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Sample records for cross-sectional descriptive correlational

  1. Correlation cross sections along the international border

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniuk, C.D. ); Le Fever, J.A.; Anderson, S.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The Manitoba-North Dakota (Canada-US) stratigraphic correlation project is a joint study between the Petroleum Branch of Manitoba Energy and Mines and the North Dakota Geological Survey. It is an attempt to correlate the differing stratigraphic terminologies established in the two jurisdictions by providing a reference cross section across the international boundary. The study involves the subsurface correlation of logs of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences in the Manitoba and North Dakota portions of the Williston basin. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences are subdivided for presentation into the following stratigraphic intervals: (a) Cambrian-Ordovician-Silurian, (b) Devonian, (c) Mississippian, (d) Jurassic, and (e) Cretaceous. Wireline logs show the actual stratigraphic correlations. A nomenclature chart is also presented from each sequence. In addition, the sections include a generalized description of lithologies, thicknesses, environments of deposition, and petroleum potential for each geographic area.

  2. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. Methods A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). Results The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score ≥ 22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x2 = 8.53, df = 1, p = 0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x2 = 70.63, df = 4, p < 0.001). Similarly, an association was found between the number of life events and clinical depressive symptoms (x2 = 40.06, df = 4, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics confirmed that the responders who reported a high number (n = 12–21) of stressful life events during the previous year (OR = 2.64 95% CI: 1.02, 6.83) and a severe degree of stress due to these events (total LESS score > 351, OR = 3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. Conclusions The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot

  3. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted. PMID:25257355

  4. Impact of Reaction Cross Section on the Unified Description of Fusion Excitation Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basrak, Z.; Eudes, P.; de la Mota, V.; Sébille, F.; Royer, G.

    A systematics of over 300 complete and incomplete fusion cross section data points covering energies beyond the barrier for fusion is presented. Owing to a usual reduction of the fusion cross sections by the total reaction cross sections and an original scaling of energy, a fusion excitation function common to all the data points is established. A universal description of the fusion exci- tation function relying on basic nuclear concepts is proposed and its dependence on the reaction cross section used for the cross section normalization is discussed. The pioneering empirical model proposed by Bass in 1974 to describe the complete fusion cross sections is rather successful for the incomplete fusion too and provides cross section predictions in satisfactory agreement with the observed universality of the fusion excitation function. The sophisticated microscopic transport DYWAN model not only reproduces the data but also predicts that fusion reaction mechanism disappears due to weakened nuclear stopping power around the Fermi energy.

  5. Correlation analysis of optical absorption cross section and rate coefficient measurements in reacting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hessler, J.P.; Ogren, P.J.

    1992-08-31

    A technique was developed for determining relative importance and correlation between reactions making up a complex kinetic system. This technique was used to investigate measurements of optical absorption cross sections and the correlation between cross sections and measured rate coefficients. It is concluded that (1) species, initial conditions, and temporal regions may be identified where cross sections may be measured without interference from the kinetic behavior of the observed species and (2) experiments designed to measure rate coefficients will always be correlated with the absorption cross section of the observed species. This correlation may reduce the accuracy of rate coefficient measurements.

  6. Correlations in the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Giansiracusa, G.; Lombardo, U.; Sandulescu, N.

    1996-04-01

    The influence of the ground state correlations on the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section is investigated in the framework of an extended Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory of nuclear matter. The effect of the correlations is to overwhelm the suppression of the in-medium {ital NN} cross section already established in previous approximations. Moreover the resulting cross section exceeds largely, particularly for neutron-proton scattering, the free-space values in the low energy range (up to 200{endash}250 MeV) for nuclear medium densities up to two times the saturation density.

  7. Erythromelanosis Follicularis Faciei et Colli - A Cross-sectional, Descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Shagufta; Yaseen, Atiya; Mukhija, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli (EFFC) has always been reported as a rare disorder, and more data are needed to define its etiology and epidemiology. Objectives: To present a descriptive study of this disorder from Kashmir and present a review of literature on the same. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on 14 patients with clinical lesions suggestive of EFFC, presenting to our dermatology outpatient clinic between May 2013 and April 2015. After obtaining informed consent from all patients, the demographic and clinical data were collected and punch biopsies were taken which after being fixed in formalin were stained for hematoxylin and eosin. The study was approved by Institutional Review Board. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 12 to 35 years with a mean age of 24.8 years. Females outnumbered males in a ratio of 1.3:1. Family history was positive in one case, and one patient had unilateral presentation. The classical triad of erythema, pigmentation, and follicular papules were present in 100% patients. Telangiectasias were observed in 28.57% patients only. Classical sites described were involved in all the cases (100%). In addition, lesions were found to involve eyebrows (28.57%), forehead (28.57%), upper lips (14.28%), and pinna (21.42%). Keratosis pilaris was present in all patients (100%); most common sites affected were upper arms and thighs. Two (14.28%) had generalized distribution. Histopathology in all correlated well with clinical findings. Conclusion: EFFC has always been reported as a rare disorder, but we believe that it is not so. The reason could be either lack of awareness of the disease by the patient due to its generally asymptomatic nature or under-recognition by the physicians. Awareness about the disease on part of dermatologist and recognition of clinical presentation is important for correct diagnosis and to help find more effective therapeutic modalities. PMID:27293252

  8. Does treatment adherence correlates with health related quality of life? findings from a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although medication adherence and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are two different outcome measures, it is believed that adherence to medication leads to an improvement in overall HRQoL. The study aimed to evaluate the association between medication adherence and HRQoL. Methods A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study design was undertaken with hypertension patients attending public hospitals in Quetta city, Pakistan. HRQoL was measured by Euroqol EQ-5D. Medication adherence was assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory. Descriptive statistics was used to tabulate demographic and disease-related information. Spearmans correlation was used to assess the association between the study variables. All analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0. Results Among 385 study patients, the mean age (SD) was 39.02 (6.59), with 68.8% of males dominating the entire cohort. The mean (SD) duration of hypertension was 3.010.939years. Forty percent (n=154) had a bachelors degree level of education with 34.8% (n=134) working in the private sector. A negative and weak correlation (0.77) between medication adherence and EQ-5D was reported. In addition, a negative weak correlation (0.120) was observed among medication adherence and EQ-VAS. Conclusions Correlations among the study variables were negligible and negative. Hence, there is no apparent relationship between the variables. PMID:22545950

  9. Correlation between Umbilical Cord Diameter and Cross Sectional Area with Gestational Age and Foetal Anthropometric Parameters.

    PubMed

    Begum, K; Ahmed, M U; Rahman, M M; Hossain, M M; Begum, M; Sarkar, S K; Reza, M T; Hoshneara, M; Beg, A; Sultana, F; Begum, F; Akter, F A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to find out correlation between umbilical cord diameter, cross sectional area with gestational age and foetal anthropometric parameters. This cross sectional study was conducted among healthy women between the 24th and 40th completed weeks of a normal pregnancy in the Department of Radiology & Imaging, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh during the study period, from July 2009 to June 2011. A total of 230 consecutive normal pregnancy patients were included in the study. The diameter & cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord were measured on a plane adjacent to the junction of the umbilical cord and the fetal abdomen, in cross-section, with maximum magnification of the image. The cord was manually circled, and it's cross sectional areas was automatically calculated by the ultrasonograph. The mean±SD age was 24.3±4.7 years with range from 19 to 36 years. The mean gestational age was 32.1±4.5 weeks and more than a half (56.4%) of the pregnant women were nulliparas. A positive significant (p<0.001) correlation were found between umbilical cord diameter with bi-parietal diameter (r=0.548); head circumference (r=0.411); abdominal circumference (r=0.444); femur length (r=0.366) and gestational age gestation age (r=0.643). Similarly, a significant (p<0.001) positive week correlation were found between umbilical cross sectional area with bi-parietal diameter (r=0.3303); head circumference (r=0.3202); abdominal circumference (r=0.2651); femur length (r=0.3307) and gestation age (r=0.4051). A positive significant better correlation was found with umbilical cord diameter than cross sectional area with foetal anthropometric parameters. PMID:27277346

  10. The APL RCS (Radar Cross Section)/statistics code description, illustrations of output, and user's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paddison, F. C.; Maffett, A. L.; Follin, J. W.; Klimach, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    The report is a description of a computer code that results in the first- and higher-order statistics of radar cross sections (RCS) of a complex target as a function of frequency polarization, aspect angle, and constituent parameters of the target. The promise is that a complex target can be represented by a set of simple scatterers. There is a general discussion of RCS data; the capabilities of the code from the viewpoint of the RCS analyst or data librarian; the theory of RCS, statistics, lobe structure, and glint embodied in the code; a user's guide from the viewpoint of the computer analyst; and a program listing.

  11. [Nursing needs of renal transplanted adolescents, a descriptive cross sectional study in a Swiss hospital].

    PubMed

    Kleinknecht, Michael; Neuhaus, Thomas J; Landolt, Markus A

    2009-06-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the five-year graft survival of adolescents after renal transplantation is significantly lower than in children. This may be due to poor adherence to the post-transplant regime in adolescents. It has been shown that nurses can provide support to renal transplanted adolescents with positive effects on their adherence. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to gain knowledge about important topics of nurses' support to adolescent renal transplant patients. Twenty-seven adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years were interviewed and given a questionnaire based on a focus group discussion. Each of the provided 43 topics was rated on its importance. Results showed that responses corresponding to the judgment "very important" ranged from 20 % to 100 %. Information about illness and therapy was given highest priority, followed by the provision of support services as well as information and the support of planning and managing the personal way of living. These topics can be seen as a set of relevant variables that may be used for focused assessment, and for planning of nursing interventions. With regard to clinical practice it is necessary to develop nursing strategies and patient and family education programs based on the results of this study. PMID:19496030

  12. A descriptive, cross-sectional study characterizing bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis and gout by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Sanchez-Bringas, Guadalupe; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, José Antonio; Pineda, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize bone erosions in metatarsal heads (MTH) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gout by grayscale ultrasound. In a descriptive, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 40 patients with RA and 40 with gout, both diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria, respectively. All patients had bone erosion demonstrated by ultrasound, which was used, following OMERACT criteria, to describe the shape, size, number, border definition, overhanging margin, topography (intra- or extra-articular), and distribution (over dorsal, medial, lateral, or plantar aspect) of the lesions in the MTH. Descriptive statistics were used and a concordance exercise between two ultrasonographers blinded to the diagnosis was performed. Bone erosions in RA were observed most frequently at the plantar and lateral aspect of the fifth MTH, round in 96 %, small-sized (2.43 ± 0.9 mm), intra-articular (100 %), and single (75 %). Few bone erosions had a well-defined border an overhanging margin while in gout were found most frequently in the medial and dorsal aspect of the first MTH, single in 71 %, intra-articular in 100 %, and of median size (4.0 ± 2.3). For shape, 51 % was round and 49 % was oval. A well-defined border was present in 39 %, and an overhanging margin in 62 %. Inter-rater reliability kappa was excellent (0.81, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00). Some characteristics of bone erosions in RA, including shape, size, ill-defined border, and localization in the fifth MTH could distinguish the lesions from gout. Grayscale US has excellent reliability to describe bone erosions in RA and gout. PMID:27393079

  13. Fate of Articles That Warranted Retraction Due to Ethical Concerns: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Nadia; Wager, Elizabeth; Tramèr, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study journals' responses to a request from the State Medical Association of Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, to retract 88 articles due to ethical concerns, and to check whether the resulting retractions followed published guidelines. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study. Population 88 articles (18 journals) by the anaesthesiologist Dr. Boldt, that warranted retraction. Method According to the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics, we regarded a retraction as adequate when a retraction notice was published, linked to the retracted article, identified the title and authors of the retracted article in its heading, explained the reason and who took responsibility for the retraction, and when the retracted article was freely accessible and marked using a transparent watermark that preserved original content. Two authors extracted data independently (January 2013) and contacted editors-in-chief and publishers for clarification in cases of inadequate retraction. Results Five articles (6%) fulfilled all criteria for adequate retraction. Nine (10%) were not retracted (no retraction notice published, full text article not marked). 79 (90%) retraction notices were published, 76 (86%) were freely accessible, but only 15 (17%) were complete. 73 (83%) full text articles were marked as retracted, of which 14 (16%) had an opaque watermark hiding parts of the original content, and 11 (13%) had all original content deleted. 59 (67%) retracted articles were freely accessible. One editor-in-chief stated personal problems as a reason for incomplete retractions, eight blamed their publishers. Two publishers cited legal threats from Dr. Boldt's co-authors which prevented them from retracting articles. Conclusion Guidelines for retracting articles are incompletely followed. The role of publishers in the retraction process needs to be clarified and standards are needed on marking retracted articles. It remains unclear who should check that retractions are done

  14. Coherent correlation enhancement of outer shell photoionization cross sections of alkali-like ions

    SciTech Connect

    Amusia, M.Y.; Avdonina, B.; Pratt, R.H.

    1995-08-01

    An alkali-like ion interaction with inner electrons of an alkali-like ion leads to a significant increase in the photoionization cross section of the outer s electron. This occurs not only for ground-state ions with one s electron in the outer shell, but also when the outer s electron is in an excited state. The reason for this amplification, in addition to coherent enhancement in summing of the correlation amplitudes, is that the zero in the direct amplitude occurs below threshold. This leads to a constructive interference with the correlation amplitude above the photoionization threshold, in contrast to a destructive interference in the case of a neutral atom with the same electronic configuration, for which the zero occurs above threshold. Results of this research were published.

  15. Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

  16. A cross-sectional study examining youth smoking rates and correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Aslanikashvili, Ana; Djibuti, Mamuka

    2014-01-01

    Georgia has high smoking rates; however, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of youth smoking. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 1,879 secondary and postsecondary school students aged 15 to 24 years in Tbilisi, Georgia, examining substance use, perceived risk, and recreational activities in relation to lifetime and current (past 30 days) smoking. Lifetime and current smoking prevalence was 46.1% and 22.6%, respectively. In secondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, and lower perceived risk (P's ≤ .001). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, less frequently exercise, and more often going out (P's < .05). In postsecondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, more often going out, and recreational internet use (P's < .0). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male (P's = .04), consuming alcohol, marijuana use, lower perceived risk, and more often going out (P's < .05). Tobacco control interventions might target these correlates to reduce smoking prevalence in Georgian youth. PMID:24738059

  17. Correlation of firing pin impressions based on congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Song, John; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Comparison of firing pin impressions of cartridge cases is an important part of firearms evidence identification. However, compared with breach face impressions, there is only a limited surface area over which firing pin impressions can be compared. Furthermore, the curvature of firing pin impressions makes it difficult to perform automatic correlations of the surfaces. In this study, a new method and related algorithm named congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) are proposed. Each firing pin impression is sliced into layers and the resulting circular cross-sections are converted to two dimensional linear profiles by a polar coordinate transformation. The differential profile extraction method is used for extracting the high frequency micro-features, or the individual characteristics, for accurate correlation. Three parameters are proposed for determining whether these pairwise firing pin impressions are fired from the same firearm. The cross-correlation function (CCF) is used for quantifying similarity of the pairwise profiles which represent the two correlated firing pin images. If the correlated cartridge pair is fired from the same firearm, the maximum CCF value between each of the profile pairs from the reference and the correlated firing pin impressions will be high. The other two parameters relate to the horizontal (or angular) and vertical range of relative shifts that the profiles undergo to obtain the maximum CCF. These shifts are the phase angle θ which corresponds to a horizontal shift of the 2D profiles and the vertical shift distance of slice section, i.e. where the profiles match in the depth of the impression. These shift parameters are used to determine the congruency of the pairwise profile patterns. When these parameter values and their statistical distributions are collected for analysis, the CMX number is derived as a key parameter for a conclusive identification or exclusion. Validation tests using 40 cartridge cases of three different

  18. Correlation Between Vision and Cognitive Function in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Spierer, Oriel; Fischer, Naomi; Barak, Adiel; Belkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between vision and cognition is not fully understood. Visual impairment in the elderly has been associated with impaired cognitive function, dementia, and Alzheimer disease. The aim was to study the correlation between near visual acuity (VA), refraction, and cognitive state in an elderly population.Subjects ≥75 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Refraction and near VA was tested. Cognitive function was evaluated with a version of the mini-mental state examination for the visually impaired (MMSE-blind). The eye with better VA and no cataract or refractive surgery was analyzed.One-hundred ninety subjects (81.6 ± 5.1 years, 69.5% female) were included. Good VA (≤J3) was associated with high MMSE-blind (>17) (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.57-6.43, P = 0.001). This remained significant adjusting for sex, age, and years of education. Wearing reading glasses correlated significantly with high MMSE-blind after adjustment for sex and age (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.16-3.97, P = 0.016), but reached borderline significance after adjustment for education. There was a trend toward correlation between myopia and better MMSE-blind (r = -0.123, P = 0.09, Pearson correlation).Good VA and wearing glasses seem to correlate with better cognitive function. Reading glasses can serve as a protective factor against cognitive deterioration associated with sensory (visual) deprivation in old age. The association between myopia and cognition requires further investigation. PMID:26817872

  19. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P < 0.02). UHMDRS correlated positively with the ESS score (P < 0.005), and negatively with the percentage of REM sleep. Conclusions: Patients with Huntington disease showed a severe sleep disruption and a high prevalence of periodic limb movements, but no evidence of sleep disordered breathing or REM sleep behavior disorder. Citation: Piano C, Losurdo A, Della Marca G, Solito M

  20. Adult tobacco use practice and its correlates in eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is paucity of data on the smoking habits of rural populations in developing countries. This study aimed to explore cigarette smoking practices of a rural community in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 548 individuals from a random sample of households in a rural town and its surrounding rural districts. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Results Twenty-eight percent (95% CI: 24.3% - 31.6%) of the respondents were current smokers. A total of 105 (68%) smokers expressed an interest to quit while 37 (34%) had tried to quit previously but without success. There was high exposure to second-hand smoke: 285 (52%) homes allowed indoor smoking, and in 181 (33%) indoor smoking took place daily. Current smoking was strongly associated with male sex (OR = 83.0; 95% CI: 11.5 – 599.0), and being a student was found to be protective of smoking (OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.005 – 0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking is prevalent among the male rural town population in Ethiopia. In addition, a high level of exposure to indoor second-hand smoke exists. There is a need for investment in rural tobacco control, including educational campaigns and cost-effective smoking cessation services. PMID:24171800

  1. Physical activity and its correlates in children: a cross-sectional study (the GINIplus & LISAplus studies)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity among children is an increasing problem that adversely affects children’s health. A better understanding of factors which affect physical activity (PA) will help create effective interventions aimed at raising the activity levels of children. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of PA with individual (biological, social, behavioral, psychological) and environmental (East vs. West Germany, rural vs. urban regions) characteristics in children. Methods Information on PA and potential correlates was collected from 1843 girls and 1997 boys using questionnaires during the 10-year follow-up of two prospective birth cohort studies (GINIplus and LISAplus). Study regions represent urban and rural sites as well as East and West of Germany. Logistic regression modeling was applied to examine cross-sectional associations between individual as well as environmental factors and PA levels. Results Five of fourteen variables were significantly associated with PA. Among children aged 10, girls tended to be less active than boys, especially with respect to vigorous PA (OR = 0.72 for summer). Children who were not a member of a sports club showed a substantially reduced amount of PA in winter (OR = 0.15). Rural environments promote moderate PA, particularly in winter (OR = 1.88), whereas an increased time outdoors primarily promotes moderate PA in summer (OR = 12.41). Children with abnormal emotional symptoms exhibited reduced physical activity, particularly in winter (OR = 0.60). BMI, puberty, parental BMI, parental education, household income, siblings, TV/PC consumption, and method of arriving school, were not associated with PA. Conclusions When considering correlates of PA from several domains simultaneously, only few factors (sex, sports club membership, physical environment, time outdoors, and emotional symptoms) appear to be relevant. Although the causality needs to be ascertained in longitudinal studies

  2. Target correlation effects on neutron-nucleus total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Second order optical model solutions to the elastic scattering amplitude were used to evaluate total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections for neutron nucleus scattering. Improved agreement with experimental data for total and absorption cross sections is found when compared with first order (coherent approximation) solutions, especially below several hundred MeV. At higher energies, the first and second order solutions are similar. There are also large differences in abrasion cross section calculations; these differences indicate a crucial role for cluster knockout in the abrasion step.

  3. Environmental correlates of physical activity in multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Doerksen, Shawna E; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that is associated with physical inactivity. Understanding the factors that correlate with physical activity is important for developing effective physical activity promotion programs for this population. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study that examined the association between features of the built environment with self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour in adults with MS. Methods Participants with MS (n = 196) were sent a questionnaire packet that included self-report measures of the built environment and physical activity and a pedometer in the mail and were instructed to complete the questionnaires and wear the device for seven days. Participants returned the completed questionnaires in a pre-stamped, pre-addressed envelope. Bivariate correlation analysis was conducted for examining associations between items on the environmental questionnaire with the two measures of physical activity. Stepwise regression analysis was conducted for determining the independent contributions of the significant environmental correlates for explaining variation in physical activity. Results Correlational analysis indicated that presence of shops, stores, markets or other places within walking distance (r = .20; ρ = .18), presence of a transit stop within walking distance (r = .20; ρ = .16), and accessibility of free or low-cost recreation facilities (r = .16; ρ = .15) were related to pedometer, but not self-reported, measured physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that the presence of a transit stop within walking distance independently explained 4% of variance in pedometer measured physical activity. Conclusion Physical activity is an important behaviour to promote among individuals with MS. This study indicated that aspects of the built environment are related to this health promoting behaviour among those with MS. Further research should focus on the longitudinal

  4. The influence of correlation between initial axis curvature and cross-section rotation on the beam static resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Valeš, Jan

    2015-03-10

    The paper deals with statistical analysis of the resistance of simply supported I-beams subjected to bending. The resistance was solved by applying the geometrically nonlinear solution. The influence of lateral-beam buckling on resistance is studied. Initial geometrical imperfections originating from the first eigenmode of lateral-beam buckling and from the cross section rotation at the stability lost were ascribed to the beams. These imperfections consist of initial axial lateral buckling and rotation of cross sections along the beam axis length. The correlation between the amplitudes of these imperfections is considered to be the parameter of solutions within the interval from -1 to 1. The influence of this correlation on the change of mean values and standard deviations of random resistance of beams with nondimensional slenderness close to 1 is studied. The imperfections mentioned were considered, together with geometrical and material characteristics of cross section and material characteristics of steel, to be random quantities.

