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1

The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. Methods A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). Results The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score???22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x2?=?8.53, df?=?1, p?=?0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x2?=?70.63, df?=?4, p??351, OR?=?3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. Conclusions The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students, as well as the strong association with stressful life events, highlights the need for psychological empowerment strategies towards students by institutional counseling services. PMID:24304515

2013-01-01

2

Prevalence, patterns and correlates of cigarette smoking in male adolescents in northern Jordan, and the influence of waterpipe use and asthma diagnosis: a descriptive cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11-12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99-5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46-3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10-2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53-3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted. PMID:25257355

Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

2014-09-01

3

Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted. PMID:25257355

Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

2014-01-01

4

Correlations in the scattering cross section of regular systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several authors recognized and discussed the fact that regular closed quantum systems, i.e., systems which do not show correlations in their level spectrum, are nevertheless likely to exhibit correlations in the scattering cross section if they are coupled with sufficient strength to decay channels. In this paper a new averaging method is developed, especially designed to deal with S-

T. Gorin

1999-01-01

5

Self-consistent description of nuclear photoabsorption cross sections  

E-print Network

Several approaches to photonuclear reactions, based on the time-dependent density-functional theory, have been developed recently. The standard linearization leads to the random-phase approximation (RPA) or the quasiparticle-random-phase approximation (QRPA). We have developed a parallelized QRPA computer program for axially deformed nuclei. We also present a feasible approach to the (Q)RPA calculation, that is the finite amplitude method (FAM). We show results of photoabsorption cross sections for deformed nuclei using the QRPA and FAM calculations. Finally, the canonical-basis approach to the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method is presented, to demonstrate its feasibility and usefulness.

Takashi Nakatsukasa; Paolo Avogadro; Shuichiro Ebata; Tsunenori Inakura; Kenichi Yoshida

2011-01-17

6

Self-consistent description of nuclear photoabsorption cross sections  

E-print Network

Several approaches to photonuclear reactions, based on the time-dependent density-functional theory, have been developed recently. The standard linearization leads to the random-phase approximation (RPA) or the quasiparticle-random-phase approximation (QRPA). We have developed a parallelized QRPA computer program for axially deformed nuclei. We also present a feasible approach to the (Q)RPA calculation, that is the finite amplitude method (FAM). We show results of photoabsorption cross sections for deformed nuclei using the QRPA and FAM calculations. Finally, the canonical-basis approach to the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method is presented, to demonstrate its feasibility and usefulness.

Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Ebata, Shuichiro; Inakura, Tsunenori; Yoshida, Kenichi

2011-01-01

7

Microscopic description of measured reaction cross sections at low projectile energies  

SciTech Connect

Systematic and consistent microscopic description of measured reaction cross sections at low projectile energies is presented. Finite-range Glauber model (GM-F) along with the Coulomb modification is used. The required inputs, namely the neutron and proton density distributions of the relevant projectiles and the targets, are calculated in the relativistic mean field framework. The GM-F reproduces the experiment well. At high projectile energies both the GM-F and the zero-range Glauber model in the optical limit (GM-Z) yield almost identical results; however, the GM-F in general is superior at low projectile energies, as expected.

Bhagwat, A. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. Powai, Bombay 400076 (India); KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Alba Nova University Center, Department of Nuclear Physics, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gambhir, Y. K. [Department of Physics, I.I.T. Powai, Bombay 400076 (India)

2006-02-15

8

Total 4He Photoabsorption Cross Section Revisited: Correlated HH versus Effective Interaction HH  

E-print Network

Two conceptually different hyperspherical harmonics expansions are used for the calculation of the total 4He photoabsorption cross section. Besides the well known method of CHH the recently introduced effective interaction approach for the hyperspherical formalism is applied. Semi-realistic NN potentials are employed and final state interaction is fully taken into account via the Lorentz integral transform method. The results show that the effective interaction leads to a very good convergence, while the correlation method exhibits a less rapid convergence in the giant dipole resonance region. The rather strong discrepancy with the experimental photodisintegration cross sections is confirmed by the present calculations.

Nir Barnea; Victor D. Efros; Winfried Leidemann; Giuseppina Orlandini

2000-10-23

9

Event Study Testing with Cross-sectional Correlation of Abnormal Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the issue of cross-sectional correlation in event studies. When there is event-date clustering, we find that even relatively low cross-correlation among abnormal returns is serious in terms of over-rejecting the null hypothesis of zero average abnormal returns. We propose a new test statistic that modifies the t-statistic of Boehmer, Musumeci, and Poulsen (1991) to take into account

James W. Kolari; Seppo Pynnönen

2010-01-01

10

A comprehensive description of the photon structure function and photon-photon total cross section data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We fit the photon structure function and photon-photon total cross section obtained from two photone+e- experimental data. We show that a combination of the QPM point-like cross section and an hadronic cross section, given by a simple energy power expansion modified by a threshold factor, is in excellent agreement with the data.

E. Gotsman; A. Levy; U. Maor

1988-01-01

11

Phenomenological description of the {gamma}{sup {star}}p cross section at low Q{sup 2}  

SciTech Connect

Low Q{sup 2} photon-proton cross sections are analyzed using a simple, QCD-motivated parametrization {sigma}{sub {gamma}{sup {star}}p}{proportional_to}1/(Q{sup 2}+Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) which gives a good description of the data. The Q{sup 2} dependence of the {gamma}{sup {star}}p cross section is discussed in terms of the partonic transverse momenta of the hadronic state into which the photon fluctuates. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Rostovtsev, A. [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaja 25, Moscow 117259 (Russia)] [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaja 25, Moscow 117259 (Russia); Ryskin, M.G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188350, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russia)] [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188350, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russia); Engel, R. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)] [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

1999-01-01

12

Cognitive correlates of cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes in trail making performance  

PubMed Central

A total of 1,576 adults between 18 and 95 years of age performed a battery of cognitive tests and the Connections version of the trail making test twice, with an average interval between assessments of 2.5 years. Consistent with previous results, speed ability and fluid cognitive ability were strongly correlated with trail making performance. Neither speed nor fluid cognitive ability at the first occasion predicted longitudinal changes in trail making performance, but there were significant correlations between the changes in these abilities and the changes in trail making performance. These results indicate that individual differences in speed and fluid cognitive abilities are associated with individual differences in trail making performance both at a single point in time (cross-sectional differences), and in the changes over time (longitudinal changes). PMID:20865618

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

13

Total 4 He Photoabsorption Cross Section Revisited: Correlated HH versus Effective Interaction HH  

E-print Network

Two conceptually different hyperspherical harmonics expansions are used for the calculation of the total 4 He photoabsorption cross section. Besides the well known method of CHH the recently introduced effective interaction approach for the hyperspherical formalism is applied. Semi-realistic NN potentials are employed and final state interaction is fully taken into account via the Lorentz integral transform method. The results show that the effective interaction leads to a very good convergence, while the correlation method exhibits a less rapid convergence in the giant dipole resonance region. The rather strong discrepancy with the experimental photodisintegration cross sections is confirmed by the present calculations. PACS numbers: 21.45.+v, 25.20.Dc, 31.15.Ja, 21.30.Fe 1 The 4 He photodisintegration in the giant dipole resonance region is a particularly interesting reaction. An understanding of this process in terms of a microscopic calculation is not only a challenge in few-body physics, but could also lead to a deeper insight in the

Nir Barnea; Victor D. Efros; Winfried Leidemann

2008-01-01

14

Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

1993-01-01

15

A Cross-Sectional Study Examining Youth Smoking Rates and Correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia  

PubMed Central

Georgia has high smoking rates; however, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of youth smoking. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 1,879 secondary and postsecondary school students aged 15 to 24 years in Tbilisi, Georgia, examining substance use, perceived risk, and recreational activities in relation to lifetime and current (past 30 days) smoking. Lifetime and current smoking prevalence was 46.1% and 22.6%, respectively. In secondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, and lower perceived risk (P's ? .001). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, less frequently exercise, and more often going out (P's < .05). In postsecondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, more often going out, and recreational internet use (P's < .0). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male (P's = .04), consuming alcohol, marijuana use, lower perceived risk, and more often going out (P's < .05). Tobacco control interventions might target these correlates to reduce smoking prevalence in Georgian youth. PMID:24738059

Berg, Carla J.; Aslanikashvili, Ana; Djibuti, Mamuka

2014-01-01

16

Screening premorbid metabolic syndrome in community pharmacies: a cross-sectional descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background Premorbid metabolic syndrome (pre-MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors characterised by central obesity, elevated fasting glucose, atherogenic dyslipidaemia and hypertension without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Community pharmacies are in an excellent position to develop screening programmes because of their direct contact with the population. The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pre-MetS in people who visited community pharmacies for measurement of any of its five risk factors to detect the presence of other risk factors. The secondary aims were to study the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors and determine patients’ cardiovascular risk. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, multicentre study. Patients meeting selection criteria aged between 18 and 65 years who visited participating community pharmacies to check any of five pre-MetS diagnostic factors were included.The study involved 23 community pharmacies in Catalonia (Spain). Detection criteria for pre-MetS were based on the WHO proposal following IDF and AHA/NHBI consensus. Cardiovascular risk (CVR) was calculated by Regicor and Score methods. Other variables studied were smoking habit, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and pharmacological treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertension. The data were collected and analysed with the SPSS programme. Comparisons of variables were carried out using the Student’s T-test, Chi-Squared test or ANOVA test. Level of significance was 5% (0.05). Results The overall prevalence of pre-MetS was 21.9% [95% CI 18.7-25.2]. It was more prevalent in men, 25.5% [95% CI 22.1-28.9], than in women, 18.6% [95% CI 15.5-21.7], and distribution increased with age. The most common risk factors were high blood pressure and abdominal obesity. About 70% of people with pre-MetS were sedentary and over 85% had a BMI ?25 Kg/m2. Some 22.4% had two metabolic criteria and 27.2% of patients with pre-MetS had no previous diagnosis. Conclusions The prevalence of pre-MetS in our study (21.9%) was similar to that found in other studies carried out in Primary Care in Spain. The results of this study confirm emergent cardiometabolic risk factors such as hypertension, obesity and physical inactivity. Our study highlights the strategic role of the community pharmacy in the detection of pre-MetS in the apparently healthy population. PMID:24885099

2014-01-01

17

Physical activity and its correlates in children: a cross-sectional study (the GINIplus & LISAplus studies)  

PubMed Central

Background Physical inactivity among children is an increasing problem that adversely affects children’s health. A better understanding of factors which affect physical activity (PA) will help create effective interventions aimed at raising the activity levels of children. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of PA with individual (biological, social, behavioral, psychological) and environmental (East vs. West Germany, rural vs. urban regions) characteristics in children. Methods Information on PA and potential correlates was collected from 1843 girls and 1997 boys using questionnaires during the 10-year follow-up of two prospective birth cohort studies (GINIplus and LISAplus). Study regions represent urban and rural sites as well as East and West of Germany. Logistic regression modeling was applied to examine cross-sectional associations between individual as well as environmental factors and PA levels. Results Five of fourteen variables were significantly associated with PA. Among children aged 10, girls tended to be less active than boys, especially with respect to vigorous PA (OR?=?0.72 for summer). Children who were not a member of a sports club showed a substantially reduced amount of PA in winter (OR?=?0.15). Rural environments promote moderate PA, particularly in winter (OR?=?1.88), whereas an increased time outdoors primarily promotes moderate PA in summer (OR?=?12.41). Children with abnormal emotional symptoms exhibited reduced physical activity, particularly in winter (OR?=?0.60). BMI, puberty, parental BMI, parental education, household income, siblings, TV/PC consumption, and method of arriving school, were not associated with PA. Conclusions When considering correlates of PA from several domains simultaneously, only few factors (sex, sports club membership, physical environment, time outdoors, and emotional symptoms) appear to be relevant. Although the causality needs to be ascertained in longitudinal studies, variables which cannot be modified should be used to identify risk groups while modifiable variables, such as sports club activities, may be addressed in intervention programs. PMID:23587274

2013-01-01

18

Inelastic cross sections for low-energy electrons in liquid water: exchange and correlation effects.  

PubMed

Low-energy electrons play a prominent role in radiation therapy and biology as they are the largest contributor to the absorbed dose. However, no tractable theory exists to describe the interaction of low-energy electrons with condensed media. This article presents a new approach to include exchange and correlation (XC) effects in inelastic electron scattering at low energies (below ?10 keV) in the context of the dielectric theory. Specifically, an optical-data model of the dielectric response function of liquid water is developed that goes beyond the random phase approximation (RPA) by accounting for XC effects using the concept of the many-body local-field correction (LFC). It is shown that the experimental energy-loss-function of liquid water can be reproduced by including into the RPA dispersion relations XC effects (up to second order) calculated in the time-dependent local-density approximation with the addition of phonon-induced broadening in N. D. Mermin's relaxation-time approximation. Additional XC effects related to the incident and/or struck electrons are included by means of the vertex correction calculated by a modified Hubbard formula for the exchange-only LFC. Within the first Born approximation, the present XC corrections cause a significantly larger reduction (?10-50%) to the inelastic cross section compared to the commonly used Mott and Ochkur approximations, while also yielding much better agreement with the recent experimental data for amorphous ice. The current work offers a manageable, yet rigorous, approach for including non-Born effects in the calculation of inelastic cross sections for low-energy electrons in liquid water, which due to its generality, can be easily extended to other condensed media. PMID:24131062

Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Nikjoo, Hooshang

2013-11-01

19

A cross-sectional description of social capital in an international sample of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH)  

PubMed Central

Background Social capital refers to the resources linked to having a strong social network. This concept plays into health outcomes among People Living with HIV/AIDS because, globally, this is a highly marginalized population. Case studies show that modifying social capital can lead to improvements in HIV transmission and management; however, there remains a lack of description or definition of social capital in international settings. The purpose of our paper was to describe the degree of social capital in an international sample of adults living with HIV/AIDS. Methods We recruited PLWH at 16 sites from five countries including Canada, China, Namibia, Thailand, and the United States. Participants (n = 1,963) completed a cross-sectional survey and data were collected between August, 2009 and December, 2010. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and correlational analysis. Results Participant's mean age was 45.2 years, most (69%) identified as male, African American/Black (39.9%), and unemployed (69.5%). Total mean social capital was 2.68 points, a higher than average total social capital score. Moderate correlations were observed between self-reported physical (r = 0.25) and psychological condition (r = 0.36), social support (r = 0.31), and total social capital. No relationships between mental health factors, including substance use, and social capital were detected. Conclusions This is the first report to describe levels of total social capital in an international sample of PLWH and to describe its relationship to self-reported health in this population. PMID:22414342

2012-01-01

20

Adult tobacco use practice and its correlates in eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There is paucity of data on the smoking habits of rural populations in developing countries. This study aimed to explore cigarette smoking practices of a rural community in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 548 individuals from a random sample of households in a rural town and its surrounding rural districts. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Results Twenty-eight percent (95% CI: 24.3% - 31.6%) of the respondents were current smokers. A total of 105 (68%) smokers expressed an interest to quit while 37 (34%) had tried to quit previously but without success. There was high exposure to second-hand smoke: 285 (52%) homes allowed indoor smoking, and in 181 (33%) indoor smoking took place daily. Current smoking was strongly associated with male sex (OR?=?83.0; 95% CI: 11.5 – 599.0), and being a student was found to be protective of smoking (OR?=?0.04; 95% CI: 0.005 – 0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking is prevalent among the male rural town population in Ethiopia. In addition, a high level of exposure to indoor second-hand smoke exists. There is a need for investment in rural tobacco control, including educational campaigns and cost-effective smoking cessation services. PMID:24171800

2013-01-01

21

Target correlation effects on neutron-nucleus total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Second order optical model solutions to the elastic scattering amplitude were used to evaluate total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections for neutron nucleus scattering. Improved agreement with experimental data for total and absorption cross sections is found when compared with first order (coherent approximation) solutions, especially below several hundred MeV. At higher energies, the first and second order solutions are similar. There are also large differences in abrasion cross section calculations; these differences indicate a crucial role for cluster knockout in the abrasion step.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

1991-12-01

22

Prevalence and correlates of dieting in college women: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Dieting is a common practice among young women, irrespective of age, race, ethnicity, and weight. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dieting and its relationship with eating behavior, body weight, and body mass index (BMI) in college women. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of female students aged 18–35 years (n = 308). Measures included BMI, restraint, disinhibition, hunger, dieting, weight loss, and perceived weight. Results A high percentage of college females consider themselves overweight or obese, despite having a BMI in the normal range. Dieting was practised by 43%, and 32% were avoiding weight gain, despite 78% having a healthy BMI. Women classified themselves as overweight or obese (27%), while only 11% were actually in these categories. Exercise was a common method of weight loss and positive associations were observed between dieting and BMI. Assessment of eating behavior showed that 27% were classified as high-restraint. Restraint and disinhibition were positively correlated with BMI. Conclusion Despite the widespread availability of nutrition information, there is incongruity in measured and perceived BMI in young educated women. Dieting practices and BMI are associated with restraint and disinhibition. Nutrition professionals should consider educating college women about healthy body weight regardless of their clients’ BMI. PMID:22956885

Fayet, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

2012-01-01

23

Measurement of correlated mu-b¯ jet cross sections in pp¯ collisions at s=1.8 TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on measurements of differential mu-b¯ cross sections, where the muon is from a semileptonic b decay and the b¯ is identified using precision track reconstruction in jets. The semidifferential correlated cross sections dsigma\\/dEb¯T, dsigma\\/dpb¯T, and dsigma\\/ddeltaphi(mu-b¯) for pmuT>~9 GeV\\/c, ||etamu||<0.6,Eb¯T> 10 GeV, ||etab¯||<1.5 are presented and compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations.

F. Abe; M. G. Albrow; S. R. Amendolia; D. Amidei; J. Antos; C. Anway-Wiese; G. Apollinari; H. Areti; M. Atac; P. Auchincloss; F. Azfar; P. Azzi; N. Bacchetta; W. Badgett; M. W. Bailey; J. Bao; P. de Barbaro; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; P. Bartalini; G. Bauer; T. Baumann; F. Bedeschi; S. Behrends; S. Belforte; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; D. Benjamin; J. Benlloch; J. Bensinger; D. Benton; A. Beretvas; J. P. Berge; S. Bertolucci; A. Bhatti; K. Biery; M. Binkley; F. Bird; D. Bisello; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; A. Bodek; W. Bokhari; V. Bolognesi; D. Bortoletto; C. Boswell; T. Boulos; G. Brandenburg; C. Bromberg; E. Buckley-Geer; H. S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; A. Byon-Wagner; K. L. Byrum; J. Cammerata; C. Campagnari; M. Campbell; A. Caner; W. Carithers; D. Carlsmith; A. Castro; Y. Cen; F. Cervelli; H. Y. Chao; J. Chapman; M.-T. Cheng; G. Chiarelli; T. Chikamatsu; C. N. Chiou; L. Christofek; S. Cihangir; A. G. Clark; M. Cobal; M. Contreras; J. Conway; J. Cooper; M. Cordelli; C. Couyoumtzelis; D. Crane; J. D. Cunningham; T. Daniels; F. Dejongh; S. Delchamps; S. dell'agnello; M. dell'orso; L. Demortier; B. Denby; M. Deninno; P. F. Derwent; T. Devlin; M. Dickson; J. R. Dittmann; S. Donati; R. B. Drucker; A. Dunn; K. Einsweiler; J. E. Elias; R. Ely; E. Engels; S. Eno; D. Errede; S. Errede; Q. Fan; B. Farhat; I. Fiori; B. Flaugher; G. W. Foster; M. Franklin; M. Frautschi; J. Freeman; J. Friedman; H. Frisch; A. Fry; T. A. Fuess; Y. Fukui; S. Funaki; G. Gagliardi; S. Galeotti; M. Gallinaro; A. F. Garfinkel; S. Geer; D. W. Gerdes; P. Giannetti; N. Giokaris; P. Giromini; L. Gladney; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; J. Gonzalez; A. Gordon; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; H. Grassmann; A. Grewal; L. Groer; C. Grosso-Pilcher; C. Haber; S. R. Hahn; R. Handler; R. M. Hans; K. Hara; B. Harral; R. M. Harris; S. A. Hauger; J. Hauser; C. Hawk; J. Heinrich; D. Cronin-Hennessy; R. Hollebeek; L. Holloway; A. Hölscher; S. Hong; G. Houk; P. Hu; B. T. Huffman; R. Hughes; P. Hurst; J. Huston; J. Huth; J. Hylen; M. Incagli; J. Incandela; H. Iso; H. Jensen; C. P. Jessop; U. Joshi; R. W. Kadel; E. Kajfasz; T. Kamon; T. Kaneko; D. A. Kardelis; H. Kasha; Y. Kato; L. Keeble; R. D. Kennedy; R. Kephart; P. Kesten; D. Kestenbaum; R. M. Keup; H. Keutelian; F. Keyvan; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; L. Kirsch; P. Koehn; K. Kondo; J. Konigsberg; S. Kopp; K. Kordas; W. Koska; E. Kovacs; W. Kowald; M. Krasberg; J. Kroll; M. Kruse; S. E. Kuhlmann; E. Kuns; A. T. Laasanen; N. Labanca; S. Lammel; J. I. Lamoureux; T. Lecompte; S. Leone; J. D. Lewis; P. Limon; M. Lindgren; T. M. Liss; N. Lockyer; C. Loomis; O. Long; M. Loreti; E. H. Low; J. Lu; D. Lucchesi; C. B. Luchini; P. Lukens; J. Lys; P. Maas; K. Maeshima; A. Maghakian; P. Maksimovic; M. Mangano; J. Mansour; M. Mariotti; J. P. Marriner; A. Martin; J. A. Matthews; R. Mattingly; P. McIntyre; P. Melese; A. Menzione; E. Meschi; G. Michail; S. Mikamo; M. Miller; R. Miller; T. Mimashi; S. Miscetti; M. Mishina; H. Mitsushio; S. Miyashita; Y. Morita; S. Moulding; J. Mueller; A. Mukherjee; T. Muller; P. Musgrave; L. F. Nakae; I. Nakano; C. Nelson; D. Neuberger; C. Newman-Holmes; L. Nodulman; S. Ogawa; S. H. Oh; K. E. Ohl; R. Oishi; T. Okusawa; C. Pagliarone; R. Paoletti; V. Papadimitriou; J. Patrick; G. Pauletta; M. Paulini; L. Pescara; M. D. Peters; T. J. Phillips; G. Piacentino; M. Pillai; R. Plunkett; L. Pondrom; N. Produit; J. Proudfoot; F. Ptohos; G. Punzi; K. Ragan; F. Rimondi; L. Ristori; M. Roach-Bellino; W. J. Robertson; T. Rodrigo; J. Romano; L. Rosenson; W. K. Sakumoto; D. Saltzberg; A. Sansoni; V. Scarpine; A. Schindler; P. Schlabach; E. E. Schmidt; M. P. Schmidt; O. Schneider; G. F. Sciacca; A. Scribano; S. Segler; S. Seidel; Y. Seiya; G. Sganos; A. Sgolacchia; M. Shapiro; N. M. Shaw; Q. Shen; P. F. Shepard; M. Shimojima; M. Shochet; J. Siegrist; A. Sill; P. Sinervo; P. Singh; J. Skarha; K. Sliwa; D. A. Smith; F. D. Snider; L. Song; T. Song; J. Spalding; L. Spiegel; P. Sphicas; A. Spies; L. Stanco; J. Steele; A. Stefanini; K. Strahl; J. Strait; D. Stuart; G. Sullivan; K. Sumorok; R. L. Swartz; T. Takahashi; K. Takikawa; F. Tartarelli; W. Taylor; P. K. Teng; Y. Teramoto; S. Tether; D. Theriot; J. Thomas; T. L. Thomas; R. Thun; M. Timko; P. Tipton; A. Titov; S. Tkaczyk; K. Tollefson; A. Tollestrup; J. Tonnison; J. F. de Troconiz; J. Tseng; M. Turcotte; N. Turini; N. Uemura; F. Ukegawa; G. Unal; S. C. van den Brink; S. Vejcik; R. Vidal; M. Vondracek; D. Vucinic; R. G. Wagner; R. L. Wagner; N. Wainer; R. C. Walker; C. Wang; C. H. Wang; G. Wang; J. Wang; M. J. Wang; Q. F. Wang; A. Warburton; G. Watts; T. Watts; R. Webb; C. Wei; C. Wendt; H. Wenzel; W. C. Wester; T. Westhusing; A. B. Wicklund; E. Wicklund; R. Wilkinson; H. H. Williams; P. Wilson; B. L. Winer; J. Wolinski; D. Y. Wu; X. Wu; J. Wyss; A. Yagil; W. Yao; K. Yasuoka; Y. Ye; G. P. Yeh; P. Yeh; M. Yin

1996-01-01

24

b-quark inclusive cross sections and b{bar b} correlations using dimuons from the D0 experiment  

SciTech Connect

Using dimuons collected with the D{null} detector during the 1993- 1995 Tevatron collider run, we have measured the {ital b}-quark cross section and {ital b{anti b}} correlations as given by the difference in azimuthal angle between the two muons. Both measurements agree with the NLO QCD predictions within experimental and theoretical errors.

Vititoe, D.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics; D0 Collaboration

1996-11-01

25

Cross correlation of cosmic shear and extragalactic gamma-ray background: Constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first measurement of the cross correlation of weak gravitational lensing and the extragalactic ?-ray background emission using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey and the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The cross correlation is a powerful probe of signatures of dark matter annihilation, because both cosmic shear and gamma-ray emission originate directly from the same dark matter distribution in the Universe, and it can be used to derive constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section. We show that the measured lensing-? correlation is consistent with a null signal. Comparing the result to theoretical predictions, we exclude dark matter annihilation cross sections of ??v?=10-24-10-25 cm3 s-1 for a 100 GeV dark matter. If dark matter halos exist down to the mass scale of 10-6M?, we are able to place constraints on the thermal cross sections ??v?˜5×10-26 cm3 s-1 for a 10 GeV dark matter annihilation into ? +?-. Future gravitational lensing surveys will increase sensitivity to probe annihilation cross sections of ??v?˜3×10-26 cm3 s-1 even for a 100 GeV dark matter. Detailed modeling of the contributions from astrophysical sources to the cross correlation signal could further improve the constraints by ˜40%-70%.

Shirasaki, Masato; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Yoshida, Naoki

2014-09-01

26

Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We have identified environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish community. The results of this study suggest that residents' self-assessed area reputation is an important underlying mechanism of perceived safety. We also found a difference in crime rates and safety-related concerns between areas with blocks of flats compared with small-scale areas although the neighbourhoods were close geographically. PMID:19586534

Kullberg, Agneta; Karlsson, Nadine; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

2009-01-01

27

Sexual behaviors and their correlates among young people in Mauritius: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Indian Ocean region, including Mauritius. National records suggest a prevalence of HIV in Mauritius of < 1% in the general population, which is one of the lowest prevalence rates in southern Africa. However, HIV-positive cases have been increasing recently in Mauritius. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in January 2003 to assess the prevalence of HIVrelated sexual behaviors and their correlates among young people aged 15–24 years in Mauritius. Methods We identified 1200 participants using two-stage cluster sampling. Demographic, social, sexual, and knowledge of HIV/AIDS data were obtained in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The prevalence of sexual behaviors was described in relation to gender, and the correlates of ever having had sex and nonuse of condom at last sex were analyzed using logistic regression. Results In the target population, 30.9% of males and 9.7% of females reported a history of sexual intercourse. Of the currently sexually active participants, 50.6% of men and 71.2% of women did not use condoms at their last sexual encounter. Logistic regression revealed that work experience and marijuana use were significantly associated with men's sexual experience, whereas being out of school and drinking experience were significantly associated with women's sexual experience. For both men and women, being Christian and visiting nightclubs were associated with having ever had sexual intercourse (P < 0.05). In addition, not using a condom at the first sexual encounter and lack of exposure to a nongovernmental organization (NGO) dealing with HIV/AIDS were associated with the nonuse of condoms at the last sexual encounter (P < 0.05). Conclusion Young people in Mauritius are at risk of a future HIV epidemic because behaviors predisposing to HIV infection are prevalent among sexually experienced youth. A focused prevention program targeting young people should be reinforced as part of the National AIDS Control Program, taking into account the predictors of sexual behaviors identified here. PMID:17919330

Nishimura, Yumiko H; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Mohith, Jagdis C; NgManSun, Renaud; Homma, Takayuki; DiClemente, Ralph J; Lang, Delia L; Kihara, Masahiro

2007-01-01

28

Sexual behaviors and their correlates among young people in Mauritius: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in the Indian Ocean region, including Mauritius. National records suggest a prevalence of HIV in Mauritius of < 1% in the general population, which is one of the lowest prevalence rates in southern Africa. However, HIV-positive cases have been increasing recently in Mauritius. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in January 2003 to

Yumiko H Nishimura; Masako Ono-Kihara; Jagdis C Mohith; Renaud NgManSun; Takayuki Homma; Ralph J DiClemente; Delia L Lang; Masahiro Kihara

2007-01-01

29

Correlations among measures of quality in HIV care in the United States: cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether a selected set of indicators can represent a single overall quality construct.Design Cross sectional study of data abstracted during an evaluation of an initiative to improve quality of care for people with HIV.Setting 69 sites in 30 states.Data sources Medical records of 9020 patients.Main outcome measures Adjusted performance rates at site level for eight measures of

Ira B Wilson; Bruce E Landon; Peter V Marsden; Lisa R Hirschhorn; Keith McInnes; Lin Ding; Paul D Cleary

2007-01-01

30

Correlates of motivation to prevent weight gain: a cross sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study is an application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with additional variables to predict the motivations to prevent weight gain. In addition, variations in measures across individuals classified into Precaution Adoption Process stages (PAPM-stages) of behaviour change were investigated. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among 979 non-obese Dutch adults aged 25–35 years was conducted. Multiple binary logistic

Birgitte Wammes; Stef Kremers; Boudewijn Breedveld; Johannes Brug

2005-01-01

31

Correlation of Intermediate Energy Proton- and Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections in the Lead-Bismuth Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron- and proton-induced fission cross-sections of the lead isotopes 204,206-208Pb and 205Tl in the intermediate energy region have been measured at the Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. Average fissilities of the composite nuclei and the dependence on the nucleon energy and the parameter Z2/A were determined. On this basis, the correlation between the proton- and neutron-induced fission cross sections has been established in the atomic mass region A ˜ 200 and for nucleon energies above 50 MeV, where shell effects do not play a very significant role. The correlation is discussed in the frame of results from calculations by the code TALYS.

Smirnov, Andrey N.; Eismont, Vilen P.; Filatov, Nikolay P.; Kirillov, Sergey N.; Blomgren, Jan; Condé, Henri; Olsson, Nils; Duijvestijn, Marieke; Koning, Arjan

2005-05-01

32

[Drug prescriptions of patients treated in a geriatric outpatient ward of a university hospital: a descriptive cross-sectional study].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to evaluate drug prescriptions for elderly patients in the geriatric outpatient ward of a hospital. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a university hospital, with the application of a questionnaire. Patients aged >60 years were interviewed about their drug prescriptions and a total of 208 patients were interviewed. The average number of drugs used per person was 3.8 and the drugs most used were for the cardiovascular system (37%). 406 potential interactions were identified in 140 patients (67.3%), and duplicate therapy was found in two prescriptions. The potentially inappropriate drug most used for the elderly was nifedipine (2.4%). Data from this study support the relevance of the issue of drug use among the elderly, thus reinforcing the importance of the evaluation of the process of the prescription of drugs for this population. PMID:25119075

Cuentro, Vanessa da Silva; Andrade, Marcieni Ataide de; Gerlack, Letícia Farias; Bós, Angelo José Gonçalves; Silva, Marcos Valério Santos da; Oliveira, Alex Ferreira de

2014-08-01

33

Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST). This study aimed to (1) describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST) and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2) describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3) determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST) included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit <3 METs whilst seated or lying down (other than sleeping), excluding screen-based activities (television, playing videogames or using computers). Total sedentary time was the sum of screen time and NSST. Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD) of 345 (105) minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating) 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58), and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53) with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST. PMID:21194427

2010-01-01

34

Prevalence and correlates of complementary and alternative medicine use among diabetic patients in Beirut, Lebanon: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies due to difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens and lifestyle changes necessary for disease management. Little is known about the prevalence and mode of CAM use among patients with T2DM in Lebanon. Objective To assess the prevalence and modes of CAM use among patients with T2DM residing in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional survey of T2DM patients was conducted on patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut- a public hospital and a private academic medical center. In a face-to-face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic, diabetes characteristics and types and modes of CAM use. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the prevalence and correlates of CAM use, as well as whether the use was complementary or alternative to mainstream medicine. The main outcome in this study, CAM use, was defined as using CAM at least once since diagnosis with T2DM. Results A total of 333 T2DM patients completed the survey (response rate: 94.6%). Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis with the disease was 38%. After adjustment, CAM use was significantly associated with a “married” status, a longer duration of T2DM, the presence of disease complications, and a positive family history of the disease. Folk foods and herbs were the most commonly used CAM followed by natural health products. One in five patients used CAM as alternative to conventional treatment. Only 7% of CAM users disclosed the CAM use to their treating physician. Health care practitioners were the least cited (7%) as influencing the choice of CAM among users. Conclusion The use of CAM therapies among T2DM patients in Lebanon is prevalent. Decision makers and care providers must fully understand the potential risks and benefits of CAM therapies to appropriately advise their patients. Attention must be dedicated to educating T2DM patients on the importance of disclosing CAM use to their physicians especially patients with a family history of diabetes, and those who have had the disease for a long time. PMID:24906634

2014-01-01

35

Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC). METHODS: 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were

Danielle C Ompad; Crystal M Fuller; Christina A Chan; Victoria Frye; David Vlahov; Sandro Galea

2008-01-01

36

The recent absolute total np and pp cross section determinations: quality of data description and prediction of experimental observables  

SciTech Connect

The absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region. Comparison of the np evaluation with the result of most recent np total and differential cross section measurements will be discussed. Results of those measurements were not used in the evaluation database. A comparison was done to check a quality of evaluation and its capabilities to predict experimental observables. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haight, Robert C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arndt, Richard A [GWU; Briscoe, William J [GWU; Paris, Mark W [GWU; Strakovsky, Igor I [GWU; Workman, Ron L [GWU

2010-01-01

37

Cross Section Flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use slider bars to move a cross section of a cone, cylinder, prism, or pyramid. This activity allows students to explore conic sections and the 3-dimensional shapes from which they are derived. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

38

Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. METHODS: Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age,

Adriana L Jurj; Wanqing Wen; Yu-Tang Gao; Charles E Matthews; Gong Yang; Hong-Lan Li; Wei Zheng; Xiao-Ou Shu

2007-01-01

39

Correlates of foot pain severity in adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Hallux valgus (HV) is highly prevalent and associated with progressive first metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation and osteoarthritis. The link between structural HV deformity and foot pain is unclear. This study investigated possible explanatory factors surrounding foot pain in HV, including radiographic HV angle and signs of joint degeneration. Methods Participants were 60 adults (53 female) with HV aged 20 to 75 years. Participant demographics and a range of radiographic, clinical and functional measures were considered potential correlates of foot pain. Self-reported foot pain (visual analogue scales and a dichotomous definition) was considered the dependent variable. Multivariate modelling was used to determine which characteristics and measures explained pain, with univariate analyses first used to screen potential variables. Results Approximately 20 to 30% of the variance in foot pain associated with HV could be explained by patient characteristics such as poorer general health status, lower educational attainment and increased occupational physical activity levels, in combination with some dynamic physical characteristics such as hallux plantarflexion weakness and reduced force-time integral under the second metatarsal during gait. Neither increasing lateral deviation of the hallux (HV angle) nor presence of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis was associated with foot pain. Conclusions This study shows that passive structural factors, including HV angle, do not appear to be significant correlates of foot pain intensity in HV. Our data demonstrate the importance of considering patient characteristics such as general health and physical activity levels when assessing foot pain associated with HV. PMID:25028598

2014-01-01

40

The Clinical COPD Questionnaire Correlated with BODE Index-A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

The Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging has widely used in the stratification of the severity of COPD, while BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index was proven superior to FEV1 in predicting mortality, exacerbation and disease severity in patients with COPD. Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), a questionnaire with ten items categorized into three domains (symptoms, functional state and mental state) was developed to measure health status of COPD patients. However, little is known about the relationship between CCQ score and BODE index. We performed a prospective study with the inclusion of 89 patients who were clinically stable after a 6-week-therapy for COPD symptoms comparing their health status assessed by CCQ, BODE index and GOLD staging. We found that the total CCQ score was correlated with BODE score (P < 0.001) and GOLD staging (P < 0.001); of three CCQ domains, the functional status correlated the most with BODE index (rS = 0.670) and GOLD staging (rS = 0.531), followed by symptoms (rS = 0.482; rS = 0.346, respectively), and mental status (rS = 0.340; rS = 0.236, respectively). Our data suggest that CCQ is a reliable and convenient alternative tool to evaluate the severity of COPD. PMID:22654594

Liu, Shih-Feng; Tseng, Ching-Wan; Tu, Mei-Lien; Wang, Chin-Chou; Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Chin, Chien-Hung; Lin, Meng-Chih; Liu, Jien-Wei

2012-01-01

41

The b b production cross section and angular correlations in p p collisions at s = 1.8 TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of the bb production cross section and angular correlations using the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp Collider operating at s = 1.8 TeV. The b quark production cross section for |yb|<1.0 and pTb>6 GeV\\/c is extracted from single muon and dimuon data samples. The results agree in shape with the next-to-leading order QCD calculation of

B Abbott; M Abolins; V Abramov; B. S Acharya; D. L Adams; M Adams; V Akimov; G. A Alves; N Amos; E. W Anderson; M. M Baarmand; V. V Babintsev; L Babukhadia; A Baden; B Baldin; S Banerjee; J Bantly; E Barberis; P Baringer; J. F Bartlett; U Bassler; A Bean; A Belyaev; S. B Beri; G Bernardi; I Bertram; V. A Bezzubov; P. C Bhat; V Bhatnagar; M Bhattacharjee; G Blazey; S Blessing; A Boehnlein; N. I Bojko; F Borcherding; A Brandt; R Breedon; G Briskin; R Brock; G Brooijmans; A Bross; D Buchholz; M Buehler; V Buescher; V. S Burtovoi; J. M Butler; F Canelli; W Carvalho; D Casey; Z Casilum; H Castilla-Valdez; D Chakraborty; K. M Chan; S. V Chekulaev; D. K Cho; S Choi; S Chopra; B. C Choudhary; J. H Christenson; M Chung; D Claes; A. R Clark; J Cochran; L Coney; B Connolly; W. E Cooper; D Coppage; D Cullen-Vidal; M. A. C Cummings; D Cutts; O. I Dahl; K Davis; K De; K Del Signore; M Demarteau; D Denisov; S. P Denisov; H. T Diehl; M Diesburg; G Di Loreto; S Doulas; P Draper; Y Ducros; L. V Dudko; S. R Dugad; A Dyshkant; D Edmunds; J Ellison; V. D Elvira; R Engelmann; S Eno; G Eppley; P Ermolov; O. V Eroshin; J Estrada; H Evans; V. N Evdokimov; T Fahland; S Feher; D Fein; T Ferbel; H. E Fisk; Y Fisyak; E Flattum; F Fleuret; M Fortner; K. C Frame; S Fuess; E Gallas; A. N Galyaev; P Gartung; V Gavrilov; R. J Genik II; K Genser; C. E Gerber; Y Gershtein; B Gibbard; R Gilmartin; G Ginther; B Gómez; G Gómez; P. I Goncharov; J. L González Sol??s; H Gordon; L. T Goss; K Gounder; A Goussiou; N Graf; P. D Grannis; J. A Green; H Greenlee; S Grinstein; P Grudberg; S Grünendahl; G Guglielmo; A Gupta; S. N Gurzhiev; G Gutierrez; P Gutierrez; N. J Hadley; H Haggerty; S Hagopian; V Hagopian; K. S Hahn; R. E Hall; P Hanlet; S Hansen; J. M Hauptman; C Hays; C Hebert; D Hedin; A. P Heinson; U Heintz; T Heuring; R Hirosky; J. D Hobbs; B Hoeneisen; J. S Hoftun; A. S Ito; S. A Jerger; R Jesik; T Joffe-Minor; K Johns; M Johnson; A Jonckheere; M Jones; H Jöstlein; A Juste; S Kahn; E Kajfasz; D Karmanov; D Karmgard; R Kehoe; S. K Kim; B Klima; C Klopfenstein; B Knuteson; W Ko; J. M Kohli; A. V Kostritskiy; J Kotcher; A. V Kotwal; A. V Kozelov; E. A Kozlovsky; J Krane; M. R Krishnaswamy; S Krzywdzinski; M Kubantsev; S Kuleshov; Y Kulik; S Kunori; G Landsberg; A Leflat; F Lehner; J Li; Q. Z Li; J. G. R Lima; D Lincoln; S. L Linn; J Linnemann; R Lipton; J. G Lu; A Lucotte; L Lueking; C Lundstedt; A. K. A Maciel; R. J Madaras; V Manankov; S Mani; H. S Mao; T Marshall; M. I Martin; R. D Martin; K. M Mauritz; B May; A. A Mayorov; R McCarthy; J McDonald; T McMahon; H. L Melanson; X. C Meng; M Merkin; K. W Merritt; C Miao; H Miettinen; D Mihalcea; A Mincer; C. S Mishra; N Mokhov; N. K Mondal; H. E Montgomery; M Mostafa; H da Motta; E Nagy; F Nang; M Narain; V. S Narasimham; H. A Neal; J. P Negret; S Negroni; D Norman; L Oesch; V Oguri; B Olivier; N Oshima; P Padley; L. J Pan; A Para; N Parashar; R Partridge; N Parua; M Paterno; A Patwa; B Pawlik; J Perkins; M Peters; R Piegaia; H Piekarz; B. G Pope; E Popkov; H. B Prosper; S Protopopescu; J Qian; P. Z Quintas; R Raja; S Rajagopalan; N. W Reay; S Reucroft; M Rijssenbeek; T Rockwell; M Roco; P Rubinov; R Ruchti; J Rutherfoord; A Santoro; L Sawyer; R. D Schamberger; H Schellman; A Schwartzman; J Sculli; N Sen; E Shabalina; H. C Shankar; R. K Shivpuri; D Shpakov; M Shupe; R. A Sidwell; V Simak; H Singh; J. B Singh; V Sirotenko; P Slattery; E Smith; R. P Smith; R Snihur; G. R Snow; J Snow; S Snyder; J Solomon; X. F Song; V Sor??n; M Sosebee; N Sotnikova; K Soustruznik; M Souza; N. R Stanton; G Steinbrück; R. W Stephens; M. L Stevenson; F Stichelbaut; D Stoker; V Stolin; D. A Stoyanova; M Strauss; K Streets; M Strovink; L Stutte; A Sznajder; W Taylor; S Tentindo-Repond; T. L. T Thomas; J Thompson; D Toback; T. G Trippe; A. S Turcot; P. M Tuts; P van Gemmeren; V Vaniev; R Van Kooten; N Varelas; A. A Volkov; A. P Vorobiev; H. D Wahl; H Wang; J Warchol; G Watts; M Wayne; H Weerts; A White; J. T White; D Whiteson; J. A Wightman; S Willis; S. J Wimpenny; J. V. D Wirjawan; J Womersley; D. R Wood; R Yamada; P Yamin; T Yasuda; K Yip; S Youssef; J Yu; Z Yu; M Zanabria; H Zheng; Z Zhou; Z. H Zhu; M Zielinski; D Zieminska; A Zieminski; V Zutshi; E. G Zverev; A Zylberstejn

