion cross section, thus obtained, provides good description to the existing data on near-barrier fusion and capture excitation functions for medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems. The fusion or capture cross section predictions are especially important for planning experiments for synthesizing new super-heavy elements.

Debasis Atta; D. N. Basu

2014-02-20

168

NASA-Lewis experiences with multigroup cross sections and shielding calculations.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of the nuclear reactor shield analysis procedures employed at NASA-Lewis Research Center. Emphasis is placed on the generation, use, and testing of multigroup cross-section data. Although coupled neutron and gamma ray cross-section sets are useful in two-dimensional Sn transport calculations, much insight has been gained from examination of uncoupled calculations. These have led to experimental and analytic studies of areas deemed to be of first-order importance to reactor shield calculations. A discussion is given of problems encountered in using multigroup cross sections in the resolved resonance energy range. The addition to ENDF files of calculated and/or measured neutron-energy-dependent capture gamma ray spectra for shielding calculations is questioned for the resonance region. Anomalies inherent in two-dimensional Sn transport calculations which may overwhelm any cross-section discrepancies are illustrated.

Lahti, G. P.

1972-01-01

169

Fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing data on near-barrier fusion excitation functions of medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems have been analyzed by using a simple diffused-barrier formula derived assuming the Gaussian shape of the barrier-height distributions. The fusion cross section is obtained by folding the Gaussian barrier distribution with the classical expression for the fusion cross section for a fixed barrier. The energy dependence of the fusion cross section, thus obtained, provides good description to the existing data on near-barrier fusion and capture excitation functions for medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems. The theoretical values for the parameters of the barrier distribution are estimated which can be used for fusion or capture cross-section predictions that are especially important for planning experiments for synthesizing new superheavy elements.

Atta, Debasis; Basu, D. N.

2014-12-01

170

NIST XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web program, funded in part by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (U.S.) is used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, in any element, compound or mixture, at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The contents section of the site contains an introduction, database for elements, interpolation and combination, instructions on how to run the XCOM program, and references. The site allows you to download a copy of XCOM (v. 3.1) for personal use.

171

Infrared absorption cross sections for trifluoromethane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections for trifluoromethane have been determined over the range 950-1500 cm-1 from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a 26-cm-pathlength cell. Spectra of trifluoromethane/dry synthetic air mixtures were recorded at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD) at a number of temperatures and pressures (23-762 Torr and 188-294 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using composite trifluoromethane spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database.

Harrison, Jeremy J.

2013-11-01

172

Top Production Cross Sections at D0  

SciTech Connect

We report on measurements of the ttbar production cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the D0 experiment during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We use candidate events in lepton+jets and dilepton final states. In the most sensitive channel (lepton+jets channel), a neural network algorithm that uses lifetime information to identify b-quark jets is used to distinguish signal from background processes. We also present measurements of single top quark production at D0 using several multivariate techniques to separate signal from background.

Kvita, Jiri

2009-07-01

173

Cross section measurements with monoenergetic muon neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monoenergetic 236 MeV muon neutrino from charged kaon decay at rest (K+??+??) can be used to produce a novel set of cross section measurements. Applicable for short- and long-baseline accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, among others, such measurements would provide a "standard candle" for the energy reconstruction and interaction kinematics relevant for charged current neutrino events near this energy. This neutrino can also be exercised as a unique known-energy, purely weak interacting probe of the nucleus. A number of experiments are set to come online in the next few years that will be able to collect and characterize thousands of these events.

Spitz, J.

2014-04-01

174

First measurement of the charged current cross section at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cross section of the charged current process e-p ? ve + hadrons is measured at HERA for transverse momenta of the hadron system larger than 25 GeV. The size of the cross section exhibits the W propagator.

Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kazarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, M.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, G.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Nawrath, G.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rüter, K.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Seehausen, U.; Sefkow, F.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stiewe, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Taylor, R. E.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tichomirov, I.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.

1994-03-01

175

EXPLAINING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS-SECTIONAL MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Discrepancies between estimates obtained from longitudinal studies analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally pose questions about the validity of cross-sectional estimates of change. n some cases these discrepancies are the result of period effects, cohort effects, or selecti...

176

Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

1970-01-01

177

Measurement of actinide neutron cross sections  

SciTech Connect

The maintenance of strong scientific expertise is criticalto the U.S. nuclear attribution community. It is particularly importantto train students in actinide chemistry and physics. Neutroncross-section data are vital components to strategies for detectingexplosives and fissile materials, and these measurements requireexpertise in chemical separations, actinide target preparation, nuclearspectroscopy, and analytical chemistry. At the University of California,Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have trainedstudents in actinide chemistry for many years. LBNL is a leader innuclear data and has published the Table of Isotopes for over 60 years.Recently, LBNL led an international collaboration to measure thermalneutron capture radiative cross sections and prepared the EvaluatedGamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) in collaboration with the IAEA. Thisfile of 35,000 prompt and delayed gamma ray cross-sections for allelements from Z=1-92 is essential for the neutron interrogation ofnuclear materials. LBNL has also developed new, high flux neutrongenerators and recently opened a 1010 n/s D+D neutron generatorexperimental facility.

Firestone, Richard B.; Nitsche, Heino; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Perry, DaleL.; English, Gerald

2003-06-15

178

Measurement of the inclusive jet cross-section in pp collisions at and comparison to the inclusive jet cross-section at using the ATLAS detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusive jet cross-section has been measured in proton-proton collisions at in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2011. Jets are identified using the anti- k t algorithm with two radius parameters of 0.4 and 0.6. The inclusive jet double-differential cross-section is presented as a function of the jet transverse momentum p T and jet rapidity y, covering a range of 20? p T<430 GeV and | y|<4.4. The ratio of the cross-section to the inclusive jet cross-section measurement at , published by the ATLAS Collaboration, is calculated as a function of both transverse momentum and the dimensionless quantity , in bins of jet rapidity. The systematic uncertainties on the ratios are significantly reduced due to the cancellation of correlated uncertainties in the two measurements. Results are compared to the prediction from next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects, and next-to-leading order Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the ATLAS jet cross-section measurements at and are analysed within a framework of next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations to determine parton distribution functions of the proton, taking into account the correlations between the measurements.

Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O. L.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, C. W.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.

2013-08-01

179

Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

2012-01-01

180

Determination of absolute photoionization cross sections of the phenyl radical  

E-print Network

via 193- or 248-nm dissociation of chlorobenzene. At 10.0 eV, the photoionization cross sections of chlorobenzene with a goal of determining its absolute PI cross sections using the known PI cross section wavelengths to create the radical and taking advantage of the multiple channels for chlorobenzene

Neumark, Daniel M.

181

Electron-hydrogen cross section computation for astrophysical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our contribution focuses on the electron-hydrogen scattering and is intended as an extension of available atomic databases (e.g [1]) used by the astronomers and stellar/solar physicists. These databases often lack required precision and sometimes even major resonances, which are essential for correct transition rates extraction and thus for the description of astrophysical phenomena. Our aim is to obtain a controlled approximation of scattering cross section energy dependence for all relevant energies and (de)excitational transitions. The poster summarises results computed by freely available (e.g. [2], [3]) computer codes and compares them with our original results. Low energy cross sections - up to this time a domain of R-matrix packages - have been recomputed using exterior complex scaling implemented in B-splines (see [4]), whereas higher energies using different types of Born approximation.[4pt] [1] The Aladdin database at http://www-amdis.iaea.org/ALADDIN/[0pt] [2] UK RmaX at http://amdpp.phys.strath.ac.uk/UK$RmaX/[0pt] [3] Scott et al., Comp. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2424-2449.[0pt] [4] McCurdy, Rescigno, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37 (2004) 917-936.

Benda, Jakub; Houfek, Karel

2012-06-01

182

Determination of tire cross-sectional geometric characteristics from a digitally scanned image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A semi-automated procedure is described for the accurate determination of geometrical characteristics using a scanned image of the tire cross-section. The procedure can be useful for cases when CAD drawings are not available or when a description of the actual cured tire is desired. Curves representing the perimeter of the tire cross-section are determined by an edge tracing scheme, and the plyline and cord-end positions are determined by locations of color intensities. The procedure provides an accurate description of the perimeter of the tire cross-section and the locations of plylines and cord-ends. The position, normals, and curvatures of the cross-sectional surface are included in this description. The locations of the plylines provide the necessary information for determining the ply thicknesses and relative position to a reference surface. Finally, the locations of the cord-ends provide a means to calculate the cord-ends per inch (epi). Menu driven software has been developed to facilitate the procedure using the commercial code, PV-Wave by Visual Numerics, Inc., to display the images. From a single user interface, separate modules are executed for image enhancement, curve fitting the edge trace of the cross-sectional perimeter, and determining the plyline and cord-end locations. The code can run on SUN or SGI workstations and requires the use of a mouse to specify options or identify items on the scanned image.

Danielson, Kent T.

1995-01-01

183

Elastic cross sections in an RSIIp scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elastic differential cross section is calculated at low energies (below 100 MeV) for the elements 3He, 20Ne, 40Ar, 14N, 12C, and for the 208Pb using a finite electromagnetic potential, which is obtained by considering a Randall–Sundrum II scenario modified by the inclusion of p compact extra-dimensions. The length scale is adjusted in the potential to compare with known experimental data and to set bounds for the parameter of the model. The effective four-dimensional (4D) electromagnetic potential is produced by a point charge, as seen from the three-brane that contains it, in uniform motion in an RSIIp scenario.

Arceo, R.; Pedraza, Omar; González-Espinosa, E.; Escalera Santos, G. J.; Díaz-Hernández, O.

2015-01-01

184

Radar Cross Section of Moving Objects  

E-print Network

I investigate the effects of movement on radar cross section calculations. The results show that relativistic effects (the constant velocity case) can change the RCS of moving targets by changing the incident plane wave field vectors. As in the Doppler effect, the changes in the fields are proportional to $\\frac{v}{c}$. For accelerated objects, using the Newtonian equations of motion yields an effective electric field (or effective current density) on the object due to the finite mass of the conducting electrons. The results indicate that the magnetic moment of an accelerated object is different from that of an un-accelerated object, and this difference can change the RCS of the object. Results for moving sphere and non-uniformly rotating sphere are given and compared with static (\\textbf{v}=0) case.

Gholizade, H

2013-01-01

185

Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

2002-01-01

186

Prevalence and characteristics of tremor in the NARCOMS multiple sclerosis registry: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives (1)To describe the prevalence and severity of tremor in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) registered within a large North American MS registry; (2) to provide detailed descriptions on the characteristics and severity of tremor in a subset of registrants and (3) to compare several measures of tremor severity for strength of agreement. Setting The North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) registry. Participants Registrants of NARCOMS reporting mild or greater tremor severity. Outcome measures We determined the cross-sectional prevalence of tremor in the NARCOMS registry over three semiannual updates between fall 2010 and fall 2011. A subset of registrants (n=552) completed a supplemental survey providing detailed descriptions of their tremor. Outcomes included descriptive characteristics of their tremors and correlations between outcome measures to determine the strength of agreement in assessing tremor severity. Results The estimated prevalence of tremor in NARCOMS ranged from 45% to 46.8%, with severe tremor affecting 5.5–5.9% of respondents. In the subset completing the supplemental survey, mild tremor severity was associated with younger age of MS diagnosis and tremor onset than those with moderate or severe tremor. However, tremor severity did not differ by duration of disease or tremor. Respondents provided descriptions of tremor symptoms on the Clinical Ataxia Rating Scale, which had a moderate to good (?=0.595) correlation with the Tremor Related Activities of Daily Living (TRADL) scale. Objectively scored Archimedes’ spirals had a weaker (?=0.358) correlation with the TRADL. Rates of unemployment, disability and symptomatic medication use increased with tremor severity, but were high even among those with mild tremor. Conclusions Tremor is common among NARCOMS registrants and severely disabling for some. Both ADL-based and symptom-descriptive measures of tremor severity can be used to stratify patients. PMID:25573524

Rinker, John R; Salter, Amber R; Walker, Harrison; Amara, Amy; Meador, William; Cutter, Gary R

2015-01-01

187

CCKT Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are in the process of carrying out calculations of e-H total cross sections using the 'complex-correlation Kohn-T' (CCKT) method. In a later paper, we described the methodology more completely, but confined calculations to the elastic scattering region, with definitive, precision results for S-wave phase shifts. Here we extend the calculations to the (low) continuum (1 much less than k(exp 2) much less than 3) using a Green's function formulation. This avoids having to solve integro-differential equations; rather we evaluate indefinite integrals involving appropriate Green's functions and the (complex) optical potential to find the scattering function u(r). From the asymptotic form of u(r) we extract a T(sub L) which is a complex number. From T(sub L), elastic sigma(sub L)(elastic) = 4pi(2L+1)((absolute value of T(sub L))(exp 2)), and total sigma (sub L)(total) = 4pi/k(2L+1)Im(T(sub L)) cross sections follow.

Bhatia, Aaron K.; Schneider, B. I.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

188

Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO) standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants <6 months old. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for anemia with non-anemic group as a reference. Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76). Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and malnutrition in young children. PMID:23273099

2012-01-01

189

Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site  

PubMed Central

Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October–November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14–16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46–4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28–4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13–4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05–2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of role models smoking, refusal skills in social gatherings, and discussing harmful effects of smoking with family members and during gatherings with friends. PMID:25034345

Aryal, Umesh R.; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

2014-01-01

190

SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the calculated results, are presented. Additionally, the follwing information, presented in the appendixes, is intended to provide enough guidance that a researcher repeating the same task in the future should be able to obtain a vector of nuclei and cross sections ready for insertion into the transmutation library without any need for further instructions: (1) Complete TRITON/KENO-V input used for the analysis; (2) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the OPUS utility, used to postproces and to extract the nuclei concentrations for the transmutation library; (3) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the XSECLIST utility, used to postproces and to extract the 1-group cross sections for the transmutation library; (4) Details of an ad-hoc utility program developed to sort the nuclei and cross sections for the transmutation library.

ganda, francesco (090771)

2012-07-01

191

Resonance capture cross section of Pb207  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative neutron capture cross section of Pb207 has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters and radiative kernels have been determined for 16 resonances by means of an R-matrix analysis in the neutron energy range from 3 keV to 320 keV. Good agreement with previous measurements was found at low neutron energies, whereas substantial discrepancies appear beyond 45 keV. With the present results, we obtain an s-process contribution of 77±8% to the solar abundance of Pb207. This corresponds to an r-process component of 23±8%, which is important for deriving the U/Th ages of metal poor halo stars.

Domingo-Pardo, C.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvár, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bisterzo, S.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillman, I.; Dolfini, R.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Gallino, R.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Ketlerov, V.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krti?ka, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; Oshima, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

2006-11-01

192

Deviations from Rutherford-scattering cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experiments have demonstrated the utility of high-energy backscattering for thin-film analysis, often exploiting elastic-scattering resonances to increase sensitivity to low- Z elements. However, higher- Z elements may also exhibit deviations from Rutherford scattering, and it is desirable to examine the problem theoretically so that such deviations can be predicted and corrected for. We have used the optical-model computer code SCAT86 to calculate the projectile energy Enr at which the scattering cross section begins to deviate from its Rutherford value. The results agree well with data for both alpha particle and proton projectiles, but the interaction potentials are complicated, and the program does not provide an analytical predictive formula. We have therefore developed a simple classical model which treats the interaction as a sum of Coulomb and Yukawa-like potentials. For small deviations from Coulomb scattering, the problem can be solved analytically, providing a simple expression for Enr which agrees well with both experimental data and SCAT86. The classical approach is valid for all but small-angle forward scattering and can easily be extended to heavier projectiles such as Li.

Bozoian, Michael; Hubbard, Kevin M.; Nastasi, Michael

1990-10-01

193

Neutron Cross Section Uncertainties in the Thermal and Resonance Regions  

SciTech Connect

In the 'Atlas of Neutron Resonances', special care was expended to ensure that the resonance parameter information reproduces the various measured thermal cross sections, as well as the infinite dilute resonance integrals for Z = 1-100. In contrast, the uncertainties of the recommended quantities do not match those generated from the uncertainties of the resonance parameters. To address this problem, the present study was initiated to achieve consistency for 15 actinides and 21 structural and coolant moderator materials. This is realized by assigning uncertainties to the parameters of the negative-energy resonances and changing, if necessary, significantly the uncertainties of the low-lying positive-energy resonances. The influence of correlations between parameters on the derived uncertainties is examined and discussed.

Mughabghab,S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.

2008-06-24

194

A cross-sectional comparison of adaptive coping in adulthood.  

PubMed

The present study is a cross-sectional comparison of coping behaviors in adulthood. Ninety-six adolescents, young adults, middle adults, and older adults were administered Lazarus' Ways of Coping questionnaire and a defensive coping scale. Patterns of coping and perceived effectiveness of coping strategies were examined in both threatening and challenging contexts. Results indicated that patterns of coping varied across age groups, with adolescents and younger adults endorsing more defensive mechanisms, such as escape-avoidance, hostile reaction, and self blame. Instrumental strategies were used more in challenging situations, whereas palliative strategies were endorsed in threatening situations across all age groups. Patterns of perceived effectiveness were similar to those for use, but correlations of use with perceived effectiveness varied between age groups. Findings supported the hypothesis that adaptive coping processes characterize later adulthood. Implications for future research in the area of development and coping are discussed. PMID:3497969

Irion, J C; Blanchard-Fields, F

1987-09-01

195

Exploring the anomaly in the interaction cross section and matter radius of 23O  

E-print Network

New measurements of the interaction cross sections of 22,23O at 900A MeV performed at the GSI, Darmstadt are reported that address the unsolved puzzle of the large cross section previously observed for 23O. The matter radii for these oxygen isotopes extracted through a Glauber model analysis are in good agreement with the new predictions of the ab initio coupled-cluster theory reported here. They are consistent with a 22O+neutron description of 23O as well.

R. Kanungo; A. Prochazka; M. Uchida; W. Horiuchi; G. Hagen; T. Papenbrock; C. Nociforo; T. Aumann; D. Boutin; D. Cortina-Gil; B. Davids; M. Diakaki; F. Farinon; H. Geissel; R. Gernhauser; J. Gerl; R. Janik; Ø. Jensen; B. Jonson; B. Kindler; R. Knobel; R. Krucken; M. Lantz; H. Lenske; Y. Litvinov; B. Lommel; K. Mahata; P. Maierbeck; A. Musumarra; T. Nilsson; C. Perro; C. Scheidenberger; B. Sitar; P. Strmen; B. Sun; Y. Suzuki; I. Szarka; I. Tanihata; H. Weick; M. Winkler

2011-12-14

196

Exploring the anomaly in the interaction cross section and matter radius of 23O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New measurements of the interaction cross sections of 22,23O at 900A MeV performed at the GSI, Darmstadt are reported that address the unsolved puzzle of the large cross section previously observed for 23O. The matter radii for these oxygen isotopes extracted through a Glauber model analysis are in good agreement with the new predictions of the ab initio coupled-cluster theory reported here. They are consistent with a 22O+neutron description of 23O as well.

Kanungo, R.; Prochazka, A.; Uchida, M.; Horiuchi, W.; Hagen, G.; Papenbrock, T.; Nociforo, C.; Aumann, T.; Boutin, D.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Davids, B.; Diakaki, M.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gerl, J.; Janik, R.; Jensen, Ø.; Jonson, B.; Kindler, B.; Knöbel, R.; Krücken, R.; Lantz, M.; Lenske, H.; Litvinov, Y.; Lommel, B.; Mahata, K.; Maierbeck, P.; Musumarra, A.; Nilsson, T.; Perro, C.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Suzuki, Y.; Szarka, I.; Tanihata, I.; Weick, H.; Winkler, M.

2011-12-01

197

Exploring the anomaly in the interaction cross section and matter radius of (23)O  

SciTech Connect

New measurements of the interaction cross sections of {sup 22,23}O at 900A MeV performed at the GSI, Darmstadt are reported that address the unsolved puzzle of the large cross section previously observed for {sup 23}O. The matter radii for these oxygen isotopes extracted through a Glauber model analysis are in good agreement with the new predictions of the ab initio coupled-cluster theory reported here. They are consistent with a {sup 22}O + neutron description of {sup 23}O as well.