  5. Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used. Result The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score > 5) was 55.8% (1,424). Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57), second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02) and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12) had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality. Conclusion A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health. PMID:23270533

  6. Optical model parallel description of elastic, fusion and breakup cross sections for systems with weakly bound projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Camacho, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Aguilera, E. F.

    2014-03-01

    A brief description is presented of the results obtained in recent years for the simultaneous analysis of elastic and fusion cross section data of nuclear reactions for several nuclear systems with weakly bound and halo projectiles. The method used in this description, consists of simultaneously determine the parameters of fusion UF and direct reaction UDR polarization potentials of Woods-Saxon geometric shapes, that fit the elastic and fusion data. As a matter of fact, UFis an energy dependent potential, with real VF and imaginary WFcomponents, that is responsible for fusion reactions. Similarly, UDR is also energy dependent with real VDR and imaginary WDR parts, that accounts for direct reactions. A general finding for all the systems presented is that, the real and imaginary parts of the fusion potential and direct reaction potentials, are related by a dispersion relation and their energy dependence around and below the Coulomb barrier, show the so-called Breakup Threshold Anomaly. The effect of breakup reactions on fusion cross sections is studied by analyzing the separate effect of the absorption potential WDR and the fusion barrier rising produced by VDR.

  7. b-quark inclusive cross sections and b{bar b} correlations using dimuons from the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Vititoe, D.L.; D0 Collaboration

    1996-11-01

    Using dimuons collected with the D{null} detector during the 1993- 1995 Tevatron collider run, we have measured the {ital b}-quark cross section and {ital b{anti b}} correlations as given by the difference in azimuthal angle between the two muons. Both measurements agree with the NLO QCD predictions within experimental and theoretical errors.

  8. Social, cultural and economical determinants of diabetes mellitus in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka: a cross sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sri Lanka is a country that is expected to face a high burden of diabetes mellitus (DM). There is a paucity of data on social and demographic determinants of DM, especially in the plantation sector. Aims To describe social and economic correlates and inequalities of DM in Kalutara District. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among adults over the age of 35 years. A sample of 1300 individuals was selected using stratified random cluster sampling method from 65 Grama Niladari Divisions (GND), which were representative of urban, rural and plantation sectors. Twenty households were randomly selected from each division and one adult was randomly selected from each household. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Fasting plasma blood sugar of ≥126mg/dl was used to define DM. Significance of prevalence of diseases and risk factors across different socio-economic strata were determined by chi square test for trend. Results Of 1234 adults who were screened (628 males), 202 (14.7%) had DM. Higher DM proportions (16.1%) were seen in the highest income quintile and in those educated up to Advanced Levels (AL) and above (17.3%). Prevalence in the urban, rural and plantation sectors were 23.6%, 15.5% and 8.5% respectively. Prevalence among Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims were 14.4%, 29.0% and 20.0% respectively. There was a gradient in prevalence according to the unsatisfactory basic needs index of the GND with the highest proportion (20.7%) observed in the richest GND. The highest social status quintile demonstrated the highest proportion (17.4%) with diabetes mellitus. Conclusion There is a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the more affluent and educated segments of society. There is also a higher prevalence among urban compared to rural and estates. Sri Lanka is in an early stage of the epidemic where the wealthy people are at a higher risk of DM. PMID:23237051

  9. Anogenital distance in human male and female newborns: a descriptive, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Martinez, Eduardo; Romano-Riquer, Patricia; Yanez-Marquez, Edith; Longnecker, Matthew P; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    Background In animal studies of the effects of hormonally active agents, measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) is now routine, and serves as a bioassay of fetal androgen action. Although measurement of AGD in humans has been discussed in the literature, to our knowledge it has been measured formally in only two descriptive studies of females. Because AGD has been an easy-to-measure, sensitive outcome in animals studies, we developed and implemented an anthropometric protocol for measurement of AGD in human males as well as females. Methods We first evaluated the reliability of the AGD measures in 20 subjects. Then measurements were taken on an additional 87 newborns (42 females, 45 males). All subjects were from Morelos, Mexico. Results The reliability (Pearson r) of the AGD measure was, for females 0.50, and for males, 0.64. The between-subject variation in AGD, however, was much greater than the variation due to measurement error. The AGD measure was about two-fold greater in males (mean, 22 mm) than in females (mean, 11 mm), and there was little overlap in the distributions for males and females. Conclusion The sexual dimorphism of AGD in humans comprises prima facie evidence that this outcome may respond to in utero exposure to hormonally active agents. PMID:15363098

  10. Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional (Descriptive) Study of 100 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Saxena, Deepti; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Khurana, Ananta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis is a distinct age-related clinical entity. Its etiopathogenesis is largely insubstantial. Nevertheless, it seems to be an outcome of interplay of maternal and inheritance, pregnancy/intrauterine and environmental factors. Besides, immune dysregulation, and nutritional supplements also play essential roles. Its diagnosis has been perpetuated by three or more major/minor criteria. Objectives: An endeavor to study its demographic and clinical pattern in contemporary prospective. Materials and Methods: 100 fresh patients of atopic dermatitis, diagnosed on the basis of an established three or more major and minor criteria, salient presentations of which were recorded in a preset proforma, which also recorded age, duration, age of onset, and sex. Serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were determined by conventional technique. The data thus obtained was analysed to study its clinical pattern and to correlate its severity to IgE levels. Results: Its overall (new and old) prevalence was 0.98%, while that of new patients was 0.24%. 83 (83%) were in the age group of 2-12 years, of which 54 (83.1%) were males and 29 (82.9%) were female, of which 70 (70%) had urban, while 30 (30%) had rural background. Its duration varied from 8 to 192 weeks, with a mean of 76 weeks, and a standard deviation of 21.42 weeks [76 ± 21.42]. Conclusion: Atopic dermatitis is a discrete, overt, age and IgE-related entity frequently displaying varying demographic and clinical connotation. PMID:26538716

  11. D0 results on three-jet production, multijet cross-section ratios, and minimum bias angular correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Lee; /Louisiana Tech. U.

    2010-01-01

    We report the measurement of the cross-section for three-jet production and the ratio of inclusive three-jet to two-jet cross-sections, as well as a study of angular correlations in minimum bias events, based on data taken with the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The differential inclusive three-jet cross section as a function of the invariant three-jetmass (M{sub 3jet}) is measured in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1}. The measurement is performed in three rapidity regions (|y| < 0.8, |y| < 1.6 and |y| < 2.4) and in three regions of the third (ordered in p{sub T}) jet transverse momenta (p{sub T3} > 40 GeV, p{sub T3} > 70 GeV, p{sub T3} > 100 GeV) for events with leading jet transverse momentum larger than 150 GeV and well separated jets. NLO QCD calculations are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the measured cross sections. Based on the same data set, we present the first measurement of ratios of multi-jet cross sections in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The ratio of inclusive trijet and dijet cross sections, R{sub 3/2}, has been measured as a function of the transverse jet momenta. The data are compared to QCD model predictions in different approximations. Finally, we present a new way to describe minimum bias events based on angular distributions in {approx}5 million minimum bias p{bar p} collisions collected between April 2002 and February 2006 with the D0 detector. We demonstrate that the distribution of {Delta}{phi} in the detector transverse plane between the leading track and all other tracks is a robust observable that can be used for tuning of multiple color interaction models. Pseudorapidity correlations of the {Delta}{phi} distributions are also studied.

  12. Efficacy of Percutaneous Epidural Neuroplasty Does Not Correlate with Dural Sac Cross-Sectional Area in Single Level Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Moon, Bongju; Choi, Seung Hyun; Yoon, Young Sul; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Percutaneous epidural neuroplasty (PEN) is a minimally invasive treatment. The efficacy of PEN has been relatively well investigated; however, the relationship between the clinical effectiveness of PEN and the severity of spinal canal stenosis by disc material has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of PEN according to the dural sac cross-sectional area in single level disc disease. Materials and Methods This study included 363 patients with back pain from single level disc disease with and without radiculopathy. Patients were categorized into groups according to spinal canal compromise by disc material: Category 1, less or more than 50%; and Category 2, three subgroups with lesser than a third, between a third and two thirds, and more than two thirds. Clinical outcomes were assessed according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for back pain and leg pain and Odom's criteria at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Results The demographic data showed no difference between groups according to spinal canal compromise by disc material except age (older age correlated with more spinal canal compromise). The dural sac cross-sectional area did not correlate with the VAS scores for back and leg pain after PEN in single level disc disease in Groups 1 and 2. Odom's criteria after PEN were also not different according to dural sac cross-sectional area by disc material. Conclusion PEN is an effective procedure in treating single level lumbar disc herniation without affecting dural sac cross-sectional area. PMID:25837174

  13. Attitudes of students and teachers on cheating behaviors: descriptive cross-sectional study at six dental colleges in India.

    PubMed

    Asokan, Sharath; John, J Baby; Janani, D; Jessy, P; Kavya, S; Sharma, Khushbu

    2013-10-01

    Cheating behavior has been a serious problem in dental institutions across the globe. Attitudes of dental students have an impact on the quality of health care provided to their patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study had the following objectives: to assess and compare the attitudes of dental students and teachers about cheating behaviors, to assess students' opinions of various justifications for their cheating, and to assess teachers' attitudes towards various punishment options for cheating behaviors. The study sample consisted of 1,261 undergraduate students and 131 teachers from six randomly chosen dental colleges in Tamil Nadu State, India. A closed-ended questionnaire was used for respondents to rate the seriousness of cheating behaviors. The students were asked to justify their cheating behavior, and the teachers were asked to assign punishments for the cheating behaviors. The attitudes of students and teachers on the cheating behaviors were analyzed and compared using a Pearson chisquare test, with a confidence interval of 95 percent and significance level of p≤0.05. The attitudes of the teachers and students were statistically different in two cheating behaviors: copying during exams and helping other students copy in exams. The two main justifying reasons students gave for cheating behavior were to pass the exam (59.3 percent) and to obtain a better grade (31.3 percent). Warning and counseling to help the students reassess their moral values were preferred to penalizing punishments by the teachers. PMID:24098043

  14. Perceptions, practices, and traditional beliefs related to neonatal jaundice among Egyptian mothers: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Abdallah, Enas Abdallah Ali; Ali, Yahia Zakaria Abdelalim

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is one of the most common neonatal disorders worldwide. It is still a main cause of avoidable brain damage, physical and mental impairment, and probable death in newborns.We aimed to assess perceptions, practices, and traditional beliefs among Egyptian mothers toward NNJ that may contribute to delayed presentation and inappropriate management of hyperbilirubinemia.This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from January to May 2015. We interviewed 400 Egyptian mothers who gave birth in <1 month before the study using a structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited from outpatients of Cairo University Teaching Hospital.This study revealed unexpected moderate knowledge and attitude scores of Egyptian mothers in most domains with a mean of 6.6 and 20.6, respectively, although the majority of them were illiterate or had low educational attainment. In terms of knowledge, 52.3% of participants had adequate knowledge about NNJ in the aspects of awareness, risk factors, management, and complications. Almost all participants exhibited moderate (89.8%) and high levels (10%) of positive attitudes toward NNJ. Maternal sociodemographic factors influenced knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors related to NNJ in Egypt. Working mothers and those residing in urban areas were significantly more knowledgeable (P = 0.023 and 0.021, respectively), and attained higher attitude scores (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) than housewives and rural ones. Moreover, significantly higher attitude scores (P < 0.001) were attained by those who had completed their university [22.3 (SD = 3.1)] or postgraduate education [22.2 (SD = 3.6)].The majority of Egyptian mothers have a satisfactory level of knowledge and attitudes related to NNJ. However, cultural beliefs and traditional infant care practices still have an impact on mothers regardless of their educational level. PMID:27603393

  15. Indoor household residual spraying program performance in Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe: 2011 to 2012; a descriptive cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chimberengwa, Pugie Tawanda; Masuka, Nyasha; Gombe, Notion Tafara; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Takundwa, Lucia; Bangure, Donewell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Matabeleland South launched the malaria pre-elimination campaign in 2012 but provincial spraying coverage has failed to attain 95% target, with some districts still encountering malaria outbreaks. A study was conducted to evaluate program performance against achieving malaria pre-elimination. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was done in 5 districts carrying out IRS using the logical framework involving inputs, process, outputs and outcome evaluation. Health workers recruited into the study included direct program implementers, district and provincial program managers. An interviewer administered questionnaire, checklists, key informant interviewer guide and desk review of records were used to collect data. Results We enrolled 37 primary respondents and 5 key informants. Pre-elimination, Epidemic Preparedness and Response plans were absent in all districts. Shortages of inputs were reported by 97% of respondents, with districts receiving 80% of requested budget. Insecticides were procured centrally at national level. Spraying started late and districts failed to spray all targeted households by end of December. The province is using makeshift camps with inappropriate evaporation ponds where liquid DDT waste is not safely accounted for. The provincial IHRS coverage for 2011 was 84%. Challenges cited included; food shortages for spraymen, late delivery of inputs and poor state of IHRS equipment. Conclusion The province has failed to achieve Malaria pre-elimination IRS coverage targets for 2011/12 season. Financial and logistical challenges led to delays in supply of program inputs, recruitment and training of sprayers. The Province should establish camping infrastructure with standard evaporation ponds to minimise contamination of the environment. PMID:26015847

  16. The correlated and shared gamma frailty model for bivariate current status data: an illustration for cross-sectional serological data.

    PubMed

    Hens, N; Wienke, A; Aerts, M; Molenberghs, G

    2009-09-30

    Frailty models are often used to study the individual heterogeneity in multivariate survival analysis. Whereas the shared frailty model is widely applied, the correlated frailty model has gained attention because it elevates the restriction of unobserved factors to act similar within clusters. Estimating frailty models is not straightforward due to various types of censoring. In this paper, we study the behavior of the bivariate-correlated gamma frailty model for type I interval-censored data, better known as current status data. We show that applying a shared rather than a correlated frailty model to cross-sectionally collected serological data on hepatitis A and B leads to biased estimates for the baseline hazard and variance parameters. PMID:19591117

  17. Prevalence of Tooth Shade and its Correlation with Skin Colour - A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, K.V Halini; Choudhury, Gopal Krishna; Vilekar, Abhishek Madhukar; Das, Sitansu Sekhar; Jena, Debkant; Kataraki, Bharat; B.L, Bhavana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aesthetics has become an important issue in modern society. Tooth shade is one of the factors in determining aesthetics. Studies have revealed that tooth shade is influenced by age, gender, eye colour, skin colour and other factors. Aim The present study was aimed to assess the prevalence of tooth shade and its correlation with skin colour. Materials and Methods A total of 300 subjects aged 18-20 years were evaluated for tooth shade using Vitapan – 3D shade guide. Anterior teeth were checked under natural light and facial skin colour by Lakme liquid foundation make up as a shade guide. Data was analysed using chi square test and spearman’s correlation. Results Out of 300 students, 114 (38.00%) had A2 tooth shade; the least prevalent tooth shade among Chitradurga population was C1 (4.00%). There was a positive correlation between tooth shade and skin colour which was found to be statistically significant (p <0.05). Conclusion The most prevalent tooth shade among Chitradurga population was A2 and least was C1. There was a significant correlation between tooth shade and skin colour with lighter skin tone subjects having lighter tooth shade hence skin colour can be used as a guide for shade selection. PMID:27042590

  18. Correlates of foot pain severity in adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV) is highly prevalent and associated with progressive first metatarsophalangeal joint subluxation and osteoarthritis. The link between structural HV deformity and foot pain is unclear. This study investigated possible explanatory factors surrounding foot pain in HV, including radiographic HV angle and signs of joint degeneration. Methods Participants were 60 adults (53 female) with HV aged 20 to 75 years. Participant demographics and a range of radiographic, clinical and functional measures were considered potential correlates of foot pain. Self-reported foot pain (visual analogue scales and a dichotomous definition) was considered the dependent variable. Multivariate modelling was used to determine which characteristics and measures explained pain, with univariate analyses first used to screen potential variables. Results Approximately 20 to 30% of the variance in foot pain associated with HV could be explained by patient characteristics such as poorer general health status, lower educational attainment and increased occupational physical activity levels, in combination with some dynamic physical characteristics such as hallux plantarflexion weakness and reduced force-time integral under the second metatarsal during gait. Neither increasing lateral deviation of the hallux (HV angle) nor presence of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis was associated with foot pain. Conclusions This study shows that passive structural factors, including HV angle, do not appear to be significant correlates of foot pain intensity in HV. Our data demonstrate the importance of considering patient characteristics such as general health and physical activity levels when assessing foot pain associated with HV. PMID:25028598

  19. Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ompad, Danielle C; Fuller, Crystal M; Chan, Christina A; Frye, Victoria; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC). Methods 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were recruited in NYC between 2000 and 2004 to complete interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results In multivariable logistic regression, non-injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to be heroin dependent, less than daily methamphetamine users and to have a heroin using sex partner in the last two months. Injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to use heroin daily, share injection paraphernalia and less likely to have been in a detoxification program and to have not used marijuana in the last six months. Conclusion The results overall suggest that illicit (or street) methadone use is likely not a primary drug of choice, but is instead more common in concert with other illicit drug use. PMID:18957116

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Insufficient Sleep Syndrome in Japanese Young Adults: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Asaoka, Shoichi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insufficient sleep syndrome (ISS), and factors associated with daytime dysfunction in the disorder in Japanese young adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a web-based questionnaire survey was used to assess demographic variables, sleep habits and quality, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 2,276 participants aged 20–25. Results: Eleven percent of participants were classified as having ISS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of ISS was significantly associated with social status (student or full-time employee). The participants with ISS had significantly higher depression scores and lower mental component summary scores than healthy sleepers. In the participants with ISS, a delayed sleep-wake schedule was extracted as a factor associated with worse mental component summary. Conclusions: Results indicate a relatively high proportion of Japanese young adults suffer from ISS, and that the condition is associated with a social status of student or full-time employee. Moreover, a delayed sleep-wake schedule may lead to further deterioration of mental HRQOL in ISS-affected persons. Citation: Morita Y, Sasai-Sakuma T, Asaoka S, Inoue Y. Prevalence and correlates of insufficient sleep syndrome in Japanese young adults: a web-based cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1163–1169. PMID:26094926

  1. Patterns of Heterotypic Continuity Associated With the Cross-Sectional Correlational Structure of Prevalent Mental Disorders in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Zald, David H.; Hakes, Jahn K.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Mental disorders predict future occurrences of both the same disorder (homotypic continuity) and other disorders (heterotypic continuity). Heterotypic continuity is inconsistent with a view of mental disorders as fixed entities. In contrast, hierarchical-dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology, in which each form of psychopathology is hypothesized to have both unique and broadly shared etiologies and mechanisms, predict both homotypic and heterotypic continuity. Objective To test predictions derived from a hierarchical-dimensional model of psychopathology that (a) heterotypic continuity is widespread, even controlling for homotypic continuity, and (b) the relative magnitudes of heterotypic continuities recapitulate the relative magnitudes of cross-sectional correlations among diagnoses at baseline. Design Assess 10 prevalent diagnoses in the same persons 3 years apart. Setting Representative sample of adults in the United States. Participants The 28,958 participants in the National Epidemiologic Study of Alcohol and Related Condition aged 18–64 years who were assessed in both waves. Main Outcome Measure Diagnoses from reliable and valid structured interviews. Results Bivariate associations of all pairs of diagnoses from wave 1 to wave 2 exceeded chance levels for all homotypic (tetrachoric ρ = 0.41 – 0.79, median = 0.54) and for nearly all heterotypic continuities (tetrachoric ρ = 0.07 – 0.50, median = 0.28), adjusted for sex and age. Significant heterotypic continuity was widespread even when all other wave 1 diagnoses (including the same diagnosis) were simultaneous predictors of each wave 2 diagnosis. The rank correlation between age and sex adjusted tetrachoric ρs for cross-sectional associations among wave 1 diagnoses and heterotypic associations from wave 1 to wave 2 diagnoses was ρ = .86. Conclusions and Relevance For these prevalent mental disorders, heterotypic continuity was nearly universal and not an artifact of failure to