2000-01-01

42

HIV related risk behaviours among taxi drivers and their assistants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: descriptive cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Risk taking behaviours in relation to HIV among the mobile population is a growing public health concern in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to describe risky sexual behaviours and associated factors among male taxi drivers and assistants in Addis Ababa. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey design with multistage cluster sampling procedure was employed to select 615 individuals for interview. Results Seventy six percent of the respondents were sexually active. Nearly 31% of the respondents reported casual sex and 7% of them did not use a condom with their most recent casual sex partner. More than half (58.5%) of the respondents had no condom use efficacy. Condom breakage and/or slippage during sex had been encountered by 44% of respondents with casual partners and sex during menstruation had ever occurred among 17% of respondents. Eleven percent had experienced sex with female sex workers. Thirty-three percent of the respondents were unfaithful to their spouse/steady partners. Multivariate analysis revealed that living with parents [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.14-3.60)], non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 3.7(2.13-6.31)], never taken VCT [AOR 95% CI; 3.5(1.84-6.72)], middle-class monthly cash gain [AOR 95% CI; 0.5(0.25-0.98)] and more years of experience working on a taxi [AOR 95% CI; 0.17(0.60-0.47)] were statistically significant to influence lifetime abstinence. Non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 0.53(0.37-0.78)], never taken VCT [AOR 95% CI; 0.54(0.36-0.88)] and higher monthly cash gain [AOR 95% CI; 2.9(1.14-7.19)] had a statistically significant association with condom use efficacy. Living with parents [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.31-3.72)], living with friends [AOR 95% CI; 6.4(3.13-12.89)] and non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.34-3.53)] were risk factors found to be associated with faithfulness. Conclusions Risky sexual behaviours in this sub-population were considerable and associated factors were found to be multidimensional. Therefore, there is a need for robust intervention strategies such as tailored serial radio program targeting taxi drivers and their assistants. PMID:24712295

2014-01-01

43

Injudicious use of laboratory facilities in tertiary care hospitals at rawalpindi, pakistan: a cross-sectional descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years inappropriate and excessive use of clinical laboratory facilities has become a cause of concern and has led to concurrent rise in the laboratory errors and the health care costs. The aim of the study was to find out the frequency of incomplete laboratory request forms, inappropriate test requests at various professional levels and the financial impact of uncollected reports at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Laboratory Rawalpindi. Methods The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted during a three month period from April to June 2012 at AFIP and CMH Laboratory Rawalpindi. A total of 1000 laboratory request forms were collected and scrutinized for completion from AFIP (n=500) and CMH Rawalpindi laboratory (n=500). 536 request forms of costly/specialized tests from different departments of AFIP were studied to find out the professional level of test request. The total number of tests performed at AFIP during the study period and number of uncollected reports were noted. The financial impact of these uncollected reports was also calculated. Collection of data and sorting were done manually. Patient confidentiality was maintained. Microsoft excel software and SPSS-17 were used for analysis. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Review Committee. Results Out of a total of 1000 forms studied none was completely filled with clinical notes being present in only 2.4% and 13% of forms sent to CMH and AFIP respectively. 62% of the expensive investigations were requested by specialists while 38% were ordered by residents and general practitioners but the percentage of avoidable expensive tests ordered by the general practitioners and residents was significantly higher than the specialists(p<0.001). A total of 9026 (40%) and 5046 (22%) diagnostic test reports were not collected from the Chemical pathology and Hematology departments respectively. Financial impact of uncollected reports from all the departments at AFIP collectively amounted to Pakistani Rupees (PKR) 3338201. Conclusion Processing incomplete laboratory request forms and injudicious use of laboratory facilities leads to incorrect interpretation of laboratory test results affecting outcome of the overall treatment. PMID:24274077

2013-01-01

44

Correlation between subclinical median neuropathy and the cross-sectional area of the median nerve at the wrist.  

PubMed

Although subclinical median neuropathy is not uncommon, its correlation with sonographic changes to the median nerve at the wrist has not been studied. We included 62 subjects (with 107 wrists) who reported experiencing no hand numbness. All subjects underwent nerve conduction studies (NCS) and sonography for median nerve at the pisiform level. The cross-sectional area (CSA), perimeter, long axis and short axis of median nerve were obtained off-line by manual tracing with a mouse and computed by one algorithm written in MatLab. Eighteen wrists met the inclusion criteria of subclinical median neuropathy. The CSA, perimeter and long axis of the median nerve were significantly different between normal and abnormal NCS wrists. Mixed model analysis showed that subclinical neuropathy was associated with enlarged CSA, but the other demographic variables (gender, age and body mass index and occupational categories) were not. Our findings support the use of both patient symptoms and NCS to define normal subjects during further studies. In addition, enlarged CSA within asymptomatic individuals should raise concern for subclinical median neuropathy. PMID:23499346

Su, Po-Hsien; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Liang, Huey-Wen

2013-06-01

45

Development of a reaction ejectile sampling algorithm to recover kinematic correlations from inclusive cross-section data in Monte-Carlo particle transport simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new phenomenological approach is developed to reproduce the stochastic distributions of secondary particle energy and angle with conservation of momentum and energy in reactions ejecting more than one ejectiles using inclusive cross-section data. The summation of energy and momentum in each reaction is generally not conserved in Monte-Carlo particle transport simulation based on the inclusive cross-sections because the particle correlations are lost in the inclusive cross-section data. However, the energy and angular distributions are successfully reproduced by randomly generating numerous sets of secondary particle configurations which are compliant with the conservation laws, and sampling one set considering their likelihood. This developed approach was applied to simulation of (n,xn) reactions (x?2) of various targets and to other reactions such as (n,np) and (n,2n?). The calculated secondary particle energy and angular distributions were compared with those of the original inclusive cross-section data to validate the algorithm. The calculated distributions reproduce the trend of original cross-section data considerably well especially in case of heavy targets. The developed algorithm is beneficial to improve the accuracy of event-by-event analysis in particle transport simulation.

Ogawa, T.; Sato, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Niita, K.

2014-11-01

46

Measurement of correlated $\\mu$-$\\overline{b}$ jet cross sections in p$\\overline{p}$ collisions at \\Sqrt s = 1.8 TeV  

E-print Network

We report on measurements of differential \\mu - {\\overline b} cross sections, where the muon is from a semi-leptonic b decay and the {\\overline b} is identified using precision track reconstruction in jets. The semi-differential correlated cross sections, d\\sigma/d\\Et^{{\\overline b}}, d\\sigma/d\\pt^{{\\overline b}}, and d\\sigma/d\\delta\\phi(\\mu - {\\overline b}) for \\pt^{\\mu}>~9~GeV/c, |\\eta^{\\mu}|~10~GeV, |\\eta^{{\\overline b}}|<~1.5, are presented and compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations.

Abe, F; Amendolia, S R; Amidei, D; Antos, J; Anway-Wiese, C; Apollinari, G; Areti, H; Atac, Muzaffer; Auchincloss, P S; Azfar, F; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W F; Bailey, M W; Bao, J; De Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, Virgil E; Barnett, B A; Bartalini, P; Bauer, G; Baumann, T; Bedeschi, F; Behrends, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, Giorgio; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Benlloch, J M; Bensinger, J; Benton, D; Beretvas, A; Bergé, J P; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bhatti, A A; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bird, F; Bisello, D; Blair, R; Blocker, C A; Bodek, Arie; Bokhari, W; Bolognesi, V; Bortoletto, Daniela; Boswell, C; Boulos, T; Brandenburg, G; Buckley-Geer, E; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Byon-Wagner, A; Byrum, K L; Cammarata, J B; Campagnari, C; Campbell, M; Caner, A; Carithers, W C; Carlsmith, D; Castro, A; Cen, Y; Cervelli, F; Chao, H Y; Chapman, J; Cheng, M T; Chiarelli, G; Chikamatsu, T; Chiou, C N; Christofek, L S; Cihangir, S; Clark, A G; Cobal, M; Contreras, M; Conway, J; Cooper, J; Cordelli, M; Couyoumtzelis, C; Crane, D; Cunningham, J D; Daniels, T; De Jongh, F; Delchamps, S W; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Demortier, L; Denby, B; Deninno, M M; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dickson, M; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; Drucker, R B; Dunn, A; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Elias, J E; Ely, R P; Engels, E; Eno, S; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fan, Q; Farhat, B; Fiori, I; Flaugher, B L; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Frautschi, M A; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Frisch, H; Fry, A; Fuess, T A; Fukui, Y; Funaki, S; Gagliardi, G; Galeotti, S; Gallinaro, M; Garfinkel, A F; Geer, S; Gerdes, D W; Giannetti, P; Giokaris, N D; Giromini, P; Gladney, L; Glenzinski, D A; Gold, M; González, J; Gordon, A; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grassmann, H; Grewal, A; Groer, L S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hamilton, R; Handler, R; Hans, R M; Hara, K; Harral, B D; Harris, R M; Hauger, S A; Hauser, J; Hawk, C; Heinrich, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Hollebeek, R J; Holloway, L E; Hölscher, A; Hong, S; Houk, G; Hu, P; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R; Hurst, P; Huston, J; Huth, J E; Hylen, J; Incagli, M; Incandela, J R; Iso, H; Jensen, H; Jessop, C P; Joshi, U; Kadel, R W; Kajfasz, E; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Kardelis, D A; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keeble, L; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, R D; Kesten, P; Kestenbaum, David S; Keup, R M; Keutelian, H; Keyvan, F; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirsch, L; Koehn, P; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Kopp, S E; Kordas, K; Koska, W; Kovács, E; Kowald, W; Krasberg, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuns, E W; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lamoureux, J I; LeCompte, T J; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limon, P; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Lockyer, N; Loomis, C; Long, O; Loreti, M; Low, E H; Lü, J; Lucchesi, D; Luchini, C B; Lukens, P; Lys, j; Maas, P; Maeshima, K; Maghakian, A; Maksimovic, P; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mansour, J P; Mariotti, M; Marriner, J P; Martin, A; Matthews, J A J; Mattingly, R; McIntyre, P; Mélèse, P; Menzione, A; Meschi, E; Michail, G; Mikamo, S; Miller, M; Miller, R; Mimashi, T; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Mitsushio, H; Miyashita, S; Morita, Y; Moulding, S; Müller, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Musgrave, P; Nakae, L F; Nakano, I; Nelson, C; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Nodulman, L; Ogawa, S; Oh, S H; Ohl, K E; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Pagliarone, C; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Park, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Pescara, L; Petres, M D; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pillai, M; Plunkett, R K; Pondrom, L; Produit, N; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Ragan, K; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Roach-Bellino, M; Robertson, W J; Rodrigo, T; Romano, J; Rosenson, L; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sansoni, A; Scarpine, V; Schindler, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schneider, O; Sciacca, G F; Scribano, A; Segler, S L; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Sganos, G; Sgolacchia, A; Shapiro, M; Shaw, N M; Shen, Q; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M J; Siegrist, J L; Sill, A F; Sinervo, P K; Singh, P; Skarha, J E; Sliwa, K; Smith, D A; Snider, F D; Song, L; Song, T; Spalding, J; Spiegel, L; Sphicas, Paris; Spies, A; Stanco, L; Steele, J V; Stefanini, A; Strahl, K; Strait, J B; Stuart, D; Sullivan, G; Sumorok, K; Swartz, R L; Takahashi, T; Takikawa, K; Tartarelli, F; Taylor, W; Teramoto, Y; Tether, S; Theriot, D E; Thomas, J; Thomas, T L; Thun, R; Timko, M; Tipton, P; Titov, A; Tkaczyk, S M; Tollefson, K; Tollestrup, Alvin V; Tonnison, J; De Trocóniz, J F; Tseng, J; Turcotte, M; Turini, N; Uemura, N; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Ven den Brink, S; Vejcik, S; Vidal, R; Vondracek, M; Vucinic, D; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wainer, N; Walker, R C; Wang, G; Wang, J; Wang, M J; Wang, Q F; Warburton, A; Watts, G; Watts, T; Webb, R; Wei, C; Wendt, C; Wenzel, H; Wester, W C; Westhusing, T; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilkinson, R P; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wolinski, J; Wu, D Y; Wu, X; Wyss, J; Yagil, A; Yao, W

1996-01-01

47

NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material in the first edition of BNL-325 and its addendum, the ; supplement, and new data received up to May, 1958 are included. Thermal cross ; sections, resonance parameters, and cross section curves are given. (M.H.R.)

Donald J. Hughes; R. B. Schwartz

1958-01-01

48

Effects of Instructional Strategies Using Cross Sections on the Recognition of Anatomical Structures in Correlated CT and MR Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include:…

Khalil, Mohammed K.; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E.; Su, Yung K.; Payer, Andrew F.

2008-01-01

49

Description of cross sections for photonuclear reactions in the energy range between 7 and 140 MeV  

SciTech Connect

A combination of the exciton and evaporation models is used to describe photonuclear reactions induced in light, medium-mass, and heavy nuclei by photons of energy in the range 7 {<=} E{sub {gamma} {<=}} 140 MeV. Two mechanisms of the photoexcitation of nuclei are considered. These are the formation of a giant dipole resonance at energies in the range E{sub {gamma} {<=}} 30 MeV and quasideuteron photoabsorption, which is dominant at energies in the region E{sub {gamma} {>=}} 40 MeV. The density of particle-hole states, which appears in the exciton model, is calculated on the basis of the Fermi gas model. The emission of two preequilibrium particles is taken into account in describing the quasideuteron reaction channel. The effect of isospin conservation on giant-dipole-resonance decay accompanied by photonucleon emission is examined. The model in question is used to describe cross sections for photon-induced reactions on {sup 26}Mg, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 112,118,119,124}Sn, and {sup 181}Ta nuclei.

Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N., E-mail: orlinvn@yandex.r [Moscow State University, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2009-03-15

50

Description of light ion production cross sections and fluxes on the Mars surface using the QMSFRG model.  

PubMed

The atmosphere of Mars significantly attenuates the heavy ion component of the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR), however, increases the fluence of secondary light ions (neutrons, and hydrogen and helium isotopes) because of particle production processes. We describe results of the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation (QMSFRG) model for the production of light nuclei through the distinct mechanisms of nuclear abrasion and ablation, coalescence, and cluster knockout. The QMSFRG model is shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data for nuclear fragmentation cross sections. We use the QMSFRG model and the space radiation transport code, HZETRN to make predictions of the light particle environment on the Martian surface at solar minimum and near maximum. The radiation assessment detector (RAD) experiment will be launched in 2009 as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). We make predictions of the expected results for time dependent count-rates to be observed by the RAD experiment. Finally, we consider sensitivity assessments of the impact of the Martian atmospheric composition on particle fluxes at the surface. PMID:17342547

Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Schneider, Susana I; Hassler, Donald M

2007-06-01

51

Description of Light Ion Production Cross Sections and Fluxes on the Mars Surface using the QMSFRG Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The atmosphere of Mars significantly attenuates the heavy ion component of the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR), however increases the fluence of secondary light ions (neutrons, and hydrogen and helium isotopes) because of particle production processes. We describe results of the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation (QMSFRG) model for the production of light nuclei through the distinct mechanisms of nuclear abrasion and ablation, coalescence, and cluster knockout. The QMSFRG model is shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data for nuclear fragmentation cross sections. We use the QMSFRG model and the space radiation transport code, HZETRN to make predictions of the light particle environment on the Martian surface at solar minimum and maximum. The radiation assessment detector (RAD) experiment will be launched in 2009 as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). We make predictions of the expected results for time dependent count-rates to be observed by RAD experiment. Finally, we consider sensitivity assessments of the impact of the Martian atmospheric composition on particle fluxes at the surface.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Schneider, Irene; Hassler, Donald M.

2006-01-01

52

Serological cross-sectional studies on salmonella incidence in eight European countries: no correlation with incidence of reported cases  

PubMed Central

Background Published incidence rates of human salmonella infections are mostly based on numbers of stool culture-confirmed cases reported to public health surveillance. These cases constitute only a small fraction of all cases occurring in the community. The extent of underascertainment is influenced by health care seeking behaviour and sensitivity of surveillance systems, so that reported incidence rates from different countries are not comparable. We performed serological cross-sectional studies to compare infection risks in eight European countries independent of underascertainment. Methods A total of 6,393 sera from adults in Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and The Netherlands were analysed, mostly from existing serum banks collected in the years 2003 to 2008. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG against salmonella lipopolysaccharides were measured by in-house mixed ELISA. We converted antibody concentrations to estimates of infection incidence (‘sero-incidence’) using a Bayesian backcalculation model, based on previously studied antibody decay profiles in persons with culture-confirmed salmonella infections. We compared sero-incidence with incidence of cases reported through routine public health surveillance and with published incidence estimates derived from infection risks in Swedish travellers to those countries. Results Sero-incidence of salmonella infections ranged from 56 (95% credible interval 8–151) infections per 1,000 person-years in Finland to 547 (343–813) in Poland. Depending on country, sero-incidence was approximately 100 to 2,000 times higher than incidence of culture-confirmed cases reported through routine surveillance, with a trend for an inverse correlation. Sero-incidence was significantly correlated with incidence estimated from infection risks in Swedish travellers. Conclusions Sero-incidence estimation is a new method to estimate and compare the incidence of salmonella infections in human populations independent of surveillance artefacts. Our results confirm that comparison of reported incidence between countries can be grossly misleading, even within the European Union. Because sero-incidence includes asymptomatic infections, it is not a direct measure of burden of illness. But, pending further validation of this novel method, it may be a promising and cost-effective way to assess infection risks and to evaluate the effectiveness of salmonella control programmes across countries or over time. PMID:22799896

2012-01-01

53

Depressive symptoms and alcohol correlates among Brazilians aged 14 years and older: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related disorders, drinking patterns and other characteristics of alcohol use are important public health issues worldwide. This study aims to study these associations in an upper middle-income country, Brazil, and search for related socio-demographic correlations in men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. The sample of 3,007 participants, selected using a multistage probabilistic sampling method, represents the Brazilian population aged 14 and older. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and alcohol dependence was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations assessed using bi-variate analysis were tested using Rao-Scott measures. Gender specific multinomial logistic regression models were developed. Results Among the participants with alcohol dependence, 46% had depressive symptoms (17.2% mild/moderate and 28.8% major/severe; p?

2014-01-01

54

Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45-70 years): a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. Methods A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45–70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire on physical activity. Socio-demographic and social-cognitive correlates were measured with validated instruments; medical correlates were checked by a general practitioner. The study had a cross-sectional design and the data collection ran from March 2005 until August 2006. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of PA. We separated the findings for men from those for women to explore potential gender-specific associations. Results Being female, living in North Limburg or North-Brabant, having a higher educational level, a higher perceived behavioral control, more knowledge about PA advantages, a stronger habitual PA behavior, having more action plans and a stronger intention to engage in PA were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Being older, being a smoker, having a higher body mass index (BMI), having a paid job, observing others being physically active and overestimating one's PA level were associated with being less physically active. Socio-demographic and medical correlates significantly explained 20% of the variance of PA behavior while social-cognitive correlates as attitude explained an additional 4% and intention together with actual control explained another 1% of the variance of PA behavior. Conclusion There may be stable individual differences that influence PA in view of the fact that several socio-demographic and medical factors were not completely mediated by the socio-cognitive factors. The current study may help to focus PA interventions for individuals aged 45–70 years on influential socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates. Physical activity was significantly associated with age, gender, education, BMI, work situation, region of residence, smoking, awareness, advantages, descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, habit, action plans and intention. PMID:24965940

2014-01-01

55

Jet inclusive cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

Del Duca, V.

1992-11-01

56

Radar cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological evolution in signal processing that has been made in last decades led to improvements in radar performances. Increasing the radar range by improving its sensitivity has been made by the designers of aircraft and other military systems to try to decrease the radar cross section of these types of equipment. The radar cross section is a matter of

L. Nicolaescu; Teofil Oroian

2001-01-01

57

Threshold cross section measurements  

E-print Network

Accurate measurements of particles masses, couplings and widths are possible by measuring production cross sections near threshold. We discuss the prospects for performing such measurements at a high luminosity muon collider.

M. S. Berger

1998-02-02

58

Solar fusion cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review and analyze the available information on the nuclear-fusion cross sections that are most important for solar energy generation and solar neutrino production. We provide best values for the low-energy cross-section factors and, wherever possible, estimates of the uncertainties. We also describe the most important experiments and calculations that are required in order to improve our knowledge of solar

Eric G. Adelberger; Sam M. Austin; John N. Bahcall; A. B. Balantekin; Gilles Bogaert; Lowell S. Brown; Lothar Buchmann; F. Edward Cecil; Arthur E. Champagne; Ludwig de Braeckeleer; Charles A. Duba; Steven R. Elliott; Stuart J. Freedman; Moshe Gai; G. Goldring; Christopher R. Gould; Andrei Gruzinov; Wick C. Haxton; Karsten M. Heeger; Ernest Henley; Calvin W. Johnson; Marc Kamionkowski; Ralph W. Kavanagh; Steven E. Koonin; Kuniharu Kubodera; Karlheinz Langanke; Tohru Motobayashi; Vijay Pandharipande; Peter Parker; R. G. Robertson; Claus Rolfs; R. F. Sawyer; N. Shaviv; T. D. Shoppa; K. A. Snover; Erik Swanson; Robert E. Tribble; Sylvaine Turck-Chièze; John F. Wilkerson

1998-01-01

59

Geologic Cross Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this project, students must select a several hundred kilometer long section of Earth's surface, ideally crossing one or more major plate boundaries and research all major tectonic events to construct a cross section. Students should also take into account other factors like age of the ocean floor, average elevation and gravity anomalies across their area. The purpose is to demonstrate the geologic/tectonic history of their cross section and present it in a clear, concise summary.

Browning, Sharon

60

Solar Fusion Cross Sections  

E-print Network

We review and analyze the available information for nuclear fusion cross sections that are most important for solar energy generation and solar neutrino production. We provide best values for the low-energy cross-section factors and, wherever possible, estimates of the uncertainties. We also describe the most important experiments and calculations that are required in order to improve our knowledge of solar fusion rates.

E. Adelberger; S. Austin; J. Bahcall; A. Balantekin; G. Bogaert; L. Brown; L. Buchmann; F. Cecil; A. Champagne; L. de Braeckeleer; C. Duba; S. Elliott; S. Freedman; M. Gai; G. Goldring; C. Gould; A. Gruzinov; W. Haxton; K. Heeger; E. Henley; C. Johnson; M. Kamionkowski; R. Kavanagh; S. Koonin; K. Kubodera; K. Langanke; T. Motobayashi; V. Pandharipande; P. Parker; R. Robertson; C. Rolfs; R. Sawyer; N. Shaviv; T. Shoppa; K. Snover; E. Swanson; R. Tribble; S. Turck-Chieze; J. Wilkerson

1998-05-12

61

Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N?=?12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p’s?

2014-01-01

62

Socio-demographic correlates of injection drug use among male drug users: a cross sectional study in Nepal.  

PubMed

Drug abuse is one of the major public health problems in Nepal. The objective of this study is to explore the factors responsible for the injecting drug use in Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted among drug users in Pokhara sub metropolitan city in Nepal. Taking prevalence of 20 % at 95 % confidence interval and 20 % non-response rate, 448 samples were calculated for face to face interviews. Most of the study participants were >24 year's age. Sixty-one percentage of the participants were unemployed. The largest percentage belonged to Gurung/Rai/Pun (37 %) ethnic groups, and had completed secondary level of education (47.5 %). In the logistic regression analysis occupation, motivating factors for drug use, ever been to custody, age at first drug use, age at first sex, money spent on drugs, ever been rehabilitated and age of the respondents showed a statistically significant association with injecting drug use status. The respondents having business [Adjusted Odds ratio (aOR) 4.506, 95 % CI (1.677-12.104)], service [aOR 2.698, 95 % CI (a1.146-6.355], having tragedy/turmoil [aOR 3.867, 95 % CI (1.596-9.367)], family problem [aOR 2.010, 95 % CI (2.010-53.496)], had sex at >19 years [aOR 1.683, 95 % CI (1.017-2.785)], rehabilitated >2 times [aOR 4.699, 95 % CI (1.401-15.763)], >24 years age group [aOR 1.741, 95 % CI (1.025-2.957)] had higher odds of having injecting habits. Having money spent on drugs >3,000 NRs (300 USD) [aOR 0.489, 95 %CI (0.274-0.870), not been to custody (aOR 0.330, 95 %CI (0.203-0.537)] and having curiosity for drug use [aOR 0.147, 95 % CI (0.029-0.737)] were found to be protective for injecting drug use. This study recommends the harm reduction program specifically focused on drug users of occupational groups like business, service and the youths through public health actions to stop transiting them to injecting drug use. PMID:24705679

Neupane, Sanjeev Raj; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Adhikari, Samaj; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

2014-12-01

63

A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Investigation of the External Correlates of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and ADHD-Inattention Symptoms Dimensions.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine if the external correlates of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and ADHD-inattention (IN) dimensions were the same in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Teachers and aides rated SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and depression along with academic impairment in 758 Spanish children (55 % boys) on three occasions (twice at the end of the first grade year [6-week separation] and then again 12-months later at the end of the second grade year). Three of eight SCT symptoms showed substantial loadings on the SCT factor and substantially higher loadings on the SCT factor than the ADHD-IN factor for teachers and aides at each assessment (seems drowsy, thinking is slow, and slow moving). Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses yielded similar results with SCT and ADHD-IN factors having different and unique external correlates (higher scores on SCT predicted lower scores on ADHD-HI and ODD while higher scores on ADHD-IN predicted higher scores on ADHD-HI and ODD with SCT and ADHD-IN both uniquely predicting academic impairment and depression). Developmental and methodological reasons are discussed for the failure to find an inconsistent alertness SCT factor (daydreams, alertness fluctuates, absent-minded, loses train of though, and confused). PMID:24671731

Bernad, Maria Del Mar; Servera, Mateu; Grases, Gloria; Collado, Susana; Burns, G Leonard

2014-10-01

64

Reasons for use and non-use of dental services among people visiting a dental college hospital in India: A descriptive cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To find out the reasons for use and non-use of dental services among people visiting a dental college hospital in India. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 180 people, aged 15–65 years visiting the outpatient department of a dental college hospital in India. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about the history of dental visits and reasons for use and non-use of dental services. Results: For a majority of the people (38.5%), time since the last dental visit was more than 2 years, and the main reason for visiting a dentist was dental pain (35.3%). Majority of the people had undergone extraction of teeth in their previous dental visit (44.3%). The major reason cited for not visiting a dentist was the presence of dental problem that was not severe enough to go to a dentist (43.1%). Conclusion: Majority of the people were “problem-oriented visitors” rather than “prevention oriented visitors.” PMID:23077423

Devaraj, CG; Eswar, Pranati

2012-01-01

65

The demographics and outcome of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma admitted to emergency medicine department: A descriptive cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was performed to determine the demographic and outcome of penetrating abdominal trauma in patients attending to emergency medicine department. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study in Imam Hossein Medical Center. Seventy five patients who came to our department with penetrating abdominal trauma during a 1 year period were enroled into this study and their demographic data and outcome (during the hospitalization) were recorded. The study was at Imam Hossein Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2010. Results: Our findings indicate these notable results: 84% of patients were less than 40 years old, most patients attended emergency department during the spring and summer, 72 patients (96%) arrived between 7 pm and 7 am, 74 patients (98.7%) had stab wound and one person (1.3%) was shot, eventually 46 patients (61%) had laparatomy performed and 2 patients (2.7%) died. 59 patients out of 75 study cases appealed to police department and legal medicine council. Conclusions: The incidence of abdominal penetrating trauma due to stab wound is much higher than gunshot in our community, which indicates the importance of educating the emergency staff and preparing the emergency department work place to attend to these patients, especially during the night hours. PMID:23977658

Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Azizkhani, Reza; Masoumi, Babak; Hashempour, Azam; Amini, Afshin

2013-01-01

66

Photodetachment cross section for Ca sup minus  

SciTech Connect

Multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock calculations for photodetachment cross sections in Ca{sup {minus}} are reported, both to the {ital ks} {sup 2}{ital S} and {ital kd} {sup 2}{ital D} final state. Correlation is important to the binding of the 4{ital s}{sup 2}4{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P} state and also to the cross section. In the final state, correlation is particularly important for the {ital kd} partial cross section. The value of the electron affinity in Ca{sup {minus}} is critical to agreement in the length and velocity form of the cross section. Better agreement is obtained when a theoretical value is used. Agreement with an experimental photodetachment cross section is good.

Froese Fischer, C. (Department of Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Box 6035B, Nashville, TN (USA)); Hansen, J.E. (Zeeman Laboratory, Plantage Muidergracht 4, NL-1018 TV Amsterdam, The Netherlands (NL))

1991-08-01

67

Prevalence of vitamin d deficiency among Indian menopausal women and its correlation with diabetes: A first Indian cross sectional data  

PubMed Central

Aim and Objective: To evaluate prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency and establish any correlation between diabetes and vitamin D deficiency among postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: The 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25 (OH) D] concentrations were measured by competitive in-vitro quantitative immunoassay. The subjects were classified as vitamin D-deficient, insufficient or sufficient on the basis of 25 (OH) D concentrations of < 20 ng/mL, 20–30 ng/mL or > 30 ng/mL respectively. The apparently normal postmenopausal women (PMW) were subjected to fasting blood sugar levels to analyse any correlation between vitamin D deficiency and diabetes. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 53.35% of the population, 19.48% had insufficiency and 26.83% had adequate Vitamin D levels. In 12.14% of the study population fasting blood glucose was > 110 mg/dl and rest of the subjects were between the normal range which is 70–110mg/dl. Correlation between raised blood sugar levels and Vitamin D deficiency among PMW was non-significant (P = 0.324). Conclusion: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency exists among apparently healthy Indian PMW. However, the current study failed to show any statistical correlation between vitamin D deficiency and existence of diabetes, which may be due to small sample size.

Tandon, Vishal R.; Sharma, Sudhaa; Mahajan, Shagun; Raina, Kaplia; Mahajan, Annil; Khajuria, Vijay; Gillani, Zahid

2014-01-01

68

What is killing? People's knowledge about coronary heart disease, attitude towards prevention and main risk reduction barriers in Ismailia, Egypt (Descriptive cross-sectional study)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a public health concern everywhere, especially ischemic or coronary heart diseases (CHD) which are on top of causes list of mortality and morbidity in both genders globally. From which nearly 80% can be because of modifiable risks. In Egypt, there is a lack of studies on the knowledge of people about coronary heart diseases and its modifiable risks. So, this research reported here we designed to measure the dimensions of peoples knowledge about CHD and their attitude towards prevention, and to identify the main risk reduction barriers. Methods By using comprehensive cross-sectional, descriptive research design, all adult individuals attending the family health clinic at Suez Canal University Hospital were eligible for inclusion with total number 125 participants. An interview questionnaire designed and used to collect data. Results The study revealed that (10.4%) of participants had a history of CHD, and (7.2%) had a family history of CHD. 79.2% Had a satisfactory total knowledge about CHD, and (94.4%) had a positive total attitude towards prevention. Risk reduction barriers as a medical setting barriers were (24%), patient related barriers were (22.4%). Community-societal barriers were almost the same as knowledge barriers which were around (16%). At last the systemic-organizational barriers were (9.6%). Conclusion The findings settled that, total knowledge about CHD was satisfactory but lower than the level total of attitude. More effort the health system needs to improve the settings and engage patients in their plans and breaking related barriers, with development of health education programs based on needs assessment. Further studies we recommend to explore the reasons and follow up the changes. PMID:24319527

Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders; Stafstrom, Martin

2013-01-01

69

Illness self-concept in Type 1 diabetes: A cross-sectional view on clinical, demographic, and psychosocial correlates.  

PubMed

The present study assessed the centrality of one's illness self-concept, or the degree to which chronic illness intrudes upon one's self, in a sample of 478 18-35-year-old patients with Type 1 diabetes. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that illness self-concept centrality was a one-dimensional construct, despite the fact that three constituting components (i.e. pervasiveness, directionality, and illness self-consciousness) have been forwarded. Further, important demographic and clinical correlates of illness self-concept were identified: women, unemployed individuals, individuals with a lower educational level, and patients with an insulin pump had a more central illness self-concept. Finally, a series of correlation and regression analyses indicated that, despite the fact that illness self-concept centrality was negatively related to emotional stability, self-esteem, and diabetes integration, and positively to perceived consequences of diabetes, illness self-concept had unique predictive value over and above these variables for problem areas in diabetes and depressive symptoms. Implications and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:24666256

Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Weets, Ilse

2015-01-01

70

Theoretical study of the Compton effect with correlated three-photon emission: From the differential cross section to high-energy triple-photon entanglement  

E-print Network

The three-photon Compton effect is studied. An incoming photon undergoes triple scattering off a free electron, which leads to the emission of three entangled photons. We investigate the properties of both the total cross section, assuming a low-energy cutoff for the detected photons, and the differential cross section. Particular emphasis is laid on evaluating polarization-resolved cross sections. The entanglement of the final three-photon state is analyzed.

E. Lötstedt; U. D. Jentschura

2014-05-07

71

A cross-sectional survey of prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among prisoners in New South Wales, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among prisoners in New South Wales, Australia; and, among prisoners reporting suicidal ideation, to identify factors associated with suicide attempt. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. Participants were a random, stratified sample of 996 inmates who completed a telephone survey. The estimated population prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt were calculated and differences by sex and Aboriginality were tested using ?2 tests. Correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt were tested using logistic regression. Results One-third of inmates reported lifetime suicidal ideation and one-fifth had attempted suicide. Women and Aboriginal participants were significantly more likely than men and non-Aboriginal participants, respectively, to report attempting suicide. Correlates of suicidal ideation included violent offending, traumatic brain injury, depression, self-harm, and psychiatric hospitalisation. Univariate correlates of suicide attempt among ideators were childhood out-of-home care, parental incarceration and psychiatric hospitalization; however, none of these remained significant in a multivariate model. Conclusions Suicidal ideation and attempts are highly prevalent among prisoners compared to the general community. Assessment of suicide risk is a critical task for mental health clinicians in prisons. Attention should be given to ensuring assessments are gender- and culturally sensitive. Indicators of mental illness may not be accurate predictors of suicide attempt. Indicators of childhood trauma appear to be particularly relevant to risk of suicide attempt among prisoners and should be given attention as part of risk assessments. PMID:22225627

2012-01-01

72

Correlation between the minimal cross-sectional area of the nasal cavity and body surface area: preliminary results in normal patients.  

PubMed

Nasal symptoms often are inconsistent with rhinoscopic findings. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of nasal pathology requires an objective evaluation of the narrow segments of the anterior part of the nasal cavities (minimal cross-sectional area [MCSA]). The problem is that the value of MCSA is not a unique parameterfor the entire population, but rather it is a distinctive valuefor particular subject (or smaller groups of subjects). Consequently, there is a need for MCSA values to be standardized in a simple way that facilitates the comparison of results and the selection of our treatment regimens. We examined a group of 157 healthy subjects with normal nasal function. A statistically significant correlation was found between the body surface area and MCSA at the level of the nasal isthmus and the head of the inferior turbinate. The age of subjects was not found a statistically significant predictor for the value of MCSA. The results show that the expected value of MCSA can be calculated for every subject based on anthropometric data of height and weight. PMID:12222946

Jurlina, Martin; Mladina, Ranko; Dawidowsky, Krsto; Ivankovi?, Davor; Bumber, Zeljko; Subari?, Marin

2002-01-01

73

Serum vitamin D3 level inversely correlates with uterine fibroid volume in different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional observational study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Currently there is no effective medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids (UFs), a common health disorder that affects women of reproductive age. Identification of modifiable risk factors such as vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency could help develop novel strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of UFs. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum Vit D3 levels correlate with increased risk of UFs. Methods A total of 154 premenopausal women were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The control group comprised 50 subjects with a normal, fibroid-free uterine structure, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. The 104 case subjects had at least one fibroid lesion that was 2 cm3 in volume or larger, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. For each case subject, total uterine volume and total volume of all existing fibroids were measured in three perpendicular planes, with volume determined according to the prolate ellipse formula (a × b × c × 0.523), where a is height, b is width, and c is depth. Serum Vit D [25(OH) D3] levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The independent t-test was used to compare serum Vit D levels across groups. Correlations were assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results Lower serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of UFs (P = 0.01). A statistically significant inverse correlation was also observed between serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels and total UF volume (r = ?0.31; P = 0.002) within the case cohort. Subjects with larger fibroid volumes had lower serum Vit D levels and vice versa. Data stratified for ethnicity showed a statistically significant inverse correlation between serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels and total fibroid volume in black subjects (r = ?0.42; P = 0.001). An inverse correlation was also evident in white subjects (r = ?0.86; P = 0.58) but this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Lower serum Vit D levels are inversely correlated with UF burden in different ethnic groups. Vit D deficiency is a possible risk factor for the occurrence of UFs. PMID:23467803

Sabry, Mohamed; Halder, Sunil K; Allah, Abdou S Ait; Roshdy, Eman; Rajaratnam, Veera; Al-Hendy, Ayman

2013-01-01

74

International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as "Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle" create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

2009-12-01

75

Correlation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Detection with Clinical/Immunoinflammatory Profile of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis Using a 16S rRNA Microarray Method: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether the detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) correlates with the clinical and immunoinflammatory profile of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP), as determined by by 16S rRNA gene-based microarray. Subjects and Methods Subgingival plaque samples from the deepest diseased site of 30 LAP patients [PD ? 5 mm, BoP and bone loss] were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based microarrays. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were analyzed for 14 cyto/chemokines. Peripheral blood was obtained and stimulated in vitro with P.gingivalis and E.coli to evaluate inflammatory response profiles. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels were also measured. Results Aa was detected in 56% of LAP patients and was shown to be an indicator for different bacterial community structures (p<0.01). Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cyto/chemokines were detected in LPS-stimulated blood samples in both Aa-detected and Aa-non-detected groups (p>0.05). Clinical parameters and serum LPS levels were similar between groups. However, Aa-non-detected GCF contained higher concentration of IL-8 than Aa-detected sites (p<0.05). TNF? and IL1? were elevated upon E.coli LPS stimulation of peripheral blood cells derived from patients with Aa-detected sites. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the detection of Aa in LAP affected sites, did not correlate with clinical severity of the disease at the time of sampling in this cross-sectional study, although it did associate with lower local levels of IL-8, a different subgingival bacterial profile and elevated LPS-induced levels of TNF? and IL1?. PMID:24376864

Gonçalves, Patricia F.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Huang, Hong; Paster, Bruce J.; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Wallet, Shannon M.; Shaddox, Luciana M.