Kanungo, R. [St. Marys University, Canada; Uchida, M. [St. Marys University, Canada; Perro, C. [St. Marys University, Canada; Prochazka (et al.), A. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Lenske, H. [University Giessen, Germany; Boutin, D. [University Giessen, Germany; Farinon, F. [University Giessen, Germany; Knoebel, R. [University Giessen, Germany; Horiuchi, W. [RIKEN, Nishina Ctr Accelerator Based Sci, Wako, Saitama, Japan; Suzuki, Y. [RIKEN, Nishina Ctr Accelerator Based Sci, Wako, Saitama, Japan; Hagen, Gaute [ORNL; Papenbrock, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Aumann, T. [Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Germany; Cortina-Gil, D. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Davids, B. [TRIUMF, Canada; Diakaki, M. [National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Gernhaeuser, R. [Technical University, Munich, Germany; Kruecken, R. [Technical University, Munich, Germany; Maierbeck, P. [Technical University, Munich, Germany; Janik, R. [Comenius University, Slovakia; Sitar, B. [Comenius University, Slovakia; Strmen, P. [Comenius University, Slovakia; Szarka, I. [Comenius University, Slovakia; Jensen, O. [University of Oslo, Norway; Jonson, B. [Chalmers, S-41296, Gothenburg, Sweden; Lantz, M. [Chalmers, S-41296, Gothenburg, Sweden; Nilsson, T. [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Litvinov, Y. [Max-Planck Institut fur Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany; Musumarra, A. [University of Catania, Italy; Sun, B. [Beihang University, Beijing, China; Tanihata, I. [Osaka University

2011-01-01

198

Theoretical study of evaporation cross sections in the synthesis of very neutron-deficient nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of rare-earth neutron-deficient nuclei with large Z/N ratio {approx_equal}0.88 is studied within the framework of the standard statistical model. The fusion cross sections are calculated on the basis of the nuclear reaction video model. The deexcitation process is calculated with the help of the statistical code alice. It is found that the excitation functions can be predicted using a few exited experimental data by carefully choosing the input parameters in the statistical model. The results obtained show that a satisfactory description of the experimental evaporation cross sections requires a great reduction in the theoretical fission barriers.

Wang Chengbin; Zhang Jinjuan [Physics Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ren, Z. Z. [Physics Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2011-07-15

199

Nonlinear acoustic waves in channels with variable cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The point symmetry group is studied for the generalized Webster-type equation describing nonlinear acoustic waves in lossy channels with variable cross sections. It is shown that, for certain types of cross section profiles, the allowed symmetry group is extended and the invariant solutions corresponding to these profiles are obtained. Approximate analytic solutions to the generalized Webster equation are derived for channels with smoothly varying cross sections and arbitrary initial conditions.

Kovalev, V. F.; Rudenko, O. V.

2012-05-01

200

High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

1996-08-01

201

Scaling properties of proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections  

E-print Network

We study the scaling properties of proton-nucleus total reaction cross sections for stable nuclei and propose an approximate expression in proportion to Z^{2/3}\\sigma_{pp}^{total} + N^{2/3} \\sigma_{pn}^{total}. Based on this expression, we can derive a relation that enables us to predict a total reaction cross section for any stable nucleus within 10% uncertainty at most, using the empirical value of the total reaction cross section of a given nucleus.

Badawy Abu-Ibrahim; Akihisa Kohama

2010-05-03

202

Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

2008-01-01

203

Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

Hughes, W. E.

1972-01-01

204

Hydrodynamic description of correlations in Quantum Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ field theory methods to study correlation functions of Spin Chains. We derive asymptotic behaviors of the correlators through a hydrodynamic formulation of the problem. In particular, we are interested in a correlator known as Emptiness Formation Probability (EFP), which measures the probability P(n) of formation of an empty region of length n in the quantum fluid at low temperature. The EFP in the leading order is found as the action of the instanton solution of hydrodynamic equations of motion. This hydrodynamic approach has already been applied in the study of a number of systems, for instance the XXZ Spin Chain, a Bose gas with delta repulsion and free 1D fermions. The EFP for the XY Spin Chain is asymptotically Gaussian in n at the isotropic point and exponential in the anisotropic regime. We study the crossover between these two regimes by calculating the leading intermediate asymptotics of the EFP using a bosonization approach (linearized hydrodynamics). To study the subleading contributions to the EFP, we include gradient corrections to hydrodynamics and study quantum fluctuations around the saddle-point ``instanton'' solution.

Franchini, Fabio

2005-03-01

205

e+e- Hadron Production Cross Sections at Belle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of production cross sections for electron-positron annihilation to a hadronic final state have been measured using the Belle dataset, which is possible given the general purpose design of the Belle detector and its large solid-angle coverage. The cross section measurements predominantly fall above 3 GeV, which still leaves the opportunity for using the dataset to systematically measure cross sections below 3 GeV. These low-energy cross sections are important for improving the precision of the Standard Model prediction for the muon anomalous magnetic moment.

Crnkovic, Jason D.

2014-12-01

206

Partial photoneutron cross sections for the isomeric state 180Tam.  

PubMed

Photoneutron cross sections for (181)Ta(y, n) (180)Ta(m) were determined from simultaneous measurements of total cross sections (sigma(tot) and ground-state cross sections (sigma(gs)) for (180)Ta in photodisintegration of with laser Compton-backscattered rays. Techniques of direct neutron counting and photoactivation were used for the measurement of sigma(tot) and sigma(gs), respectively. The partial cross sections for the isomeric state serves as a novel probe of the nuclear level density of (180)Ta. Implications for the p- and s-process nucleosynthesis of (180)Ta(m) are given. PMID:16803099

Goko, S; Utsunomiya, H; Goriely, S; Makinaga, A; Kaihori, T; Hohara, S; Akimune, H; Yamagata, T; Lui, Y-W; Toyokawa, H; Koning, A J; Hilaire, S

2006-05-19

207

Resonance Averaged Photoionization Cross Sections for Astrophysical Models  

E-print Network

We present ground state photoionization cross sections of atoms and ions averaged over resonance structures for photoionization modeling of astrophysical sources. The detailed cross sections calculated in the close-coupling approximation using the R-matrix method, with resonances delineated at thousands of energies, are taken from the Opacity Project database TOPbase and the Iron Project, including new data for the low ionization stages of iron Fe I--V. The resonance-averaged cross sections are obtained by convolving the detailed cross sections with a Gaussian distribution over the autoionizing resonances. This procedure is expected to minimize errors in the derived ionization rates that could result from small uncertainties in computed positions of resonances, while preserving the overall resonant contribution to the cross sections in the important near threshold regions. The detailed photoionization cross sections at low photon energies are complemented by new relativistic distorted-wave calculations for Z12 at high energies, including inner-shell ionization. The effective cross sections are then represented by a small number of points that can be readily interpolated linearly for practical applications; a Fortran subroutine and data are available. The present numerically averaged cross sections are compared with analytic fits that do not accurately represent the effective cross sections in regions dominated by resonances.

M. A. Bautista; P. Romano; A. K. Pradhan

1997-12-03

208

Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

2011-10-18

209

Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares  

SciTech Connect

A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

1999-09-27

210

Microscopic Calculation of Absolute Values of Two-nucleon Transfer Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

Arguably, the greatest achievement of many-body physics in the fifties was that of developing the tools for a complete description and a thorough understanding of superconductivity in metals. At the basis of it one finds BCS theory and the Josephson effect. The first recognized the central role played by the appearance of a macroscopic coherent field usually viewed as a condensate of strongly overlapping Cooper pairs, the quasiparticle vacuum. The second made it clear that a true gap is not essential for such a state of matter to exist, but rather a finite expectation value of the pair field. Consequently, the specific probe to study the superconducting state is Cooper pair tunneling. Important progress in the understanding of pairing in atomic nuclei may arise from the systematic study of two-particle transfer reactions. Although this subject of research started about the time of the BCS papers, the quantitative calculation of absolute cross sections taking properly into account the full non-locality of the Cooper pairs (correlation length much larger than nuclear dimensions) is still an open question. In what follows we present results obtained, within a second order DWBA framework, of two-nucleon transfer reactions induced both by heavy and light ions. The calculations were carried out making use of software specifically developed for this purpose. It includes sequential, simultaneous and non-orthogonality contributions to the process. Microscopic form factors are used which take into account the relevant structure aspects of the process, such as the nature of the single-particle wavefunctions, the spectroscopic factors, and the interaction potential responsible for the transfer. Overall agreement with the experimental absolute values of the differential cross section is obtained without any free parameter.

Potel, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bayman, B. F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Barranco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Sevilla, 41092 Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n (Spain); Vigezzi, E. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Broglia, R. A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)

2009-08-26

211

Hafnium neutron cross sections and resonance analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this thesis is to determine resonance parameters for the stable hafnium isotopes in the 0.005--200 eV region, with emphasis on the overlapping 176Hf and 178Hf resonances near 8 eV. The large neutron cross section of hafnium, combined with its corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties, make it an ideal material for controlling nuclear reactions. Experiments measuring neutron capture and transmission were performed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) LINAC using the time of flight method. Transmission experiments utilized 6Li glass scintillation detectors at flight path lengths of 15 and 25 m. Capture experiments were done using a sixteen section NaI(Tl) multiplicity type detector at a flight path length of 25 m. These experiments utilized various thicknesses of metallic and isotope-enriched liquid samples. The liquid samples were designed to provide information on the 176Hf and 178Hf contributions to the 8 eV doublet without saturation. Data analysis was done using the R-matrix Bayesian fitting code SAMMY version M6 beta. SAMMY is able to account for experimental resolution effects for each of the experimental setups at the RPI LINAC, and also can correct for some of the multiple scattering effects in yield data. The resolution function for specific experimental setups was determined. A method was developed for estimating errors on the fitted resonance parameters due to uncertainties in the resolution function parameters. The combined capture and transmission data analysis yielded resonance parameters for all stable hafnium isotopes from 0.005--200 eV. Resonance integrals were calculated along with errors for each of the hafnium isotopes using the NJOY and INTER codes. The isotopic resonance integrals calculated were significantly different than some of the previous values; however the calculated elemental hafnium resonance integral changed very little.

Trbovich, Michael J.

212

Isotopic dependence of the cross section for the induced fission of heavy nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The cross sections for the induced fission of {sup 211-223}Ra, {sup 203-211}Rn, and {sup 221-231}Th nuclei undergoing peripheral collisions with {sup 208}Pb nuclei are calculated on the basis of the statistical model. The role of the N = 126 neutron shell is studied. The level density in excited nuclei is determined within the Fermi gas model and a model that takes into account the collective enhancement of the level density. The inclusion of a particle-hole excitation in addition to a collective Coulomb excitation makes it possible to obtain a satisfactory description of experimental cross sections for the fission of radium isotopes. The calculated ratios of the cross sections for the induced fission of {sup 236}U ({sup 237}U) and {sup 238}U ({sup 239}U) nuclei agree with experimental data.

Bolgova, O. N.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.; Ivanova, S. P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Scheid, W. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany)

2009-06-15

213

Cross-section measurement of the $^{130}$Ba(p,$?$)$^{131}$La reaction for $?$-process nucleosynthesis  

E-print Network

A measurement of total cross-section values of the $^{130}$Ba(p,$\\gamma$)$^{131}$La reaction at low proton energies allows a stringent test of statistical model predictions with different proton+nucleus optical model potentials. Since no experimental data are available for proton-capture reactions in this mass region around A~$\\approx$~130, this measurement can be an important input to test the global applicability of proton+nucleus optical model potentials. The total reaction cross-section values were measured by means of the activation method. After the irradiation with protons, the reaction yield was determined by use of $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy using two clover-type high-purity germanium detectors. In total, cross-section values for eight different proton energies could be determined in the energy range between 3.6 MeV $\\leq E_p \\leq$ 5.0 MeV, thus, inside the astrophysically relevant energy region. The measured cross-section values were compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations using the statistical model codes TALYS and SMARAGD with different proton+nucleus optical model potentials. With the semi-microscopic JLM proton+nucleus optical model potential used in the SMARAGD code, the absolute cross-section values are reproduced well, but the energy dependence is too steep at the lowest energies. The best description is given by a TALYS calculation using the semi-microscopic Bauge proton+nucleus optical model potential using a constant renormalization factor.

L. Netterdon; A. Endres; G. G. Kiss; J. Mayer; T. Rauscher; P. Scholz; K. Sonnabend; Zs. Török; A. Zilges

2014-09-27

214

Application of cross-sectional time series modeling for the prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) in children and adolescents is required for a better understanding of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance. Cross-sectional time series (CSTS) models, which account for correlation structure of repeated observati...

215

Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of L? x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was ?2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

Llovet, Xavier, E-mail: xavier@ccit.ub.edu [Centres Científics i Tecnològics, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluís Solé i Sabarís 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [Centres Científics i Tecnològics, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluís Solé i Sabarís 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Powell, Cedric J. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8370 (United States)] [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8370 (United States); Salvat, Francesc [Facultat de Física (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [Facultat de Física (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jablonski, Aleksander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-03-15

216

Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

1990-01-01

217

Experimental Electron-Transfer Cross Sections for Fluorine Ions in Argon at Energies from 8 to 54 MeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-capture and -loss cross sections have been measured for fluorine ions passing through argon gas in the energy range from 8 to 54 MeV. Cross sections for single- and multiple-electron capture and loss in a single collision were obtained using a computer analysis in real time for fitting the data with an iterative procedure. A detailed description of the computer

S. M. Ferguson; J. R. MacDonald; T. Chiao; L. D. Ellsworth; S. A. Savoy

1973-01-01

218

Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender

Hawa S Mbawalla; Joyce R Masalu; Anne N Åstrøm

2010-01-01

219

D0 papers on B-physics submitted to DPF '96: b-quark inclusive cross sections and b anti-b correlations using dimuons from the D0 experiment; Single muon production in the forward region at [radical]s=1. 8 TEV; Rapidity dependence of the inclusive J[psi] production in the forward region [radical]s=1. 8 TEV; A search for b [r arrow] X[mu][sup +][mu][sup [minus  

SciTech Connect

Paper 1: Using dimuons collected with the D0 detector during the 1993--1995 Tevatron collider run, the authors have measured the b-quark cross section and b[anti b] correlations as given by the difference in azimuthal angle between the two muons. Both measurements agree with the NLO QCD predictions within experimental and theoretical errors. (Three other papers are included in this report.)

Vititoe, D.L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics); Kozelov, Alexander; Jesik, Richard; D0 Collaboration.

1996-11-01

220

Electromgnetic-gravitational cross-sections in external elctromagnetic fields  

E-print Network

The classical processes: the conversion of photons into gravitons in the static electromagnetic fields are considered by using Feynman perturbation techniques. The differential cross sections are presented for the conversion in the electric field of the flat condesor and the magnetic field of the selenoid. A numerical evaluation shows that the cross sections may have the observable value in the present technical scenario.

Hoang Ngoc Long; Dang Van Soa; Tuan A. Tran

1994-10-03

221

Emission Cross Sections for Neutral Xenon Impacted by Xe+  

E-print Network

Emission Cross Sections for Neutral Xenon Impacted by Xe+ and Xe2+ by Jason D. Sommerville A Thesis Emission cross sections for Neutral Xenon Impacted by Xe+ and Xe2+ by Jason D. Sommerville is hereby for eleven transitions from the 5p5 6p configuration to the 5p5 6s configuration of neutral xenon occur- ring

King, Lyon B.

222

Radar cross section measurements of frequency selective terahertz retroreflectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radar cross section of spherical retroreflectors operating at terahertz frequencies is investigated. Several spherical retroreflectors with diameters ranging from 2 mm to 8 mm were fabricated and their radar cross section was measured at 100 GHz, 160 GHz, and 350 GHz. A frequency selective surface was applied to the retroreflectors to demonstrate proof of concept of narrow-band terahertz retroreflection.

Williams, Richard J.; Gatesman, Andrew J.; Goyette, Thomas M.; Giles, Robert H.

2014-05-01

223

Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential  

SciTech Connect

The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

Aziz, Azni Abdul [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kulliyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan (Malaysia); Quantum Science Center, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lump (Malaysia); Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Quantum Science Center, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Institute of Space Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Se (Malaysia); Yusof, Norhasliza [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Quantum Science Center, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Muhammad Zamrun, F. [Quantum Science Center, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jurusan Fisika FMIPA, Universitas Haluoleo Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara, J3232 (Indonesia)

2014-05-02

224

Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

2009-01-01

225

Cross section for $ ??\\rightarrow ?^+ ?^- ?^0 $ in chiral perturbation theory  

E-print Network

We give the amplitude for $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ in leading order chiral perturbation theory. For the case of real photons we calculate the total and differential cross section. Furthermore, we give the dependence of the total cross section on the invariant mass of one of the photons.

J. W. Bos; Y. C. Lin; H. H. Shih

1994-07-04

226

Single Event Upset cross sections at various data rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data which show that Single Event Upset (SEU) cross section varies linearly with frequency for most devices tested. We show that the SEU cross section can increase dramatically away from a linear relationship when the test setup is not optimized, or when testing near the maximum operating frequency. We also observe non-linear behavior in some complex circuit topologies.

R. A. Reed; M. A. Carts; P. W. Marshall; C. J. Marshall; S. Buchner; M. La Macchia; B. Mathes; D. McMorrow

1996-01-01

227

Summary of the Workshop on Neutron Cross Section Covariances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Workshop on Neutron Cross Section Covariances was held from June 24-27, 2008, in Port Jefferson, New York. This Workshop was organized by the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, to provide a forum for reporting on the status of the growing field of neutron cross section covariances for applications and for discussing future directions of the work in

Donald L. Smith

2008-01-01

228

Surface interpolation from sparse cross-sections using region correspondence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to estimate a surface from a set of cross sections allows calculation of the enclosed volume and the display of the surface in three-dimensions. This process has increasingly been used to derive useful information from medical data. However, extracting the cross sections (segmenting) can be very difficult, and automatic segmentation methods are not sufficiently robust to handle all

Graham M. Treece; Richard W. Prager; Andrew H. Gee; Laurence H. Berman

2000-01-01

229

Systematics of Fission Cross Sections in the MeV Range  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-nine years ago J. W. Behrens published a paper on the systematics of fission cross sections (3 5 MeV average). His study included 57 isotopes of elements ranging from radium through einsteinium (Z = 88 to 99). A systematic trend was seen for the element range from protactinium through curium. For a given element, the fission cross section decreased as the A-number increased. Fission cross sections are considerably more accurate now than those available in 1980. The current study represents an update of the Behrens study. Data for 11 elements and 53 nuclides were used. Trends for both the (Z,A) variation and the (2Z N) correlation are demonstrated. The current study clearly shows that the trends are quite well represented by straight lines. The trend for the fission cross sections of a given element to decrease with increasing A-number is observed for values of A < 248. For A > 248 there is a trend for the fission cross section to increase with increasing A-number.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Wright, Richard Q [ORNL

2009-01-01

230

Double-charge-transfer cross sections in inelastic collisions of bare ions with helium atoms  

SciTech Connect

Double-charge-transfer cross sections into singly and doubly excited states for collisions of {alpha} particles with helium atoms have been studied in the energy range of 50 to 500 keV/amu. We have also studied the double electron capture cross sections into ground states for collisions of {sup 7}Li{sup 3+} and {sup 10}B{sup 5+} with helium atoms. In our study we have applied the four-body boundary corrected continuum intermediate state approximation. The intermediate continuum states of each electron and static correlations of the electrons have been taken into account in this formalism. Present calculated results for total charge transfer cross sections for the reaction {alpha}+He and Li{sup 3+}+He compare favorably well with the existing experimental and other theoretical predictions. Due to the nonavailability of any theoretical and experimental finding for the reaction B{sup 5+}+He, the energy variation of capture cross sections into the ground state of B{sup 5+} ion has been shown within the same energy range. However, charge transfer cross sections into singly and doubly excited states of He are compared with the available theoretical observations only due to nonavailability of any experimental result. In this case as well, agreement is very encouraging.

Purkait, M. [Department of Physics, Ramakrishna Mission Residential College, Narendrapur, Kolkata-700 103 (India); Sounda, S.; Dhara, A.; Mandal, C. R. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (India)

2006-10-15

231

Fission Cross Section Measurements of Actinides at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the 235U standard. Recent measurements include the 233, 238U, 239-242Pu, and 243Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for fission cross sections of 243Am and 233U will be presented.

F. Tovesson; A. B. Laptev; T. S. Hill

2011-08-01

232

Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

1988-01-01

233

Variable Differential Cross Section Due to Nuclear Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard differential cross section formula assumes a motionless massive point nucleus. However, nuclear oscillation is a reality, changing the position of the impact parameter in relation to the incoming beam of particles or ions thereby affecting the cross section. If the static differential cross section is d?/d?= (Ze^22??/8??0T)^2, an oscillator can be added to the formula describing the movement of the cross section so that the resulting formula for differential cross section is (Ze^22??/2/8??0T)^2 (Ax?i + Ay?j +Az?k. By taking in ot account nuclear motion there will be some reconciliation between experimental and theoretical values.

Brekke, Stewart

2007-10-01

234

Cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal change on the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale.  

