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1

The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. Methods A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). Results The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score???22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x2?=?8.53, df?=?1, p?=?0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x2?=?70.63, df?=?4, p??351, OR?=?3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. Conclusions The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students, as well as the strong association with stressful life events, highlights the need for psychological empowerment strategies towards students by institutional counseling services. PMID:24304515

2013-01-01

2

Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted. PMID:25257355

Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

2014-01-01

3

Complex Correlation Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculation of e - H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with projection operators.

Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, Aaron; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

4

Topics for a statistical description of radar cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive guide to the statistical description of radar cross section (RCS) is presented. The topics discussed include: definition of field quantities and Maxwell's equations, constitutive relations, boundary conditions and surface currents, Green's functions, diffraction of a plane wave by a perfectly absorbing half-plane, asymptotic approximation methods, and diffraction approximation methods. Also considered are: numerical approximations and numerical methods, RCS measurements, RCS of simple and complex shapes, new method for comparing experimental and theoretical data, elements of detection theory, impedance boundary condition, reflection and transmission, stratified media, gyroelectromagnetic layers, and the inverse problem for biaxial materials. As examples, the 727 at 0.94 GHz and the Firebee at 9.0 GHz are examined.

Maffett, Andrew Lewis

5

Complex Correlation Calculation of e(-) - H Total Cross Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculation of e(-) - H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with 2 projection operators. The number of terms in the Hylleraas-type wave function for the S-1 phase shifts is 95 while for the S-3 it is 56, except for k = 0.8 where it is 84. Our results, which are rigorous lower bounds, are seen to be in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are of greater accuracy and outside of his error limits for k = 0.3 and 0.4 for S-1. The main aim of this approach is the application to higher energy scattering. By virtue of the complex correlation functions, the T-matrix is not unitary so that elastic and total scattering cross sections are independent of each other. Our results will be compared specifically with those of Bray and Stelbovics.

Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

6

Complex Correlation Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculation of e-H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with projection operators. The number of terms in the Hylleraas-type wave function for the S phase shifts is 95 while for the S it is 56, except for k=0.8 where it is 84. Our results, which are rigorous lower bounds, are given. They are seen to be in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are of 0 greater accuracy and outside of his error limits for k=0.3 and 0.4 for S. The main aim of this approach' is the application to higher energy scattering. By virtue of the complex correlation functions, the T matrix is not unitary so that elastic and total scattering cross sections are independent of each other. Our results will be compared specifically with those of Bray and Stelbovics.

Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

7

Estimation of SEs for heteroscedastic and cross-sectionally correlated data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops SE estimators for heteroscedastic and cross-sectionally correlated data. The new estimators are a cross-sectional version of the White and Domowitz (1984) and Newey and West (1987) estimators, and therefore, consistent in the presence of heteroscedasticity and cross correlation of unknown form. Unlike the estimators in the literature, these estimators can control for cross correlation even for single-period

Chung-Ki Min

2010-01-01

8

Equations for description of nonlinear standing waves in constant-cross-sectioned resonators.  

PubMed

This work is focused on investigation of applicability of two widely used model equations for description of nonlinear standing waves in constant-cross-sectioned resonators. The investigation is based on the comparison of numerical solutions of these model equations with solutions of more accurate model equations whose validity has been verified experimentally in a number of published papers. PMID:24606306

Bednarik, Michal; Cervenka, Milan

2014-03-01

9

Inclusive D* Meson Cross Sections and D* Jet Correlations in Photoproduction at HERA  

E-print Network

Differential photoproduction cross sections are measured for events containing D* mesons. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the ep collider HERA and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 51.1 pb-1. The kinematic region covers small photon virtualities Q^2 D* meson. Differential cross sections for D* jet production are determined and the correlations between the D* meson and the jet(s) are studied. The results are compared with perturbative QCD predictions applying collinear- or kt -factorisation.

H1 Collaboration

2006-08-16

10

Neutron field reconstruction with consideration of the spatial correlation of the cross-section value error  

SciTech Connect

A method for reconstructing the neutron field in a reactor with consideration of the spatial correlation of the cross-section value error was analyzed. It was shown that this method is more accurate than the classical approach to reconstruction. An efficient way of using this technique was proposed. The efficiency for the RBMK critical test facility was estimated.

Semyonov, A. A.; Druzhaev, A. A., E-mail: andreydruzhaev@gmail.com; Schukin, N. V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

2014-12-15

11

Neutron field reconstruction with consideration of the spatial correlation of the cross-section value error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for reconstructing the neutron field in a reactor with consideration of the spatial correlation of the cross-section value error was analyzed. It was shown that this method is more accurate than the classical approach to reconstruction. An efficient way of using this technique was proposed. The efficiency for the RBMK critical test facility was estimated.

Semyonov, A. A.; Druzhaev, A. A.; Schukin, N. V.

2014-12-01

12

Correlates of Methylphenidate Use in Canadian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of methylphenidate (MPH) use among Canadian children aged 2 to 11 years, from 1994-1995 to 1998-1999 and to identify sociodemographic, child, and parent-family correlates are identified. Methods: Cross-sectional data collections from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) for 1994-1995, 1996-1997, and 1998-1999 were used and samples weighted up to

Alice Charach; Hongmei Cao; Russell Schachar; Teresa To

2006-01-01

13

Inclusive jet cross sections and dijet correlations in D photoproduction at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusive jet cross sections in photoproduction for events containing a D meson have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 78.6 pb. The events were required to have a virtuality of the incoming photon, Q, of less than 1 GeV 2, and a photon-proton centre-of-mass energy in the range 130cross sections are also compared to Monte Carlo (MC) models which incorporate leading-order matrix elements followed by parton showers and hadronisation. The NLO QCD predictions are in general agreement with the data although differences have been isolated to regions where contributions from higher orders are expected to be significant. The MC models give a better description than the NLO predictions of the shape of the measured cross sections.

Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Pavel, N.; Yagües Molina, A. G.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Montanari, A.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Polini, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aghuzumtsyan, G.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kind, O. M.; Meyer, U.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Renner, R.; Wang, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Bailey, D. S.; Brook, N. H.; Cole, J. E.; Heath, G. P.; Namsoo, T.; Robins, S.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Helbich, M.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Gil, M.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Szuba, D.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, J.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Adler, V.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Borras, K.; Drews, G.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gladkov, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Gutsche, O.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Horn, C.; Kahle, B.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kramberger, G.; Lim, H.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Nguyen, C. N.; Notz, D.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Raval, A.; Santamarta, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Stadie, H.; Stösslein, U.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Genta, C.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Benen, A.; Karstens, F.; Dobur, D.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Ferrando, J.; McKenzie, J. H.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Carli, T.; Gosau, T.; Holm, U.; Krumnack, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Milite, M.; Salehi, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Stonjek, S.; Wichmann, K.; Wick, K.; Ziegler, A.; Ziegler, Ar.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Gonçalo, R.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Kataoka, M.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Terrón, J.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Liu, C.; Plamondon, M.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Walsh, R.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Rubinsky, I.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Katkov, I. I.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zotkin, S. A.; Abt, I.; Büttner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Liu, X.; Sutiak, J.; Coppola, N.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Maddox, E.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cottrell, A.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Kohno, T.; Korcsak-Gorzo, K.; Patel, S.; Roberfroid, V.; Straub, P. B.; Walczak, R.; Bellan, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Heaphy, E. A.; Metlica, F.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Kananov, S.; Kreisel, A.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Kagawa, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Matsuzawa, K.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Martin, J. F.; Butterworth, J. M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Sutton, M. R.; Targett-Adams, C.; Wing, M.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Sztuk, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; Ukleja, J.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Lightwood, M. S.; Brownson, E.; Danielson, T.; Everett, A.; Kçira, D.; Lammers, S.; Li, L.; Reeder, D. D.; Rosin, M.; Ryan, P.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Dhawan, S.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Cui, Y.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Soares, M.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.; ZEUS Collaboration

2005-11-01

14

Fully differential cross sections for transfer ionization—a sensitive probe of high level correlation effects in atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer ionization process offers a unique opportunity to study radial and angular electron correlations in the helium atom. We report calculations for the multiple differential cross sections of the transfer ionization process p + He ? H + He++ + e?. The results of these calculations demonstrate the strong sensitivity of the fully differential cross sections to fine details

A L Godunov; Colm T Whelan; H R J Walters

2004-01-01

15

Pairing correlations and odd-even staggering in reaction cross sections of weakly bound nuclei  

E-print Network

We investigate the odd-even staggering (OES) in reaction cross sections of weakly bound nuclei with a Glauber theory, taking into account the pairing correlation with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method. We first discuss the pairing gap in extremely weakly bound nuclei and show that the pairing gap persists in the limit of zero separation energy limit even for single-particle orbits with the orbital angular momenta $l=0$ and $l=1$. We then introduce the OES parameter defined as the second derivative of reaction cross sections with respect to the mass number, and clarify the relation between the magnitude of OES and the neutron separation energy. We find that the OES parameter increases considerably in the zero separation energy limit for $l=0$ and $l=1$ single-particle states, while no increase is found for higher angular momentum orbits with {\\it e.g.,} $l=3$. We point out that the increase of OES parameter is also seen in the experimental reaction cross sections for Ne isotopes, which is well accounted for by our calculations.

K. Hagino; H. Sagawa

2011-12-07

16

Measurement of the Total Cross Section and Energy - Correlations for Electron-Positron Annihilation Into Hadrons at 29 GEV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes measurements of the total cross section and the energy-energy correlation cross section for hadronic events produced in electron-positron annihilation at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. The performance of the MAC detector at PEP, featuring total absorption calorimetry and charged particle tracking over nearly the full solid angle, is examined and found to meet the original design

Brian Keith Heltsley

1983-01-01

17

Relativistic description of final-state interactions in neutral-current neutrino and antineutrino cross sections  

E-print Network

We evaluate semi-inclusive neutral-current quasielastic differential neutrino and antineutrino cross sections within the framework of the relativistic impulse approximation. The results of the relativistic mean field and of the relativistic Green's function models are compared. The sensitivity to the strange-quark content of the nucleon form factor is also discussed. The results of the models are compared with the MiniBooNE experimental data for neutrino scattering. Numerical predictions for flux-averaged antineutrino scattering cross sections are also presented.