2013-01-01

76

Prevalence and Correlates of Bacterial Vaginosis in Different Sub-Populations of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV), HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit. Results At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7–10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis) and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment. Conclusions Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse. PMID:25289640

Jespers, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Verstraelen, Hans; Hardy, Liselotte; Buve, Anne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

2014-01-01

77

The prevalence and correlates of meeting the current physical activity for health guidelines in older people: a cross-sectional study in Brazilian women.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of meeting the current physical activity for health (PAfH) guidelines, proposed by the World Health Organization in 2010, in community-dwelling older women from Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1806 women (aged 60.0-92.7 years) who were randomly selected from eighteen care centers. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine the weekly time spent in physical activities, and this variable was categorized into three categories (0<150min/wk; 1: 150-299.9min/wk; 2: ?300min/wk). Age, race/ethnicity, economic class, education level, occupational and marital status, body mass index and blood pressure status, medical conditions, use of medications, and self-rated health status were the potential correlates. The ordinal logistic regression was used as a measure of association. From the total group of participants, 49.9% followed the current recommendations related to basic health benefits (150-299min/wk), and 35.9% met the guidelines for additional health effects (300 or more min/wk). Women with secondary complete education (OR=1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.74), positive self-rated health (OR=5.25, 95% CI: 2.10-13.09), and high blood pressure (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.09-1.62) were more likely to meet the current PAfH guidelines than their peers with primary incomplete education, negative self-rated health, and normal blood pressure. Increasing age was inversely associated with meeting the PAfH guidelines (odds ranging: 0.77-0.48). These results highlighted the elderly population subgroups, in a developing country, that needspecific guidelinesfor inclusion inhealth programs andmotivation toparticipate in physical activities. PMID:23305826

Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Moreira, Natália Boneti; de Oliveira, Valdomiro; Mazzardo, Oldemar; de Campos, Wagner

2013-01-01

78

Low-energy cross-section calculations of single molecules by electron impact: a classical Monte Carlo transport approach with quantum mechanical description  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state of modeling radio-induced effects at the cellular level does not account for the microscopic inhomogeneity of the nucleus from the non-aqueous contents (i.e. proteins, DNA) by approximating the entire cellular nucleus as a homogenous medium of water. Charged particle track-structure calculations utilizing this approximation are therefore neglecting to account for approximately 30% of the molecular variation within the nucleus. To truly understand what happens when biological matter is irradiated, charged particle track-structure calculations need detailed knowledge of the secondary electron cascade, resulting from interactions with not only the primary biological component—water--but also the non-aqueous contents, down to very low energies. This paper presents our work on a generic approach for calculating low-energy interaction cross-sections between incident charged particles and individual molecules. The purpose of our work is to develop a self-consistent computational method for predicting molecule-specific interaction cross-sections, such as the component molecules of DNA and proteins (i.e. nucleotides and amino acids), in the very low-energy regime. These results would then be applied in a track-structure code and thereby reduce the homogenous water approximation. The present methodology—inspired by seeking a combination of the accuracy of quantum mechanics and the scalability, robustness, and flexibility of Monte Carlo methods—begins with the calculation of a solution to the many-body Schrödinger equation and proceeds to use Monte Carlo methods to calculate the perturbations in the internal electron field to determine the interaction processes, such as ionization and excitation. As a test of our model, the approach is applied to a water molecule in the same method as it would be applied to a nucleotide or amino acid and compared with the low-energy cross-sections from the GEANT4-DNA physics package of the Geant4 simulation toolkit for the energy ranges of 7 eV to 1 keV.

Madsen, J. R.; Akabani, G.

2014-05-01

79

Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional survey of UK doctors  

PubMed Central

Background Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. Methods A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8%) doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement), stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut), and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure), as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Results Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem. Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant correlation with Avocation/Leisure activities. Popular Culture and High Culture did not differ in their influence on Vocation/engagement, although there was a suggestion that Depersonalization was correlated with more interest in Popular Culture and less interest in High Culture. Conclusion In this cross-sectional study there is evidence, even after taking into account a wide range of individual difference measures, that doctors with greater Avocation/Leisure activities also have a greater sense of Vocation/Engagement. In contrast, being BurnedOut did not relate to Avocation/Leisure activities (but did relate to many other measures). Osler was probably correct in recommending to doctors that, 'While medicine is to be your vocation, or calling, see to it that you also have an avocation'. PMID:21878123

2011-01-01

80

Cross-sectional assessment of prevalence and correlates of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections among Afghan National Army recruits  

PubMed Central

Background Few data are available in Afghanistan to shape national military force health practices, particularly with regard to sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). We measured prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among Afghan National Army (ANA) recruits. Methods A cross-sectional sample of male ANA recruits aged 18–35 years were randomly selected at the Kabul Military Training Center between February 2010 and January 2011. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and serum-based rapid testing for syphilis and hepatitis C virus antibody on-site; HIV and HSV-2 screening, and confirmatory testing were performed off-site. Prevalence of each infection was calculated and logistic regression analysis performed to identify correlates. Results Of 5313 recruits approached, 4750 consented to participation. Participants had a mean age of 21.8 years (SD±3.8), 65.5% had lived outside Afghanistan, and 44.3% had no formal education. Few reported prior marijuana (16.3%), alcohol (5.3%), or opiate (3.4%) use. Of sexually active recruits (58.7%, N?=?2786), 21.3% reported paying women for sex and 21.3% reported sex with males. Prevalence of HIV (0.063%, 95% CI: 0.013- 0.19), syphilis (0.65%, 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.93), and HCV (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.58 – 1.12) were quite low. Prevalence of HSV-2 was 3.03% (95% CI: 2.56 - 3.57), which was independently associated with age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)?=?1.04, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.09) and having a television (socioeconomic marker) (AOR?=?1.46, 95% CI: 1.03 – 2.05). Conclusion Though prevalence of HIV, HCV, syphilis, and HSV-2 was low, sexual risk behaviors and intoxicant use were present among a substantial minority, indicating need for prevention programming. Formative work is needed to determine a culturally appropriate approach for prevention programming to reduce STI risk among Afghan National Army troops. PMID:22909128

2012-01-01

81

Generalized x-ray scattering cross section from nonequilibrium plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We propose a modified x-ray form factor that describes the scattering cross section in warm dense matter valid for both the plasma and the solid (crystalline) state. Our model accounts for the effect of lattice correlations on the electron-electron dynamic structure, as well as provides a smooth transition between the solid and the plasma scattering cross sections. In addition, we generalize the expression of the dynamic structure in the case of a two-temperature system (with different electron and ion temperatures). This work provides a unified description of the x-ray scattering processes in warm and dense matter, as the one encountered in inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics, material science, and high-energy density physics and it can be used to verify temperature relaxation mechanisms in such environments.

Gregori, G.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O. L. [CCLRC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX, Great Britain and Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU, Great Britain (United Kingdom); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, P.O. Box 808, California 94551 (United States)

2006-08-15

82

Self-reported sexually transmitted infections and their correlates among men who have sex with men in Norway: an Internet-based cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The incidences of reportable sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased since the late 1990 s in Norway. The objectives of our study were to assess factors, associated with recent selected STI among MSM, living in Norway in order to guide prevention measures. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional Internet-based survey during 1-19

Irena Jakopanec; Barbara Schimmer; Andrej M Grjibovski; Elise Klouman; Preben Aavitsland

2010-01-01

83

How much nuclear physics do we need, to understand the neutrino nucleus cross section ?  

E-print Network

Over the past two decades, electron scattering experiments have clearly exposed the limits of the independent particle model description of atomic nuclei. I will briefly outline the dynamics leading to the appearance of strong correlation effects, and their impact on the electroweak nuclear cross sections in the impulse approximation regime.

Omar Benhar

2009-06-17

84

The completeness of intervention descriptions in published National Institute of Health Research HTA-funded trials: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to assess whether National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA)-funded randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in the HTA journal were described in sufficient detail to replicate in practice. Setting RCTs published in the HTA journal. Participants 98 RCTs published in the HTA journal up to March 2011. Completeness of the intervention description was assessed independently by two researchers using a checklist, which included assessments of participants, intensity, schedule, materials and settings. Disagreements in scoring were discussed in the team; differences were then explored and resolved. Primary and secondary outcome measures Proportion of trials rated as having a complete description of the intervention (primary outcome measure). The proportion of drug trials versus psychological and non-drug trials rated as having a complete description of the intervention (secondary outcome measures). Results Components of the intervention description were missing in 68/98 (69.4%) reports. Baseline characteristics and descriptions of settings had the highest levels of completeness with over 90% of reports complete. Reports were less complete on patient information with 58.2% of the journals having an adequate description. When looking at individual intervention types, drug intervention descriptions were more complete than non-drug interventions with 33.3% and 30.6% levels of completeness, respectively, although this was not significant statistically. Only 27.3% of RCTs with psychological interventions were deemed to be complete, although again these differences were not significant statistically. Conclusions Ensuring the replicability of study interventions is an essential part of adding value in research. All those publishing clinical trial data need to ensure transparency and completeness in the reporting of interventions to ensure that study interventions can be replicated. PMID:24384896

Douet, Lisa; Milne, Ruairidh; Anstee, Sydney; Habens, Fay; Young, Amanda; Wright, David

2014-01-01

85

Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

1985-01-01

86

Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

1982-01-01

87

Cavity Radar Cross Section Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative models are discussed for the determination of the interior irradiation contribution to the radar cross section (RCS) of open-ended cavities. Typical applications of practical interest include radiation field prediction of open-ended waveguides and signature prediction of jet engine air intakes and exhaust outlets. It is shown and explained why the classic perfectly conducting (PEC) ground plane (GP) model sometimes

Adam Zdunek; Waldemar Rachowicz

2008-01-01

88

Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging  

E-print Network

Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

2014-01-01

89

Early Mesoderm Development Cross Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the context of a cross section between the amniotic cavity and yolk sac, this FlashTM animation depicts mesoderm formation and differentiation into somites, dermatomes, myotomes, sclerotomes, notochord and coelom. Simultaneous development of neural tube, gut and vitelline duct is also displayed.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2011-07-07

90

Correlates of consistent condom use among men who have sex with men recruited through the Internet in Huzhou city: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that men who have sex with men (MSM) are currently a group at high risk of HIV infection in China. Our study aims to know the factors affecting consistent condom use among MSM recruited through the internet in Huzhou city. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 410 MSM living in Huzhou city via the Internet. The socio-demographic profiles (age, education level, employment status, etc.) and sexual risk behaviors of the respondents were investigated. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the differences between consistent condom users and inconsistent condom users. Variables with significant bivariate between groups’ differences were used as candidate variables in a stepwise multivariate logistic regression model. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows 17.0, and a p value?

2013-01-01

91

LUMEN Cross-Section Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Loyola University Medical Education Network (LUMEN) presents this anatomy tutorial. The site is divided up into categories of cross-sectional images of the human body: Head and Neck, Upper Limb, male and female Thorax, Abdomen, male and female Pelvis, and Lower Limb. By clicking on each section, users select a cross-section of that part of the anatomy, and by clicking on each number, can find out the specific name of that area. Users can also choose to see an illustration of the area (by choosing âÂÂImageâÂÂ), or an image from a CAT scan (by choosing âÂÂCTâÂÂ). This is an excellent resource for students in any health care or allied medical field, including nursing or nursesâ aides, patient care assistants, and diagnostic imaging technicians.

Mcnulty, John A.

2010-07-20

92

Adherence to physical activity recommendations and the influence of socio-demographic correlates – a population-based cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Current physical activity guidelines acknowledge the importance of total health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) compared to leisure time physical activity or exercise alone. Assessing total HEPA may result in different levels of adherence to these as well as the strength and\\/or direction of associations observed between total HEPA and socio-demographic correlates. The aim of this study was to estimate

Patrick Bergman; Andrej M Grjibovski; Maria Hagströmer; Adrian Bauman; Michael Sjöström

2008-01-01

93

Compound-nuclear reaction cross sections from surrogate measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear reaction cross sections are important for a variety of applications in the areas of astrophysics, nuclear energy, and national security. When these cross sections cannot be measured directly or predicted reliably, it becomes necessary to develop indirect methods for determining the relevant reaction rates. The surrogate nuclear reactions approach is such an indirect method. First used in the 1970s for estimating (n,f) cross sections, the method has recently been recognized as a potentially powerful tool for a wide range of applications that involve compound-nuclear reactions. The method is expected to become an important focus of inverse-kinematics experiments at rare-isotope facilities. The present paper reviews the current status of the surrogate approach. Experimental techniques employed and theoretical descriptions of the reaction mechanisms involved are presented and representative cross section measurements are discussed.

Escher, Jutta E.; Burke, Jason T.; Dietrich, Frank S.; Scielzo, Nicholas D.; Thompson, Ian J.; Younes, Walid

2012-01-01

94

Cross sections for electron scattering by atomic potassium  

SciTech Connect

Electron elastic and collisional excitation cross sections from the ground state of potassium are calculated using the noniterative integral-equation method of Henry, Rountree, and Smith (Comput. Phys. Commun. 23, 233 (1981)) in the electron energy range 4{le}{ital E}{le}200 eV. Configuration-interaction target wave functions that take account of correlation and polarization effects are used to represent the ground state and the six lowest excited states 4{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, 5{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}, 3{ital d} {sup 2}{ital D}, 5{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, 4{ital d} {sup 2}{ital D}, and 6{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}. Elastic and discrete excitation cross sections are obtained in a seven-state close-coupling (7CC) approximation. The 7CC elastic and excitation cross sections are compared and contrasted. Near threshold the elastic cross section dominates the resonance, 4{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}{r arrow}4{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, and the sum of the other remaining excitation cross sections. Comparison of our total cross sections with some available experimental and theoretical data is also effected. The discrepancy between the recent measurement of the total cross section by Kwan {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Rev. A 44, 1620 (1991)) on the one hand and other measurements near threshold on the other hand is explained.

Msezane, A.Z.; Awuah, P.; Hiamang, S. (Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States) Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States)); Allotey, F.K.A. (University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana))

1992-12-01

95

Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic medication use among older adults in Israel: Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings from two cohorts a decade apart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess: (1) changes in use of psychotropic medications across two cohorts, 10 years apart, of community-dwelling elderly and the socio-demographic, physical and mental health correlates of their use; and (2) changes in psychotropic medication use over 3.5 years follow-up.Methods: Data were taken from two national surveys of the Israeli Jewish population aged 75–94, which, respectively, sampled two cohorts

Tzvia Blumstein; Yael Benyamini; Angela Chetrit; Eliyahu H. Mizrahi; Liat Lerner-Geva

2012-01-01

96

Assessment of adiponectin level in obese and lean Nepalese population and its possible correlation with lipid profile: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Adiponectin- one of the most important adipokines plays a pivotal role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and vascular biology. Changing food trend and lifestyle has tremendously affected the health status of Nepalese population. Studies have shown that between 1996 and 2006 obesity in Nepal has increased from 1.6% to 10%. Studies have been conducted in Nepal on the prevalence of obesity and its correlation with lipid profile. But based on our knowledge, this is the first study correlating adiponectin with obesity and lipid profile in Nepal. This piece of work will certainly help to assess the impact of obesity in Nepalese population. Materials and Methods: Fifty four obese and Thirty six normal/lean participants were included from different locations of Kathmandu Valley. Anthropometric measurements like age, BMI, Waist circumference, hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, mid thigh circumference and chest circumferences were taken from each participant. Blood glucose, lipid profile and serum adiponectin levels were measured from overnight fasting samples. Results: Significant differences were observed in BMI, Waist Circumference, Hip Circumference, Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) and Chest circumference between obese and normal groups. Fasting Blood Glucose, Serum Triglyceride, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio, Non-HDL Cholesterol and Adiponectin Levels were significant between the groups. Inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin level and BMI, Waist Circumference, Hip Circumference, Waist to Hip ratio, Chest Circumference, Fasting Blood Glucose, Triglyceride, Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio, LDL/HDL Cholesterol ratio and Non-HDL Cholesterol levels. Positive correlation was found between adiponectin and HDL Cholesterol levels. Conclusion: Our study showed significant inverse association of serum adiponectin with obesity and lipid profile parameters except for Serum HDL Cholesterol level in Nepalese population. PMID:24251211

Tamang, Hem K.; Timilsina, Uddhav; Singh, Khelanand P.; Shrestha, Sanjit; Pandey, Bishal; Basnet, Sameer; Waiba, Binod; Shrestha, Umang

2013-01-01

97

Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in healthy and different forms of tobacco users having chronic periodontitis: A cross-sectional biochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background: Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease with complex and multi-factorial origin. Tobacco usage has shown its adverse effect on periodontal health. Various components within saliva not only protect the integrity of oral tissues, but also provide clues to local and systemic diseases and conditions. Salivary thiocyanate (SCN) has been shown to be a chemical indicator in smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Noninvasive nature of salivary testing has made it an attractive and effective alternative to blood and urine testing. Limited studies are there comparing and correlating the salivary SCN levels in smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP). However, no studies show correlation of salivary SCN among gutka chewers with CP. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate, compare, and correlate the SCN levels in periodontally healthy, CP, smokers with CP and gutka chewers with CP subjects. Materials and Methods: Study includes 120 subjects with age 18-55 years, categorized as periodonally healthy (n = 30), CP (n = 30), smokers (n = 30), and gutka chewers (n = 30) with CP. Required clinical parameters such as gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss were recorded and salivary SCN levels were estimated through ultraviolet-spectrophotometer. Results: Mean salivary SCN level were shown to be higher among smokers and gutka chewers with CP as compared to healthy and CP alone. Conclusion: The present study exhibited the significant increase in salivary SCN levels among smokers and gutka chewers when compared to others, concluding that the analysis of salivary SCN levels could be used as an adjunctive means of diagnosis. PMID:24963243

Kalburgi, C. Veena; Naik, K. Lavanya; Kokatnur, M. Vijayalaxmi; Warad, Shivaraj

2014-01-01

98

Comparison of intraclass correlation coefficient estimates and standard errors between using cross-sectional and repeated measurement data: the Safety Check cluster randomized trial.  

PubMed

Designing cluster randomized trials in clinical studies often requires accurate estimates of intraclass correlation, which quantifies the strength of correlation between units, such as participants, within a cluster, such as a practice. Published ICC estimates, even when available, often suffer from the problem of wide confidence intervals. Using data from a national, randomized, controlled study concerning violence prevention for children--the Safety Check--we compare the ICC values derived from two approaches only baseline data and using both baseline and follow-up data. Using a variance component decomposition approach, the latter method allows flexibility in handling complex data sets. For example, it allows for shifts in the outcome variable over time and for an unbalanced cluster design. Furthermore, we evaluate the large-sample formula for ICC estimates and standard errors using the bootstrap method. Our findings suggest that ICC estimates range from 0.012 to 0.11 for providers within practice and range from 0.018 to 0.11 for families within provider. The estimates derived from the baseline-only and repeated-measurements approaches agree quite well except in cases in which variation over repeated measurements is large. The reductions in the widths of ICC confidence limits from using repeated measurement over baseline only are, respectively, 62% and 42% at the practice and provider levels. The contribution of this paper therefore includes two elements, which are a methodology for improving the accuracy of ICC, and the reporting of such quantities for pediatric and other researchers who are interested in designing clustered randomized trials similar to the current study. PMID:21070889

Ip, Edward H; Wasserman, Richard; Barkin, Shari

2011-03-01

99

Correlates of Medication Adherence Among Patients With Bipolar Disorder: Results of the Bipolar Evaluation of Satisfaction and Tolerability (BEST) Study: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify and describe correlates of medication adherence in a large, national sample of outpatients with bipolar disorder. Method: Data were collected via a self-report, Web-based survey in January and February of 2008 from US patients aged 18–65 years who reported a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and current use of psychotropic medication. Patients with a Composite International Diagnostic Interview-bipolar disorder (CIDI-bipolar disorder) score ? 7, indicating a high risk of bipolar disorder, were included in the analyses. Medication adherence was assessed via the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, with scores ? 2 being considered nonadherent. The primary analysis was a multivariate binomial logistic regression with adherence as the dependent variable. Covariates included patient demographics, physical health measures including Medical Outcomes Study 8-item Short-Form Health Survey physical summary score, number of manic and depressive episodes, 24-item Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-Effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS), Satisfaction With Antipsychotic Medication scale (SWAM), and current psychiatric medication use. Results: Nearly half (49.5%) of the 1,052 bipolar patients in the analysis were classified as being nonadherent. Adherence was positively associated with college degree, higher SWAM total score, and monotherapy treatment. Adherence was negatively associated with female sex, alcohol use, BASIS-24 total score, and LUNSERS total score. Conclusions: Nonadherence is common among patients with bipolar disorder. By addressing tolerability issues and treatment satisfaction, which are both significant correlates of adherence, health care providers may be able to improve adherence and, ultimately, treatment outcomes. PMID:21274363

Whitehead, Richard; Kim, Edward

2010-01-01

100

A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

Badikov, S.A. [JSC Energy and Industry Analytica, 127287, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-07-01

101

A cross-sectional examination of socio-demographic and school-level correlates of children's school travel mode in Ottawa, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Active school transport (AST) is an important source of children’s daily physical activity (PA). However, decreasing rates of AST have been reported in multiple countries during the last decades. The purpose of the present study was to examine the socio-demographic and school-level correlates of AST. Methods A stratified sample of children (N?=?567, mean age?=?10.0 years; 57.8% female) was recruited in the Ottawa area. Four sources of data were used for analyses: 1) child questionnaire including questions on school travel mode and time; 2) parent questionnaire providing information on household socio-demographic characteristics; 3) school administrator survey assessing school policies and practices pertaining to PA; and 4) school site audit performed by the study team. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify socio-demographic and school-level correlates of AST while controlling for school clustering. Results Individual factors associated with higher odds of AST were male gender (OR?=?1.99; 95% CI?=?1.30-3.03), journey time <5 minutes vs. >15 minutes (OR?=?2.26; 95% CI?=?1.17-4.37), and 5–15 minutes vs. >15 minutes (OR?=?2.27; 95% CI?=?1.27-4.03). Children were more likely to engage in AST if school administrators reported that crossing guards were employed (OR?=?2.29; 95% CI?=?1.22-4.30), or if they expressed major or moderate concerns about crime in the school neighbourhood (OR?=?3.34; 95% CI?=?1.34-8.32). In schools that identified safe routes to school and where traffic calming measures were observed, children were much more likely to engage in AST compared to schools without these features (OR?=?7.87; 95% CI?=?2.85-21.76). Moreover, if only one of these features was present, this was not associated with an increased likelihood of AST. Conclusion These findings suggest that providing crossing guards may facilitate AST. Additionally, there was a synergy between the identification of safe routes to school and the presence of traffic calming measures, suggesting that these strategies should be used in combination. PMID:24886211

2014-01-01

102

Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in HIV-positive patients: a cross-sectional study among newly diagnosed patients in Yaound?, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric complications of HIV disease, and in turn it is associated with worse HIV-related outcomes. Data on depression among HIV-infected patients in Cameroon are scarce. In this study, we report the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods Interviews were conducted with 100 newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients at three referral hospitals of Yaoundé. Depression was assessed using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A positive depression screen was defined as PHQ-9 score greater than 9. Results The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 63% (95% CI: 53.2 to 71.8), the majority having symptoms corresponding to moderate depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that probable depressed patients were more likely than those who were not depressed to have had experience of alcohol abuse (OR: 19.03, 95% CI 3.11-375.85; p?=?0.0083), and a 100 CD4 cells/mm3 fewer was associated with a 2.9 times increase of the odds of probable depression (95% CI 1.88-4.84; p?

2013-01-01

103

Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site  

PubMed Central

Background Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains—work, travel and leisure—in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Methods Adult participants (n?=?640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. Results The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4–47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Conclusions Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide encouragement across all sociodemographic groups. PMID:24628997

2014-01-01

104

Prevalence, correlates and clinical usefulness of antibodies to RNA polymerase III in systemic sclerosis: a cross-sectional analysis of data from an Australian cohort  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of antibodies to RNA polymerase III (anti-RNAP) differs among systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohorts worldwide. Previously reported associations of anti-RNAP include diffuse cutaneous disease, tendon friction rubs and renal crisis, with recent reports suggesting a close temporal association between malignancy and SSc disease onset among patients with anti-RNAP. Methods Patients with SSc were tested for the presence of anti-RNAP at recruitment into the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study. We used univariate and multivariable methods to identify and quantify clinical and laboratory correlates of anti-RNAP in SSc. Diagnostic testing procedures were used to determine the usefulness of these antibodies in estimating the likelihood of clinically important outcomes. Results There were 451 patients with mean ± standard deviation age and disease duration at recruitment of 58.1 ± 12.4 and 11.6 ± 10.0 years, respectively; 151 (33.5%) patients were recruited within 5 years of diagnosis of SSc. Overall, 69 (15.3%) patients had anti-RNAP. Univariate associations of anti-RNAP were diffuse disease (75.4% vs. 20.9%, P < 0.0001), joint contractures (73.9% vs. 30.1%, P < 0.0001), greater highest-recorded modified Rodnan skin score (20.6 ± 12.4 vs. 10.1 ± 7.9, P < 0.0001), synovitis (31.9% vs. 19.9%, P = 0.03), myositis (2.9% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.05), systemic hypertension (59.4% vs. 39.7%, P = 0.002), renal crisis (24.6% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.0001) and malignancy diagnosed within 5 years of onset of SSc skin disease (13.3% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.01). In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for other covariates, anti-RNAP were independently associated with renal crisis (odds ratio (OR) 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 11.5, P = 0.02; positive predictive value (PPV) 24.6%, negative predictive value (NPV) 98.2%), diffuse disease (OR 6.4, 95% CI 2.9 to 13.8, P < 0.0001; PPV 75.4%, NPV 20.9%), joint contractures (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.3, P = 0.02; PPV 73.9%, NPV 69.9%) and malignancy diagnosed within 5 years of onset of SSc skin disease (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.4, P = 0.01; PPV 13.3%, NPV 96.1%). Conclusions Anti-RNAP status is a clinically useful prognostic marker in SSc and enables clinicians to identify patients at high risk of developing renal crisis, synovitis, myositis and joint contractures. Patients with anti-RNAP also have an increased risk of malignancy within a 5-year timeframe before or after onset of SSc skin changes. PMID:22189167

2011-01-01

105

Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

1993-01-01

106

Nuclear Science and Technology, November 2000. NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS  

E-print Network

Nuclear Science and Technology, November 2000. 1 NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS FOR 238 U UP and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk, Russia A.Ventura ENEA, Nuclear Data Center and INFN, Bologna Section of the statistical description that includes direct, pre-equilibrium and equilibrium mechanisms of nuclear reactions

107

Total cross sections for neutron-nucleus scattering  

E-print Network

Systematics of neutron scattering cross sections on various materials for neutron energies up to several hundred MeV are important for ADSS applications. Ramsauer model is well known and widely applied to understand systematics of neutron nucleus total cross sections. In this work, we examined the role of nuclear effective radius parameter (r$_0$) on Ramsauer model fits of neutron total cross sections. We performed Ramsauer model global analysis of the experimental neutron total cross sections reported by W. P. Abfalterer, F. B. Bateman, {\\it et. al.,}, from 20MeV to 550MeV for nuclei ranging from Be to U . The global fit functions which can fit total cross section data over periodic table are provided along with the required global set of parameters. The global fits predict within $\\pm 8%$ deviation to data, showing the scope for improvement. It has been observed that a finer adjustment of r$_0$ parameter alone can give very good Ramsauer model description of neutron total scattering data within $\\pm 4%$ deviation. The required r$_0$ values for Ramsauer model fits are shown as a function of nuclear mass number and an empirical formula is suggested for r$_0$ values as a function of mass number. In optical model approach for neutron scattering, we have modified the real part of Koning-Deleroche potentails to fit the neutron total cross sections using SCAT2 code. The modified potentails have a different energy dependence beyond 200MeV of neutron energy and fit the total cross sections from Al to Pb.

S. V. Suryanarayana; H. Naik; S. Ganesan; S. Kailas; R. K. Choudhury; Guinyum Kim

2010-05-28

108

Direct processes effects on deuteron activation cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extended analysis of reaction mechanisms involved in deuterons interaction with target nuclei from 27Al till 231Pa, at incident energies up to 60 MeV, is presented. Increased attention is devoted to direct processes, concerning the breakup, stripping, and pickup contributions to the deuteron activation cross sections. Finally, the pre-equilibrium and evaporation cross sections, corrected for the initial flux leakage towards direct processes, have completed the deuteron interaction analysis. The overall agreement of the measured data and model calculations proves the correctness of nuclear mechanism description.

Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

2014-09-01

109

Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of niobium  

SciTech Connect

Neutron total cross sections of niobium were measured from approx. = 0.7 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV with broad resolution. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 0.1 to 0.2 MeV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Inelastically-scattered neutrons, corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 788 +- 23, 982 +- 17, 1088 +- 27, 1335 +- 35, 1504 +- 30, 1697 +- 19, 1971 +- 22, 2176 +- 28, 2456 +- (.), and 2581 +- (.) keV, were observed. An optical-statistical model, giving a good description of the observables, was deduced from the measured differential-elastic-scattering cross sections. The experimental-results were compared with the respective evaluated quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

1982-07-01

110

Charged-particle elastic cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Modern treatments of energy loss in plasmas through elastic scattering of energetic ions require complete knowledge of charged-particle elastic cross sections. R-matrix theory provides an explicit separation of nuclear and Coulomb effects in these cross sections, and gives reasonable extrapolations to small angles and low energies, where data may be scarce. We outline the calculation of charged-particle elastic cross sections from R-matrix parameters, and given examples for d-T, d-..cap alpha.., and t-..cap alpha.. scattering, obtained from comprehensive analyses of reactions in the /sup 5/He, /sup 6/Li, and /sup 7/Li compound systems. Expansion coefficients for an exact polynomial representation for the difference of the scattering and Rutherford cross sections (sigma/sub NI/) are given for d-T scattering. Integral quantities involving sigma/sub NI/ calculated from the present cross sections disagree substantially in some cases near resonances with a recent Livermore evaluation.

Hale, G.M.; Dodder, D.C.; DeVeaus, J.C.

1982-01-01

111

Core Description, Stratigraphic Correlation, and Mapping: A capstone project for an undergraduate course in Sedimentary Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is intended as a long-term (3 weeks1 month) lab exercise near the end of a combined Stratigraphy/Sedimentology course. The project utilizes real world data provided by CONSOL Energy of Pittsburgh, PA, and the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey. This project has been assigned once and is being revised. Instructions have been left somewhat vague in an attempt to force students into discovering some of the more mechanical details of this process themselves. By the latter third of the course, students have described sedimentary rocks in detail and have constructed vertical sections of rock at several outcrops around campus. The course is moving from Sedimentology/Petrology into Stratigraphy. This project is designed to illustrate the basic principles of lithostratigraphy, which are covered concurrently in the lecture portion of the class. The project 'unfurls' over several weeks. If students are provided with the entire project at one time they generally get overwhelmed, so the project is presented piecemeal, allowing the students to expand the project as they complete one section. Step 1: Core description 40 feet of core from the Conemaugh Group of southwestern Pennsylvania is made available to the students. They must describe the core, define lithologic units, identify specific sedimentary structures, and construct a stratigraphic column. (Students struggle with detail versus efficiency of completion, given one full lab period (3 hours) and a week to complete the assignment, many students will get lost in the detail) The goal is to build familiarity with the type of data available to geologists as they go about constructing maps for resource estimates. Additionally, the lithologies present in this core will be similar to those described in the geologist and drilling logs necessary to complete the next step. Each step is evaluated independently in this step concern is primarily with identification of basic lithologies (coal, sandstone, shale, limestone). Step 2: construction of strip logs for 25 core holes in northern West Virginia. Students are provided with a location map, logs for 25 holes, and elevation data. They must construct strip logs suitable for correlation, deciding upon scale and detail of presentation. Students are provided with a CD including the location map and a .pdf for each drill record. The logs vary between the simplicity of driller data (60' of "blue" shale) and the detail of geologist descriptions, students must balance the detail and simplicity. Additionally, students were faced with "long" logs (i.e. greater than 500') and "short" logs (i.e. less than 100'). This turned out to be extremely difficult, some students got very lost, producing long detailed logs that left them without much time for the last two steps. Students are again provided with a week to construct the strip logs, including the lab time for the week. Strip logs are evaluated for detail, accuracy, and utility (in many cases too much detail can be as confusing as too little). Step 3: construction of stratigraphic cross sections. The first time this project was assigned, there was little guidance provided to students beyond "choosing logs that covered the largest stratigraphic interval." This exceeded the grasp of most students so additional guidance will be provided in the next iteration of this project. A generalized stratigraphic column illustrating the basic characteristics of the Monongahela and Conemaugh groups will be provided to assist students with recognition of the basic formations. Students will be required to construct a stratigraphic cross section through selected wells on the west side of the project area. This cross section will demonstrate the use of marker beds and the lateral continuity of stratigraphic units. The second cross section will run east-west onto the western flank of the Chestnut Ridge anticline. The datum for this cross section will be surface elevation. This cross section will illustrate the problems of stratigraphic correlation when combined with geological structures. The rock becomes consistently older as one proceeds towards the axis of the anticline. The prominent red beds and the absence of coals, in the eastern portion of the map area indicate the presence of the Chestnut Ridge Anticline. Evaluation of the cross sections will be based upon the accuracy of the correlations. Students are allowed a week to produce cross sections (including lab). The stratigraphic cross section should accurately delineate the Redstone, Pittsburgh, and Sewickley coals. These occur in sequence and are fairly easy to identify. Successful completion of the east-west cross section will require identification of the approximate stratigraphic position of the Monongahela-Conemaugh contact. Step 4: construction of isopach maps. Students are then required to identify specific coal and sandstone units within their cross sections, correlate those across the map region and construct isopach maps of those units. This requires that the students now extend what they have learned from the previous three weeks, extend those correlations to the core holes not included in the basic stratigraphic analysis. The thickness of the coal and sandstone should be identified and isopach maps constructed. The first iteration of this project produced problems similar to those encountered in step 3. Better guidance and evaluation of the cross sections and allowing students less input on the choice of stratigraphic units to isopach should reduce the confusion. Step 5: (optional) Interpretation and report writing : the first iteration of this project was running concurrently with a term paper. Instead of two separate projects, an interpretive report will be required. This is still in the planning stage and has not been assigned to students.

Matchen, David L.

112

Photoabsorption cross sections of OH at 115-183 nm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absorption spectrum for OH was obtained in the 115-183 nm region. The OH radicals were produced by a pulse discharge of trace H2O in few torr of Ar. Absorption cross sections were obtained by calibration with absorption of the OH (X 2 Pi to A 2 Sigma +) transition. The features in the absorption spectrum are correlated with the excited states 1 2 Sigma -, D 2 Sigma -, 1 2 Delta, B 2 Sigma + and possibly others calculated by van Dishoeck, Langhoff, and Dalgarno. The measured cross sections are comparable with the calculated values.

Nee, J. B.; Lee, L. C.

1984-01-01

113

45. Neutrino Cross Section Measurements 1 45. Neutrino Cross Section Measurements  

E-print Network

45. Neutrino Cross Section Measurements 1 45. Neutrino Cross Section Measurements Written in April 2012 by G.P. Zeller (Fermilab) Neutrino interaction cross sections are an essential ingredient in most neutrino experiments. Interest in neutrino scattering has recently increased due to the need

114

Quality at general practice consultations: cross sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To measure quality of care at general practice consultations in diverse geographical areas, and to determine the principal correlates associated with enablement as an outcome measure. Design Cross sectional multipractice questionnaire based study. Setting Random sample of practices in four participating regions: Lothian, Coventry, Oxfordshire,

John G R Howie; David J Heaney; Margaret Maxwell; Jeremy J Walker; George K Freeman; Harbinder Rai

1999-01-01

115

Silicon Detector System for Cross Section Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to estimate the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials it is necessary to know cosmic ray particles are broken up as they pass though these materials. The breakup of cosmic ray particles is characterized by the nuclear fragmentation cross sections, i.e. an effective geometrical cross section assigned to each target nucleus that represents its apparent size for fragmenting the incident particle. The values of these cross sections depend on the details of nuclear physics and cannot be calculated from first principles owing to the many-body nature of the interactions. The only way to determine them is to measure them. Once a sufficient number of cross sections have been measured, the systematic nature of the interactions allows other cross-sections to be estimated. The number of cross sections that contribute to the estimation of shielding effectiveness is very large 10,000. Fortunately most make minor contributions. These can be estimated from nuclear systematics. Only those who's uncertainties make significant contributions to the error in the shielding effectiveness estimations need to be measured. In the past it has proven difficult to measure light fragment production cross sections from the interactions of heavy cosmic rays owing to the size of the detectors used. We have developed a highly pixilated silicon (Si) detector system that can individually identify these light fragments while making efficient use of costly accelerator time. This system is an outgrowth of detector technology developed under a CDDF and a Code S sponsored cosmic ray experiment.

2003-01-01

116

Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

Jorgensen, Leland H.

1958-01-01

117

Developing Cross Section Sets for Fluorocarbon Etchants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful modeling of plasmas used in materials processing depends on knowledge of a variety of collision cross sections and reaction rates, both within the plasma and at the surface. Electron-molecule collision cross sections are especially important, affecting both electron transport and the generation of reactive fragments by dissociation and ionization. Because the supply of cross section data is small and measurements are difficult, computational approaches may make a valuable contribution, provided they can cope with the significant challenges posed. In particular, a computational method must deal with the full complexity of low-energy electron-molecule interactions, must treat polyatomic molecules, and must be capable of computing cross sections for electronic excitation. These requirements imply that the method will be numerically intensive and thus must exploit high-performance computers to be practical. We have developed an ab initio computational method, the Schwinger multichannel (SMC) method, that possesses the characteristics just described, and we have applied it to compute cross sections for a variety of molecules, with particular emphasis on fluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon etchants used in the semiconductor industry. A key aspect of this work has been an awareness that cross section sets, validated when possible against swarm data, are more useful than individual cross sections. To develop such sets, cross section calculations must be integrated within a focused collaborative effort. Here we describe electron cross section calculations carried out within the context of such a focused effort, with emphasis on fluorinated hydrocarbons including CHF3 (trifluoromethane), c-C4F8 (octafluorocyclobutane), and C2F4 (tetrafluoroethene).

Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent

2002-10-01

118

The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KLOE uses the radiative return to measure the hadronic cross section e+e- ? ? +- at DANE. Theemission of one or more hard photons in the initial state ( ISR) reduces the collision energy, otherwise fixed at 1020 MeV, and allows to perform an effective scan of the two pions invariant mass squared, s?, in the whole s?, region from threshold to m?2. An extremely accurate knowledge of experimental systematics, background, luminosity and, on the theoretical side, a precise description of initial state radiation are needed to perform a competitive measurement. We present here the status of the analysis of 140 pb -1 collected in 2001. A preliminary evaluation of the hadronic contribution to a? in the s? range between 0.37 GeV 2 and 0.93 GeV 2 yields a? = 378.4 ± 0.8 stat ± 4.5 syst ± 3.0 theo ± 3.8 FSR, consistent with the CMD-2 result and confirming the present discrepancy between e+e - and ? data.

Valeriani, B.; KLOE Collaboration

119

Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used to measure the 239Pu(n,?) cross section from 10 eV to the keV region. Three experimental run conditions were used to characterize the prompt fission ?-ray spectrum across the entire energy regime, measure the cross section in the resolved resonance region, and obtain necessary count rate well into the keV region. The preliminary cross sections are in good agreement with current evaluations from 10 eV to 80 keV.

Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.

2014-05-01

120

A nuclear cross section data handbook  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

Fisher, H.O.M.