PubMed

Cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal change were examined on psychological well-being, positive affect, and negative affect, as measured by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale. Data were collected from 1,159 participants in 1971 and 1985. Cross-sectional analyses showed age differences: older cohorts reported greater overall well-being but lower levels of both positive and negative affect when compared to younger respondents. Longitudinal analyses indicated small but significant changes toward decreased positive and negative affect but increased overall well-being. Negative affect had the strongest effect size. Positive and negative affect showed different patterns of change for different age groups. Taken together, cross-sectional and longitudinal findings suggest that change in affect variables is age-related, although these changes are relatively small. More evident was a pattern of correlational stability with age. Finally, the pattern of the results supports a two-factor theory of psychological well-being. PMID:1997580

Stacey, C A; Gatz, M

1991-03-01

235

AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library  

SciTech Connect

The cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The project builds on two covariance libraries developed earlier, with considerable input from BNL and LANL. In 2006, international effort under WPEC Subgroup 26 produced BOLNA covariance library by putting together data, often preliminary, from various sources for most important materials for nuclear reactor technology. This was followed in 2007 by collaborative effort of four US national laboratories to produce covariances, often of modest quality - hence the name low-fidelity, for virtually complete set of materials included in ENDF/B-VII.0. The present project is focusing on covariances of 4-5 major reaction channels for 110 materials of importance for power reactors. The work started under Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2008, which changed to Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) in 2009. With the 2011 release the name has changed to the Covariance Multigroup Matrix for Advanced Reactor Applications (COMMARA) version 2.0. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for AFCI data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. Responsibility of BNL was defined as developing covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work; LANL responsibility was defined as covariances for light nuclei and actinides. The COMMARA-2.0 covariance library has been developed by BNL-LANL collaboration for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative applications over the period of three years, 2008-2010. It contains covariances for 110 materials relevant to fast reactor R&D. The library is to be used together with the ENDF/B-VII.0 central values of the latest official release of US files of evaluated neutron cross sections. COMMARA-2.0 library contains neutron cross section covariances for 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural materials and fission products, and 20 actinides. Covariances are given in 33-energy groups, from 10?5 eV to 19.6 MeV, obtained by processing with LANL processing code NJOY using 1/E flux. In addition to these 110 files, the library contains 20 files with nu-bar covariances, 3 files with covariances of prompt fission neutron spectra (238,239,240-Pu), and 2 files with mu-bar covariances (23-Na, 56-Fe). Over the period of three years several working versions of the library have been released and tested by ANL and INL reactor analysts. Useful feedback has been collected allowing gradual improvements of the library. In addition, QA system was developed to check basic properties and features of the whole library, allowing visual inspection of uncertainty and correlations plots, inspection of uncertainties of integral quantities with independent databases, and dispersion of cross sections between major evaluated libraries. The COMMARA-2.0 beta version of the library was released to ANL and INL reactor analysts in October 2010. The final version, described in the present report, was released in March 2011.

Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

2011-03-01

236

Proton-Nucleus Total Reaction Cross Sections and Total Cross Sections Up to 1 GeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper are presented tables of all directly measured total reaction cross sections and total cross sections for protons interacting with all complex nuclei (2H and heavier) for proton energies up to 1 GeV. Some semiempirical fittings to the data are also included.

R. F. Carlson

1996-01-01

237

Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2005-01-01

238

Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

Berry, William A.

1980-07-01

239

Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH2) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a ?* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a ?* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik; Vinodkumar, P. C.

2014-09-01

240

Top quark pair production cross section at Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the recent measurements of the top antitop quark pair production cross section in proton antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV in lepton + jets and dilepton final states is presented. These measurements are based on 1-2.8 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 and CDF experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The cross section is measured with a precision close to 8 % and found to be compatible with the standard model prediction. Interpretations of the cross-section measurements for charge higgs search and for top quark mass measurement are also discussed.

Shary, V.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

2009-05-01

241

Actinide Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section Measurements At LANSCE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the 235U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the 233,238U, 239-242Pu and 243Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with existing evaluations and previous data.

Tovesson, F.; Laptev, A. B.; Hill, T. S.

2011-06-01

242

Actinide Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section Measurements At LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with existing evaluations and previous data.

Tovesson, F.; Laptev, A. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Hill, T. S. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls ID 83415 (United States)

2011-06-01

243

Comparison of fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides  

E-print Network

The fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides given in JENDL-3.3 are compared with other evaluated data and experimental data. The comparison was made for 32 nuclides of Th-227, 228, 229, 230, 233, 234, Pa-231, 232, 233, U-232, 234, 236, 237, Np-236, 237, 238, Pu-236, 237, 238, 242, 244, Am-241, 242, 242m, 243, Cm-242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 and 248. Given in the present report are figures of these cross sections and tables of cross sections at 0.0253 eV and resonance integrals.

Nakagawa, T

2003-01-01

244

Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

Tovesson, Fredrik K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Tony S [INL

2010-01-01

245

Neutron inelastic cross-section measurements for Mg24  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ? production cross sections from neutron inelastic scattering on 24Mg were measured for neutron energies up to 18 MeV at GELINA (the Geel Linear Accelerator), the neutron source operated by EC-JRC-IRMM, Belgium. The level cross section and the total inelastic cross section were determined. We used the GAINS (Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering) spectrometer with seven large-volume high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors placed at 110? and 150? with respect to the beam direction. The neutron flux was determined with a U235 fission chamber. The results are compared with calculations performed with the talys 1.6 code using the default settings.

Olacel, A.; Borcea, C.; Dessagne, P.; Kerveno, M.; Negret, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.

2014-09-01

246

Cross sections for electron scattering from ?-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on measurements of integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of Rydberg electronic-states in ?-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The energy range of these experiments was 20-50 eV. There are currently no other results against which we can directly compare those measured data. We also report results from our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction computations, namely for the total cross section, elastic ICS, inelastic ICS (all discrete electronic states and neutral dissociation) and the total ionisation ICS. Where possible, our calculated cross sections are compared to the limited available data of each scattering process.

Duque, H. V.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Thorn, P. A.; Pettifer, Z.; da Silva, G. B.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Duflot, D.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Ratnavelu, K.; White, R. D.; Brunger, M. J.

2014-07-01

247

Dorsiflexor muscle-group thickness in children with cerebral palsy: relation to cross-sectional area.  

PubMed

If the thickness and cross-sectional area of the dorsiflexor muscle group are related in children with cerebral palsy, measurements of muscle thickness may be used to monitor changes in muscle size due to training or immobilisation in these patients. We assessed the validity and reliability of measurements of dorsiflexor muscle-thickness using the cross-sectional area of the muscle group as the criterion-related muscle-size variable. Muscle thickness was measured using ultrasound, and cross-sectional area using MRI in nine children with spastic cerebral palsy (eight with hemiplegia). Test-retest reliability of the muscle-thickness measurements was assessed in six healthy subjects. All measurements were made on both legs at 35% lower leg length. In the children with cerebral palsy, dorsiflexor muscle-thickness and cross-sectional area were well correlated (r(2) = 0.778, P < 0.001), and the reliability of the muscle-thickness measurements was high in the healthy subjects (ICC(2.1) = 0.94, standard error of measurement = 0.04 cm). The dorsiflexor muscle-thickness was 22% less in the affected compared to the non-affected leg in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (P < 0.001). Accordingly, the dorsiflexor cross-sectional area was 32% less in the affected compared to the non-affected leg (P = 0.002). Measurements of dorsiflexor muscle-thickness can be reliably obtained, and they reflect dorsiflexor cross-sectional area in children with cerebral palsy. PMID:19597266

Bandholm, Thomas; Magnusson, Peter; Jensen, Bente R; Sonne-Holm, Stig

2009-01-01

248

Measurement of inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusive jet cross section in photoproduction has been measured as a function of transverse energy and pseudorapidity using the H 1 detector at the HERA electron-proton collider. The results are compared with leading order QCD calculations.

Collaboration, H1; Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bischoff, A.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; Devel, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Fensome, I. F.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Handschuh, D.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. C.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Smolik, L.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tichomirov, I.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.

1993-09-01

249

Total cross sections for positron and electron scattering from pyrimidine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report original measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the important biomolecule pyrimidine. The energy range of these measurements was 0.3-45 eV, while the energy resolution was ~260 meV. In addition, we report theoretical results, calculated within the independent atom-screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) formalism, for the corresponding electron impact total cross sections. In that case the energy range is 1-10 000 eV. Total cross sections are very important input data for codes that seek to simulate charged-particle tracks in matter, as they define the mean-free path between collisions. As the present data and computations are to the best of our knowledge the first total cross sections to be reported for either positron or electron scattering from pyrimidine, they fill an important void in our available knowledge in the literature.

Zecca, A.; Chiari, L.; García, G.; Blanco, F.; Trainotti, E.; Brunger, M. J.

2010-11-01

250

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites.

Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Käppeler, F.; Reffo, G.

1994-03-01

251

12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

252

Measurement of the Z??? cross section with the ATLAS detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Z??? cross section is measured with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in four different final states determined by the decay modes of the ? leptons: muon-hadron, electron-hadron, electron-muon, and muon-muon. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36pb-1, at a proton-proton center-of-mass energy of s=7TeV. Cross sections are measured separately for each final state in fiducial regions of high detector acceptance, as well as in the full phase space, over the mass region 66-116 GeV. The individual cross sections are combined and the product of the total Z production cross section and Z??? branching fraction is measured to be 0.97±0.07(stat)±0.06(syst)±0.03(lumi)nb, in agreement with next-to-next-to-leading order calculations.

Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.

2011-12-01

253

Cross section dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes  

E-print Network

We examine the dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes on the neutrino-nucleon cross section for neutrinos with energy above 1 PeV, and contrast the results with those for cosmic ray experiments. Scaling of the ...

Marfatia, Danny; Seckel, D.; McKay, D. W.; Hussain, S.

2006-10-20

254

Computation of the effective cross section of thallium atom collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translated from Izmer. Tekh.; 16: No. 2, 60-61 (Feb 1973). The ; experimental data on the distribution of velocities in molecular beams is used ; for computing the effective cross section of collisions for thallium atoms. ; (JFP);

Yu. G. Abashev; G. F. Voronin; R. A. Valitov

1973-01-01

255

Hadronic cross sections, elastic slope and physical bounds  

SciTech Connect

An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.

Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas SP (Brazil)

2013-03-25

256

Reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes incident on a proton  

E-print Network

We systematically study total reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes with N=6-16 on a proton target for wide range of incident energies, putting an emphasis on the difference from the case of a carbon target. The analysis includes the reaction cross sections of ^{19,20,22}C at 40 AMeV, the data of which have recently been measured at RIKEN. The Glauber theory is used to calculate the reaction cross sections. To describe the intrinsic structure of the carbon isotopes, we use a Slater determinant generated from a phenomenological mean-field potential, and construct the density distributions. To go beyond the simple mean-field model, we adopt two types of dynamical models: One is a core+n model for odd-neutron nuclei, and the other is a core+n+n model for 16C and 22C. We propose empirical formulas which are useful in predicting unknown cross sections.

B. Abu-Ibrahim; W. Horiuchi; A. Kohama; Y. Suzuki

2007-10-23

257

Black Hole Cross Section at the Large Hadron Collider  

E-print Network

Black hole production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was first discussed in 1999. Since then, much work has been performed in predicting the black hole cross section. In light of the start up of the LHC, it is now timely to review the state of these calculations. We review the uncertainties in estimating the black hole cross section in higher dimensions. One would like to make this estimate as precise as possible since the predicted values, or lower limits, obtain for the fundamental Planck scale and number of extra dimensions from experiments will depend directly on the accuracy of the cross section. Based on the current knowledge of the cross section, we give a range of lower limits on the fundamental Planck scale that could be obtained at LHC energies.

Douglas M. Gingrich

2006-09-06

258

Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization  

SciTech Connect

The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

2003-06-06

259

Absolute two-photon excitation cross-sections in NO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique has been developed which allows the determination of a two-photon absorption cross-section to be made relative to the Raman scattering cross-section in nitrogen. Spatial and temporal effects associated with the lasers are ratioed out to give a result independent of laser parameters. The necessary theory to extract a cross-section from the measured ratio of a Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signal in N2 to a four-wave mixing signal in NO has been developed. The technique has been demonstrated on the R(22) + S(12) (J-double-prime = 9 1/2) line in NO and a cross-section of (2.9 + or - 1.8) x 10 to the -49th (cm to the 4th power)-s was determined. This technique appears to be applicable to a number of other diatomic molecules.

Burris, J.; Mcgee, T.; Mcilrath, T.

1984-01-01

260

Universal nature of the atomic photoabsorption cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial inhomogeneity of atomic electron-density distributions is shown to affect the photoabsorption cross section, in the statistical approximation of Brandt and Lundqvist, in characteristic ways that are apparent in an updated comprehensive compilation of recent experimental data.

K. F. Stanton

1972-01-01

261

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

262

8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

263

The Impact of Parent-Child Interaction on Brain Structures: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analyses.  

PubMed

There is a vast amount of evidence from psychological studies that the amount of parent-child interaction affects the development of children's verbal skills and knowledge. However, despite the vast amount of literature, brain structural development associated with the amount of parent-child interaction has never been investigated. In the present human study, we used voxel-based morphometry to measure regional gray matter density (rGMD) and examined cross-sectional correlations between the amount of time spent with parents and rGMD among 127 boys and 135 girls. We also assessed correlations between the amount of time spent with parents and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 106 boys and 102 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found negative effects of spending time with parents on rGMD in areas in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) via cross-sectional analyses as well as in the contingent areas of the right STG. We also confirmed positive effects of spending time with parents on the Verbal Comprehension score in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. rGMD in partly overlapping or contingent areas of the right STG was negatively correlated with age and the Verbal Comprehension score in cross-sectional analyses. Subsequent analyses revealed verbal parent-child interactions have similar effects on Verbal Comprehension scores and rGMD in the right STG in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These findings indicate that parent-child interactions affect the right STG, which may be associated with verbal skills. PMID:25653378

Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

2015-02-01

264

Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

1995-01-01

265

Total photoproduction cross section measurement at HERA energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present first results on the total photoproduction cross section measurement with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were extracted from low Q2 collisions of 26.7 GeV electrons with 820 GeV protons. The gammap total cross section has been measured by two independent methods in the gammap center of mass energy range from 90 to 290 GeV. For an

T. Ahmed; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; M. Arpagaus; A. Babaev; H. Bärwolff; J. Bán; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; W. Bartel; U. Bassler; G. A. Beck; H. P. Beck; H.-J. Behrend; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; H. Bergstein; G. Bernardi; R. Bernet; U. Berthon; G. Bertrand-Coremans; M. Besançon; P. Biddulph; E. Binder; J. C. Bizot; V. Blobel; K. Borras; P. C. Bosetti; V. Boudry; C. Bourdarios; F. Brasse; U. Braun; W. Braunschweig; V. Brisson; D. Bruncko; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; G. Buschhorn; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; F. Charles; D. Clarke; A. B. Clegg; M. Colombo; J. A. Coughlan; A. Courau; Ch. Coutures; G. Cozzika; L. Criegee; J. Cvach; J. B. Dainton; M. Danilov; A. W. E. Dann; W. D. Dau; M. David; E. Deffur; B. Delcourt; L. del Buono; M. Devel; A. de Roeck; P. Dingus; C. Dollfus; J. D. Dowell; H. B. Dreis; A. Drescher; J. Duboc; D. Düllmann; O. Dünger; H. Duhm; M. Eberle; J. Ebert; T. R. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; S. Eichenberger; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; N. N. Ellis; R. J. Ellison; E. Elsen; M. Erdmann; E. Evrard; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; D. Feeken; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; Y. Feng; I. F. Fensome; J. Ferencei; F. Ferrarotto; W. Flauger; M. Fleischer; P. S. Flower; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; B. Fominykh; M. Forbush; J. Formánek; J. M. Foster; G. Franke; E. Fretwurst; P. Fuhrmann; E. Gabathuler; K. Gamerdinger; J. Garvey; J. Gayler; A. Gellrich; M. Gennis; U. Gensch; H. Genzel; R. Gerhards; D. Gillespie; L. Godfrey; U. Goerlach; L. Goerlich; M. Goldberg; A. M. Goodall; I. Gorelov; P. Goritchev; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; H. Greif; G. Grindhammer; C. Gruber; J. Haack; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; O. Hamon; D. Handschuh; E. M. Hanlon; M. Hapke; J. Harjes; P. Hartz; R. Haydar; W. J. Haynes; J. Heatherington; V. Hedberg; R. Hedgecock; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; H. Henschel; R. Herma; I. Herynek; W. Hildesheim; P. Hill; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; K. C. Hoeger; Ph. Huet; H. Hufnagel; N. Huot; M. Ibbotson; M. A. Jabiol; A. Jacholkowska; C. Jacobsson; M. Jaffre; L. Jönsson; K. Johannsen; D. P. Johnson; L. Johnson; H. Jung; P. I. P. Kalmus; S. Kasarian; R. Kaschowitz; P. Kasselmann; U. Kathage; H. H. Kaufmann; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; T. Köhler; H. Kolanoski; F. Kole; S. D. Kolya; V. Korbel; M. Korn; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; D. Krücker; U. Krüger; J. P. Kubenka; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kurça; J. Kurzhöfer; B. Kuznik; R. Lander; M. P. J. Landon; R. Langkau; P. Lanius; J. F. Laporte; A. Lebedev; A. Leuschner; C. Leverenz; D. Levin; S. Levonian; Ch. Ley; A. Lindner; G. Lindström; P. Loch; H. Lohmander; G. C. Lopez; D. Lüers; N. Magnussen; E. Malinovski; S. Mani; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; J. Martens; R. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; S. Masson; A. Mavroidis; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; T. Merz; C. A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; S. Mikocki; V. Milone; E. Monnier; F. Moreau; J. Moreels; J. V. Morris; J. M. Morton; K. Müller; P. Murín; S. A. Murray; V. Nagovizin; B. Naroska; Th. Naumann; D. Newton; H. K. Nguyen; F. Niebergall; R. Nisius; G. Nowak; G. W. Noyes; M. Nyberg; H. Oberlack; H. Obrock; J. E. Olsson; S. Orenstein; F. Ould-Saada; C. Pascaud; G. D. Patel; E. Peppel; S. Peters; H. T. Phillips; J. P. Phillips; Ch. Pichler; W. Pilgram; D. Pitzl; R. Prosi; F. Raupach; K. Rauschnabel; P. Reimer; P. Ribarics; V. Riech; J. Riedlberger; M. Rietz; S. M. Robertson; P. Robmann; R. Roosen; A. Rostovtsev; C. Royon; M. Rudowicz; M. Ruffer; S. Rusakov; K. Rybicki; E. Ryseck; J. Sacton; N. Sahlmann; E. Sanchez; D. P. C. Sankey; M. Savitsky; P. Schacht; P. Schleper; W. von Schlippe; C. Schmidt; D. Schmidt; W. Schmitz; V. Schröder; M. Schulz; A. Schwind; W. Scobel; U. Seehausen; R. Sell; M. Seman; A. Semenov; V. Shekelyan; I. Sheviakov; H. Shooshtari; G. Siegmon; U. Siewert; Y. Sirois; I. O. Skillicorn; P. Smirnov; J. R. Smith; L. Smolik; Y. Soloviev; H. Spitzer; P. Staroba; M. Steenbock; P. Steffen; R. Steinberg; H. Steiner; B. Stella; K. Stephens; J. Stier; J. Strachota; U. Straumann; W. Struczinski; J. P. Sutton; R. E. Taylor; G. Thompson; R. J. Thompson; I. Tichomirov; C. Trenkel; P. Truöl; V. Tchernyshov; J. Turnau; J. Tutas; L. Urban; A. Usik; S. Valkar; A. Valkarova; C. Vallee; P. van Esch; A. Vartapetian; Y. Vazdik; M. Vecko; P. Verrecchia; R. Vick; G. Villet; E. Vogel; K. Wacker; I. W. Walker; A. Walther; G. Weber; D. Wegener; A. Wegner; H. P. Wellisch; S. Willard; M. Winde; G.-G. Winter; Th. Wolff; L. A. Womersley; A. E. Wright; N. Wulff; T. P. Yiou; J. Áçek; P. Závada; C. Zeitnitz; H. Ziaeepour; M. Zimmer; W. Zimmermann; F. Zomer

1993-01-01

266

Anomalous J/? suppression and charmonium dissociation cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study J/? suppression in Pb+Pb collisions at CERN-SPS energies in hadronic matter with energy- and temperature-dependent charmonium dissociation cross sections calculated in the quark-interchange model of Barnes and Swanson. The charmonium dissociation cross sections depend sensitively on energy and increase significantly as temperature increases. We find that the variation of J/? survival probability from peripheral to central collisions can be explained as induced by hadronic matter absorption in central collisions.

Xu, Xiao-Ming; Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Barnes, T.

2003-01-01

267

Hadronic Cross sections: from cyclotrons to colliders to cosmic rays  

E-print Network

We present evidence for the saturation of the Froissart bound at high energy for {\\em all hadronic} total cross sections at high energies, and use this to unify $pp$ (and $\\bar p p$) total cross sections over the energy range from cyclotrons to colliders to ultra-high energy cosmic rays, an energy span from $\\sqrt s = 4$ GeV to 80 TeV.

Martin M. Block

2010-09-02

268

Absolute Total np and pp Cross Section Determinations  

E-print Network

Absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses of NN scattering data. These cross sections are compared with most recent ENDF/B and JENDL data files, and the Nijmegen partial-wave analysis. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B and JENDL evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region.

Arndt, R A; Laptev, A B; Strakovsky, I I; Workman, R L

2008-01-01

269

Absolute Total np and pp Cross Section Determinations  

E-print Network

Absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses of NN scattering data. These cross sections are compared with most recent ENDF/B and JENDL data files, and the Nijmegen partial-wave analysis. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B and JENDL evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region.

R. A. Arndt; W. J. Briscoe; A. B. Laptev; I. I. Strakovsky; R. L. Workman

2009-01-05

270

Photon cross-sections at ECM = 2-TeV  

SciTech Connect

Photon production rates have been studied by the D0 and CDF experiments in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Measurements of the inclusive isolated photon cross section and the di-photon cross section are presented, based on integrated luminosities of 0.3 fb{sup -1} and 0.2 fb{sup -1}, respectively. The results are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in various approximations.