  2. Access to and utilisation of GP services among Burmese migrants in London: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An estimated 10,000 Burmese migrants are currently living in London. No studies have been conducted on their access to health services. Furthermore, most studies on migrants in the United Kingdom (UK) have been conducted at the point of service provision, carrying the risk of selection bias. Our cross-sectional study explored access to and utilisation of General Practice (GP) services by Burmese migrants residing in London. Methods We used a mixed-method approach: a quantitative survey using self-administered questionnaires was complemented by qualitative in-depth interviews for developing the questionnaire and triangulating the findings of the survey. Overall, 137 questionnaires were received (a response rate of 57%) and 11 in-depth interviews conducted. The main outcome variables of the study included GP registration, barriers towards registration, GP consultations, barriers towards consultations, and knowledge on entitlements to health care. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, association tests, and a multivariate analysis using logistic regression. The qualitative information was analysed using content analysis. Results The respondents were young, of roughly equal gender (51.5% female), well educated, and had a fair level of knowledge on health services in the UK. Although the GP registration rate was relatively high (80%, 109 out of 136), GP service utilisation during the last episode of illness, at 56.8% (54 out of 95), was low. The statistical analysis showed that age being younger than 35 years, lacking prior overseas experience, having an unstable immigration status, having a shorter duration of stay, and resorting to self-medication were the main barriers hindering Burmese migrants from accessing primary health care services. These findings were corroborated by the in-depth interviews. Conclusions Our study found that having formal access to primary health care was not sufficient to ensure GP registration and health

  3. Health and Ethical Consequences of Outsourcing Pivotal Clinical Trials to Latin America: A Cross-Sectional, Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The implications of conducting clinical trials in low and middle income countries on the financial accessibility and safety of the pharmaceutical products available in those markets have not been studied. Regulatory practices and ethical declarations lead to the commercialization of the new products, referred to as New Molecular Entities (NMEs), in the countries where tested as soon as they are approved in high surveillance countries. Patients and patients’ associations use the Latin American courts to access new and expensive treatments, regardless of their safety profile and therapeutic value. Design and Objectives Cross-sectional, descriptive study. To determine the therapeutic value and safety profile of the NMEs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 that had been tested in Latin America, and the implications of their market approval for the pharmaceutical budgets in the countries where tested. Setting Latin America. Measures To assess the therapeutic value and safety of the NMEs commercialized in the different countries we used f independent drug bulletins. The prices of the NMEs for the consumers were obtained from the pharmaceutical price observatories of the countries were the medicines had been tested. If the price was not available in the observatories, it was obtained from pharmaceutical distributors. We used the countries’ minimum wage and per capita income to calculate the financial accessibility of a course of treatment with the NMEs. Results We found that 33 NMEs approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012 have been tested in Latin America. Of these, 26 had been evaluated by independent drug bulletins and only five were found to add some value to a subset of patients and had significant side-effects. The pharmaceutical prices were very high, varied widely across countries and were unrelated to the countries’ income per capita or minimum wage. Conclusion The implementation of clinical trials in Latin America

  4. Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

  5. Serum aminotransferase ratio is independently correlated with hepatosteatosis in patients with HCV: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Huang-Shen; Chung, Chang-Ming; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Mei-Yen; Chen, Po-Han; Hu, Jing-Hong; Chou, Wen-Nan; Huang, Jui-Chu; Huang, Tung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significant in hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers due to multiple mechanisms, and this worsens the progression of chronic liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and death. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio correlates with the status of hepatosteatosis. Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting Community-based annual examination in northern Taiwan. Participants A total of 1354 participants (age 20 years or over) were enrolled after excluding participants with HCV seronegative, laboratory or questionnaires loss, moderate alcohol consumption, liver cirrhosis, tumours and postlobectomy. Outcome measures Fatty liver was diagnosed according to echogenic findings. NAFLD included grades 1–3 fatty liver and high-degree NAFLD defined grades 2–3 fatty liver. Results 580 males and 774 females with a mean age of 47.2 (SD=16.1) years were cross-sectionally studied. The participants with NAFLD have significantly higher levels of ALT/AST ratio, fasting glucose, triglyceride and systolic/diastolic blood pressure than non-NAFLD participants. The association between NAFLD and ALT/AST was significant even when adjusting for the metabolic syndrome (aOR 1.90; 95% CI 1.37 to 2.65; p<0.001). In patients with a high degree of NAFLD, the ALT/AST ratio was still a significant predictor for hepatosteatosis (aOR 2.44; 95% CI 1.58 to 3.77; p<0.001). Conclusions The ALT/AST ratio could be a strong risk of hepatosteatosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:26369802

  6. Lack of correlation between intracavitary thrombosis detected by cross sectional echocardiography and systemic emboli in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccheri, M; Castelli, G; Cecchi, F; Nannini, M; Santoro, G; Troiani, V; Zuppiroli, A; Dolara, A

    1989-01-01

    The correlation between intracavitary thrombosis detected by cross sectional echocardiography and systemic embolism was studied in 126 consecutive patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were examined from January 1980 to September 1987. A total of 1041 serial echocardiograms were obtained with 3.5 and 5 MHz transducers. The mean follow up period was 41.2 months. The survival rate was 88% at two years and 56% at five years. Echocardiography showed intracavitary thrombi in 14 (11.1%) patients; 13 were mural and 11 were localised at the apex of the left ventricle. Twelve patients (8.4%) had systemic emboli; this corresponded to an incidence of new embolic events of 1.4 for 100 patient-years. Patients with intracavitary thrombi or systemic emboli were treated with oral anticoagulants, as were nine in functional class IV of the New York Heart Association, for 61 patient-years. The cumulative observation period for the whole population study was 418 patient-years. None of the patients with intracavitary thrombosis had embolic complications and none of those with embolism had intracavitary thrombi. Rates of intracavitary thrombosis and systemic embolism in this series were low and there was no overlap between the two events. This may have been because the patients did not have severe dilated cardiomyopathy, because echocardiography did not detect all the thrombi, or because patients were treated with oral anticoagulants. The presence of intracardiac thrombosis detected by cross sectional echocardiography is not predictive of systemic embolism in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Criteria for the use of the anticoagulant treatment remain largely empirical in these cases. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:2757871

  7. Central Nervous System Idiopathic Inflammatory Demyelinating Disorders in South Americans: A Descriptive, Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Papais-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina Ferreira; Carra, Adriana; de Castillo, Ibis Soto; Florentin, Sara; Diaz de Bedoya, Fernando Hamuy; Mandler, Raul; de Siervi, Luiza Campanella; Pimentel, Maria Lúcia Vellutini; Alvarenga, Marina Papais; Papais Alvarenga, Marcos; Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz; Gama Pereira, Ana Beatriz Calmon; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira; Velasquez, Carolina; Soublette, Carlos; Fleitas, Cynthia Veronica; Diniz, Denise Sisteroli; Armas, Elizabeth; Batista, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Freda; Pereira, Fernanda Ferreira Chaves da Costa; Siqueira, Heloise Helena; Cabeça, Hideraldo; Sanchez, Jose; Brooks, Joseph Bruno Bidin; Gonçalves, Marcus Vinicius; Barroso, Maria Cristina Del Negro; Ravelo, Maria Elena; Castillo, Maria Carlota; Ferreira, Maria Lúcia Brito; Rocha, Maria Sheila Guimarães; Parolin, Monica Koncke Fiuza; Molina, Omaira; Marinho, Patricia Beatriz Christino; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Brant de Souza, Renata; Pessanha Neto, Silvio; Camargo, Solange Maria das Graças; Machado, Suzana Costa; Neri, Vanderson Carvalho; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Alvarenga, Helcio; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2015-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD) spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) among multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%), increasing in Mestizos (8%) and Africans (15.4%-27.5%) living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA) was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients’ demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian). The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%), NMO (11.8%), other NMO syndromes (6.5%), CIS (3.5%), ADEM (1.0%), and acute encephalopathy (0.4%). Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score (r=0.374; p=<0.001). This correlation was not observed in people with NMO or those with other NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). Among patients with NMO, 83.2% showed a relapsing-remitting course, and 16.8% showed a monophasic course. The NMO-IgG antibody tested using indirect

  8. Central Nervous System Idiopathic Inflammatory Demyelinating Disorders in South Americans: A Descriptive, Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Papais-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina Ferreira; Carra, Adriana; de Castillo, Ibis Soto; Florentin, Sara; Diaz de Bedoya, Fernando Hamuy; Mandler, Raul; de Siervi, Luiza Campanella; Pimentel, Maria Lúcia Vellutini; Alvarenga, Marina Papais; Alvarenga, Marcos Papais; Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz; Gama Pereira, Ana Beatriz Calmon; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira; Velasquez, Carolina; Soublette, Carlos; Fleitas, Cynthia Veronica; Diniz, Denise Sisteroli; Armas, Elizabeth; Batista, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Freda; Pereira, Fernanda Ferreira Chaves da Costa; Siqueira, Heloise Helena; Cabeça, Hideraldo; Sanchez, Jose; Brooks, Joseph Bruno Bidin; Gonçalves, Marcus Vinicius; Barroso, Maria Cristina Del Negro; Ravelo, Maria Elena; Castillo, Maria Carlota; Ferreira, Maria Lúcia Brito; Rocha, Maria Sheila Guimarães; Parolin, Monica Koncke Fiuza; Molina, Omaira; Marinho, Patricia Beatriz Christino; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Brant de Souza, Renata; Pessanha Neto, Silvio; Camargo, Solange Maria das Graças; Machado, Suzana Costa; Neri, Vanderson Carvalho; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Alvarenga, Helcio; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2015-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD) spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) among multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%), increasing in Mestizos (8%) and Africans (15.4%-27.5%) living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA) was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian). The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%), NMO (11.8%), other NMO syndromes (6.5%), CIS (3.5%), ADEM (1.0%), and acute encephalopathy (0.4%). Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score (r=0.374; p=<0.001). This correlation was not observed in people with NMO or those with other NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). Among patients with NMO, 83.2% showed a relapsing-remitting course, and 16.8% showed a monophasic course. The NMO-IgG antibody tested using indirect

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Prehypertension and Hypertension among Adults in Northeastern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Wang, Shibin; Su, Yingying; Rao, Wenwang; Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Kou, Changgui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prehypertension is a category between normotension and hypertension that is becoming increasingly common in China. However, limited data are available on the prevalence and correlates of prehypertension in northeastern China. Methods: A cross-sectional study using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods was performed on 17,584 participants. Results: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 36.0% and 30.8% in northeastern China, respectively. As age increased, the prevalence of prehypertension in males declined (p-trend < 0.001), in parallel to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension (p-trend < 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension for females increased as age increased (p-trend < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that age, gender, location, drinking, Body Mass Index (BMI), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia correlated with prehypertension and hypertension (p-trend < 0.05). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in an adult population of northeastern China and some correlates of prehypertension and hypertension. PMID:26712776

  10. Factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia: a descriptive cross-sectional single-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Renganathan, Pukunan; Manaf, Rizal Abdul; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes. Setting Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital. Participants All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90 years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013. Main outcome measures The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records. Results Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes. PMID:24760351

  11. Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson's disease: an observational cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Polo, V; Satue, M; Rodrigo, M J; Otin, S; Alarcia, R; Bambo, M P; Fuertes, M I; Larrosa, J M; Pablo, L E; Garcia-Martin, E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate visual dysfunction and its correlation with structural changes in the retina in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Patients with PD (n=37) and controls (n=37) were included in an observational cross-sectional study, and underwent visual acuity (VA), colour vision (using the Farnsworth and Lanthony desaturated D15 colour tests) and contrast sensitivity vision (CSV; using the Pelli-Robson chart and CSV 1000E test) evaluation to measure visual dysfunction. Structural measurements of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), and macular and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thicknesses, were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Comparison of obtained data, and correlation analysis between functional and structural results were performed. Results VA (in all different contrast levels) and all CSV spatial frequencies were significantly worse in patients with PD than in controls. Colour vision was significantly affected based on the Lanthony colour test. Significant GCL loss was observed in the minimum GCL+inner plexiform layer. A clear tendency towards a reduction in several macular sectors (central, outer inferior, outer temporal and superior (inner and outer)) and in the temporal quadrant of the RNFL thickness was observed, although the difference was not significant. CSV was the functional parameter most strongly correlated with structural measurements in PD. Colour vision was associated with most GCL measurements. Macular thickness was strongly correlated with macular volume and functional parameters (r>0.70, p<0.05). Conclusions Patients with PD had visual dysfunction that correlated with structural changes evaluated by SD-OCT. GCL measurements may be reliable indicators of visual impairment in patients with PD. PMID:27154474

  12. Correlates and Predictors of Increasing Waist Circumference in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Abedandi, Robert; Salifu, Zenabankara S.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) has become a disease of public health concern worldwide. Obesity and elevated blood pressure have been shown to be comorbidities of type 2 DM. In this cross-sectional study in Tamale, Ghana, we determined the prevalence of abdominal obesity among type 2 DM patients. Furthermore, we examined the demographic, clinical, and anthropometric predictors of increasing waist circumference in this population. Three hundred type 2 DM patients attending the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana, were recruited for the study. Waist circumference (WC) and hip circumferences were measured appropriately. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were taken from the personal health record files of patients. Demographic data were obtained. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression models were employed to identify predictors of increasing WC. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 77.0% and was significantly higher in women than in men. A positive correlation was observed between waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and WC (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), female gender (r = 0.73, P < 0.001), and age (r = 0.20, P < 0.001). A high prevalence of abdominal obesity was observed. Predictors of increasing WC were gender, age, FPG, and WHR.

  13. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. Methods A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Results The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548). In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7%) of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Conclusion Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand. PMID:19445678

  14. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol. PMID:25800078

  15. Prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents: a cross-sectional survey study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Lu, Ciyong

    2014-01-01

    Study objective To investigate the prevalence and the correlates of sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents and to examine the association between the two problems. Design Cross-sectional survey. Participants A total of 3186 school students in grades 7–12 were sampled from the schools in Guangdong. A stratified-cluster random-sampling strategy was used to select the schools. Main outcome measures A self-administered questionnaire was used. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index (PSQI) was used to assess the occurrence of sleep disturbance, and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to identify whether individuals had depressive symptoms. Results The mean PSQI global score was 8.7 (±2.4) points, and 39.6% of the total sample had sleep disturbance. The mean CES-D score of students was 15.2 (±9.4) points, and 6.4% of the students had depressive symptoms. Additionally, girls and older adolescents were more likely to suffer from sleep disturbance, and the students who had depressive symptoms were 2.47 (95% CI 1.61 to 3.79) times more likely to suffer from sleep disturbance. Factors that were correlated with sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms were having a poor relationship with teachers, feeling lonely, suicide ideation and having run away from home. Conclusions Sleep disturbance was determined to be more prevalent among Chinese adolescents with depressive symptoms. Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms were associated with each other, while school factors, family factors and psychosocial adjustment were comprehensively correlated with both. PMID:25079937

  16. Prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a Saudi Arabic population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong D; Bakhotmah, Balkees A; Hu, Frank B; Alzahrani, Hasan Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a Saudi population. The study population consisted of 552 diabetic participants with an average age of 53.4 years. Among this population, 62.7% were male and 94.9% had type 2 diabetes. The average body mass index was 31.1 kg/m2. DPN was diagnosed based on a combination of reduced vibration perception measured by neurothesiometer and/or reduced light touch perception evaluated by the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, as well as neurological symptoms. Information on socio-demographic variables, smoking status, duration of diabetes, and medications was obtained through interviews by physicians. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and clinical markers were assessed following standard procedures. The prevalence of DPN in this population was 19.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-23.5%). In the multivariable analyses, longer duration of diabetes [odds ratio (OR) for every 5-year increase, 2.49, 95% CI, 1.75-3.53], abdominal obesity (OR, 2.53, 95% CI, 1.41-4.55), and higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR for every 1 mmol/L increase, 1.05, 95% CI, 0.99-1.12), creatinine (OR for every 10 µmol/L increase, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.99-1.14) and white blood cell count (OR for every 106/L increase, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.01-1.16) were associated with higher odds of DPN, while oral hypoglycemic medication use was associated with a lower odds of DPN (OR, 0.47, 95% CI, 0.26-0.85). In this large Saudi population, several correlates for DPN, in addition to glycemic control and diabetes duration, were identified, including abdominal obesity, creatinine and white blood cell count. PMID:25184511

  17. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Mamta; Agarwalla, Rashmi; Mallik, Praveen; Dwivedi, Shridhar; Patvagekar, Bilkish; Pathak, Rambha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Workers represent half the world's population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. Objectives: (1) To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2) To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi. Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. Results: The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91%) were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc). 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99), smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36, CI:1.30-4.27) and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16) for illiterate). Discussion: The prevalence of tobacco use (91%) among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed. PMID:27625442

  18. Intraclass correlation and design effect in BMI, physical activity and diet: a cross-sectional study of 56 countries

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Mohd; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and design effect (DE) may help to modify the public health interventions for body mass index (BMI), physical activity and diet according to geographic targeting of interventions in different countries. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of clustering and DE in BMI, physical activity and diet in 56 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Design Cross-sectional study design. Setting Multicountry national survey data. Methods The World Health Survey (WHS), 2003, data were used to examine clustering in BMI, physical activity in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and diet in fruits and vegetables intake (FVI) from low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Multistage sampling in the WHS used geographical clusters as primary sampling units (PSU). These PSUs were used as a clustering or grouping variable in this analysis. Multilevel intercept only regression models were used to calculate the ICC and DE for each country. Results The median ICC (0.039) and median DE (1.82) for BMI were low; however, FVI had a higher median ICC (0.189) and median DE (4.16). For MET, the median ICC was 0.141 and median DE was 4.59. In some countries, however, the ICC and DE for BMI were large. For instance, South Africa had the highest ICC (0.39) and DE (11.9) for BMI, whereas Uruguay had the highest ICC (0.434) for MET and Ethiopia had the highest ICC (0.471) for FVI. Conclusions This study shows that across a wide range of countries, there was low area level clustering for BMI, whereas MET and FVI showed high area level clustering. These results suggested that the country level clustering effect should be considered in developing preventive approaches for BMI, as well as improving physical activity and healthy diets for each country. PMID:26743697

  19. Clinical and cognitive correlates of employment among patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gainful employment is one major area of functioning which is becoming an important goal in psychiatric rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. Studies in western countries are pointing to evidence that certain sociodemographic and clinical factors may contribute to employment outcomes in this group of people. However, the area is still largely unexplored in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to examine the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive correlates of employment status among patients with Schizophrenia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. All participants who fulfilled the requirements of the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Study instruments included a demographic data questionnaire, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Trail Making Tests, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Digit Span. Bivariate analyses were done using chi-square for categorical data and t-test for continuous data and multiple logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of employment status. Results A total of 95 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Among the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables studied marital status, educational level, mean scores of negative symptoms, Digit Span and RAVLT and Trail Making Tests were found to show significant association with employment status on bivariate analyses. However, when entered into a logistic regression model, only cognitive variables ie. Trail A and B, Digit Span and RAVLT were significant predictors of employment status. Conclusions The results from this study support the role of cognitive function, particularly, attention, working memory and executive functioning on attaining and maintaining employment in persons with schizophrenia as measured by the RAVLT, Digit Span and Trail Making Tests. These findings may act as preliminary evidence suggesting the importance of integrating

  20. Prevalence and Positive Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Chinese Patients with Hematological Malignancies: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yi-Long; Wang, Zi-Yue; Wu, Hui; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Positive psychological constructs have been given increasing attention in research on the coping resources of cancer-related distresses. However, little research is available on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hematological malignancies. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and to explore the associations of perceived social support (PSS), hope, optimism and resilience with PTSD symptoms among Chinese patients with hematological malignancies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from July 2013 through April 2014. A total of 225 inpatients with hematological malignancies, which were eligible for the study, completed the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist-Civilian Version, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Adult Hope Scale, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and Resilience Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the correlates of PTSD symptoms. Results Overall, the prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 10.7%. Initially, PSS was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.248, P < 0.01). However, when positive psychological variables were added, optimism was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.452, P < 0.01), and gender had a significant effect on PTSD symptoms. Women were more vulnerable to these symptoms than men (β = 0.123, P < 0.05). When the analysis was performed separately by gender, only optimism showed a significantly negative association with PTSD symptoms in both men (β = -0.389, P < 0.01) and women (β = -0.493, P < 0.01). Conclusions Some patients with hematological malignancies suffer from PTSD symptoms. The positive effects of PSS and optimism on PTSD symptoms suggest that an integrated approach to psychosocial intervention from both external and internal perspectives could have practical significance. Gender difference should be considered in developing potential interventions in reducing cancer-related PTSD

  1. Description of Light Ion Production Cross Sections and Fluxes on the Mars Surface using the QMSFRG Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Schneider, Irene; Hassler, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars significantly attenuates the heavy ion component of the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR), however increases the fluence of secondary light ions (neutrons, and hydrogen and helium isotopes) because of particle production processes. We describe results of the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation (QMSFRG) model for the production of light nuclei through the distinct mechanisms of nuclear abrasion and ablation, coalescence, and cluster knockout. The QMSFRG model is shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data for nuclear fragmentation cross sections. We use the QMSFRG model and the space radiation transport code, HZETRN to make predictions of the light particle environment on the Martian surface at solar minimum and maximum. The radiation assessment detector (RAD) experiment will be launched in 2009 as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). We make predictions of the expected results for time dependent count-rates to be observed by RAD experiment. Finally, we consider sensitivity assessments of the impact of the Martian atmospheric composition on particle fluxes at the surface.