R. González-Jiménez; J. A. Caballero; Andrea Meucci; Carlotta Giusti; M. B. Barbaro; M. V. Ivanov; J. M. Udías

2013-07-16

18

Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

1993-01-01

19

Prevalence and Correlates of Binge Drinking among Young Adults Using Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90) meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking. PMID:25101300

Carrà, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

20

Adult tobacco use practice and its correlates in eastern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background There is paucity of data on the smoking habits of rural populations in developing countries. This study aimed to explore cigarette smoking practices of a rural community in Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 548 individuals from a random sample of households in a rural town and its surrounding rural districts. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed. Results Twenty-eight percent (95% CI: 24.3% - 31.6%) of the respondents were current smokers. A total of 105 (68%) smokers expressed an interest to quit while 37 (34%) had tried to quit previously but without success. There was high exposure to second-hand smoke: 285 (52%) homes allowed indoor smoking, and in 181 (33%) indoor smoking took place daily. Current smoking was strongly associated with male sex (OR?=?83.0; 95% CI: 11.5 – 599.0), and being a student was found to be protective of smoking (OR?=?0.04; 95% CI: 0.005 – 0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking is prevalent among the male rural town population in Ethiopia. In addition, a high level of exposure to indoor second-hand smoke exists. There is a need for investment in rural tobacco control, including educational campaigns and cost-effective smoking cessation services. PMID:24171800

2013-01-01

21

Target correlation effects on neutron-nucleus total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Second order optical model solutions to the elastic scattering amplitude were used to evaluate total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections for neutron nucleus scattering. Improved agreement with experimental data for total and absorption cross sections is found when compared with first order (coherent approximation) solutions, especially below several hundred MeV. At higher energies, the first and second order solutions are similar. There are also large differences in abrasion cross section calculations; these differences indicate a crucial role for cluster knockout in the abrasion step.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

1991-01-01

22

Measurement of correlated mu-b¯ jet cross sections in pp¯ collisions at s=1.8 TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on measurements of differential mu-b¯ cross sections, where the muon is from a semileptonic b decay and the b¯ is identified using precision track reconstruction in jets. The semidifferential correlated cross sections dsigma\\/dEb¯T, dsigma\\/dpb¯T, and dsigma\\/ddeltaphi(mu-b¯) for pmuT>~9 GeV\\/c, ||etamu||<0.6,Eb¯T> 10 GeV, ||etab¯||<1.5 are presented and compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations.

F. Abe; M. G. Albrow; S. R. Amendolia; D. Amidei; J. Antos; C. Anway-Wiese; G. Apollinari; H. Areti; M. Atac; P. Auchincloss; F. Azfar; P. Azzi; N. Bacchetta; W. Badgett; M. W. Bailey; J. Bao; P. de Barbaro; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; P. Bartalini; G. Bauer; T. Baumann; F. Bedeschi; S. Behrends; S. Belforte; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; D. Benjamin; J. Benlloch; J. Bensinger; D. Benton; A. Beretvas; J. P. Berge; S. Bertolucci; A. Bhatti; K. Biery; M. Binkley; F. Bird; D. Bisello; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; A. Bodek; W. Bokhari; V. Bolognesi; D. Bortoletto; C. Boswell; T. Boulos; G. Brandenburg; C. Bromberg; E. Buckley-Geer; H. S. Budd; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; A. Byon-Wagner; K. L. Byrum; J. Cammerata; C. Campagnari; M. Campbell; A. Caner; W. Carithers; D. Carlsmith; A. Castro; Y. Cen; F. Cervelli; H. Y. Chao; J. Chapman; M.-T. Cheng; G. Chiarelli; T. Chikamatsu; C. N. Chiou; L. Christofek; S. Cihangir; A. G. Clark; M. Cobal; M. Contreras; J. Conway; J. Cooper; M. Cordelli; C. Couyoumtzelis; D. Crane; J. D. Cunningham; T. Daniels; F. Dejongh; S. Delchamps; S. dell'agnello; M. dell'orso; L. Demortier; B. Denby; M. Deninno; P. F. Derwent; T. Devlin; M. Dickson; J. R. Dittmann; S. Donati; R. B. Drucker; A. Dunn; K. Einsweiler; J. E. Elias; R. Ely; E. Engels; S. Eno; D. Errede; S. Errede; Q. Fan; B. Farhat; I. Fiori; B. Flaugher; G. W. Foster; M. Franklin; M. Frautschi; J. Freeman; J. Friedman; H. Frisch; A. Fry; T. A. Fuess; Y. Fukui; S. Funaki; G. Gagliardi; S. Galeotti; M. Gallinaro; A. F. Garfinkel; S. Geer; D. W. Gerdes; P. Giannetti; N. Giokaris; P. Giromini; L. Gladney; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; J. Gonzalez; A. Gordon; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; H. Grassmann; A. Grewal; L. Groer; C. Grosso-Pilcher; C. Haber; S. R. Hahn; R. Handler; R. M. Hans; K. Hara; B. Harral; R. M. Harris; S. A. Hauger; J. Hauser; C. Hawk; J. Heinrich; D. Cronin-Hennessy; R. Hollebeek; L. Holloway; A. Hölscher; S. Hong; G. Houk; P. Hu; B. T. Huffman; R. Hughes; P. Hurst; J. Huston; J. Huth; J. Hylen; M. Incagli; J. Incandela; H. Iso; H. Jensen; C. P. Jessop; U. Joshi; R. W. Kadel; E. Kajfasz; T. Kamon; T. Kaneko; D. A. Kardelis; H. Kasha; Y. Kato; L. Keeble; R. D. Kennedy; R. Kephart; P. Kesten; D. Kestenbaum; R. M. Keup; H. Keutelian; F. Keyvan; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; L. Kirsch; P. Koehn; K. Kondo; J. Konigsberg; S. Kopp; K. Kordas; W. Koska; E. Kovacs; W. Kowald; M. Krasberg; J. Kroll; M. Kruse; S. E. Kuhlmann; E. Kuns; A. T. Laasanen; N. Labanca; S. Lammel; J. I. Lamoureux; T. Lecompte; S. Leone; J. D. Lewis; P. Limon; M. Lindgren; T. M. Liss; N. Lockyer; C. Loomis; O. Long; M. Loreti; E. H. Low; J. Lu; D. Lucchesi; C. B. Luchini; P. Lukens; J. Lys; P. Maas; K. Maeshima; A. Maghakian; P. Maksimovic; M. Mangano; J. Mansour; M. Mariotti; J. P. Marriner; A. Martin; J. A. Matthews; R. Mattingly; P. McIntyre; P. Melese; A. Menzione; E. Meschi; G. Michail; S. Mikamo; M. Miller; R. Miller; T. Mimashi; S. Miscetti; M. Mishina; H. Mitsushio; S. Miyashita; Y. Morita; S. Moulding; J. Mueller; A. Mukherjee; T. Muller; P. Musgrave; L. F. Nakae; I. Nakano; C. Nelson; D. Neuberger; C. Newman-Holmes; L. Nodulman; S. Ogawa; S. H. Oh; K. E. Ohl; R. Oishi; T. Okusawa; C. Pagliarone; R. Paoletti; V. Papadimitriou; J. Patrick; G. Pauletta; M. Paulini; L. Pescara; M. D. Peters; T. J. Phillips; G. Piacentino; M. Pillai; R. Plunkett; L. Pondrom; N. Produit; J. Proudfoot; F. Ptohos; G. Punzi; K. Ragan; F. Rimondi; L. Ristori; M. Roach-Bellino; W. J. Robertson; T. Rodrigo; J. Romano; L. Rosenson; W. K. Sakumoto; D. Saltzberg; A. Sansoni; V. Scarpine; A. Schindler; P. Schlabach; E. E. Schmidt; M. P. Schmidt; O. Schneider; G. F. Sciacca; A. Scribano; S. Segler; S. Seidel; Y. Seiya; G. Sganos; A. Sgolacchia; M. Shapiro; N. M. Shaw; Q. Shen; P. F. Shepard; M. Shimojima; M. Shochet; J. Siegrist; A. Sill; P. Sinervo; P. Singh; J. Skarha; K. Sliwa; D. A. Smith; F. D. Snider; L. Song; T. Song; J. Spalding; L. Spiegel; P. Sphicas; A. Spies; L. Stanco; J. Steele; A. Stefanini; K. Strahl; J. Strait; D. Stuart; G. Sullivan; K. Sumorok; R. L. Swartz; T. Takahashi; K. Takikawa; F. Tartarelli; W. Taylor; P. K. Teng; Y. Teramoto; S. Tether; D. Theriot; J. Thomas; T. L. Thomas; R. Thun; M. Timko; P. Tipton; A. Titov; S. Tkaczyk; K. Tollefson; A. Tollestrup; J. Tonnison; J. F. de Troconiz; J. Tseng; M. Turcotte; N. Turini; N. Uemura; F. Ukegawa; G. Unal; S. C. van den Brink; S. Vejcik; R. Vidal; M. Vondracek; D. Vucinic; R. G. Wagner; R. L. Wagner; N. Wainer; R. C. Walker; C. Wang; C. H. Wang; G. Wang; J. Wang; M. J. Wang; Q. F. Wang; A. Warburton; G. Watts; T. Watts; R. Webb; C. Wei; C. Wendt; H. Wenzel; W. C. Wester; T. Westhusing; A. B. Wicklund; E. Wicklund; R. Wilkinson; H. H. Williams; P. Wilson; B. L. Winer; J. Wolinski; D. Y. Wu; X. Wu; J. Wyss; A. Yagil; W. Yao; K. Yasuoka; Y. Ye; G. P. Yeh; P. Yeh; M. Yin

1996-01-01

23

Cross correlation of cosmic shear and extragalactic gamma-ray background: Constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first measurement of the cross correlation of weak gravitational lensing and the extragalactic ?-ray background emission using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey and the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The cross correlation is a powerful probe of signatures of dark matter annihilation, because both cosmic shear and gamma-ray emission originate directly from the same dark matter distribution in the Universe, and it can be used to derive constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section. We show that the measured lensing-? correlation is consistent with a null signal. Comparing the result to theoretical predictions, we exclude dark matter annihilation cross sections of ??v?=10-24-10-25 cm3 s-1 for a 100 GeV dark matter. If dark matter halos exist down to the mass scale of 10-6M?, we are able to place constraints on the thermal cross sections ??v?˜5×10-26 cm3 s-1 for a 10 GeV dark matter annihilation into ?+ ?-. Future gravitational lensing surveys will increase sensitivity to probe annihilation cross sections of ??v?˜3×10-26 cm3 s-1 even for a 100 GeV dark matter. Detailed modeling of the contributions from astrophysical sources to the cross correlation signal could further improve the constraints by ˜40%-70%.