1989-12-01

121

Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

1970-01-01

122

Path forward for dosimetry cross sections  

SciTech Connect

In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of experimental data in the evaluation. (authors)

Griffin, P.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Peters, C.D. [Sandia Staffing Alliance, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

2011-07-01

123

The rolling cross-section design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the 'rolling cross-section', a design well-adapted to telephone surveys and to capturing real-time effects in campaigns. In one sense, the design is just a standard cross-section, but the day on which a respondent is interviewed is chosen randomly. As a result, analysis of longitudinal factors is possible with only modest controls. The design necessitates an estimation strategy

Richard Johnston; Henry E. Brady

2001-01-01

124

The rolling cross-section design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the ‘rolling cross-section’, a design well-adapted to telephone surveys and to capturing real-time effects in campaigns. In one sense, the design is just a standard cross-section, but the day on which a respondent is interviewed is chosen randomly. As a result, analysis of longitudinal factors is possible with only modest controls. The design necessitates an estimation strategy

Richard Johnston; Henry E. Brady

2002-01-01

125

Asymptotic cross sections for composite projectile reactions  

E-print Network

ASYMPTOTIC CROSS SECTIONS FOR COMPOSITE PROJECTILE REACTIONS A Thesis by ANDREA MAROLT PIMENTA NEVES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1995 Major Subject: Physics ASYMPTOTIC CROSS SECTIONS FOR COMPOSITE PROJECTILE REACTIONS A Thesis by ANDREA MAROLT P JMENTA NEVES Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Neves, Andrea Marolt Pimenta

2012-06-07

126

The hadronic cross section measurement at KLOE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KLOE uses the radiative return to measure cross section ?(ee????) at the electron-positron collider DA?NE. Divinding by a theoretical radiator function, we obtain the cross section ?(ee????) for the mass range 0.35

Aloisio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bacci, C.; Barva, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bertolucci, S.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Bulychjov, S. A.; Caloi, R.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Carboni, G.; Ceradini, F.; Cervelli, F.; Cevenini, F.; Chiefari, G.; Ciambrone, P.; Conetti, S.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Falco, S.; Di Micco, B.; Doria, A.; Dreucci, M.; Erriquez, O.; Farilla, A.; Felici, G.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Forti, C.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gorini, E.; Graziani, E.; Incagli, M.; Kluge, W.; Kulikov, V.; Lacava, F.; Lanfranchi, G.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leone, D.; Lu, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Mei, W.; Merola, L.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Müller, S.; Murtas, F.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passalacqua, L.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Perfetto, F.; Petrolo, E.; Pontecorvo, L.; Primavera, M.; Santangelo, P.; Santovetti, E.; Saracino, G.; Schamberger, R. D.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Scuri, F.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Spiriti, E.; Tabidze, M.; Testa, M.; Tortora, L.; Valente, P.; Valeriani, B.; Venanzoni, G.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Villella, I.; Xu, G.; KLOE Collaboration

127

Ultrasonographic median nerve cross-section areas measured by 8-point "inching test" for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: a correlation of nerve conduction study severity and duration of clinical symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background Incremental palmar stimulation of the median nerve sensory conduction at the wrist, the "inching test", provides an assessment with reference to segments proximal and distal to the entrapment. This study used high-resolution ultrasonography (US) to measure the median nerve's cross-section areas (CSAs) like the "inching test" and to correlate with the nerve conduction study (NCS) severity and duration of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods Two hundred and twelve (212) "CTS-hands" from 135 CTS patients and 50 asymptomatic hands ("A-hands") from 25 control individuals were enrolled. The median nerve CSAs were measured at the 8-point marked as i4, i3, i2, i1, w, o1, o2, and 03 in inching test. The NCS severities were classified into six groups based on motor and sensory responses (i.e., negative, minimal, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme). Results of US studies were compared in terms of NCS severity and duration of clinical CTS symptoms. Results There was significantly larger CSA of the NCS negative group of "CTS-hands" than of "A-hands". The cut-off values of the CSAs of the NCS negative CTS group were 12.5 mm2, 11.5 mm2 and 10.1 mm2 at the inlet, wrist crease, and outlet, respectively. Of the 212 "CTS-hands", 32 were NCS negative while 40 had minimal, 43 mild, 85 moderate, 10 severe, and two extreme NCS severities. The CSAs of "CTS-hands" positively correlated with different NCS severities and with the duration of CTS symptoms. By duration of clinical symptoms, 12 of the 212 "CTS-hands" were in the 1 month group; 82 in >1 month and ?12 months group, and 118 in >12 months group. In "inching test", segments i4-i3 and i3-i2 were the most common "positive-site". The corresponding CSAs measured at i4 and i3, but not at i2, were significantly larger than those measured at points that were not "positive-site". Conclusions Using the 8-point measurement of the median nerve CSA from inlet to outlet similar to the "inching test" has positive correlations with NCS severity and duration of CTS clinical symptoms, and can provide more information on anatomic changes. Combined NCS and US studies using the 8-point measurement may have a higher positive rate than NCS alone for diagnosing CTS. PMID:22189264

2011-01-01

128

EPAX version 2: a modified empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have modified the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, to remove discrepancies with cross sections measured at the SIS\\/FRS facility at GSI. The most significant changes refer to the description of fragmentation yields close to the projectile and of the memory effect of neutron-deficient projectiles.

K. Summerer; B. Blank

2002-01-01

129

Thermal neutron cross sections for moderator materials: comparison of a synthetic scattering function and NJOY results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Synthetic Scattering Function (SSF) allows a simple description of the incoherent interaction of slow neutrons with different materials, especially hydrogenous ones. The main advantages of this model reside in the analytical expressions that it produces for double-differential cross sections, energy-transfer kernels, and total cross sections. We have included the SSF routines into the NJOY code, in such a way

V. H. Gillette; M. M. Sbaffoni; J. R. Granada; M. E. Pepe

1999-01-01

130

Fully Differential Cross Sections for Double Photoionization of He Measured by Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Recoil momentum spectroscopy has been used to measure fully differential cross sections for double photoionization of He at energies of 180eV above threshold. The measurement technique allows the determination of the vector momenta of all three escaping particles, and samples the entire final momentum space. When presented in terms of the momentum vector of the center of mass of the electron pair and the relative momentum of the two electrons, the data reveal simple features of the correlated motion. The resulting patterns near threshold are found to be in agreement with a Wannier description of the process. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Doerner, R.; Feagin, J.M.; Cocke, C.L.; Braeuning, H.; Jagutzki, O.; Jung, M.; Kanter, E.P.; Khemliche, H.; Kravis, S.; Mergel, V.; Prior, M.H.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Spielberger, L.; Ullrich, J.; Unversagt, M.; Vogt, T. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Frankfurt, August Euler Str.6, D60486 Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, California State University-Fullerton, Fullerton, California 92634 (United States)]|[Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionen Forschung, D64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

1996-08-01

131

Report on 238Pu(n,x) surrogate cross section measurement  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this year's effort is to measure the {sup 238}Pu(n,f) and {sup 238}Pu(n,2n) cross section from 100 keV to 20 MeV. We designed a surrogate experiment that used the reaction {sup 239}Pu(a,a{prime}x) as a surrogate for {sup 238}Pu(n,x). The experiment was conducted using the STARS/LIBERACE experimental facility located at the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in January 2010. A description of the experiment and status of the data analysis is given. In order to obtain a reliable {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section we designed the experiment using the surrogate ratio technique. This technique allows one to measure a desired, unknown, cross section relative to a known cross section. In the present example, the {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section of interest is determined relative to the known {sup 235}U(n,x) cross section. To increase confidence in the results, and to reduce overall uncertainties, we are also determining the {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section relative to the known {sup 234}U(n,x) cross section. The compound nuclei of interest for this experiment were produced using inelastic alpha scattering. For example, {sup 236}U(a,a{prime}x) served as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,x); analogous reactions were considered for the other cross sections. Surrogate experiments determine the probabilities for the decay of the compound nuclei into the various channels of interest (fission, gamma decay) by measuring particle-fission (p-f) or particle?gamma (p?g) reaction spectra. By comparing the decay probabilities associated with the unknown cross section to that of a known cross section it is possible to obtain the ratio of these cross sections and thus determine the unknown, desired cross section.

Burke, J T; Ressler, J J; Henderson, R A; Scielzo, N D; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Gostic, J; Bleuel, D; Weideking, M; Bernstein, L A

2010-03-31

132

Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

Richards, W. B.

1986-01-01

133

Measurement of 139La(n,?) Cross Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the neutron capture cross section of 139La relative to 197Au in the energy range of 0.6 eV to 9 keV at n_TOF, the neutron time-of-flight facility at CERN. After a description of the experimental apparatus, we discuss data analysis procedures. The data were fitted using R-matrix formalism to extract resonance parameters which, in turn, were used to calculate

R. Terlizzi; U. Abbondanno; G. Aerts; H. A´lvarez; F. Alvarez-Velarde; S. Andriamonje; J. Andrzejewski; P. Assimakopoulos; L. Audouin; G. Badurek; P. Baumann; E. Berthoumieux; D. Cano-Ott; R. Capote; A. Carrillo de Albornoz; P. Cennini; V. Chepel; E. Chiaveri; N. Colonna; G. Cortes; A. Couture; J. Cox; M. Dahlfors; S. David; I. Dillmann; R. Dolfini; C. Domingo-Pardo; W. Dridi; I. Duran; C. Eleftheriadis; M. Embid-Segura; L. Ferrant; A. Ferrari; R. Ferreira-Marques; L. Fitzpatrick; H. Frais-Koelbl; K. Fujii; W. Furman; R. Gallino; I. Goncalves; E. Gonzalez-Romero; A. Goverdovski; F. Gramegna; E. Griesmayer; C. Guerrero; F. Gunsing; B. Haas; R. Haight; M. Heil; A. Herrera-Martinez; M. Igashira; S. Isaev; E. Jericha; Y. Kadi; D. Karamanis; D. Karadimos; M. Kerveno; V. Ketlerov; P. Koehler; V. Konovalov; E. Kossionides; C. Lamboudis; H. Leeb; A. Lindote; I. Lopes; M. Lozano; S. Lukic; J. Marganiec; L. Marques; S. Marrone; P. Mastinu; A. Mengoni; P. M. Milazzo; C. Moreau; M. Mosconi; F. Neves; H. Oberhummer; S. O’Brien; M. Oshima; J. Pancin; C. Papachristodoulou; C. Papadopoulos; C. Paradela; N. Patronis; A. Pavlik; P. Pavlopoulos; L. Perrot; R. Plag; A. Plompen; A. Plukis; A. Poch; C. Pretel; J. Quesada; T. Rauscher; R. Reifarth; M. Rosetti; C. Rubbia; G. Rudolf; P. Rullhusen; J. Salgado; L. Sarchiapone; I. Savvidis; C. Stephan; G. Tagliente; J. L. Tain; L. Tassan-Got; L. Tavora; G. Vannini; P. Vaz; A. Ventura; D. Villamarin; M. C. Vincente; V. Vlachoudis; R. Vlastou; F. Voss; S. Walter; H. Wendler; M. Wiescher; K. Wisshak

2006-01-01

134

Measurement of 139La(n,gamma) Cross Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the neutron capture cross section of 139La relative to 197Au in the energy range of 0.6 eV to 9 keV at n_TOF, the neutron time-of-flight facility at CERN. After a description of the experimental apparatus, we discuss data analysis procedures. The data were fitted using R-matrix formalism to extract resonance parameters which, in turn, were used to calculate

R. Terlizzi; U. Abbondanno; G. Aerts; H. Álvarez; F. Alvarez-Velarde; S. Andriamonje; J. Andrzejewski; P. Assimakopoulos; L. Audouin; G. Badurek; P. Baumann; F. Becvár; E. Berthoumieux; F. Calviño; D. Cano-Ott; R. Capote; A. Carrillo de Albornoz; P. Cennini; V. Chepel; E. Chiaveri; N. Colonna; G. Cortes; A. Couture; J. Cox; M. Dahlfors; S. David; I. Dillmann; R. Dolfini; C. Domingo-Pardo; W. Dridi; I. Duran; C. Eleftheriadis; M. Embid-Segura; L. Ferrant; A. Ferrari; R. Ferreira-Marques; L. Fitzpatrick; H. Frais-Koelbl; K. Fujii; W. Furman; R. Gallino; I. Goncalves; E. Gonzalez-Romero; A. Goverdovski; F. Gramegna; E. Griesmayer; C. Guerrero; F. Gunsing; B. Haas; R. Haight; M. Heil; A. Herrera-Martinez; M. Igashira; S. Isaev; E. Jericha; Y. Kadi; F. Käppeler; D. Karamanis; D. Karadimos; M. Kerveno; V. Ketlerov; P. Koehler; V. Konovalov; E. Kossionides; M. Krticka; C. Lamboudis; H. Leeb; A. Lindote; I. Lopes; M. Lozano; S. Lukic; J. Marganiec; L. Marques; S. Marrone; P. Mastinu; A. Mengoni; P. M. Milazzo; C. Moreau; M. Mosconi; F. Neves; H. Oberhummer; S. O'Brien; M. Oshima; J. Pancin; C. Papachristodoulou; C. Papadopoulos; C. Paradela; N. Patronis; A. Pavlik; P. Pavlopoulos; L. Perrot; R. Plag; A. Plompen; A. Plukis; A. Poch; C. Pretel; J. Quesada; T. Rauscher; R. Reifarth; M. Rosetti; C. Rubbia; G. Rudolf; P. Rullhusen; J. Salgado; L. Sarchiapone; I. Savvidis; C. Stephan; G. Tagliente; J. L. Tain; L. Tassan-Got; L. Tavora; G. Vannini; P. Vaz; A. Ventura; D. Villamarin; M. C. Vincente; V. Vlachoudis; R. Vlastou; F. Voss; S. Walter; H. Wendler; M. Wiescher; K. Wisshak

2006-01-01

135

Analysis of charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the cross section for chaged-current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering on nuclei has been performed using a description of nuclear dynamics based on the Relativistic Fermi Gas model (RFG). The role played by different parametrizations for the weak nucleon form factors is analyzed taking into account the relevance of the axial mass value. The results obtained are compared with the recent data for neutrinos measured by the MiniBooNE Collaboration.

Megias, G.; Caballero, J. A.

2013-06-01

136

Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

1995-04-01

137

Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements  

SciTech Connect

The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

Negret, Alexandru [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2012-11-20

138

Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

2008-09-01

139

Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

2009-10-05

140

Neutron Capture Cross Section of ^239Pu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ^239Pu(n,?) cross section has been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) provided a highly segmented 4? measurement of the energy and multiplicity distributions for emitted ?-rays, while a PPAC detected coincidence fission fragments. The simultaneous measurement of (n,?) and (n,f) events resulting from a single sample allowed the (n,?) cross section to be measured as a ratio to fission with reduced systematic uncertainty. Results from the current analysis will be presented.

Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Gostic, J. M.; Henderson, R. A.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C.-Y.

2012-10-01

141

Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental silver  

SciTech Connect

Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental silver are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160/sup 0/. Inelastically-scattered neutron groups are observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at; 328 +- 13, 419 +- 50, 748 +- 25, 908 +- 26, 1150 +- 38, 1286 +- 25, 1507 +- 20, 1623 +- 30, 1835 +- 20 and 1944 +- 26 keV. The experimental results are used to derive an optical-statistical model that provides a good description of the observed cross sections. The measured values are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

1982-05-01

142

Drivers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was conducted by random duster sampling in the city of Tehran. Knowledge of the drivers was assessed with 6 questions about national traffic laws. Attitude was assessed on a 7-item scale of drivers' perceptions. Behavior was observed by a police officer on 13 areas of assessment. Correlations were low among these three scores. Drivers with advanced education had higher scores on behavior. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior of these drivers did not seem associated. PMID:18567211

Yunesian, Masud; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Moradi, Ali; Vash, Javad Homayoun

2008-04-01

143

Simple Calculations of Proton SEU Cross Sections from Heavy Ion Cross Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple expressions, based on previous analytical and empirical models for the energy deposited by protons through their p+Si interactions, are proposed for calculating proton induced SEU cross sections from heavy ion cross sections in devices with sub-micron sensitive volumes. Calculations for modern devices yield good agreement with the experiments. The implications on calculating SEU rates in space are discussed

J. Barak

2006-01-01

144

Hadronic cross section from radiative return  

E-print Network

The impact of final-state radiation (FSR) on the radiative return method for the extraction of the e+e- hadronic cross section is discussed in detail and experimental tests of the model dependence of FSR are proposed for the pi+pi- hadronic final state.

Henryk Czyz; Agnieszka Grzelinska

2004-02-03

145

Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks  

SciTech Connect

We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

Kahler, Albert C. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-28

146

NIST XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web program is used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, in any element, compound or mixture, at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV

2003-11-10

147

ELECTRON IMPACT CROSS SECTIONS FOR CO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the concept of the generalized oscillator strength and the techniques previously de- veloped, we synthisize a diverse body of experimental data on carbon dioxide into a set of analytical electron impact cross sections. The generalized oscillator strengths of Lassettre and $hiloff (1965) serve as the primary data. We include in our analysis discrete excitation, autoionization, direct ionization, and dissociative

D. J. Strickland; A. E. S. Green

1969-01-01

148

Metonymy and cross-section demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-section consumer expenditure data are frequently used to draw conclusions about consumer demand behavior. Such conclusions, however, are justified only under certain assumptions, which are often left unstated in the empirical demand literature. An assumption of this type, the metonymy hypothesis, was stated rigorously and exploited by Härdle et al. when analyzing the monotonicity of aggregate demand functions. The purpose

Igor V. Evstigneev; Werner Hildenbrand; Michael Jerison

1997-01-01

149

Neutron scattering lengths and cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of thermal neutron scattering to the study of the structure and dynamics of condensed matter requires a knowledge of the scattering lengths and the corresponding scattering and absorption cross sections of the elements. Ln some cases, values for the individual isotopes are needed as well. This information is required to obtain an absolute normalization ofthe scatteredneutron distributions, tocalculate

Varley F. Sears

1992-01-01

150

Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

2002-01-01

151

Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

1992-01-01

152

From radar cross section to electrostatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter discusses the connection of a dynamic electromagnetic variable, the radar cross section, and a static parameter, the polarizability. It is shown that with full-wave electromagnetic computation of the scattering of a sphere, its static response can be enumerated with good accuracy with remarkably few unknowns. The result suggests that the code can be used with success to also

Ari Sihvola; Tapan K. Sarkar; B. Kolundzija

2004-01-01

153

Radar cross section dependence on wind speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

YSCAT was an ultrawideband (2-20 GHz), near constant beamwidth scatterometer intended to provide radar cross section measurements at varying radar and environmental parameters. YSCAT was deployed on the CCIW (Canada Center for Inland Waters) tower on Lake Ontario for a period of six months in 1994. Using YSCAT data, this paper reports (1) observance of a “low wind-speed cutoff”, the

David G. Long; Ben E. Barrowes; David V. Arnold

1999-01-01

154

Advanced radar cross section clutter removal algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Producing good quality radar cross section (RCS) measurement data of a target is proportional to the extent of clutter mitigation. Although RCS measurements usually include clutter reduction methods, typically some level of clutter remains in the target data. In order to achieve maximum RCS data quality several computational clutter removal algorithms have been developed, each having strengths and weaknesses, which

Andre Bati; Long To; Don Hilliard

2010-01-01

155

ORCON1. Stream Condenser Circular Cross Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORCON1 is a program for design or metric study of steam condensers whose tubes form a horizontal bundle of circular or semicircular cross section with central void. Baffles and a cooler section may be provided as options. The output shows steam conditions at each row.

Hafford

1973-01-01

156

Infrared Gluon Resummation and pp total cross-sections  

E-print Network

We address here the problem of describing both the total and the elastic proton-proton cross-section, through the four outstanding features of hadron scattering: (i) the optical point; (ii) the forward peak, (iii) the dip and (iv) the subsequent descent at larger momentum transfers. These issues are discussed through an eikonal model for the elastic amplitude where the matter distribution in impact parameter space is given by resummed soft gluons down into the infrared (IR) region. The asymptotic growth of the total cross-section is obtained in a mini-jet model and the taming (saturation) at high energies is related to confinement realized here through an IR singular strong coupling constant alpha_s(Q^2). We present an ansatz that links the IR singularity of alpha_s(Q^2) to that of asymptotic freedom (AF) (at lowest order). Through this model, we illustrate the problems that arise in a generic one-channel eikonal model employed for a description of the measured differential elastic cross-section at LHC7.

Pancheri, Giulia; Grau, A; Shekhovtsova, O; Srivastava, Yogendra N

2014-01-01

157

Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

2011-02-24

158

Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

2009-01-01

159

Electron-collision cross sections for iodine  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.

Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Brunger, M.J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hoshino, M. [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Buckman, S.J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-04-15

160

Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

1980-05-02

161

Photonuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Gallium Isotopes  

E-print Network

The photon induced reactions which are named as photonuclear reactions have a great importance in many field of nuclear, radiation physics and related fields. Since we have planned to perform photonuclear reaction on gallium target with bremmstrahlung photons from clinical linear accelerator in the future, the cross-sections of neutron (photo-neutron ({\\gamma},xn)) and proton (photo-proton ({\\gamma},xn)) productions after photon activation have been calculated by using TALYS 1.2 computer code in this study. The target nucleus has been considered gallium which has two stable isotopes, 69Ga and 71Ga. According to the results, we have seen that the calculations are in harmony in the limited literature values. Furthermore, the pre-equilibrium and compound process contributions to the total cross-section have been investigated.

Serkan Akkoyun; Tuncay Bayram

2014-09-08

162

Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei valid for the entire energy range from a few A MeV to a few A GeV. The universal picture presented here treats the proton-nucleus collision as a special case of the nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

1996-01-01

163

Resonance capture cross section of Pb207  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiative neutron capture cross section of Pb207 has been measured at the CERN neutron time of flight installation n_TOF using the pulse height weighting technique in the resolved energy region. The measurement has been performed with an optimized setup of two C6D6 scintillation detectors, which allowed us to reduce scattered neutron backgrounds down to a negligible level. Resonance parameters

C. Domingo-Pardo; U. Abbondanno; G. Aerts; H. Álvarez-Pol; F. Alvarez-Velarde; S. Andriamonje; J. Andrzejewski; P A Assimakopoulos; L. Audouin; G. Badurek; P. Baumann; F. Becvár; E. Berthoumieux; S. Bisterzo; F. Calviño; D. Cano-Ott; R. Capote; C. Carrapiço; P. Cennini; V. Chepel; Enrico Chiaveri; N. Colonna; G. Cortes; A. Couture; J. Cox; M. Dahlfors; S. David; I. Dillman; R. Dolfini; W. Dridi; I. Duran; C. Eleftheriadis; M. Embid-Segura; L. Ferrant; A. Ferrari; R. Ferreira-Marques; L. Fitzpatrick; H. Frais-Koelbl; K. Fujii; W. Furman; R. Gallino; I. Goncalves; E M González-Romero; A. Goverdovski; F. Gramegna; E. Griesmayer; C. Guerrero; F. Gunsing; B. Haas; R. Haight; M. Heil; A. Herrera-Martinez; M. Igashira; S. Isaev; E. Jericha; Y. Kadi; F K Käppeler; D. Karamanis; D. Karadimos; M. Kerveno; V. Ketlerov; P. Koehler; V. Konovalov; E. Kossionides; M. Krticka; C. Lamboudis; H. Leeb; A. Lindote; I. Lopes; M. Lozano; S. Lukic; J. Marganiec; S. Marrone; P. Mastinu; A. Mengoni; P. M. Milazzo; C. Moreau; M. Mosconi; F. Neves; Heinz Oberhummer; M. Oshima; S. O'Brien; J. Pancin; C. Papachristodoulou; C. Papadopoulos; C. Paradela; N. Patronis; A. Pavlik; P. Pavlopoulos; L. Perrot; R. Plag; A. Plompen; A. Plukis; A. Poch; C. Pretel; J. Quesada; T. Rauscher; R. Reifarth; M. Rosetti; Carlo Rubbia; G. Rudolf; P. Rullhusen; J. Salgado; L. Sarchiapone; I. Savvidis; C. Stephan; G. Tagliente; J. L. Tain; L. Tassan-Got; L. Tavora; R. Terlizzi; G. Vannini; P. Vaz; A. Ventura; D. Villamarin; M C Vincente; V. Vlachoudis; R. Vlastou; F. Voss; S. Walter; H. Wendler; M. Wiescher; K. Wisshak

2006-01-01

164

Inclusive jet cross section at D0  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

Bhattacharjee, M. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

1996-09-01

165

Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the second year of a three-year interagency agreement. This program includes a broad range of data measurements and evaluations. An emphasis has been focused on the (sup 10)B cross sections where serious discrepancies in the nuclear data base remain. In particular, there are important problems with the interpretation of the helium gas production associated with diagnostic measurements of interest in nuclear technology. The enhanced use of this isotope for medical treatment is also of significance. New measurements of neutron reaction cross sections for (sup 10)B are in progress in collaboration with scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New experiments are in progress on the important dosimetry standards (sup 237)Np(n,f) and (sup 239)Pu(n,f) below 1 MeV neutron energy. In addition, new measurements of charged-particle production in basic biological elements for medical applications are underway. Further measurements are planned or in progress in collaborations which include fission fragment energy and angular distributions, and neutron energy spectra and angular distributions from neutron-induced fission. Also measurements of angular distributions of neutrons from scattering on protons, and determinations of capture cross section of gold are planned for a later time. Data evaluation will shift to include a unified international effort to motivate new measurements and evaluations. In response to the requests of the measurement community, NIST is beginning the formation of a national depository for fissionable isotope mass standards. This action will preserve for future measurements the valuable and irreplaceable critical samples whose masses and composition have been carefully determined and documented over the past 30 years of the nuclear program.

1992-09-01

166

How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently  

SciTech Connect

Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

2008-09-03

167

Radar cross section of a long wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monostatic radar cross-section (RCS) results for five- and eleven-wavelength straight wires are presented. The numerical RCS values which are obtained from solving Pocklington's integral equation for the induced current by collocation fall within 1 dB of the experimental measurements over all major lobes of the RCS pattern. The computer times required for the computations are 1.2 and 7.6 seconds for

E. Miller; G. Burke; B. Maxum; G. Pjerrov; A. Neureuther

1969-01-01

168

Cross-section measurements for radioactive samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of (n,p), (n,..cap alpha..) and (n,..gamma..) cross sections for radioactive nuclei is of interest to both nuclear physics and astrophysics. For example, using these reactions, properties of levels in nuclei at high excitation energies, which are difficult or impossible to study using other reactions, can be investigated. Also, reaction rates for both big-bang and stellar nucleosynthesis can be

P. E. Koehler; H. A. OBrien

1988-01-01

169

Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

Pagliarone, C. [Universita di Torino and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

1996-08-01

170

(n,?) reactions cross section research at IPPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental set-up based on an ionization chamber with a Frisch grid and wave form digitizer was used for (n,?) cross section measurements. Use of digital signal processing allowed us to select a gaseous cell inside the sensitive area of the ionization chamber and determine the target atoms in it with high accuracy. This kind of approach provided us with a powerful method to suppress background arising from the detector structure and parasitic reactions on the working gas components. This method is especially interesting to study neutron reactions with elements for which solid target preparation is difficult (noble gases for example). In the present experiments we used a set of working gases which contained admixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and boron. Fission of 238U was used as neutron flux monitor. The cross section of the (n,?) reaction for 16O, 14N, 20Ne, 36Ar, 40Ar and the yield ratio ?0/?1 of 10B(n,?0) to 10B(n,?1) reactions was measured for neutron energies between 1.5 and 7 MeV. Additionally a measurement of the 50Cr(n,?) cross section using a solid chromium target is also reported.

Khryachkov, V. A.; Bondarenko, I. P.; Kuzminov, B. D.; Semenova, N. N.; Sergachev, A. I.; Ivanova, T. A.; Giorginis, G.

2012-02-01

171

Neutron activation cross sections on lead isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The cross sections for the reactions {sup 204}Pb(n,n{sup '}{gamma}){sup 204}Pb{sup m}, {sup 204}Pb(n,2n){sup 203}Pb, {sup 204}Pb(n,2n){sup 203}Pb{sup m1}, {sup 204}Pb(n,3n){sup 202}Pb{sup m}, {sup 206}Pb(n,3n){sup 204}Pb{sup m}, {sup 206}Pb(n,{alpha}){sup 203}Hg, and {sup 208}Pb(n,p){sup 208}Tl were determined at the IRMM van de Graaff laboratory in the neutron energy range from 14 to 21 MeV. Both natural and enriched samples were irradiated with neutrons produced via the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. The induced activities were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using a HPGe detector in a low-background shield. Neutron fluences were determined with the well-known cross section of the {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na reaction. Enriched samples were essential to determine the cross sections for the reactions with {sup 204}Pb{sup m} and {sup 206}Pb{sup m} isomers in the final state. Accurate results for reactions with {sup 204,206}Pb as target nuclei with natural lead samples were enabled through a precise measurement of the isotopic ratios. For a first investigation of the consequences of the present data for nuclear reaction models they were confronted with calculations based on global parameter systematics in a phenomenological and in a microscopic approach and with parameters selected to reproduce the available data. The TALYS code was used for the former two calculations involving parameter systematics while the STAPRE code was used for the latter calculation.

Semkova, V.; Reimer, P.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Quetel, C.; Sudar, S.; Vogl, J.; Koning, A. J.; Qaim, S. M.; Smith, D. L. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, P. O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2009-08-15

172

A New Neutrino Cross Section Database  

E-print Network

We describe a new web based data resource being developed to provide access to accurate and validated cross sections of low energy neutrino and antineutrino interactions. The proposed content of this database are outlined which cover total and differential cross from inclusive, quasi-elastic and exclusive pion production processes from charged and neutral current interactions. Efforts to obtain these data, which come mainly from old bubble chamber experiments, are described as well as the implementation of an embryonic web site to make the resource generally accessible.

M. R. Whalley

2004-10-29

173

Cross section measurements with monoenergetic muon neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monoenergetic 236 MeV muon neutrino from charged kaon decay at rest (K+??+??) can be used to produce a novel set of cross section measurements. Applicable for short- and long-baseline accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, among others, such measurements would provide a "standard candle" for the energy reconstruction and interaction kinematics relevant for charged current neutrino events near this energy. This neutrino can also be exercised as a unique known-energy, purely weak interacting probe of the nucleus. A number of experiments are set to come online in the next few years that will be able to collect and characterize thousands of these events.

Spitz, J.

2014-04-01

174

Measurement of actinide neutron cross sections  

SciTech Connect

The maintenance of strong scientific expertise is criticalto the U.S. nuclear attribution community. It is particularly importantto train students in actinide chemistry and physics. Neutroncross-section data are vital components to strategies for detectingexplosives and fissile materials, and these measurements requireexpertise in chemical separations, actinide target preparation, nuclearspectroscopy, and analytical chemistry. At the University of California,Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have trainedstudents in actinide chemistry for many years. LBNL is a leader innuclear data and has published the Table of Isotopes for over 60 years.Recently, LBNL led an international collaboration to measure thermalneutron capture radiative cross sections and prepared the EvaluatedGamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) in collaboration with the IAEA. Thisfile of 35,000 prompt and delayed gamma ray cross-sections for allelements from Z=1-92 is essential for the neutron interrogation ofnuclear materials. LBNL has also developed new, high flux neutrongenerators and recently opened a 1010 n/s D+D neutron generatorexperimental facility.

Firestone, Richard B.; Nitsche, Heino; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Perry, DaleL.; English, Gerald

2003-06-15

175

Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from "minor" actinides that currently have poorly known or in some cases not measured (n,?) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 239Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

John D. Baker; Christopher A. McGrath

2006-10-01

176

Metabolic Syndrome in Alcohol-Dependent Men: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: In the context to mental illness metabolic syndrome (MS) has gained significant attention in the last decade. The present research aimed to study the prevalence of MS and its correlates among the alcohol-dependent men at a deaddiction center in Northern India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was done for consecutive male subjects who met the diagnosis of alcohol-dependence syndrome currently using alcohol according to the International Clinical Diagnostic criteria- tenth revision mental and behavioral disorder- Clinical description and diagnostic guidelines criteria (ICD-10). The subjects were evaluated for alcohol consumption and the components of MS as per the International Diabetic Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP ATP-III). Results: A total of 200 male subjects were studied: 100 subjects meeting ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence currently using alcohol; 50 each of genetically related controls and nongenetically related healthy controls. As per the IDF (with ethnicity specific modifications for waist circumference) and NCEP ATP- III definitions, respectively, MS was found to be less prevalent in alcohol-dependent subjects (27% and 18%) in comparison the healthy controls (30% and 20%). Conclusion: Findings of the study suggest that irrespective of the amount the current alcohol intake is associated with a lower prevalence of MS and a favorable effect on serum high density lipoproteins and waist circumference. However, the cross-sectional nature of our study does not allow any definitive causal inference. PMID:24049231

Aneja, Jitender; Basu, Debasish; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar; Kohli, Krishan Kumar

2013-01-01

177

2. 5 MeV neutron source for fission cross section measurement  

SciTech Connect

A 2.5 MeV neutron source has been established on the beamline of a 100 kV, 0.5 ma ion accelerator. The ion accelerator provides a 100 kV deuteron beam of about 200 ..mu..a into a 3 mm beam spot at the target position. The neutron source is produced by the D(d,n)/sup 3/He reaction with a yield of about 10/sup 7/ n/sec. The time-correlated associated particle method (TCAP) is utilized for the neutron fluence determination and for neutron background elimination. The /sup 3/He associated particles are detected at 90 degrees behind a thin aluminum foil and the corresponding neutrons are emitted at 73.5 degrees with an energy near 2.5 MeV. Also, the protons from the competing D(d,p)T reaction are monitored at 135 degrees for normalization and diagnostic purposes. A fission chamber containing six uranium tetrafluoride deposits has been designed for use in the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurement at 2.5 MeV. The 5 cm diameter deposits range in thickness from 230--300 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ and are expected to have good uniformity. A description of the 2.5 MeV neutron source facility is presented along with details of the associated particle detection and neutron beam characteristics. Preparations for the fission cross section measurement are discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Duvall,, K.C.; Wasson, O.A.; Ma, Honchang

1988-01-01

178

Jet Cross Sections in D* Photoproduction with ZEUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charm photoproduction in D* photoproduction have been studied using 78.6 pb-1 of data collected by the ZEUS detector. The measurement of inclusive jet cross section with a D* in the final state was performed in the kinematic region, Q2 < 1 GeV, 130 < W < 280 GeV, pTD* > 3 GeV, |?D*| < 1.5, ETjet > 6 GeV and -1.5 < ?jet < 2.4. Differential cross sections as a function of ETjet and ?jet were compared to the NLO QCD predictions. There is a general agreement with the NLO QCD preditions. In addition to above requirements, a dijet sub-sample having at least two jets with ETjet > 6 GeV and the leading jet with ETjet > 7 GeV was used to measure dijet correlations. Dijet correlations are compared to the NLO QCD predictions and leading-order (LO) Monte Carlo (MC) models with parton showers (PS). Dijet correlations are described well by the LO+PS models, while the NLO QCD prediction underestimates the measurement in the region where higher-order effects are expected to become significant.

Kohno, Takanori

2005-10-01

179

Formalism for neutron cross section covariances in the resonance region using kernel approximation  

SciTech Connect

We describe analytical formalism for estimating neutron radiative capture and elastic scattering cross section covariances in the resolved resonance region. We use capture and scattering kernels as the starting point and show how to get average cross sections in broader energy bins, derive analytical expressions for cross section sensitivities, and deduce cross section covariances from the resonance parameter uncertainties in the recently published Atlas of Neutron Resonances. The formalism elucidates the role of resonance parameter correlations which become important if several strong resonances are located in one energy group. Importance of potential scattering uncertainty as well as correlation between potential scattering and resonance scattering is also examined. Practical application of the formalism is illustrated on {sup 55}Mn(n,{gamma}) and {sup 55}Mn(n,el).

Oblozinsky, P.; Cho,Y-S.; Matoon,C.M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

2010-04-09

180

Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

1997-01-01

181

Fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium & heavy nucleus-nucleus systems  

E-print Network

Existing data on near-barrier fusion excitation functions of medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems have been analyzed using a simple diffused barrier formula derived assuming the Gaussian shape of the barrier height distributions. Fusion cross section is obtained by folding the Gaussian barrier distribution with the classical expression for the fusion cross section for a fixed barrier. The energy dependence of the fusion cross section, thus obtained, provides good description to the existing data on near-barrier fusion and capture excitation functions for medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems. The fusion or capture cross section predictions are especially important for planning experiments for synthesizing new super-heavy elements.

Debasis Atta; D. N. Basu

2014-02-20

182

EXPLAINING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS-SECTIONAL MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Discrepancies between estimates obtained from longitudinal studies analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally pose questions about the validity of cross-sectional estimates of change. n some cases these discrepancies are the result of period effects, cohort effects, or selecti...

183

Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.

2005-02-01

184

Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

185

Why understanding neutrino cross sections is important for astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Neutrino cross sections are important in many different astrophysical environments. Particularly needed is information about low energy (tens of MeV) cross sections. We review, for a few situations, the importance of neutrino cross sections for supernovae, gamma ray bursts and neutron stars.

McLaughlin, G. C. [Department of Physics North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

2007-12-21

186

Peculiar radar cross section properties of metamaterials with negative permittivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the peculiar radar cross section properties of metamaterials with negative permittivity, and the connections between the radar cross section, the polarizability and the permittivity of metamaterials are investigated, respectively. These results have shown that the polarizability and radar cross section of the spherical object made of metamaterials whose permittivity is less than - 2 are

Wanzhao Cui; Jia Chen; Enrang Zheng

2008-01-01

187

Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

2002-01-01

188

Measurement of the inclusive jet cross-section in pp collisions at and comparison to the inclusive jet cross-section at using the ATLAS detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusive jet cross-section has been measured in proton-proton collisions at in a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2011. Jets are identified using the anti- k t algorithm with two radius parameters of 0.4 and 0.6. The inclusive jet double-differential cross-section is presented as a function of the jet transverse momentum p T and jet rapidity y, covering a range of 20? p T<430 GeV and | y|<4.4. The ratio of the cross-section to the inclusive jet cross-section measurement at , published by the ATLAS Collaboration, is calculated as a function of both transverse momentum and the dimensionless quantity , in bins of jet rapidity. The systematic uncertainties on the ratios are significantly reduced due to the cancellation of correlated uncertainties in the two measurements. Results are compared to the prediction from next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations corrected for non-perturbative effects, and next-to-leading order Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the ATLAS jet cross-section measurements at and are analysed within a framework of next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations to determine parton distribution functions of the proton, taking into account the correlations between the measurements.

Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O. L.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, C. W.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.

2013-08-01

189

Measurement of 139La(n,{gamma}) Cross Section  

SciTech Connect

We measured the neutron capture cross section of 139La relative to 197Au in the energy range of 0.6 eV to 9 keV at n{sub T}OF, the neutron time-of-flight facility at CERN. After a description of the experimental apparatus, we discuss data analysis procedures. The data were fitted using R-matrix formalism to extract resonance parameters which, in turn, were used to calculate average level spacings D0 = 268 {+-} 22 eV and D1 < 250 eV, and neutron strength functions S0 = (0.79 {+-} 0.03)x10-4 and S1 = (0.73 {+-} 0.05)x10-4 for s- and p-wave resonances. The data also were used to determine Maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross sections which, in turn, were used to calculate the 139La abundance synthesized in a stellar model of the main component of the s process.

Terlizzi, R.; Colonna, N.; Marrone, S.; Tagliente, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Abbondanno, U.; Fujii, K.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.; Gunsing, F.; Pancin, J.; Perrot, L.; Plukis, A. [CEA/Saclay - DSM, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alvarez, H.; Duran, I.; Paradela, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez-Velarde, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technologicas, Madrid (Spain)] (and others)

2006-03-13

190

Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site  

PubMed Central

Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October–November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14–16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46–4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28–4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13–4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05–2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of role models smoking, refusal skills in social gatherings, and discussing harmful effects of smoking with family members and during gatherings with friends. PMID:25034345

Aryal, Umesh R.; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Goran; Krettek, Alexandra

2014-01-01

191

Determination of tire cross-sectional geometric characteristics from a digitally scanned image  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A semi-automated procedure is described for the accurate determination of geometrical characteristics using a scanned image of the tire cross-section. The procedure can be useful for cases when CAD drawings are not available or when a description of the actual cured tire is desired. Curves representing the perimeter of the tire cross-section are determined by an edge tracing scheme, and the plyline and cord-end positions are determined by locations of color intensities. The procedure provides an accurate description of the perimeter of the tire cross-section and the locations of plylines and cord-ends. The position, normals, and curvatures of the cross-sectional surface are included in this description. The locations of the plylines provide the necessary information for determining the ply thicknesses and relative position to a reference surface. Finally, the locations of the cord-ends provide a means to calculate the cord-ends per inch (epi). Menu driven software has been developed to facilitate the procedure using the commercial code, PV-Wave by Visual Numerics, Inc., to display the images. From a single user interface, separate modules are executed for image enhancement, curve fitting the edge trace of the cross-sectional perimeter, and determining the plyline and cord-end locations. The code can run on SUN or SGI workstations and requires the use of a mouse to specify options or identify items on the scanned image.

Danielson, Kent T.