  2. Effects of instructional strategies using cross sections on the recognition of anatomical structures in correlated CT and MR images.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E; Su, Yung K; Payer, Andrew F

    2008-01-01

    This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include: (1) cross-sectional images of the head that can be superimposed on radiological images, (2) transparent highlighting of anatomical structures in radiological images, and (3) cross-sectional images of the head with radiological images presented side-by-side. Data collected included: (1) time spent on instruction and on solving test questions, (2) mental effort during instruction and test, and (3) students' performance to identify anatomical structures in radiological images. Participants were 28 freshmen medical students (15 males and 13 females) and 208 biology students (190 females and 18 males). All studies used posttest-only control group design, and the collected data were analyzed by either t test or ANOVA. In self-directed computer-based environments, the strategies that used cross sections to improve students' ability to recognize anatomic structures in radiological images showed no significant positive effects. However, when increasing the complexity of the instructional materials, cross-sectional images imposed a higher cognitive load, as indicated by higher investment of mental effort. There is not enough evidence to claim that the simultaneous combination of cross sections and radiological images has no effect on the identification of anatomical structures in radiological images for novices. Further research that control for students' learning and cognitive style is needed to reach an informative conclusion. PMID:19177385

  3. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9) and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0). Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class, who did not participate

  4. Mental health and behaviour of students of public health and their correlation with social support: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Future public health professionals are especially important among students partly because their credibility in light of their professional messages and activities will be tested daily by their clients; and partly because health professionals' own lifestyle habits influence their attitudes and professional activities. A better understanding of public health students' health and its determinants is necessary for improving counselling services and tailoring them to demand. Our aim was to survey public health students' health status and behaviour with a focus on mental health. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among public health students at 1-5-years (N = 194) with a self-administered questionnaire that included standardized items on demographic data, mental wellbeing characterized by sense of coherence (SoC) and psychological morbidity, as well as health behaviour and social support. Correlations between social support and the variables for mental health, health status and health behaviour were characterized by pairwise correlation. Results The response rate was 75% and represented students by study year, sex and age in the Faculty. Nearly half of the students were non-smokers, more than one quarter smoked daily. Almost one-fifth of the students suffered from notable psychological distress. The proportion of these students decreased from year 1 to 5. The mean score for SoC was 60.1 and showed an increasing trend during the academic years. 29% of the students lacked social support from their student peers. Significant positive correlation was revealed between social support and variables for mental health. Psychological distress was greater among female public health students than in the same age female group of the general population; whereas the lack of social support was a more prevalent problem among male students. Conclusions Health status and behaviour of public health students is similar to their non-students peers except for their

  5. Effects of Instructional Strategies Using Cross Sections on the Recognition of Anatomical Structures in Correlated CT and MR Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E.; Su, Yung K.; Payer, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include:…

  6. Photoionization of Xe inside C{sub 60}: Atom-fullerene hybridization, giant cross-section enhancement, and correlation confinement resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Madjet, Mohamed E.; Renger, Thomas; Hopper, Dale E.; McCune, Matthew A.; Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Rost, Jan-M.; Manson, Steven T.

    2010-01-15

    A theoretical study of the subshell photoionization of the Xe atom endohedrally confined in C{sub 60} is presented. Powerful hybridization of the Xe 5s state with the bottom edge of C{sub 60} pi band is found that induces strong structures in the 5s ionization, causing the cross section to differ significantly from earlier results that omit this hybridization. The hybridization also affects the angular distribution asymmetry parameter of Xe 5p ionization near the Cooper minimum. The 5p cross section, on the other hand, is greatly enhanced by borrowing considerable oscillator strength from the C{sub 60} giant plasmon resonance via the atom-fullerene dynamical interchannel coupling. Beyond the C{sub 60} plasmon energy range the atomic subshell cross sections display confinement-induced oscillations in which, over the large 4d shape resonance region, the dominant 4d oscillations induce their 'clones' in all degenerate weaker channels known as correlation confinement resonances.

  7. Depressive symptoms and alcohol correlates among Brazilians aged 14 years and older: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related disorders, drinking patterns and other characteristics of alcohol use are important public health issues worldwide. This study aims to study these associations in an upper middle-income country, Brazil, and search for related socio-demographic correlations in men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. The sample of 3,007 participants, selected using a multistage probabilistic sampling method, represents the Brazilian population aged 14 and older. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and alcohol dependence was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations assessed using bi-variate analysis were tested using Rao-Scott measures. Gender specific multinomial logistic regression models were developed. Results Among the participants with alcohol dependence, 46% had depressive symptoms (17.2% mild/moderate and 28.8% major/severe; p < 0.01); 35.8% (p = 0.08) of those with alcohol abuse and 23.9% (p < 0.01) of those with a binge-drinking pattern also had depressive symptoms. Alcohol abstainers and infrequent drinkers had the highest prevalence of major/severe depressive symptoms, whereas frequent heavy drinkers had the lowest prevalence of major/severe depressive symptoms. In women, alcohol dependence and the presence of one or more problems related to alcohol consumption were associated with higher risks of major/severe depressive symptoms. Among men, alcohol dependence and being ≥45 years old were associated with higher risks of major/severe depressive symptoms. Conclusions In Brazil, the prevalence of depressive symptoms is strongly related to alcohol dependence; the strongest association was between major/severe depressive symptoms and alcohol dependence in women. This survey supports the possible association of biopsychosocial distress

  8. Differential double capture cross sections in p+He collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M.; Brand, J. A.; Vajnai, T.

    2007-02-15

    We have measured differential double capture cross sections for 15 to 150 keV p+He collisions. We also analyzed differential double to single capture ratios, where we find pronounced peak structures. An explanation of these structures probably requires a quantum-mechanical description of elastic scattering between the projectile and the target nucleus. Strong final-state correlations have a large effect on the magnitude of the double capture cross sections.

  9. Description of fusion and evaporation residue formation cross sections in reactions leading to the formation of element Z =122 within the Langevin approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litnevsky, V. L.; Kosenko, G. I.; Ivanyuk, F. A.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the evolution of the compact system formed by the touching of two colliding ions in reactions 58Fe+248Cm → 306-x122 + xn, 64Ni+244Pu → 308-x122 + xn, and 90Zr+208Pb → 298-x122 + xn. The description is carried out within the dynamical multidimensional stochastic approach, based on Langevin equations for the shape degrees of freedom of colliding ions and the compact system. For the approach stage we take into account the shell structure of colliding ions, their orientation in the space, and the effect of tunneling of ions through the Coulomb barrier. By describing the evolution of the compact system formed after the touching of incident ions, the shell structure of the compact system is also taken into account. Within this approach we have calculated the compound nucleus and evaporation residue formation cross sections. These can be compared with the experimental data. We have also clarified the impact of the tunneling effect in the entrance channel on the fusion and evaporation residue cross sections.

  10. Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45–70 years): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. Methods A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45–70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire on physical activity. Socio-demographic and social-cognitive correlates were measured with validated instruments; medical correlates were checked by a general practitioner. The study had a cross-sectional design and the data collection ran from March 2005 until August 2006. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of PA. We separated the findings for men from those for women to explore potential gender-specific associations. Results Being female, living in North Limburg or North-Brabant, having a higher educational level, a higher perceived behavioral control, more knowledge about PA advantages, a stronger habitual PA behavior, having more action plans and a stronger intention to engage in PA were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Being older, being a smoker, having a higher body mass index (BMI), having a paid job, observing others being physically active and overestimating one's PA level were associated with being less physically active. Socio-demographic and medical correlates significantly explained 20% of the variance of PA behavior while social-cognitive correlates as attitude explained an additional 4% and intention together with actual control explained another 1% of the variance of PA behavior. Conclusion There may be stable individual differences that influence PA in view of the fact that several socio-demographic and medical factors were not completely mediated by the socio-cognitive factors. The current study may help to focus PA interventions for individuals aged 45–70 years on influential socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates. Physical activity was

  11. Descriptive epidemiology and high risk behavior of male prescription opioid abusers: Cross-sectional study from Sikkim, North East India

    PubMed Central

    Datta, D.; Pandey, S.; Dutta, S.; Verma, Y.; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sikkim is emerging as an important area for prescription opioid abuse with frequent news of seizures and arrests due to possession of prescription opioids. However, till date there is a little information on descriptive epidemiology and high risk behavior of prescription opioid abusers from Sikkim. Aims: The aim was to describe demographic (age, sex, religion, marital status, community, occupation, etc.); socioeconomic (income, education, family information etc.); and high risk behavior (e.g., injection sharing, visit to commercial sex workers [CSWs], homosexuality etc.) among treatment-seeking prescription opioid abusers in Sikkim. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological data were collected by administering predevised questionnaires from n = 223 prescription opioid abusers (main problem prescription opioids) reporting for treatment at five different drug abuse treatment centers across Sikkim. Results: The mean age of prescription opioid abusers in Sikkim was 27 years; all were male, of Nepalese ethnicity and single/never married, school dropout and/or illiterate, earning < Rs. 10,000/month with most spending almost Rs. 5000 a month on prescription opioids. Most (57.4%) prescription opioid abusers belonged to the urban community. Commonly abused prescription opioids were dextropropoxyphene and codeine. Injection sharing was more in urban areas whereas syringe exchange was observed equally among rural and urban prescription opioid abusers. Among urban injectors visits to CSWs, and multiple sex partners were also common in spite of knowledge about AIDS. Limited condom use was observed among rural respondents. Incidences of arrests, public intoxication, and violence under the influence of prescription opioids were also reported. Conclusion: Both the rural and urban areas of Sikkim show increasing rates of prescription opioid abuse among males. It is more prevalent among school dropouts and unemployed youth. Trends of injection drug use, unsafe injection

  12. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  13. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  14. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  15. The prevalence and correlations of medical student burnout in the pre-clinical years: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz, Rebecca; Korenstein, Deborah; Fallar, Robert; Ripp, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Burnout is a psychological syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and impaired personal accomplishment induced by repeated workplace stressors. Current research suggests that physician burnout may have its origins in medical school. The consequences of medical student burnout include both personal and professional distress, loss of empathy, and poor health. We hypothesized that burnout occurs prior to the initiation of the clinical years of medical education. This was a cross-sectional survey administered to third-year medical students at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) in New York, New York (a traditional-style medical school with a marked division between pre-clinical and clinical training occurring at the beginning of the third year). Survey included an instrument used to measure job burnout, a sleep deprivation screen, and questions related to demographic information, current rotation, psychiatric history, time spent working/studying, participation in extracurricular activities, social support network, autonomy and isolation. Of the 86 medical students who participated, 71% met criteria for burnout. Burnt out students were significantly more likely to suffer from sleep deprivation (p = 0.0359). They were also more likely to disagree with the following statements: "I have control over my daily schedule" (p = 0.0286) and "I am confident that I will have the knowledge and skills necessary to become an intern when I graduate" (p = 0.0263). Our findings show that burnout is present at the beginning of the third year of medical school, prior to the initiation of the clinical years of medical training. Medical student burnout is quite common, and early efforts should be made to empower medical students to both build the knowledge and skills necessary to become capable physicians, as well as withstand the emotional, mental, and physical challenges inherent to medical school. PMID:21781020

  16. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Yoremes (Mayos) in Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Corella-Madueño, María Alba Guadalupe; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Aldana-Madrid, María Lourdes; Almada-Balderrama, Gerardo Javier; Nuñez-Aguirre, Alan Daniel; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Yoremes and to identify associations of T. gondii exposure with sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics of Yoremes. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Yoremes were enrolled in the locality of Tierra Blanca in the municipality of Navojoa in Sonora State, Mexico. Participants We studied 200 Yoremes (Mayos); they are an indigenous ethnic group living in a coastal region in northwestern Mexico. Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in participants using enzyme-linked immunoassays. We used a standardised questionnaire to obtain the characteristics of Yoremes. The association of T. gondii exposure and Yoremes’ characteristics was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 200 Yoremes studied (mean age: 31.50±18.43 years), 26 (13.0%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 19 (73.1%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection did not vary with sex, educational level, occupation or socioeconomic status. In contrast, multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics showed that T. gondii exposure was associated with increasing age (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04; p=0.03) and consumption of squirrel meat (OR=4.99; 95% CI 1.07 to 23.31; p=0.04). Furthermore, seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in Yoremes with a history of lymphadenopathy (p=0.03) and those suffering from frequent abdominal pain (p=0.03). In women, T. gondii exposure was associated with a history of caesarean sections (p=0.03) and miscarriages (p=0.02). Conclusions We demonstrate, for the first time, serological evidence of T. gondii exposure among Yoremes in Mexico. Results suggest that infection with T. gondii might be affecting the health of Yoremes. Results may be useful for an

  17. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults), with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35), perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10), recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62) and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29). The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727) (p< 0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our findings

  18. Socio-demographic correlates of injection drug use among male drug users: a cross sectional study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Sanjeev Raj; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Adhikari, Samaj; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Drug abuse is one of the major public health problems in Nepal. The objective of this study is to explore the factors responsible for the injecting drug use in Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted among drug users in Pokhara sub metropolitan city in Nepal. Taking prevalence of 20% at 95% confidence interval and 20% non-response rate, 448 samples were calculated for face to face interviews. Most of the study participants were >24 year's age. Sixty-one percentage of the participants were unemployed. The largest percentage belonged to Gurung/Rai/Pun (37%) ethnic groups, and had completed secondary level of education (47.5%). In the logistic regression analysis occupation, motivating factors for drug use, ever been to custody, age at first drug use, age at first sex, money spent on drugs, ever been rehabilitated and age of the respondents showed a statistically significant association with injecting drug use status. The respondents having business [Adjusted Odds ratio (aOR) 4.506, 95% CI (1.677-12.104)], service [aOR 2.698, 95% CI (a1.146-6.355], having tragedy/turmoil [aOR 3.867, 95% CI (1.596-9.367)], family problem [aOR 2.010, 95% CI (2.010-53.496)], had sex at >19 years [aOR 1.683, 95% CI (1.017-2.785)], rehabilitated >2 times [aOR 4.699, 95% CI (1.401-15.763)], >24 years age group [aOR 1.741, 95% CI (1.025-2.957)] had higher odds of having injecting habits. Having money spent on drugs >3,000 NRs (300 USD) [aOR 0.489, 95%CI (0.274-0.870), not been to custody (aOR 0.330, 95%CI (0.203-0.537)] and having curiosity for drug use [aOR 0.147, 95% CI (0.029-0.737)] were found to be protective for injecting drug use. This study recommends the harm reduction program specifically focused on drug users of occupational groups like business, service and the youths through public health actions to stop transiting them to injecting drug use. PMID:24705679

  19. A Cross-sectional, Descriptive, Quality Improvement Project to Assess Undergraduate Nursing Students' Clinical Exposure to Patients With Wounds in an Introductory Nursing Course.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Keves-Foster, Mary Kathryn; Ashare, JoAnn; Zugcic, Mary; Albdour, Maha; Albdour, Dalia

    2016-04-01

    Because nurses frequently participate in decisions related to wound care, learning about wounds and their care during undergraduate education is critical. A cross-sectional, descriptive, quality improvement project was conducted in an introductory baccalaureate nursing course to identify: 1) the types of patients with wounds assigned to beginning students, 2) patient wound care procedures and dressings, and 3) student level of participation in wound care. Data were collected from the weekly notes recorded about students' (N = 49) patient care experiences in 3 acute care hospitals for 9 clinical days during 1 semester. Data were recorded on a paper-and-pencil form by instructors at the end of the clinical day and included type of wound, wound irrigation, dressing, technique of care, and student's participation. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the frequency and distribution of the wound characteristics and care assessed. Of the 284 patients assigned to students, 75 (26.4%) had a wound. The most common wound was a surgical incision (49, 65%) and was closed (36, 73.5%). Twenty-six (26) patients had a pressure ulcer, most commonly Stage II. The most common dressing was dry gauze (29). Damp gauze was used on 18 wounds. Wound irrigation was recorded for 24 wound protocols and performed with a bulb syringe or by pouring the solution from a container. Generally, nonsterile wound care was performed. Twenty-five (25) students performed wound care with the instructor, 16 watched the care performed by another clinician, and 10 participated with another nurse in the wound care. For 22 patients, the wound care was neither observed nor performed because either it was not time for the dressing to be changed or it was only to be changed by a medical team. From these data, it was concluded beginning nursing students had some, but limited, clinical experience with patients with wounds. Students' wound care experiences need further examination, especially across multiple

  20. Correlation between basic physical fitness and pulmonary function in Korean children and adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ju Yong; Jang, Ki Sung; Kang, Sunghwun; Han, Don Hee; Yang, Wonho; Shin, Ki Ok

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between basic physical fitness and pulmonary function in Korean school students, to present an alternative method for improving their pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred forty healthy students aged 6-17 years performed physical fitness tests of hand-grip strength, sit and reach, Sargent jump, single leg stance, and pulmonary function tests of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) using a Quark PFT. [Results] Muscle strength and power of boys improved in the late period of elementary school and middle school. Muscle strength of girls improved in the late period of elementary school. Analysis of factors affecting pulmonary function revealed that height, weight, BMI, and body fat significantly correlated with spirometric parameters. Right hand-grip strength, left hand-grip strength, and Sargent jump also significantly correlated with FVC and FEV1. [Conclusion] In order to improve the pulmonary function of children and adolescents, aerobic exercise and an exercise program to increase muscle strength and power is needed, and it should start in the late period of elementary school when muscle strength and power are rapidly increasing. PMID:26504269

  1. Who actually receives cell phone use while driving citations and how much are these laws enforced among states? A descriptive, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While numerous cell phone use while driving laws have been passed among states, little information exists regarding who gets cited for these traffic infractions and how much these laws are enforced at the state-level within the USA. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting 14 states and the District of Columbia. Participants Those receiving cell phone use while driving citations within included states from 2007 to 2013. Primary outcome Demographic characteristics of cited drivers were assessed. Rates of infractions per 100 000 licensed in-state drivers per year for various cell phone use while driving violations were calculated. Results Drivers were cited for hand-held use violations (n=2.5 million) more than texting (n=14 682) or young driver all cell phone bans (n=342). Among states that provided data for all traffic violations, cell phone use while driving citations comprised 1% of all written citations. Regardless of ban type, males (68.2%) were cited more frequently than females. Drivers 25–64 years of age (90.8%) were more likely to be cited for hand-held phone use. The average yearly rate of infractions per 100 000 licensed in-state drivers from 2010–2013 was 5.8 for texting bans, 2607 for hand-held bans, and 9954 for any traffic violation. Conclusions Among cited drivers, age and sex differences existed by the type of ban violated. State-level enforcement appeared sparse. Due to the potential serious consequences of cell phone use while driving in the USA, more enforcement and targeted public safety campaigns are likely needed. PMID:27301485

  2. Association between different risk factors and vascular accelerated ageing (EVA study): study protocol for a cross-sectional, descriptive observational study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Gonzalez-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus Ma; Sanchez-Fernandez, Pedro L; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The process of population ageing that is occurring in developed societies represents a major challenge for the health system. The aim of this study is to analyse factors that have an influence on early vascular ageing (EVA), estimated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and Cardio Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI), and to determine differences by gender in a Spanish population. Methods and analysis An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Study population From the population assigned to the participating healthcare centres, a cluster random sampling stratified by age and gender will be performed to obtain 500 participants aged between 35 and 75. Those who meet the inclusion criteria and give written informed consent will be included in the study. Measurements Main dependent variables: cf-PWV determined using the SphygmoCor System and CAVI estimated using VASERA. Secondary dependent variables: telomere length, carotid intima-media thickness, central and peripheral augmentation index, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index, retinal arteriovenous index, and renal and cardiac organ damage. Independent variables: lifestyles (physical activity, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, alcohol and tobacco consumption); psychological factors (depression, anxiety and chronic stress); inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent form agreeing to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. The results of this study will allow the understanding of the relationship of the different influencing factors and their relative weight in the development of EVA. At least 5 publications in first-quartile scientific journals are planned. Trial registration number NCT02623894; Pre

  3. Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in critically ill patients: descriptive cross-sectional database study evaluating concordance with clinical site isolates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections are related to both increased antibiotic use and risk of adverse outcomes. An in-depth understanding of their epidemiology is essential to reduce occurrence and to improve outcomes by targeted prevention strategies. The objectives of the study were to determine the epidemiology, source and concordance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections with clinical site isolates. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in critically ill adults admitted to a tertiary semi-closed intensive care unit in England to determine the epidemiology, source and concordance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections with clinical site isolates. All nosocomial positive blood cultures over a 4-year study period were identified. Pathogens detected and concordances with clinical site are reported as proportions. Results Contaminant pathogens accounted for half of the isolates. The most common non-contaminant pathogens cultured were Pseudomonas spp. (8.0%), Enterococcus spp. (7.3%) and Escherichia coli (5.6%). Central venous catheter-linked bloodstream infections represent only 6.0% of the positive blood cultures. Excluding contaminants and central venous line infections, in only 39.5% of the bloodstream infections could a concordant clinical site source be identified, the respiratory and urinary tracts being the most common. Conclusions Clinical practice should focus on a) improving blood culture techniques to reduce detection of contaminant pathogens and b) ensuring paired clinical site cultures are performed alongside all blood cultures to better understand the epidemiology and potential implications of primary and secondary discordant health-care associated bloodstream infections. PMID:25593750

  4. What is killing? People's knowledge about coronary heart disease, attitude towards prevention and main risk reduction barriers in Ismailia, Egypt (Descriptive cross-sectional study)

    PubMed Central

    Seef, Sameh; Jeppsson, Anders; Stafström, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are a public health concern everywhere, especially ischemic or coronary heart diseases (CHD) which are on top of causes list of mortality and morbidity in both genders globally. From which nearly 80% can be because of modifiable risks. In Egypt, there is a lack of studies on the knowledge of people about coronary heart diseases and its modifiable risks. So, this research reported here we designed to measure the dimensions of peoples knowledge about CHD and their attitude towards prevention, and to identify the main risk reduction barriers. Methods By using comprehensive cross-sectional, descriptive research design, all adult individuals attending the family health clinic at Suez Canal University Hospital were eligible for inclusion with total number 125 participants. An interview questionnaire designed and used to collect data. Results The study revealed that (10.4%) of participants had a history of CHD, and (7.2%) had a family history of CHD. 79.2% Had a satisfactory total knowledge about CHD, and (94.4%) had a positive total attitude towards prevention. Risk reduction barriers as a medical setting barriers were (24%), patient related barriers were (22.4%). Community-societal barriers were almost the same as knowledge barriers which were around (16%). At last the systemic-organizational barriers were (9.6%). Conclusion The findings settled that, total knowledge about CHD was satisfactory but lower than the level total of attitude. More effort the health system needs to improve the settings and engage patients in their plans and breaking related barriers, with development of health education programs based on needs assessment. Further studies we recommend to explore the reasons and follow up the changes. PMID:24319527

  5. A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study of Occupational Therapy Students' Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Spirituality and Spiritual Care in Occupational Therapy Education.