Shirasaki, Masato; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Yoshida, Naoki

2014-09-01

24

Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used. Result The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score?>?5) was 55.8% (1,424). Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57), second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02) and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12) had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality. Conclusion A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health. PMID:23270533

2012-01-01

25

Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We have identified environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish community. The results of this study suggest that residents' self-assessed area reputation is an important underlying mechanism of perceived safety. We also found a difference in crime rates and safety-related concerns between areas with blocks of flats compared with small-scale areas although the neighbourhoods were close geographically. PMID:19586534

Kullberg, Agneta; Karlsson, Nadine; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

2009-01-01

26

D0 results on three-jet production, multijet cross-section ratios, and minimum bias angular correlations  

SciTech Connect

We report the measurement of the cross-section for three-jet production and the ratio of inclusive three-jet to two-jet cross-sections, as well as a study of angular correlations in minimum bias events, based on data taken with the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The differential inclusive three-jet cross section as a function of the invariant three-jetmass (M{sub 3jet}) is measured in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb{sup -1}. The measurement is performed in three rapidity regions (|y| < 0.8, |y| < 1.6 and |y| < 2.4) and in three regions of the third (ordered in p{sub T}) jet transverse momenta (p{sub T3} > 40 GeV, p{sub T3} > 70 GeV, p{sub T3} > 100 GeV) for events with leading jet transverse momentum larger than 150 GeV and well separated jets. NLO QCD calculations are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the measured cross sections. Based on the same data set, we present the first measurement of ratios of multi-jet cross sections in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The ratio of inclusive trijet and dijet cross sections, R{sub 3/2}, has been measured as a function of the transverse jet momenta. The data are compared to QCD model predictions in different approximations. Finally, we present a new way to describe minimum bias events based on angular distributions in {approx}5 million minimum bias p{bar p} collisions collected between April 2002 and February 2006 with the D0 detector. We demonstrate that the distribution of {Delta}{phi} in the detector transverse plane between the leading track and all other tracks is a robust observable that can be used for tuning of multiple color interaction models. Pseudorapidity correlations of the {Delta}{phi} distributions are also studied.

Sawyer, Lee; /Louisiana Tech. U.

2010-01-01

27

Descriptive epidemiology of screen and non-screen sedentary time in adolescents: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Much attention has been paid to adolescents' screen time, however very few studies have examined non-screen sedentary time (NSST). This study aimed to (1) describe the magnitude and composition of screen sedentary time (SST) and NSST in Australian adolescents, (2) describe the socio-demographic correlates of SST and NSST, and (3) determine whether screen time is an adequate surrogate for total sedentary behaviour in this population. Methods 2200 9-16 year old Australians provided detailed use of time data for four days. Non-screen sedentary time (NSST) included time spent participating in activities expected to elicit <3 METs whilst seated or lying down (other than sleeping), excluding screen-based activities (television, playing videogames or using computers). Total sedentary time was the sum of screen time and NSST. Results Adolescents spent a mean (SD) of 345 (105) minutes/day in NSST, which constituted 60% of total sedentary time. School activities contributed 42% of NSST, socialising 19%, self-care (mainly eating) 16%, and passive transport 15%. Screen time and NSST showed opposite patterns in relation to key socio-demographic characteristics, including sex, age, weight status, household income, parental education and day type. Because screen time was negatively correlated with NSST (r = -0.58), and exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.53) with total sedentary time, screen time was only a moderately effective surrogate for total sedentary time. Conclusions To capture a complete picture of young people's sedentary time, studies should endeavour to measure both screen time and NSST. PMID:21194427

2010-01-01

28

Anogenital distance in human male and female newborns: a descriptive, cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background In animal studies of the effects of hormonally active agents, measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) is now routine, and serves as a bioassay of fetal androgen action. Although measurement of AGD in humans has been discussed in the literature, to our knowledge it has been measured formally in only two descriptive studies of females. Because AGD has been an easy-to-measure, sensitive outcome in animals studies, we developed and implemented an anthropometric protocol for measurement of AGD in human males as well as females. Methods We first evaluated the reliability of the AGD measures in 20 subjects. Then measurements were taken on an additional 87 newborns (42 females, 45 males). All subjects were from Morelos, Mexico. Results The reliability (Pearson r) of the AGD measure was, for females 0.50, and for males, 0.64. The between-subject variation in AGD, however, was much greater than the variation due to measurement error. The AGD measure was about two-fold greater in males (mean, 22 mm) than in females (mean, 11 mm), and there was little overlap in the distributions for males and females. Conclusion The sexual dimorphism of AGD in humans comprises prima facie evidence that this outcome may respond to in utero exposure to hormonally active agents. PMID:15363098

Salazar-Martinez, Eduardo; Romano-Riquer, Patricia; Yanez-Marquez, Edith; Longnecker, Matthew P; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio

2004-01-01

29

A descriptive cross-sectional international study to explore current practices in the assessment, prevention and treatment of skin tears.  

PubMed

This study presents the results of a descriptive, cross-sectional, online international survey in order to explore current practices in the assessment, prediction, prevention and treatment of skin tears (STs). A total of 1127 health care providers (HCP) from 16 countries completed the survey. The majority of the respondents (69·6%, n?=?695) reported problems with the current methods for the assessment and documentation of STs with an overwhelming majority (89·5%, n?=?891) favouring the development of a simplified method of assessment. Respondents ranked equipment injury during patient transfer and falls as the main causes of STs. The majority of the samples indicated that they used non-adhesive dressings (35·89%, n?=?322) to treat a ST, with the use of protective clothing being the most common method of prevention. The results of this study led to the establishment of a consensus document, classification system and a tool kit for use by practitioners. The authors believe that this survey was an important first step in raising the global awareness of STs and to stimulate discussion and research of these complex acute wounds. PMID:24443829

LeBlanc, Kimberly; Baranoski, Sharon; Holloway, Samantha; Langemo, Diane; Regan, Mary

2014-08-01

30

Social correlates of cigarette smoking among Icelandic adolescents: A population-based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has shown that between 80 and 90 percent of adult smokers report having started smoking before 18 years of age. Several studies have revealed that multiple social factors influence the likelihood of smoking during adolescence, the period during which the onset of smoking usually occurs. To better understand the social mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking, we analyzed the relationship and relative importance of a broad spectrum of social variables in adolescent smoking in Iceland, a Nordic country with high per-capita income. Methods We used cross-sectional data from 7,430 14- to 16 year-old students (approximately 81% of all Icelanders in these age cohorts) in the 2006 Youth in Iceland study. The Youth in Iceland studies are designed to investigate the role of several cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in the lives of adolescents, and the data collected are used to inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs that are being developed by Icelandic social scientists, policy makers, and practitioners. Results Our analysis revealed that friends' smoking behavior and attitude toward smoking were strongly associated with adolescent smoking and other tobacco use, as well as alcohol consumption during the previous 30 days. Main protective factors were parent's perceived attitude toward smoking, the quantity of time spent with parents, absence of serious verbal conflict between parents and adolescents, and participation in physical activity. Family structure was related to adolescent smoking to a small extent, but other background factors were not. Conclusion We conclude that multiple social factors are related to adolescent smoking. Parents and other primary preventive agents need to be informed about the complicated nature of the adolescent social world in order to maximize their impact. PMID:18328089

Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga D; Allegrante, John P; Helgason, Asgeir R

2008-01-01

31

Prevalence and correlates of complementary and alternative medicine use among diabetic patients in Beirut, Lebanon: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies due to difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens and lifestyle changes necessary for disease management. Little is known about the prevalence and mode of CAM use among patients with T2DM in Lebanon. Objective To assess the prevalence and modes of CAM use among patients with T2DM residing in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional survey of T2DM patients was conducted on patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut- a public hospital and a private academic medical center. In a face-to-face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic, diabetes characteristics and types and modes of CAM use. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the prevalence and correlates of CAM use, as well as whether the use was complementary or alternative to mainstream medicine. The main outcome in this study, CAM use, was defined as using CAM at least once since diagnosis with T2DM. Results A total of 333 T2DM patients completed the survey (response rate: 94.6%). Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis with the disease was 38%. After adjustment, CAM use was significantly associated with a “married” status, a longer duration of T2DM, the presence of disease complications, and a positive family history of the disease. Folk foods and herbs were the most commonly used CAM followed by natural health products. One in five patients used CAM as alternative to conventional treatment. Only 7% of CAM users disclosed the CAM use to their treating physician. Health care practitioners were the least cited (7%) as influencing the choice of CAM among users. Conclusion The use of CAM therapies among T2DM patients in Lebanon is prevalent. Decision makers and care providers must fully understand the potential risks and benefits of CAM therapies to appropriately advise their patients. Attention must be dedicated to educating T2DM patients on the importance of disclosing CAM use to their physicians especially patients with a family history of diabetes, and those who have had the disease for a long time. PMID:24906634

2014-01-01

32

Cross Section Flyer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use slider bars to move a cross section of a cone, cylinder, prism, or pyramid. This activity allows students to explore conic sections and the 3-dimensional shapes from which they are derived. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2011-03-16

33

The b b production cross section and angular correlations in p p collisions at s = 1.8 TeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurements of the bb production cross section and angular correlations using the DØ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron pp Collider operating at s = 1.8 TeV. The b quark production cross section for |yb|<1.0 and pTb>6 GeV\\/c is extracted from single muon and dimuon data samples. The results agree in shape with the next-to-leading order QCD calculation of