1995-01-01

192

Common Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index Correlate with Local but Not Global Atheroma Burden: A Cross Sectional Study Using Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography  

PubMed Central

Background Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA). Methods 50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR). The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0?=?normal, 1?=?<50%, 2?=?50–70%, 3?=?70–99%, 4?=?vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated. Results The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (? 0.32, p?=?0.045), however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (? 0.42 p?=?0.01) with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (? ?0.39, p?=?0.012), which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (? 0.13 p?=?0.45), while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (? ?0.45 p?=?0.005). Conclusion ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. However this is primarily due to a strong correlation with ilio-femoral atheroma burden. PMID:24933122

Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Khan, Faisel; Lambert, Matthew A.; Adamson, Carly L.; Gardner, Michael; Gandy, Stephen J.; Ramkumar, Prasad Guntur; Belch, Jill J. F.; Struthers, Allan D.; Rauchhaus, Petra; Morris, Andrew D.; Houston, J. Graeme

2014-01-01

193

Electron scattering from trans 1,3-butadiene molecule: cross-sections, oscillator strength and VUV photoabsorption cross-sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron energy-loss spectra for the butadiene molecule were measured in the scattering angular range of 2.0° to 8.0°, in an energy-loss range from 2 to 50 eV, using 1000 eV incident electrons. The absolute generalized oscillator strength (GOS) and inelastic cross section have been determined for the {tildeX1}˜X1A g ? 11B u transition. The absolute elastic differential cross section was also determined spanning an angular range from 2.0° to 40.0°. From a small angle electron energy-loss spectrum, the optical oscillator distribution (photoabsorption spectrum) for the butadiene molecule was obtained in the 2 to 100 eV photon energy range. Accurate ab initio calculations have been performed, within the First Born Approximation, for generalized oscillator strength (GOS) and excitation energies for the {tildeX1}˜X1A g ? 11B u and {tildeX1}˜X1A g ? 21A g transitions. Our results emphasize the importance of using highly correlated wavefunctions and accurate methodologies in the calculation of the GOS for electron impact-induced electronic transitions in molecules.

Boechat-Roberty, Heloisa Maria; Uhl, Elmar O.; Rodrigues, Flavio N.; Lopes, Maria Cristina A.; Rocco, Maria Luiza M.; Lucas, Carlos A.; Rocha, Alexandre B.; Bielschowsky, Carlos E.; de Souza, Gerardo Gerson B.

2013-02-01

194

Neutron Cross Section Uncertainties in the Thermal and Resonance Regions  

SciTech Connect

In the 'Atlas of Neutron Resonances', special care was expended to ensure that the resonance parameter information reproduces the various measured thermal cross sections, as well as the infinite dilute resonance integrals for Z = 1-100. In contrast, the uncertainties of the recommended quantities do not match those generated from the uncertainties of the resonance parameters. To address this problem, the present study was initiated to achieve consistency for 15 actinides and 21 structural and coolant moderator materials. This is realized by assigning uncertainties to the parameters of the negative-energy resonances and changing, if necessary, significantly the uncertainties of the low-lying positive-energy resonances. The influence of correlations between parameters on the derived uncertainties is examined and discussed.

Mughabghab,S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.

2008-06-24

195

Photon-scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon-scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and for He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than 1% with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than 1% with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules. The degree of polarization of the synchrotron radiation beam has been measured by rotating the scattering plane about the beam axis; results are compared with theory.

Ice, G. E.; Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.

1978-01-01

196

Cross-section optimization of tower crane lattice boom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the problem of cross-section optimization of tower crane lattice boom. The trapezoid cross section has\\u000a been analyzed. The triangular and rectangular cross sections have also been analyzed as special cases. Total mass of the construction\\u000a has been selected as the objective function. Optimization parameters have been determined by Lagrange’s multipliers method.\\u000a Criterion of stress is used as

R. Mijailovi?; G. Kastratovi?

2009-01-01

197

High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

1996-08-01

198

Calculation of the cross section for charge transfer in fullerene-fullerene collisions  

SciTech Connect

An expression for the charge transfer cross section in fullerene-fullerene collisions is derived by using an instanton approximation for the tunnel splitting of energy levels. The expression is valid in the adiabatic approximation and provides an accurate description of available experimental data.

Iroshnikov, G. S. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)], E-mail: irosh@orc.ru

2006-11-15

199

GNASH: A preequilibrium, statistical nuclear model code for calculation of cross sections and emission spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multistep Hauser--Feshbach code that includes corrections for preequilibrium effects is described. The code can calculate up to 60 decay reactions (cross sections and energy spectra) in one computation, and thereby provide considerable flexibility for handling processes with complicated reaction chains. Input parameter setup, problem output, and subroutine descriptions are given along with a sample problem calculation. A brief theoretical

P. G. Young; E. D. Arthur

1977-01-01

200

Derivation of reaction cross sections from experimental elastic backscattering probabilities  

E-print Network

The relationship between the backward elastic scattering probabilities and reaction cross sections is derived. This is a a very simple and useful method to extract reaction cross sections for heavy ion systems. We compare the results of our method with those using the traditional full elastic scattering angular distributions, for several systems, at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. From the calculated reaction and capture cross sections using the present method, we derive the cross sections of other mechanisms for nearly spherical systems.

V. V. Sargsyan; G. G. Adamian; N. V. Antonenko; P. R. S. Gomes

2013-11-17

201

Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

2011-10-18

202

Exponent of Cross-sectional Dependence: Estimation and Inference  

E-print Network

, how to model cross-sectional dependence, and how to carry out counterfactual exercises under alterna- tive network formations or market inter-connections. Many of these topics are the subject of ongoing research. In this paper we focus on measures... of cross-sectional dependence and how such measures are related to the behaviour of cross-sectional averages or aggregates. Perhaps, the simplest and most concise way to motivate the need for determining the extent of cross-sectional dependence is to view...

Bailey, Natalia; Kapetanios, George; Pesaran, M. Hashem

2012-01-23

203

Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares  

SciTech Connect

A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

1999-09-27

204

Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender

Hawa S Mbawalla; Joyce R Masalu; Anne N Åstrøm

2010-01-01

205

Correlation of abdominal adiposity with components of metabolic syndrome, anthropometric parameters and Insulin resistance, in obese and non obese, diabetics and non diabetics: A cross sectional observational study. (Mysore Visceral Adiposity in Diabetes Study)  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To measure Visceral Fat (VF) and Subcutaneous Fat (SCF) by ultrasound, in obese and non-obese diabetics and obese and non-obese non diabetics, in a South Indian (Asian Indian) Population and correlate them with Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), components of metabolic syndrome and Insulin Resistance (IR) Research Design and Methods: This was a prospective observational study, 80 diabetics (40 obese and 40 non obese) and 80 non diabetics (40 obese and 40 non obese) a total of 160 subjects were enrolled, out of whom 153 completed the study. The subjects were evaluated with respect to BMI, WC, Blood Pressure (BP); Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) Fasting Insulin levels (FIL), HbA1C and Lipid profile. The SCF and VF were measured by Ultrasonography.The results were statistically analyzed. Results: WC correlated significantly with VF in all the groups. Diabetics had more VF compared to non-diabetics. Insulin resistance was significant in all the groups; however diabetics had greater levels of IR, BMI, WC, VF and SCF had no correlation with IR and had no significant correlation with metabolic parameters. Conclusions: In this study population, WC was found to be a useful surrogate measure of VF conforming to its well established applicability in other populations. Contrary to other studies elsewhere, SCF and VF were found to be poor indicators of Insulin Resistance. BMI, WC, VF and SCF were not useful in the prediction of metabolic syndrome. Ultrasound was found to be an easier and economic method of measuring abdominal adiposity and actual measurement of abdominal fat was more informative than anthropometric measurements.

Premanath, M.; Basavanagowdappa, H.; Mahesh, M.; Suresh, M.

2014-01-01

206

Theoretical study of evaporation cross sections in the synthesis of very neutron-deficient nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of rare-earth neutron-deficient nuclei with large Z/N ratio {approx_equal}0.88 is studied within the framework of the standard statistical model. The fusion cross sections are calculated on the basis of the nuclear reaction video model. The deexcitation process is calculated with the help of the statistical code alice. It is found that the excitation functions can be predicted using a few exited experimental data by carefully choosing the input parameters in the statistical model. The results obtained show that a satisfactory description of the experimental evaporation cross sections requires a great reduction in the theoretical fission barriers.

Wang Chengbin; Zhang Jinjuan [Physics Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ren, Z. Z. [Physics Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2011-07-15

207

Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

1990-01-01

208

Isotopic dependence of the cross section for the induced fission of heavy nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cross sections for the induced fission of 211-223Ra, 203-211Rn, and 221-231Th nuclei undergoing peripheral collisions with 208Pb nuclei are calculated on the basis of the statistical model. The role of the N = 126 neutron shell is studied. The level density in excited nuclei is determined within the Fermi gas model and a model that takes into account the collective enhancement of the level density. The inclusion of a particle—hole excitation in addition to a collective Coulomb excitation makes it possible to obtain a satisfactory description of experimental cross sections for the fission of radium isotopes. The calculated ratios of the cross sections for the induced fission of 236U (237U) and 238U (239U) nuclei agree with experimental data.

Bolgova, O. N.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.; Ivanova, S. P.; Scheid, W.

2009-06-01

209

Cross-section measurement of the $^{130}$Ba(p,$?$)$^{131}$La reaction for $?$-process nucleosynthesis  

E-print Network

A measurement of total cross-section values of the $^{130}$Ba(p,$\\gamma$)$^{131}$La reaction at low proton energies allows a stringent test of statistical model predictions with different proton+nucleus optical model potentials. Since no experimental data are available for proton-capture reactions in this mass region around A~$\\approx$~130, this measurement can be an important input to test the global applicability of proton+nucleus optical model potentials. The total reaction cross-section values were measured by means of the activation method. After the irradiation with protons, the reaction yield was determined by use of $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy using two clover-type high-purity germanium detectors. In total, cross-section values for eight different proton energies could be determined in the energy range between 3.6 MeV $\\leq E_p \\leq$ 5.0 MeV, thus, inside the astrophysically relevant energy region. The measured cross-section values were compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations using the statistical model codes TALYS and SMARAGD with different proton+nucleus optical model potentials. With the semi-microscopic JLM proton+nucleus optical model potential used in the SMARAGD code, the absolute cross-section values are reproduced well, but the energy dependence is too steep at the lowest energies. The best description is given by a TALYS calculation using the semi-microscopic Bauge proton+nucleus optical model potential using a constant renormalization factor.

L. Netterdon; A. Endres; G. G. Kiss; J. Mayer; T. Rauscher; P. Scholz; K. Sonnabend; Zs. Török; A. Zilges

2014-09-27

210

Interpreting sediment transport data with channel cross section analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended sediment load estimation is important for the management of stream environments. However suspended load data are uncommon and scalable models are needed to take maximum advantage of the measurements available. One of the most commonly used models for correlating suspended sediment load is an empirical power law relationship (Qs=aQ^b, Qs: suspended load, Q: flow rate). However, the relationship of log-scaled suspended load to flow rate has multiple exponents for different flow regimes at a given site, so a single power law relationship is not a good fit. Thus we are exploring an alternative approach that employs channel cross section data historically collected by the US Geological Survey during stream gauge calibration. For our research, daily flow and sediment discharge were selected from about 180 possible USGS gauging sites in California. Among those, about 20 sites were relatively unaffected by human activities, and had more than three years of data including near monthly measurements of channel cross section data. From our analysis, a slope break was consistently observed in the relationship of log-scaled suspended load to flow rate as illustrated in Figure 1 for Redwood Creek at Orick, CA. Most of the selected natural sites clearly show this slope break. The slope break corresponds to a transition of flow from a flat, wide stream to flow constrained by steep banks as verified in Figure 2 for the same site. This suggests that physical factors in the streams such as shear stress are affected by this channel morphological change and result in the greater exponent of sediment load during higher flow regime. Figure1. Daily values of measured sediment transport and flow rate reported by USGS between 1970 and 2001. Figure2. Near monthly values of measured mean water depth and width reported by USGS between 1969 and 1987.

Park, J.; Hunt, J. R.

2013-12-01

211

Correlation study of predictive and descriptive metrics of speech intelligibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists a wide range of speech-intelligibility metrics, each of which is designed to encapsulate a different aspect of room acoustics that relates to speech intelligibility. This study reviews the different definitions of and correlations between various proposed speech intelligibility measures. Speech Intelligibility metrics can be grouped by two main uses: prediction of designed rooms and description of existing rooms.

Abigail Stefaniw; Yasushi Shimizu; Dana Smith

2002-01-01

212

PRELIMINARY LES OVER A HYPERSONIC ELLIPTICAL CROSS-SECTION CONE  

E-print Network

PRELIMINARY LES OVER A HYPERSONIC ELLIPTICAL CROSS-SECTION CONE M.P. MARTIN Mechanical. The characteristics of the hypersonic flow around an elliptical- cross section cone and the computational code of transitional and turbulent flows are not fully understood. This is especially true in the hypersonic regime

Martín, Pino

213

Comparison of differential and integral cross section measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program has been undertaken to simultaneously measure integral and ; differential cross sections in order to establish the degree of consistency ; between integral and differentially derived spectra. An assessment is then made ; concerning cross section limitations in deriving high energy neutron spectra by ; the foil-activation spectral-unfolding technique. (SDF)

L. R. Greenwood; R. R. Heinrich; N. D. Dudey

1975-01-01

214

The effect on cross sections for Quad Cities by introducing  

E-print Network

vs The effect on cross sections for Quad Cities by introducing control rod history in the assembly THE EFFECT ON CROSS SECTIONS FOR QUAD CITIES BY INTRODUCING CONTROL ROD HISTORY IN THE ASSEMBLY PROGRAM for the BWR reactor Quad Cities by introducing control rod "history" in the assembly program LEWARD. Control

215

Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

2009-01-01

216

Single Event Upset cross sections at various data rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data which show that Single Event Upset (SEU) cross section varies linearly with frequency for most devices tested. We show that the SEU cross section can increase dramatically away from a linear relationship when the test setup is not optimized, or when testing near the maximum operating frequency. We also observe non-linear behavior in some complex circuit topologies.

R. A. Reed; M. A. Carts; P. W. Marshall; C. J. Marshall; S. Buchner; M. La Macchia; B. Mathes; D. McMorrow

1996-01-01

217

Attachment cross-sections of protonated and deprotonated water clusters  

E-print Network

and several additional peaks corresponding to the attachment of water molecules onto the parent cluster. We1 Attachment cross-sections of protonated and deprotonated water clusters Sébastien Zamith1 Toulouse, France Abstract Attachment cross-sections of water molecules onto size selected protonated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Electromgnetic-gravitational cross-sections in external elctromagnetic fields  

E-print Network

The classical processes: the conversion of photons into gravitons in the static electromagnetic fields are considered by using Feynman perturbation techniques. The differential cross sections are presented for the conversion in the electric field of the flat condesor and the magnetic field of the selenoid. A numerical evaluation shows that the cross sections may have the observable value in the present technical scenario.

Hoang Ngoc Long; Dang Van Soa; Tuan A. Tran

1994-10-03

219

Electron impact ionization cross sections of phosphorus and arsenic molecules  

E-print Network

77 Electron impact ionization cross sections of phosphorus and arsenic molecules G. Monnom, Ph'ionisation dissociative obtenues par bombardement électronique des molécules d'arsenic As4 et As2 et de phosphore P4 et P2 ionization total cross sections of arsenic As4 and As2 molecules and phosphorus P4 and P2 molecules

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

220

Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum

J. A. Dahl; B. D. Ganapol; J. E. Morel

1999-01-01

221

Photoabsorption cross sections of methane from 1400 to 1850 A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photoabsorption cross sections of methane in the 1400-1850-A spectral region have been measured. Cross sections at wavelengths greater than 1475 A are approximately 200 times smaller than those currently accepted. This has a significant effect on the interpretation of spectral measurements of the Jovian planets in this wavelength region.

Mount, G. H.; Warden, E. S.; Moos, H. W.

1977-01-01

222

Measuring the differential scattering cross-section of gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an experimental apparatus capable of measuring the differential scattering cross sections of individual nanoparticles and arrangement of nanoparticles. We show that the mapping a partial differential scattering cross section, qualitative information about the electromagnetic local density of states dominated by evanescent modes scattered by the structure can be obtained.

Huang, C.; Bouhelier, A.; Colas des Francs, G.; Weeber, J.-C.; Dereux, A.

2008-08-01

223

Incoherent scattering cross sections for some ions of solar abundance  

SciTech Connect

Incoherent scattering cross sections are calculated in a relativistic formalism for a number of ions abundant in the solar atmosphere. It is argued that such cross sections are necessary for properly calculating Compton scattering and radiation transport in this or similar environments.

Kahane, Sylvian [Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center Negev, PO Box 9001, 84190 Beer Sheva (Israel)]. E-mail: skahane@bgu.ac.il

2007-03-15

224

Electron-impact total cross sections for phosphorous triflouride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various total cross sections for scattering of electrons by phosphorous triflouride (PF3) using the R-matrix method for incident energies from 0.1-15 eV and using spherical complex optical potential formalism beyond ionization threshold of target to 5000 eV are reported. We performed close-coupling calculations using static exchange plus polarization model. We employed different target models in order to study their relative dependence on the total cross sections. Three important structures are revealed in the total-cross-section curve: one that corresponds to the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum at 0.33 eV, the second is a strong maximum of 100 Å2 at 1 eV, the third is around 11 eV corresponding to negative ion formation as predicted by earlier study. The total ionization cross sections are computed using the complex scattering potential ionization contribution method and the binary encounter Bethe method. The electronic-excitation cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections, and differential and ionization cross sections are our maiden efforts for this system. We have compared our total-cross-section results with available theoretical and experimental results.

Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik; Vinodkumar, P. C.

2014-06-01

225

A New Technique To Investigate Total Reaction Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the total reaction cross sections of several systems, especially weakly bound systems, by the use of a recently developed technique. We show a systematic behavior for the different systems, with larger reaction cross sections for systems with halo nuclei as projectiles.

Shorto, J. M. B.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Niteroi, 24210-340 (Brazil); Canto, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68528, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 (Brazil); Chamon, L. C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo, 05315-970 (Brazil)

2010-08-04

226

Calibration standards and uncertainties in radar cross section measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standards for radar cross section measurements are being developed cooperatively by NIST and DoD scientists. Three technical areas were defined as the foundation of such an effort: (1) monostatic single-channel calibration, (2) full polarimetric calibration using a scattering matrix formalism, and (3) analysis of radar cross section calibration and measurement uncertainty. The authors reviews the results of assessment of calibration

Lorant A. Muth

1999-01-01

227

Low profile array with reduced Radar Cross Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a band-stop Frequency Selective Surface for reducing the Radar Cross Section of an antenna array is described. For the first time such approach is employed for the case of an array of patch antennas with emphasis on the effects on the Radar Cross Section reduction and on the radiation performance of the new structure.

Simone Genovesi; Agostino Monorchio

2010-01-01

228

Benchmark Calculations of Electron-Impact Differential Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of electron-atom excitation and ionization cross section is considered in both the non-relativistic and relativistic scattering theory. We consider electron collisions with H, He, Cs, and Hg. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and ionization are presented.

Bray, I.; Bostock, C. J.; Fursa, D. V.; Hines, C. W.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987 Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia)

2011-05-11

229

Isolated photon cross section measurement at D0  

SciTech Connect

We report a new measurement of the isolated photon cross section by the D0 experiment at Fermilab using 326 pb{sup -1} of data from Run II of the Tevatron. The measured cross section agrees with the theoretical predictions within uncertainties.

Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Buffalo

2006-05-01

230

Potential biases in the classification, analysis and interpretations in cross-sectional study: commentaries - surrounding the article "resting heart rate: its correlations and potential for screening metabolic dysfunctions in adolescents"  

PubMed Central

Background Resting heart rate reflects sympathetic nerve activity. A significant association between resting heart rate (HR) and all causes of cardiovascular mortality has been reported by some epidemiologic studies. Despite suggestive evidence, resting heart rate (RHR) has not been formally explored as a prognostic factor and potential therapeutic outcome and, therefore, is not generally accepted in adolescents. Discussion The core of the debate is the methodological aspects used in "Resting heart rate: its correlations and potential for screening metabolic dysfunctions in adolescents"; the points are: cutoff used for cluster RHR, two different statistical models used to analyze the same set of variables, one for continuous data, and another for categorical data; interpretation of p-value

2014-01-01

231

Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

1988-01-01

232

Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Tony S [INL

2010-01-01

233

Electron scattering cross-section measurements in ESEM.  

PubMed

A review, analysis and discussion on the derivation and measurement of electron scattering cross-sections of gases mostly used in environmental scanning electron microscopy is presented together with some previously unreported experimental material. There are significant differences in values published for cross-sections of such gases. Scanning the electron beam across a clean edge seems to be a most reliable technique to produce and measure beam profiles, from which the scattering cross-sections can be obtained with high accuracy and reliability. Results based on this method produce an excellent agreement with a theoretically derived value of scattering cross-section using an average factor of energy loss for all inelastic collisions. The discussion addresses the difficulties involved and provides alternative ways to reliably obtain cross-sections as a function of accelerating voltage in the range mostly used in environmental scanning electron microscopy. PMID:23154136

Danilatos, Gerasimos D

2013-02-01

234

Fission Cross Section Measurements of Actinides at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the 235U standard. Recent measurements include the 233, 238U, 239-242Pu, and 243Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for fission cross sections of 243Am and 233U will be presented.

F. Tovesson; A. B. Laptev; T. S. Hill

2011-08-01

235

D0 papers on B-physics submitted to DPF '96: b-quark inclusive cross sections and b anti-b correlations using dimuons from the D0 experiment; Single muon production in the forward region at [radical]s=1. 8 TEV; Rapidity dependence of the inclusive J[psi] production in the forward region [radical]s=1. 8 TEV; A search for b [r arrow] X[mu][sup +][mu][sup [minus  

SciTech Connect

Paper 1: Using dimuons collected with the D0 detector during the 1993--1995 Tevatron collider run, the authors have measured the b-quark cross section and b[anti b] correlations as given by the difference in azimuthal angle between the two muons. Both measurements agree with the NLO QCD predictions within experimental and theoretical errors. (Three other papers are included in this report.)

Vititoe, D.L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics); Kozelov, Alexander; Jesik, Richard; D0 Collaboration.

1996-11-01

236

AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library  

SciTech Connect

The cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The project builds on two covariance libraries developed earlier, with considerable input from BNL and LANL. In 2006, international effort under WPEC Subgroup 26 produced BOLNA covariance library by putting together data, often preliminary, from various sources for most important materials for nuclear reactor technology. This was followed in 2007 by collaborative effort of four US national laboratories to produce covariances, often of modest quality - hence the name low-fidelity, for virtually complete set of materials included in ENDF/B-VII.0. The present project is focusing on covariances of 4-5 major reaction channels for 110 materials of importance for power reactors. The work started under Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2008, which changed to Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) in 2009. With the 2011 release the name has changed to the Covariance Multigroup Matrix for Advanced Reactor Applications (COMMARA) version 2.0. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for AFCI data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. Responsibility of BNL was defined as developing covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work; LANL responsibility was defined as covariances for light nuclei and actinides. The COMMARA-2.0 covariance library has been developed by BNL-LANL collaboration for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative applications over the period of three years, 2008-2010. It contains covariances for 110 materials relevant to fast reactor R&D. The library is to be used together with the ENDF/B-VII.0 central values of the latest official release of US files of evaluated neutron cross sections. COMMARA-2.0 library contains neutron cross section covariances for 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural materials and fission products, and 20 actinides. Covariances are given in 33-energy groups, from 10?5 eV to 19.6 MeV, obtained by processing with LANL processing code NJOY using 1/E flux. In addition to these 110 files, the library contains 20 files with nu-bar covariances, 3 files with covariances of prompt fission neutron spectra (238,239,240-Pu), and 2 files with mu-bar covariances (23-Na, 56-Fe). Over the period of three years several working versions of the library have been released and tested by ANL and INL reactor analysts. Useful feedback has been collected allowing gradual improvements of the library. In addition, QA system was developed to check basic properties and features of the whole library, allowing visual inspection of uncertainty and correlations plots, inspection of uncertainties of integral quantities with independent databases, and dispersion of cross sections between major evaluated libraries. The COMMARA-2.0 beta version of the library was released to ANL and INL reactor analysts in October 2010. The final version, described in the present report, was released in March 2011.

Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

2011-03-01

237

Experimental Electron-Transfer Cross Sections for Fluorine Ions in Argon at Energies from 8 to 54 MeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron-capture and -loss cross sections have been measured for fluorine ions passing through argon gas in the energy range from 8 to 54 MeV. Cross sections for single- and multiple-electron capture and loss in a single collision were obtained using a computer analysis in real time for fitting the data with an iterative procedure. A detailed description of the computer

S. M. Ferguson; J. R. MacDonald; T. Chiao; L. D. Ellsworth; S. A. Savoy

1973-01-01

238

Cross section in deuteron-proton elastic scattering at 1.25 GeV/u  

E-print Network

First results of the differential cross section in dp elastic scattering at 1.25 GeV/u measured with the HADES over a large angular range are reported. The obtained data corresponds to large transverse momenta, where a high sensitivity to the two-nucleon and three-nucleon short-range correlations is expected.

HADES Collaboration; P. K. Kurilkin; G. Agakishiev; A. Balanda; D. Belver; A. Belyaev; A. Blanco; M. Böhmer; J. L. Boyard; P. Cabanelas; E. Castro; S. Chernenko; J. Díaz; A. Dybczak; E. Epple; L. Fabbietti; O. Fateev; P. Finocchiaro; P. Fonte; J. Friese; I. Fröhlich; T. Galatyuk; J. A. Garzón; A. Gil; M. Golubeva; D. González-Díaz; F. Guber; T. Hennino; R. Holzmann; P. Huck; A. Ierusalimov; I. Iori; A. Ivashkin; M. Jurkovic; B. Kämpfer; T. Karavicheva; I. Koenig; W. Koenig; B. W. Kolb; A. Kopp; G. Korcyl; G. K. Kornakov; R. Kotte; A. Kozuch; A. Krása; F. Krizek; R. Krücken; H. Kuc; W. Kühn; A. Kugler; A. Kurepin; A. Kurilkin; P. Khlitz; V. Ladygin; J. Lamas-Valverde; S. Lang; K. Lapidus; T. Liu; L. Lopes; M. Lorenz; L. Maier; A. Mangiarotti; J. Markert; V. Metag; B. Michalska; J. Michel; C. Müntz; L. Naumann; Y. C. Pachmayer; M. Palka; Y. Parpottas; V. Pechenov; O. Pechenova; J. Pietraszko; W. Przygoda; B. Ramstein; A. Reshetin; J. Roskoss; A. Rustamov; A. Sadovsky; P. Salabura; A. Schmah; J. Siebenson; Yu. G. Sobolev; S. Spataro; H. Ströbele; J. Stroth; C. Sturm; M. Sudol; A. Tarantola; K. Teilab; P. Tlusty; M. Traxler; R. Trebacz; H. Tsertos; T. Vasiliev; V. Wagner; M. Weber; J. Wüstenfeld; S. Yurevich; Y. Zanevsky

2011-02-08

239

Gas-phase photoemission with soft x-rays: cross sections and angular distributions  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of typical gas-phase photoemission studies based on synchrotron radiation in the 50-5000 eV range, using beam lines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Three topics are addressed: atomic inner-shell photoelectron cross sections and asymmetries, correlation peaks in rare gases, and core-level shape resonances in molecules.

Shirley, D.A.; Kobrin, P.H.; Truesdale, C.M.; Lindle, D.W.; Ferrett, T.A.; Heimann, P.A.; Becker, U.; Kerkhoff, H.G.; Southworth, S.H.

1983-09-01

240

Differential Single-Capture Cross Sections for Fast Alpha-Helium Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-body theoretical study of the single charge transfer process in collision of energetic alpha ions with helium atoms in their ground states is presented. The model utilizes the Coulomb-Born distorted wave approximation with correct boundary conditions to calculate the single-electron capture differential and integral cross sections. The influence of the dynamic and static electron correlations on the capture probability is investigated. The results of the calculations are compared with the recent experimental measurements for differential cross sections and with the other theoretical manipulations. The results for scattering at extreme forward angles are in good agreement with the experimental measurements, but in other scattering angles the agreement is poor. However, the present four-body results for integral cross sections are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

Ghanbari-Adivi, Ebrahim; Ghavaminia, Hoda

2014-08-01

241

PRACTICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING NEUTRON CROSS SECTION COVARIANCES IN THE RESONANCE REGION  

SciTech Connect

Recent evaluations of neutron cross section covariances in the resolved resonance region reveal the need for further research in this area. Major issues include declining uncertainties in multigroup representations and proper treatment of scattering radius uncertainty. To address these issues, the present work introduces a practical method based on kernel approximation using resonance parameter uncertainties from the Atlas of Neutron Resonances. Analytical expressions derived for average cross sections in broader energy bins along with their sensitivities provide transparent tool for determining cross section uncertainties. The role of resonance-resonance and bin-bin correlations is specifically studied. As an example we apply this approach to estimate (n,{gamma}) and (n,el) covariances for the structural material {sup 55}Mn.

Cho, Y.S.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Mattoon,C.M.; Herman,M.

2010-04-30

242

Estimation of thermal neutron cross sections from potassium, uranium, and thorium concentrations for rock samples  

SciTech Connect

The thermal neutron absorption cross section [Sigma][sub a] is an important parameter for correcting the response of porosity gauges or dual-detector logging tools. It is well known that the formation porosity determines the amount of fluid (oil or water) filling the rocks. This is used to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the oil field. The thermal neutron absorption cross section is difficult to measure. At laboratory scale and on samples it may be measured by several methods. It is thought that the increase in [Sigma][sub a] value is due to effects of strong absorbers such as boron and rare earth elements that may be present in small amounts in the formation matrix. But their measurement is even more complicated and costly than the measurement of the thermal neutron absorption cross section. This paper discusses ways to find easily measured quantities that are correlated with the strongly neutron-absorbing elements.

Loskiewicz, J.; Swakon, J. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland))

1992-01-01

243

Ionization of helium by slow antiproton impact: total and differential cross sections  

E-print Network

We theoretically investigate the single and double ionization of the He atom by antiproton impact for projectile energies ranging from $3$~keV up to $1000$~keV. We obtain accurate total cross sections by directly solving the fully correlated two-electron time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and by performing classical trajectory Monte-Carlo calculations. The obtained quantum-mechanical results are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data. Along with the total cross sections, we also present the first fully \\textit{ab initio} doubly differential data for single ionization at 10 and 100~keV impact energies. In these differential cross sections we identify the binary-encounter peak along with the anticusp minimum. Furthermore, we also point out the importance of the post-collisional electron-projectile interaction at low antiproton energies which significantly suppresses electron emission in the forward direction.

Borbély, S; Nagele, S; T?kési, K; Nagy, L; Burgdörfer, J

2014-01-01

244

A New Scaling Law of Resonance in Total Scattering Cross Section in Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical discharges in gases continue to be an active area of research because of industrial applications such as power systems, environmental clean up, laser technology, semiconductor fabrication etc. A fundamental knowledge of electron-gas neutral interaction is indispensable and, the total scattering cross section is one of the quantities that have been measured extensively. The energy dependence of the total cross sections shows peaks or resonance processes that are operative in the collision process. These peaks and the energies at which they occur are shown to satisfy a broad relationship involving the polarizability and the dipole moment of the target particle. Data on 62 target particles belonging to the following species are analyzed. (Eq 1) Rare gas atoms (Eq 2) Di-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties Poly-atomic molecules with combinations of polar, non-polar, attaching, and non-attaching properties. Methods of improving the newly identified scaling law and possible application have been identified. 1 INTRODUCTION: Data on electron-neutral interactions are one of the most fundamental in the study of gaseous electronics and an immense literature, both experimental and theoretical, has become available since about the year 1920. [1-5]. In view of the central role which these data play in all facets of gas discharges and plasma science, it is felt that a critical review of available data is timely, mainly for the community of high voltage engineers and industries connected with plasma science in general. The electron-neutral interaction, often referred to as scattering in the scientific literature, is quantified by using the quantity called the total scattering cross section (QT, m^2). In the literature on cross section, total cross section and total scattering cross section are terms used synonymously and we follow the same practice. A definition may be found in reference [1]. This paper concerns scaling of total cross section of gases at resonance energy and the electron energy at which resonance occurs. The meaning of resonance is briefly explained in the following section. Here, we use the term scaling to relate the two quantities mentioned, namely, the resonance energy and the total cross section at that energy. Consistent with the definition of scaling, if the law proposed holds, one of the two quantities mentioned above may be calculated if the other is known. Such a method is very useful in gas discharge modeling and calculation of breakdown voltages, as more fully explained in the later section of the paper. 2 DESCRIPTION OF RESONANCE: A brief description of resonance phenomena in several types of target particles, viz., atomic, poly atomic, polar, non-polar phenomena are presented. 3 PREVIOUS SCALING LAWS: A common representation of a given characteristic with as few adjustable parameters as possible is generally known as the scaling law. The Paschen curve for breakdown voltage is such a familiar scaling law. With reference to cross sections several attempts have been made to obtain a scaling law, with varying degree of success. If the cross section-energy curve is qualitatively similar without having sharp peaks and oscillations, moderately successful scaling laws may be devised. For example, the ionization cross section- energy curves for most gases follow a general pattern. Several published scaling laws are discussed. 4 A NEW SCALING LAW AND DISCUSSION: In this work the author has compiled the resonance details for more than 60 gasest hat include the range from simple atoms to complex molecules that are polyatomic, dipolar, electron-attaching and isomers. The target particles exhibit a number of distinct features, as far as their total cross section variation with electron energy is concerned as already explained.

Raju, Gorur Govinda

2009-10-01

245

Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2005-01-01

246

Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom  

SciTech Connect

Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

1982-02-01

247

Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony  

SciTech Connect

Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V.

Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

1982-11-01

248

Top quark pair production cross section at Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

An overview of the recent measurements of the top antitop quark pair production cross section in proton antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV in lepton + jets and dilepton final states is presented. These measurements are based on 1-2.8 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 and CDF experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The cross section is measured with a precision close to 8 % and found to be compatible with the standard model prediction. Interpretations of the cross-section measurements for charge higgs search and for top quark mass measurement are also discussed.

Shary, V.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

2009-05-01

249

Neutron inelastic cross-section measurements for Mg24  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ? production cross sections from neutron inelastic scattering on 24Mg were measured for neutron energies up to 18 MeV at GELINA (the Geel Linear Accelerator), the neutron source operated by EC-JRC-IRMM, Belgium. The level cross section and the total inelastic cross section were determined. We used the GAINS (Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering) spectrometer with seven large-volume high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors placed at 110? and 150? with respect to the beam direction. The neutron flux was determined with a U235 fission chamber. The results are compared with calculations performed with the talys 1.6 code using the default settings.

Olacel, A.; Borcea, C.; Dessagne, P.; Kerveno, M.; Negret, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.

2014-09-01

250

Low Energy Electron-Molecule Collision Cross Sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in the measurement of absolute collision cross sections for electron molecule scattering is discussed in the context of measurements which have relevance to atmospheric phenomena and technological applications. Cross sections for low energy (< 5 eV) scattering from NO highlight the role of resonant processes in the excitation of this important atmospheric gas, while for both C2F4 and C4F8, which are used in plasma processing of semiconductors, we present a range of experimental data. In each case we make comparison of the measured cross sections with results derived from the analysis of transport data from electron swarm experiments.

Buckman, Stephen J.; Panajotovic, Radmila; Jelisavcic, Milica

251

Evaluation of Electron Ionization Cross Sections for Carbon Fullerenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we have introduced a semi empirical formulation for the calculation of partial and total integral ionization cross sections for C60 and C70 in the energy range from ionization threshold to 1000 eV which yielded results which were in satisfactory agreement with available experimental and theoretical data. Subsequently, we extended and generalized the same revisited JK semi empirical formulation for the evaluation of partial integral ionization cross sections for C2 dimmer and C3 trimmer. The major input data required in the formulation is the oscillator strength which is taken from the statistical sum of individual carbon atoms. The results are found in satisfactory agreement with the only theoretical calculation based on the modified additive rule (MAR). In addition to the partial integral ionization cross sections, we have also evaluated the ionization rate coefficients using the calculated ionization cross sections and Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for the electrons as a function of energy.

Pal, Satyendra; Kumar, Neeraj

2011-11-01

252

Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions  

E-print Network

This Report summarises the results of the second year's activities of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. The first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) focuses on predictions (central values and errors) for total Higgs production cross sections and Higgs branching ratios in the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, covering also related issues such as Monte Carlo generators, parton distribution functions, and pseudo-observables. This second Report represents the next natural step towards realistic predictions upon providing results on cross sections with benchmark cuts, differential distributions, details of specific decay channels, and further recent developments.

Dittmaier, S; Passarino, G; Tanaka, R; Alekhin, S; Alwall, J; Bagnaschi, E A; Banfi, A; Blumlein, J; Bolognesi, S; Chanon, N; Cheng, T; Cieri, L; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cutajar, M; Dawson, S; Davies, G; De Filippis, N; Degrassi, G; Denner, A; D'Enterria, D; Diglio, S; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Ellis, R K; Farilla, A; Farrington, S; Felcini, M; Ferrera, G; Flechl, M; de Florian, D; Forte, S; Ganjour, S; Garzelli, M V; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Glazov, S; Goria, S; Grazzini, M; Guillet, J -Ph; Hackstein, C; Hamilton, K; Harlander, R; Hauru, M; Heinemeyer, S; Hoche, S; Huston, J; Jackson, C; Jimenez-Delgado, P; Jorgensen, M D; Kado, M; Kallweit, S; Kardos, A; Kauer, N; Kim, H; Kovac, M; Kramer, M; Krauss, F; Kuo, C -M; Lehti, S; Li, Q; Lorenzo, N; Maltoni, F; Mellado, B; Moch, S O; Muck, A; Muhlleitner, M; Nadolsky, P; Nason, P; Neu, C; Nikitenko, A; Oleari, C; Olsen, J; Palmer, S; Paganis, S; Papadopoulos, C G; Petersen, T C; Petriello, F; Petrucci, F; Piacquadio, G; Pilon, E; Potter, C T; Price, J; Puljak, I; Quayle, W; Radescu, V; Rebuzzi, D; Reina, L; Rojo, J; Rosco, D; Salam, G P; Sapronov, A; Schaarschmidt, J; Schonherr, M; Schumacher, M; Siegert, F; Slavich, P; Spira, M; Stewart, I W; Stirling, W J; Stockli, F; Sturm, C; Tackmann, F J; Thorne, R S; Tommasini, D; Torrielli, P; Tramontano, F; Trocsanyi, Z; Ubiali, M; Uccirati, S; Acosta, M Vazquez; Vickey, T; Vicini, A; Waalewijn, W J; Wackeroth, D; Warsinsky, M; Weber, M; Wiesemann, M; Weiglein, G; Yu, J; Zanderighi, G

2012-01-01

253

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

254

Giant dipole resonance parameters with uncertainties from photonuclear cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Updated values and corresponding uncertainties of isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR or GDR) model parameters are presented that are obtained by the least-squares fitting of theoretical photoabsorption cross sections to experimental data. The theoretical photoabsorption cross section is taken as a sum of the components corresponding to excitation of the GDR and quasideuteron contribution to the experimental photoabsorption cross section. The present compilation covers experimental data as of January 2010. - Highlights: {yields} Experimental {sigma} ({gamma}, abs) or a sum of partial cross sections are taken as input to the fitting. {yields} Data include contributions from photoproton reactions. {yields} Standard (SLO) or modified (SMLO) Lorentzian approaches are used for formulating GDR models. {yields} Spherical or axially deformed nuclear shapes are used in GDR least-squares fit. {yields} Values and uncertainties of the SLO and SMLO GDR model parameters are tabulated.

Plujko, V.A. [Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv (Ukraine); Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Capote, R., E-mail: R.CapoteNoy@iaea.org [NAPC-Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400,Vienna (Austria); Gorbachenko, O.M. [Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv (Ukraine)

2011-09-15

255

Determination of absolute photoionization cross sections of the phenyl radical  

E-print Network

wavelengths. Using the photoionization cross section values for each channel, photoionization efficiency of interest to microwave spectroscopists and astrophysicists as these species are possible components wavelengths to create the radical and taking advantage of the multiple channels for chlorobenzene

Neumark, Daniel M.

256

Precision measurement of the 238Pu(n,?) cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron-capture cross section for 238Pu was measured by using the detector for advanced neutron-capture experiments (DANCE) array, which is a highly segmented and highly efficient 4? ?-ray calorimeter. The neutron-capture events were recognized by the total ?-ray energy deposited in DANCE, which is equal to the reaction Q value plus the incident neutron energy. The absolute neutron-capture cross section was derived as a function of incident neutron energy from thermal to about 30 keV. The measured cross section for incident neutron energy below 18 eV was performed for the first time by using the direct method and does not support the most recently adopted changes in endf/b-vii.1 where the neutron-capture cross section was lowered by as much as a factor of ˜3 in the neighborhood of 0.3 eV from those evaluated in endf/b-vii.0.