    PubMed

    Mthembu, Thuli Godfrey; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa; Wegner, Lisa

    2016-10-01

    Spirituality and spiritual care both have received increased attention over the course of this past decade from different disciplines. However, for many years, in the occupational therapy profession, the importance of spirituality and spiritual care seems to be controversial because it is unclear how these concepts are integrated in occupational therapy education. Although occupational therapy students are being educated to consider a holistic and client-centred approach, spirituality is not regarded within this framework which diminishes the integrity of holistic approach. In South African occupational therapy education, it is unclear whether any single course on teaching and learning of spirituality and spiritual care exists. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe occupational therapy students' perceptions and attitudes regarding spirituality and spiritual care in occupational therapy education. A cross-sectional descriptive study design of undergraduate occupational therapy students from one educational institution was used. Data included demographic characteristics, responses on Spiritual Care-Giving Scale (SCGS), Spiritual and Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS) and Spirituality in Occupational Therapy Scale (SOTS). A response rate of 50.5 % (n = 100 out of 198) was achieved. In the SCGS, among the factors only factor 1 had the highest mean value score showing consistent agreement about spirituality, whereas in the SSCRS only three factors were found to have highest mean score and one with lowest mean score. In SOTS, participants had a highest score mean in relation to formal education and training about spirituality. Thus, in the integration of spirituality and spiritual care a holistic approach needs to be considered in education to enhance students' knowledge of how to address mind, body and spirit needs. PMID:26374135

  6. Correlation of Skin Changes with Hormonal Changes in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Gowri, B Vijaya; Chandravathi, PL; Sindhu, PS; Naidu, K Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%), followed by hirsutism (62.5%), seborrhea (52.5%), androgenetic alopecia (AGA) (30%), acanthosis nigricans (22.5%) and acrochordons (10%). Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone. PMID:26288423

  7. The Correlation between Running Economy and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships in Highly Trained Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Andrew J.; Ingham, Stephen A.; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently. PMID:25849090

  8. Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Testosterone in Boys and Young Male Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chang, Jung-Su

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transition from childhood to teenaged years is associated with increased testosterone and a decreased iron status. It is not clear whether higher testosterone levels cause the decreased iron status, and to what extent, obesity-related inflammation influences the iron-testosterone relationship. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of testosterone, iron status, and anti-/proinflammatory cytokines in relation to nutritional status in boys and young adolescent Taiwanese males. Methods In total, 137 boys aged 7~13 yr were included. Parameters for obesity, the iron status, testosterone, and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results Overweight and obese (ow/obese) boys had higher mean serum testosterone, interleukin (IL)-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) levels compared to their normal-weight counterparts (all p<0.05). Mean serum ferritin was slightly higher in ow/obese boys compared to normal-weight boys, but this did not reach statistical significance. A multiple linear regression showed that serum ferritin (β = -0.7470, p = 0.003) was inversely correlated with testosterone, while serum IL-10 (β = 0.3475, p = 0.009) was positively associated with testosterone after adjusting for covariates. When normal-weight boys were separately assessed from ow/obesity boys, the association between testosterone and serum ferritin became stronger (β = -0.9628, p<0.0001), but the association between testosterone and IL-10 became non-significant (β = 0.1140, p = 0.4065) after adjusting for covariates. In ow/obese boys, only IL-10 was weakly associated with serum testosterone (β = 0.6444, p = 0.051) after adjusting for age. Conclusions Testosterone and serum ferritin are intrinsically interrelated but this relationship is weaker in ow/obese boys after adjusting for age. PMID:26646112

  9. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  10. European adults’ physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  11. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Ashley L; Lei, Esther L; Ketende, Sosthenes C; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70-7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11-30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09-7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15-0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  12. Stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS by healthcare workers at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The issue of stigma is very important in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Africa since it may affect patient attendance at healthcare centres for obtaining antiretroviral (ARV) medications and regular medical check-ups. Stigmatization creates an unnecessary culture of secrecy and silence based on ignorance and fear of victimization. This study was designed to determine if there is external stigmatization of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) by health care workers (HCWs) at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, South Africa. The study investigated the impact of knowledge of HIV/AIDS by HCWs on treatment of patients, as well as the comfort level and attitude of HCWs when rendering care to PLWHA. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to collect data using an anonymous self-administered structured questionnaire from 334 HCWs. The study was conducted in clinical departments of a large multidisciplinary 922-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in Durban, KZN. Results Overall HCWs had an above average knowledge about HIV/AIDS although some gaps in knowledge were identified. Tests of statistical significance showed that there was association between level of education and knowledge of HIV/AIDs (p ≤ 0.001); occupation and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p ≤ 0.001); and gender and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p = 0.004). Test for comfort level was only significant for gender, with males showing more comfort and empathy when dealing with PLWHA (p = 0.003). The study also revealed that patients were sometimes tested for HIV without informed consent before surgery, due to fear of being infected, and there was some gossiping about patients' HIV status by HCWs, thereby compromising patient confidentiality. The majority of HCWs showed a willingness to report incidents of stigmatization and discrimination to higher authorities, for better monitoring and control. Conclusions Although knowledge, attitude and comfort level of HCWs taking care of

  13. Fatty acid composition of the follicular fluid of normal weight, overweight and obese women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been well documented that the maturing oocyte is very vulnerable to changes in its micro-environment, the follicular fluid (FF). Recent research has focused on different components within this FF, like hormones, growth factors and metabolites, and how their concentrations are altered by diet and the metabolic health of the mother. It has been proposed that fatty acids (FAs) are potential factors that influence oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. However, a thorough study of the specific FF FA composition per lipid fraction and how this may be affected by BMI is currently lacking. Therefore, we investigated the BMI-related concentration of FAs in the phospholipid (PL), cholesteryl-ester (CHE), triglyceride (TG) and non-esterified (NE) lipid fraction in the FF of women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART). Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the FF of normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0 kg/m(2), n = 10), overweight (25.0 ≤ BMI < 30.0 kg/m(2), n = 10) and obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2), n = 10) women, undergoing ART, was sampled and analyzed for 23 specific FAs in the PL, CHE, TG and NEFA fraction, using a gas chromatographic analysis method. Differences between BMI-groups were studied by means of univariate general linear models and post hoc Sheffé tests. Results Total FA concentrations in the PL and CHE fraction did not differ between BMI groups. Total TG concentrations tended to differ and total NEFA concentrations differed significantly between BMI groups. Interestingly, 42% and 34% of the total FAs was esterified in the PL and CHE fraction, respectively, while only 10% were present in both the TG and NEFA fraction. Only few individual FA concentrations differed in the PL, CHE and TG fraction between BMI groups, whereas abundant BMI-related differences were found in the NEFA fraction. Conclusions Our data show that differences in BMI are associated with alterations in

  14. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with CD4 count in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive adults--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dev, Nishanth; Sahoo, Ratnakar; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Gadpayle, A K; Sharma, S C

    2015-11-01

    Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-positive patients is reported to be high in those with severe immune deficiency. However, there is paucity of literature in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive population. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and study its correlation with CD4 count in this population. In this cross-sectional study, patients presenting to the antiretroviral therapy clinic were screened with thyroid function tests, including thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels at the time of diagnosis. Two hundred and twenty-five HIV-positive and an equal number of healthy volunteers were enrolled. The mean (SD) CD4 count in the study group was 147.1 (84) and 70.7% had advanced immune deficiency with CD4 count <200 cells/µL. The overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 75.5% in the study group and 16% in the control group. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest abnormality noted in almost 53%. Significant correlation was observed between CD4 count and thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels (r = -0.86, r = 0.77, and r = 0.84, respectively, p < 0.0001 for all). The present study demonstrated high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in HIV-positive patients. The dysfunction is subclinical in most cases and correlates well with declining CD4 counts. PMID:25505045

  15. Correlation between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as liver damage markers in HIV infected naive patients: a concordance cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús; Grados-Chavarría, Bernardo Horacio; Fuentes-Allen, José Luis; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alfaro-Mejía, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests could be produced exclusively by direct inflammation in hepatocytes, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mechanisms by which HIV causes hepatic damage are still unknown. Our aim was to determine the correlation between HIV viral load, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of hepatic damage in HIV naive infected patients. We performed a concordance cross-sectional study. Patients with antiviral treatment experience, hepatotoxic drugs use or co-infection were excluded. We used a Pearson's correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between aminotransferases serum levels with HIV viral load. We enrolled 59 patients, 50 men and 9 women seen from 2006 to 2008. The mean (+/- SD) age of our subjects was 34.24 +/- 9.5, AST 37.73 +/- 29.94 IU/mL, ALT 43.34 +/- 42.41 IU/mL, HIV viral load 199,243 +/- 292,905 copies/mL, and CD4+ cells count 361 +/- 289 cells/mm(3). There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between AST serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.439, P < 0.001); and a weak correlation between ALT serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.276, P = 0.034); after adjusting the confounders in lineal regression model the correlation remained significant. Our results suggest that there is an association between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as markers of hepatic damage; we should improved recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy of hepatic damage in HIV infected patients. PMID:19878552

  16. Correlation between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as liver damage markers in HIV infected naive patients: a concordance cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús; Grados-Chavarría, Bernardo Horacio; Fuentes-Allen, José Luis; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alfaro-Mejía, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests could be produced exclusively by direct inflammation in hepatocytes, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mechanisms by which HIV causes hepatic damage are still unknown. Our aim was to determine the correlation between HIV viral load, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of hepatic damage in HIV naive infected patients. We performed a concordance cross-sectional study. Patients with antiviral treatment experience, hepatotoxic drugs use or co-infection were excluded. We used a Pearson's correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between aminotransferases serum levels with HIV viral load. We enrolled 59 patients, 50 men and 9 women seen from 2006 to 2008. The mean (± SD) age of our subjects was 34.24 ± 9.5, AST 37.73 ± 29.94 IU/mL, ALT 43.34 ± 42.41 IU/mL, HIV viral load 199,243 ± 292,905 copies/mL, and CD4+ cells count 361 ± 289 cells/mm3. There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between AST serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.439, P < 0.001); and a weak correlation between ALT serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.276, P = 0.034); after adjusting the confounders in lineal regression model the correlation remained significant. Our results suggest that there is an association between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as markers of hepatic damage; we should improved recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy of hepatic damage in HIV infected patients. PMID:19878552

  17. Prevalence of burnout and its correlates among residents in a tertiary medical center in Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakaran, B; Prabhakaran, A; Karunakaran, V

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Residents work in emotionally demanding environments with multiple stressors. The risk for burnout is high in them and it has significant negative consequences for their career. Burnout is also associated with consequences in terms of physical and mental health including insomnia, cardiovascular disease, depression and suicidal ideation. Thus, the study aimed to study the prevalence of burn out and its correlates among interns and residents at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Settings and Design: Cross Sectional Study at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Methods: It was a cross Sectional study of 558 interns and residents of Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Data was collected which included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory [CBI] which assesses burnout in the dimensions of Personal burnout, Work burnout and Patient related burnout, with a cut off score of 50 for each dimension. Age, sex, year of study, department the resident belonged to, or an intern, junior resident or a super speciality senior resident (resident doing super speciality course after their post graduate masters degree) were the correlates assessed. Statistical analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: More than one third of the participants were found to have burnout in one or another dimension of the CBI. Burnout was found to be the highest among the interns in the domains of personal burnout (64.05 %) and patient related burnout (68.62 %) and in junior residents for work related burnout (40%). Super specialty senior residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions. Among the residents, Non Medical/Non Surgical residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions, whereas surgical speciality residents had the highest of personal burnout (57.92 %) and Medical speciality residents had the highest patient related burnout (27.13%). Both medical and

  18. Do bullied children become anxious and depressed adults?: A cross-sectional investigation of the correlates of bullying and anxious depression.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Malhi, Gin S

    2006-03-01

    There is little empirical research examining the historical and clinical correlates of exposure to childhood bullying in adult clinical subjects. Using structured clinical assessments, the authors studied a group of adult males and females presenting to an outpatient depression clinic, to examine the childhood risk factors and the distinguishing comorbid features associated with those reporting exposure to bullying. Just over a quarter of both men and women reported having experienced bullying that was severe and traumatic. More of these subjects also reported several other well studied childhood risk factors. Childhood correlates that were particularly relevant for exposure to bullying were parental overcontrol, illness or disability, and the tendency to have an inhibited temperament early in life. The experience of childhood bullying was strongly related to high levels of comorbid anxiety, both in terms of greater levels of state anxiety and a higher prevalence of both social phobia and agoraphobia. Independent of other childhood risk factors, exposure to bullying was especially predictive of subjects' higher levels of general state anxiety and the tendency to express anxious arousal externally when under stress. These results are compatible with both cross-sectional and prospective studies of child and adolescent samples, and highlight the potential etiological significance of early peer victimization experiences for a percentage of adults suffering from depression with comorbid anxiety. PMID:16534438

  19. Correlates of partner support to abstain from prenatal alcohol use: a cross-sectional survey among Dutch partners of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    van der Wulp, Nickie Y; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein

    2016-09-01

    Partners can play an important role, but are often ignored in interventions targeting the prevention of prenatal alcohol use. A better understanding of the correlates of partner support to abstain from prenatal alcohol use can help to make a better use of partner support. The aim of this study was to identify correlates of this support by analysing differences between partners reporting low versus high support. An online cross-sectional study among 237 Dutch partners of pregnant women was conducted. Respondents were recruited through Dutch midwifery practices in September-October 2009. Questionnaires were based on the I-Change Model. Chi-square and t-test showed that partners reporting high support were more likely to desire their partner to abstain from alcohol use and to have received advice from their pregnant spouse or midwife that abstinence was desirable. They also had stronger perceptions that the baby would experience harm from prenatal alcohol use and that harm could be more severe, and they saw more advantages and fewer disadvantages of providing support. They also reported more influence from their social environment encouraging their support, had greater self-efficacy and had a stronger intention to support their partner during the remainder of the pregnancy compared to partners reporting low support. Health professionals may improve their alcohol advice by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of support with the partner and by encouraging couples to discuss and propose solutions for the situations in which partners find it difficult not to support alcohol abstinence. By providing an insight into important correlates of partner support, this study expands the research area aiming to reduce prenatal alcohol use. PMID:25944241

  20. Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-01-01

    Objective Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6–59 months in Somalia. Setting Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6–59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1×1 km spatial resolution. Participants 73 778 children aged 6–59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Results Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18–5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26–4.32). Conclusions The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central

  1. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  2. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption and its’ association with tobacco smoking among Sri Lankan adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies on alcohol consumption carried out in Sri Lanka are limited to single/few provinces in the island. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption among a larger sample of adults in Sri Lanka. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven of all nine provinces in Sri Lanka, between 2005 and 2006. A nationally representative sample of 5000 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using multi-stage random cluster sampling. Data of 4532 participants were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data analysis included chi-squared test, multiple logistic regression analysis and Spearman correlation using Stata/SE 10.0 (StataCorp LP., Texas, USA) software package. Results Males were 40%; mean age was 46.1 years (±15.1). The overall, urban and rural prevalence (95% CI) of current drinking was 23.7% (21.7 – 25.7), 29.5% (25.7 – 33.3) and 22.2% (19.8 – 24.7) respectively (p = 0.001). Current (M: 48.1%, F: 1.2%, p < 0.0001) and former (M: 21.4%, F: 0.7%, p < 0.0001) drinking was much higher in males. The highest prevalence of drinking in males (58.9%) and females (2.2%) was in the 30 – 39 and <20 year age groups respectively. Lowest prevalence in men (24.6%) and women (0%) was in the >70 years age-group. Hazardous drinking was seen in 5.2% of men and 0.02% of women. Male sex, urban living and current smoking correlated with both current and hazardous drinking. Lower level of education, and age >70 years positively correlated with hazardous drinking. Conclusions Alcohol is predominantly a problem in Sri Lankan males. In males, both current and hazardous drinking positively correlated with urban living, white collar occupation, Burgher ethnicity and current smoking. Hazardous drinking positively correlated with lower level of education and older age. The data shown here are useful in planning interventions simultaneously targeting alcohol and

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Bacterial Vaginosis in Different Sub-Populations of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jespers, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Verstraelen, Hans; Hardy, Liselotte; Buvé, Anne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV), HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit. Results At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7–10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis) and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment. Conclusions Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse. PMID:25289640

  4. Low-energy cross-section calculations of single molecules by electron impact: a classical Monte Carlo transport approach with quantum mechanical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, J. R.; Akabani, G.

    2014-05-01

    The present state of modeling radio-induced effects at the cellular level does not account for the microscopic inhomogeneity of the nucleus from the non-aqueous contents (i.e. proteins, DNA) by approximating the entire cellular nucleus as a homogenous medium of water. Charged particle track-structure calculations utilizing this approximation are therefore neglecting to account for approximately 30% of the molecular variation within the nucleus. To truly understand what happens when biological matter is irradiated, charged particle track-structure calculations need detailed knowledge of the secondary electron cascade, resulting from interactions with not only the primary biological component—water--but also the non-aqueous contents, down to very low energies. This paper presents our work on a generic approach for calculating low-energy interaction cross-sections between incident charged particles and individual molecules. The purpose of our work is to develop a self-consistent computational method for predicting molecule-specific interaction cross-sections, such as the component molecules of DNA and proteins (i.e. nucleotides and amino acids), in the very low-energy regime. These results would then be applied in a track-structure code and thereby reduce the homogenous water approximation. The present methodology—inspired by seeking a combination of the accuracy of quantum mechanics and the scalability, robustness, and flexibility of Monte Carlo methods—begins with the calculation of a solution to the many-body Schrödinger equation and proceeds to use Monte Carlo methods to calculate the perturbations in the internal electron field to determine the interaction processes, such as ionization and excitation. As a test of our model, the approach is applied to a water molecule in the same method as it would be applied to a nucleotide or amino acid and compared with the low-energy cross-sections from the GEANT4-DNA physics package of the Geant4 simulation toolkit

  5. Pineal gland calcification, lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and abdominal aorta calcifying atherosclerosis correlate in low back pain subjects: A cross-sectional observational CT study.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Sönmez, Iclal; Cakıt, Burcu Duyur; Koşar, Pınar; Koşar, Uğur

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to assess the possible impact of pineal gland calcification upon the intervertebral disc degeneration and abdominal aorta atherosclerosis in subjects with low back pain, and to investigate the course of these processes with aging. The study was carried out on 81 (66 women and 15 men) subjects: younger than 45 years (group X, n=22), 45-65 years of age (group Y, n=45), and older than 65 years (group Z, n=14). In addition to clinical data, computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain as well as X-ray and CT examination of the lumbar spine were recorded in this study. The degree of disc degeneration and calcification rates of aortic wall and pineal gland were independently determined by two radiologists. Both ratio of calcified pineal gland and density of pineal calcification increased progressively with aging. Also, both the degree of aortic wall calcification and disc degeneration score increased with advancing age. On CT scan, a positive correlation between degree of aortic wall calcification and disc degeneration score was found (r=0.306, p<0.01). Importantly, there was a positive association between calcification of the pineal gland and degenerative disc disease in X-ray or CT study (r=0.378 and r=0.295, p<0.005 and p<0.01, respectively), as well as between abdominal aorta atherosclerosis and pineal calcification (r=0.634, p<0.001). Our findings suggest that there is a significant interaction between pineal gland calcification and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and also abdominal aorta atherosclerosis. However, further studies with a larger subject cohorts are needed. PMID:18215511

  6. Prevalence and correlation of hypertension among adult population in Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Anteneh, Zelalem Alamrew; Yalew, Worku Awoke; Abitew, Dereje Birhanu

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the most common causes of premature death and morbidity and has a major impact on health care costs. It is an important public health challenge to both developed and developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and correlates of hypertension. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014 among 681 adult residents of Bahir Dar city using multistage sampling techniques. An interview-administrated questionnaire and physical measurements such as blood pressure (BP), weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences were employed to collect the data. The data were coded, entered, and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software package. Results A total of 678 responses were included in the analysis resulting in a response rate of 99.6%. The findings declared that 17.6%, 19.8%, and 2.2% of respondents were prehypertension, hypertension stage I, and hypertension stage II, respectively, on screening test. The overall prevalence of hypertension (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, or known hypertensive patient taking medications) was 25.1%. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age; having ever smoked cigarette; number of hours spent walking/cycling per day; number of hours spent watching TV per day; history of diabetes; adding salt to food in addition to the normal amount that is added to the food during cooking; and body mass index were statistically significant predictors of hypertension. Conclusion One out of every four respondents of the study had hypertension, and more than one out of three cases of hypertension (38.8%) did not know that they had the hypertension; 17.6% of the respondents were in prehypertension stage, which adds to overall future risk of hypertension. Therefore, mass screening for hypertension, health education to prevent substance use, regular exercise, reducing salt consumption, and life style modifications are recommended

  7. Magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia among adult HIV patients receiving first line HAART in Northwestern Tanzania: a cross sectional clinic based study