B Abbott; M Abolins; V Abramov; B. S Acharya; D. L Adams; M Adams; V Akimov; G. A Alves; N Amos; E. W Anderson; M. M Baarmand; V. V Babintsev; L Babukhadia; A Baden; B Baldin; S Banerjee; J Bantly; E Barberis; P Baringer; J. F Bartlett; U Bassler; A Bean; A Belyaev; S. B Beri; G Bernardi; I Bertram; V. A Bezzubov; P. C Bhat; V Bhatnagar; M Bhattacharjee; G Blazey; S Blessing; A Boehnlein; N. I Bojko; F Borcherding; A Brandt; R Breedon; G Briskin; R Brock; G Brooijmans; A Bross; D Buchholz; M Buehler; V Buescher; V. S Burtovoi; J. M Butler; F Canelli; W Carvalho; D Casey; Z Casilum; H Castilla-Valdez; D Chakraborty; K. M Chan; S. V Chekulaev; D. K Cho; S Choi; S Chopra; B. C Choudhary; J. H Christenson; M Chung; D Claes; A. R Clark; J Cochran; L Coney; B Connolly; W. E Cooper; D Coppage; D Cullen-Vidal; M. A. C Cummings; D Cutts; O. I Dahl; K Davis; K De; K Del Signore; M Demarteau; D Denisov; S. P Denisov; H. T Diehl; M Diesburg; G Di Loreto; S Doulas; P Draper; Y Ducros; L. V Dudko; S. R Dugad; A Dyshkant; D Edmunds; J Ellison; V. D Elvira; R Engelmann; S Eno; G Eppley; P Ermolov; O. V Eroshin; J Estrada; H Evans; V. N Evdokimov; T Fahland; S Feher; D Fein; T Ferbel; H. E Fisk; Y Fisyak; E Flattum; F Fleuret; M Fortner; K. C Frame; S Fuess; E Gallas; A. N Galyaev; P Gartung; V Gavrilov; R. J Genik II; K Genser; C. E Gerber; Y Gershtein; B Gibbard; R Gilmartin; G Ginther; B Gómez; G Gómez; P. I Goncharov; J. L González Sol??s; H Gordon; L. T Goss; K Gounder; A Goussiou; N Graf; P. D Grannis; J. A Green; H Greenlee; S Grinstein; P Grudberg; S Grünendahl; G Guglielmo; A Gupta; S. N Gurzhiev; G Gutierrez; P Gutierrez; N. J Hadley; H Haggerty; S Hagopian; V Hagopian; K. S Hahn; R. E Hall; P Hanlet; S Hansen; J. M Hauptman; C Hays; C Hebert; D Hedin; A. P Heinson; U Heintz; T Heuring; R Hirosky; J. D Hobbs; B Hoeneisen; J. S Hoftun; A. S Ito; S. A Jerger; R Jesik; T Joffe-Minor; K Johns; M Johnson; A Jonckheere; M Jones; H Jöstlein; A Juste; S Kahn; E Kajfasz; D Karmanov; D Karmgard; R Kehoe; S. K Kim; B Klima; C Klopfenstein; B Knuteson; W Ko; J. M Kohli; A. V Kostritskiy; J Kotcher; A. V Kotwal; A. V Kozelov; E. A Kozlovsky; J Krane; M. R Krishnaswamy; S Krzywdzinski; M Kubantsev; S Kuleshov; Y Kulik; S Kunori; G Landsberg; A Leflat; F Lehner; J Li; Q. Z Li; J. G. R Lima; D Lincoln; S. L Linn; J Linnemann; R Lipton; J. G Lu; A Lucotte; L Lueking; C Lundstedt; A. K. A Maciel; R. J Madaras; V Manankov; S Mani; H. S Mao; T Marshall; M. I Martin; R. D Martin; K. M Mauritz; B May; A. A Mayorov; R McCarthy; J McDonald; T McMahon; H. L Melanson; X. C Meng; M Merkin; K. W Merritt; C Miao; H Miettinen; D Mihalcea; A Mincer; C. S Mishra; N Mokhov; N. K Mondal; H. E Montgomery; M Mostafa; H da Motta; E Nagy; F Nang; M Narain; V. S Narasimham; H. A Neal; J. P Negret; S Negroni; D Norman; L Oesch; V Oguri; B Olivier; N Oshima; P Padley; L. J Pan; A Para; N Parashar; R Partridge; N Parua; M Paterno; A Patwa; B Pawlik; J Perkins; M Peters; R Piegaia; H Piekarz; B. G Pope; E Popkov; H. B Prosper; S Protopopescu; J Qian; P. Z Quintas; R Raja; S Rajagopalan; N. W Reay; S Reucroft; M Rijssenbeek; T Rockwell; M Roco; P Rubinov; R Ruchti; J Rutherfoord; A Santoro; L Sawyer; R. D Schamberger; H Schellman; A Schwartzman; J Sculli; N Sen; E Shabalina; H. C Shankar; R. K Shivpuri; D Shpakov; M Shupe; R. A Sidwell; V Simak; H Singh; J. B Singh; V Sirotenko; P Slattery; E Smith; R. P Smith; R Snihur; G. R Snow; J Snow; S Snyder; J Solomon; X. F Song; V Sor??n; M Sosebee; N Sotnikova; K Soustruznik; M Souza; N. R Stanton; G Steinbrück; R. W Stephens; M. L Stevenson; F Stichelbaut; D Stoker; V Stolin; D. A Stoyanova; M Strauss; K Streets; M Strovink; L Stutte; A Sznajder; W Taylor; S Tentindo-Repond; T. L. T Thomas; J Thompson; D Toback; T. G Trippe; A. S Turcot; P. M Tuts; P van Gemmeren; V Vaniev; R Van Kooten; N Varelas; A. A Volkov; A. P Vorobiev; H. D Wahl; H Wang; J Warchol; G Watts; M Wayne; H Weerts; A White; J. T White; D Whiteson; J. A Wightman; S Willis; S. J Wimpenny; J. V. D Wirjawan; J Womersley; D. R Wood; R Yamada; P Yamin; T Yasuda; K Yip; S Youssef; J Yu; Z Yu; M Zanabria; H Zheng; Z Zhou; Z. H Zhu; M Zielinski; D Zieminska; A Zieminski; V Zutshi; E. G Zverev; A Zylberstejn

2000-01-01

34

Postoperative Expansion of Dural Sac Cross-Sectional Area after Unilateral Laminotomy for Bilateral Decompression: Correlation with Clinical Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective Dural sac cross-sectional area (DSCSA) is a way to measure the degree of central spinal canal compression. The objective was to investigate the correlation between the expansion ratio of DSCSA after unilateral laminotomy for bilateral decompression (ULBD) and the clinical results for lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and radiographs of 103 patients who underwent ULBD for symptomatic spinal stenosis in one year. We compared preoperative and postoperative clinical data and DSCSA and evaluated the correlation between clinical and radiographic measurements. Results There was a significant increase of DSCSA after ULBD (p=0.000) and mean expansion ratio of DSCSA was 203.7±147.2%(range -32.9-826.1%). Clinical outcomes, measured by VAS and ODI were improved significantly not only in early postoperative period, but also in the last follow-up. However, there were no statistically significant correlations between the preoperative DSCSA and clinical symptoms, Perioperative expansion ratio of DSCSA and clinical parameters were also not correlated to the improvement of clinical symptoms significantly in both early postoperative phase and last follow-up. Conclusion Our result indicates that the DSCSA itself has a definite limitation to be correlated to the clinical symptoms, and thus meticulous correlation between the clinical presentation and MRI imaging is essential in determination of surgical treatment. PMID:25620982

Chung, Seok-Won; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Baek, Oon-Ki; Lee, Sang-Ho

2014-01-01

35

Correlates of former smoking in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify multilevel correlates of former smoking in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Design Secondary data analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey. Methods We used data from the 2007–2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Smoking status (former smoking vs smoker) was described by multilevel correlates of former smoking. A multilevel approach for variable selection for this study was used to understand how multiple levels in society can have an impact on former smoking. The study sample was selected from those respondents of the CCHS that reported they suffered from stroke symptoms. Logistic regression was used to predict former smoking in patients with cerebrovascular disease while controlling for multilevel confounders. Proportions were weighted to reflect the Canadian population. Results There were 172?355 respondents who reported to suffer from stroke. From this sample, 36.5% were smokers and 63.5% were former smokers. Age groups 55–69 and 70–80 and higher education (secondary education +) were positively related to former smoking. Household and vehicle smoking restrictions significantly predicted former smoking. Counselling advice from a physician and having access to a general practitioner were correlates of former smoking. Finally, the use of buproprion was positively related to former smoking. Conclusions There are multilevel correlates of former smoking in smokers with reported stroke symptoms. These correlates include older age groups, higher education, household and vehicle smoking restrictions, pharmacotherapy use (bupropion), access to a general practitioner and counselling advice from a physician. PMID:25609668

Edjoc, Rojiemiahd K; Reid, Robert D; Sharma, Mukul; Balfour, Louise; Procino, Michael

2015-01-01

36

Correlates of Functional Disability in Patients With Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Preliminary Cross-Sectional Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated correlates of functional disability in 94 patients (89.4% women, 10.6% men; mean age = 34.2 years) with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a clinical syndrome of orthostatic intolerance characterized by significant functional limitations. Path analysis supported a model in which, controlling for demographic and disease variables, catastrophic cognitions were directly related to the latent variable functional disability, whereas

Lisa M. Benrud-Larson; Paola Sandroni; Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite; Teresa A. Rummans; Phillip A. Low