Chyzh, A.; Wu, C. Y.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R. A.; Gostic, J. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

2013-10-01

257

11. DETAIL OF DITCH CROSS SECTION WITH VISUAL SCALES. DITCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL OF DITCH CROSS SECTION WITH VISUAL SCALES. DITCH WAS BISECTED BY LOCAL DRAINAGE; VIEW TO SOUTH. - Keefe-McDerby Mine Ditch, East of East Bidwell Street between Clarksville Road & Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

258

An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study of Interlanguage Pragmatic Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports results of an exploratory cross-sectional study of pragmatic development among three groups of primary school students in Hong Kong who complete a cartoon oral production task designed to elicit requests, apologies, and compliment responses. (Author/VWL)

Rose, Kenneth R.

2000-01-01

259

Hadronic cross sections, elastic slope and physical bounds  

SciTech Connect

An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.

Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas SP (Brazil)

2013-03-25

260

Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization  

SciTech Connect

The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

2003-06-06

261

Fragmentation cross sections outside the limiting-fragmentation regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, has been successfully applied to estimate fragment production cross sections in reactions of heavy ions at high incident energies. It is checked whether a similar parametrization can be found for proton-induced spallation around 1 GeV, the range of interest for ISOL-type RIB facilities. The validity of EPAX for medium-energy heavy-ion induced reactions

K. Sümmerer

2003-01-01

262

Fragmentation cross sections of relativistic 208Pb projectiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production cross sections of more than 270 isotopes ranging from Z = 59 to Z = 82 were measured in the reaction 208Pb(1 GeV A)+Cu. The method of identifying the projectile fragments and evaluating the production cross sections is described. The experimental data are compared with a modern version of the abrasion-ablation model and with the empirical parameterization EPAX. Apart

M. de Jong; K.-H. Schmidt; B. Blank; C. Böckstiegel; T. Brohm; H.-G. Clerc; S. Czajkowski; M. Dornik; H. Geissel; A. Grewe; E. Hanelt; A. Heinz; H. Irnich; A. R. Junghans; A. Magel; G. Münzenberg; F. Nickel; M. Pfützner; A. Piechaczek; C. Scheidenberger; W. Schwab; S. Steinhäuser; K. Sümmerer; W. Trinder; B. Voss; C. Ziegler

1998-01-01

263

Predicted cross-sections for photon-induced particle emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sections for the photon-induced particle-emission reactions (?,n), (?,p), and (?,?) are given for all natural isotopes from Ti to Bi. The target nuclei are assumed to be in their ground states, except for 180Ta which is naturally occurring as the isomer 180mTa. The cross-sections are calculated in a statistical model (Hauser–Feshbach) approach and covering an energy range from threshold up

T. Rauscher; F.-K. Thielemann

2004-01-01

264

Partial ionisation cross-sections of 2-propanol and ethanal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron impact ionisation of 2-propanol and ethanal is studied using mass spectrometry. Cross-sections of the formation of molecular ions and ionic fragments are measured between 14 and 86eV. Free energy changes are evaluated using ab initio calculations. For 2-propanol, two ions, identified as CH3CHOH+ (45amu) and CH3CHCH3+ (43amu), contribute more than 75% to the total cross-section over the whole range

J. R. Vacher; F. Jorand; N. Blin-Simiand; S. Pasquiers

2006-01-01

265

Photon Cross Sections at Ecm = 2 TeV  

E-print Network

Photon production rates have been studied by the D0 and CDF experiments in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Measurements of the inclusive isolated photon cross section and the di-photon cross section are presented, based on integrated luminosities of 0.3 fb-1 and 0.2 fb-1, respectively. The results are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in various approximations.

M. Wobisch

2006-06-30

266

Nucleon-nucleon cross sections in nuclear matter  

SciTech Connect

We provide a microscopic calculation of neutron-proton and neutron-neutron cross sections in symmetric nuclear matter at various densities, using the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation scheme with the Paris potential. We investigate separately the medium effects on the effective mass and on the scattering amplitude. We determine average cross sections suitable for application in the dynamical simulation of heavy ion collisions, including a parametrization of their energy and density dependence. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Schulze, H.; Schnell, A.; Roepke, G. [MPG-AG Theoretische Vielteilchenphysik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)] [MPG-AG Theoretische Vielteilchenphysik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Lombardo, U. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, I-95129 Catania (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, I-95129 Catania (Italy)

1997-06-01

267

Cross section of hadron production in gammagamma collisions at LEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction e+e- -> e+e-gamma*gamma* -> e+e-hadrons is analysed using data collected by the L3 detector during the LEP runs at &surd;s= 130-140 GeV and &surd;s= 161 GeV. The cross sections sigma(e+e- -> e+e-hadrons) and sigma(gammagamma -> hadrons) are measured in the interval 5 <= Wgammagamma hadrons) cross section is consistent with the universal Regge behaviour of total hadronic cross

M. Acciarri; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; S. Ahlen; J. Alcaraz; G. Alemanni; J. Allaby; A. Aloisio; G. Alverson; M. G. Alviggi; G. Ambrosi; H. Anderhub; V. P. Andreev; T. Angelescu; F. Anselmo; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. Bagnaia; L. Baksay; S. Banerjee; K. Banicz; A. Barczyk; R. Barillère; L. Barone; P. Bartalini; A. Baschirotto; M. Basile; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; S. Bhattacharya; M. Biasini; A. Biland; G. M. Bilei; J. J. Blaising; S. C. Blyth; G. J. Bobbink; R. Bock; A. Böhm; L. Boldizsar; B. Borgia; D. Bourilkov; M. Bourquin; S. Braccini; J. G. Branson; V. Brigljevic; I. C. Brock; A. Buffini; A. Buijs; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; J. Busenitz; A. Button; X. D. Cai; M. Campanelli; M. Capell; G. Cara Romeo; G. Carlino; A. M. Cartacci; J. Casaus; G. Castellini; F. Cavallari; N. Cavallo; C. Cecchi; M. Cerrada; F. Cesaroni; M. Chamizo; Y. H. Chang; U. K. Chaturvedi; S. V. Chekanov; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; X. Chereau; G. Chiefari; C. Y. Chien; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; C. Civinini; I. Clare; R. Clare; H. O. Cohn; G. Coignet; A. P. Colijn; N. Colino; V. Commichau; S. Costantini; F. Cotorobai; B. de La Cruz; A. Csilling; T. S. Dai; R. D'Alessandro; R. de Asmundis; A. Degré; K. Deiters; D. della Volpe; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; D. Dibitonto; M. Diemoz; D. van Dierendonck; F. di Lodovico; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; A. Dominguez; A. Doria; M. T. Dova; D. Duchesneau; P. Duinker; I. Duran; S. Dutta; S. Easo; Yu. Efremenko; H. El Mamouni; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; F. C. Erné; J. P. Ernenwein; P. Extermann; M. Fabre; R. Faccini; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; O. Fedin; M. Felcini; B. Fenyi; T. Ferguson; F. Ferroni; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; I. Fisk; G. Forconi; L. Fredj; K. Freudenreich; C. Furetta; Yu. Galaktionov; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; S. S. Gau; S. Gentile; N. Gheordanescu; S. Giagu; S. Goldfarb; J. Goldstein; Z. F. Gong; A. Gougas; G. Gratta; M. W. Gruenewald; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; L. J. Gutay; B. Hartmann; A. Hasan; D. Hatzifotiadou; T. Hebbeker; A. Hervé; W. C. van Hoek; H. Hofer; S. J. Hong; H. Hoorani; S. R. Hou; G. Hu; V. Innocente; K. Jenkes; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; P. de Jong; I. Josa-Mutuberria; A. Kasser; R. A. Khan; D. Kamrad; Yu. Kamyshkov; J. S. Kapustinsky; Y. Karyotakis; M. Kaur; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; D. Kim; J. K. Kim; S. C. Kim; Y. G. Kim; W. W. Kinnison; A. Kirkby; D. Kirkby; J. Kirkby; D. Kiss; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; A. C. König; A. Kopp; I. Korolko; V. Koutsenko; R. W. Kraemer; W. Krenz; A. Kunin; P. Ladron de Guevara; I. Laktineh; G. Landi; C. Lapoint; K. Lassila-Perini; P. Laurikainen; M. Lebeau; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Lecoq; P. Le Coultre; J. M. Le Goff; R. Leiste; E. Leonardi; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; C. H. Lin; W. T. Lin; F. L. Linde; L. Lista; Z. A. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; W. Lu; Y. S. Lu; K. Lübelsmeyer; C. Luci; D. Luckey; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; W. G. Ma; M. Maity; G. Majumder; L. Malgeri; A. Malinin; C. Maña; D. Mangeol; S. Mangla; P. Marchesini; A. Marin; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; G. G. G. Massaro; D. McNally; R. R. McNeil; S. Mele; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; M. von der Mey; Y. Mi; A. Mihul; A. J. W. van Mil; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; P. Molnar; B. Monteleoni; R. Moore; S. Morganti; T. Moulik; R. Mount; S. Müller; F. Muheim; A. J. M. Muijs; S. Nahn; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; T. Niessen; A. Nippe; A. Nisati; H. Nowak; Y. D. Oh; H. Opitz; G. Organtini; R. Ostonen; C. Palomares; D. Pandoulas; S. Paoletti; P. Paolucci; H. K. Park; I. H. Park; G. Pascale; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; D. Peach; Y. J. Pei; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; B. Petersen; S. Petrak; A. Pevsner; D. Piccolo; M. Pieri; J. C. Pinto; P. A. Piroué; E. Pistolesi; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; H. Postema; N. Produit; D. Prokofiev; G. Rahal-Callot; N. Raja; P. G. Rancoita; M. Rattaggi; G. Raven; P. Razis; K. Read; D. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; T. van Rhee; S. Riemann; K. Riles; A. Robohm; J. Rodin; B. P. Roe; L. Romero; S. Rosier-Lees; Ph. Rosselet; W. van Rossum; S. Roth; J. A. Rubio; D. Ruschmeier; H. Rykaczewski; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; M. P. Sanders; M. E. Sarakinos; S. Sarkar; M. Sassowsky; C. Schäfer; V. Schegelsky; S. Schmidt-Kaerst; D. Schmitz; P. Schmitz; N. Scholz; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; J. Schwenke; G. Schwering; C. Sciacca; D. Sciarrino; L. Servoli; S. Shevchenko; N. Shivarov; V. Shoutko; J. Shukla; E. Shumilov; A. Shvorob; T. Siedenburg; D. Son; A. Sopczak; B. Smith; P. Spillantini; M. Steuer; D. P. Stickland; A. Stone; H. Stone; B. Stoyanov; A. Straessner; K. Strauch; K. Sudhakar; G. Sultanov; L. Z. Sun; G. F. Susinno; H. Suter; J. D. Swain; X. W. Tang; L. Tauscher; L. Taylor

1997-01-01

268

Radar cross section reduction of aircraft wing front end  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a comparison of two methods for radar cross section reduction (RCSR) of a wing-front profile. The aim is to reduce RCS over the frequency range 1-16 GHz in a forward sector of the traveling direction. We achieved a 5 dB reduction of the two dimensional mono-static radar cross section (RCS) for 68% (or more) of

A. Motevasselian; B. L. G. Jonsson

2009-01-01

269

Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

Peelle, R. W.

1972-01-01

270

Toward Multi-Differential Cross Sections: Measuring Two Angularities on a Single Jet  

E-print Network

The analytic study of differential cross sections in QCD has typically focused on individual observables, such as mass or thrust, to great success. Here, we present a first study of double differential jet cross sections considering two recoil-free angularities measured on a single jet. By analyzing the phase space defined by the two angularities and using methods from soft-collinear effective theory, we prove that the double differential cross section factorizes at the boundaries of the phase space. We also show that the cross section in the bulk of the phase space cannot be factorized using only soft and collinear modes, excluding the possibility of a global factorization theorem in soft-collinear effective theory. Nevertheless, we are able to define a simple interpolation procedure that smoothly connects the factorization theorem at one boundary to the other. We present an explicit example of this at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy and show that the interpolation is unique up to $\\alpha_s^4$ order in the exponent of the cross section, under reasonable assumptions. This is evidence that the interpolation is sufficiently robust to account for all logarithms in the bulk of phase space to the accuracy of the boundary factorization theorem. We compare our analytic calculation of the double differential cross section to Monte Carlo simulation and find qualitative agreement. Because our arguments rely on general structures of the phase space, we expect that much of our analysis would be relevant for the study of phenomenologically well-motivated observables, such as $N$-subjettiness, energy correlation functions, and planar flow.

Andrew J. Larkoski; Ian Moult; Duff Neill

2014-01-17

271

Cross-sectional area and intensity variations of sausage modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The observations obtained using the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument (ROSA) show variations in both cross-sectional area and intensity for magnetic pores in the photosphere. Aims: We study the phase behaviour between cross-sectional area and intensity variations for sausage modes in a photospheric context. We aim to determine the wave mode by looking at the phase difference between the cross-sectional area and intensity variations. Methods: We used a straight cylinder as a model for the flux tube. The plasma is uniform both inside and outside the flux tube with a possible jump in the equilibrium values at the boundary, the magnetic field is directed along the flux tube. We derived analytic expressions for the cross-sectional area variation and the total intensity variation. Using these analytic expressions, we calculated the phase differences between the cross-sectional area and the intensity variations. These phase differences were then used to identify the wave mode. Results: We found that for slow sausage modes the cross-sectional area and intensity variations are always in phase, while for fast sausage modes the variations are in antiphase. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Moreels, M. G.; Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

2013-07-01

272

Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr+ + Kr and Kr2+ + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr+ + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr2+ + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr2+ + Kr ? Kr+ + Kr+ reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 Å2 with an exception near 70-80 eV.

Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

2013-04-01

273

Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models  

SciTech Connect

Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

Hause, Michael L. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02159 (United States); Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

2013-04-28

274

A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

Berenbrock, C.

2006-01-01

275

Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.  

PubMed

The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength. PMID:20085296

Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

2010-04-15

276

Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies  

SciTech Connect

Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.

Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01

277

Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-relativistic calculations are performed for the photoionization of Fe X (an important coronal ion) from its ground state 3s23p5(2P0_{3/2}) and the first two excited states 3s23p5(2P0_{1/2}) and 3s3p6(2S_{1/2}) using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. A lowest 41 state eigenfunction expansion for Fe XI is employed to ensure an extensive treatment of auto ionizing resonances that affect the effective cross-sections. In the present calculations, we have considered all the important physical effects like channel coupling, exchange and short range correlation. The present calculations using the lowest 41 target levels of Fe XI in the LSJ coupling scheme are reported and we expect that the present results should enable more accurate modelling of the emission spectrum of highly excited plasma from the optical to the far UV region.

Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, Jagjit; Jha, A. K. S.; Mohan, Man

2012-09-01

278

Respiratory hazards in hard metal workers: a cross sectional study.  

PubMed Central

A cross sectional study was conducted on 513 employees at three hard metal plants: 425 exposed workers (351 men, 74 women) and 88 controls (69 men, 19 women). Cough and sputum were more frequent in workers engaged in "soft powder" and presintering workshops compared with controls (12.5% and 16.5% v 3.5%). Spirometric abnormalities were more frequent among women in sintering and finishing workshops compared with control women (56.8% v 23.8%) and abnormalities of carbon monoxide test were more frequent in exposed groups than in controls; this difference was more pronounced in women (31.4% v 5.6%) than in men (18.5% v 13%). No significant correlation was observed between duration of exposure and age adjusted lung function tests. Slight abnormalities of chest radiographs (0/1, 1/1 according to ILO classification) were more frequent in exposed men than controls (12.8% v 1.9%) and mostly in soft powder workers. In subjects with abnormal chest radiographs FVC, FEV1 and carbon monoxide indices (fractional uptake of CO or CO transfer index or both) were lower compared with those with normal chest radiographs. Although relatively mild, the clinical, radiological, and functional abnormalities uncovered call for a regular supervision of workers exposed to hard metal dust. PMID:2787666

Meyer-Bisch, C; Pham, Q T; Mur, J M; Massin, N; Moulin, J J; Teculescu, D; Carton, B; Pierre, F; Baruthio, F

1989-01-01

279

The calculation of time-correlation functions for molecular collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general formalism relating cross sections to collisional time-correlation functions is applied to the calculation of energy transfer in molecular collisions. Basic aspects of the formalism are reviewed, followed by a detailed description of methods suitable for the calculation of quantal state-to-state cross sections. These methods are particularly useful in the description of scattering by large systems, or of systems

Eduardo Vilallonga; David A. Micha

1992-01-01

280

Measurement of 139La(n,?) Cross Section at n_TOF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture cross section of the 139La has been measured relative to 197Au standard at n_TOF. We provide here a short description of the experimental apparatus and of the data analysis procedures. The extracted resonance parameters allow to calculate the fundamental nuclear quantities such as average spacing ?D?1=0 = 268 ± 22 eV, ?D?1=1 < 250 eV neutron strength functions

R. Terlizzi; U. Abbondanno; G. Aerts; H. A´lvarez; F. Alvarez-Velarde; S. Andriamonje; J. Andrzejewski; P. Assimakopoulos; L. Audouin; G. Badurek; P. Baumann; E. Berthoumieux; D. Cano-Ott; R. Capote; A. Carrillo de Albornoz; P. Cennini; V. Chepel; E. Chiaveri; N. Colonna; G. Cortes; A. Couture; J. Cox; S. David; R. Dolfini; C. Domingo-Pardo; M. Dalhfors; W. Dridi; I. Duran; C. Eleftheriadis; M. Embid-Segura; L. Ferrant; A. Ferrari; R. Ferreira-Marques; L. Fitzpatrick; H. Frais-Koelbl; K. Fujii; W. Furman; C. Guerrero; I. Goncalves; R. Gallino; E. Gonzalez-Romero; A. Goverdovski; F. Gramegna; E. Griesmayer; F. Gunsing; B. Haas; R. Haight; M. Heil; A. Herrera-Martinez; M. Igashira; S. Isaev; E. Jericha; Y. Kadi; D. Karamanis; D. Karadimos; M. Kerveno; V. Ketlerov; P. Koehler; V. Konovalov; E. Kossionides; C. Lamboudis; H. Leeb; A. Lindote; I. Lopes; M. Lozano; S. Lukic; J. Marganiec; L. Marques; S. Marrone; P. Mastinu; A. Mengoni; P. M. Milazzo; C. Moreau; M. Mosconi; F. Neves; H. Oberhummer; S. O’Brien; M. Oshima; J. Pancin; C. Papachristodoulou; C. T. Papadopoulos; C. Paradela; N. Patronis; A. Pavlik; P. Pavlopoulos; L. Perrot; R. Plag; A. Plompen; A. Plukis; A. Poch; C. Pretel; J. Quesada; T. Rauscher; R. Reifarth; M. Rosetti; C. Rubbia; G. Rudolf; P. Rullhusen; J. Salgado; L. Sarchiapone; I. Savvidis; C. Stephan; G. Tagliente; J. L. Tain; L. Tassan-Got; L. Tavora; I. Dillmann; G. Vannini; P. Vaz; A. Ventura; D. Villamarin; M. C. Vincente; V. Vlachoudis; R. Vlastou; F. Voss; S. Walter; H. Wendler; M. Wiescher; K. Wisshak

2006-01-01

281

The 139La(n,gamma) cross section: key for the onset of the s process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear resonance parameters and the capture cross section of the neutron magic isotope 139La has been measured n_TOF. The description of the experimental apparata is followed by the data analysis procedures. We extracted the resonance parameters, the main nuclear quantities such as the resonance integral, the average gamma widths for s- and p-waves, the nuclear level densities and the

R. Terlizzi; U Abbondanno; G Aerts; H lvarez; F Alvarez-Velarde; Samuel A Andriamonje; J Andrzejewski; Panayiotis Assimakopoulos; L Audouin; G Badurek; P Baumann; F Becv; E Berthoumieux; M Calviani; F Calvio; D Cano-Ott; R Capote; A Carrillode Albornoz; P Cennini; V Chepel; Enrico Chiaveri; N Colonna; G Cortés; A Couture; J Cox; M Dahlfors; S David; I Dillmann; R Dolfini; C Domingo-Pardo; W Dridi; I Durán; C Eleftheriadis; M Embid-Segura; L Ferrant; A Ferrari; R Ferreira-Marques; L Fitzpatrick; H Frais-Kölbl; K Fujii; W Furman; R Gallino; I Gonçalves; E Gonzalez-Romero; A Goverdovski; F Gramegna; E Griesmayer; C Guerrero; F Gunsing; B Haas; R Haight; M Heil; A Herrera-Martínez; M Igashira; S Isaev; E Jericha; Y Kadi; F Kppeler; D Karamanis; D Karadimos; M Kerveno; V Ketlerov; P Köhler; V Konovalov; E Kossionides; M Krticka; C Lamboudis; H Leeb; A Lindote; I Lopes; M Lozano; S Lukic; J Marganiec; L Marques; S Marrone; C Massimi; P Mastinu; A Mengoni; P M Milazzo; C Moreau; M Mosconi; F Neves; Heinz Oberhummer; S O'Brien; J Pancin; C Papachristodoulou; C Papadopoulos; C Paradela; N Patronis; A Pavlik; P Pavlopoulos; L Perrot; M Pignatari; R Plag; A Plompen; A Plukis; A Poch; C Pretel; J Quesada; T Rauscher; R Reifarth; M Rosetti; Carlo Rubbia; G Rudolf; P Rullhusen; J Salgado; L Sarchiapone; I Savvidis; C Stéphan; G Tagliente; J L Taín; L Tassan-Got; L Tavora; G Vannini; P Vaz; A Ventura; D Villamarín; M C Vincente; V Vlachoudis; R Vlastou; F Voss; S Walter; H Wendler; M Wiescher; K Wisshak

2006-01-01

282

Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Objectives: Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. Results: The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.003), school grade (P < 0.011), father’s educational level (P < 0.045), mother’s educational level (P < 0.021), and mother’s occupation (P < 0.008). Conclusions: Female and older students are at higher risk of developing unhealthy lifestyle. Consequently, healthcare providers, health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial.

Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

2014-01-01

283

243Am neutron-induced fission cross section in the fast neutron energy range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing evaluations of the 243Am neutron-induced fission cross section have been questioned by recent measurements performed at the GNEISS facility. In the neutron energy range from 1 to 6 MeV, the GNEISS data present deviations of more than 15% with respect to the evaluations. In order to solve this problem, we have measured this cross section in reference to three different standard cross sections. The first standard reaction used corresponds to the neutron on proton elastic scattering cross section, which is known with a precision better than 0.5% over a wide neutron-energy range of 1 meV to 20 MeV. The other two experiments were conducted in reference to the 235U(n, f) and 238U(n, f) reactions. The comparison between these three standard reactions ensures that systematic parameters have been correctly evaluated. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis of parameters and correlations of parameters is described and a complete variance-covariance matrix of the measurements is presented and discussed.

Kessedjian, G.; Barreau, G.; Aïche, M.; Jurado, B.; Bidaud, A.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassié, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Wilson, J. N.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; AlMahamid, I.; Floyd, J.; Lukens, W.; Shuh, D.

2012-04-01

284

Activation energy and capture cross section of majority carrier traps in Zn doped InP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schottky barrier diodes were fabricated on Zn doped InP Wafers. The diodes were radiation damaged with 2 MeV protons to a dose of 2 x 10(exp 12)cm(sup -2). The damage was analyzed by DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) using the double correlation technique. Capture cross sections were measured directly. Two major defects were observed in the DLTS spectra. The first defect, was H4 at Ev + 0.29 eV, with capture cross section 1.1 x 10(exp -17)cm(sup 2). The second defect, was H5 at Ev + 0.53 eV. Its capture cross section varied with temperature as described by the relationship sigma = sigma(sub 0) exp(delta(E)/kT) where sigma(sub 0) = 1.3 x 10(exp -19)cm(sup 2) and delta(E) = .08 eV. This relationship yields a sigma of 5.9 x 10(exp -21)cm(sup 2) at room temperature. The surprisingly small capture cross section of H5 and its temperature dependence are discussed in terms of the multiphonon emission process for carrier capture at the defect. The advantages of the improved experimental techniques used are also discussed.

Rybicki, George; Williams, Wendell

1993-01-01

285

Angle dependent total cross sections and the optical theorem.  

PubMed

Cross sections are either represented by generalized asymptotical partial wave expansions or obtained as a spherical average of an appropriate differential cross section. In these cases it is usually assumed that the total scattering cross section, as a property of a scattering object, does not depend on the incident angles. This viewpoint is supported by common knowledge in connection with low energy scattering. However this unconscious belief is not always correct. In the present paper we will show that a non-spherical scatterer may exhibit strong dependence on the incident direction. To do this we will represent the scattering data of the most general potential, separable in ellipsoidal coordinates, in perturbed ellipsoidal (Lamé) wave functions. These functions arise when variables in the Schrödinger equation are separated in an ellipsoidal coordinate system. The Lamé wave functions are analogous to spherical- and Bessel functions in the case of spherical symmetry. We will expand the total scattering cross section and derive the optical theorem explicitly demonstrating the incident angle dependence for such a class of potentials. As an illustration we will present and display some calculations of the total cross section versus incident direction. Unexpected behavior will be discussed and explained. We also use results from classical acoustic scattering by a triaxial ellipsoid. The general character of the ellipsoidal coordinate system is emphasized. PMID:11153801

Levitina, T V; Brändas, E J

2001-01-01

286

Angle dependent total cross sections and the optical theorem.  

PubMed

Cross sections are either represented by generalized asymptotical partial wave expansions or obtained as a spherical average of an appropriate differential cross section. In these cases it is usually assumed that the total scattering cross section, as a property of a scattering object, does not depend on the incident angles. This viewpoint is supported by common knowledge in connection with low energy scattering. However this unconscious belief is not always correct. In the present paper we will show that a non-spherical scatterer may exhibit strong dependence on the incident direction. To do this we will represent the scattering data of the most general potential, separable in ellipsoidal coordinates, in perturbed ellipsoidal (Lamé) wave functions. These functions arise when variables in the Schrödinger equation are separated in an ellipsoidal coordinate system. The Lamé wave functions are analogous to spherical- and Bessel functions in the case of spherical symmetry. We will expand the total scattering cross section and derive the optical theorem explicitly demonstrating the incident angle dependence for such a class of potentials. As an illustration we will present and display some calculations of the total cross section versus incident direction. Unexpected behavior will be discussed and explained. We also use results from classical acoustic scattering by a triaxial ellipsoid. The general character of the ellipsoidal coordinate system is emphasized. PMID:12927118

Levitina, T V; Brändas, E J

2003-07-01

287

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Yb isotopes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 170Yb, 171Yb, 172Yb, 173Yb, 174Yb, and 176Yb have been measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4? barium fluoride detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard. Neutron capture in the even ytterbium isotopes is characterized by a strong population of isomeric states, resulting in severe systematic uncertainties in previous experiments. In the present work, the partial cross sections to the ground- and isomeric states in 172Yb, 174Yb, 176Yb could be experimentally separated for the first time, yielding cross section ratios with an overall uncertainty of 1 - 1.5%. Compared to previous measurements, this corresponds to an improvement by factors of 4 to 10. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 8 keV and 100 keV. The results of four isotopes differ by more than 15% from recent evaluations.

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Käppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.

1998-11-01

288

Absolute cross sections for electron scattering from furan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of measurements and calculations of absolute cross sections for electron scattering from furan molecules (C4H4O). The experimental absolute differential cross sections (DCSs) for elastic electron scattering were obtained for the incident energies from 50 eV to 300 eV and for scattering angles from 20º to 110º, by using a crossed electron-target beam setup and the relative flow technique for calibration to the absolute scale. The calculations of the electron interaction cross sections are based on a corrected form of the independent-atom method, known as the screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) procedure and using an improved quasifree absorption model. The latter calculations also account for rotational excitations in the approximation of a free electric dipole and were used to obtain elastic DCSs as well as total and integral elastic cross sections which are tabulated in the energy range from 10 to 10 000 eV. All SCAR calculated cross sections agree very well with both the present and previously published experimental results. Additionally, calculations based on the first Born approximation were performed to calculate both elastic and vibrationally inelastic DCSs for all the modes of furane, in the energy range from 50 eV to 300 eV. The ratios of the summed vibrational to elastic DCSs are presented and discussed. Finally, the present results for furan are compared with previously published elastic DCSs for the tetrahydrofuran molecule and discussed.

Maljkovi?, J. B.; Blanco, F.; ?urík, R.; García, G.; Marinkovi?, B. P.; Milosavljevi?, A. R.

2012-08-01

289

Application of simple ramsauer model to neutron total cross sections  

SciTech Connect

The simple nuclear Ramsauer model has been used successfully to fit neutron cross sections for three decades, but has not been widely used because the foundations of the model seem to be so unrealistic. We have shown that the Glauber calculations with the inclusion of refraction and optical model calculations essentially validate this simple model for neutron total cross sections in the neutron energy range of 5-50 MeV. This model yields a simple formula for parameterizing the energy dependence of the neutron cross section. We have applied the model to nuclei ranging from vanadium to bismuth. With the addition of a single parameter, we can improve these fits to less than 1.5%.

Bauer, R.W.; Anderson, J.D.; Grimes, S.M.; Madsen, V.A.

1997-04-29

290

Ionization cross sections for low energy electron transport  

E-print Network

Two models for the calculation of ionization cross sections by electron impact on atoms, the Binary-Encouter-Bethe and the Deutsch-Maerk models, have been implemented; they are intended to extend and improve Geant4 simulation capabilities in the energy range below 1 keV. The physics features of the implementation of the models are described, and their differences with respect to the original formulations are discussed. Results of the verification with respect to the original theoretical sources and of extensive validation with respect to experimental data are reported. The validation process also concerns the ionization cross sections included in the Evaluated Electron Data Library used by Geant4 for low energy electron transport. Among the three cross section options, the Deutsch-Maerk model is identified as the most accurate at reproducing experimental data over the energy range subject to test.

Seo, Hee; Saracco, Paolo; Kim, Chan Hyeong

2011-01-01

291

Ionization cross sections for low energy electron transport  

E-print Network

Two models for the calculation of ionization cross sections by electron impact on atoms, the Binary-Encouter-Bethe and the Deutsch-Maerk models, have been implemented; they are intended to extend and improve Geant4 simulation capabilities in the energy range below 1 keV. The physics features of the implementation of the models are described, and their differences with respect to the original formulations are discussed. Results of the verification with respect to the original theoretical sources and of extensive validation with respect to experimental data are reported. The validation process also concerns the ionization cross sections included in the Evaluated Electron Data Library used by Geant4 for low energy electron transport. Among the three cross section options, the Deutsch-Maerk model is identified as the most accurate at reproducing experimental data over the energy range subject to test.

Hee Seo; Maria Grazia Pia; Paolo Saracco; Chan Hyeong Kim

2011-10-11

292

Lactiferous vessel detection from microscopic cross-sectional images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the methods to detect and segment lactiferous vessels or rubber latex vessels from gray scale microscopic cross-sectional images using polynomial curve-fitting with maximum and minimum stationary points. Polynomial curve-fitting is used to detect the location of lactiferous vessels from an image of a non-dyed cross-sectional slice which was taken by a digital camera through microscope lens. The lactiferous vessels are then segmented from an image using maximum and minimum stationary points with morphological closing operation. Two species of rubber trees of age between one to two years old are sampled namely, RRIM600 and RRIT251. Two data sets contain 30 microscopic cross-sectional images of one-year old rubber tree's stems from each species are used in the experiments and the results reveal that most of the lactiferous vessel areas can be segmented correctly.

Jariyawatthananon, Jirapath; Cooharojananone, Nagul; Lipikorn, Rajalida

2014-04-01

293

pi+- p differential cross sections at low energies  

E-print Network

Differential cross sections for pi- p and pi+ p elastic scattering were measured at five energies between 19.9 and 43.3 MeV. The use of the CHAOS magnetic spectrometer at TRIUMF, supplemented by a range telescope for muon background suppression, provided simultaneous coverage of a large part of the full angular range, thus allowing very precise relative cross section measurements. The absolute normalisation was determined with a typical accuracy of 5 %. This was verified in a simultaneous measurement of muon proton elastic scattering. The measured cross sections show some deviations from phase shift analysis predictions, in particular at large angles and low energies. From the new data we determine the real part of the isospin forward scattering amplitude.

H. Denz; P. Amaudruz; J. T. Brack; J. Breitschopf; P. Camerini; J. L. Clark; H. Clement; L. Felawka; E. Fragiacomo; E. F. Gibson; N. Grion; G. J. Hofman; B. Jamieson; E. L. Mathie; R. Meier; G. Moloney; D. Ottewell; O. Patarakin; J. D. Patterson; M. M. Pavan; S. Piano; K. Raywood; R. A. Ristinen; R. Rui; M. E. Sevior; G. R. Smith; J. Stahov; R. Tacik; G. J. Wagner; F. von Wrochem; D. M. Yeomans

2005-12-03

294

Photoabsorption cross section of acetylene in the EUV region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measurement of the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of C2H2 in the 175-740 A region by means of a double ionization chamber is reported. The continuum background source is the synchrotron radiation emitted by the Wisconsin 240 MeV electron storage ring. It is found that the cross sections range from 2 to a maximum of 36 Mb. Two new Rydberg series are identified and the cross section data are applied in the analysis of various sum rules. From the rules, it is shown that the data of C2H2 in the 580-1088 A range may be too low, while the measured ionization transition moment may be too high.

Wu, C. Y. R.; Judge, D. L.

1985-01-01

295

Recent advances in modeling fission cross sections over intermediate structures  

SciTech Connect

More accurate fission cross section calculations in presence of underlying intermediate structure are strongly desired. This paper recalls the common approximations used below the fission threshold and quantifies their impact. In particular, an exact expanded R-matrix Monte Carlo calculation of the intermediate structure, deeply mixed with the fluctuations of the class-I and II decay amplitudes, is shown. This paper also insists on the microscopic structure of the level densities as a function of the nucleus deformation and show preliminary neutron induced fission cross section calculations for {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu using newly calculated combinatorial level densities. Comparisons with recent evaluated and measured fission cross sections are made.

Bouland, Olivier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lynn, J. Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

296

Low Frequency Impedance of Tapered Transitions with Arbitrary Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

We study the impedance of a tapered transition at small frequencies for an arbitrary shape of the transition cross section. Our approach does not require a symmetry axis in the system (unlike round geometry). We show that the calculation of the impedance reduces to finding a few auxiliary potential functions that satisfy two-dimensional Poisson equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In simple cases such solutions can be obtained analytically; for more complicated geometries they can easily be found numerically. We apply our method to axisymmetric geometry and reproduce results known from the literature. We then calculate the impedance of a taper with rectangular cross section in which the vertical dimension of the cross section is a slowly changing function of the longitudinal coordinate. Finally, we find a transverse kick experienced by a beam passing near a conducting wall with a variable distance from the beam to the wall.

Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

2007-07-23

297

Neutrino Cross Section Measurements @ SciBooNE  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of cross sections of neutrinos of 0.7 GeV average energy scattering off a carbon target cross sections with by the SciBooNE experiment at Fermilab. These measurements are important inputs for current and future accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation signals. The measurement of neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} is one of the most important goals in current neutrino experiments. For the current and next generation of long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, T2K, NOvA and LBNE, the precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus cross sections in the few GeV energy range is an essential ingredient in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation signals.

Mariani, C.; /Columbia U.

2011-10-01

298

Elastic electron scattering cross sections at high momentum transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elastic scattering cross section of keV electrons over large angles (>90°) is discussed. A comparison is made of the Rutherford cross section, the cross section obtained in the first Born approximation and that obtained by a partial wave calculation. The last approach differs significantly from the first two. For compounds, the recoil energy makes it possible to distinguish experimentally from which atom the electron has scattered. We compare the elastic peak ratio of H and O in water at several keV and for Hf and O in HfO2 at 20-40 keV with the calculated ratios. Reasonable (but not perfect) agreement is obtained between the experiment and theory for the partial wave calculations.

Vos, M.; McEachran, R. P.; Weigold, E.; Bonham, R. A.

2013-04-01

299

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li (p,n)7 Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4? barium fluoride detector. The cross section ratios were determined with an overall uncertainty of ~3%, an improvement by factors of 5 to 8 compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. As a new possibility in time of flight experiments, isomeric cross section ratios could be determined for 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. For the s-only isotopes 134Ba and 136Ba the Ns ratio was determined to 0.875+/-0.025. Hence, a significant branching of the s-process path at 134Cs can be claimed for the first time, in contrast to predictions from the classical approach. This branching yields information on the s-process temperature, indicating values around T8=2. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Together with the results from previous experiments on tellurium and samarium, a general improvement of the Ns systematics in the mass range A=120-150 is achieved. This yields a more reliable separation of s- and r-process contributions for comparison with stellar observations, but reveals a 20% discrepancy with respect to the solar barium abundance.

Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Käppeler, F.; Reffo, G.

1994-11-01

300

Singly differential cross sections with exchange for Ps-fragmentation  

E-print Network

Ps ionization in Ps-atom scattering is of fundamental importance. The singly differential cross sections (SDCS) provides more accurate information to test a theory than integrated or total ionization cross section since the averaging over one parameter is not required. We evaluate the SDCS for Ps-ionization with respect to the longitudinal energy distribution of the break-up positron and electron in Ps-H and Ps-He scattering and compare them with the recently available experimental and theoretical data.

Hasi Ray

2008-08-28

301

Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium  

SciTech Connect

Differential neturon-elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental zirconium are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV. Inelastic-neutron-scattering cross sections corresponding to the excitation of levels at observed energies of: 914 +- 25, 1476 +- 37, 1787 +- 23, 2101 +- 26, 2221 +- 17, 2363 +- 14, 2791 +- 15 and 3101 +- 25 keV are determined. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the optical-statistical model and are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

1982-12-01

302

Dielectronic-Recombination Cross-Sections of Hydrogenlike Argon  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW A VOLUME 44, NUMBER 11 1 DECEMBER 1991 Dielectronic-recombination cross sections of hytlrogenlike argon D. R. DeWitt, D. Schneider, M. W. Clark, and M. H. Chen Latvrenee Livermore National Laboratory, University of California.... Comparison with theory shows that the total cross sections agree within +6%%uo. PACS number(s): 34.80.Kw, 34.80.Dp, 52.20.Fs INTRODUCTION The importance of the dielectronic-recombination (DR) process as a major contributor to the ion balance in high...

Dewitt, D. R.; Schneider, D.; Clark, M. W.; Chen, M. H.; Church, David A.

1991-01-01

303

Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

2009-01-01

304

Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The above ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section considering cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from ray tracing agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman DK-2A spectroreflectometer.

Kumar, R.; Silva, L.

1973-01-01

305

Suppressed fusion cross section for neutron halo nuclei  

E-print Network

Fusion reactions of neutron-halo nuclei are investigated theoretically with a three-body model. The time-dependent wave-packet method is used to solve the three-body Schrodinger equation. The halo neutron behaves as a spectator during the Coulomb dissociation process of the projectile. The fusion cross sections of 11Be-209Bi and 6He-238U are calculated and are compared with measurements. Our calculation indicates that the fusion cross section is slightly hindered by the presence of weakly bound neutrons.

Makoto Ito; Kazuhiro Yabana; Takashi Nakatsukasa; Manabu Ueda

2005-06-23

306

QE Neutrino CC Cross Sections off 16O  

E-print Network

The charged-current quasi-elastic scattering of muon neutrino on oxygen target is computed for neutrino energy between 200 MeV and 2.5 GeV using different approximations: the Plane Wave Impulse Approximation (PWIA), the Relativistic Distorted Wave Impulse Approximation with relativistic optical potential (RDWIA), and the Relativistic Fermi Gas Model (RFGM). The comparison with RFGM, which is widely used in data analyses of neutrino experiments, shows that the RFGM fails completely when applied to exclusive cross section data and leads to overestimated values of inclusive and total cross sections.

A. V. Butkevich; S. A. Kulagin

2007-11-20

307

Neutrino cross section measurements @ SciBooNE  

E-print Network

We report measurements of cross sections of neutrinos of 0.7 GeV average energy scattering off a carbon target cross sections with by the SciBooNE experiment at Fermilab. These measurements are important inputs for current and future accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments in the interpretation of neutrino oscillation signals. Contribution to NUFACT 11, XIIIth International Workshop on Neutrino Factories, Super beams and Beta beams, 1-6 August 2011, CERN and University of Geneva (Submitted to IOP conference series)

C. Mariani

2011-10-07

308

Cosmic Neutrino Secret Interactions, Enhancement and Total Cross Section  

E-print Network

The scattering of neutrinos assuming a "secret" interaction at low energy is considered. To leading order in energy, the two-body potential is a delta-potential, and it is used to model all short-range elastic interactions between neutrinos. The scattering cross section depends only on the renormalized strength of the potential, while the Sommerfeld enhancement factor also depends on the short-range length scale of the interaction. If this potential is repulsive, it can lead to a decrease in the total cross section, resulting in an enhancement of the neutrino density. For attractive potentials, substantial Sommerfeld enhancement can appear.