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Daniel Wilfred; Kilonzo, Semvua Bukheti; Mpondo, Bonaventura Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Moderate to severe anemia is an important clinical problem in HIV patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. The rate of progression and mortality in this sub group of patients is high compared to non anemic patients. In sub Saharan Africa with scale up of Anti retroviral therapy, the magnitude of this problem is not known especially in Tanzania. This study aimed at determining the magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia in HIV patients receiving first line ART in northwestern Tanzania. Methods This was a cross sectional clinic based study, involving adult HIV patients on first line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy at Bugando Medical Centre Care and Treatment Center. The patients’ data were analyzed using STATA version 11 to determine the prevalence of moderate to severe anemia and risk factors that could predict occurrence of anemia. Results In this study 346 patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy were enrolled, of whom 100(40.46%) had moderate to severe anemia. The odds of being anemic were strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 count (< 200 cells/μl) and HIV stage 3&4 at enrollment. Most of the anemic patients had mean corpuscular volume of >100fl. Conclusion The prevalence of moderate to severe anemia is significantly high in this cohort of HIV-infected patients on first line Anti Retroviral Therapy and it is strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 and HIV stage 3 and 4. On clinical grounds this suggests that patients who are initiated on Zidovudine based regimen and those in advanced HIV at enrollment should have regular haemoglobin follow up to identify anemia at its earliest stage to improve the clinical outcome of these patients. PMID:27200131

  8. Prevalence, characteristics and correlates of a positive-dementia screen in patients on antiretroviral therapy in Bamenda, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study we assess the prevalence, characteristics as well as socio-demographic and clinical correlates of a positive screen for HIV-associated dementia in a group of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Bamenda, Cameroon. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire was used to collect data on 400 patients attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital AIDS-treatment Centre. Patients were assessed for neurocognitive function using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) to assess finger-tapping (FT), alternating hand sequence (AHS) and a 4-word recall (4WR), each scored on a maximum of four. Results A total of 297 (74%) participants were females. The total IHDS score ranged from 6–12 with a mean of 9.02 and 85% of subjects screened positive for dementia (≤10 on IHDS). Participants performed worst in the AHS assessment with a mean of 2.25 (IQR: 2–3). In multivariable analyses, screening positive for dementia was significantly associated with having primary education or less (aOR: 8.33, 95%CI: 3.85, 16.67), and having HIV symptoms (aOR: 12.16, 95%CI: 3.08, 48.05). Conclusions A very high proportion of patients on ART screened positive for dementia using the IHDS. This could potentially be an indication of a high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in this population and or a poor performance of the IHDS in patients on ART. Future studies will need to assess the validity of the IHDS in this population of patients on ART and also evaluate long term outcomes in patients with positive dementia screens. PMID:23855622

  9. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  10. Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional survey of UK doctors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    /Leisure activities. Popular Culture and High Culture did not differ in their influence on Vocation/engagement, although there was a suggestion that Depersonalization was correlated with more interest in Popular Culture and less interest in High Culture. Conclusion In this cross-sectional study there is evidence, even after taking into account a wide range of individual difference measures, that doctors with greater Avocation/Leisure activities also have a greater sense of Vocation/Engagement. In contrast, being BurnedOut did not relate to Avocation/Leisure activities (but did relate to many other measures). Osler was probably correct in recommending to doctors that, 'While medicine is to be your vocation, or calling, see to it that you also have an avocation'. PMID:21878123

  11. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar Silva; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Fernandes, Natalia Maria Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives–BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels). Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence. Results Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%), Caucasians (72%) with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%), with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35–30.89], p = 0.009; patient level), and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96–6.10], p = 0.04; meso level) were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01–25.14; p = 0.04). Conclusions Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously. PMID:26619070

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Testing among Young People Enrolled in Non-Formal Education Centers in Urban Chiang Mai, Thailand: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S. Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV testing is the gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, and care. Despite the established vulnerability of young Thai people to HIV infection, studies examining the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing among the general population of Thai youth are still very limited. This study investigates socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with HIV testing among young Thai people enrolled in Non-formal Education Centers (NFEC) in urban Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. Methods This was a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among young unmarried Thai youth—between the ages of 15 and 24—who were enrolled in NFEC in urban Chiang Mai. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify correlates of “ever tested for HIV” among the sexually active participants. Findings Of the 295 sexually active participants, 27.3% reported “ever tested for HIV;” 65.4% “did not consistently use condom;” and 61.7% “had at least 2 lifetime partners.” We found that “self-efficacy” (AOR, 4.92; CI, 1.22–19.73); “perception that it is easy to find a location nearby to test for HIV” (AOR, 4.67; CI, 1.21–18.06); “having at least 2 lifetime sexual partners” (AOR, 2.05; CI, 1.09–3.85); and “ever been pregnant or made someone pregnant” (AOR, 4.06; CI, 2.69–9.15); were associated with increased odds of having ever been tested. On the other hand, “fear of HIV test results” (AOR, 0.21; CI, 0.08–0.57) was associated with lower odds of ever having been tested for HIV. Conclusion The main finding is that a substantially high proportion of Thai youth is engaged in risky sexual behaviors—yet reports low rates of ever having been tested for HIV. This highlights an urgent need to develop appropriate interventions—based on the identified correlates of HIV testing. There is also an urgent need to enhance HIV testing and to promote safer sexual behaviors among young Thai people—particularly those who are out

  13. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  14. Classical description of H(1 s ) and H*(n =2 ) for cross-section calculations relevant to charge-exchange diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariatore, N. D.; Otranto, S.; Olson, R. E.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we introduce a classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) methodology, specially conceived to provide a more accurate representation of charge-exchange processes between highly charged ions and H (1 s ) and H*(n=2 ) . These processes are of particular relevance in power fusion reactor programs, for which charge-exchange spectroscopy has become a useful plasma diagnostics tool. To test the methodology, electron-capture reactions from these targets by 6C ,7+N, and 8+O are studied at impact energies in the 10 -150 keV/amu range. State-selective cross sections are contrasted with those predicted by the standard microcanonical formulation of the CTMC method, the CTMC method with an energy variation of initial binding energies that produces an improved radial electron density, and the atomic orbital close-coupling method. The present results are found in to be much better agreement with the quantum-mechanical results than the results of former formulations of the CTMC method.

  15. DISSEMINATING EVIDENCE FROM A LANDMARK TRIAL: CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS OF DESCRIPTIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF THE ACCORD-LIPID TRIAL IN THE NEWS AND BIOMEDICAL LITERATURE

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Nicholas S.; Cheng, Theresa; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Shah, Nilay D.; Ross, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    The lipid component of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes trial (ACCORD-Lipid) was a landmark, publicly-funded trial demonstrating that fenofibrate, when added to statin therapy, was not associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes among patients with diabetes. We performed a cross-sectional study of all articles describing results of ACCORD-Lipid in the news and biomedical literature in the 15 months following its publication. For articles published in biomedical journals, we determined whether there was an association between authors’ conflict of interests (COI) and trial interpretation. We identified 67 news and 141 biomedical journal articles discussing ACCORD-Lipid. Approximately 30% of news and biomedical journal articles described fenofibrate as ineffective, whereas nearly 20% concluded it was effective. Among articles making a recommendation, approximately 50% of news and 67% of biomedical journal articles supported continued fibrate use. Authors with COI were more likely to describe fenofibrate as effective (27.1% vs. 8.9%; relative risk [RR]=3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22–7.50; P=0.008) and to support continued fibrate use (77.4% vs. 45.8%; RR=1.69, 95% CI, 1.07–2.67; P=0.006). ACCORD-Lipid was described inconsistently in news and biomedical journal articles, possibly creating uncertainty among patients and physicians, and COI were associated with more favorable trial interpretation. PMID:24796406

  16. Maternal and Child Health in Mongolia at 3 Years After Childbirth: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Kenji; Dagvadorj, Amarjargal; Hikita, Naoko; Sumya, Narantuya; Ganhuyag, Solongo; Bavuusuren, Bayasgalantai; Ota, Erika; Haruna, Megumi; Yoshida, Mikako; Kita, Sachiko; Noma, Hisashi; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-01

    Objectives In recent years Mongolia has made great advances towards Millennium Development Goals to reduce maternal and child mortality, however few studies have investigated maternal and child health status several years after childbirth. Our study aims to describe priority health issues in maternal and child health in Mongolia 3 years after childbirth, and key areas requiring further health policy development. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Bulgan province, Mongolia. Participants were women who gave birth in 2010 and lived in Bulgan in 2013, and their children who were almost 3 years of age. Data was collected using structured interviews, self-administered questionnaires, transcribed records from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook, anthropometric measurements, and a developmental assessment tool. Results Data was obtained from 1,019 women and 1,013 children (recovery rate: 94.1 %). Among women, 171 (17.2 %) were obese and had an average body mass index (BMI) of 25.7, 40 (4.4 %) experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) and 356 (36.2 %) reported urinary incontinence in the past month. Among children, 110 (10.8 %) were assessed as at risk of developmental delay, 131 (13.1 %) were overweight or obese, burns accounted for the highest number of serious accidents at 173 (17.0 %) while lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) were the most frequent cause of pediatric hospitalization. Conclusions for Practice Further development in health policy is required in Mongolia to target the significant health challenges of obesity, IPV, and urinary incontinence in women, and obesity, development delay, burns, and LRTIs in children. PMID:26676976

  17. Ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS and correlation with CD4+ cells count among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Jimma town, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS is one of twenty first century’s challenges to human being with protean manifestation affecting nearly all organs of our body. It is causing high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa with numerous ocular complications and blindness. The purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS and their correlation with CD4+Tcells count. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 348 HIV-positive patients presented to Anti-Retroviral Therapy clinics. Data were collected using face-to-face interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigation, and analyzed using SPSS version 13 software. Statistical association test was done and p<0.05 was considered significant. Other statistical tests like student t-test and logistic regression were also done. Results Of 348 patients, 175 were on antiretroviral therapy and 173 were not on therapy. The mean duration of therapy was 27 months. The overall prevalence of ocular manifestations was 25.3%. The commonest ocular manifestation was keratoconjunctivitis sicca (11.3%) followed by blepharitis (3.2%), molluscum contagiosum (2.6%), conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (2.3%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (2.3%), cranial nerve palsies (2%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) (1.2%), and HIV retinopathy (0.6%). HIV retinopathy and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patient with CD4+ count of <200 cells/μl while HZO and molluscum contagiosum were common in patients with CD4+ count of 200–499 cells/μl. Prevalence of ocular manifestation was higher among patients on HAART (32.6%) than those patients not on HAART (17.9%) (p<0.05). There was statistically significant association between ocular manifestation and sex, CD4+Tcells count, and age (p<0.05). CD4+ count, <200 cells/μl and age >35 years were independent risk factors for ocular manifestations. Conclusion The study showed that the prevalence of ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS is

  18. Awareness and correlates of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although considerable evidence has demonstrated that physical activity is associated with breast cancer prevention, few studies have assessed the level of awareness of this association. Awareness is a key first step to successful of behavior change. Increasing awareness may contribute to promote physical activity and prevent breast cancer at the population level. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of awareness about the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women. Methods 1,000 Japanese women aged 20–69 years (mean age: 44.3 ± 13.4 years) who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Awareness of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention, knowledge of breast cancer (symptom, risk factor, screening), exposure to information about physical activity and cancer, a self-reported physical activity, and sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, having a child, education level, employment status, and household income) were obtained. Force-entry logistic regression analysis was used. Results The prevalence of awareness was 31.5% (95% CI: 28.6-34.4). Factors significantly associated with awareness included sociodemographic variables, exposure to information, and knowledge of breast cancer. Being married (AOR, 95% CI: 1.75, 1.05–2.92) was positively related to awareness, while having children (0.65, 0.36–0.86) was negatively related. College graduates or those with higher levels of education (1.50, 1.01–2.22) were significantly more likely to be aware than those who had not graduated high school. Moreover, exposure to information (2.11, 1.51–2.95), and high knowledge of symptoms (2.43, 1.75–3.36) were positively associated with awareness. Finally, low knowledge of risk factors (0.30, 0.22–0.40) was negatively associated with awareness. Conclusions Japanese women through internet-based study were poorly aware of the role of physical activity in breast

  19. The total charm cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  20. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  1. Comment on "Classical description of H (1 s ) and H*(n =2 ) for cross-section calculations relevant to charge-exchange diagnostics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, A.; Errea, L. F.; Illescas, Clara; Méndez, L.

    2016-06-01

    Cariatore et al. [Phys. Rev. A 91, 042709 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.042709] have introduced a modification of the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method, specially conceived to provide an accurate representation of charge-exchange processes between highly charged ions and H (1 s ) , H*(n =2 ) . We point out that this new CTMC treatment is based on nonstable initial distributions for H*(n =2 ) targets and an improper description of the H (1 s ) target.

  2. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  3. 242Amm fission cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, J. C.; White, R. M.; Howe, R. E.; Landrum, J. H.; Dougan, R. J.; Dupzyk, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Amm has been measured over the energy region from 10-3 eV to ~20 MeV in a series of experiments utilizing a linac-produced "white" neutron source and a monoenergetic source of 14.1 MeV neutrons. The cross section was measured relative to that of 235U in the thermal (0.001 to ~3 eV) and high energy (1 keV to ~20 MeV) regions and normalized to the ENDF/B-V 235U(n,f) evaluated cross section. In the resonance energy region (0.5 eV to 10 keV) the neutron flux was measured using thin lithium glass scintillators and the relative cross section thus obtained was normalized to the thermal energy measurement. This procedure allowed a consistency check between the thermal and high energy data. The cross section data have a statistical accuracy of ~0.5% at thermal energies and in the 1-MeV energy region, and a systematic uncertainty of ~5%. We confirmed that 242Amm has the largest thermal fission cross section known with a 2200 m/sec value of 6328 b. Results of a Breit-Wigner sum-of-single-levels analysis of 48 fission resonances up to 20 eV are presented and the connection of these resonance properties to the large thermal cross section is discussed. Our measurements are compared with previously reported results.

  4. Measurement of the cross section and angular correlations for associated production of a Z boson with b hadrons in pp collisions at = 7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Gonzalez, J. Suarez; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Velde, C. Vander; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Dildick, S.; Garcia, G.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Rios, A. A. Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Selvaggi, M.; Garcia, J. M. Vizan; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Martins, M. Correa; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Da Silva, W. L. Prado; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Manganote, E. J. Tonelli; Pereira, A. Vilela; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Montoya, C. A. Carrillo; Sierra, L. F. Chaparro; Gomez, J. P.; Moreno, B. Gomez; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Tikvica, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Kamel, A. Ellithi; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; de Cassagnac, R. Granier; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Donckt, M. Vander; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Ahmad, W. Haj; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Martin, M. Aldaya; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Costanza, F.; Pardos, C. Diez; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Horton, D.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Cipriano, P. M. Ribeiro; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Heine, K.; Höing, R. S.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Marchesini, I.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Troendle, D.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Kornmayer, A.; Pardo, P. Lobelle; Martschei, D.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Radics, B.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Saxena, P.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Singh, A. P.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Mehdiabadi, S. Paktinat; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; de Fatis, T. Tabarelli; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fantinel, S.; Fanzago, F.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, J. E.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Grigelionis, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Moreno, S. Carrillo; Valencia, F. Vazquez; Ibarguen, H. A. Salazar; Linares, E. Casimiro; Pineda, A. Morelos; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Parracho, P. G. Ferreira; Gallinaro, M.; Antunes, J. Rodrigues; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Maestre, J. Alcaraz; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Llatas, M. Chamizo; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Peris, A. Delgado; Vázquez, D. Domínguez; Bedoya, C. Fernandez; Ramos, J. P. Fernández; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Lopez, O. Gonzalez; Lopez, S. Goy; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; De Martino, E. Navarro; Pelayo, J. Puerta; Olmeda, A. Quintario; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Menendez, J. Fernandez; Folgueras, S.; Caballero, I. Gonzalez; Iglesias, L. Lloret; Gomez, J. Piedra; Cifuentes, J. A. Brochero; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Campderros, J. Duarte; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Sanchez, J. Gonzalez; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Virto, A. Lopez; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Rivero, C. Martinez; Matorras, F.; Sanchez, F. J. Munoz; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Cortabitarte, R. Vilar; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bendavid, J.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Perez, J. A. Coarasa; Colafranceschi, S.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Garrido, R. Gomez-Reino; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y.-J.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orsini, L.; Cortezon, E. Palencia; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Stoye, M.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; del Arbol, P. Martinez Ruiz; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; Favaro, C.; Rikova, M. Ivova; Kilminster, B.; Mejias, B. Millan; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Taroni, S.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Topaksu, A. Kayis; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Cerci, D. Sunar; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Bahtiyar, H.; Barlas, E.; Cankocak, K.; Günaydin, Y. O.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Yücel, M.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Bryer, A. Guneratne; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Tapper, A.; Acosta, M. Vazquez; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; John, J. St.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Nelson, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Felcini, M.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Takasugi, E.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D'Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Villalba, R. Magaña; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Kcira, D.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Lopez, E. Luiggi; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Kaufman, G. Nicolas; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Outschoorn, V. I. Martinez; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Ratnikova, N.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Lacroix, F.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Peterman, A.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Ceballos, G. Gomez; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Haupt, J.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Suarez, R. Gonzalez; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Wan, Z.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Vargas, J. E. Ramirez; Alagoz, E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Marono, M. Vidal; Wang, F.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Don, C. Kottachchi Kankanamge; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Kaadze, K.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Mozer, M. U.; Ojalvo, I.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-12-01

    A study of proton-proton collisions in which two b hadrons are produced in association with a Z boson is reported. The collisions were recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeVwith the CMS detector at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 5.2 fb-1. The b hadrons are identified by means of displaced secondary vertices, without the use of reconstructed jets, permitting the study of b-hadron pair production at small angular separation. Differential cross sections are presented as a function of the angular separation of the b hadrons and the Z boson. In addition, inclusive measurements are presented. For both the inclusive and differential studies, different ranges of Z boson momentum are considered, and each measurement is compared to the predictions from different event generators at leading-order and next-to-leading-order accuracy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  6. Canonical Correlation: Terms and Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Richard C.; Hu, Yuehluen

    The use of terms to describe and interpret results from canonical correlation analysis has been inconsistent across research studies. This study assembled the terminology related to the use and interpretation of canonical correlation analysis from research articles, textbooks, and computer manuals. Research articles using canonical correlation…

  7. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  8. Clinical Significance of Cerebrovascular Biomarkers and White Matter Tract Integrity in Alzheimer Disease: Clinical correlations With Neurobehavioral Data in Cross-Sectional and After 18 Months Follow-ups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Kung; Lu, Yan-Ting; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Sz-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-07-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors and white matter (WM) damage lead to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer dementia (AD). This study investigated WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild to moderate AD and investigated specific fiber tract involvement with respect to predefined cerebrovascular risk factors and neurobehavioral data prediction cross-sectionally and after 18 months. To identify the primary pathoanatomic relationships of risk biomarkers to fiber tract integrity, we predefined 11 major association tracts and calculated tract specific fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Eighty-five patients with AD underwent neurobehavioral assessments including the minimental state examination (MMSE) and 12-item neuropsychiatric inventory twice with a 1.5-year interval to represent major outcome factors. In the cross-sectional data, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels correlated variably with WM FA values. After entering the biomarkers and WM FA into a regression model to predict neurobehavioral outcomes, only fiber tract FA or homocysteine level predicted the MMSE score, and fiber tract FA or age predicted the neuropsychiatric inventory total scores and subdomains of apathy, disinhibition, and aberrant motor behavior. In the follow-up neurobehavioral data, the mean global FA value predicted the MMSE and aberrant motor behavior subdomain, while age predicted the anxiety and elation subdomains. Cerebrovascular risk biomarkers may modify WM microstructural organization, while the association with fiber integrity showed greater clinical significance to the prediction of neurobehavioral outcomes both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. PMID:26181568

  9. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  10. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  11. Documentation of Uncertainties in Experimental Cross Sections for EXFOR

    SciTech Connect

    Otuka, N.; Smith, D.L.

    2014-06-15

    Documentation of uncertainties and covariances in experimental nuclear reaction cross sections has been assessed. Following consideration of the importance of covariances for nuclear data in various nuclear applications, and presentation of a simple numerical example to demonstrate this point, the minimum basic concepts (mean, covariance, standard derivation, partial uncertainties, micro- and macro-correlation coefficients) are introduced. A deterministic approach to propagating the covariances in primary measured parameters (e.g., counts) to the derived cross sections is discussed, using a neutron-induced activation cross section measurement as an example. Finally, various approaches to documentation (publication, compilation) of experimental cross sections to facilitate their use in future evaluations are mentioned.

  12. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

  13. Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. Results Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. Conclusion A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed

  14. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet in Morocco and its correlates: cross-sectional analysis of a sample of the adult Moroccan population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary habits in Morocco are changing and the causes are not well understood. This study aimed to analyse socio-demographic factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) in a national random sample of the adult Moroccan population. Methods The data collected in this cross-sectional survey included socio-demographic factors and a food frequency questionnaire. MeDi adherence was assessed in 2214 individuals with complete dietary data. MeDi adherence was measured according to a simplified MeDi score based on the weekly frequency of intake of eight food groups (vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereal or potatoes, fish, red meat, dairy products and olive oil) with the use of the sex specific medians of the sample as cut-offs. A value of 0 or 1 was assigned to consumption of each component according to its presumed detrimental or beneficial effect on health. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between MeDi adherence (low score 1-4 vs. high 5-8) and other factors. Results Mean age of the sample was 41.4 (standard deviation 15.3) years, 45.4% were men and 29.9% had a low MeDi adherence. Married subjects (adjusted odds ratio ORa=0.68, 95% CI 0.55-0.84) were less likely to have a low MeDi adherence compared to single, divorced or widowed persons. Persons from rural areas (ORa=1.46, 95% CI: 1.02-2.08), were more often low MeDi adherents compared to those from urban areas. Obese persons (ORa=1.56, 95% CI: 1.16-2.11) were more prone to low MeDi adherence than normal weight individuals. Conclusion MeDi is far from being a universal pattern in the Moroccan population. Intervention strategies should be implemented in target groups to maintain the traditional MeDi pattern considered as the original diet in Morocco. PMID:22578133

  15. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  16. Stratigraphic cross section and coal bed correlations of uppermost Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks between Painted Canyon and Davis Buttes, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinds, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This report is an extension of the author's stratigraphic and coal -bed correlations from the vicinity of the Painted Canyon Overlook, at the south edge of Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park, eastward to the vicinity of Davis Buttes, near Dickinson, N. Dak.