2003-01-01

37

Correlation Between Haemoglobin Level and Electrocardiographic (ECG) Findings in Anaemia: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Anaemia affects the body by decreased oxygen (O2) carrying capacity of the blood. There is growing evidence that anaemia contributes to cardiac disease and death. It causes O2 supply – demand myocardial mismatch causing myocardial ischemia. There is diversity of opinion available in literature on reports of electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in anaemia. Aim: To study the ECG changes in anemic population and to correlate ECG changes seen with increasing severity of anaemia. Materials and Methods: In hundred anemic adults, haemoglobin level and resting ECG were recorded. They were grouped according to haemoglobin level. ECG findings and varying severity of haemoglobin (Hb) level of each group were correlated using Pearson ’s co-relation co-efficient and association was calculated using Chi-square test. Results: ECG changes in patients with Hb level of 0-5gm% showed ST segment depression in 50-75%, T wave changes in 29-50% and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) in 25-30% of patients. Less percentage of patients with 5-7gm% Hb showed such changes, and patients with 7-8gm% Hb, showed no changes. As the Hb level decreased there was more percentage of patients having tachycardia and ECG changes. There was a strong negative correlation between Hb level and tachycardia and ECG changes. Conclusion: Diagnosing anaemia in critical care can be supported by ECG changes like ST depression, T wave changes, with/without associated QRS abnormalities to avoid misdiagnosis and also as dramatic clinical and ECG recovery can be achieved with anaemia correction. PMID:24959433

PK, Shashidhar; Herur, Anita; Chinagudi, Surekharani; Patil, Shailaja S; Ankad, Roopa B; Badami, Sukanya V

2014-01-01

38

The correlates of meeting physical activity recommendations: a population-based cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify correlated factors which explain the recommended level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among Portuguese adults. Subjects aged 31-60 years (972 males, 1195 females) were categorized, based on LTPA data obtained using a questionnaire, into two groups according to the PA recommendation for PA: ? 10 or < 10 MET · hr · wk(-1). Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were applied to the results. For men, the perception of an active lifestyle [odds ratio (OR) = 4.61, 95% CI:3.13-6.81, p <0.001], having an excellent perception of health (OR = 3.14, 95% CI:1.28-7.71, p =0.013), perception of being sufficiently active (OR = 2.16, 95% CI:1.53-3.05, p <0.001), and having a high socio-economic status (SES) (OR = 1.86, 95% CI:1.22-2.81, p =0.004) were associated with attaining the recommended level of PA. For women, the perception of an active lifestyle (OR = 3.68, 95% CI:2.63-5.15, p <0.001), and middle SES (OR = 1.50, 95% CI:1.07-2.11, p =0.018) were positive and associated with meeting PA recommendations. Unlike men, women with body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg/m(2) were more likely to attain the recommended level of PA than those with BMI <25 kg/m(2). The incidence of adults that met the recommended amount of PA is low. Men and women had different patterns of psychological and socio-demographic correlates. An intervention designed to improve the levels of PA among Portuguese adults may take these correlates into account. PMID:24175729

Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Diniz, José; Ramos, Madalena; Yazigi, Flávia; Onofre, Marcos; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

2014-01-01

39

The Clinical COPD Questionnaire Correlated with BODE Index-A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

The Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging has widely used in the stratification of the severity of COPD, while BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index was proven superior to FEV1 in predicting mortality, exacerbation and disease severity in patients with COPD. Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), a questionnaire with ten items categorized into three domains (symptoms, functional state and mental state) was developed to measure health status of COPD patients. However, little is known about the relationship between CCQ score and BODE index. We performed a prospective study with the inclusion of 89 patients who were clinically stable after a 6-week-therapy for COPD symptoms comparing their health status assessed by CCQ, BODE index and GOLD staging. We found that the total CCQ score was correlated with BODE score (P < 0.001) and GOLD staging (P < 0.001); of three CCQ domains, the functional status correlated the most with BODE index (rS = 0.670) and GOLD staging (rS = 0.531), followed by symptoms (rS = 0.482; rS = 0.346, respectively), and mental status (rS = 0.340; rS = 0.236, respectively). Our data suggest that CCQ is a reliable and convenient alternative tool to evaluate the severity of COPD. PMID:22654594

Liu, Shih-Feng; Tseng, Ching-Wan; Tu, Mei-Lien; Wang, Chin-Chou; Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Chin, Chien-Hung; Lin, Meng-Chih; Liu, Jien-Wei

2012-01-01

40

Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

41

Access to and utilisation of GP services among Burmese migrants in London: a cross-sectional descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An estimated 10,000 Burmese migrants are currently living in London. No studies have been conducted on their access to health services. Furthermore, most studies on migrants in the United Kingdom (UK) have been conducted at the point of service provision, carrying the risk of selection bias. Our cross-sectional study explored access to and utilisation of General Practice (GP) services

Nyein Chan Aung; Bernd Rechel; Peter Odermatt

2010-01-01

42

Injudicious use of laboratory facilities in tertiary care hospitals at rawalpindi, pakistan: a cross-sectional descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years inappropriate and excessive use of clinical laboratory facilities has become a cause of concern and has led to concurrent rise in the laboratory errors and the health care costs. The aim of the study was to find out the frequency of incomplete laboratory request forms, inappropriate test requests at various professional levels and the financial impact of uncollected reports at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Laboratory Rawalpindi. Methods The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted during a three month period from April to June 2012 at AFIP and CMH Laboratory Rawalpindi. A total of 1000 laboratory request forms were collected and scrutinized for completion from AFIP (n=500) and CMH Rawalpindi laboratory (n=500). 536 request forms of costly/specialized tests from different departments of AFIP were studied to find out the professional level of test request. The total number of tests performed at AFIP during the study period and number of uncollected reports were noted. The financial impact of these uncollected reports was also calculated. Collection of data and sorting were done manually. Patient confidentiality was maintained. Microsoft excel software and SPSS-17 were used for analysis. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Review Committee. Results Out of a total of 1000 forms studied none was completely filled with clinical notes being present in only 2.4% and 13% of forms sent to CMH and AFIP respectively. 62% of the expensive investigations were requested by specialists while 38% were ordered by residents and general practitioners but the percentage of avoidable expensive tests ordered by the general practitioners and residents was significantly higher than the specialists(p<0.001). A total of 9026 (40%) and 5046 (22%) diagnostic test reports were not collected from the Chemical pathology and Hematology departments respectively. Financial impact of uncollected reports from all the departments at AFIP collectively amounted to Pakistani Rupees (PKR) 3338201. Conclusion Processing incomplete laboratory request forms and injudicious use of laboratory facilities leads to incorrect interpretation of laboratory test results affecting outcome of the overall treatment. PMID:24274077

2013-01-01

43

HIV related risk behaviours among taxi drivers and their assistants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: descriptive cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Risk taking behaviours in relation to HIV among the mobile population is a growing public health concern in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to describe risky sexual behaviours and associated factors among male taxi drivers and assistants in Addis Ababa. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey design with multistage cluster sampling procedure was employed to select 615 individuals for interview. Results Seventy six percent of the respondents were sexually active. Nearly 31% of the respondents reported casual sex and 7% of them did not use a condom with their most recent casual sex partner. More than half (58.5%) of the respondents had no condom use efficacy. Condom breakage and/or slippage during sex had been encountered by 44% of respondents with casual partners and sex during menstruation had ever occurred among 17% of respondents. Eleven percent had experienced sex with female sex workers. Thirty-three percent of the respondents were unfaithful to their spouse/steady partners. Multivariate analysis revealed that living with parents [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.14-3.60)], non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 3.7(2.13-6.31)], never taken VCT [AOR 95% CI; 3.5(1.84-6.72)], middle-class monthly cash gain [AOR 95% CI; 0.5(0.25-0.98)] and more years of experience working on a taxi [AOR 95% CI; 0.17(0.60-0.47)] were statistically significant to influence lifetime abstinence. Non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 0.53(0.37-0.78)], never taken VCT [AOR 95% CI; 0.54(0.36-0.88)] and higher monthly cash gain [AOR 95% CI; 2.9(1.14-7.19)] had a statistically significant association with condom use efficacy. Living with parents [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.31-3.72)], living with friends [AOR 95% CI; 6.4(3.13-12.89)] and non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.34-3.53)] were risk factors found to be associated with faithfulness. Conclusions Risky sexual behaviours in this sub-population were considerable and associated factors were found to be multidimensional. Therefore, there is a need for robust intervention strategies such as tailored serial radio program targeting taxi drivers and their assistants. PMID:24712295

2014-01-01

44

Factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia: a descriptive cross-sectional single-centre study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia. Design Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes. Setting Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital. Participants All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90?years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013. Main outcome measures The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records. Results Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression. Conclusions Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes. PMID:24760351

Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Renganathan, Pukunan; Manaf, Rizal Abdul; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

2014-01-01

45

Nephropathy in males and females with Fabry disease: cross-sectional description of patients before treatment with enzyme replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Fabry disease, an X-linked genetic disorder with deficient ?-galactosidase A activity, is characterized by kidney disease and kidney failure. The spectrum of kidney disease has not been well defined, especially in female patients. Methods. We did a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of natural history of glomerular filtration rate (estimated— eGFR), albuminuria and proteinuria in 1262 adult patients (585 males, 677

Alberto Ortiz; P. Oliveira; S teven Waldek; David G. Warnock; Bruno Cianciaruso; Christoph Wanner

46

Morning melatonin serum values do not correlate with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most prevalent autoimmune arthritis worldwide, usually presents with a circannual manner and, meanwhile, follows a circadian rhythm for symptoms like morning stiffness. Therefore, association between RA and some hormones such as melatonin (MLT) and vitamin D, whose serum values are related to body circadian rhythms or seasonal variations, has become more noticeable recently. Since some studies proposed that RA patients show altered MLT circadian rhythms, especially in concordance with symptoms, in this research, we present the correlation between MLT serum values and RA disease activity score (DAS28ESR). The current cross-sectional study was carried out on 80 volunteers (60 patients and 20 healthy controls). Fifty percent of the participants in each group were sampled in cold, and the same percentage were sampled in warm seasons at 8 a.m. Disease activity was estimated utilizing DAS28ESR. Patients with possible known confounders of MLT secretion were excluded. A commercial MLT ELISA kit was employed to measure MLT. Statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS-11 software. This study outlined higher serum values of MLT in RA patients compared with controls (P = 0.006, z = -2.73). However, MLT did not correlate with DAS in patients (P = 0.45, r = -0.09). GLM analysis demonstrated that DAS28ESR, age, disease duration, medications, gender, and season of sampling had no influence on serum MLT. However, newly diagnosed RA patients presented higher MLT values than established ones (P = 0.03, t = -2.2). A cutoff point value of 23 pg/mL (63.3 % sensitivity and 90 % specificity) for MLT was computed between patients and controls. This study denoted that morning MLT serum values are higher in RA patients than in healthy volunteers. However, MLT and RA disease activity or other disease characteristics do not correlate. MLT serum values were higher in newly diagnosed RA patients than established ones. PMID:24487422

Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Sahebari, Maryam; Seyyed-Hoseini, Seyyed-Reza

2014-08-01

47

Development of a reaction ejectile sampling algorithm to recover kinematic correlations from inclusive cross-section data in Monte-Carlo particle transport simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new phenomenological approach is developed to reproduce the stochastic distributions of secondary particle energy and angle with conservation of momentum and energy in reactions ejecting more than one ejectiles using inclusive cross-section data. The summation of energy and momentum in each reaction is generally not conserved in Monte-Carlo particle transport simulation based on the inclusive cross-sections because the particle correlations are lost in the inclusive cross-section data. However, the energy and angular distributions are successfully reproduced by randomly generating numerous sets of secondary particle configurations which are compliant with the conservation laws, and sampling one set considering their likelihood. This developed approach was applied to simulation of (n,xn) reactions (x?2) of various targets and to other reactions such as (n,np) and (n,2n?). The calculated secondary particle energy and angular distributions were compared with those of the original inclusive cross-section data to validate the algorithm. The calculated distributions reproduce the trend of original cross-section data considerably well especially in case of heavy targets. The developed algorithm is beneficial to improve the accuracy of event-by-event analysis in particle transport simulation.

Ogawa, T.; Sato, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Niita, K.

2014-11-01

48

Prevalence and Correlates of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in a Saudi Arabic Population: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a Saudi population. The study population consisted of 552 diabetic participants with an average age of 53.4 years. Among this population, 62.7% were male and 94.9% had type 2 diabetes. The average body mass index was 31.1 kg/m2. DPN was diagnosed based on a combination of reduced vibration perception measured by neurothesiometer and/or reduced light touch perception evaluated by the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, as well as neurological symptoms. Information on socio-demographic variables, smoking status, duration of diabetes, and medications was obtained through interviews by physicians. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and clinical markers were assessed following standard procedures. The prevalence of DPN in this population was 19.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-23.5%). In the multivariable analyses, longer duration of diabetes [odds ratio (OR) for every 5-year increase, 2.49, 95% CI, 1.75-3.53], abdominal obesity (OR, 2.53, 95% CI, 1.41-4.55), and higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR for every 1 mmol/L increase, 1.05, 95% CI, 0.99-1.12), creatinine (OR for every 10 µmol/L increase, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.99-1.14) and white blood cell count (OR for every 106/L increase, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.01-1.16) were associated with higher odds of DPN, while oral hypoglycemic medication use was associated with a lower odds of DPN (OR, 0.47, 95% CI, 0.26-0.85). In this large Saudi population, several correlates for DPN, in addition to glycemic control and diabetes duration, were identified, including abdominal obesity, creatinine and white blood cell count. PMID:25184511

Wang, Dong D.; Bakhotmah, Balkees A.; Hu, Frank B.; Alzahrani, Hasan Ali

2014-01-01

49

NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The material in the first edition of BNL-325 and its addendum, the ; supplement, and new data received up to May, 1958 are included. Thermal cross ; sections, resonance parameters, and cross section curves are given. (M.H.R.)

Donald J. Hughes; R. B. Schwartz

1958-01-01

50

Effects of Instructional Strategies Using Cross Sections on the Recognition of Anatomical Structures in Correlated CT and MR Images  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include:…

Khalil, Mohammed K.; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E.; Su, Yung K.; Payer, Andrew F.

2008-01-01

51

Effects of instructional strategies using cross sections on the recognition of anatomical structures in correlated CT and MR images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a research study with novice medical students and biology students exploring the cognitive load of anatomical images using three methods; cross sectional images, transparent highlighting of anatomical structures and a combination of the two. Outcomes on the impact of these strategies on cognitive load and learning are discussed.

Dr. Mohammed K Khalil (Tuskegee University College of Veterinary Medicine Biomedical Sciences)

2008-03-01

52

Description of light ion production cross sections and fluxes on the Mars surface using the QMSFRG model.  

PubMed

The atmosphere of Mars significantly attenuates the heavy ion component of the primary galactic cosmic rays (GCR), however, increases the fluence of secondary light ions (neutrons, and hydrogen and helium isotopes) because of particle production processes. We describe results of the quantum multiple scattering fragmentation (QMSFRG) model for the production of light nuclei through the distinct mechanisms of nuclear abrasion and ablation, coalescence, and cluster knockout. The QMSFRG model is shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data for nuclear fragmentation cross sections. We use the QMSFRG model and the space radiation transport code, HZETRN to make predictions of the light particle environment on the Martian surface at solar minimum and near maximum. The radiation assessment detector (RAD) experiment will be launched in 2009 as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). We make predictions of the expected results for time dependent count-rates to be observed by the RAD experiment. Finally, we consider sensitivity assessments of the impact of the Martian atmospheric composition on particle fluxes at the surface. PMID:17342547

Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Schneider, Susana I; Hassler, Donald M

2007-06-01

53

Depressive symptoms and alcohol correlates among Brazilians aged 14 years and older: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related disorders, drinking patterns and other characteristics of alcohol use are important public health issues worldwide. This study aims to study these associations in an upper middle-income country, Brazil, and search for related socio-demographic correlations in men and women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2005 and April 2006. The sample of 3,007 participants, selected using a multistage probabilistic sampling method, represents the Brazilian population aged 14 and older. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and alcohol dependence was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations assessed using bi-variate analysis were tested using Rao-Scott measures. Gender specific multinomial logistic regression models were developed. Results Among the participants with alcohol dependence, 46% had depressive symptoms (17.2% mild/moderate and 28.8% major/severe; p?

2014-01-01

54

The b{bar b} production cross section and correlations in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV  

SciTech Connect

The authors present measurements of the b{bar b} production cross section and angular correlations between the b and {bar b}-quarks in p{bar p} collisions using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron operating at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. The b-quark production cross section for {vert_bar}y{sup b}{vert_bar} < 1.0 and {rho}{sub {tau}}{sup b} > 8 GeV/c is extracted and found to be consistent with next-to-leading order QCD predictions. In addition, the angular correlations between the b and {bar b}-quarks are found to agree in shape with next-to-leading order QCD predictions.

Gomez, B.; Hoeneisen, B.; Negret, J.P. [Universidad de los Andes, Begota (Colombia)] [and others

1996-08-01

55

Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45–70 years): a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. Methods A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45–70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire on physical activity. Socio-demographic and social-cognitive correlates were measured with validated instruments; medical correlates were checked by a general practitioner. The study had a cross-sectional design and the data collection ran from March 2005 until August 2006. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of PA. We separated the findings for men from those for women to explore potential gender-specific associations. Results Being female, living in North Limburg or North-Brabant, having a higher educational level, a higher perceived behavioral control, more knowledge about PA advantages, a stronger habitual PA behavior, having more action plans and a stronger intention to engage in PA were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Being older, being a smoker, having a higher body mass index (BMI), having a paid job, observing others being physically active and overestimating one's PA level were associated with being less physically active. Socio-demographic and medical correlates significantly explained 20% of the variance of PA behavior while social-cognitive correlates as attitude explained an additional 4% and intention together with actual control explained another 1% of the variance of PA behavior. Conclusion There may be stable individual differences that influence PA in view of the fact that several socio-demographic and medical factors were not completely mediated by the socio-cognitive factors. The current study may help to focus PA interventions for individuals aged 45–70 years on influential socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates. Physical activity was significantly associated with age, gender, education, BMI, work situation, region of residence, smoking, awareness, advantages, descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, habit, action plans and intention. PMID:24965940

2014-01-01

56

A Correlation Potential Method for Electron Scattering Total Cross Section Calculations on Several Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules over Energy Range 10?5000 eV  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex optical model potential correlated by the concept of bonded atom, which considers the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering on several molecules (NH3, H2O, CH4, CO, N2, O2, and C2H4) over the energy range 10?5000 eV using the additivity rule model

Liu Yu-Fang; Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Yang Xiang-Dong

2005-01-01

57

Prompt fission neutron emission calculations and description of sub-barrier fission cross section resonances for 234U(n,f)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prompt emission quantities of 234U(n,f) (average quantities as a function of fragment mass, average quantities as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) and total average quantities) have been calculated within the Point-by-Point model. The recently measured fission fragment distributions at incident energies (En) ranging from 0.2 MeV to 5 MeV have been used. The insensibility of the fragment pair multiplicity ?pair to the partition of total excitation energy (TXE) between complementary fully accelerated fission fragments has been confirmed. This gives confidence in the predicted total average prompt emission data as a function of En and of average quantities as a function of TKE at different incident energies of 234U(n,f). The systematic behavior of experimental ratios ?H/?pair as a function of heavy fragment mass number AH together with the TXE partition based on modeling at scission allow the parameterization of the excitation energy ratio EH*/TXE. This opens up the possibility to provide ?(A) of 234U in the absence of any experimental data. For the first time the calculation of (TKE) at many En revealed two interesting aspects: the slope d TKE/d? does not vary with En and the flattening of at low TKE values is more pronounced at low incident energies. The correlation between the sub-barrier resonant behavior of the fission cross section of fertile actinides (characterizing the pre-scission stage) and the visible fluctuations of their fission fragment and prompt neutron emission data (characterizing the post-scission stage), already discussed in the case of 238U(n,f) is outlined and quantitatively supported by 234U(n,f), too. The pronounced vibrational resonances in the experimental fission cross section of 234U placed below 1 MeV can be described by the statistical model for reaction cross section calculation including the optical model for fission.

Tudora, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

2013-11-01

58

Jet inclusive cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

Del Duca, V.

1992-11-01

59

Geologic Cross Sections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For this project, students must select a several hundred kilometer long section of Earth's surface, ideally crossing one or more major plate boundaries and research all major tectonic events to construct a cross section. Students should also take into account other factors like age of the ocean floor, average elevation and gravity anomalies across their area. The purpose is to demonstrate the geologic/tectonic history of their cross section and present it in a clear, concise summary.