Carcamo, Dante; Gamboa, Jorge; Mendez, Fernando; Polychronakos, Alexios P

2014-01-01

309

Measurements of multiphoton action cross sections for multiphoton microscopy  

PubMed Central

We report quantitative measurements of two-, three-, and four-photon excitation action cross sections of several commonly used fluorophores and fluorescent proteins at three different excitation wavelengths of 800 nm, 1300 nm, and 1680 nm. The measured cross section values are consistent with simple quantum mechanic estimations. These values indicate that the optimum repetition rate for deep tissue 3-photon microscopy is approximately 1 to 2 MHz. We further demonstrate that it is feasible to perform 4-photon fluorescence microscopy of GFP labeled microglia in mouse brain in vivo at 1700 nm. 4-photon excitation increases the accessibility of fluorophores at the long wavelength spectral window of 1700 nm. PMID:25360361

Cheng, Li-Chung; Horton, Nicholas G.; Wang, Ke; Chen, Shean-Jen; Xu, Chris

2014-01-01

310

Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

Yamada, T.; Ushiroda, S.; Kondo, Y.

2008-12-01

311

Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are: air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section with cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from the ray tracing tests agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman Dk-2A Spectroreflector.

Kumar, R.; Silva, L. F.

1973-01-01

312

Inclusive jet cross section measurement at D0  

SciTech Connect

We present a new preliminary measurement of the inclusive jet cross section in p{bar p} collisions based on a integrated luminosity of about 0.8 fb{sup -1}. The data were acquired using the D0 detector between 2002 and 2005. Jets are reconstructed using an iterative cone algorithm with radius R{sub cone} = 0.7. The inclusive jet cross section is presented as a function of transverse jet momentum and rapidity. Predictions from perturbative QCD in next-to-leading order, plus threshold corrections in 2-loop accuracy describe the shape in the transverse jet momentum.

Voutilainen, M.; /Nebraska U. /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.

2006-09-01

313

Reexamination of the neutron skin thickness using neutron removal cross sections  

SciTech Connect

The neutron removal cross section [{sigma}{sub -N}(Z)] is defined for the projectile-like fragment isotopes and extended to the lower Z isotopes in the projectile fragmentation reaction. The cross sections of fragments in 1 A GeV even {sup 42-52}Ca+{sup 12}C projectile fragmentation reactions are calculated using the statistical abrasion-ablation model. The correlations between {sigma}{sub -N}(Z) of different fragment isotopes and neutron skin thickness (S{sub n}) for finite neutron-rich nuclei are revisited. Good linear {sigma}{sub -N}(Z)-S{sub n} correlations are observed in fragment isotopes, and it is suggested that {sigma}{sub -N}(Z) be used as an observable to determine S{sub n} of neutron-rich nucleus in addition to {sigma}{sub -N} for isotopes of the projectile nucleus.

Ma Chunwang; Wei Huiling; Yu Mian [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Department of Life Sciences and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China)

2010-11-15

314

Measurement of the electroweak production cross section of Z bosons associated with dijets with the ATLAS detector  

E-print Network

An observation of electroweak Zjj production and a measurement of the fiducial cross section has been presented. The cross section is in excellent agreement with the SM NLO prediction from Powheg+Pythia. This process includes the VBF diagram which is very similar to the VBF production of a Higgs and to the vector boson scattering process, making it an excellent standard candle for studying such processes. In addition fiducial cross sections of inclusive Zjj production have been measured in five fiducial phase spaces with varying sensitivity to the electroweak component. All measurements are in excellent agreement with the NLO SM prediction from Powheg+Pythia. Differential distributions have also been measured of variables sensitive to VBF kinematics. These distributions are compared to NLO Powheg+Pythia predictions and LO Sherpa predictions. The former provides an excellent description of the dijet kinematics, whereas the latter provides an excellent description of the in-gap activity. No one MC prediction de...

Nurse, E L; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01

315

Kinetics and energetics of electron impact ionization of molecules: Ionization cross section, appearance energies and kinetic energy release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much effort has been recently devoted to the experimental determination of absolute partial and total electron impact ionization cross sections of molecules and radicals due to the ever increasing importance of these cross sections in many applications such as low- and high-temperature plasma physics and chemistry, atmospheric physics and mass spectrometry. In addition supporting calculations have been recently developed in order to allow the analytic quantitative description of these cross section functions for modeling codes. This review summarizes recent experimental and theoretical progress in this area of electron impact ionization including also a short description of (i) recent advances in the field of electron/ion collisions (i.e., kinetic energy release distributions in dissociative excitation reactions of molecular ions) and (ii) a novel approach to the determination of electron induced appearance energies. .

Matt, S.; Fiegele, T.; Hanel, G.; Muigg, D.; Denifl, G.; Becker, K.; Deutsch, H.; Echt, O.; Mason, N.; Stamatovic, A.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

2000-11-01

316

Measurement of 139La(n,{gamma}) Cross Section at n{sub T}OF  

SciTech Connect

The capture cross section of the 139La has been measured relative to 197Au standard at n{sub T}OF. We provide here a short description of the experimental apparatus and of the data analysis procedures. The extracted resonance parameters allow to calculate the fundamental nuclear quantities such as average spacing 1=0 = 268 {+-} 22 eV, 1=1 < 250 eV neutron strength functions S0 = (0.79 {+-} 0.03)x10-4, and S1 = (0.73 {+-} 0.05)x10-4 and the Maxwellian-averaged capture cross section (MACS). The MACS is particularly useful for the determination of the abundance synthesized by the main component of the s process.

Terlizzi, R.; Colonna, N.; Fujii, K.; Marrone, S.; Tagliente, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Bari (Italy); INFN, Bari (Italy); Abbondanno, U.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.; Gunsing, F.; Pancin, J.; Perrot, L.; Plukis, A. [CEA/Saclay - DSM, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alvarez, H.; Duran, I.; Paradela, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez-Velarde, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Technologicas, Madrid (Spain)] (and others)

2006-04-26

317

PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: Fine structure of K3C60 photoionization cross-section oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synchrotron radiation angle-resolved photoemission data of K3C60 single crystal film are analyzed, aiming at the photoionization cross-sections of the LUMO, HOMO and HOMO-1 bands in low photon energy region (14.5-27.5 eV). Many fine structures of the HOMO/HOMO-1 intensity ratios are observed, which support the general validity of a quantum chemistry model. However, the experimental data and the theoretical results have some disagreement in the energy positions and magnitudes of the fine structures, and the disagreement is more outstanding than the case of pure C60. So the photoemission data of K3C60 afford valuable experimental reference to further theoretical developments. The LUMO cross-section data, which cannot be discussed with the quantum chemistry description due to strong solid state effects, are also reported for further studies.

Li, Hong-Nian; Ying, U.-Jian; Ni, Jing-Fu; Li, Gang; Wang, Peng; Kurash, Ibrahim; Qian, Hai-Jie

2009-11-01

318

Reduced backscattering cross section (Sigma degree) data from the Skylab S-193 radar altimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Backscattering cross section per unit scattering area data, reduced from measurements made by the Skylab S-193 radar altimeter over the ocean surface are presented. Descriptions of the altimeter are given where applicable to the measurement process. Analytical solutions are obtained for the flat surface impulse response for the case of a nonsymmetrical antenna pattern. Formulations are developed for converting altimeter AGC outputs into values for the backscattering cross section. Reduced data are presented for Missions SL-2, 3 and 4 for all modes of the altimeter where sufficient calibration existed. The problem of interpreting land scatter data is also discussed. Finally, a comprehensive error analysis of the measurement is presented and worst case random and bias errors are estimated.

Brown, G. S.

1975-01-01

319

Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of elemental palladium  

SciTech Connect

Neutron total cross sections of palladium are measured from approx. = 0.6 to 4.5 MeV with resolutions of approx. = 30 to 70 keV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV. Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.4 to 3.85 MeV at intervals of 50 to 100 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160/sup 0/. The experimental results are compared with respective quantities given in ENDF/B-V and used to deduce an optical potential that provides a good description of the measured values.

Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

1982-06-01

320

Progress and open questions in the physics of neutrino cross sections  

E-print Network

New and more precise measurements of neutrino cross sections have renewed the interest in a better understanding of electroweak interactions on nucleons and nuclei. This effort is crucial to achieve the precision goals of the neutrino oscillation program, making new discoveries, like the CP violation in the leptonic sector, possible. We review the recent progress in the physics of neutrino cross sections, putting emphasis on the open questions that arise in the comparison with new experimental data. Following an overview of recent neutrino experiments and future plans, we present some details about the theoretical development in the description of (anti)neutrino-induced quasielastic scattering and the role of multi-nucleon quasielastic-like mechanisms. We cover not only pion production in nucleons and nuclei but also other inelastic channels including strangeness production and photon emission. Coherent reaction channels on nuclear targets are also discussed. Finally, we briefly describe some of the Monte Car...

Alvarez-Ruso, L; Nieves, J

2014-01-01

321

A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross Section Measurements  

E-print Network

The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4$\\pi$ acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

NIFFTE Collaboration; M. Heffner; D. M. Asner; R. G. Baker; J. Baker; S. Barrett; C. Brune; J. Bundgaard; E. Burgett; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; J. Deaven; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; S. Grimes; U. Hager; N. Hertel; T. Hill; D. Isenhower; K. Jewell; J. King; J. L. Klay; V. Kleinrath; N. Kornilov; R. Kudo; A. B. Laptev; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; T. N. Massey; C. McGrath; R. Meharchand; L. Montoya; N. Pickle; H. Qu; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; S. Sharma; L. Snyder; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; R. T. Thornton; F. Tovesson; D. Towell; R. S. Towell; S. Watson; B. Wendt; L. Wood; L. Yao

2014-03-26

322

Combined measurement and QCD analysis of the inclusive e ± p scattering cross sections at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination is presented of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in neutral\\u000a and charged current unpolarised e\\u000a ±\\u000a p scattering at HERA during the period 1994-2000. The data span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer\\u000a squared, Q\\u000a 2, and in Bjorken x. The combination method used takes the correlations of systematic

F. D. Aaron; H. Abramowicz; I. Abt; L. Adamczyk; M. Adamus; M. Al-daya Martin; C. Alexa; V. Andreev; S. Antonelli; P. Antonioli; A. Antonov; B. Antunovic; M. Arneodo; V. Aushev; O. Bachynska; S. Backovic; A. Baghdasaryan; A. Bamberger; A. N. Barakbaev; G. Barbagli; G. Bari; F. Barreiro; E. Barrelet; W. Bartel; D. Bartsch; M. Basile; K. Begzsuren; O. Behnke; J. Behr; U. Behrens; L. Bellagamba; A. Belousov; A. Bertolin; S. Bhadra; M. Bindi; J. C. Bizot; C. Blohm; T. Bold; E. G. Boos; M. Borodin; K. Borras; D. Boscherini; D. Bot; V. Boudry; S. K. Boutle; I. Bozovic-Jelisavcic; J. Bracinik; G. Brandt; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; I. Brock; E. Brownson; R. Brugnera; N. Brümmer; D. Bruncko; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; B. Brzozowska; A. Bunyatyan; G. Buschhorn; P. J. Bussey; J. M. Butterworth; B. Bylsma; L. Bystritskaya; A. Caldwell; A. J. Campbell; K. B. Cantun Avila; M. Capua; R. Carlin; C. D. Catterall; K. Cerny; V. Cerny; S. Chekanov; V. Chekelian; A. Cholewa; J. Chwastowski; J. Ciborowski; R. Ciesielski; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; J. G. Contreras; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; N. Coppola; M. Corradi; F. Corriveau; M. Costa; J. A. Coughlan; G. Cozzika; J. Cvach; G. D’Agostini; J. B. Dainton; F. Dal Corso; K. Daum; M. Deák; J. de Favereau; B. Delcourt; J. del Peso; J. Delvax; R. K. Dementiev; S. De Pasquale; M. Derrick; R. C. E. Devenish; E. A. De Wolf; C. Diaconu; D. Dobur; V. Dodonov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Dossanov; A. T. Doyle; V. Drugakov; A. Dubak; L. S. Durkin; S. Dusini; G. Eckerlin; V. Efremenko; S. Egli; Y. Eisenberg; A. Eliseev; E. Elsen; P. F. Ermolov; A. Eskreys; A. Falkiewicz; S. Fang; L. Favart; S. Fazio; A. Fedotov; R. Felst; J. Feltesse; J. Ferencei; J. Ferrando; M. I. Ferrero; J. Figiel; D.-J. Fischer; M. Fleischer; A. Fomenko; M. Forrest; B. Foster; S. Fourletov; E. Gabathuler; A. Galas; E. Gallo; A. Garfagnini; J. Gayler; A. Geiser; S. Ghazaryan; I. Gialas; L. K. Gladilin; D. Gladkov; C. Glasman; A. Glazov; I. Glushkov; L. Goerlich; N. Gogitidze; Yu. A. Golubkov; P. Göttlicher; M. Gouzevitch; C. Grab; I. Grabowska-Bo?d; J. Grebenyuk; T. Greenshaw; I. Gregor; B. R. Grell; G. Grigorescu; G. Grindhammer; G. Grzelak; C. Gwenlan; T. Haas; S. Habib; D. Haidt; W. Hain; R. Hamatsu; J. C. Hart; H. Hartmann; G. Hartner; C. Helebrant; R. C. W. Henderson; E. Hennekemper; H. Henschel; M. Herbst; G. Herrera; M. Hildebrandt; E. Hilger; K. H. Hiller; D. Hochman; D. Hoffmann; U. Holm; R. Hori; R. Horisberger; K. Horton; T. Hreus; A. Hüttmann; G. Iacobucci; Z. A. Ibrahim; Y. Iga; R. Ingbir; M. Ishitsuka; M. Jacquet; H.-P. Jakob; X. Janssen; F. Januschek; M. Jimenez; T. W. Jones; L. Jönsson; A. W. Jung; H. Jung; M. Jüngst; I. Kadenko; B. Kahle; B. Kamaluddin; S. Kananov; T. Kanno; M. Kapichine; U. Karshon; F. Karstens; I. I. Katkov; J. Katzy; M. Kaur; P. Kaur; I. R. Kenyon; A. Keramidas; L. A. Khein; C. Kiesling; J. Y. Kim; D. Kisielewska; S. Kitamura; R. Klanner; M. Klein; U. Klein; C. Kleinwort; T. Kluge; A. Knutsson; E. Koffeman; R. Kogler; D. Kollar; P. Kooijman; Ie. Korol; I. A. Korzhavina; P. Kostka; A. Kotanski; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; M. Kraemer; K. Krastev; J. Kretzschmar; A. Kropivnitskaya; K. Krüger; P. Kulinski; O. Kuprash; K. Kutak; M. Kuze; V. A. Kuzmin; M. P. J. Landon; W. Lange; G. Lastovicka-Medin; P. Laycock; A. Lebedev; A. Lee; V. Lendermann; B. B. Levchenko; S. Levonian; A. Levy; G. Li; V. Libov; S. Limentani; T. Y. Ling; K. Lipka; A. Liptaj; M. Lisovyi; B. List; J. List; E. Lobodzinska; W. Lohmann; B. Löhr; E. Lohrmann; J. H. Loizides; N. Loktionova; K. R. Long; A. Longhin; D. Lontkovskyi; R. Lopez-Fernandez; V. Lubimov; J. Lukasik; O. Yu. Lukina; P. ?u?niak; J. Maeda; S. Magill; A. Makankine; I. Makarenko; E. Malinovski; J. Malka; R. Mankel; P. Marage; A. Margotti; G. Marini; Ll. Marti; J. F. Martin; H.-U. Martyn; A. Mastroberardino; T. Matsumoto; M. C. K. Mattingly; S. J. Maxfield; A. Mehta; I.-A. Melzer-Pellmann; A. B. Meyer; H. Meyer; J. Meyer; S. Miglioranzi; S. Mikocki; I. Milcewicz-Mika; F. Mohamad Idris; V. Monaco; A. Montanari; F. Moreau; A. Morozov; J. D. Morris; J. V. Morris; M. U. Mozer; M. Mudrinic; K. Müller; P. Murín; B. Musgrave; K. Nagano; T. Namsoo; R. Nania; Th. Naumann; P. R. Newman; D. Nicholass; C. Niebuhr; A. Nigro; A. Nikiforov; D. Nikitin; Y. Ning; U. Noor; D. Notz; G. Nowak; K. Nowak; R. J. Nowak; A. E. Nuncio-Quiroz; B. Y. Oh; N. Okazaki; K. Oliver; K. Olkiewicz; J. E. Olsson; Yu. Onishchuk; S. Osman; O. Ota; D. Ozerov; V. Palichik; I. Panagoulias; M. Pandurovic; Th. Papadopoulou; K. Papageorgiu; A. Parenti; C. Pascaud; G. D. Patel; E. Paul; J. M. Pawlak; B. Pawlik; O. Pejchal; P. G. Pelfer; A. Pellegrino; E. Perez; W. Perlanski; H. Perrey; A. Petrukhin; I. Picuric; S. Piec; K. Piotrzkowski; D. Pitzl; R. Placakyte; P. Plucinski; B. Pokorny; N. S. Pokrovskiy; R. Polifka; A. Polini; B. Povh; A. S. Proskuryakov

2010-01-01

323

Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American women to determine prevalence of lifetime and past-year IPV and partner injury; examine IPV in relation to pregnancy; and assess demographic and socioeconomic correlates of past-year IPV. METHODS:

Lorraine Halinka Malcoe; Bonnie M Duran; Juliann M Montgomery

2004-01-01

324

Total cross sections for photoabsorption on light nuclei in the energy range 600-1500 MeV  

SciTech Connect

Experimental data of the GRAAL Collaboration on the total cross sections for photoabsorption on deuterium and carbon targets at gamma-ray energies in the range between 600 and 1500 MeV are presented. The experiment was performed in a beam of photons obtained by the method of the Compton backscattering of laser photons at the electron storage ring of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, Grenoble, France) by using a wide-aperture detector covering a solid angle close to 4{pi}. The total photoabsorption cross sections were determined by two independent methods: by subtracting the emptytarget background and by summing partial cross sections for meson photoproduction. The total cross sections for photoabsorption on quasifree protons and neutrons are shown to agree both in magnitude and in shape within a 5% precision of the measurements. In contrast to data previously available in the literature, both cross sections show distinctly the F{sub 15}(1680) resonance at a photon energy of about 1 GeV. Data obtained in the present experiment for the cross sections for photoabsorption on a free and a bound nucleon are compared. This comparison reveals a substantial role of two-nucleon correlations in estimating the nuclear-medium effect on meson photoproduction.

Rudnev, N. V.; Ignatov, A. S.; Lapik, A. M.; Mushkarenkov, A. N.; Nedorezov, V. G.; Turinge, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2010-08-15

325

Muscle strength and cross-sectional area in man: a comparison of strength-trained and untrained subjects.  

PubMed Central

This study has examined muscle strength and cross-sectional area in a group of 35 healthy untrained male subjects and 8 subjects who had been engaged in a strenuous weight-training programme. The maximum voluntary knee extension force which could be produced by the untrained subjects was 742 +/- 100 N (mean +/- SD). The trained subjects could produce a significantly (p less than 0.001) greater force (992 +/- 162 N). Cross-sectional area of the knee-extensor muscle group was 81.6 +/- 11.8 cm2 in the untrained subjects and 104.1 +/- 12.3 cm2 in the trained subjects (p less than 0.001). In the untrained subjects, a significant correlation existed between strength and muscle cross-sectional area (r = 0.56, p less than 0.001). In the same group of subjects, there was a significant inverse relationship between muscle cross-sectional area and the ratio of strength to cross-sectional area (r = 0.55, p less than 0.001). The mean ratio of strength to cross-sectional area was 9.20 +/- 1.29 for the untrained group whereas for the trained group this ratio was 9.53 +/- 1.01. It is suggested that the inverse relationship between strength per unit cross-sectional area and cross-sectional area results in part from an increased angle of pennation in the larger muscles. Images p149-a p149-b p149-c PMID:6487941

Maughan, R. J.; Watson, J. S.; Weir, J.

1984-01-01

326

55. CROSS SECTION OF POWER HOUSE, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. CROSS SECTION OF POWER HOUSE, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 1 PROJECT, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523199 (sheet no. 9, for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

327

Electrogravitational conversion cross sections in static electromagnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use Feynman perturbation techniques to analyze a classical process: the conversion of gravitational waves into electromagnetic waves (and vice versa) under the 'catalytic' action of a static electromagnetic background field. Closed-form differential cross sections are presented for conversion in the Coulomb field of a point charge, electric and magnetic dipole fields, and uniform electrostatic and magnetostatic fields. Using the

W. K. de Logi; A. R. Mickelson

1977-01-01

328

Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This graduate text provides an intuitive but rigorous treatment of contemporary methods used in microeconometric research. The book makes clear that applied microeconometrics is about the estimation of marginal and treatment effects, and that parametric estimation is simply a means to this end. It also clarifies the distinction between causality and statistical association. The book focuses specifically on cross section

Jeffrey M. Wooldridge

2002-01-01

329

Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive catalogue of drill?hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross?sections in Adobe Illustrator format.

James E. Faulds

2013-12-31

330

XCOM: Photon cross sections on a personal computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program and data base are presented which can be used to calculate, with a personal computer, photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, in any element, compound or mixture, at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

M. J. Berger; J. H. Hubbell

1987-01-01

331

Phenomenology of SIDIS unpolarized cross sections and azimuthal asymmetries  

E-print Network

I review the phenomenology of unpolarized cross sections and azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering (SIDIS). The general theoretical framework is presented and the validity of the Gaussian model is discussed. A brief account of the existing analyses is provided.

Vincenzo Barone

2012-03-28

332

EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINING ABSORPTION CROSS SECTIONS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

An experimental protocol for the determination of gas phase absorption cross-sections, and calculation of maximum photolysis rates, has been developed and is described in detail. Utilization of this protocol will provide a basis for evaluating the possible relative importance of ...

333

Absolute cross sections for elastic electron scattering from 3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of measurements and calculations of absolute cross sections for elastic electron scattering from the 3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran (3hTHF) (C4H8O2) molecule are reported. The measurements were performed using a crossed beam experimental setup, for an incident electron energy range of 40 300 eV and an overall scattering angle range of 10° 110°. Relative differential cross sections (DCSs) were measured both as a function of the angle and the incident energy and the absolute DCSs were determined using the relative flow technique. The calculations of molecular cross sections are based on a corrected form of the independent-atom method, known as the screen corrected additivity rule (SCAR) procedure and using an improved quasifree absorption model. Additional calculations are also done to investigate the influence of rotational excitations and low-angular behavior of SCAR DCSs. The calculated dataset includes differential, integral and total cross sections in the energy range from 5 eV to 10 000 eV. The present results are discussed regarding the most recent low-energy elastic DCSs for 3hTHF (Vizcaino et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 053002), as well as the recent DCSs for molecules of similar structure (tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol).

Milosavljevi?, A. R.; Blanco, F.; Maljkovi?, J. B.; Ševi?, D.; García, G.; Marinkovi?, B. P.

2008-10-01

334

Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the effect of adding clay modeling to a gross anatomy and neuro anatomy course. The purpose of adding the clay modeling was to assist students with gaining a greater understanding of cross sectional anatomy and to compare these models to CT and MRI scans. Outcomes of the positive effect of clay modeling are explained.

2009-07-27

335

Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

336

Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

337

Scattering by a dielectric cylinder of arbitrary cross section shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and equations are developed for the scattering pattern of a dielectric cylinder of arbitrary cross section shape. The harmonic incident wave is assumed to have its electric vector parallel with the axis of the cylinder, and the field intensities are assumed to be independent of distance along the axis. Solutions are readily obtained for inhomogeneous cylinders when the

JACK H. RICHMOND

1965-01-01

338

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Lu isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 175Lu and 176Lu have been measured in the energy range 3 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam, and capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4? barium fluoride detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard using isotopically enriched as well as natural lutetium oxide samples. Overall uncertainties of ˜1% could be achieved in the final cross section ratios to the gold standard, about a factor of 5 smaller than in previous works. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 8 and 100 keV. These values are systematically larger by ˜7% than those reported in recent evaluations. These results are of crucial importance for the assessment of the s-process branchings at A = 175/176.

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Käppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.

2006-01-01

339

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the tin isotopes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 114Sn, 115Sn, 116Sn, 117Sn, 118Sn, and 120Sn were measured in the enrgy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4? Barium Fluoride Detector, which was improved by replacing crystals with high ? background. This allowed to lower the threshold in sum energy and resulted in a significantly increased efficiency for capture events. The experiment was difficult due to the small (n, ?) cross sections of the proton magic tin isotopes, and due to the comparably low enrichment of the rare isotopes 114Sn and 115Sn. This caused significant corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities, but the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF2 detector allowed to determine these corrections reliably. Typical overall uncertainties of 1 - 2% could be achieved for the cross section ratios, five times smaller compared to existing data. Based on these results, Maxwellian averaged (n, ?) cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 10 keV and 100 keV.

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Theis, C.; Käppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Reffo, G.

1995-08-01

340

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the tin isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 114Sn, 115Sn, 116Sn, 117Sn, 118Sn, and 120Sn were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction using a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4? barium fluoride detector. The experiment was complicated by the small (n,?) cross sections of the proton magic tin isotopes and by the comparably low enrichment of the rare isotopes 114Sn and 115Sn. Despite significant corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities, the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF2 detector allowed the determination of the cross-section ratios with overall uncertainties of 1-2 %, five times smaller compared to existing data. Based on these results, Maxwellian averaged (n,?) cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 and 100 keV. These data are used for a discussion of the solar tin abundance and for an improved determination of the isotopic s- and r-process components.

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Theis, Ch.; Käppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Reffo, G.

1996-09-01

341

Neutron capture cross sections for stellar Cd production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd, 113Cd, 114Cd, and 116Cd have been measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. The Karlsruhe 4? barium fluoride detector was used for registration of capture events. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard using highly enriched metallic Cd samples. The respective ratios could be obtained with overall uncertainties between 0.8% and 1.6%, about an order of magnitude more accurate than previous data. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=8 keV and 100 keV. Discrepancies of 30% to 40% were found with respect to previous data. The new cross sections provide a reliable definition of the s-abundance pattern of the Cd isotopes, thus improving the corresponding r-process residuals, and, most importantly, the impact of s-only 110Cd as a normalization point for the overall distribution of the s abundances.

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Käppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.

2002-08-01

342

Applications of cross sections for electron-molecule collision processes  

SciTech Connect

The role of electron-molecule collision cross sections is discussed for the study of the ionospheric and auroral processes in planetary atmospheres and of discharge-pumped lasers. These two areas emphasize the importance of further theoretical and experimental studies concerning electron-impact processes. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs. (WRF)

Cartwright, D.C.

1985-01-01

343

Lava flow in tubes with elliptical cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of lava flow in a cylindrical tube with elliptical cross section. The lava is considered an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid. We solve analytically the steady-state Navier–Stokes equation under a constant driving force, given by the component of gravity along the axis of the tube and obtain the velocity and stress field components in the fluid. The

Michele Dragoni; Stefano Santini

2007-01-01

344

Measurement of extinction cross section by high spectral resolution lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) designed to overcome the problems involved in assessing visibility and measuring aerosol optical properties by interferometrically separating the backscatter return into a component due to aerosol scattering and a component due to scattering from air molecules is presented. A graph is provided to show the extinction cross section measured by the HSRL averaged over a 2-km

Christian J. Grund; Edwin W. Eloranta

1991-01-01

345

Application of Bionics in Antenna Radar Cross Section Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bionics principle is applied to antenna radar cross section (RCS) reduction in this letter for the first time. To authenticate the method, a novel bionic ultrawideband (UWB) antenna is proposed by use of a model of insect tentacle. Its UWB-related radiation characteristics are simulated and experimentally verified. Monostatic RCS of an insect tentacle antenna (ITA) terminated with three different loads

Wen Jiang; Ying Liu; Shuxi Gong; Tao Hong

2009-01-01

346

Measurement of the Z??? cross section with the ATLAS detector  

E-print Network

The Z??? cross section is measured with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in four different final states determined by the decay modes of the ? leptons: muon-hadron, electron-hadron, electron-muon, and muon-muon. The analysis ...

Taylor, Frank E.

347

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the tin isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 114}Sn, {sup 115}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, and {sup 120}Sn were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li({ital p},{ital n}){sup 7}Be reaction using a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The experiment was complicated by the small ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections of the proton magic tin isotopes and by the comparably low enrichment of the rare isotopes {sup 114}Sn and {sup 115}Sn. Despite significant corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities, the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF{sub 2} detector allowed the determination of the cross-section ratios with overall uncertainties of 1{endash}2{percent}, five times smaller compared to existing data. Based on these results, Maxwellian averaged ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between {ital kT}=10 and 100 keV. These data are used for a discussion of the solar tin abundance and for an improved determination of the isotopic {ital s}- and {ital r}-process components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Theis, C.; Kaeppeler, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Guber, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russia)] [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russia); Reffo, G. [Comitato Nazionale per la Ricerca e per lo Sviluppo dell`Energia Nucleare e delle Energia Alternative, Centro Dati Nucleari, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, I-40138 Bologna (Italy)] [Comitato Nazionale per la Ricerca e per lo Sviluppo dell`Energia Nucleare e delle Energia Alternative, Centro Dati Nucleari, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, I-40138 Bologna (Italy)

1996-09-01

348

Optimization of negative central shear discharges in shaped cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analyses of Negative Central Shear (NCS) equilibria have revealed a new understanding of the limiting MHD instabilities in NCS experiments. Ideal stability calculations show a synergistic effect between cross section shape and pressure profile optimization; strong shaping and broader pressure independently lead to moderately higher Î limits, but broadening of the pressure profile in a strongly dee-shaped

A. D. Turnbull; M. S. Chu; T. S. Taylor; T. A. Casper; B. W. Rice; J. M. Greene; C. M. Greenfield; R. J. La Haye; L. L. Lao; B. J. Lee; R. L. Miller; C. L. RETTIG; E. J. Strait; K. Tritz; T. L. Rhodes; O. Sauter

1996-01-01

349

XCOM: Photon cross sections on a personal computer  

SciTech Connect

A computer program and data base are presented which can be used to calculate, with a personal computer, photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, in any element, compound or mixture, at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

Berger, M.J.; Hubbell, J.H.

1987-07-01

350

Photoabsorption cross section of OD at 115-180 nm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photoabsorption cross sections of OD in the 115-180 nm region were measured. The OD radicals were produced from a pulsed discharge in a mixture containing a trace of D2O in a few Torr of argon. Results are compared with the photoabsorption of OH previously measured.

Nee, J. B.; Lee, L. C.

1984-01-01

351

Photoabsorption cross sections at superhigh energies of real photons  

E-print Network

The brief review of modern theoretical models describing the process of the photon absorption by nucleons at superhigh energies of real photons is given. The main aim of the work is an estimation of the theoretical uncertainty of the cross section prediction at photon energies around 10^19-10^20 eV.

E. V. Bugaev

2006-12-01

352

Photoabsorption cross sections at superhigh energies of real photons  

E-print Network

The brief review of modern theoretical models describing the process of the photon absorption by nucleons at superhigh energies of real photons is given. The main aim of the work is an estimation of the theoretical uncertainty of the cross section prediction at photon energies around 10^19-10^20 eV.

Bugaev, E V

2006-01-01

353

Analysis of Cylindrical Waveguides of General Cross-Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel method for the analysis of waveguides of general cross-section. In this approach the field inside the waveguide is expanded in terms of cylindrical wave functions. The field is then subjected to the pertinent boundary conditions via an integral formulation. This procedure leads to a homogeneous system of linear equations from which both the cut-off frequencies

E. Kuhn

1985-01-01

354

Accurate transport cross sections for the Lennard-Jones potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically motivated expressions for the transport cross sections describing classical scattering in the Lennard-Jones potential are proposed. These expressions, which agree with the numerical results better than to within ± 1%, can be easy implemented in practical situations. Some relevant examples are provided.

Khrapak, Sergey A.

2014-10-01

355

RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections  

SciTech Connect

A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)

Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Direction de l'Energie Nucleaire, DEN/DM2S/SERMA/LENR, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

2006-07-01

356

Atlas of Photoneutron Cross Sections Obtained with Monoenergetic Photons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The data included in this supplement replace earlier preliminary results presented in the Bicentennial Edition of the Atlas of Photoneutron Cross Sections (UCRL-78482, 1976). The nuclei included are exp 13 C, exp 18 O, exp 55 Mn, exp 59 Co, exp 186 exp 18...

B. L. Berman

1979-01-01

357

Linear system identification from nonstationary cross-sectional data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of time-invariant linear stochastic systems from cross-sectional data on nonstationary system behavior is considered. A strong consistency and asymptotic normality result for maximum likelihood and prediction error estimates of the system parameters, system and measurement noise covariances, and the initial state covariance is proven. A new tdentifiability property for the system model is defined and appears in the

ROBERT L. GOODRICH; PETER E. CAINES

1979-01-01

358

Cross-section Polisher CP, 22 FIB-SEM  

E-print Network

1. (SOFC) SOFC Redox (1)(7) FIB-SEM 3 (7) 3 (8) 2. 3 21 (YSZ) (9) , , , 12 Cross-section Polisher CP, YSZ , TED PELLA 22 FIB-SEM 1 FIB-SEM(Carl Zeiss, NVision 40) FIB SEM In-lens SE, 3000 , 1.5-2.0kV SEM 36°, , SEM SOFC Numerical simulation of SOFC

Tokyo, University of

359

Radar cross section prediction and measurement at 77 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparison of predicted and measured radar cross sections (RCS) of complex metallic objects at 77 GHz. For computing the RCS, a ray tracing algorithm combined with physical optics and the incremental length diffraction coefficient is used. The simulated results are compared against measurements, obtained using a 77-GHz frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar sensor.

Markus Treml; Reinhard Feger; Christoph Wagner; Andreas Stelzer; H. Jager

2009-01-01

360

Precision radar cross-section measurements for computer code validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precision measurements of the radar cross section (RCS) of simple rod and cylinder targets for all angles of incidence in a plane containing the long axis of the target are presented. The RCS is presented as a contour map as a function of the frequency and the incidence angle. These extensive measured RCS data are used as a reference for

S. R. Mishra; C. L. Larose; C. W. Trueman

1993-01-01

361

Accurate Radar Cross Section Modelling of Jet Inlets & Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Most of the industrial software codes used for the prediction of the radar cross-section (RCS) of aircrafts are based on ray tracing. While ray based methods give useful scattered fields from the skin of the aircraft illuminated by an incident plane wave, they largely fail to predict the returns from cavities onboard. As a possible enhancement to these ray-tracing

Kwok Kee Chan; Silvester Wong; Edwin Riseborough

362

The radar cross section reduction of microstrip patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radar cross section (RCS) reduction of microstrip patch antennas for low-observable platforms is considered, with emphasis on the application of lossy superstrates. The observed effect of these on antenna parameters is related to expected RCS reduction using results from the literature. The RCS computed by a finite element method\\/method of moments code is also presented. Other RCS reduction techniques

C. B. Wilsen; D. B. Davidson

1996-01-01

363

Considerations in measuring vital signs cross section with Doppler radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the different considerations and challenges in measuring human cardiopulmonary radar cross section (RCS). The effect of clutter on the received signal is explained as well as the importance of preserving baseband dc content for valid readings. The center estimation algorithm with dc- cancellation is presented as a solution to restore dc content in the baseband signals and

John E. Kiriazi; Olga Boric-Lubecke; Victor M. Lubecke

2011-01-01

364

Simulations of the Radar Cross Section of a Pylon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations of the radar cross section (RCS) of a four-column square-based support pylon were performed in order to find the orientation between a radar antenna and the pylon in which the radar return from the pylon is minimal. From RCS simulations at 2, 6 and 10 GHz it was found that the optimal positioning of pylon occurs when the side

Mauro A. Alves; Guilherme G. Peixoto; Mirabel C. Rezende

365

On the meteoric head echo radar cross section angular dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present radar cross section (RCS) measurements of meteor head echoes observed with the tristatic 930 MHz EISCAT UHF radar system. The three receivers offer a unique possibility to accurately compare the monostatic RCS of a meteor target with two simultaneously probed bistatic RCSs at different aspect angles. Meteoroids from all possible directions entering the common volume monitored by the

J. Kero; C. Szasz; G. Wannberg; A. Pellinen-Wannberg; A. Westman

2008-01-01

366

Microwave techniques for radar cross section measurements: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past several years, the increasing interest taken in radar signature reduction techniques has induced the development of radar cross section (RCS) measurement facilities. Various principles and techniques are used to perform these characterizations. This paper recapitulates the different types of experimental set-up dedicated to this kind of measurements. The illumination arrangements and the instrumentation systems generally adopted are

J. Garat

1996-01-01

367

Simulations of the radar cross section of a stealth aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radar cross section (RCS) of a CAD model of the stealth bomber B-2 Spirit was simulated with the CADRCS software. Results from simulations with the aircraft model having a perfectly conducting surface and rotating about the yaw, pitch and roll axes are presented and compared with results of simulations where the surface of the model was covered with a

Mauro A. Alves; Rafael J. Port; Mirabel C. Rezende

2007-01-01

368

A Method to Measure Radar Cross Section Parameters of Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to measure radar cross section (RCS) parameters of antennas is presented in this paper. This method relies on an equation derived for the received signal power which is represented as the superposition of structural-mode scattered, antenna-mode scattered, and leakage signals. The method also measures relative phase and provides the effect of the load connected to the antenna.

Sudhir Shrestha; M. D. Balachandran; Mangilal Agarwal; Li-He Zou; Kody Varahramyan

2008-01-01

369

Differential cross sections for modeling of noble gas plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential cross sections are required to model the 3D diffusion of electrons in a gas under the influence of electromagnetic fields. In a low temperature plasma containing a noble gas elastic scattering from the neutral atoms is an important process governing this diffusion even at energies above the inelastic thresholds. We have calculated the phase shifts at such energies using

Allan Stauffer; Robert McEachran

2009-01-01

370

Neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am  

SciTech Connect

The neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665{+-}33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for E{sub n}<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. {gamma}{sub n} neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553{+-}7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2008-09-15

371

Commentary: Mediation Analysis, Causal Process, and Cross-Sectional Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maxwell, Cole, and Mitchell (2011) extended the work of Maxwell and Cole (2007), which raised important questions about whether mediation analyses based on cross-sectional data can shed light on longitudinal mediation process. The latest article considers longitudinal processes that can only be partially explained by an intervening variable, and…

Shrout, Patrick E.

2011-01-01

372

Elastic cross sections for high energy hadron-hadron scattering  

E-print Network

This report discusses some results on differential cross sections for high energy and small momentum transfer elastic hadron-hadron scattering in QCD, using a functional integral approach. In particulary a matrix cumulant expansion for the vacuum expectation values of lightlike Wegner-Wilson loops, which governs the hadronic amplitudes, is presented. The cumulants are evaluated using the model of the stochastic vacuum.

E. R. Berger

1998-11-11

373

Histomorphometry of spherical tumors using holoptical cross-sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new morphometric method for quantifying tumour regression on holoptical cross-sections is described which permits assessment of the extent and distribution of viable tumour tissue and necrosis in spherical tumours. The value of the method is demonstrated by comparing tumour regression in the liver metastases of a colorectal adenocarcinoma before and after regional chemotherapy. The practicability of the method for

Hans-Peter Fischer

1985-01-01

374

Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol backscatter and extinction cross-sections are required to model and evaluate the performance of both active and passive detection systems. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index refraction of the biological material from the UV to the LWIR. Using that result with particle size distribution and shape information as inputs to T-matrix or discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations yields the extinction cross-section and backscatter cross section as a function of wavelength. These are important inputs to the lidar equation. In a continuing effort to provide validated optical cross-sections, measurements have been made on a number of high purity biological species in the laboratory as well as measurements of material released at recent field tests. The resulting observed differences between laboratory and field measurements aid in distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic effects, which can affect the characteristic signatures of important biological aerosols. A variety of biological and test aerosols are examined, including Bacillus atrophaeus (BG), and Erwina, ovalbumin, silica and polystyrene.

Thomas, M. E.; Hahn, D. V.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D.; Carter, C. C.; Boggs, N. T.; Jackman, J.