Wobisch, M.; /Fermilab

2006-06-01

271

Electron inelastic-scattering cross sections in liquid water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron inelastic-scattering cross-section data for use as input in electron track-structure calculations in liquid water are re-examined and improved. The dielectric-response function used in such cross-sections is estimated on the basis of optical data and other experimental and theoretical information. The mean excitation energy for stopping power is obtained to be 81.8 eV. which is close to the recent experimental

M. Dingfelder; D. Hantke; M. Inokuti; H. G. Paretzke

1998-01-01

272

Electron inelastic-scattering cross sections in liquid water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron inelastic-scattering cross-section data for use as input in electron track-structure calculations in liquid water are re-examined and improved. The dielectric-response function used in such cross-sections is estimated on the basis of optical data and other experimental and theoretical information. The mean excitation energy for stopping power is obtained to be 81.8 eV, which is close to the recent experimental

Michael Dingfelder; Detlev Hantke; Mitio Inokuti; Herwig G. Paretzke

1999-01-01

273

Probability distribution of velocity in natural channel cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probability distribution of velocities in idealized parabolic channels and in regular and highly irregular natural stream cross sections follows a power law: F(v)=(v\\/V)c, where F(v) is the cumulative frequency distribution of velocity v, Vis the maximum velocity in the cross section, and c is a shape parameter. Values of Vand c can be estimated from current meter measurements via

S. Lawrence Dingman

1989-01-01

274

Double differential cross sections of carbonyl sulfide molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial and total double differential cross sections corresponding to various cations produced during the direct and dissociative electron ionization of carbonyl sulfide molecule have been calculated at fixed impinging electron energies 100 and 200eV by using modified Jain-Khare semi empirical approach. The calculation for double differential cross sections is made as a function of energy loss suffered by primary electron and angle of incident. To the best of our knowledge no other data is available for the comparison.

Kumar, Rajeev; Sanju

2013-06-01

275

(Absolute measurements of cross section neutrons): Progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past year, the cross section project at the University of Michigan has continued activities in two major areas. In the Neutron Experimental Bay, we have been employing a 150 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator as a 14 MeV neutron generator in the measurement of a number of activation cross sections. These have included the completion of a measurement of a

Knoll

1988-01-01

276

Inclusive jet differential cross sections in photoproduction at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusive jet differential cross sections for the reaction ep ? jet + X at Q2 below 4 GeV2 have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 0.55 pb?1. These cross sections are given in the kinematic region 0.2 < y < 0.85, for jet pseudorapidities in the ep-laboratory range ?1 < ?jet < 2

S. Bhadra; W. R. Frisken; K. M. Furutani; B. Musgrave; J. Repond; J. Schlereth; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; J. Thron; F. Arzarello; R. Ayad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; F. Ciralli; A. Contin; S. D'Auria; F. Frasconi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; F. Palmonari; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; M. Eckart; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; M. Grothe; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. M. Mari; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; R. Schattevoy; J.-L. Schneider; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. J. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Eskreys; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajac; T. Kedzierski; A. Kotanski; M. Przybycien; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; J. K. Bienlein; S. Böttcher; C. Coldewey; G. Drews; M. Flasinski; D. J. Gilkinson; P. Göttlicher; B. Gutjahr; T. Haas; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; H. Hultschig; Y. Iga; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; W. Kröger; J. Krüger; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; O. Manczak; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; H. J. Grabosch; A. Leich; A. Meyer; C. Rethfeldt; S. Schlenstedt; G. Barbagli; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; G. Maccarrone; S. de Pasquale; S. Qian; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; A. Freidhof; T. Poser; S. Söldner-Rembold; J. Schroeder; G. Theisen; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; I. Fleck; V. A. Jamieson; D. H. Saxon; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; H. Kammerlocher; B. Krebs; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; A. Fürtjes; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; J. Mainusch; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; J. Terron; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; R. Beuselinck; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; B. H. Hung; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. P. O. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; Y. Zhang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. del Peso; J. Puga; J. F. de Trocóniz; F. Ikraiam; J. K. Mayer; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; S. Bentvelsen; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; P. de Jong; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; V. O'dell; A. Tenner; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; D. Daniels; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; P. E. Luffman; L. Lindemann; J. McFall; C. Nath; A. Quadt; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbiendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. dal Corso; M. de Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; M. Iori; G. Marini; M. Mattioli; A. Nigro; E. Tassi; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; E. Barberis; N. Cartiglia; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. van Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; T. Nagira; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada

1995-01-01

277

Paris NN potential constrained by recent antiprotonic-atom data and np total cross sections  

SciTech Connect

We report on an updated Paris NN optical potential. The long- and intermediate-range real parts are obtained by G-parity transformation of the Paris NN potential based on a theoretical dispersion-relation treatment of the correlated and uncorrelated two-pion exchange. The short-range imaginary potential parametrization results from the calculation of the NN annihilation box diagram into two mesons with a nucleon-antinucleon intermediate state in the crossed channel. The parametrized real and imaginary short range parts are determined by fitting not only the existing experimental data included in the 1999 version of the Paris NN potential, but also the recent antiprotonic-hydrogen data and np total cross sections. The description of these new observables is improved. Only this readjusted potential generates an isospin zero {sup 1}S{sub 0}, 52 MeV broad quasibound state at 4.8 MeV below the threshold. Recent BES data on J/{psi} decays could support the existence of such a state.

El-Bennich, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies, Groupe Theorie, IN2P3-CNRS, Universites Pierre and Marie Curie et Paris Diderot, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, Cedex (France); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies, Groupe Theorie, IN2P3-CNRS, Universites Pierre and Marie Curie et Paris Diderot, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, Cedex (France); Wycech, S. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland)

2009-05-15

278

Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models  

SciTech Connect

Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

Hause, Michael L. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02159 (United States); Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

2013-04-28

279

A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

Berenbrock, C.

2006-01-01

280

Topological Optimization of Beam Cross Section by Employing Extrusion Constraint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal cross-section design of beams plays a characteristic role which signifies the rigidity of the member in bending, shear and torsion load conditions. Practically modern overhead crane girders, railway bridge girders or rail tracks etc. require constant cross-section along the axial direction. Conventional topological optimization modeling procedures in such cases prove inadequate for the reason that these procedures generate non-uniform topologies along the axis of the bending member. To examine optimal topology of those structural bending members which commonly possess constant cross-section along the axis the topology optimization with extrusion constraint is more appropriate. The extrusion constraint method suggests a fresh approach to investigate optimal topologies of beam cross-section under the influence of realistic loading condition across the section at the beginning of design cycle. Presented study is focused upon the influence of various configuration and location of the load and boundary conditions on the topology of the of the beam cross-section which was not possible prior to the materialization of the extrusion or stamping constraint method. Several realistic loads and boundary conditions have been applied on the 3D beam model and optimal cross-section topologies obtained have uniform compliance history and convergent solutions. The lowest compliance criteria have been suggested to choose topologies as furthers shape and size optimization candidates during beam design process.

Zuberi, Rehan H.; Zhengxing, Zuo; Kai, Long

2010-05-01

281

Mental visualization of objects from cross-sectional images  

PubMed Central

We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object representation. Participants used a hand-held device to reveal a hidden object as a sequence of cross-sectional images. The process of localization was manipulated by contrasting two displays, in-situ vs. ex-situ, which differed in whether cross sections were presented at their source locations or displaced to a remote screen. The process of integration was manipulated by varying the structural complexity of target objects and their components. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated visualization of 2D and 3D line-segment objects and verified predictions about display and complexity effects. In Experiments 3 and 4, the visualized forms were familiar letters and numbers. Errors and orientation effects showed that displacing cross-sectional images to a remote display (ex-situ viewing) impeded the ability to determine spatial relationships among pattern components, a failure of integration at the object level. PMID:22217386

Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

2011-01-01

282

Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-relativistic calculations are performed for the photoionization of Fe X (an important coronal ion) from its ground state 3s23p5(2P0_{3/2}) and the first two excited states 3s23p5(2P0_{1/2}) and 3s3p6(2S_{1/2}) using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. A lowest 41 state eigenfunction expansion for Fe XI is employed to ensure an extensive treatment of auto ionizing resonances that affect the effective cross-sections. In the present calculations, we have considered all the important physical effects like channel coupling, exchange and short range correlation. The present calculations using the lowest 41 target levels of Fe XI in the LSJ coupling scheme are reported and we expect that the present results should enable more accurate modelling of the emission spectrum of highly excited plasma from the optical to the far UV region.

Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, Jagjit; Jha, A. K. S.; Mohan, Man

2012-09-01

283

Respiratory hazards in hard metal workers: a cross sectional study.  

PubMed Central

A cross sectional study was conducted on 513 employees at three hard metal plants: 425 exposed workers (351 men, 74 women) and 88 controls (69 men, 19 women). Cough and sputum were more frequent in workers engaged in "soft powder" and presintering workshops compared with controls (12.5% and 16.5% v 3.5%). Spirometric abnormalities were more frequent among women in sintering and finishing workshops compared with control women (56.8% v 23.8%) and abnormalities of carbon monoxide test were more frequent in exposed groups than in controls; this difference was more pronounced in women (31.4% v 5.6%) than in men (18.5% v 13%). No significant correlation was observed between duration of exposure and age adjusted lung function tests. Slight abnormalities of chest radiographs (0/1, 1/1 according to ILO classification) were more frequent in exposed men than controls (12.8% v 1.9%) and mostly in soft powder workers. In subjects with abnormal chest radiographs FVC, FEV1 and carbon monoxide indices (fractional uptake of CO or CO transfer index or both) were lower compared with those with normal chest radiographs. Although relatively mild, the clinical, radiological, and functional abnormalities uncovered call for a regular supervision of workers exposed to hard metal dust. PMID:2787666

Meyer-Bisch, C; Pham, Q T; Mur, J M; Massin, N; Moulin, J J; Teculescu, D; Carton, B; Pierre, F; Baruthio, F

1989-01-01

284

Negative ion detachment cross sections. [Physics Dept. , College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below.

Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

1992-10-01

285

A coupled-cluster study of photodetachment cross sections of closed-shell anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the performance of Stieltjes Imaging applied to Lanczos pseudo-spectra generated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles, coupled cluster singles and approximate iterative doubles and coupled cluster singles levels of theory in modeling the photodetachment cross sections of the closed shell anions H-, Li-, Na-, F-, Cl-, and OH-. The accurate description of double excitations is found to play a much more important role than in the case of photoionization of neutral species.

Cukras, Janusz; Decleva, Piero; Coriani, Sonia

2014-11-01

286

Detection and interpretation of ocean roughness variations across the Gulf Stream inferred from radar cross section observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar cross section data shows that the Gulf Stream has a higher cross section per unit area (interpreted here as a greater roughness) than the water on the continental shelf. A steep gradient in cross section was often seen at the expected location of the western boundary. There were also longer-scale (10-20 km) gradual fluctuations within the stream of significant magnitude. These roughness variations are correlated with the surface shear stress that the local wind imposes on the sea. Using the available surface-truth information concerning the wind speed and direction, an assumed Gulf Stream velocity profile, and high-resolution ocean-surface temperature data obtained by the VHRR onboard a NOAA-NESS polar-orbiting satellite, the present study demonstrates that the computed surface stress variation bears a striking resemblance to the measured radar cross-section variations.

Weissman, D. E.; Thompson, T. W.

1977-01-01

287

Combination and QCD Analysis of Charm Production Cross Section Measurements in Deep-Inelastic ep Scattering at HERA  

E-print Network

Measurements of open charm production cross sections in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations are combined. Reduced cross sections sigma_red^{c\\bar{c}} for charm production are obtained in the kinematic range of photon virtuality 2.5combination method accounts for the correlations of the systematic uncertainties among the different data sets. The combined charm data together with the combined inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross sections from HERA are used as input for a detailed NLO QCD analysis to study the influence of different heavy flavour schemes on the parton distribution functions. The optimal values of the charm mass as a parameter in these different schemes are obtained. The implications on the NLO predictions for W^{\\pm} and Z production cross sections at the LHC are investigated. Using the fixed flavour number scheme, the running mass of the charm quark is determined.

H1 Collaboration; ZEUS Collaboration

2012-11-06

288

Numerical analysis of flows of rarefied gases in long channels with octagonal cross section shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isothermal, pressure driven rarefied gas flows through long channels with octagonal cross section shapes are analyzed computationally. The capillary is between inlet and outlet reservoirs. The cross section is constant along the axial direction. The boundary condition at the solid-gas interface is assumed to be diffuse reflection. Since the channel is long, the gaseous velocity is small compared to the average molecular speed. Consequently, a linearized description can be used. The flow is described by the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic model. The solution of the problem is divided into two stages. First, the local flow field is determined by assuming the local pressure gradient. Secondly, the global flow behavior is deduced by the consideration of the conservation of the mass along the axis of the capillary. The kinetic equation is solved by the discrete velocity method on the cross section. Both spatial and velocity spaces are discretized. A body fitted rectangular grid is used for the spatial space. Near the boundary, first-order, while in the interior part of the flow domain, second-order finite-differences are applied to approximate the spatial derivatives. This combination results into an efficient and straightforward numerical treatment. The velocity space is represented by a Gauss-Legendre quadrature. The kinetic equation is solved in an iterative manner. The local dimensionless flow rate is calculated and tabulated for a wide range of the gaseous rarefaction for octagonal cross sections with various geometrical parameters. It exhibits the Knudsen minimum phenomenon. The flow rates in the octagonal channel are compared to those through capillaries with circular and square cross sections. Typical velocity profiles are also shown. The mass flow rate and the distribution of the pressure are determined and presented for global pressure driven flows.

Szalmas, L.

2014-12-01

289

Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Objectives: Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. Results: The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.003), school grade (P < 0.011), father’s educational level (P < 0.045), mother’s educational level (P < 0.021), and mother’s occupation (P < 0.008). Conclusions: Female and older students are at higher risk of developing unhealthy lifestyle. Consequently, healthcare providers, health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial. PMID:25414892

Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

2014-01-01

290

Absolute cross sections for electron scattering from furan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of measurements and calculations of absolute cross sections for electron scattering from furan molecules (C4H4O). The experimental absolute differential cross sections (DCSs) for elastic electron scattering were obtained for the incident energies from 50 eV to 300 eV and for scattering angles from 20° to 110°, by using a crossed electron-target beam setup and the relative flow technique for calibration to the absolute scale. The calculations of the electron interaction cross sections are based on a corrected form of the independent-atom method, known as the screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) procedure and using an improved quasifree absorption model. The latter calculations also account for rotational excitations in the approximation of a free electric dipole and were used to obtain elastic DCSs as well as total and integral elastic cross sections which are tabulated in the energy range from 10 to 10 000 eV. All SCAR calculated cross sections agree very well with both the present and previously published experimental results. Additionally, calculations based on the first Born approximation were performed to calculate both elastic and vibrationally inelastic DCSs for all the modes of furane, in the energy range from 50 eV to 300 eV. The ratios of the summed vibrational to elastic DCSs are presented and discussed. Finally, the present results for furan are compared with previously published elastic DCSs for the tetrahydrofuran molecule and discussed.

Maljkovi?, J. B.; Blanco, F.; ?urík, R.; García, G.; Marinkovi?, B. P.; Milosavljevi?, A. R.

2012-08-01

291

Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

2011-01-01

292

Beam lifetimes and ionization cross sections of U28+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beam lifetimes of stored U28+ ions with energies between 10 and 180MeV/u were measured in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS18 and in the experimental storage ring (ESR) of the GSI accelerator facility. By using the internal gas jet target of the ESR, it was possible to obtain projectile ionization cross sections for collisions with H2 and N2 from the lifetime data. The experimental cross sections are compared to theoretical data predicted by the n-body classical-trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method of Olson et al. and to calculations of Shevelko et al. using the LOSS-R code. In addition, both theoretical approaches are probed by using the resulting cross sections as input parameters for the STRAHLSIM code, which models the beam losses and, consequently, the lifetimes in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS18. Both the cross section measurement and the SIS18 lifetime study indicate that the LOSS-R code cross sections are in better agreement with the experimental results than the n-body CTMC calculations.

Weber, G.; Omet, C.; Dubois, R. D.; de Lucio, O.; Stöhlker, Th.; Brandau, C.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Hess, S.; Kozhuharov, C.; Reuschl, R.; Spiller, P.; Spillmann, U.; Steck, M.; Thomason, M.; Trotsenko, S.

2009-08-01

293

EDDIX--a database of ionisation double differential cross sections.  

PubMed

The use of Monte Carlo track structure is a choice method in biophysical modelling and calculations. To precisely model 3D and 4D tracks, the cross section for the ionisation by an incoming ion, double differential in the outgoing electron energy and angle, is required. However, the double differential cross section cannot be theoretically modelled over the full range of parameters. To address this issue, a database of all available experimental data has been constructed. Currently, the database of Experimental Double Differential Ionisation Cross sections (EDDIX) contains over 1200 digitalised experimentally measured datasets from the 1960s to present date, covering all available ion species (hydrogen to uranium) and all available target species. Double differential cross sections are also presented with the aid of an eight parameter functions fitted to the cross sections. The parameters include projectile species and charge, target nuclear charge and atomic mass, projectile atomic mass and energy, electron energy and deflection angle. It is planned to freely distribute EDDIX and make it available to the radiation research community for use in the analytical and numerical modelling of track structure. PMID:21113060

MacGibbon, J H; Emerson, S; Liamsuwan, T; Nikjoo, H

2011-02-01

294

On the geometric nature of high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the context of a high energy double-folding optical potential approximation to the exact nucleus-nucleus multiple-scattering series, eikonal scattering theory is used to investigate the validity of geometric reaction cross sections in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The potential used includes a finite range interaction and nuclear single-particle densities extracted from nuclear charge distributions by unfolding the finite proton charge distribution. Pauli correlation effects are also included in an approximate way. The sensitivity of the predictions to the assumed interaction, Pauli correlation approximation, and nuclear density distributions is investigated. These results are in agreement with early predictions concerning the geometric nature of relativistic heavy ion collisions and in disagreement with a recent analysis, utilizing the zero range approximation, which suggested otherwise. Reasons for the lack of agreement between the analyses are also presented. Finally, approximate applicability limits for geometric reaction cross sections are determined.

Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.

1982-01-01

295

Reexamination of the neutron skin thickness using neutron removal cross sections  

SciTech Connect

The neutron removal cross section [{sigma}{sub -N}(Z)] is defined for the projectile-like fragment isotopes and extended to the lower Z isotopes in the projectile fragmentation reaction. The cross sections of fragments in 1 A GeV even {sup 42-52}Ca+{sup 12}C projectile fragmentation reactions are calculated using the statistical abrasion-ablation model. The correlations between {sigma}{sub -N}(Z) of different fragment isotopes and neutron skin thickness (S{sub n}) for finite neutron-rich nuclei are revisited. Good linear {sigma}{sub -N}(Z)-S{sub n} correlations are observed in fragment isotopes, and it is suggested that {sigma}{sub -N}(Z) be used as an observable to determine S{sub n} of neutron-rich nucleus in addition to {sigma}{sub -N} for isotopes of the projectile nucleus.

Ma Chunwang; Wei Huiling; Yu Mian [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Department of Life Sciences and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China)

2010-11-15

296

Cross section models for cold neutron scattering from liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the evaluation of cold and ultracold neutron production, cross section models for neutron scattering from liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium are developed. They are based on the proper treatment of molecular motions in the liquids in terms of individual translations and intermolecular correlations. Intramolecular motions such as nuclear spin correlations, free rotations and harmonic vibrations are also included. The calculated results agree very well with the experimental results, both double-differential and total, at different temperatures between the melting and boiling points in different ortho-para contents for a wide range of incident neutron energies. It is expected that the present models serve as cross-section data for the optimum design of advanced neutron sources.

Morishima, N.; Mizobuchi, D.

1994-10-01

297

Reduced backscattering cross section (Sigma degree) data from the Skylab S-193 radar altimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Backscattering cross section per unit scattering area data, reduced from measurements made by the Skylab S-193 radar altimeter over the ocean surface are presented. Descriptions of the altimeter are given where applicable to the measurement process. Analytical solutions are obtained for the flat surface impulse response for the case of a nonsymmetrical antenna pattern. Formulations are developed for converting altimeter AGC outputs into values for the backscattering cross section. Reduced data are presented for Missions SL-2, 3 and 4 for all modes of the altimeter where sufficient calibration existed. The problem of interpreting land scatter data is also discussed. Finally, a comprehensive error analysis of the measurement is presented and worst case random and bias errors are estimated.

Brown, G. S.

1975-01-01

298

A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross-Section Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4p acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

T. Hill; K. Jewell; M. Heffner; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; L. Snyder; D. M. Asner; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; L. Wood; R. G. Baker; J. L. Klay; R. Kudo; S. Barrett; J. King; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; L. Yao; C. Brune; S. Grimes; N. Kornilov; T. N. Massey; J. Bundgaard; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; U. Hager; E. Burgett; J. Deaven; V. Kleinrath; C. McGrath; B. Wendt; N. Hertel; D. Isenhower; N. Pickle; H. Qu; S. Sharma; R. T. Thornton; D. Tovwell; R. S. Towell; S.