Sharon Browning

60

Reasons for use and non-use of dental services among people visiting a dental college hospital in India: A descriptive cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To find out the reasons for use and non-use of dental services among people visiting a dental college hospital in India. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 180 people, aged 15–65 years visiting the outpatient department of a dental college hospital in India. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about the history of dental visits and reasons for use and non-use of dental services. Results: For a majority of the people (38.5%), time since the last dental visit was more than 2 years, and the main reason for visiting a dentist was dental pain (35.3%). Majority of the people had undergone extraction of teeth in their previous dental visit (44.3%). The major reason cited for not visiting a dentist was the presence of dental problem that was not severe enough to go to a dentist (43.1%). Conclusion: Majority of the people were “problem-oriented visitors” rather than “prevention oriented visitors.” PMID:23077423

Devaraj, CG; Eswar, Pranati

2012-01-01

61

Balanced Cross Sections and Retrodeformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate the use of balanced cross sections and retrodeformation to study faults that do not break the surface and their application to tectonics, folding, and earthquake hazards. Introductory materials explain how to construct geologic cross-sections, the idea of balance in a cross-section, and the concept of retrodeformability, whether or not the structures seen in a cross section can be 'undeformed' into their original positions. Using the Kink Method, students will construct a cross-section and test a balanced cross section to see if it is retrodeformable. Instructions, a blank cross section with data, study questions, and a bibliography are provided.

Nicholas Pinter

62

Peripheral Arterial Disease among Adult Diabetic Patients Attending a Large Outpatient Diabetic Clinic at a National Referral Hospital in Uganda: A Descriptive Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the recognised diabetic macro vascular complications. It is a marker of generalised systemic atherosclerosis and is closely associated with symptomatic coronary and cerebrovascular disease, hence significant morbidity and mortality. Among African adult diabetic populations, screening and diagnosis of PAD is frequently suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated clinical factors of PAD in adult ambulatory diabetic patients attending the outpatient diabetic clinic of Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, Kampala Uganda. Methods In this descriptive cross sectional study, 146 ambulatory adult diabetic patients were studied. Information about their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, fasting lipid profile status, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and presence of albuminuria was collected using a pre tested questionnaire. Measurement of ankle brachial index (ABI) to assess for PAD, defined as a ratio less than 0.9 was performed using a portable 5–10 MHz Doppler device. Clinical factors associated with PAD were determined by comparing specific selected characteristics in patients with PAD and those without. Results The mean age/standard deviation of the study participants was 53.9/12.4 years with a male predominance (75, 51.4%). PAD was prevalent in 57 (39%) study participants. Of these, 34 (59.6%) had symptomatic PAD. The noted clinical factors associated with PAD in this study population were presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria. Conclusions This study documents a high prevalence of PAD among adult ambulatory Ugandan diabetic patients. Aggressive screening for PAD using ABI measurement in adult diabetic patients should be emphasised in Uganda especially in the presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria. PMID:25133533

Mwebaze, Raymond Mbayo; Kibirige, Davis

2014-01-01

63

Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in critically ill patients: descriptive cross-sectional database study evaluating concordance with clinical site isolates  

PubMed Central

Background Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections are related to both increased antibiotic use and risk of adverse outcomes. An in-depth understanding of their epidemiology is essential to reduce occurrence and to improve outcomes by targeted prevention strategies. The objectives of the study were to determine the epidemiology, source and concordance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections with clinical site isolates. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in critically ill adults admitted to a tertiary semi-closed intensive care unit in England to determine the epidemiology, source and concordance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections with clinical site isolates. All nosocomial positive blood cultures over a 4-year study period were identified. Pathogens detected and concordances with clinical site are reported as proportions. Results Contaminant pathogens accounted for half of the isolates. The most common non-contaminant pathogens cultured were Pseudomonas spp. (8.0%), Enterococcus spp. (7.3%) and Escherichia coli (5.6%). Central venous catheter-linked bloodstream infections represent only 6.0% of the positive blood cultures. Excluding contaminants and central venous line infections, in only 39.5% of the bloodstream infections could a concordant clinical site source be identified, the respiratory and urinary tracts being the most common. Conclusions Clinical practice should focus on a) improving blood culture techniques to reduce detection of contaminant pathogens and b) ensuring paired clinical site cultures are performed alongside all blood cultures to better understand the epidemiology and potential implications of primary and secondary discordant health-care associated bloodstream infections. PMID:25593750

2014-01-01

64

Theoretical study of the Compton effect with correlated three-photon emission: From the differential cross section to high-energy triple-photon entanglement  

E-print Network

The three-photon Compton effect is studied. An incoming photon undergoes triple scattering off a free electron, which leads to the emission of three entangled photons. We investigate the properties of both the total cross section, assuming a low-energy cutoff for the detected photons, and the differential cross section. Particular emphasis is laid on evaluating polarization-resolved cross sections. The entanglement of the final three-photon state is analyzed.

E. Lötstedt; U. D. Jentschura

2014-05-07

65

Maternal awareness of young children’s physical activity: levels and cross-sectional correlates of overestimation  

PubMed Central

Background Factors associated with parental awareness of children’s physical activity (PA) levels have not been explored in preschool-aged children. This paper investigates maternal awareness of preschool-aged children’s PA levels and determined correlates associated with maternal overestimation of PA. Methods Data from the Southampton Women’s Survey, a UK population-based study, were collected March 2006 through June 2009. Daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) were derived using accelerometry in 478 4-year-old children. Mothers who were realistic or overestimated their child’s PA were identified. Log-binomial regression was used to analyse correlates of maternal overestimation of PA levels in children whose mothers perceived them to be active (n?=?438). Results 40.8% of children were classified as inactive: 89.7% of these were perceived to be active by their mothers (over-estimators). These mothers were more likely to think their child sometimes lacked skills required to be physically active (RR (95% CI)?=?1.29(1.03-1.63)) and their child was more likely to attend nursery full-time (RR?=?1.53(1.14-2.04)). They were less likely to have older children at home (RR?=?0.71(0.56-0.90)). Conclusions Almost 90% of mothers of inactive preschool-aged children perceive their child to be active. Nursery-school attendance and having older siblings at home may be important to consider when designing behavioural interventions to increase PA in preschool children. PMID:24090173

2013-01-01

66

Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

1979-01-01

67

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Erectile Dysfunction, and Their Correlation in Men Aged 50 Years and Above: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in men aged ?50 years. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 1644 men aged >50 years in Beijing. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 and International Prostate Symptom Score were recorded for each patient. Pearson’s chi-square test and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to analyze the International Prostate Symptom Scores and lower urinary tract symptoms, and their correlations with erectile dysfunction. Results The incidence rates of erectile dysfunction among men with mild, moderate, and severe lower urinary tract symptoms were 85.7, 93.7, and 97.9%, respectively. Interestingly, the total IIEF-5 score significantly correlated with the total International Prostate Symptom Score (r=?0.335; P<0.01), obstructive symptoms (r=?0.276; P<0.01), and irritative symptoms (r=?0.326; P<0.01). The correlation between the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms and that of erectile dysfunction was consistently maintained (r=0.304; P<0.01). Age significantly correlated with International Prostate Symptom Score (r=0.388; P<0.01), lower urinary tract symptoms severity (r=0.457; P<0.01), total IIEF-5 score (r=?0.533; P<0.01), and erectile dysfunction severity (r=0.529; P<0.01). Conclusions The incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in aging men increase with age, and the severity of erectile dysfunction is positively correlated with the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:25543209

Song, Jian; Shao, Qiang; Tian, Ye; Chen, Shan

2014-01-01

68

The Correlation between Running Economy and Maximal Oxygen Uptake: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Relationships in Highly Trained Distance Runners  

PubMed Central

A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V?O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V?O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V?O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V?O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V?O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL?kg-1?min-1; females, n = 70, V?O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1?min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal?km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V?O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V?O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; P<0.006), in addition to moderate positive relationships between the changes in running economy and V?O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; P<0.001). In conclusion, the current investigation demonstrates that only a small to moderate relationship exists between running economy and V?O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V?O2max are primarily determined independently. PMID:25849090

Shaw, Andrew J.; Ingham, Stephen A.; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P.

2015-01-01

69

Stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS by healthcare workers at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a cross-sectional descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background The issue of stigma is very important in the battle against HIV/AIDS in Africa since it may affect patient attendance at healthcare centres for obtaining antiretroviral (ARV) medications and regular medical check-ups. Stigmatization creates an unnecessary culture of secrecy and silence based on ignorance and fear of victimization. This study was designed to determine if there is external stigmatization of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) by health care workers (HCWs) at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, South Africa. The study investigated the impact of knowledge of HIV/AIDS by HCWs on treatment of patients, as well as the comfort level and attitude of HCWs when rendering care to PLWHA. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to collect data using an anonymous self-administered structured questionnaire from 334 HCWs. The study was conducted in clinical departments of a large multidisciplinary 922-bed tertiary care teaching hospital in Durban, KZN. Results Overall HCWs had an above average knowledge about HIV/AIDS although some gaps in knowledge were identified. Tests of statistical significance showed that there was association between level of education and knowledge of HIV/AIDs (p ? 0.001); occupation and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p ? 0.001); and gender and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (p = 0.004). Test for comfort level was only significant for gender, with males showing more comfort and empathy when dealing with PLWHA (p = 0.003). The study also revealed that patients were sometimes tested for HIV without informed consent before surgery, due to fear of being infected, and there was some gossiping about patients' HIV status by HCWs, thereby compromising patient confidentiality. The majority of HCWs showed a willingness to report incidents of stigmatization and discrimination to higher authorities, for better monitoring and control. Conclusions Although knowledge, attitude and comfort level of HCWs taking care of PLWHA was above average, enforcement of existing antidiscrimination laws and continuing education in medical ethics and healthcare law, would greatly improve the performance of HCWs taking care of PLWHAs. More psychological support and counselling should be provided to HCWs, to further reduce the impact of stigmatization and discrimination against PLWHA. PMID:24564982

2013-01-01

70

Pre-hospital care among victims of road traffic accident in a rural area of Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional descriptive study  

PubMed Central

Background: The World Health Organization has estimated that globally almost 1.24 million people die annually on the world's roads. The aim of the study was to assess the attributes of pre-hospital care in road traffic accidents (RTAs) victim brought to the health care establishment and to evaluate the pre-hospital trauma care provided in the rural areas of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3 months duration (June 2014 to August 2014) was conducted in the Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram. The method of sampling was universal sampling and all RTA victims satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. During the entire study duration, total 200 RTA victims were included. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the desired information after the victims of RTAs are stabilized. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee prior to the start of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants (patient/guardian of children) before obtaining any information from them. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 18. Frequency distributions and percentages were computed for all the variables. Results: Majority of the RTA victims 158 (79%) were from the age-group of 15-45 years. Most of the accidents were reported in night time [77 (38.5%)], on week-ends [113 (56.5%)], and involved two-wheelers [153 (76.5%)]. Almost 66 (33%) of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services. Also, only 15 (7.5%) victims were brought to the hospital in the emergency ambulance, of which only 3 victims were accompanied by a doctor. Conclusion: To conclude, the study indicates that a significant proportion of people were unaware about the emergency trauma ambulance services and the existing pre-hospital care services lack in multiple dimensions in a rural area of South India. PMID:25540536

Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Pandian, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Prateek S.