  17. Prevalence, correlates, and prospective predictors of non-suicidal self-injury among New Zealand adolescents: cross-sectional and longitudinal survey data.

    PubMed

    Garisch, Jessica Anne; Wilson, Marc Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is common among adolescents and linked to many maladaptive outcomes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of NSSI among a community sample of New Zealand adolescents. A self-report questionnaire was administered to adolescents at time 1 (N = 1162, mean age = 16.35), and approximately five months later (time 2, N = 830, mean age = 16.49). Prevalence and bivariate correlations were assessed at both time points, and cross-lag correlations using matched data (N = 495, mean age = 16.23). Lifetime history of NSSI was 48.7 % (females 49.4 %, males 48 %). Consistent with previous international research, NSSI was associated with higher Alexithymia, depression, anxiety, bullying, impulsivity, substance abuse, abuse history and sexuality concerns and lower mindfulness, resilience and self-esteem. Cross-lag correlations suggested NSSI is directly (perhaps causally) related to psychological vulnerability in various domains (e.g., increased depression and lower self-esteem), while bullying may be more distal to NSSI, rather than a proximal predictor. PMID:26157484

  18. Correlates of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA) and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children. Methods A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal) participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status. Results In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01), while participation in sport clubs was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P < 0.01) in 15-year-olds. No associations with percent time sedentary were observed in either age group. Conclusion Frequency of outdoor play after school is a significant correlate for daily time in MVPA in 9-year-olds, while this correlate is attenuated in favour of participation in sport and exercise in clubs in 15-year-olds. Targeting walking to school or reduced TV viewing time in order to increase time in daily MVPA in children is unlikely to be sufficient. Correlates related to time spent sedentary need further examination. PMID:19735565

  19. Lead-lag cross-sectional structure and detection of correlated anticorrelated regime shifts: Application to the volatilities of inflation and economic growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Sornette, Didier

    2007-07-01

    We have recently introduced the “thermal optimal path” (TOP) method to investigate the real-time lead-lag structure between two time series. The TOP method consists in searching for a robust noise-averaged optimal path of the distance matrix along which the two time series have the greatest similarity. Here, we generalize the TOP method by introducing a more general definition of distance which takes into account possible regime shifts between positive and negative correlations. This generalization to track possible changes of correlation signs is able to identify possible transitions from one convention (or consensus) to another. Numerical simulations on synthetic time series verify that the new TOP method performs as expected even in the presence of substantial noise. We then apply it to investigate changes of convention in the dependence structure between the historical volatilities of the USA inflation rate and economic growth rate. Several measures show that the new TOP method significantly outperforms standard cross-correlation methods.

  20. Photoionization cross section for He in the hyperspherical coordinate method

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.; Starace, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    In order to more fully explore the role of electron correlations in the photoionization process the hyperspherical coordinate method of Macek was employed in calculating photoionization cross sections of He. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  1. A cross-sectional evaluation of correlates of HIV testing practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Faiza; Delegchoimbol, Altanchimeg; Jamiyanjamts, Naranchimeg; Sovd, Tugsdelger; Mason, Krystal; Baral, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzed patterns and associations of HIV testing including sexual practices, HIV related knowledge, and human rights contexts among MSM in Mongolia. 313 participants were accrued using respondent-driven sampling and administered a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics are presented with crude and adjusted-point estimates with confidence intervals (95 % CI); and logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with HIV testing in the last 12 months. RDS-adjustment demonstrated that 48.9 % (95 % CI = 36.7-58.3) of MSM had an HIV test in the past 12 months. Logistic regression revealed that experience of a human rights violation, enacted (OR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.26-0.97) or perceived (OR = 0.56, 95 % CI = 0.26-0.97), was inversely associated with a recent HIV test. Higher level of education (OR = 1.84, 95 % CI = 1.14-2.99), knowledge that anal sex is highest risk for HIV infection (OR = 4.54, 95 % CI = 2.41-8.56), and having 5 or more male sexual partners (OR = 1.82, 95 % CI = 1.00-3.30), were positively associated with a recent HIV test. MSM in Mongolia are at high risk for HIV infection and coverage of HIV testing is suboptimal. Understanding the variable sexual risk practices and barriers to HIV testing are vital to designing effective and relevant HIV-status dependent HIV intervention services. PMID:23354852

  2. Personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural south-west England: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the health risks, physical inactivity is common. Identifying the correlates of physical activity to inform the design of interventions to reduce the disease burden associated with physical inactivity is a public health imperative. Rural adults have a unique set of characteristics influencing their activity behaviour, and are typically understudied, especially in England. The aim of this study was to identify the personal, social, and environmental correlates of physical activity in adults living in rural villages. Methods The study used baseline data from 2415 adults (response rate: 37.7%) participating in the first time period of a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial, conducted in 128 rural villages from south-west England. Data collected included demographic characteristics, social factors, perception of the local environment, village level factors (percentage male, mean age, population density, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and sport market segmentation), and physical activity behaviour. Random effects (“multilevel”) logistic regression models were fitted to the binary outcome whether individuals met physical activity guidelines, and random effects linear regression models were fitted to the continuous outcome MET-minutes per week leisure time physical activity, using the personal, social, environmental, and village-level factors as predictors. Results The following factors both increased the odds of meeting the recommended activity guidelines and were associated with more leisure-time physical activity: being male (p = 0.002), in good health (p < 0.001), greater commitment to being more active (p = 0.002), favourable activity social norms (p = 0.004), greater physical activity habit (p < 0.001), and recent use of recreational facilities (p = 0.01). In addition, there was evidence (p < 0.05) that younger age, lower body mass index, having a physical occupation, dog ownership, inconvenience of public

  3. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including ‘cooking, washing up’. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  4. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time Use Survey. Cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to document the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of time spent cooking by adults in the 2005 UK Time-Use Survey. Respondents reported their main activities, in 10 minute slots, throughout one 24 hour period. Activities were coded into 30 pre-defined codes, including 'cooking, washing up'. Four measures of time spent cooking were calculated: any time spent cooking, 30 continuous minutes spent cooking, total time spent cooking, and longest continuous time spent cooking. Socio-demographic correlates were: age, employment, social class, education, and number of adults and children in the household. Analyses were stratified by gender. Data from 4214 participants were included. 85% of women and 60% of men spent any time cooking; 60% of women and 33% of men spent 30 continuous minutes cooking. Amongst women, older age, not being in employment, lower social class, greater education, and living with other adults or children were positively associated with time cooking. Few differences in time spent cooking were seen in men. Socio-economic differences in time spent cooking may have been overstated as a determinant of socio-economic differences in diet, overweight and obesity. Gender was a stronger determinant of time spent cooking than other socio-demographic variables. PMID:26004671

  5. A cross-sectional evaluation of the correlation between disease severity and quality of life in chronic rhinosinusitis patients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowosusi, O Z; Asoegwu, C N; Olagunju, A T; Nwawolo, C C

    2015-09-01

    Quality of Life (QoL) studies are increasingly being used as the primary outcome measure in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) globally. However, little is known about QoL and the interplay of identifiable factors on QoL in CRS in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated the correlation between disease severity and QoL in chronic rhinosinusitis patients. A total of 147 adults with subjective severity rating of CRS were studied. Participants were assessed using designed questionnaire, Individual Rhinosinusitis Symptom Severity Score Assessment (IRSSSA) and Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) questionnaires to elicit socio-demographic/clinical profile, CRS symptom severity and QoL, respectively. The mean age of the participants was 36.86 ± 11.91 years. The mean severity score of all 147 CRS cases was 3.8 ± 1.13. The majority of participants (N = 80; 54.4 %) had moderate disease. The RSDI mean scores for the participants for overall HRQoL were 40.6 ± 19.8. (Median = 40; Range = 77), for physical domain 15.2 ± 7.7, functional domain 12.1 ± 6.4 and emotional domain 13.2 ± 8.2. The trend of association between the disease severity scores and the overall HRQoL on Pearson linear correlation indicates a positive linear association of worsening overall HRQoL with increasing disease severity (R = 0.83; P < 0.0001). The severity of CRS impacted negatively on the HRQoL. All domains were significantly affected by the disease severity particularly the physical domain. Patients adjudged severity of their disease and its' impact on their quality of life should be considered in the determination of the line of their management which could include psychosocial intervention. PMID:25344868

  6. Both pelvic radiography and lateral abdominal radiography correlate well with coronary artery calcification measured by computed tomography in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Daqing; Ruan, Yizhe; Pu, Lei; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Deng, Fei; Yang, Hongling; Li, Guisen; Wang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Lateral abdominal radiograph is suggested as an alternative to coronary artery computed tomography (CT) in evaluating vascular calcification. Simple scoring systems including pelvic radiograph scoring and abdominal scoring system were utilized to study their correlation with coronary artery calcification. Methods In 106 MHD patients, coronary artery CT, lateral abdominal, and pelvic radiograph were taken. The Agatston scoring system was applied to evaluate the degree of coronary artery calcification which was categorized according to Agatston coronary artery calcification score (CACS) ≥ 30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000. Abdominal aortic calcification was scored by 4-scored and 24-scored systems. Pelvic artery calcification was scored by a 4-scored system. Sensitivities and specificities of abdominal aortic calcification scores and pelvic artery calcification scores to predict different categories of coronary artery calcification were analyzed. We studied the diagnostic capability of abdominal aorta calcification and pelvic artery calcification to predict different CACS categories by calculating likelihood ratios. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the area under the curve for each of these testing procedures. Findings The prevalence was 48(45.3%), 15 (14.2%), 11 (10.4%), 11 (10.4%), and 11 (10.4%) for CACs > 0, ≥30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000, respectively. The degree of CACs was positively correlated with patient age, prevalence of diabetes, abdominal aorta scores, and pelvic calcification scores. The areas under the curves for different CACS by all X-ray scoring systems were above 0.70 except pelvic 4-scored system for diagnosing CACS ≥30, without significant difference (P > 0.05). Discussion Both lateral abdominal and pelvic plain radiographs were demonstrated as acceptable alternatives to CT in evaluating vascular calcification. PMID:26932162

  7. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  8. A cross-sectional examination of socio-demographic and school-level correlates of children’s school travel mode in Ottawa, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Active school transport (AST) is an important source of children’s daily physical activity (PA). However, decreasing rates of AST have been reported in multiple countries during the last decades. The purpose of the present study was to examine the socio-demographic and school-level correlates of AST. Methods A stratified sample of children (N = 567, mean age = 10.0 years; 57.8% female) was recruited in the Ottawa area. Four sources of data were used for analyses: 1) child questionnaire including questions on school travel mode and time; 2) parent questionnaire providing information on household socio-demographic characteristics; 3) school administrator survey assessing school policies and practices pertaining to PA; and 4) school site audit performed by the study team. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify socio-demographic and school-level correlates of AST while controlling for school clustering. Results Individual factors associated with higher odds of AST were male gender (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.30-3.03), journey time <5 minutes vs. >15 minutes (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.17-4.37), and 5–15 minutes vs. >15 minutes (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.27-4.03). Children were more likely to engage in AST if school administrators reported that crossing guards were employed (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.22-4.30), or if they expressed major or moderate concerns about crime in the school neighbourhood (OR = 3.34; 95% CI = 1.34-8.32). In schools that identified safe routes to school and where traffic calming measures were observed, children were much more likely to engage in AST compared to schools without these features (OR = 7.87; 95% CI = 2.85-21.76). Moreover, if only one of these features was present, this was not associated with an increased likelihood of AST. Conclusion These findings suggest that providing crossing guards may facilitate AST. Additionally, there was a synergy between the

  9. (Fast neutron cross section measurements)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months.

  10. Deeply virtual Compton Scattering cross section measured with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Guegan, Baptistse

    2014-09-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Including and extending the information provided by the form factors and the parton distribution functions, they describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark in the nucleon eN --> e'N'g, is the exclusive process most directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.9-GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing us to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region : 1.0 < Q2 < 4.6 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58 and 0.09 < -t < 2.0 GeV2. In this paper, we show preliminary results of unpolarized cross sections and of polarized cross section differences for the DVCS channel.

  11. Comparison of Correlates of Bone Mineral Density in Individuals Adhering to Lacto-Ovo, Vegan, or Omnivore Diets: A Cross-Sectional Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Knurick, Jessica R.; Johnston, Carol S.; Wherry, Sarah J.; Aguayo, Izayadeth

    2015-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with factors that may not support bone health, such as low body mass and low intakes of protein; yet, these diets are alkaline, a factor that favors bone mineral density (BMD). This study compared the correlates of BMD in young, non-obese adults consuming meat-based (n = 27), lacto-ovo vegetarian (n = 27), or vegan (n = 28) diets for ≥1 year. A 24 h diet recall, whole body DXA scan, 24 h urine specimen, and fasting blood sample were collected from participants. BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Protein intake was reduced ~30% in individuals consuming lacto-ovo and vegan diets as compared to those consuming meat-based diets (68 ± 24, 69 ± 29, and 97 ± 47 g/day respectively, p = 0.006); yet dietary protein was only associated with BMD for those following vegan diets. Urinary pH was more alkaline in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups versus omnivores (6.5 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 6.2 ± 0.4 respectively, p = 0.003); yet urinary pH was associated with BMD in omnivores only. These data suggest that plant-based diets are not detrimental to bone in young adults. Moreover, diet prescriptions for bone health may vary among diet groups: increased fruit and vegetable intake for individuals with high meat intakes and increased plant protein intake for individuals who follow a vegetarian diet plan. PMID:25970147

  12. Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains—work, travel and leisure—in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Methods Adult participants (n = 640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. Results The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4–47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Conclusions Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide

  13. Comparison of correlates of bone mineral density in individuals adhering to lacto-ovo, vegan, or omnivore diets: a cross-sectional investigation.

    PubMed

    Knurick, Jessica R; Johnston, Carol S; Wherry, Sarah J; Aguayo, Izayadeth

    2015-05-01

    Vegetarian diets are associated with factors that may not support bone health, such as low body mass and low intakes of protein; yet, these diets are alkaline, a factor that favors bone mineral density (BMD). This study compared the correlates of BMD in young, non-obese adults consuming meat-based (n = 27), lacto-ovo vegetarian (n = 27), or vegan (n = 28) diets for ≥1 year. A 24 h diet recall, whole body DXA scan, 24 h urine specimen, and fasting blood sample were collected from participants. BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Protein intake was reduced ~30% in individuals consuming lacto-ovo and vegan diets as compared to those consuming meat-based diets (68 ± 24, 69 ± 29, and 97 ± 47 g/day respectively, p = 0.006); yet dietary protein was only associated with BMD for those following vegan diets. Urinary pH was more alkaline in the lacto-ovo and vegan groups versus omnivores (6.5 ± 0.4, 6.7 ± 0.4, and 6.2 ± 0.4 respectively, p = 0.003); yet urinary pH was associated with BMD in omnivores only. These data suggest that plant-based diets are not detrimental to bone in young adults. Moreover, diet prescriptions for bone health may vary among diet groups: increased fruit and vegetable intake for individuals with high meat intakes and increased plant protein intake for individuals who follow a vegetarian diet plan. PMID:25970147

  14. Clinical, Functional and Health-Related Quality of Life Correlates of Clinically Significant Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Christelle; Ranque, Brigitte; Baubet, Thierry; Bérezné, Alice; Mestre-Stanislas, Caroline; Rannou, François; Papelard, Agathe; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Revel, Michel; Moro, Marie-Rose; Guillevin, Loïc; Poiraudeau, Serge; Mouthon, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36). Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD) (defined cut-off≥8). Results 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc), and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. Conclusion High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ manifestations. PMID

  15. Rheologic results and their correlation to hemostatic changes in patients with moderate and severe preeclampsia: an observational cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Amr A; Csorba, Roland; Yilmaz, Asli; Tsikoaras, Panagioti; von Tempelhoff, Georg-Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    %) and specificity (33.8%) in women with subsequent diagnosis of severe preeclampsia, whereas sensitivity was 100% for a value>10.95 g/dL. There were no statistically significant differences for none of the rheological parameters at the time of delivery between groups of patient with moderate v.s severe preeclampsia. Severe preeclampsia and IUGR, however, was associated with statistically significantly higher RBC aggregation as compared to patients with moderate preeclampsia. Plasma viscosity was statistically significantly (p<0.05) correlated with Fibrinogen values (r=0.16), leukocyte-(r=0.11) and platelets-count (r=0.127), and hemoglobin/hematocrit values in particular (r=0.23/0.26). Although mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin concentration are higher in patients with subsequent development of severe preeclampsia, due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this parameter clinical use for identifying women at risk is of limited value. On the other hand, a hemoglobin value below 11.0 g/dL excluded the risk for severe preeclampsia to 100%. Blood rheological parameters at the time of delivery in the absence of IUGR are not markedly influenced by severity of preeclampsia. PMID:23089882

  16. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  17. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. E.

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text format that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).

  18. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text formatmore » that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).« less

  19. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  20. Cross sections for electron scattering by atomic potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Msezane, A.Z.; Awuah, P.; Hiamang, S. Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 ); Allotey, F.K.A. )

    1992-12-01

    Electron elastic and collisional excitation cross sections from the ground state of potassium are calculated using the noniterative integral-equation method of Henry, Rountree, and Smith (Comput. Phys. Commun. 23, 233 (1981)) in the electron energy range 4{le}{ital E}{le}200 eV. Configuration-interaction target wave functions that take account of correlation and polarization effects are used to represent the ground state and the six lowest excited states 4{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, 5{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}, 3{ital d} {sup 2}{ital D}, 5{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, 4{ital d} {sup 2}{ital D}, and 6{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}. Elastic and discrete excitation cross sections are obtained in a seven-state close-coupling (7CC) approximation. The 7CC elastic and excitation cross sections are compared and contrasted. Near threshold the elastic cross section dominates the resonance, 4{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}{r arrow}4{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, and the sum of the other remaining excitation cross sections. Comparison of our total cross sections with some available experimental and theoretical data is also effected. The discrepancy between the recent measurement of the total cross section by Kwan {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Rev. A 44, 1620 (1991)) on the one hand and other measurements near threshold on the other hand is explained.

  1. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  3. Do Trunk Muscles Affect the Lumbar Interbody Fusion Rate?: Correlation of Trunk Muscle Cross Sectional Area and Fusion Rates after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Stand-Alone Cage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man Kyu; Park, Bong Jin; Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Sung Min

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although trunk muscles in the lumbar spine preserve spinal stability and motility, little is known about the relationship between trunk muscles and spinal fusion rate. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the correlation between trunk muscles cross sectional area (MCSA) and fusion rate after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using stand-alone cages. Methods A total of 89 adult patients with degenerative lumbar disease who were performed PLIF using stand-alone cages at L4–5 were included in this study. The cross-sectional area of the psoas major (PS), erector spinae (ES), and multifidus (MF) muscles were quantitatively evaluated by preoperative lumbar magnetic resonance imaging at the L3–4, L4–5, and L5–S1 segments, and bone union was evaluated by dynamic lumbar X-rays. Results Of the 89 patients, 68 had bone union and 21 did not. The MCSAs at all segments in both groups were significantly different (p<0.05) for the PS muscle, those at L3–4 and L4–5 segments between groups were significantly different (p=0.048, 0.021) for the ES and MF muscles. In the multivariate analysis, differences in the PS MCSA at the L4–5 and L5–S1 segments remained significant (p=0.048, 0.043 and odds ratio=1.098, 1.169). In comparison analysis between male and female patients, most MCSAs of male patients were larger than female's. Fusion rates of male patients (80.7%) were higher than female's (68.8%), too. Conclusion For PLIF surgery, PS muscle function appears to be an important factor for bone union and preventing back muscle injury is essential for better fusion rate. PMID:27226860

  4. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Badikov, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  5. A Multigroup Reaction Cross-Section Collapsing Code and Library of 154-Group Fission-Product Cross Sections.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-03-23

    Version 01/02 The code reads multigroup cross sections from a compatible data file and collapses user-selected reaction cross sections to any few-group structure using one of a variety of user neutron flux spectrum options given below: Option Flux description 1 Built-in function including Maxwellian, fission, fusion and slowing-down regions and requiring user-specified parameters and energy-region boundaries. 2 Set of log-log flux-energy interpolation points read from input cross-section data file. 3 Set of log-log flux-energy interpolationmore » points read from user-supplied card input. 4 - 6 Histogram flux values read from user-supplied card input in arbitrary group structure in units of flux-per unit-energy, flux-per-unit lethargy, or integral group flux. LAFPX-E may be used to collapse any set of multigroup reaction cross sections furnished in the required format. However, the code was developed for, and is furnished with, a library of 154-group fission-product cross sections processed from ENDF/B-IV with a typical light water reactor (LWR) flux spectrum and temperature. Four-group radiative capture cross sections produced for LWR calculations are tabulated in the code documentation and are incorporated in the EPRI-CINDER data library, RSIC Code Package CCC-309.« less

  6. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  7. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  8. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  9. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  10. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  11. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  12. Cross-section fluctuations in open microwave billiards and quantum graphs: The counting-of-maxima method revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, B.; Richter, A.; Samajdar, R.