2014-09-01

299

A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross Section Measurements  

E-print Network

The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4$\\pi$ acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

Heffner, M; Baker, R G; Baker, J; Barrett, S; Brune, C; Bundgaard, J; Burgett, E; Carter, D; Cunningham, M; Deaven, J; Duke, D L; Greife, U; Grimes, S; Hager, U; Hertel, N; Hill, T; Isenhower, D; Jewell, K; King, J; Klay, J L; Kleinrath, V; Kornilov, N; Kudo, R; Laptev, A B; Leonard, M; Loveland, W; Massey, T N; McGrath, C; Meharchand, R; Montoya, L; Pickle, N; Qu, H; Riot, V; Ruz, J; Sangiorgio, S; Seilhan, B; Sharma, S; Snyder, L; Stave, S; Tatishvili, G; Thornton, R T; Tovesson, F; Towell, D; Towell, R S; Watson, S; Wendt, B; Wood, L; Yao, L

2014-01-01

300

A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross Section Measurements  

E-print Network

The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4$\\pi$ acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

NIFFTE Collaboration; M. Heffner; D. M. Asner; R. G. Baker; J. Baker; S. Barrett; C. Brune; J. Bundgaard; E. Burgett; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; J. Deaven; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; S. Grimes; U. Hager; N. Hertel; T. Hill; D. Isenhower; K. Jewell; J. King; J. L. Klay; V. Kleinrath; N. Kornilov; R. Kudo; A. B. Laptev; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; T. N. Massey; C. McGrath; R. Meharchand; L. Montoya; N. Pickle; H. Qu; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; S. Sharma; L. Snyder; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; R. T. Thornton; F. Tovesson; D. Towell; R. S. Towell; S. Watson; B. Wendt; L. Wood; L. Yao

2014-03-26

301

A time projection chamber for high accuracy and precision fission cross-section measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4? acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

Heffner, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Baker, J.; Barrett, S.; Brune, C.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Carter, D.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Hager, U.; Hertel, N.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Jewell, K.; King, J.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Kudo, R.; Laptev, A. B.; Leonard, M.; Loveland, W.; Massey, T. N.; McGrath, C.; Meharchand, R.; Montoya, L.; Pickle, N.; Qu, H.; Riot, V.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Seilhan, B.; Sharma, S.; Snyder, L.; Stave, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.; Yao, L.

2014-09-01

302

Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis among Japanese blood donors: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate an association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), an established precursor of gastric cancer, we performed a cross-sectional study using IgG antibody against H. pylori and pepsinogens of blood donors in four prefectures in Japan. Although a geographic correlation between the age-adjusted prevalence rates for H. pylori infection and those for CAG was

Akira Fukao; Shouko Komatsu; Yoshitaka Tsubono; Shigeru Hisamichi; Hitoshi Ohori; Takeshi Kizawa; Noriko Ohsato; Norio Fujino; Nobuyoshi Endo; Masaharu Iha

1993-01-01

303

Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

2014-04-01

304

Nucleon-nucleon cross sections in dense nuclear matter  

SciTech Connect

We present microscopic calculations of cross sections for scattering of identical and nonidentical nucleons in symmetric nuclear matter at various densities, using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation scheme with the Argonne v{sub 14} potential including the contribution of microscopic three-body forces. We investigate separately the effects of three-body forces on the effective mass and on the scattering amplitude. In the present calculation, the rearrangement contribution of the three-body force is considered, which reduces the neutron and proton effective mass and suppresses the magnitude of the cross section. The presence of 'Z diagrams' in the three-body force enables us to make a comparison with the medium effects on the nucleon-nucleon cross sections obtained with the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation.

Zhang, H. F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Z. H. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lombardo, U. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via A. Doria 6, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Luo, P. Y.; Zuo, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Sammarruca, F. [Physics Department, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-0903 (United States)

2007-11-15

305

Dosimetry and cross section measurements at RTNS II  

SciTech Connect

Numerous measurements have been conducted at TRNS-II in order to map the neutron field for materials irradiations, to measure activation cross sections, and to measure helium production cross sections. Experiments of up to two weeks duration irradiated large numbers of activation dosimetry and helium samples both close to the source and throughout the target room. Many other samples have been irradiated in piggy-back positions over periods lasting many months. All of these experiments fall into four main classes, namely, fluence-mapping, activation dosimetry, the production of long-lived isotopes, and helium generation measurements. Radiometric dosimetry and activation cross section measurements were performed at Argonne National Laboratory; helium production was measured at Rockwell International Corporation. This paper briefly summarizes the principal results of our measurements at RTNS-II; references are given for more detailed publications. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Greenwood, L.R.; Kneff, D.W.

1987-01-01

306

pi+- p differential cross sections at low energies  

E-print Network

Differential cross sections for pi- p and pi+ p elastic scattering were measured at five energies between 19.9 and 43.3 MeV. The use of the CHAOS magnetic spectrometer at TRIUMF, supplemented by a range telescope for muon background suppression, provided simultaneous coverage of a large part of the full angular range, thus allowing very precise relative cross section measurements. The absolute normalisation was determined with a typical accuracy of 5 %. This was verified in a simultaneous measurement of muon proton elastic scattering. The measured cross sections show some deviations from phase shift analysis predictions, in particular at large angles and low energies. From the new data we determine the real part of the isospin forward scattering amplitude.

H. Denz; P. Amaudruz; J. T. Brack; J. Breitschopf; P. Camerini; J. L. Clark; H. Clement; L. Felawka; E. Fragiacomo; E. F. Gibson; N. Grion; G. J. Hofman; B. Jamieson; E. L. Mathie; R. Meier; G. Moloney; D. Ottewell; O. Patarakin; J. D. Patterson; M. M. Pavan; S. Piano; K. Raywood; R. A. Ristinen; R. Rui; M. E. Sevior; G. R. Smith; J. Stahov; R. Tacik; G. J. Wagner; F. von Wrochem; D. M. Yeomans

2005-12-03

307

K-shell photoejection cross section for neutral iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter presents the first ab initio calculation, using the R-matrix method, of the cross section for photoejection of a K-shell electron from neutral iron. A 9-state target state approximation is employed, and the results are compared with recent theoretical values, namely the Hartree-Dirac-Slater method data of Verner and co-workers (1993, 1995). At the highest photon energy considered (640 Ryd), agreement is excellent. However, with decreasing photon energy the two calculations diverge, and the behaviour of the present cross section near threshold shows a rapid rise from threshold in contrast to earlier work for which the behaviour of the cross section as a function of photon energy is approximately linear.

Black, G. M.; Donnelly, D.; Bell, K. L.; Scott, M. P.; Keenan, F. P.

1998-09-01

308

Majorana Dark Matter Cross Sections with Nucleons at High Energies  

E-print Network

Non-relativistic dark matter scattering with nucleons is constrained by direct detection experiments. We use the XENON constraints on the spin-independent and spin-dependent cross section for dark matter scattering with nucleons to constrain a hypothetical Majorana fermionic dark matter particle's couplings to the Higgs boson and Z boson. In the procedure we illustrate the change in the dark matter nucleon cross section as one goes from non-relativistic, coherent scattering to relativistic, incoherent scattering. While the Z invisible decay width excludes directly couplings of dark matter to ordinary matter, by introducing a light Z' portal to the dark sector, a relatively large dark matter nucleon cross section can be preserved even with accelerator experiment constraints for dark matter with a mass of ~10 GeV

Yu Seon Jeong; C. S. Kim; Mary Hall Reno

2012-07-06

309

Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 {plus_minus} 0.18) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} for {approx} 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections.

Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Raith, W.; Sperber, W. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Jacobsen, F.; Lynn, K.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

310

Pion Total Cross Section in Nucleon - Nucleon Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total cross section parameterizations for neutral and charged pion production in nucleon - nucleon collisions are compared to experimental data over the projectile momentum range from threshold to 300 GeV. Both proton - proton and proton - neutron reactions are considered. Overall excellent agreement between parameterizations and experiment is found, except for notable disagreements near threshold. In addition, the hypothesis that the neutral pion production cross section can be obtained from the average charged pion cross section is checked. The theoretical formulas presented in the paper obey this hypothesis for projectile momenta below 500 GeV. The results presented provide a test of engineering tools used to calculate the pion component of space radiation.

Norbury, John W.

2009-01-01

311

NC515: a new dipole cross-section for SSC  

SciTech Connect

A new dipole cross-section for SSC is outlined which has multipole coefficients of less than 1.0 x 10/sup -6/ of the dipole field (or 0.01 units) at 1.0 cm. This cross-section has four conductor blocks (three wedges, sixteen turns) in the inner layer and tow conductor blocks (one wedge, twenty turns) in the outer layer. The two layers were formed from the same types of ''partially-keystoned'' cable used in model magnets at LBL and BNL. Based on present cable design an operating field of 6.6 T at 4.34 K is chosen. The new cross-section ''NC515'' and multipoles (for ..mu..-infinite in iron) are shown.

Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.; Taylor, C.

1986-01-01

312

Testing wave packet dynamics in computing radiative association cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time-dependent wave packet method is used to compute cross sections for radiative recombination reactions using the Li(S2)+H+ ?LiH+(X?+2)+? as a test case. Cross sections are calculated through standard time-to-energy mapping of the time-dependent transition moment and a useful method is introduced to deal with the low collision energy regime. Results are in quantitative agreement over the whole energy range 10-4-5eV with previous time-independent results for the same system [I. Baccarelli, L. Andric, T. Grozdanov, and R. McCarroll, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 3013 (2002)], thereby suggesting that the method can be of help in computing radiative association cross sections for more complicated systems.

Martinazzo, Rocco; Tantardini, Gian Franco

2005-03-01

313

Lanl Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section Measurement Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well established program of neutron-induced fission cross section measurement at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is supporting the Fuel Cycle Research program (FC R&D). Combining measurements at two LANSCE facilities, the Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research facility (WNR), cover neutron energies over 10 orders of magnitude: from sub-thermal up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate fission ionization chamber was used as a fission fragment detector. The 235U(n,f) standard was used as the reference. Fission cross sections have been measured for multiple actinides. The new data presented here completes the suite of long-lived Uranium isotopes that were investigated with this experimental approach. The cross section data are presented in comparison with existing evaluations and previous measurements.

Laptev, A. B.; Tovesson, F.; Hill, T. S.

2014-09-01

314

pi+- p differential cross sections at low energies  

SciTech Connect

Differential cross sections for pi- p and pi+ p elastic scattering were measured at five energies between 19.9 and 43.3 MeV. The use of the CHAOS magnetic spectrometer at TRIUMF, supplemented by a range telescope for muon background suppression, provided simultaneous coverage of a large part of the full angular range, thus allowing very precise relative cross section measurements. The absolute normalization was determined with a typical accuracy of 5 %. This was verified in a simultaneous measurement of muon proton elastic scattering. The measured cross sections show some deviations from phase shift analysis predictions, in particular at large angles and low energies. From the new data we determine the real part of the isospin forward scattering amplitude.

H. Denz; P. Amaudruz; J.T. Brack; J. Breitschopf; P. Camerini; J.L. Clark; H. Clement; L. Felawka; E. Fragiacomo; E.F. Gibson; N. Grion; G.J. Hofman; B. Jamieson; E.L. Mathie; R. Meier; G. Moloney; D. Ottewell; O. Patarakin; J.D. Patterson; M.M. Pavan; S. Piano; K. Raywood; R.A. Ristinen; R. Rui; M.E. Sevior; G.R. Smith; J. Stahov; R. Tacik; G.J. Wagner; F. von Wrochem; D.M. Yeomans

2005-12-03

315

Carbonyl sulfide isotopologues: ultraviolet absorption cross sections and stratospheric photolysis.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted carbonyl sulfide isotopologues were calculated using wavepacket dynamics. The calculated absorption cross section of (16)O(12)C(32)S is in very good agreement with the accepted experimental spectrum between 190 and 250 nm. Relative to (16)O(12)C(32)S, isotopic substitution shows a significant enhancement of the cross section for (16)O(13)C(32)S, a significant reduction for (18)O(12)C(32)S and (17)O(12)C(32)S and almost no change for the sulfur isotopologues (16)O(12)C(33)S, (16)O(12)C(34)S, and (16)O(12)C(36)S. The analysis of the initial wavepackets shows that these changes can be explained in terms of the change in the norm of the initial wavepacket. Implications for our understanding of the stratospheric sulfur cycle are discussed. PMID:19603991

Danielache, Sebastian O; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Eskebjerg, Carsten; Johnson, Matthew S; Yoshida, Naohiro

2009-07-14

316

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li (p,n)7 Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4? barium fluoride detector. The cross section ratios were determined with an overall uncertainty of ~3%, an improvement by factors of 5 to 8 compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. As a new possibility in time of flight experiments, isomeric cross section ratios could be determined for 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. For the s-only isotopes 134Ba and 136Ba the Ns ratio was determined to 0.875+/-0.025. Hence, a significant branching of the s-process path at 134Cs can be claimed for the first time, in contrast to predictions from the classical approach. This branching yields information on the s-process temperature, indicating values around T8=2. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Together with the results from previous experiments on tellurium and samarium, a general improvement of the Ns systematics in the mass range A=120-150 is achieved. This yields a more reliable separation of s- and r-process contributions for comparison with stellar observations, but reveals a 20% discrepancy with respect to the solar barium abundance.

Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Käppeler, F.; Reffo, G.

1994-11-01

317

Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: /sup 55/Mn(n,..gamma..), /sup 59/Co(n,..gamma..) and /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed.

Holden, N.E.

1981-01-01

318

Inclusive charged particle cross sections in photoproduction at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross sections are presented for the inclusive production of charged particles measured in electron-proton collisions at low Q2 with the H1 detector at HERA. The transverse momentum distribution extends up to 8 GeV/ c. Its shape is found to be harder than that observed in overlinepp collisions at comparable centre-of-mass energies ?S ?p ? ?S overlinepp ? 200 GeV, and also harder than in ?p collisions at lower energies ? S?p ? 18 GeV. Results from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations agree with the measured transverse momentum and pseudorapidity cross sections.

Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Aid, S.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Chyla, J.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; Devel, M.; De Roeck, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Fensome, I. F.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kazarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfiedl, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schulz, M.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.

1994-05-01

319

Total photoproduction cross section measurement at HERA energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first results on the total photoproduction cross section measurement with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were extracted from low Q2 collisions of 26.7 GeV electrons with 820 GeV protons. The ?p total cross section has been measured by two independent methods in the ?p center of mass energy range from 90 to 290 GeV. For an average center of mass energy of 195 GeV a value of ?tot (?p) = 159 +/- 7 (stat.) +/- 20 (syst.) ?b was obtained. Supported by the Swedish Natural Science Research Council.

Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Berthon, U.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; del Buono, L.; Devel, M.; de Roeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Feng, Y.; Fensome, I. F.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flower, P. S.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Gensch, U.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Gillespie, D.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Handschuh, D.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Hartz, P.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Hedgecock, R.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurça, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levin, D.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Morton, J. M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newton, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, H.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prosi, R.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Ryseck, E.; Sacton, J.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Seman, M.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Smolik, L.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steiner, H.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, R. J.; Tichomirov, I.; Trenkel, C.; Truöl, P.; Tchernyshov, V.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; van Esch, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Vick, R.; Villet, G.; Vogel, E.; Wacker, K.; Walker, I. W.

1993-01-01

320

Iterative cross section sequence graph for handwritten character segmentation.  

PubMed

The iterative cross section sequence graph (ICSSG) is an algorithm for handwritten character segmentation. It expands the cross section sequence graph concept by applying it iteratively at equally spaced thresholds. The iterative thresholding reduces the effect of information loss associated with image binarization. ICSSG preserves the characters' skeletal structure by preventing the interference of pixels that causes flooding of adjacent characters' segments. Improving the structural quality of the characters' skeleton facilitates better feature extraction and classification, which improves the overall performance of optical character recognition (OCR). Experimental results showed significant improvements in OCR recognition rates compared to other well-established segmentation algorithms. PMID:17688219

Dawoud, Amer

2007-08-01

321

MINING INTEGRAL ACTINIDES CROSS SECTIONS FROM REACTOR DATA  

SciTech Connect

The conclusions of this paper are: (1) mining of actinide cross-sections from reactor data is a viable and inexpensive approach to confirm burn-up codes; (2) extensive data for actinides in Hanford test data ({approx} 200 radiochemical analyses); (3) not only cross-section values and reaction rates can be established but also possible benchmark like data can be constructed to test and validate reactor and criticality safety codes such as SCALE/KENO or MCNPX; and (4) analysis along multiple transmutation paths can be evaluated to show consistency.

PUIGH RJ

2009-09-11

322

Analysis and Simulation of Quantum Radar Cross Section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a modified analytical expression of a quantum radar cross section (QRCS). Subsequently, we present a comparison between the QRCS and a classical radar cross section (RCS) and analyze the factors that can affect the intensity of the peak and side lobes. Simulation results on a flat rectangular plate demonstrate that QRCS has a similar structure to that of RCS. The analysis of side-lobe structure can benefit the design of quantum stealth platforms as well as the research on quantum radars.

Liu, Kang; Xiao, Huai-Tie; Fan, Hong-Qi

2014-03-01

323

Inclusive jet cross section measurement at D0  

E-print Network

We present a new preliminary measurement of the inclusive jet cross section in pp-bar collisions based on a integrated luminosity of about 0.8 fb-1. The data were acquired using the D0 detector between 2002 and 2005. Jets are reconstructed using an iterative cone algorithm with radius R_cone = 0.7. The inclusive jet cross section is presented as a function of transverse jet momentum and rapidity. Predictions from perturbative QCD in next-to-leading order, plus threshold corrections in 2-loop accuracy describe the shape in the transverse jet momentum.

M. Voutilainen

2006-09-15

324

Measurements of multiphoton action cross sections for multiphoton microscopy  

PubMed Central

We report quantitative measurements of two-, three-, and four-photon excitation action cross sections of several commonly used fluorophores and fluorescent proteins at three different excitation wavelengths of 800 nm, 1300 nm, and 1680 nm. The measured cross section values are consistent with simple quantum mechanic estimations. These values indicate that the optimum repetition rate for deep tissue 3-photon microscopy is approximately 1 to 2 MHz. We further demonstrate that it is feasible to perform 4-photon fluorescence microscopy of GFP labeled microglia in mouse brain in vivo at 1700 nm. 4-photon excitation increases the accessibility of fluorophores at the long wavelength spectral window of 1700 nm. PMID:25360361

Cheng, Li-Chung; Horton, Nicholas G.; Wang, Ke; Chen, Shean-Jen; Xu, Chris

2014-01-01

325

Inelastic cross sections from gamma-ray measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of gamma rays following neutron induced reactions have been studied with the Germanium Array for Neutron-induced Excitations (GEANIE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for many years. Gamma-ray excitation functions and coincidence studies provide insight into nuclear reaction mechanisms as well as expanding our knowledge of energy levels and gamma-rays. Samples studied with Ge detectors at LANSCE range from Be to Pu. Fe, Cr and Ti have been considered for use as reference cross sections. An overview of the measurements and efforts to create a reliable neutron-induced gamma-ray reference cross section will be presented.

Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-06

326

Fermi energy of a metal nanowire with elliptical cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the geometrical shape of the cross section on the energy characteristics of a metal nanowire has been investigated theoretically. The size oscillations of the Fermi energy have been calculated within the model of an infinite potential well in terms of the perturbation theory. The calculations have been carried out for Au and Al. It has been shown that the cross-sectional ellipticity with a low eccentricity can be taken into account in the first-order perturbation theory by modifying the boundary conditions for the radial wave function of electrons.

Korotun, A. V.

2014-06-01

327

Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

Yamada, T.; Ushiroda, S.; Kondo, Y.

2008-12-01

328

Cross section for {sup 246}Cm subbarrier fission  

SciTech Connect

The cross section for {sup 246}Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range 0.1 eV-20 keV was measured by the neutron lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance area and of the fission width were evaluated for several low-lying s-wave neutron resonances. The parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fusion of {sup 246}Cm nuclei were found. The results obtained in this way were compared with available experimental data and with recommended evaluated data.

Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S., E-mail: shorin@ippe.r [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2010-10-15

329

Cross section for the subbarrier fission of {sup 244}Cm  

SciTech Connect

The cross section for {sup 244}Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range between 0.07 eV and 20 keV was measured by using the lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance areas were determined for the lowest eight s-wave neutron resonances, and the respective fission widths were evaluated. Also, the parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fission of {sup 244}Cm nuclei were evaluated. The results were compared with available data and recommendations based on evaluations.

Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Samylin, B. F.; Svirin, M. I.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S., E-mail: shorin@ippe.r [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2010-09-15

330

Impact dynamics of granular jets with noncircular cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using high-speed photography, we investigate two distinct regimes of the impact dynamics of granular jets with noncircular cross sections. In the steady-state regime, we observe the formation of thin granular sheets with anisotropic shapes and show that the degree of anisotropy increases with the aspect ratio of the jet's cross section. Our results illustrate the liquidlike behavior of granular materials during impact and demonstrate that a collective hydrodynamic flow emerges from strongly interacting discrete particles. We discuss the analogy between our experiments and those from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, where similar anisotropic ejecta from a quark-gluon plasma have been observed in heavy-ion impact.