2008-04-01

375

Loneliness Predicts Reduced Physical Activity: Cross-Sectional & Longitudinal Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine cross-sectional and prospective associations between loneliness and physical activity, and to evaluate the roles of social control and emotion regulation as mediators of these associations. Design: A population-based sample of 229 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women, age 50 to 68 years at study onset, were tested annually for each of 3 years. Main Outcome Measures:

Louise C. Hawkley; Ronald A. Thisted; John T. Cacioppo

2009-01-01

376

Impact parameter method calculations for fully differential ionization cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, our previous fully differential ionization cross section calculations using the semiclassical, impact parameter method are improved by a new method suitable to calculate impact parameter values corresponding to different momentum transfers. This goal is achieved by two successive steps. First, using the transverse momentum balance different projectile scattering angles are calculated for the binary and recoil peak

F. Járai-Szabó; L. Nagy

2009-01-01

377

Fusion cross-sections for inertial fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of selective resonant tunneling model is extended from d 1 t fusion to other light nucleus fusion reactions, such as d 1 d fusion and d 1 3 He. In contrast to traditional formulas, the new formula for the cross-section needs only a few parameters to fit the experimental data in the energy range of interest. The features

XING ZHONG LI; BIN LIU; SI CHEN; QING MING WEI; HEINRICH HORA

2004-01-01

378

Absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical.  

SciTech Connect

The absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical has been measured using two completely independent methods. The CH{sub 3} photoionization cross-section was determined relative to that of acetone and methyl vinyl ketone at photon energies of 10.2 and 11.0 eV by using a pulsed laser-photolysis/time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry method. The time-resolved depletion of the acetone or methyl vinyl ketone precursor and the production of methyl radicals following 193 nm photolysis are monitored simultaneously by using time-resolved synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Comparison of the initial methyl signal with the decrease in precursor signal, in combination with previously measured absolute photoionization cross-sections of the precursors, yields the absolute photoionization cross-section of the methyl radical; {sigma}{sub CH}(10.2 eV) = (5.7 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} and {sigma}{sub CH{sub 3}}(11.0 eV) = (6.0 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}. The photoionization cross-section for vinyl radical determined by photolysis of methyl vinyl ketone is in good agreement with previous measurements. The methyl radical photoionization cross-section was also independently measured relative to that of the iodine atom by comparison of ionization signals from CH{sub 3} and I fragments following 266 nm photolysis of methyl iodide in a molecular-beam ion-imaging apparatus. These measurements gave a cross-section of (5.4 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.460 eV, (5.5 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.466 eV, and (4.9 {+-} 2.0) x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 10.471 eV. The measurements allow relative photoionization efficiency spectra of methyl radical to be placed on an absolute scale and will facilitate quantitative measurements of methyl concentrations by photoionization mass spectrometry.

Taatjes, C. A.; Osborn, D. L.; Selby, T.; Meloni, G.; Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; SNL

2008-01-01

379

Thermal neutron capture cross sections of the potassium isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise thermal neutron capture ?-ray cross sections ?? for 39,40,41K were measured on a natural potassium target with the guided neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor. The cross sections were internally standardized using a stoichiometric KCl target with well-known 35Cl(n,?) ?-ray cross sections [Révay and Molnár, Radiochimica ActaRAACAP0033-823010.1524/ract.91.6.361.20027 91, 361 (2003); Molnár, Révay, and Belgya, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. BNIMBEU0168-583X10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01529-5 213, 32 (2004)]. These data were combined with ?-ray intensities from von Egidy [von Egidy, Daniel, Hungerford, Schmidt, Lieb, Krusche, Kerr, Barreau, Borner, Brissot , J. Phys. G. Nucl. Phys.JPHGBM0305-461610.1088/0305-4616/10/2/013 10, 221 (1984)] and Krusche [Krusche, Lieb, Ziegler, Daniel, von Egidy, Rascher, Barreau, Borner, and Warner, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/0375-9474(84)90506-2 417, 231 (1984); Krusche, Winter, Lieb, Hungerford, Schmidt, von Egidy, Scheerer, Kerr, and Borner, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/0375-9474(85)90429-4 439, 219 (1985)] to generate nearly complete capture ?-ray level schemes. Total radiative neutron cross sections were deduced from the total ?-ray cross section feeding the ground state, ?0=???(GS) after correction for unobserved statistical ?-ray feeding from levels near the neutron capture energy. The corrections were performed with Monte Carlo simulations of the potassium thermal neutron capture decay schemes using the computer code dicebox where the simulated populations of low-lying levels are normalized to the measured cross section depopulating those levels. Comparisons of the simulated and experimental level feeding intensities have led to proposed new spins and parities for selected levels in the potassium isotopes where direct reactions are not a significant contribution. We determined the total radiative neutron cross sections ?0(39K)=2.28±0.04 b, ?0(40K)=90±7 b, and ?0(41K)=1.62±0.03 b from the prompt ?-ray data and the ?-ray transition probability P?(1524.66)=0.164(4) in the ?- decay of 42K in a low-background counting experiment.

Firestone, R. B.; Krti?ka, M.; Révay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Belgya, T.

2013-02-01

380

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Nd isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 142Nd, 143Nd, 144Nd, 145Nd, 146Nd, and 148Nd have been measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4? Barium Fluoride Detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard. The experiment was difficult due to the small cross sections of the even isotopes at or near the magic neutron number N=82, and also since the isotopic enrichment of some samples was comparably low. The necessary corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities could be determined reliably thanks to the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF2 detector, resulting in a consistent set of (n,?) cross sections for the six stable neodymium isotopes involved in the s process with typical uncertainties of 1.5-2 %. From these data, Maxwellian averaged cross sections were calculated between kT=10 and 100 keV. The astrophysical implications of these results were investigated in an s-process analysis, which deals with the role of the s-only isotope 142Nd for the Ns systematics near the magic neutron number N=82, the decomposition of the Nd abundances into the respective r-, s-, and p-process components, and the interpretation of isotopic anomalies in meteoritic material.

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Käppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.; Reffo, G.

1998-01-01

381

Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the PalladiumIsotopes  

SciTech Connect

Precise gamma-ray thermal neutron capture cross sectionshave been measured at the Budapest Reactor for all elements withZ=1-83,92 except for He and Pm. These measurements and additional datafrom the literature been compiled to generate the Evaluated Gamma-rayActivation File (EGAF), which is disseminated by LBNL and the IAEA. Thesedata are nearly complete for most isotopes with Z<20 so the totalradiative thermal neutron capture cross sections can be determineddirectly from the decay scheme. For light isotopes agreement with therecommended values is generally satisfactory although large discrepanciesexist for 11B, 12,13C, 15N, 28,30Si, 34S, 37Cl, and 40,41K. Neutroncapture decay data for heavier isotopes are typically incomplete due tothe contribution of unresolved continuum transitions so only partialradiative thermal neutron capture cross sections can be determined. Thecontribution of the continuum to theneutron capture decay scheme arisesfrom a large number of unresolved levels and transitions and can becalculated by assuming that the fluctuations in level densities andtransition probabilities are statistical. We have calculated thecontinuum contribution to neutron capture decay for the palladiumisotopes with the Monte Carlo code DICEBOX. These calculations werenormalized to the experimental cross sections deexciting low excitationlevels to determine the total radiative thermal neutron capture crosssection. The resulting palladium cross sections values were determinedwith a precision comparable to the recommended values even when only onegamma-ray cross section was measured. The calculated and experimentallevel feedings could also be compared to determine spin and parityassignments for low-lying levels.

Firestone, R.B.; Krticka, M.; McNabb, D.P.; Sleaford, B.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Belgya, T.; Revay, Zs.

2006-07-17

382

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

2013-01-01

383

Calculation of the cross section for charge transfer in C{sub 70}{sup +} + C{sub 60} collisions  

SciTech Connect

Expressions for the charge transfer cross section in C{sub 60/70} fullerene-fullerene collisions are derived by using an instanton approximation for the tunnel splitting of energy levels. The resulting formulas are valid in the adiabatic approximation and provide an accurate description of available experimental data.

Iroshnikov, G. S. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation)], E-mail: irosh@orc.ru

2007-10-15

384

Substance use and psychiatric disorders in Irish adolescents: a cross-sectional study of patients attending substance abuse treatment service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information exists on the levels of psychiatric disorders among substance abusing adolescents in Ireland. The aim of the study is examine the pattern of psychiatric disorders and explore for gender differences among adolescents with a substance use disorder (SUD) in Ireland. A cross-sectional descriptive study and retrospective review of medical records on the 144 most recent admissions at the

Philip D. James; Bobby P. Smyth; Tunde Apantaku-Olajide

2012-01-01

385

Unified nonlinear analysis for nonhomogeneous anisotropic beams with closed cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified methodology for geometrically nonlinear analysis of nonhomogeneous, anisotropic beams is presented. A 2D cross-sectional analysis and a nonlinear 1D global deformation analysis are derived from the common framework of a 3D, geometrically nonlinear theory of elasticity. The only restrictions are that the strain and local rotation are small compared to unity and that warping displacements are small relative to the cross-sectional dimensions. It is concluded that the warping solutions can be affected by large deformation and that this could alter the incremental stiffnes of the section. It is shown that sectional constants derived from the published, linear analysis can be used in the present nonlinear, 1D analysis governing the global deformation of the beam, which is based on intrinsic equations for nonlinear beam behavior. Excellent correlation is obtained with published experimental results for both isotropic and anisotropic beams undergoing large deflections.

Atilgan, Ali R.; Hodges, Dewey H.

1991-01-01

386

Progress and open questions in the physics of neutrino cross sections  

E-print Network

New and more precise measurements of neutrino cross sections have renewed the interest in a better understanding of electroweak interactions on nucleons and nuclei. This effort is crucial to achieve the precision goals of the neutrino oscillation program, making new discoveries, like the CP violation in the leptonic sector, possible. We review the recent progress in the physics of neutrino cross sections, putting emphasis on the open questions that arise in the comparison with new experimental data. Following an overview of recent neutrino experiments and future plans, we present some details about the theoretical development in the description of (anti)neutrino-induced quasielastic scattering and the role of multi-nucleon quasielastic-like mechanisms. We cover not only pion production in nucleons and nuclei but also other inelastic channels including strangeness production and photon emission. Coherent reaction channels on nuclear targets are also discussed. Finally, we briefly describe some of the Monte Carlo event generators, which are at the core of all neutrino oscillation and cross section measurements.

L. Alvarez-Ruso; Y. Hayato; J. Nieves

2014-03-11

387

Sensitivity and uncertainty studies of average cross section parameters with Monte-Carlo sampling  

SciTech Connect

Hauser Feshbach formalism with width fluctuation corrections and some Optical Model recipes are widely used for the calculation of average cross sections. Each model involved in the calculation is parametrized. The parameters can be adjusted to reproduce experimental datasets. As a result, a covariance matrix can be deduced from the fit and used in uncertainty calculation of the group averaged cross sections. Nevertheless, some parameters, such as the mean level spacing, the binding and pairing energy, are not supposed to be adjusted. They have a-priori uncertainties that should be properly taken into account and propagated into the previous adjustment as well as to group averaged cross sections. In this paper, we propose to use a Monte-Carlo propagation method based on an exact mathematical description to treat these non-adjusted parameters and their effects on the adjusted ones. A full covariance matrix for all the parameters will then be evaluated. Two isotopes will be treated {sup 240}Pu and {sup 177}Hf to illustrate the involved methods. (authors)

De Saint Jean, C.; Noguere, G.; Iooss, B. [CEA, French Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Energy Directorate DEN CEA/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez Durance Cedex (France)

2006-07-01

388

On the cross-section of dark matter using substructure infall into galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a statistical method to measure the interaction cross-section of dark matter, exploiting the continuous minor merger events in which small substructures fall into galaxy clusters. We find that by taking the ratio of the distances between the galaxies and dark matter, and galaxies and gas in accreting subhaloes, we form a quantity that can be statistically averaged over a large sample of systems whilst removing any inherent line-of-sight projections. To interpret this ratio as a cross-section of dark matter, we derive an analytical description of subhalo infall allowing us to constrain self-interaction models in which drag is an appropriate macroscopic treatment. We create mock observations from cosmological simulations of structure formation and find that collisionless dark matter becomes physically separated from X-ray gas by up to ˜20 h-1 kpc. Adding realistic levels of noise, we are able to predict achievable constraints from observational data. Current archival data should be able to detect a difference in the dynamical behaviour of dark matter and standard model particles at 6?, and measure the total interaction cross-section ?/m with 68 per cent confidence limits of ±1 cm2 g-1. We note that this method is not restricted by the limited number of major merging events and is easily extended to large samples of clusters from future surveys which could potentially push statistical errors to <0.1 cm2 g-1.

Harvey, David; Tittley, Eric; Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas D.; Taylor, Andy; Pike, Simon R.; Kay, Scott T.; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

2014-06-01

389

Radioactive 7Be targets for measurements of the cross section of the 7Be(p,gamma) reaction  

E-print Network

The interpretation of the most recent solar neutrinos experiments requires a good knowledge of the cross section of the reaction 7Be(p,gamma)8B at very small energy (Ecm=18 keV). We have recently measured this cross section for Ecm=0.35-1.4 MeV and for Ecm=0.112-0.190 MeV. We report here on the description of the preparation of the radioactive targets of 7Be used in these experiments.

M. Hussonois; L. Brillard; C. Le Naour

2000-11-20

390

Fusion, reaction, and breakup cross sections of {sup 9}Be on a light mass target  

SciTech Connect

The total fusion cross section for the {sup 9}Be+{sup 27}Al system has been measured at energies close and above the Coulomb barrier. Reaction cross sections for this system were derived from elastic scattering data, and the breakup-plus-transfer-channel cross sections were estimated from the difference between these data and measured cross-section fusion.

Marti, G.V.; Capurro, O.A.; Pacheco, A.J.; Testoni, J.E.; Ramirez, M.; Arazi, A. [Laboratorio Tandar, Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1419), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomes, P.R.S.; Padron, I.; Anjos, R.M.; Lubian, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea, s/n, Gragota, Niteroi, R.J., 24210-340 (Brazil); Rodriguez, M.D.; Niello, J.O. Fernandez [Laboratorio Tandar, Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. del Libertador 8250 (1419), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad de Gral, San Martin (Argentina); Crema, E. [Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

2005-02-01

391

Evaluation of Neutron Resonance Cross Section Data at GELINA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, the EC-JRC-IRMM, in collaboration with other institutes such as INRNE Sofia (BG), INFN Bologna (IT), ORNL (USA), CEA Cadarache (FR) and CEA Saclay (FR), has made an intense effort to improve the quality of neutron-induced cross section data in the resonance region. These improvements relate to both the infrastructure of the facility and the measurement setup, and the data reduction and analysis procedures. As a result total and reaction cross section data in the resonance region with uncertainties better than 0.5 % and 2 %, respectively, can be produced together with evaluated data files for both the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The methodology to produce full ENDF compatible files, including covariances, is illustrated by the production of resolved resonance parameter files for 241Am, Cd and W and an evaluation for 197Au in the unresolved resonance region.

Schillebeeckx, P.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Emiliani, F.; Guber, K.; Heyse, J.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Massimi, C.; Mondelaers, W.; Moxon, M.; Noguere, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Pronyaev, V.; Siegler, P.; Sirakov, I.; Trkov, A.; Volev, K.; Zerovnik, G.

2014-05-01

392

Improved neutron capture cross section of Pu239  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 239Pu(n ,?) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV to 1 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center as part of a campaign to produce precision (n ,?) measurements on 239Pu. Fission coincidences were measured with a parallel-plate avalanche counter and used to measure the prompt fission ?-ray spectrum in this region to accurately characterize background. The resulting (n ,?) cross section is generally in agreement with current evaluations. The experimental method utilizes much more detailed information than past measurements on 239Pu and can be used to extend the measurement to higher incident neutron energies.

Mosby, S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Wu, C. Y.

2014-03-01

393

Vibrationally resolved K-shell photoionization cross sections of methane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use an extension of the static-exchange density functional theory (DFT) method, previously reported in [E. Plésiat et al., Phys. Rev. A 2, 023409 (2012), E. Plésiat, P. Decleva, F. Martín, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 31, 10853 (2012)], to evaluate vibrationally resolved (total and angular) K-shell photoelectron cross sections of methane. The calculated cross sections are in very good agreement with the existing experimental measurements at low photoelectron energies. We show that, in contrast with the rich interference patterns previously observed in molecular frame C(1s) photoelectron angular distributions of methane at both low and high photoelectron energy, no interference effects are observed in the calculated ? parameters, even at high photon energies.

Plésiat, Etienne; Decleva, Piero; Martín, Fernando

2013-09-01

394

Improved activation cross sections for vanadium and titanium  

SciTech Connect

Vanadium alloys such as V-20Ti and V-Cr-Ti are attractive candidates for use as structural materials in fusion-reactor blankets. The virtual absence of long-lived activation products in these alloys suggest the possibility of reprocessing on an intermediate time scale. We have employed the modern Hauser-Feshbach nuclear-model code GNASH to calculate cross sections for neutron-activation reactions in /sup 50/V and /sup 51/V, to allow a more accurate assessment of induced radioactivity in vanadium alloys. In addition, cross sections are calculated for the reactions /sup 46/Ti(n,2n) and /sup 45/Ti(n,2n) in order to estimate the production of /sup 44/Ti, a 1.2-MeV gamma-ray source with a half-life of 47 years.

Muir, D.W.; Arthur, E.D.

1983-01-01

395

The O(+) 834-A dayglow: Revised cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study assesses the impact of new O((sup 3)P) photoionization and N2 photoabsorption cross sections, and O(+) oscillator strengths and transition probabilities, on O II 834-A airglow calculations. The 834-A intensities computed using the new emission parameters are in good agreement with rocket measurements obtained in 1978 and 1980. The present study does not support a suggested reduction in the N2 photoabsorption cross section based on an earlier analysis of the rocket data. This study also explores the problem of determining F region electron densities from satellite limb scans of the O(+) 834-A emission. Our results indicate that electron density profiles inferred from limb scans are not necessarily unique; estimates of N(sub m)F(sub 2) and h(sub m)F(sub 2) can vary by at least a factor of 2 and 50 km, respectively.

Link, R.; Evans, J. S.; Gladstone, G. R.

1994-01-01

396

Cross section measurement of the ?-p? ?-?+n reaction near threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Result of cross section measurements for the reaction ?-p? ?-?+n are presented. They cover a range of incident pion momenta between 295 and 450 MeV/ c. It is the first time that the cross section has been measured so close to threshold. The experiment was performed with Omicron, a large-solid-angle spectrometer, which enables a measurement of the full set of kinematic variables. In the region of overlap there is a good agreement with other experiments. The extracted value for the chiral-symmetry-breaking parameter ? is seen to be largely extrapolition dependent but the measured value of -0.5±0.8 leaves Weinberg's prediction of ?=0 the only remaining choice.

Kernel, G.; Korbar, D.; Križan, P.; Mikuž, M.; Sever, F.; Stanovnik, A.; Stari?, M.; Zavrtanik, D.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Hollander, R. W.; Lourens, W.; Michaelis, E. G.; Tanner, N. W.; Clark, S. A.; Jovanovich, J.; Davies, J. D.; Lowe, J.; Playfer, S. M.; Omicron Collaboration

1989-01-01

397

Probing neutron-skin thickness with total reaction cross sections  

E-print Network

We analyze total reaction cross sections, $\\sigma_R$, for exploring their sensitivity to the neutron-skin thickness of nuclei. We cover 91 nuclei of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Ni isotopes. The cross sections are calculated in the Glauber theory using the density distributions obtained with the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method in 3-dimensional coordinate space. Defining a reaction radius, $a_R=\\sqrt{\\sigma_R/\\pi}$, to characterize the nuclear size and target (proton or $^{12}$C) dependence, we find an empirical formula for expressing $a_R$ with the point matter radius and the skin thickness, and assess two practical ways of determining the skin thickness from proton-nucleus $\\sigma_R$ values measured at different energies or from $\\sigma_R$ values measured for different targets.

W. Horiuchi; Y. Suzuki; T. Inakura

2014-01-08

398

Electron impact excitation cross sections of N2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential cross sections (DCSs) are presented for electron impact excitation of the C3?u, E3?+g, and a'' 1?+g states in N2 from the ground state. Vibrationally-resolved DCSs are also presented for excitation of the C 3?? (?') state, where ?' = 0-4. The DCSs were obtained from measurements of energy-loss spectra in the region of 10.75 eV to 12.75 eV measured at numerous incident energies between 13 eV and 100 eV, and for scattering angles ranging from 5° to 130°. Relative excitation probabilities for the vibrational levels of the C 3?u state are shown to demonstrate non-Franck-Condon behavior for excitation energies less than approximately 50 eV. Integral cross sections are also presented for these excitation processes. These results are compared with existing measurements.

Malone, C. P.; Johnson, P. V.; Young, J. A.; Kanik, I.; Ajdari, B.; Khakoo, M. A.

2009-11-01

399

Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U  

SciTech Connect

Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-{pi} solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Kronenberg, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

2006-03-13

400

Photoionization of the Be isoelectronic sequence: total cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoionization of the four-electron beryllium-like isoelectronic series from the neutral to Fe+22 has been studied for ground 1S and metastable 3P initial states. The wavefunctions of the final-state (target) ions were built using the CIV3 code. Both nonrelativistic LS-coupling R-matrix and relativistic Breit-Pauli (BP) R-matrix methods were used to calculate the cross sections in the photon-energy range between the first ionization threshold and the 1s24f7/2 threshold for each ion. Our total cross sections compare well with experiment which is available for Be, B+, C+2, N+3 and O+4. The agreement between the present work and previous calculations is discussed in detail. The importance of relativistic effects is seen by the comparison between the LS and the BP results.

Chu, W.-C.; Zhou, H.-L.; Hibbert, A.; Manson, S. T.

2009-10-01

401

Calculation of the Cross Section for Top Quark Production  

E-print Network

We summarize calculations of the cross section for top quark production at hadron colliders within the context of perturbative quantum chromodynamics, including resummation of the effects of initial-state soft gluon radiation to all orders in the strong coupling strength. In our approach we resum the universal leading-logarithm contributions, and we restrict the calculation to the region of phase space that is demonstrably perturbative. We compare our approach with other methods. We present predictions of the physical cross section as a function of the top quark mass in proton-antiproton reactions at center-of-mass energies of 1.8 and 2.0 TeV, and we discuss estimated uncertainties.

Edmond L. Berger; Harry Contopanagos

1996-06-24

402

Black Hole Cross Section at the Large Hadron Collider  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black hole production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was first discussed\\u000ain 1999. Since then, much work has been performed in predicting the black hole\\u000across section. In light of the start up of the LHC, it is now timely to review\\u000athe state of these calculations. We review the uncertainties in estimating the\\u000ablack hole cross section in

Douglas M. Gingrich

2006-01-01

403

Neutron Capture Cross Sections for the Re\\/Os Clock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactive decay of 187Re --> 187Os (t1\\/2 = 43 Gyr) is suited for dating the onset of heavy-element nucleosynthesis. The radiogenic contribution to the 187Os abundance is the difference between the natural abundance and the corresponding s-process component. This component can be obtained via the well-established sigmaN systematics using the neighboring s-only isotope 186Os, provided the neutron-capture cross sections

M. Mosconi; A. Mengoni; M. Heil; F. Käppeler; G. Aerts; R. Terlizzi; U. Abbondanno; H. Álvarez; F. Alvarez-Velarde; S. Andriamonje; J. Andrzejewski; P. Assimakopoulos; L. Audouin; G. Badurek; P. Baumann; F. Becvár; J. Benlliure; E. Berthoumieux; F. Calviño; D. Cano-Ott; R. Capote; A. Carrillo de Albornoz; P. Cennini; V. Chepel; E. Chiaveri; N. Colonna; G. Cortes; D. Cortina; A. Couture; J. Cox; S. David; R. Dolfini; C. Domingo-Pardo; W. Dridi; I. Duran; M. Embid-Segura; L. Ferrant; A. Ferrari; L. Fitzpatrick; R. Ferreira-Marques; H. Frais-Kölbl; K. Fujii; W. Furman; C. Guerrero; I. Goncalves; R. Gallino; E. Gonzalez-Romero; A. Goverdovski; F. Gramegna; E. Griesmayer; F. Gunsing; B. Haas; R. Haight; A. Herrera-Martinez; M. Igashira; S. Isaev; E. Jericha; Y. Kadi; D. Karamanis; D. Karadimos; M. Kerveno; V. Ketlerov; P. Koehler; V. Konovalov; E. Kossionides; C. Lamboudis; H. Leeb; A. Lindote; I. Lopes; M. Lozano; S. Lukic; J. Marganiec; L. Marques; S. Marrone; P. Mastinu; P. M. Milazzo; C. Moreau; F. Neves; H. Oberhummer; S. O'Brien; M. Oshima; J. Pancin; C. Papachristodoulou; C. Papadopoulos; C. Paradela; N. Patronis; A. Pavlik; P. Pavlopoulos; L. Perrot; R. Plag; A. Plompen; A. Plukis; A. Poch; C. Pretel; J. Quesada; T. Rauscher; R. Reifarth; M. Rosetti; C. Rubbia; G. Rudolf; P. Rullhusen; J. Salgado; L. Sarchiapone; C. Stephan; G. Tagliente; J. L. Tain; L. Tassan-Got; L. Tavora; G. Vannini; P. Vaz; A. Ventura; D. Villamarin; M. C. Vincente; V. Vlachoudis; R. Vlastou; F. Voss; H. Wendler; M. Wiescher

2005-01-01

404

Top quark pair production cross section at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Top quark pair production cross section has been measured at the Tevatron by CDF and D0 collaborations using different channels and methods, in order to test standard model predictions, and to search for new physics hints affecting the t{bar t} production mechanism or decay. Measurements are carried out with an integrated luminosity of 1.0 to 2.0 fb{sup -1}, and are found to be consistent with standard model expectations.

Cortiana, Giorgio; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.

2008-04-01

405

Cross-section studies of light exotic nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production cross-sections for some exotic fragments produced in the reaction 40Ar+Be at 1000 MeV\\/nucleon have been studied. These data, together with new available data at higher projectile Z, and with new data for the same reaction at lower energies, allowed a revision of the semi-empirical EPAX formula. A discussion of some of the improvements introduced in this semi-empirical parameterization will

D. Cortina-Gil; K. Suemmerer; T. Baumann; H. Geissel

1998-01-01

406

W and Z production cross sections at D0  

SciTech Connect

We present a measurement of the production cross section times branching ratio for {ital W} and {ital Z} bosons decaying to the electrons or muons in {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV using data recorded at the Tevatron during the 1994-1995 collider run. Using the ratio of these two measurements, we derive the {ital W} leptonic branching fraction and the width of the {ital W} boson.

Tarazi, J.N. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; D0 Collaboration

1996-11-01

407

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Gd isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 152Gd, 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, and 158Gd were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4? Barium Fluoride Detector, which was improved by replacing crystals with high ? background and by introducing a pierced crystal at zero degrees with respect to the beam axis. These changes resulted in a significantly increased efficiency for capture events. The main experimental problem was that the samples of the two s isotopes 152Gd and 154Gd showed only relatively low enrichment. Nevertheless, the spectroscopic quality of the BaF2 detector allowed evaluation of the corresponding corrections for isotopic impurities reliably. The cross section ratios could be determined with an overall uncertainty of typically 1%, an improvement by factors of five to ten compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. The new stellar cross sections were used for an updated analysis of the s-process reaction flow in the mass region between samarium and gadolinium, which is characterized by branchings at 151Sm, 154Eu, and 155Eu. With the classical approach, the s-process temperature could be constrained corresponding to a range of thermal energies between kT=28 and 33 keV. The 152Gd production in low mass stars was found to depend strongly on the neutron freeze-out at the end of the helium shell burning episodes.

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Käppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Uhl, M.; Reffo, G.

1995-11-01

408

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Gd isotopes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron capture cross sections of 152Gd, 154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, and 158Gd were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4? Barium Fluoride Detector The main experimental problem was that the samples of the two s-only isotopes 152Gd and 154Gd showed only relatively low enrichment, but the spectroscopic quality of the BaF2 detector allowed to determine the resulting corrections for isotopic impurities reliably. The cross section ratios could be determined with an overall uncertainty of typically 1%, an improvement by factors of five to ten compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 10 keV and 100 keV. The new stellar cross sections were used for an updated analysis of the s-process reaction flow in the mass region between samarium and gadolinium, which is characterized by branchings at 151Sm, 154Eu, and 155Eu. With the classical approach, the s-process temperature could be constrained corresponding to a range of thermal energies between kT - 28 keV and 33 keV. The 152Gd production in low mass stars was found to depend strongly on the neutron freeze-out at the end of the helium shell burning episodes.

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Käppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Uhl, M.; Reffo, G.

1995-05-01

409

Top-Quark Cross Section and Properties at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

At the Tevatron, the collider experiments CDF and D0 have data sets at their disposal that compromise several hundreds of reconstructed top-antitop-quark pairs and allow for precision measurements of the cross section and production and decay properties. Besides comparing the measurements to standard model predictions, these data sets open a window to physics beyond the standard model. Dedicated analyses look for new heavy gauge bosons, fourth generation quarks, and flavor-changing neutral currents.

Wagner, Wolfgang; /Wuppertal U.

2009-09-01

410

Vessel Cross-Sectional Diameter Measurement on Color Retinal Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vessel cross-sectional diameter is an important feature for analyzing retinal vascular changes. In automated retinal image\\u000a analysis, the measurement of vascular width is a complex process as most of the vessels are few pixels wide or suffering from\\u000a lack of contrast. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure the retinal blood vessel diameter which can be used

Alauddin Bhuiyan; Baikunth Nath; Joselíto J. Chua; Ramamohanarao Kotagiri

2008-01-01

411

Isotopic dependence of induced fission cross sections for heavy nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the statistical model, we calculate the induced fission cross sections for the nuclei 211-223Ra in their peripheral collisions with 208Pb. The role of closed shell N = 126 is studied. Level densities of the Fermi-gas model and of the model with collective enhancement are used. Taking into account the particle-hole excitation in addition to the collective Coulomb excitation, we obtain satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

Zubov, A. S.; Bolgova, O. N.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

2009-10-01

412

Share issuance and cross-sectional returns: International evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Share issuance predicts cross-sectional returns in a non-U.S. sample of stocks from 41 different countries. Issuance predictability has greater statistical significance than either size or momentum, and is similar to book-to-market. As in the U.S., the international issuance effect is robust across both small and large firms. Unlike the U.S., the effect is driven more by low returns after share

R. David McLean; Jeffrey Pontiff; Akiko Watanabe

2009-01-01

413

Vacuum ultraviolet absorption cross sections for halogen containing molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum ultraviolet absorption cross sections for the compounds Cl2, Br2, I2, HCl, HBr, HI, CCl4, CCl3Br, CF3Br, CF3I, HgCl2, HgBr2, and HgI2 have been measured between 170 and 230 nm. Studies of the Xe*2 discharge lamp used are reported. The absorption bands of various mercuric halides are identified.

Roxlo, C.; Mandl, A.

1980-06-01

414

Cross section of hadron production in ?? collisions at LEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction e+e? ? e+e????? ? e+e? hadrons is analysed using data collected by the L3 detector during the LEP runs at s = 130?140 GeV and s = 161 GeV. The cross sections ?(e+e? ? e+e? hadrons) and ?(?? ? hadrons) are measured in the interval 5 ? W?? ? 75 GeV. The energy dependence of the ?(?? ?

M Acciarri; O Adriani; M Aguilar-Benitez; S Ahlen; J Alcaraz; G Alemanni; J Allaby; A Aloisio; G Alverson; M. G Alviggi; G Ambrosi; H Anderhub; V. P Andreev; T Angelescu; F Anselmo; A Arefiev; T Azemoon; T Aziz; P Bagnaia; L Baksay; S Banerjee; K Banicz; A Barczyk; R Barillère; L Barone; P Bartalini; A Baschirotto; M Basile; R Battiston; A Bay; F Becattini; U Becker; F Behner; J Berdugo; P Berges; B Bertucci; B. L Betev; S Bhattacharya; M Biasini; A Biland; G. M Bilei; J. J Blaising; S. C Blyth; G. J Bobbink; R Bock; A Böhm; L Boldizsar; B Borgia; D Bourilkov; M Bourquin; S Braccini; J. G Branson; V Brigljevic; I. C Brock; A Buffini; A Buijs; J. D Burger; W. J Burger; J Busenitz; A Button; X. D Cai; M Campanelli; M Capell; G Cara Romeo; G Carlino; A. M Cartacci; J Casaus; G Castellini; F Cavallari; N Cavallo; C Cecchi; M Cerrada; F Cesaroni; M Chamizo; Y. H Chang; U. K Chaturvedi; S. V Chekanov; M Chemarin; A Chen; G Chen; H. F Chen; H. S Chen; X Chereau; G Chiefari; C. Y Chien; L Cifarelli; F Cindolo; C Civinini; I Clare; R Clare; H. O Cohn; G Coignet; A. P Colijn; N Colino; V Commichau; S Costantini; F Cotorobai; B de la Cruz; A Csilling; T. S Dai; R D'Alessandro; R de Asmundis; A Degré; K Deiters; D della Volpe; P Denes; F DeNotaristefani; D DiBitonto; M Diemoz; D van Dierendonck; F Di Lodovico; C Dionisi; M Dittmar; A Dominguez; A Doria; M. T Dova; D Duchesneau; P Duinker; I Duran; S Dutta; S Easo; Yu Efremenko; H El Mamouni; A Engler; F. J Eppling; F. C Erné; J. P Ernenwein; P Extermann; M Fabre; R Faccini; S Falciano; A Favara; J Fay; O Fedin; M Felcini; B Fenyi; T Ferguson; F Ferroni; H Fesefeldt; E Fiandrini; J. H Field; F Filthaut; P. H Fisher; I Fisk; G Forconi; L Fredj; K Freudenreich; C Furetta; Yu Galaktionov; S. N Ganguli; P Garcia-Abia; S. S Gau; S Gentile; N Gheordanescu; S Giagu; S Goldfarb; J Goldstein; Z. F Gong; A Gougas; G Gratta; M. W Gruenewald; V. K Gupta; A Gurtu; L. J Gutay; B Hartmann; A Hasan; D Hatzifotiadou; T Hebbeker; A Hervé; W. C van Hoek; H Hofer; S. J Hong; H Hoorani; S. R Hou; G Hu; V Innocente; K Jenkes; B. N Jin; L. W Jones; P de Jong; I Josa-Mutuberria; A Kasser; R. A Khan; D Kamrad; Yu Kamyshkov; J. S Kapustinsky; Y Karyotakis; M Kaur; M. N Kienzle-Focacci; D Kim; J. K Kim; S. C Kim; Y. G Kim; W. W Kinnison; A Kirkby; D Kirkby; D Kiss; W Kittel; A Klimentov; A. C König; A Kopp; I Korolko; V Koutsenko; R. W Kraemer; W Krenz; A Kunin; P Ladron de Guevara; I Laktineh; G Landi; C Lapoint; K Lassila-Perini; P Laurikainen; M Lebeau; A Lebedev; P Lebrun; P Lecomte; P Lecoq; P Le Coultre; J. M Le Goff; R Leiste; E Leonardi; P Levtchenko; C Li; C. H Lin; W. T Lin; F. L Linde; L Lista; Z. A Liu; W Lohmann; E Longo; W Lu; Y. S Lu; K Lübelsmeyer; C Luci; D Luckey; L Luminari; W Lustermann; W. G Ma; M Maity; G Majumder; L Malgeri; A Malinin; C Maña; D Mangeol; S Mangla; P Marchesini; A Marin; J. P Martin; F Marzano; G. G. G Massaro; D McNally; R. R McNeil; S Mele; L Merola; M Meschini; W. J Metzger; M von der Mey; Y Mi; A Mihul; A. J. W van Mil; G Mirabelli; J Mnich; P Molnar; B Monteleoni; R Moore; S Morganti; T Moulik; R Mount; S Müller; F Muheim; A. J. M Muijs; S Nahn; M Napolitano; F Nessi-Tedaldi; H Newman; T Niessen; A Nippe; A Nisati; H Nowak; Y. D Oh; H Opitz; G Organtini; R Ostonen; C Palomares; D Pandoulas; S Paoletti; P Paolucci; H. K Park; I. H Park; G Pascale; G Passaleva; S Patricelli; T Paul; M Pauluzzi; C Paus; F Pauss; D Peach; Y. J Pei; S Pensotti; D Perret-Gallix; B Petersen; S Petrak; A Pevsner; D Piccolo; M Pieri; J. C Pinto; P. A Piroué; E Pistolesi; V Plyaskin; M Pohl; V Pojidaev; H Postema; N Produit; D Prokofiev; G Rahal-Callot; N Raja; P. G Rancoita; M Rattaggi; G Raven; P Razis; K Read; D Ren; M Rescigno; S Reucroft; T van Rhee; S Riemann; K Riles; A Robohm; J Rodin; B. P Roe; L Romero; S Rosier-Lees; Ph Rosselet; W van Rossum; S Roth; J. A Rubio; D Ruschmeier; H Rykaczewski; J Salicio; E Sanchez; M. P Sanders; M. E Sarakinos; S Sarkar; M Sassowsky; C Schäfer; V Schegelsky; S Schmidt-Kaerst; D Schmitz; P Schmitz; N Scholz; H Schopper; D. J Schotanus; J Schwenke; G Schwering; C Sciacca; D Sciarrino; L Servoli; S Shevchenko; N Shivarov; V Shoutko; J Shukla; E Shumilov; A Shvorob; T Siedenburg; D Son; A Sopczak; B Smith; P Spillantini; M Steuer; D. P Stickland; A Stone; H Stone; B Stoyanov; A Straessner; K Strauch; K Sudhakar; G Sultanov; L. Z Sun; G. F Susinno; H Suter; J. D Swain; X. W Tang; L Tauscher; L Taylor; Samuel C. C Ting; S. M Ting; M Tonutti; S. C Tonwar; J Tóth; C Tully; H Tuchscherer; K. L Tung; Y Uchida; J Ulbricht; U Uwer; E Valente; R. T Van de Walle; G Vesztergombi; I Vetlitsky; G Viertel; M Vivargent; R Völkert; H Vogel; H Vogt; I Vorobiev; A. A Vorobyov; A Vorvolakos; M Wadhwa; W Wallraff; J. C Wang; X. L Wang; Z. M Wang; A Weber; F Wittgtenstein; S. X Wu; S Wynhoff; J Xu; Z. Z Xu; B. Z Yang; C. G Yang; X. Y Yao; J. B Ye; S. C Yeh; J. M You; An Zalite; Yu Zalite; P Zemp

1997-01-01

415

Total cross section of two-photon production of hadrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total cross section for ???hadrons was measured as a function of the invariant massW of the system (1.25 to 4.25 GeV) at thee+e--collider VEPP-4 with the detector MD-1. For the first time the data were obtained by detecting both scattered leptons with almost zero emission angles. The mean squared four momentum transfer q2> is -0.005 GeV2, the rmsW resolution

S. E. Baru; M. V. Beilin; A. E. Blinov; V. E. Blinov; A. E. Bondar; A. D. Bukin; S. I. Eidelman; Yu. I. Eidelman; V. R. Groshev; V. A. Kiselev; S. G. Klimenko; G. M. Kolachev; S. I. Mishnev; A. P. Onuchin; V. S. Panin; V. V. Petrov; I. Ya. Protopopov; A. G. Shamov; V. A. Sidorov; Yu. I. Skovpen; A. N. Skrinsky; V. A. Tayursky; V. I. Telnov; A. B. Temnykh; Yu. A. Tikhonov; G. M. Tumaikin; A. E. Undrus; A. I. Vorobiov; V. N. Zhilich; A. A. Zholents

1992-01-01

416

Neutron-induced Cross Section Measurements of Calcium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, neutron-induced cross section experiments were performed at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator of the Institute for Reference Material and Measurements of the Joint Research Centers, European Union. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were carried out using a metallic calcium sample. The measured data will be used for a new calcium evaluation, which will be submitted with covariances to the ENDF/B nuclear data library.

Guber, K.; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Siegler, P.

2014-05-01

417

A microwave anechoic chamber for radar-cross section measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave anechoic chamber has been developed at the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, for monostatic and bistatic radar-cross-section measurements. The structure of the chamber is a quarter-section geodesic dome, with a 12 foot radius, and raised three feet above the floor. An antenna railing system is installed inside the chamber. The antennas can be moved along the

B. K. Chung; H. T. Chuah; J. W. Bredow

1997-01-01

418

Radar cross section of the human heartbeat and respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental approach for finding the radar cross section (RCS) of human heartbeats and respiratory movements. A measurement setup, a calibration routine and required processing steps are presented. Using a 2-3GHz Ultra Wideband (UWB) radar, heartbeats and respiration of a human subject were recorded from a distance of 1.14m. Combining the recorded data to measurements with a

O. Aardal; Svein-Erik Hamran; T. Berger; J. Hammerstad; T. S. Lande

2010-01-01