    2015-08-01

    The fluctuations exhibited by the cross sections generated in a compound-nucleus reaction or, more generally, in a quantum-chaotic scattering process, when varying the excitation energy or another external parameter, are characterized by the width Γcorr of the cross-section correlation function. Brink and Stephen [Phys. Lett. 5, 77 (1963), 10.1016/S0375-9601(63)80037-7] proposed a method for its determination by simply counting the number of maxima featured by the cross sections as a function of the parameter under consideration. They stated that the product of the average number of maxima per unit energy range and Γcorr is constant in the Ercison region of strongly overlapping resonances. We use the analogy between the scattering formalism for compound-nucleus reactions and for microwave resonators to test this method experimentally with unprecedented accuracy using large data sets and propose an analytical description for the regions of isolated and overlapping resonances.

  13. Electron impact ionisation cross sections for atomic and molecular allotropes of phosphorous and arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhutadia, Harshad; Chaudhari, Ashok; Vinodkumar, Minaxi

    2015-12-01

    We report electron impact total ionisation cross sections for phosphorous (P), arsenic (As), diphosphorous (P2), diarsenic (As2), tetra phosphorous (P4) and tetra arsenic (As4) from the threshold of the target to 2000 eV. We employed spherical complex optical potential to compute total inelastic cross sections (Qinel). The total ionisation cross section is extracted from the total inelastic cross section using the complex scattering potential-ionisation contribution method. The results of most of the targets studied here compare well with the measurements and the theoretical data wherever available. The correlation between the peak of ionisation cross sections with the number of target electrons and polarisability is also reported. It is observed that the maximum ionisation cross sections depend linearly on the number of target electrons and polarisability of the target. This linear correlation is used to predict the maximum ionisation cross sections for the targets (I2, HI and PF3) where no experimental data are available.

  14. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  15. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  16. Neutron removal cross section as a measure of neutron skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, D. Q.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Tian, W. D.; Wang, H. W.

    2010-04-15

    We study the relation between neutron removal cross section (sigma{sub -N}) and neutron skin thickness for finite neutron-rich nuclei using the statistical abrasion ablation model. Different sizes of neutron skin are obtained by adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutrons in the Fermi distribution. It is demonstrated that there is a good linear correlation between sigma{sub -N} and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. Further analysis suggests that the relative increase of neutron removal cross section could be used as a quantitative measure for neutron skin thickness in neutron-rich nuclei.

  17. Evaluation of the /sup 238/U neutron total cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.; Poenitz, W.P.; Howerton, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental energy-averaged neutron total cross sections of /sup 238/U were evaluated from 0.044 to 20.0 MeV using regorous numerical methods. The evaluated results are presented together with the associated uncertainties and correlation matrix. They indicate that this energy-averaged neutron total cross section is known to better than 1% over wide energy regions. There are somwewhat larger uncertainties at low energies (e.g., less than or equal to 0.2 MeV), near 8 MeV and above 15 MeV. The present evaluation is compard with values given in ENDF/B-V.

  18. Uncertainty Quantification in Fission Cross Section Measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, F.

    2015-01-15

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections have been measured for several isotopes of uranium and plutonium at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The total uncertainties in these measurements are in the range 3–5% above 100 keV of incident neutron energy, which results from uncertainties in the target, neutron source, and detector system. The individual sources of uncertainties are assumed to be uncorrelated, however correlation in the cross section across neutron energy bins are considered. The quantification of the uncertainty contributions will be described here.

  19. Photoabsorption cross sections of OH at 115-183 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nee, J. B.; Lee, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption spectrum for OH was obtained in the 115-183 nm region. The OH radicals were produced by a pulse discharge of trace H2O in few torr of Ar. Absorption cross sections were obtained by calibration with absorption of the OH (X 2 Pi to A 2 Sigma +) transition. The features in the absorption spectrum are correlated with the excited states 1 2 Sigma -, D 2 Sigma -, 1 2 Delta, B 2 Sigma + and possibly others calculated by van Dishoeck, Langhoff, and Dalgarno. The measured cross sections are comparable with the calculated values.

  20. Uncertainty quantification in fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, F.

    2015-01-09

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections have been measured for several isotopes of uranium and plutonium at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The total uncertainties in these measurements are in the range 3–5% above 100 keV of incident neutron energy, which results from uncertainties in the target, neutron source, and detector system. The individual sources of uncertainties are assumed to be uncorrelated, however correlation in the cross section across neutron energy bins are considered. The quantification of the uncertainty contributions will be described here.

  1. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  3. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  4. Absorption cross section of canonical acoustic holes

    SciTech Connect

    Crispino, Luis C. B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2007-11-15

    We compute numerically the absorption cross section of a canonical acoustic hole for sound waves with arbitrary frequencies. Our outputs are in full agreement with the expected low- and high-frequency limits.

  5. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  6. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  7. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Peters, C.D.

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of experimental data

  8. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  9. Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H.

    1958-01-01

    To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

  10. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and tomore » modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.« less

  11. Predicting the Total Charm Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-05-29

    We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. Extracting the total charm cross section from data is a non-trivial task. To go from a finite number of measured D mesons in a particular decay channel to the total c{bar c} cross section one must: divide by the branching ratio for that channel; correct for the luminosity, {sigma}{sub D} = N{sub D}/Lt; extrapolate to full phase space from the finite detector acceptance; divide by two to get the pair cross section from the single Ds; and multiply by a correction factor to account for unmeasured charm hadrons. Early fixed-target data were at rather low p{sub T}, making the charm quark mass the most relevant scale. At proton and ion colliders, although the RHIC experiments can access the full pT range and thus the total cross section, the data reach rather high p{sub T}, p{sub T} >> m, making p{sub T} (m{sub T}) the most relevant scale. Here we focus on the total cross section calculation where the quark mass is the only relevant scale.

  12. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, J.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively ..cap alpha..-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture ..gamma.. rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  14. Ionization and capture in water: a multi-differential cross sections study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, Christophe; Galassi, Mariel E.; Weck, Philippe F.; Fojón, Omar; Hanssen, Jocelyn; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2012-11-01

    Two quantum mechanical models (CB1 and CDW-EIS) are here presented to provide accurate multiple differential and total cross sections for describing the two most important ionizing processes, namely, ionization and capture induced by heavy charged particles in water. A detailed study of the influence of the target description on the cross section calculations is also provided.

  15. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  16. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  17. Undergraduate Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas have investigated basic properties of nuclei through γ-ray and neutron spectroscopy following neutron scattering. The former has been used primarily for nuclear structure investigations, while the latter has been used to measure neutron scattering cross sections important for fission reactor applications. A series of (n,n') and (n,n'γ) measurements have been made on 54Fe and 56Fe to determine neutron cross sections for scattering to excited levels in these nuclei. The former provides the cross sections directly and the latter are used to deduce inelastic neutron scattering cross sections by measuring the γ-ray production cross sections to states not easily resolved in neutron spectroscopy. All measurements have been completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. Students participate in accelerator operation, experimental setup, data acquisition, and data analyses. An overview of the research program and student contributions is presented.

  18. Parameterized Cross Sections for Pion Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Swaminathan, Sudha R.; Kruger, Adam T.; Ngom, Moussa; Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of cross sections for pion production in proton-proton collisions finds wide application in particle physics, astrophysics, cosmic ray physics, and space radiation problems, especially in situations where an incident proton is transported through some medium and knowledge of the output particle spectrum is required when given the input spectrum. In these cases, accurate parameterizations of the cross sections are desired. In this paper much of the experimental data are reviewed and compared with a wide variety of different cross section parameterizations. Therefore, parameterizations of neutral and charged pion cross sections are provided that give a very accurate description of the experimental data. Lorentz invariant differential cross sections, spectral distributions, and total cross section parameterizations are presented.

  19. L-subshell ionization cross sections for Hf, Ta, and W by H+ and He+ bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justiniano, E. L. B.; Nader, A. A. G.; de Castro Faria, N. V.; Barros Leite, C. V.; de Pinho, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    X rays resulting from L-subshell vacancies in Hf, Ta, and W produced by bombarding thin targets with H+ (0.6-2.5 MeV) and He+ (1.2-4.2 MeV) were detected by Si(Li) spectrometry. Ionization cross sections were obtained by using the above measurements, branching ratios from theoretical calculations, and values of the fluorescence yields and Coster-Kronig factors by interpolating from experimental data. The observed projectile-energy dependence of the LII-subshell ionization cross section is reproduced reasonably well by the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA), but the introduction of relativistic, trajectory, and binding corrections (PWBA-BTR) are essential for the description of the LI and LIII data. Scaling of the H+ and He+ data shows that one agrees well with the other. The behavior of the ionization cross section versus bombarding energy is correlated with some special features of the electronic bound-state wave functions.

  20. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  1. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  2. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  3. Report on 238Pu(n,x) surrogate cross section measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J T; Ressler, J J; Henderson, R A; Scielzo, N D; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Gostic, J; Bleuel, D; Weideking, M; Bernstein, L A

    2010-03-31

    The goal of this year's effort is to measure the {sup 238}Pu(n,f) and {sup 238}Pu(n,2n) cross section from 100 keV to 20 MeV. We designed a surrogate experiment that used the reaction {sup 239}Pu(a,a{prime}x) as a surrogate for {sup 238}Pu(n,x). The experiment was conducted using the STARS/LIBERACE experimental facility located at the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in January 2010. A description of the experiment and status of the data analysis is given. In order to obtain a reliable {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section we designed the experiment using the surrogate ratio technique. This technique allows one to measure a desired, unknown, cross section relative to a known cross section. In the present example, the {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section of interest is determined relative to the known {sup 235}U(n,x) cross section. To increase confidence in the results, and to reduce overall uncertainties, we are also determining the {sup 238}Pu(n,x) cross section relative to the known {sup 234}U(n,x) cross section. The compound nuclei of interest for this experiment were produced using inelastic alpha scattering. For example, {sup 236}U(a,a{prime}x) served as a surrogate for {sup 235}U(n,x); analogous reactions were considered for the other cross sections. Surrogate experiments determine the probabilities for the decay of the compound nuclei into the various channels of interest (fission, gamma decay) by measuring particle-fission (p-f) or particle?gamma (p?g) reaction spectra. By comparing the decay probabilities associated with the unknown cross section to that of a known cross section it is possible to obtain the ratio of these cross sections and thus determine the unknown, desired cross section.

  4. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  5. Improved cross section calculations for astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications are proposed for the semiempirical equations and parameters of Silberberg and Tsao (1973) for partial cross section calculations of proton-nucleus reactions in cosmic rays. These modifications include: adjustment of general parameters; modification of energy dependence; effects of nuclear alpha-particle structure, deuteron emission, and even-charged products; peripheral reactions; fission reactions; averaging cross sections near boundaries of different parameters; elimination of certain special cases; and treatment of the Pt to Pb group that cannot yet be generalized to Z(t) less than 76.

  6. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  7. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  8. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  9. Revised cross section for RHIC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Using the experience gained in designing and building Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) dipole prototype magnets an improved cross section has been developed. Significant features of this design include the use of only three wedges for field shaping and wedge cross sections which are sectors of an annulus. To aid in the understanding of the actual magnets, one has been sectioned, and detailed mechanical and photographic measurements made of the wire positions. The comparison of these measurements with the magnetic field measurements will is presented. 2 refs, 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Cross sections of neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2010-10-15

    We study the properties of the neutron-nucleus total and reaction cross sections for several nuclei. We have applied an analytical model, the nuclear Ramsauer model, justified it from the nuclear reaction theory approach, and extracted the values of 12 parameters used in the model. The given parametrization has an advantage as phenomenological optical model potentials are limited up to 150-200 MeV. The present model provides good estimates of the total cross sections for several nuclei particularly at high energies.

  11. Neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Sean; Albert, Joshua; Johnson, Tessa; O'Conner, Thomasina; Kaufman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    136 Xe is an important 0 νββ candidate, studied in experiments such as EXO-200 and, in the future, nEXO. These experiments require a precise study of neutron capture for their background models. The neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe has been measured at the Detector for Advanced Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. A neutron beam ranging from thermal energy to 100 keV was incident on a gas cell filled with isotopically pure 136 Xe . We will discuss the measurement of partial neutron capture cross sections at thermal and first neutron resonance energies along with corresponding capture gamma cascades.

  12. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  13. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  14. Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental silver

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-05-01

    Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental silver are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160/sup 0/. Inelastically-scattered neutron groups are observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at; 328 +- 13, 419 +- 50, 748 +- 25, 908 +- 26, 1150 +- 38, 1286 +- 25, 1507 +- 20, 1623 +- 30, 1835 +- 20 and 1944 +- 26 keV. The experimental results are used to derive an optical-statistical model that provides a good description of the observed cross sections. The measured values are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

  15. Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

  16. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  17. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  18. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  19. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  20. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for Radioactive Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Bedrossian, Peter; Escher, Jutta; Scielzo, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near or far away from the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering, transfer reactions, and beta-delayed neutron emission. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes far from stability will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  1. Electron impact excitation cross sections for carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, P. S.

    1981-04-01

    A realistic analytic atomic independent particle model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of carbon. Using these wave functions in conjunction with the Born approximation and the Russell-Saunders LS-coupling scheme, we calculate generalized oscillator strengths and integrated cross sections for various excitations from the 2p 2( 3P O) valence state.

  2. Vibrational cross sections for positron scattering by nitrogen molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Mazon, K. T.; Tenfen, W.; Michelin, S. E.; Arretche, F.; Lee, M.-T.; Fujimoto, M. M.

    2010-09-15

    We present a systematic study of low-energy positron collision with nitrogen molecules. Vibrational elastic and excitation cross sections are calculated using the multichannel version of the continued fractions method in the close-coupling scheme for the positron incident energy up to 20 eV. The interaction potential is treated within the static-correlation-polarization approximation. The comparison of our calculated data with existing theoretical and experimental results is encouraging.

  3. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2015-09-01

    The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  4. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2015-09-15

    The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  5. Photon scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ice, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than one percent with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than one percent with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules.

  6. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  7. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  8. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  9. Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

    2011-02-24

    Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

  10. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  11. Calculation of improved spallation cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, C. H.; Silberberg, R.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several research groups have recently carried out highly precise measurements (to about 10 percent) of high-energy nuclear spallation cross sections. These measurements, above 5 GeV, cover a broad range of elements: V, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta and Au. Even the small cross sections far off the peak of the isotopic distribution curves have been measured. The semiempirical calculations are compared with the measured values. Preliminary comparisons indicate that the parameters of our spallation relations (Silberberg and Tsao, 1973) for atomic numbers 20 to 83 need modifications, e.g. a reduced slope of the mass yield distribution, broader isotopic distributions, and a shift of the isotopic distribution toward the neutron-deficient side. The required modifications are negligible near Fe and Cu, but increase with increasing target mass.

  12. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  13. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  14. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  15. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the second year of a three-year interagency agreement. This program includes a broad range of data measurements and evaluations. An emphasis has been focused on the (sup 10)B cross sections where serious discrepancies in the nuclear data base remain. In particular, there are important problems with the interpretation of the helium gas production associated with diagnostic measurements of interest in nuclear technology. The enhanced use of this isotope for medical treatment is also of significance. New measurements of neutron reaction cross sections for (sup 10)B are in progress in collaboration with scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New experiments are in progress on the important dosimetry standards (sup 237)Np(n,f) and (sup 239)Pu(n,f) below 1 MeV neutron energy. In addition, new measurements of charged-particle production in basic biological elements for medical applications are underway. Further measurements are planned or in progress in collaborations which include fission fragment energy and angular distributions, and neutron energy spectra and angular distributions from neutron-induced fission. Also measurements of angular distributions of neutrons from scattering on protons, and determinations of capture cross section of gold are planned for a later time. Data evaluation will shift to include a unified international effort to motivate new measurements and evaluations. In response to the requests of the measurement community, NIST is beginning the formation of a national depository for fissionable isotope mass standards. This action will preserve for future measurements the valuable and irreplaceable critical samples whose masses and composition have been carefully determined and documented over the past 30 years of the nuclear program.

  16. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  17. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  18. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  19. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  20. Cross Section and Analyzing Power Measurements for Neutron Scattering from Aluminum and Cobalt and Spin - Cross Section Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagadi, Mahmoud Mohamud

    Differential cross sections and analyzing power data have been measured for ^{27} Al and ^{59}Co at 15.5 MeV. Cross section data was also measured for ^{59}Co at 10, 12, 14, 17, and 19 MeV using standard time-of-flight techniques at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). Absolute normalization of the sigma(theta) data was performed using n-p scattering measurements. Both sigma(theta) and rm A_{y}(theta) were corrected for finite geometry, attenuation, relative efficiency, and multiple scattering effects using Monte Carlo techniques. A large data base was formed from our data and the existing data on ^{27}Al and ^{59}Co. This data base was used to develop a Dispersive Optical Model (DOM) and a Coupled Channels Model (CCM). The DOM model describes the data quite well above 8 MeV for ^{27 }Al and ^{59}Co. However, for data below 8 MeV the model is not as satisfactory, perhaps because of angular momentum l-dependencies in the absorptive potential. The CCM improved the description of the data over the DOM, but still does not describe the data well at low energies. The DOM and CCM for ^{27} Al and ^{59}Co were used to describe the spin-spin cross section data for ^{27}Al and ^{59}Co. We obtained a good fit for the spin-spin cross section with both the DOM and CCM with the spin-spin real surface parameters of V _{rm ss} = 0.80 MeV, r _{rm ss} = 1.00 fm and a _{rm ss} = 0.654 for both ^{27}Al and ^{59}Co. A surprising relation between the spin-spin cross section and the derivative of the total cross section with respect to energy, was discovered: sigma_{ss } = c {dsigma_{T} over dE} where c is a constant related to the slope of the real central potential and spin-spin potential strength. This observation is not yet understood.

  1. Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion. PMID:23408647

  2. Quantifying and predicting interpretational uncertainty in cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randle, Charles; Bond, Clare; Monaghan, Alison; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    or over estimate the elevation of the bedrock. More complex analysis was completed in the form of linear mixed effects modelling. The modelling was used to determine if there were any correlations between the error and any other parameter recorded in the questionnaire, section or the initial dataset. This has resulted in the determination of both data based and interpreter based controls on uncertainty, adding insight into how uncertainty can be predicted, as well as how interpretation workflows can be improved. Our results will inform further experiments across a wide variety of geological situations to build understanding and best practice workflows for cross-section interpretation to reduce uncertainty.

  3. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  4. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

  5. The calculation of radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizer, R.

    1980-04-01

    The FORTRAN program CHAOS, used for calculating cross sections is described including the physical approximations used to simplify Maxwell's equations. The scattering bodies are extended to both open and closed surfaces. The numerical methods used are supplied. The problems of wire junctions, of finite conductivity and the attaching of lumped loads to the structure are considered. Techniques for dealing with bodies having rotational or left-right symmetries are examined as well as the sparse matrix approximation and the complex frequency version of CHAOS. The formula used to calculate the impedance matrix elements, and the conventions adopted concerning coordinate systems and polarization are included.

  6. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  7. Neutronic Cross Section Calculations on Fluorine Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, A.; Tel, E.

    2013-06-01

    Certain light nuclei such as Lithium (Li), Beryllium (Be), Fluorine (F) (which are known as FLİBE) and its molten salt compounds (LiF, BeF2 and NaF) can serve as a coolant which can be used at high temperatures without reaching a high vapor pressure. These molten salt compounds are also a good neutron moderator. In this study, cross sections of neutron induced reactions have been calculated for fluorine target nucleus. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 19F( n, 2n), 19F( n, p), 19F( n, xn), 19F( n, xp) have been made. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, the ( n, 2n) and ( n, p) reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The multiple pre-equilibrium mean free path constant from internal transition have been investigated for 19F nucleus. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  8. Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Baker; Christopher A. McGrath

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from "minor" actinides that currently have poorly known or in some cases not measured (n,?) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 239Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

  9. A New Method for Estimating Neutron Reaction Cross Sections Based on Wick's Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F S; Anderson, J D; Bauer, R W; Grimes, S M

    2004-10-13

    Wick's limit is an inequality that relates the zero-degree differential elastic scattering cross section to the total cross section. The deviation of Wick's limit from an exact equality is small over a wide range of incident energies and target masses. Under these circumstances we show that Wick's limit can be used to correlate the uncertainties in the two terms of the reaction (nonelastic) cross section expressed as the difference between the total and angle-integrated elastic cross sections. When suitable elastic angular distributions are available, we show that the reaction cross section may be obtained with small errors (typically 1.5-3%). Examples are shown for {sup 208P}b, {sup 54-56}Fe, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U.

  10. A New Method for Estimating Neutron Reaction Cross Sections Based on Wick's Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.S.; Anderson, J.D.; Bauer, R.W.; Grimes, S.M.

    2005-05-24

    Wick's limit is an inequality that relates the zero-degree differential elastic scattering cross section to the total cross section. The deviation of Wick's limit from an exact equality is small over a wide range of incident energies and target masses. Under these circumstances we show that Wick's limit can be used to correlate the uncertainties in the two terms of the reaction (nonelastic) cross section expressed as the difference between the total and angle-integrated elastic cross sections. When suitable elastic angular distributions are available, we show that the reaction cross section may be obtained with small errors (typically 1.5-3%). Examples are shown for 208Pb, 54-56Fe, 232Th, and 238U.