Cheng, Xiang; Gordillo, Leonardo; Zhang, Wendy W.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.

2014-04-01

331

Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

2009-01-01

332

Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are: air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section with cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from the ray tracing tests agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman Dk-2A Spectroreflector.

Kumar, R.; Silva, L. F.

1973-01-01

333

Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The above ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section considering cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from ray tracing agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman DK-2A spectroreflectometer.

Kumar, R.; Silva, L.

1973-01-01

334

Ion dipole capture cross sections at low ion and rotational energies - Comparison of integrated capture cross sections with reaction cross sections for NH3 and H2O parent-ion collisions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The numerical capture cross section is calculated from the capture ratio, defined as the fraction of trajectories reaching a prescribed minimum separation of 3 A. The calculated capture cross sections for a rotational temperature of 77 K suggest large reaction cross sections in 80 K experiments for the large dipole-moment target, methyl cyanide.

Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Canright, R. B., Jr.

1972-01-01

335

Electron knock-on cross section of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes A. Zobelli,1,2,  

E-print Network

Electron knock-on cross section of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes A. Zobelli,1,2, * A. Gloter,1 description of electron irradiation of single-walled carbon and boron nitride nano- tubes. In a first step isotropic models and the main reasons for the discrepancies are discussed. Finally, in boron nitride

336

Fast Neutron Inelastic Scattering Cross Sections of URANIUM-238  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron inelastic scattering cross sections for ('238)U levels between 680 keV and 1530 keV excitation energy have been measured in the incident neutron energy range from 0.9 to 2.2 MeV. As a highly deformed actinide nucleus, ('238)U possesses a complicated level structure and level transition properties, so the (n,n') time-of -flight (TOF) techniques were used to obtain direct level cross sections, Neutrons were generated using the ('7)Li(p,n) reaction. In order to achieve the required energy resolution of less than 15 keV the parameters of our (n,n') TOF spectrometer were optimized. Level cross sections were deduced from measured 125(DEGREES)-differential scattering cross sections. The validity of this procedure was confirmed by measuring the angular distributions for 9 levels at E(,n) = 1.5 MeV and E(,n) = 2.0 MeV, respectively. In the data analysis the additional background due to fission in ('238)U scatterer induced by fast neutron was simulated and subtracted. The TOF spectra were unfolded by using the method of response function. The correction factors of multiple scattering and neutron attenuation for disc scatterer were calculated by using analytic method coded for a small minicomputer. The excitation functions obtained were compared with our previous (n,n'(gamma)) results, with those of ORNL measurements, with ENDF/B-V evaluations, and with recent theoretical calculations.

Shao, Ji-Qun

337

Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive catalogue of drill?hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross?sections in Adobe Illustrator format.

Faulds, James E.

2013-12-31

338

Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections  

DOE Data Explorer

Comprehensive catalogue of drill?hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross?sections in Adobe Illustrator format.

Faulds, James E.

339

Measurement of inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusive jet cross section in photoproduction has been measured as a function of transverse energy and pseudorapidity using the H 1 detector at the HERA electron-proton collider. The results are compared with leading order QCD calculations. Supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation.

H1 Collaboration; Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bischoff, A.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; del Buono, L.; Devel, M.; de Roeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Fensome, I. F.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Handschuh, D.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kur?a, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. C.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Smolik, L.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tichomirov, I.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallée, C.; van Esch, P.

1993-09-01

340

Measurement of inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inclusive jet cross section in photoproduction has been measured as a function of transverse energy and pseudorapidity using the H 1 detector at the HERA electron-proton collider. The results are compared with leading order QCD calculations. Supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation.

I. Abt; T. Ahmed; V. Andreev; B. Andrieu; R.-D. Appuhn; M. Arpagaus; A. Babaev; H. Bärwolff; J. Bán; P. Baranov; E. Barrelet; W. Bartel; U. Bassler; H. P. Beck; H.-J. Behrend; A. Belousov; Ch. Berger; H. Bergstein; G. Bernardi; R. Bernet; G. Bertrand-Coremans; M. Besançon; P. Biddulph; E. Binder; A. Bischoff; J. C. Bizot; V. Blobel; K. Borras; P. C. Bosetti; V. Boudry; C. Bourdarios; F. Brasse; U. Braun; W. Braunschweig; V. Brisson; D. Bruncko; L. Büngener; J. Bürger; F. W. Büsser; A. Buniatian; S. Burke; G. Buschhorn; A. J. Campbell; T. Carli; F. Charles; D. Clarke; A. B. Clegg; M. Colombo; J. A. Coughlan; A. Courau; Ch. Coutures; G. Cozzika; L. Criegee; J. Cvach; S. Dagoret; J. B. Dainton; M. Danilov; A. W. E. Dann; W. D. Dau; M. David; E. Deffur; B. Delcourt; L. del Buono; M. Devel; A. de Roeck; P. Dingus; C. Dollfus; J. D. Dowell; H. B. Dreis; A. Drescher; J. Duboc; D. Düllmann; O. Dünger; H. Duhm; R. Ebbinghaus; M. Eberle; J. Ebert; T. R. Ebert; G. Eckerlin; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; S. Eichenberger; R. Eichler; F. Eisele; E. Eisenhandler; N. N. Ellis; R. J. Ellison; E. Elsen; M. Erdmann; E. Evrard; L. Favart; A. Fedotov; D. Feeken; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; I. F. Fensome; J. Ferencei; F. Ferrarotto; K. Flamm; W. Flauger; M. Fleischer; G. Flügge; A. Fomenko; B. Fominykh; M. Forbush; J. Formánek; J. M. Foster; G. Franke; E. Fretwurst; P. Fuhrmann; E. Gabathuler; K. Gamerdinger; J. Garvey; J. Gayler; A. Gellrich; M. Gennis; H. Genzel; R. Gerhards; L. Godfrey; U. Goerlach; L. Goerlich; M. Goldberg; A. M. Goodall; I. Gorelov; P. Goritchev; C. Grab; H. Grässler; T. Greenshaw; H. Greif; G. Grindhammer; C. Gruber; J. Haack; D. Haidt; L. Hajduk; O. Hamon; D. Handschuh; E. M. Hanlon; M. Hapke; J. Harjes; R. Haydar; W. J. Haynes; J. Heatherington; V. Hedberg; G. Heinzelmann; R. C. W. Henderson; H. Henschel; R. Herma; I. Herynek; W. Hildesheim; P. Hill; C. D. Hilton; J. Hladký; K. C. Hoeger; Ph. Huet; H. Hufnagel; N. Huot; M. Ibbotson; H. Itterbeck; M.-A. Jabiol; A. Jacholkowska; C. Jacobsson; M. Jaffre; T. Jansen; L. Jönsson; K. Johannsen; D. P. Johnson; L. Johnson; H. Jung; P. I. P. Kalmus; S. Kasarian; R. Kaschowitz; P. Kasselmann; U. Kathage; H. H. Kaufmann; I. R. Kenyon; S. Kermiche; C. Keuker; C. Kiesling; M. Klein; C. Kleinwort; G. Knies; W. Ko; T. Köhler; H. Kolanoski; F. Kole; S. D. Kolya; V. Korbel; M. Korn; P. Kostka; S. K. Kotelnikov; M. W. Krasny; H. Krehbiel; D. Krücker; U. Krüger; J. P. Kubenka; H. Küster; M. Kuhlen; T. Kurca; J. Kurzhöfer; B. Kuznik; F. Lamarche; R. Lander; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; R. Langkau; P. Lanius; J. F. Laporte; A. Lebedev; A. Leuschner; C. Leverenz; S. Levonian; D. Lewin; Ch. Ley; A. Lindner; G. Lindström; F. Linsel; J. Lipinski; P. Loch; H. Lohmander; G. C. Lopez; D. Lüers; N. Magnussen; E. Malinovski; S. Mani; P. Marage; J. Marks; R. Marshall; J. Martens; R. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; J. Martyniak; S. Masson; A. Mavroidis; S. J. Maxfield; S. J. McMahon; A. Mehta; K. Meier; D. Mercer; T. Merz; C. A. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; S. Mikocki; V. Milone; E. Monnier; F. Moreau; J. Moreels; J. V. Morris; K. Müller; P. Murín; S. A. Murray; V. Nagovizin; B. Naroska; Th. Naumann; D. Newton; D. Neyret; H. K. Nguyen; F. Niebergall; R. Nisius; G. Nowak; G. W. Noyes; M. Nyberg; H. Oberlack; U. Obrock; J. E. Olsson; S. Orenstein; F. Ould-Saada; C. Pascaud; G. D. Patel; E. Peppel; S. Peters; H. T. Phillips; J. C. Phillips; Ch. Pichler; W. Pilgram; D. Pitzl; S. Prell; R. Prosi; G. Rädel; F. Raupach; K. Rauschnabel; P. Reimer; P. Ribarics; V. Riech; J. Riedlberger; S. Riess; M. Rietz; S. M. Robertson; P. Robmann; R. Roosen; A. Rostovtsev; C. Royon; M. Rudowicz; M. Ruffer; S. Rusakov; K. Rybicki; N. Sahlmann; E. Sanchez; D. P. C. Sankey; M. Savitsky; P. Schacht; P. Schleper; W. von Schlippe; C. Schmidt; D. Schmidt; W. Schmitz; V. Schröder; M. Schulz; A. Schwind; W. Scobel; U. Seehausen; R. Sell; A. Semenov; V. Shekelyan; I. Sheviakov; H. Shooshtari; L. N. Shtarkov; G. Siegmon; U. Siewert; Y. Sirois; I. O. Skillicorn; P. Smirnov; J. R. Smith; L. Smolik; Y. Soloviev; H. Spitzer; P. Staroba; M. Steenbock; P. Steffen; R. Steinberg; B. Stella; K. Stephens; J. Stier; U. Stösslein; J. Strachota; U. Straumann; W. Struczinski; J. P. Sutton; R. E. Taylor; V. Tchernyshov; C. Thiebaux; G. Thompson; I. Tichomirov; P. Truöl; J. Turnau; J. Tutas; L. Urban; A. Usik; S. Valkar; A. Valkarova; C. Vallée; P. van Esch; A. Vartapetian; Y. Vazdik; M. Vecko; P. Verrecchia; R. Vick; G. Villet; E. Vogel; K. Wacker; I. W. Walker; A. Walther; G. Weber; D. Wegener; A. Wegner; H. P. Wellisch; S. Willard; M. Winde; G.-G. Winter; Th. Wolff; L. A. Womersley; A. E. Wright; N. Wulff; T. P. Yiou; J. Zácek; P. Závada; C. Zeitnitz; H. Ziaeepour; M. Zimmer; W. Zimmermann; F. Zomer

1993-01-01

341

Loneliness Predicts Reduced Physical Activity: Cross-Sectional & Longitudinal Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine cross-sectional and prospective associations between loneliness and physical activity, and to evaluate the roles of social control and emotion regulation as mediators of these associations. Design: A population-based sample of 229 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women, age 50 to 68 years at study onset, were tested annually for each of 3 years. Main Outcome Measures:

Louise C. Hawkley; Ronald A. Thisted; John T. Cacioppo

2009-01-01

342

Absolute cross sections for elastic electron scattering from 3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of measurements and calculations of absolute cross sections for elastic electron scattering from the 3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran (3hTHF) (C4H8O2) molecule are reported. The measurements were performed using a crossed beam experimental setup, for an incident electron energy range of 40 300 eV and an overall scattering angle range of 10° 110°. Relative differential cross sections (DCSs) were measured both as a function of the angle and the incident energy and the absolute DCSs were determined using the relative flow technique. The calculations of molecular cross sections are based on a corrected form of the independent-atom method, known as the screen corrected additivity rule (SCAR) procedure and using an improved quasifree absorption model. Additional calculations are also done to investigate the influence of rotational excitations and low-angular behavior of SCAR DCSs. The calculated dataset includes differential, integral and total cross sections in the energy range from 5 eV to 10 000 eV. The present results are discussed regarding the most recent low-energy elastic DCSs for 3hTHF (Vizcaino et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 053002), as well as the recent DCSs for molecules of similar structure (tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol).

Milosavljevi?, A. R.; Blanco, F.; Maljkovi?, J. B.; Ševi?, D.; García, G.; Marinkovi?, B. P.

2008-10-01

343

Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the effect of adding clay modeling to a gross anatomy and neuro anatomy course. The purpose of adding the clay modeling was to assist students with gaining a greater understanding of cross sectional anatomy and to compare these models to CT and MRI scans. Outcomes of the positive effect of clay modeling are explained.

2009-07-27

344

Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This graduate text provides an intuitive but rigorous treatment of contemporary methods used in microeconometric research. The book makes clear that applied microeconometrics is about the estimation of marginal and treatment effects, and that parametric estimation is simply a means to this end. It also clarifies the distinction between causality and statistical association. The book focuses specifically on cross section

Jeffrey M. Wooldridge

2002-01-01

345

Measurements of absolute single differential cross section (SDCS)  

E-print Network

Measurements of absolute single differential cross section (SDCS) [Left] and percentage energy res and a resistive anode encoder are presented. A four­element lens mounted at the entrance of the analyser, provides using ion­optics program SIMION6.0 in­ dicates improved focusing properties for this off­ center

Zouros, Theo

346

Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin  

MedlinePLUS

Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

347

45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing 2042-F-23, entitled General Arrangement of Power Plant, Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

348

44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing 2042-F-15, entitled Machine and Blacksmith Shop; Plan, Elevations, and Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

349

Phenomenology of SIDIS unpolarized cross sections and azimuthal asymmetries  

E-print Network

I review the phenomenology of unpolarized cross sections and azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering (SIDIS). The general theoretical framework is presented and the validity of the Gaussian model is discussed. A brief account of the existing analyses is provided.

Vincenzo Barone

2012-03-28

350

Differential cross section for the double photoionization of Mg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-dependent close-coupling (TDCC) method is used to calculate the energy and angle triple differential cross section for the double photoionization of Mg(3{{s}2}) at a photon energy of 55.49 eV to compare with recent converged close-coupling (CCC) calculations and in support of recent experiments at ELETTRA. Comparisons are made between the TDCC, CCC, and experimental results for equal energy sharing at scattering angles of 0{}^\\circ , 30{}^\\circ , and 60{}^\\circ , and for unequal energy sharing at 0{}^\\circ and 30{}^\\circ . Comparisons are made between the TDCC and CCC results for equal and unequal energy sharing at 90{}^\\circ . In addition, TDCC, CCC, and experimental results are compared for complex scattering amplitudes and the TDCC method is used to calculate single energy differential cross sections at photon energies of 30, 35, 40, 45, and 55.49 eV. Although there are scattering angles in the triple differential cross sections at 55.49 eV at which the TDCC, CCC, and experimental results are quite different, the overall agreement between the theories and experiment is reasonable for such small cross sections.

Abdel-Naby, Shahin A.; Pindzola, M. S.; Colgan, J.

2015-01-01

351

Fermion absorption cross section of a Schwarzschild black hole  

E-print Network

We study the absorption of massive spin-half particles by a small Schwarzschild black hole by numerically solving the single-particle Dirac equation in Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates. We calculate the absorption cross section for a range of gravitational couplings Mm/m_P^2 and incident particle energies E. At high couplings, where the Schwarzschild radius R_S is much greater than the wavelength lambda, we find that the cross section approaches the classical result for a point particle. At intermediate couplings we find oscillations around the classical limit whose precise form depends on the particle mass. These oscillations give quantum violations of the equivalence principle. At high energies the cross section converges on the geometric-optics value of 27 \\pi R_S^2/4, and at low energies we find agreement with an approximation derived by Unruh. When the hole is much smaller than the particle wavelength we confirm that the minimum possible cross section approaches \\pi R_S^2/2.

Chris Doran; Anthony Lasenby; Sam Dolan; Ian Hinder

2005-03-04

352

4He(?,p?-) Cross Section Around ?(1236)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cross section of the reaction 4He+?-->p+?-+(ppn) has been measured in the region of the first resonance for various values of the recoil momentum. An anomaly is observed for high values of this momentum and a tentative explanation is suggested.

Argan, P. E.; Audit, G.; de Botton, N.; Laget, J.-M.; Martin, J.; Schuhl, C.; Tamas, G.

1972-10-01

353

Uptake of atmospheric molecules by ice nanoparticles: pickup cross sections.  

PubMed

Uptake of several atmospheric molecules on free ice nanoparticles was investigated. Typical examples were chosen: water, methane, NO(x) species (NO, NO(2)), hydrogen halides (HCl, HBr), and volatile organic compounds (CH(3)OH, CH(3)CH(2)OH). The cross sections for pickup of these molecules on ice nanoparticles (H(2)O)(N) with the mean size of N?260 (diameter ~2.3 nm) were measured in a molecular beam experiment. These cross sections were determined from the cluster beam velocity decrease due to the momentum transfer during the pickup process. For water molecules molecular dynamics simulations were performed to learn the details of the pickup process. The experimental results for water are in good agreement with the simulations. The pickup cross sections of ice particles of several nanometers in diameter can be more than 3 times larger than the geometrical cross sections of these particles. This can have significant consequences in modelling of atmospheric ice nanoparticles, e.g., their growth. PMID:22830699

Lengyel, J; Ko?išek, J; Poterya, V; Pysanenko, A; Svr?ková, P; Fárník, M; Zaouris, D K; Fedor, J

2012-07-21

354

Natural critical cross sections and modes of a conical waveguide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waveguides guided by a conical waveguide are analyzed, taking into account field behavior in the vicinity of natural critical cross sections. It is shown that each natural mode of the waveguide corresponds to a natural caustic with a natural equivalent surface current (magnetic in the case of Emn modes and electric in the case of

V. N. Mitrokhin

1986-01-01

355

Extraction of Neutrino Flux from the Inclusive Muon Cross Section  

E-print Network

We have studied a method to extract neutrino flux from the data of neutrino-nucleus reaction by using maximum entropy method. We demonstrate a promising example to extract neutrino flux from the inclusive cross section of muon production without selecting a particular reaction process such as quasi-elastic nucleon knockout.

Murata, Tomoya

2015-01-01

356

The radar cross section reduction of microstrip patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radar cross section (RCS) reduction of microstrip patch antennas for low-observable platforms is considered, with emphasis on the application of lossy superstrates. The observed effect of these on antenna parameters is related to expected RCS reduction using results from the literature. The RCS computed by a finite element method\\/method of moments code is also presented. Other RCS reduction techniques

C. B. Wilsen; D. B. Davidson

1996-01-01

357

Lava flow in tubes with elliptical cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of lava flow in a cylindrical tube with elliptical cross section. The lava is considered an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid. We solve analytically the steady-state Navier–Stokes equation under a constant driving force, given by the component of gravity along the axis of the tube and obtain the velocity and stress field components in the fluid. The

Michele Dragoni; Stefano Santini

2007-01-01

358

Cross-Sectional Analyses of Climate Change Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explore the use of cross-sectional analysis to measure the impacts of climate change on agriculture. The impact literature, using experiments on crops in laboratory settings combined with simulation models, suggests that agriculture will be strongly affected by climate change. The extent of these effects varies by country and region. Therefore, local experiments are needed for policy purposes, which

Robert Mendelsohn; Ariel Dinar; Alan Basist; Pradeep Kurukulasuriya; Mohamed Ihsan Ajwad; Felix Kogan; Claude Williams

2004-01-01

359

11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS PRODUCER.' From George R. Cooper (Wilputte Corporation). 'Operating Overview of a Producer Gas Plant (12 Machines) at Kingsport, Tennessee.' Presented at the Fifth Annual International Conference on Coal Gasification, Liquefaction and Conversion to Electricity. University of Pittsburgh, August 2, 1978. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

360

12. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING THE WIDTH OF THE FACINGS AND BACKINGS THAT FORMED THE BASE OF THE WALL AT THE WESTERN END, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

361

On the interweaving of partial cross sections of different parity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partial cross sections of definite parity, calculated for electronic-rotational energy transfer in the F +H2 collision system, interweave with increasing total angular momentum J. An explanation, in terms of diabatic curve crossings induced by the centrifugal potential in the body-fixed coordinate system, predicts the interweaving to occur only in systems having half-integer J.

Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

1979-01-01

362

Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections of n-decane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ionization and dissociation of hydrocarbon fuels with various plasma excitation schemes including pulsed high E/n discharges have been proposed to alleviate the problem of ignition in supersonic flow combustors and operations at high altitudes. The fuel which is also used for cooling, must not pyrolyse at operational temperatures. We have examined the electron ionization collision processes in n-decane using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry that permits measurements of the 24 ions with cross sections larger than 10-19cm2. These generally fall into two broad categories: those with five or more carbon atoms whose ionization cross sections rise rapidly and essentially saturate within twice the appearance potential and those with four carbon atoms and less whose cross sections rise more gradually and are only saturating at energies above 70 eV. The total ionization cross section is large, rising to 7x10-16cm2. Studies were made with deuterated samples to distinguish the potential mechanisms in fragment ion induced dissociation of the parent gas. The results are compared with similar data for octane.

Jiao, Charles; Dejoseph, Charles; Garscadden, Alan

2001-10-01

363

Predictions of diffractive cross sections in proton-proton collisions  

SciTech Connect

We review our pre-LHC predictions of the total, elastic, total-inelastic, and diffractive components of proton-proton cross sections at high energies, expressed in the form of unitarized expressions based on a special parton-model approach to diffraction employing inclusive proton parton distribution functions and QCD color factors and compare with recent LHC results.

Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

2013-04-15

364

Precision radar cross-section measurements for computer code validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precision measurements of the radar cross section (RCS) of simple rod and cylinder targets for all angles of incidence in a plane containing the long axis of the target are presented. The RCS is presented as a contour map as a function of the frequency and the incidence angle. These extensive measured RCS data are used as a reference for

S. R. Mishra; C. L. Larose; C. W. Trueman

1993-01-01

365

On the ratio of and cross sections at the CERN Large Hadron Collider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Triggered by ongoing experimental analyses, we report on a study of the cross section ratio at the next-to-leading order in QCD, focusing on both present and future collider energies: = 7, 8, 13 TeV. In particular, we provide a comparison between our predictions and the currently available CMS data for the 8 TeV run. We further analyse the kinematics and scale uncertainties of the two processes for a single set of parton distribution functions, with the goal of assessing possible correlations that might help to reduce the theoretical error of the ratio and thus enhance the predictive power of this observable. We argue that the different jet kinematics makes the and processes uncorrelated in several observables, and show that the scale uncertainty is not significantly reduced when taking the ratio of the cross sections.

Bevilacqua, G.; Worek, M.

2014-07-01

366

Total nuclear photoabsorption cross sections in the region 150 < A < 190  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The curves of the total gamma-absorption cross sections (? tot) in the E1 giant resonance energy range for the nuclei 154Sm, 156Gd, 165Ho, 168Er, 174Yb, 178Hf, 180Hf, 181Ta, 182W, 184W, 186W and 197Au have been measured using the absorption method. Parameters of the Lorentz curves fitting the measured cross sections ? tot are given. Quadrupole moments ( Q0) and nuclear deformation parameters (?) were obtained. For deformed nuclei in the ˜ 155 < A < ˜ 180 region a violation of the correlation between giant resonance widths (?) and nuclear deformation parameters was found. ? 1 and ? 2, the widths of the resonances corresponding to vibrations of nucleons along and across the nuclear deformation axis, were observed to decrease with the increase of A which could be accounted for by the presence of an N = 108 subshell.

Gurevich, G. M.; Lazareva, L. E.; Mazur, V. M.; Merkulov, S. YU.; Solodukhov, G. V.; Tyutin, V. A.

1981-01-01

367

Erratum: Photoionization Cross Sections of He and H2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper ``Photoionization Cross Sections of He and H2'' by M. Yan, H. R. Sadeghpour, and A. Dalgarno (ApJ, 496, 1044 [1998]), the analytic representation of the H2 photoionization cross sections (eqs. [17]-[19]) is given incorrectly. The cross sections for H2 may be represented analytically by ?H2(E)=107(1-197.448x-0.5+ 438.823x-1-260.481x-1.5+17.915x-2) barns for 15.485 eV. The sum rules and the tabulated photoionization cross sections in Tables 6 and 7 are correct. The errors were drawn to our attention by the paper of J. Wilms, A. Allen, and R. McCray (ApJ, 542, 914 [2000]). We point out that our recommended cross sections are constructed from the best available experimental and calculated data and modified to ensure that several sum rules are satisfied and to conform to the correct physical high-energy limit. We emphasize that the asymptotic ratio of the nonrelativistic photoionization cross sections of H2 and H is given exactly as (?H2)/ (?H) =4?, where is the delta function matrix element at the position of nucleus a for electron 1. The numerical value of the ratio of cross sections is ?H2/ ?H=2.833 at high energies. As noted by us and by Wilms, Allen, and McCray, where molecular hydrogen contributes to the total photoabsorption, this excess of the ratio over 2 can be important.

Yan, M.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Dalgarno, A.

2001-10-01

368

Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.  

SciTech Connect

The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

2008-01-01

369

On the cross-section of dark matter using substructure infall into galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a statistical method to measure the interaction cross-section of dark matter, exploiting the continuous minor merger events in which small substructures fall into galaxy clusters. We find that by taking the ratio of the distances between the galaxies and dark matter, and galaxies and gas in accreting subhaloes, we form a quantity that can be statistically averaged over a large sample of systems whilst removing any inherent line-of-sight projections. To interpret this ratio as a cross-section of dark matter, we derive an analytical description of subhalo infall allowing us to constrain self-interaction models in which drag is an appropriate macroscopic treatment. We create mock observations from cosmological simulations of structure formation and find that collisionless dark matter becomes physically separated from X-ray gas by up to ˜20 h-1 kpc. Adding realistic levels of noise, we are able to predict achievable constraints from observational data. Current archival data should be able to detect a difference in the dynamical behaviour of dark matter and standard model particles at 6?, and measure the total interaction cross-section ?/m with 68 per cent confidence limits of ±1 cm2 g-1. We note that this method is not restricted by the limited number of major merging events and is easily extended to large samples of clusters from future surveys which could potentially push statistical errors to <0.1 cm2 g-1.

Harvey, David; Tittley, Eric; Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas D.; Taylor, Andy; Pike, Simon R.; Kay, Scott T.; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

2014-06-01

370

Theoretical predictions for ionization cross sections of DNA nucleobases impacted by light ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induction of DNA double strand breaks after irradiation is considered of prime importance for producing radio-induced cellular death or injury. However, up to now ion-induced collisions on DNA bases remain essentially experimentally approached and a theoretical model for cross section calculation is still lacking. Under these conditions, we here propose a quantum mechanical description of the ionization process induced by light bare ions on DNA bases. Theoretical predictions in terms of differential and total cross sections for proton, ?-particle and bare ion carbon beams impacting on adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine bases are then reported in the 10 keV amu-1-10 MeV amu-1 energy range. The calculations are performed within the first-order Born approximation (FBA) with biological targets described at the restricted Hartree-Fock level with geometry optimization. Comparisons to recent theoretical data for collisions between protons and cytosine point out huge discrepancies in terms of differential as well as total cross sections whereas very good agreement is shown with our previous classical predictions, especially at high impact energies (Ei >= 100 keV amu-1). Finally, in comparison to the rare existing experimental data a systematic underestimation is observed in particular for adenine and thymine whereas a good agreement is reported for cytosine. Thus, further improvements appear as necessary, in particular by using higher order theories like the continuum-distorted-wave one in order to obtain a better understanding of the underlying physics involved in such ion-DNA reactions.

Champion, C.; Lekadir, H.; Galassi, M. E.; Fojón, O.; Rivarola, R. D.; Hanssen, J.

2010-10-01

371

Jet-radius dependence of inclusive-jet cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

E-print Network

Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured for different jet radii in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering for boson virtualities Q^2 > 125 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 81.7 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the Breit frame using the k_T cluster algorithm in the longitudinally inclusive mode for different values of the jet radius R. Differential cross sections are presented as functions of Q^2 and the jet transverse energy, E_T,B^jet. The dependence on R of the inclusive-jet cross section has been measured for Q^2 > 125 and 500 GeV^2 and found to be linear with R in the range studied. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements for 0.5 500 GeV^2: alpha_s(M_Z) = 0.1207 +- 0.0014 (stat.) -0.0028 +0.0030 (exp.) -0.0023 +0.0022 (th.). The variation of alpha_s with E_T,B^jet is in good agreement with the running of alpha_s as predicted by QCD.

Chekanov, S; Abt, I; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Allfrey, P D; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M A; Bellagamba, L; Bellan, P M; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bindi, M; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Bonato, A; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Boutle, S K; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brownson, E; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brzozowska, B; Brümmer, N; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Büttner, C; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cole, J E; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; Cui, Y; D'Agostini, G; Dal Corso, F; Danielson, T; De Favereau, J; De Pasquale, S; Del Peso, J; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Dossanov, A; Doyle, A T; Dunne, W; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, A; Everett, A; Fazio, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fry, C; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gialas, I; Gil, M; Giller, I; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Goers, S; Gosau, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Gregor, I; Grigorescu, G; Grzelak, G; Gwenlan, C; Göttlicher, P; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hamatsu, R; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heath, G P; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hori, R; Horn, C; Iacobucci, G; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Ingbir, R; Jakob, H P; Jechow, M; Jiménez, M; Jones, T W; Jüngst, M; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kamaluddin, B; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kind, O M; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, R; Koffeman, E; Kollar, D; Kooijman, P; Korcsak-Gorzo, K; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kowalski, H; Kulinski, P; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Kötz, U; Labarga, L; Lee, A; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, C; Lobodzinska, E; Lohmann, W; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukasik, J; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Löhr, B; Ma, K J; Magill, S; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsumoto, T; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S; Miglioranzi, S; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Morris, J D; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nicholass, D; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Okazaki, N; Olkiewicz, K; Ota, O; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Rinaldi, L; Roberfroid, V; Robertson, A; Ron, E; Rosin, M; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Ryan, P; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Samson, U; Santamarta, R; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schonberg, V; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Shehzadi, R; Shimizu, S; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V; Spiridonov, A; Stadie, H; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Stösslein, U; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutiak, J; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Theedt, T; Tiecke, H; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Uribe-Estrada, C; Vlasov, N N; Vázquez, M; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wan-Abdullah, W A T; Wang, M; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Wolfe, H; Wrona, K; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zarnecki, A F; Zaw, I; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A

2007-01-01

372

Progress and open questions in the physics of neutrino cross sections  

E-print Network

New and more precise measurements of neutrino cross sections have renewed the interest in a better understanding of electroweak interactions on nucleons and nuclei. This effort is crucial to achieve the precision goals of the neutrino oscillation program, making new discoveries, like the CP violation in the leptonic sector, possible. We review the recent progress in the physics of neutrino cross sections, putting emphasis on the open questions that arise in the comparison with new experimental data. Following an overview of recent neutrino experiments and future plans, we present some details about the theoretical development in the description of (anti)neutrino-induced quasielastic scattering and the role of multi-nucleon quasielastic-like mechanisms. We cover not only pion production in nucleons and nuclei but also other inelastic channels including strangeness production and photon emission. Coherent reaction channels on nuclear targets are also discussed. Finally, we briefly describe some of the Monte Carlo event generators, which are at the core of all neutrino oscillation and cross section measurements.

L. Alvarez-Ruso; Y. Hayato; J. Nieves

2014-09-02

373

Partial ionization cross-sections of acetone and 2-butanone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron impact ionization of acetone and 2-butanone between 10 and 86 eV has been studied using mass spectrometry. The cross-sections are measured for the formation of molecular ions and major fragment ions which are produced. The present results display good agreement between the measured total ionization cross-sections and the calculated with the BEB model. The enthalpies of formation and the ionization energies of several fragments are evaluated using ab initio calculations. For each ketone, the molecular ion and the 43 amu ion contribute to about 80% of the total cross-section at 86 eV. The 43 amu ion, identified as the acetyl cation, is the most abundant above 15 eV. Other ions present in the spectra of acetone are (i) the 42 amu ion, detected in the range 12-86 eV, contributes to about 6% of the total cross-section at the maximum voltage used and is identified at low energy as a ketene cation, (ii) six other minor ions (39, 27, 26, 44, 29 and 15 amu) were detected above 17 eV. Five of them may result from dissociation reactions of the molecular ion while the methyl cation is issued from the 43 amu ion. In the spectra of 2-butanone, other ions are (i) the 57 amu ion detected in the range 11-86 eV and identified as the propionyl cation, contributes to about 6% of the total cross-section over the whole ionization energy range, (ii) four other minor ions (42, 29, 27 and 15 amu) were detected above 18 eV and there formation is similar to that of acetone. Effects of fragment size favour from the molecular ion, the formation of the 57 amu ion near the threshold, and at higher energy, the formation of the 43 amu ion.

Vacher, J. R.; Jorand, F.; Blin-Simiand, N.; Pasquiers, S.

2008-06-01

374

On the relativistic electron impact K-shell (e, (3-1)e) differential cross sections for atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the results of our calculation of four-fold differential cross section (4DCS) for the K-shell electron impact double ionization (DI) on various atoms in the relativistic energy regime. The 4DCS is computed from the five-fold differential cross sections (5DCS) by integrating 5DCS over either the angles of one of the ejected electrons or the scattered electron (this process is referred as an (e, (3-1)e) process). Hence, it requires, possibly feasible double coincidence techniques to supplement our findings experimentally instead of the difficult triple coincidence technique, which is required for the complete description of the DI process. The angular profile of 5DCS is scanned with the angles of one of the ejected electrons for both the (e, (3-1)e) cases. A dominant peak in the momentum transfer direction is found when the scattered and one of the ejected electrons are detected in coincidence. The effects of nucleus (Z), energies of the ejected electrons, and the scattering angle on the 4DCS have been discussed. The angular correlation of the ejected electrons has also been discussed when only the ejected electrons are detected. We consider the spin aspects by scanning the singlet and triplet contributions in the angular profile of 4DCS. We also find that the interference term of the longitudinal and transverse interaction is responsible for the strengthening of the secondary peak. We observe a clear manifestation of the effect of nucleus on the spin asymmetry for behavior targets.

Choubisa, R.

2015-02-01

375

Calculation of photoionization cross section near auto-ionizing lines and magnesium photoionization cross section near threshold  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research performed is briefly reviewed. A simple method was developed for the calculation of continuum states of atoms when autoionization is present. The method was employed to give the first theoretical cross section for beryllium and magnesium; the results indicate that the values used previously at threshold were sometimes seriously in error. These threshold values have potential applications in astrophysical abundance estimates.

Moore, E. N.; Altick, P. L.

1972-01-01

376

Multiphoton absorption cross section and virtual-state spectroscopy for the entangled n-photon state  

E-print Network

Multiphoton absorption cross section and virtual-state spectroscopy for the entangled n-photon absorption cross sections are also obtained. The absorption cross sections exhibit a linear dependence states involved in the interaction from the absorption cross section measured as a function of path delay

Teich, Malvin C.

377

NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES FROM THERMAL ENERGY TO 20 MeV.  

SciTech Connect

We describe new method for energy-energy covariance calculation from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV. It is based on three powerful basic components: (i) Atlas of Neutron Resonances in the resonance region; (ii) the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE in the unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions, and (iii) the Bayesian code KALMAN for correlations and error propagation. Examples for cross section uncertainties and correlations on {sup 90}Zr and {sup 193}Ir illustrate this approach in the resonance and fast neutron regions.

ROCHMAN,D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; MUGHABGHAB, S.F.; PIGNI, M.; KAWANO, T.

2007-04-27

378

Expert modelling of a geological cross-section from boreholes: sources of uncertainty and their quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a designed experiment to quantify sources of uncertainty in the expert interpretation of a geological cross-section. A group of 28 geologists participated in the experiment. Each interpreted borehole records which included three Palaeogene bedrock units, including the target unit for the experiment: the London Clay. The set of boreholes was divided into batches from which validation boreholes had been withheld; as a result we obtained 129 point comparisons between the interpreted elevation of the base of the London Clay and its observed elevation in a borehole not used for that particular interpretation. Analysis of the results showed good general agreement between the observed and interpreted elevations, with no evidence of systematic bias. Between-site variation of the interpretation error was spatially correlated, and the variance appeared to be stationary. The between-geologist component of variance was smaller overall, and depended on distance to the nearest borehole. There was also evidence that the between-geologist variance depends on the degree of experience of the individual. We used the statistical model of interpretation error to compute confidence intervals for any one interpretation of the base of the London Clay on the cross-section, and to provide uncertainty measures for decision support in a hypothetical route-planning process. The statistical model could also be used to quantify error-propagation in a full 3-D geological model produced from interpreted cross sections.

Lark, R. M.; Thorpe, S.; Kessler, H.; Mathers, S. J.

2014-07-01

379

Interpretative modelling of a geological cross section from boreholes: sources of uncertainty and their quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a designed experiment to quantify sources of uncertainty in geologists' interpretations of a geological cross section. A group of 28 geologists participated in the experiment. Each interpreted borehole record included up to three Palaeogene bedrock units, including the target unit for the experiment: the London Clay. The set of boreholes was divided into batches from which validation boreholes had been withheld; as a result, we obtained 129 point comparisons between the interpreted elevation of the base of the London Clay and its observed elevation in a borehole not used for that particular interpretation. Analysis of the results showed good general agreement between the observed and interpreted elevations, with no evidence of systematic bias. Between-site variation of the interpretation error was spatially correlated, and the variance appeared to be stationary. The between-geologist component of variance was smaller overall, and depended on the distance to the nearest borehole. There was also evidence that the between-geologist variance depends on the degree of experience of the individual. We used the statistical model of interpretation error to compute confidence intervals for any one interpretation of the base of the London Clay on the cross section, and to provide uncertainty measures for decision support in a hypothetical route-planning process. The statistical model could also be used to quantify error propagation in a full 3-D geological model produced from interpreted cross sections.

Lark, R. M.; Thorpe, S.; Kessler, H.; Mathers, S. J.

2014-11-01

380

Double- and triple-differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of helium  

SciTech Connect

Triple- (TDCS) and double- (DDCS) differential cross sections have been calculated for single ionization in electron-helium collisions for asymmetric geometry at intermediate and medium high energies. The TDCS and DDCS results have been presented for different kinematical situations and have been compared with the corresponding experiments. In the present prescription, the final-state wave function involves the correlation between the two continuum electrons and satisfies the three-body asymptotic boundary condition (for asymmetric geometry), which is an important criterion for reliable ionization cross sections. The sensitivity of the ionization cross sections (particularly of the TDCS) with respect to the choice of the bound-state wave function of the He atom has also been studied, using two different forms of wave function of the He atom. The binary-to-recoil peak intensity ratio against momentum transfer in TDCS is found to be in closer agreement with the experiment for the simple Hylleraas wave function than for the Hartree-Fock wave function. The DDCS results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data of Mueller-Fiedler {ital et} {ital al}. [J. Phys. B 19, 1211 (1986)] for lower ejected energy ({ital E}{sub 2}), while for higher {ital E}{sub 2} the results are closer to the measurements of Shyn {ital et} {ital al}. [Phys. Rev. A 19, 557 (1979)] and Avaldi {ital et} {ital al}. [Nuovo Cimento D 9, 97 (1987)].

Biswas, R.; Sinha, C. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700 032 (India)] [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700 032 (India)

1995-05-01

381

RCPL1: a program to prepare neutron and photon cross-section libraries for RCP01 (LWBR Development Program). [In FORTRAN for CDC 6600 or 7600  

Microsoft Academic Search

RCPL1 is a FORTRAN digital computer program designed and developed to prepare neutron and photon cross section libraries for the RCP01 Monte Carlo computer program for solving neutron and photon transport problems in three-dimensional geometry with detailed energy description. The neutron libraries prepared by RCPL1 contain detailed Doppler-broadened resonance cross sections from unresolved and either single-level or multilevel resonance parameters,

A. V. Dralle; N. R. Candelore; R. C. Gast

1978-01-01

382

Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

2014-06-10

383

Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical cloaks of an arbitrary cross section.  

PubMed

We extend the design of radially symmetric invisibility cloaks through transformation optics as proposed by Pendry et al. [Science 312, 1780 (2006)] to coated cylinders of an arbitrary cross section. The validity of our Fourier-based approach is confirmed by both analytical and numerical results for a cloak displaying a non-convex cross section of varying thickness. In the former case, we evaluate the Green's function of a line source in the transformed coordinates. In the latter case, we implement a full-wave finite-element model for a cylindrical antenna radiating a p-polarized electric field in the presence of a F-shaped lossy object surrounded by the cloak. PMID:18628805

Nicolet, André; Zolla, Frédéric; Guenneau, Sébastien

2008-07-15

384

Secondary Flows in Curved Rectangular Ducts with Diminishing Cross Section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary flows in curved rectangular ducts with diminishing cross sections are numerically studied. Development of secondary flow in curved rectangular regular cross-sectional area duct is studied using an improved finite difference scheme for solving parabolized Navier-Stokes equations is presented. This scheme has its origin in the work of Briley, which is based on classical ADI method to march the solution in the streamwise direction. With some modifications, it is shown in the present work that the stability of this scheme is greatly enhanced. Its applicability is considerably increased. Results with various sb. and sa for two different aspect ratio are given. Note the parameters asa and bsb, where sa is scaling factor for the width of the duct sb is scaling factor for the height of the duct, respectively. Dean number of 54 is used for the comparisons.

Darus, Amer Nordin; Fatt, Y. Y.

2010-06-01

385

Elastic cross sections for electron scattering from iodomethane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results are reported for elastic differential and integral cross sections for electrons scattering from iodomethane (CH3I). These measurements were made at seven incident electron energies in the range 5-50 eV, with a scattered electron angular range of 20°-135°. Corresponding calculations using the independent atom method plus screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), both with and without a dipole correction, are also reported as a part of this study. Where possible, comparison is made to the only other set of experimental results available in the literature (Kato et al 2010 J. Chem. Phys. 132 074309) and to calculated cross sections from the Schwinger multichannel approach at the static exchange level (Natalense et al 2001 Braz. J. Phys. 31 15). In general, good agreement is found between the present measurements and IAM-SCAR computations, and between our results and the earlier investigations.

Hargreaves, L. R.; Brunton, J. R.; Prajapati, A.; Hoshino, M.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Buckman, S. J.; Brunger, M. J.

2011-02-01

386

Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of highly monochromatic synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measured photoionization of Cl+ consists of several autoionization resonances surperimposed on the direct photoionization signal. Most of the prominent resonances are assigned to members of Rydberg series originating from the singlet ground state and from metastable triplet levels within the ground-state configuration of Cl+. The direct ionization cross section is no larger than 12 Mb.

Hernández, E. M.; Juárez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernández, L.; Antillón, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; González-Magaña, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

2015-01-01

387

Elastic breakup cross sections of well-bound nucleons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 9Be(28Mg,27Na ) one-proton removal reaction with a large proton separation energy of Sp(28Mg ) =16.79 MeV is studied at intermediate beam energy. Coincidences of the bound 27Na residues with protons and other light charged particles are measured. These data are analyzed to determine the percentage contributions to the proton removal cross section from the elastic and inelastic nucleon removal mechanisms. These deduced contributions are compared with the eikonal reaction model predictions and with the previously measured data for reactions involving the removal of more weakly bound protons from lighter nuclei. The role of transitions of the proton between different bound single-particle configurations upon the elastic breakup cross section is also quantified in this well-bound case. The measured and calculated elastic breakup fractions are found to be in good agreement.

Wimmer, K.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Tostevin, J. A.; Baugher, T.; Chajecki, Z.; Coupland, D.; Famiano, M. A.; Ghosh, T. K.; Grinyer, G. F.; Howard, M. E.; Kilburn, M.; Lynch, W. G.; Manning, B.; Meierbachtol, K.; Quarterman, P.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Sanetullaev, A.; Showalter, R. H.; Stroberg, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Weisshaar, D.; Winkelbauer, J.; Winkler, R.; Youngs, M.

2014-12-01

388

Hadronic Cross Section Measurement at Bes-Iii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the R ratio are closely related to two pre quantities, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g - 2), and the value of the electromagnetic fine structure constant ? { QED}(M2Z). Hadronic contributions to both quantities can be derived via dispersion integrals, using experimental R data as input. For the phenomenological evaluations of these contributions, different energy ranges of hadronic cross section data are required. At BES-III, Initial State Radiation (ISR) from an existing ?(3770) dataset will be used for measurements of hadronic cross sections below ? s = 2 GeV, while for higher energies a dedicated energy scan program will be performed up to ? s = 4.5 GeV.

Schumann, Sven

2014-12-01

389

Neutrino versus antineutrino cross sections and CP violation  

E-print Network

We discuss the nuclear interactions of neutrinos versus those of antineutrinos, a relevant comparison for CP violation experiments in the neutrino sector. We consider the MiniBooNE quasielastic-like double differential neutrinos and antineutrinos cross sections which are flux dependent and hence specific to the MiniBooNE set-up. We combine them introducing their sum and their difference. We show that the last combination can bring a general information, which can be exploited in other experiments, on the nuclear matrix elements of the axial vector interference term. Our theoretical model reproduces well the two cross sections combinations. This confirms the need for a sizeable multinucleon component in particular in the interference term.

Ericson, M

2015-01-01

390

Elastic breakup cross sections of well-bound nucleons  

E-print Network

The 9Be(28Mg,27Na) one-proton removal reaction with a large proton separation energy of Sp(28Mg)=16.79 MeV is studied at intermediate beam energy. Coincidences of the bound 27Na residues with protons and other light charged particles are measured. These data are analyzed to determine the percentage contributions to the proton removal cross section from the elastic and inelastic nucleon removal mechanisms. These deduced contributions are compared with the eikonal reaction model predictions and with the previously measured data for reactions involving the re- moval of more weakly-bound protons from lighter nuclei. The role of transitions of the proton between different bound single-particle configurations upon the elastic breakup cross section is also quantified in this well-bound case. The measured and calculated elastic breakup fractions are found to be in good agreement.

K. Wimmer; D. Bazin; A. Gade; J. A. Tostevin; T. Baugher; Z. Chajecki; D. Coupland; M. A. Famiano; T. K. Ghosh; G. F. Grinyer M. E. Howard; M. Kilburn; W. G. Lynch; B. Manning; K. Meierbachtol; P. Quarterman; A. Ratkiewicz; A. Sanetullaev; R. H. Showalter; S. R. Stroberg; M. B. Tsang; D. Weisshaar; J. Winkelbauer; R. Winkler; M. Youngs

2014-12-07

391

NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber for Fission Cross Section Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to design safer and more efficient Generation IV nuclear reactors, more accurate knowledge of fission cross sections is needed. The goal of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) used by the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration is to measure the cross sections of several fissile materials to within 1% uncertainty. The ability of the TPC to produce 3D ``pictures'' of charged particle trajectories will eliminate unwanted alpha particles in the data. Another important source of error is the normalization of data the U-235 standard. NIFFTE will use the H(n,n)H reaction instead, which is known to better than 0.2%. The run control and monitoring system will eventually allow for nearly complete automation and off-site monitoring of the experiment. This presentation will cover the need for precision measurements and an overview of the experiment.

Castillo, Ryan

2011-10-01

392

Electron scattering from pyrazine: elastic differential and integral cross sections.  

PubMed

We report on new measurements for elastic electron scattering from pyrazine. Absolute differential cross sections (DCSs) at seven discrete energies in the range 3-50 eV, and over the scattered electron angular range 10°-129°, were determined using a crossed electron-molecular beam spectrometer in conjunction with the well-established relative flow technique. Integral elastic cross sections were subsequently derived from those DCS data at each energy. Where possible comparison between the present results and those from sophisticated Schwinger multichannel and R-matrix computations is made, with generally quite good quantitative accord being found. Finally, in order to better study some of the rich resonance structure predicted by theory, results from elastic electron excitation functions are presented. PMID:23206003

Palihawadana, P; Sullivan, J P; Buckman, S J; Brunger, M J

2012-11-28

393

Turbulent combustion flow through variable cross section channel  

SciTech Connect

The object of this study is to develop a new evolutionary numerical method for solving direct task of Laval nozzle, which provides non-iterative calculations of chemical reacting turbulent flows with detailed kinetic chemistry. The numerical scheme of fourth order along the normal coordinate and second order along the streamwise one is derived for calculation of difference-differential equations of the second order and the first order. Marching method provides the possibility of computing field flow in subsonic section of nozzle and near an expansion. Critical mass consumption is calculated with controlled accuracy. After critical cross section of nozzle a combined marching method with global iterations over axial pressure (only) makes it possible to overcome ill posedness of mixed supersonic flow and calculate the whole flow field near and after critical cross section. Numerical results are demonstrated on turbulent burning hydrogen-oxygen flow through Laval nozzle with curvature of wall K{sub w} = 0.5.

Rogov, B.V.; Sokolova, I.A.

1999-07-01

394

Probing neutron-skin thickness with total reaction cross sections  

E-print Network

We analyze total reaction cross sections, $\\sigma_R$, for exploring their sensitivity to the neutron-skin thickness of nuclei. We cover 91 nuclei of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Ni isotopes. The cross sections are calculated in the Glauber theory using the density distributions obtained with the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method in 3-dimensional coordinate space. Defining a reaction radius, $a_R=\\sqrt{\\sigma_R/\\pi}$, to characterize the nuclear size and target (proton or $^{12}$C) dependence, we find an empirical formula for expressing $a_R$ with the point matter radius and the skin thickness, and assess two practical ways of determining the skin thickness from proton-nucleus $\\sigma_R$ values measured at different energies or from $\\sigma_R$ values measured for different targets.

Horiuchi, W; Inakura, T

2014-01-01

395

Macroscopic cross section generation and application for coupled spatial kinetics and thermal hydraulics analysis with SAS-DIF3DK  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the importance of modeling the transient behavior of multigroup cross sections in the context of coupled reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic computations with the SAS-DIF3DK computer code. The MACOEF macroscopic cross section methodology is presented. Results from benchmark verification calculations with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo are reported. Analysis of the Chernobyl accident is made using correlated WIMS-D4M generated group constants with special emphasis placed on the impact of modeling assumptions on the progression of the accident simulation.

Turski, R.B.; Morris, E.E.; Taiwo, T.A.; Cahalan, J.E.

1997-08-01

396

Measuring the hadronic cross section via radiative return  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently it has been demonstrated that particle factories, such as DA?NE and PEP-II, operating at fixed center-of-mass energies, are able to measure hadronic cross sections as a function of the hadronic system energy using the radiative return. This paper is an experimental overview of the progress in this area. Preliminary results from KLOE for the process e+e? ? ?? ?

A. Aloisio; F. Ambrosino; A. Antonelli; M. Antonelli; C. Bacci; G. Bencivenni; S. Bertolucci; C. Bini; C. Bloise; V. Bocci; F. Bossi; P. Branchini; S. A. Bulychjov; R. Caloi; P. Campana; G. Capon; G. Carboni; M. Casarsa; V. Casavola; G. Cataldi; F. Ceradini; F. Cervelli; F. Cevenini; G. Chiefari; P. Ciambrone; S. Conetti; E. De Lucia; G. De Robertis; P. De Simone; G. De Zorzi; S. Dell'Agnello; A. Denig; A. di Domenico; C. di Donato; S. Di Falco; A. Doria; M. Dreucci; O. Erriquez; A. Farilla; G. Felici; A. Ferrari; M. L. Ferrer; G. Finocchiaro; C. Forti; A. Franceschi; P. Franzini; C. Gatti; P. Gauzzi; S. Giovannella; E. Gorini; F. Grancagnolo; E. Graziani; S. W. Han; M. Incagli; L. Ingrosso; W. Kluge; C. Kuo; V. Kulikov; F. Lacava; G. Lanfranchi; J. Lee-Franzini; D. Leone; F. Lu; M. Martemianov; M. Matsyuk; W. Mei; L. Merola; R. Messi; S. Miscetti; M. Moulson; S. Müller; F. Murtas; M. Napolitano; A. Nedosekin; F. Nguyen; M. Palutan; L. Paoluzi; E. Pasqualucci; L. Passalacqua; A. Passeri; V. Patera; E. Petrolo; L. Pontecorvo; M. Primavera; F. Ruggieri; P. Santangelo; E. Santovetti; G. Saracino; R. D. Schamberger; B. Sciascia; A. Sciubba; F. Scuri; I. Sfiligoi; T. Spadaro; E. Spiriti; G. L. Tong; L. Tortora; E. Valente; P. Valente; B. Valeriani; G. Venanzoni; S. Veneziano; A. Ventura; G. Xu; G. W. Yu

2003-01-01

397

L-X-ray production cross sections by positrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The L-shell X-ray production cross sections for Ag, In and Sn by positron impact have been calculated with two methods based on classical mechanics, i.e. the binary-encounter approximation and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. The results are compared with the experimental data and quantum mechanical calculations. We found that both classical treatments describe the inner-shell ionization processes by positron impact reasonably well.

Mukoyama, Takeshi; T?kési, Károly; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

2014-11-01

398

Neutron-induced Cross Section Measurements of Calcium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, neutron-induced cross section experiments were performed at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator of the Institute for Reference Material and Measurements of the Joint Research Centers, European Union. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were carried out using a metallic calcium sample. The measured data will be used for a new calcium evaluation, which will be submitted with covariances to the ENDF/B nuclear data library.

Guber, K.; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Siegler, P.

2014-05-01

399

Neutron Cross-Section Measurements on Structural Materials at ORELA  

SciTech Connect

Neutron capture experiments, using isotopically enriched and natural samples of chromium and titanium, were performed on flight paths 6 and 7 at the 40 m flight station of ORELA. The experimental data were acquired using a pair of deuterated benzene detectors employing the now well-established pulse-height-weighting technique. These data were complemented by new total cross-section measurements where no useful previous data were available.

Guber, Klaus H [ORNL] [ORNL; Koehler, Paul [ORNL] [ORNL; Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL] [ORNL; Harvey, John A [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

400

Trade, efficiency, and growth in a cross section of countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade, Efficiency and Growth in a Cross Section of Countries. —Some cross-country studies of the determinants of growth suggest\\u000a only a modest role for trade policy. This study, measuring trade openness by the rate of growth of the share of exports in\\u000a GDP, argues that once the possibility of outliers for trade share growth is considered, a close relationship between

Edmund J. Sheehey

1995-01-01

401

Differential collision cross-sections for atomic oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential collision cross-sections of O on N2 and other gases were measured to understand vehicle-environmental contamination effects in orbit. The following subject areas are also covered: groundbased scientific observations of rocket releases during NICARE-1; data compression study for the UVI; science priorities for UV imaging in the mid-1990's; and assessment of optimizations possible in UV imaging systems.

Torr, Douglas G.

1991-01-01

402

Top Quark Production Cross Section at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the preliminary results of the top quark pair production cross section measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV carried out by the CDF and D0 collaborations is presented. The data samples used for the analyses are collected in the current Tevatron run and correspond to an integrated luminosity from 360 pb{sup -1} up to 760 pb{sup -1}.

Shabalina, E.; /Chicago U.

2006-05-01

403

Inclusive jet cross-section measurement at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

2007-05-01

404

Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section  

SciTech Connect

In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.

Rui Li

2012-07-01

405

Dielectronic-Recombination Cross-Sections of Hydrogenlike Argon  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A VOLUME 44, NUMBER 11 1 DECEMBER 1991 Dielectronic-recombination cross sections of hytlrogenlike argon D. R. DeWitt, D. Schneider, M. W. Clark, and M. H. Chen Latvrenee Livermore National Laboratory, University of California.... These trapped ions then undergo further ionization and other electron-ion 7185 1991 The American Physical Society DeWITT, SCHNEIDER, CLARK, CHEN, AND CHURCH interactions. In order to study dielectronic recombination in highly charged ions, the drift tubes...

Dewitt, D. R.; Schneider, D.; Clark, M. W.; Chen, M. H.; Church, David A.

1991-01-01

406

Experimental Electron-Impact K-Shell Ionization Cross Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental electron-impact K-shell ionization cross sections obtained from a search of the literature up to December 1999 are tabulated according to atomic number and incident electron energy. The data taken from the original papers have been reevaluated, where necessary, using the K-shell fluorescence yields compiled by Hubbell et al. and by Bambynek. Data are presented for elements H through U.

Mantian Liu; Zhu An; Changhuan Tang; Zhengming Luo; Xiufeng Peng; Xianguan Long

2000-01-01

407

Neutron-Induced Cross Sections Measurements of Calcium  

SciTech Connect

To support the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program neutron induced cross section experiments were performed at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator of the Institute for Reference Material and Measurements of the Joint Research Centers, European Union. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were carried out using a metallic calcium sample. The obtained data will be used for a new calcium evaluation, which will be submitted with its covariances to the ENDBF/B nuclear data base.

Guber, Klaus H [ORNL; Kopecky, S. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium; Schillebeeckx, P. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium; Kauwenberghs, K. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium; Siegler, P. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium

2013-01-01

408

Top quark pair production cross section at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Top quark pair production cross section has been measured at the Tevatron by CDF and D0 collaborations using different channels and methods, in order to test standard model predictions, and to search for new physics hints affecting the t{bar t} production mechanism or decay. Measurements are carried out with an integrated luminosity of 1.0 to 2.0 fb{sup -1}, and are found to be consistent with standard model expectations.

Cortiana, Giorgio; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.

2008-04-01

409

Total electron scattering cross sections. I - He, Ne, Ar, Xe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The apparatus and experimental procedures used to obtain total electron scattering cross sections are described, and results are presented for He, Ne, Ar and Xe in the 4-300 eV incident energy range, together with statistical errors. The results are generally found to be in good agreement with previous data except at low impact energies. Serious discrepancies remain in Xe below 20 eV impact energy.

Nickel, J. C.; Imre, K.; Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

1985-01-01

410

Ionization Cross Section Measurement for Molecules in Mercury's Exosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron impact ionization is widely used for neutral mass spectrometry; its energy and species dependent efficiency must be empirically characterized for instrument calibration. Ionization cross sections for a variety of elements and molecules have been measured, notably for simple molecules, atmospheric compounds, and hydrocarbons. Past investigations have usually focused on species that are gaseous in standard laboratory conditions which are easiest to handle and most commonly encountered by ground-based mass spectrometers. Space-based applications (e.g. studying planetary atmospheres or cometary outgassing) involve a much wider variety of species, including refractory molecules in gas phase, that have never been measured. A new facility has been built to determine the cross sections of these species using an evaporative source to generate a molecular beam of refractory compounds. In addition to the absolute cross sections for ion production of the original species, this experiment also examines the fragmentation products and their dissociation energies. Ionization energies are probed from threshold to 1 keV. We are specifically interested in molecules that may contribute to the exosphere of Mercury that could explain the anomalous hot distributions of magnesium and calcium that have been seen by Messenger. By targeting possible progenitor molecules of the observed atomic species (i.e. CaO, MgO, and other oxides/hydroxides) we aim to prepare for the next mission to Mercury by BepiColombo. Preliminary results will be presented for these new compounds as well as baseline cross sections of well-studied species for validation.

Miles, P.; Livi, S. A.; Patrick, E.; Ogasawara, K.

2012-12-01

411

Top-Quark Cross Section and Properties at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

At the Tevatron, the collider experiments CDF and D0 have data sets at their disposal that compromise several hundreds of reconstructed top-antitop-quark pairs and allow for precision measurements of the cross section and production and decay properties. Besides comparing the measurements to standard model predictions, these data sets open a window to physics beyond the standard model. Dedicated analyses look for new heavy gauge bosons, fourth generation quarks, and flavor-changing neutral currents.

Wagner, Wolfgang; /Wuppertal U.

2009-09-01

412

Induced-emission cross sections in neodymium laser glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for calculating induced-emission cross sections in neodymium laser glasses, based on simple absorbance measurements, has been demonstrated. Absorption and emission transition probabilities of four silicate-base neodymium laser glasses have been characterized in terms of the Judd-Ofelt (JO) model of crystal-field-induced electric-dipole transitions. Absolute absorption intensities in 3669A, ED-2, LSG-91H, and S33 glasses were measured and used to determine

WILLIAM F. KRUPKE

1974-01-01

413

Relativistic Elastic Differential Cross Sections for Equal Mass Nuclei  

E-print Network

The effects of relativistic kinematics are studied for nuclear collisions of equal mass nuclei. It is found that the relativistic and non-relativistic elastic scattering amplitudes are nearly indistinguishable, and, hence, the relativistic and non-relativistic differential cross sections become indistinguishable. These results are explained by analyzing the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with the first order optical potential that was employed in the calculation

C. M. Werneth; K. M. Maung; W. P. Ford

2014-11-18

414

Vessel Cross-Sectional Diameter Measurement on Color Retinal Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vessel cross-sectional diameter is an important feature for analyzing retinal vascular changes. In automated retinal image\\u000a analysis, the measurement of vascular width is a complex process as most of the vessels are few pixels wide or suffering from\\u000a lack of contrast. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure the retinal blood vessel diameter which can be used

Alauddin Bhuiyan; Baikunth Nath; Joselíto J. Chua; Ramamohanarao Kotagiri

2008-01-01

415

Theoretical description of spherically confined, strongly correlated Yukawa plasmas.  

PubMed

A theoretical description of the radial density profile for charged particles with Yukawa interaction in a harmonic trap is described. At strong Coulomb coupling shell structure is observed in both computer simulations and experiments. Correlations responsible for such shell structure are described here using a recently developed model based in density functional theory. A wide range of particle number, Coulomb coupling, and screening lengths is considered within the fluid phase. A hypernetted chain approximation shows the formation of shell structure, but fails to give quantitative agreement with Monte Carlo simulation results at strong coupling. Significantly better agreement is obtained within the hypernetted chain structure using a renormalized coupling constant, representing bridge function corrections. PMID:22181283

Bruhn, H; Kählert, H; Ott, T; Bonitz, M; Wrighton, J; Dufty, J W

2011-10-01

416

TELOMERE SHORTENING IN A LONG-LIVED MARINE BIRD: CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS AND TEST OF AN AGING TOOL  

E-print Network

775 TELOMERE SHORTENING IN A LONG-LIVED MARINE BIRD: CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS AND TEST OF AN AGING length of telomere restriction fragments (TRFs) and age has recently been demonstrated in several bird, it has been shown that telomere rate-of-change (TROC) correlates tightly with life span across several

Vleck, Carol

417

Absolute cross sections for elastic electron scattering from methylformamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic electron scattering from gaseous methylformamide (N-methylformamide, C2H5NO) has been investigated. Absolute elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) were determined both experimentally and theoretically for the incident energies from 50 to 300 eV. The measurements were performed using a cross-beam technique, for scattering angles from 20° to 110°. Relative elastic DCSs were measured as a function of both the angle and the incident energy and the absolute DCSs were determined using the relative flow method. The calculations of electron interaction cross sections are based on a corrected form of the independent-atom method, known as the SCAR (screen corrected additivity rule) procedure and using an improved quasifree absorption model. Calculated integral cross sections have been presented, as well, both for methylformamide and formamide, in the energy range 10-1000 eV, and discussed. The results are compared with and discussed regarding existing data for other small molecules representing building blocks of large biomolecules.

Maljkovi?, J. B.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Marinkovi?, B. P.; Milosavljevi?, A. R.

2012-04-01