2014-01-01

71

Fatty acid composition of the follicular fluid of normal weight, overweight and obese women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment: a descriptive cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background It has been well documented that the maturing oocyte is very vulnerable to changes in its micro-environment, the follicular fluid (FF). Recent research has focused on different components within this FF, like hormones, growth factors and metabolites, and how their concentrations are altered by diet and the metabolic health of the mother. It has been proposed that fatty acids (FAs) are potential factors that influence oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. However, a thorough study of the specific FF FA composition per lipid fraction and how this may be affected by BMI is currently lacking. Therefore, we investigated the BMI-related concentration of FAs in the phospholipid (PL), cholesteryl-ester (CHE), triglyceride (TG) and non-esterified (NE) lipid fraction in the FF of women undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART). Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the FF of normal weight (18.5???BMI?

2014-01-01

72

International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards  

SciTech Connect

Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as 'Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle' create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

Carlson, A.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8463, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8463 (United States)], E-Mail: allan.carlson@nist.gov; Pronyaev, V.G. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Sq. 1, 249 033 Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 1710 Avenida del Mundo 1506, Coronado, CA 92118 (United States); Larson, N.M. [Bldg 5700, Rm 308, MS 6371, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6371 (United States); Chen, Zhenpeng [Physics Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China); Hale, G.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Group T-16, MS B-243, Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Hambsch, F.-J. [Neutron Physics Unit, EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Gai, E.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Sq. 1, 249 033 Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Oh, Soo-Youl [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Badikov, S.A. [Central Research Institute of Management, Economics and Information, Dmitrovskoe sh.2, Moscow 127434 (Russian Federation); Kawano, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Group T-16, MS B-243, Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Hofmann, H.M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, 02.534/B2, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S. [Institut fuer Isotopenforschung und Kernphysik der Universitaet Wien, Waehringerstrasse 17, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

2009-12-15

73

International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise experimental data and improved developments in the methodology of analysis and evaluation. Initial efforts to produce a new evaluation were made by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group which formed a Task Force. It was realized that international cooperation would be needed to produce the evaluation. The Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee formed a Subgroup, and the International Atomic Energy Agency formed a Coordinated Research Project (CRP). These groups worked cooperatively to improve the evaluation process. The major effort in producing the evaluation was through the CRP. The evaluations of the neutron cross section standards were finalized in October 2005. Previous difficulties experienced with a data evaluation problem known as "Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle" create biases in the fit of correlated data, and they have been addressed to reduce this phenomenon. The new evaluations of the cross section standards also include covariance matrices of the uncertainties that contain fully justifiable values. The product of this international effort has been adopted as the neutron standards for ENDF/B-VII.0.

Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

2009-12-01

74

The cross sectional anatomy of ventricular septal defects: a reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross sectional echocardiographic description of holes in the ventricular septum has been unsatisfactory, chiefly because there are so many classifications of this defect. The accurate description of the anatomy of individual defects, from cross sectional images, is more important than attempts to fit them into a preconceived classification. One hundred specimens of hearts with a ventricular septal defect were

E J Baker; M P Leung; R H Anderson; D R Fischer; J R Zuberbuhler

1988-01-01

75

Serum vitamin D3 level inversely correlates with uterine fibroid volume in different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional observational study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Currently there is no effective medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids (UFs), a common health disorder that affects women of reproductive age. Identification of modifiable risk factors such as vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency could help develop novel strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of UFs. The purpose of this study was to identify whether low serum Vit D3 levels correlate with increased risk of UFs. Methods A total of 154 premenopausal women were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The control group comprised 50 subjects with a normal, fibroid-free uterine structure, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. The 104 case subjects had at least one fibroid lesion that was 2 cm3 in volume or larger, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography. For each case subject, total uterine volume and total volume of all existing fibroids were measured in three perpendicular planes, with volume determined according to the prolate ellipse formula (a × b × c × 0.523), where a is height, b is width, and c is depth. Serum Vit D [25(OH) D3] levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The independent t-test was used to compare serum Vit D levels across groups. Correlations were assessed by Spearman’s rank correlation test. Results Lower serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of UFs (P = 0.01). A statistically significant inverse correlation was also observed between serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels and total UF volume (r = ?0.31; P = 0.002) within the case cohort. Subjects with larger fibroid volumes had lower serum Vit D levels and vice versa. Data stratified for ethnicity showed a statistically significant inverse correlation between serum 25-(OH) Vit D levels and total fibroid volume in black subjects (r = ?0.42; P = 0.001). An inverse correlation was also evident in white subjects (r = ?0.86; P = 0.58) but this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Lower serum Vit D levels are inversely correlated with UF burden in different ethnic groups. Vit D deficiency is a possible risk factor for the occurrence of UFs. PMID:23467803

Sabry, Mohamed; Halder, Sunil K; Allah, Abdou S Ait; Roshdy, Eman; Rajaratnam, Veera; Al-Hendy, Ayman

2013-01-01

76

Prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption and its’ association with tobacco smoking among Sri Lankan adults: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Most studies on alcohol consumption carried out in Sri Lanka are limited to single/few provinces in the island. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption among a larger sample of adults in Sri Lanka. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven of all nine provinces in Sri Lanka, between 2005 and 2006. A nationally representative sample of 5000 adults aged ?18 years was selected using multi-stage random cluster sampling. Data of 4532 participants were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data analysis included chi-squared test, multiple logistic regression analysis and Spearman correlation using Stata/SE 10.0 (StataCorp LP., Texas, USA) software package. Results Males were 40%; mean age was 46.1 years (±15.1). The overall, urban and rural prevalence (95% CI) of current drinking was 23.7% (21.7 – 25.7), 29.5% (25.7 – 33.3) and 22.2% (19.8 – 24.7) respectively (p?=?0.001). Current (M: 48.1%, F: 1.2%, p?70 years age-group. Hazardous drinking was seen in 5.2% of men and 0.02% of women. Male sex, urban living and current smoking correlated with both current and hazardous drinking. Lower level of education, and age >70 years positively correlated with hazardous drinking. Conclusions Alcohol is predominantly a problem in Sri Lankan males. In males, both current and hazardous drinking positively correlated with urban living, white collar occupation, Burgher ethnicity and current smoking. Hazardous drinking positively correlated with lower level of education and older age. The data shown here are useful in planning interventions simultaneously targeting alcohol and tobacco. PMID:24938494

2014-01-01

77

Prevalence and Correlates of Bacterial Vaginosis in Different Sub-Populations of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV), HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit. Results At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7–10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis) and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment. Conclusions Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse. PMID:25289640

Jespers, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Verstraelen, Hans; Hardy, Liselotte; Buvé, Anne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

2014-01-01

78

The prevalence and correlates of meeting the current physical activity for health guidelines in older people: a cross-sectional study in Brazilian women.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of meeting the current physical activity for health (PAfH) guidelines, proposed by the World Health Organization in 2010, in community-dwelling older women from Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1806 women (aged 60.0-92.7 years) who were randomly selected from eighteen care centers. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine the weekly time spent in physical activities, and this variable was categorized into three categories (0<150min/wk; 1: 150-299.9min/wk; 2: ?300min/wk). Age, race/ethnicity, economic class, education level, occupational and marital status, body mass index and blood pressure status, medical conditions, use of medications, and self-rated health status were the potential correlates. The ordinal logistic regression was used as a measure of association. From the total group of participants, 49.9% followed the current recommendations related to basic health benefits (150-299min/wk), and 35.9% met the guidelines for additional health effects (300 or more min/wk). Women with secondary complete education (OR=1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.74), positive self-rated health (OR=5.25, 95% CI: 2.10-13.09), and high blood pressure (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.09-1.62) were more likely to meet the current PAfH guidelines than their peers with primary incomplete education, negative self-rated health, and normal blood pressure. Increasing age was inversely associated with meeting the PAfH guidelines (odds ranging: 0.77-0.48). These results highlighted the elderly population subgroups, in a developing country, that needspecific guidelinesfor inclusion inhealth programs andmotivation toparticipate in physical activities. PMID:23305826

Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Moreira, Natália Boneti; de Oliveira, Valdomiro; Mazzardo, Oldemar; de Campos, Wagner

2013-01-01

79

A cross-sectional single-centre study on the spectrum of Pompe disease, German patients: molecular analysis of the GAA gene, manifestation and genotype-phenotype correlations  

PubMed Central

Background Pompe disease (Glycogen storage disease type II, GSD II, acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency, acid maltase deficiency, OMIM # 232300) is an autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder due to a deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA, acid maltase, EC 3.2.1.20, Swiss-Prot P10253). Clinical manifestations are dominated by progressive weakness of skeletal muscle throughout the clinical spectrum. In addition, the classic infantile form is characterised by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods In a cross-sectional single-centre study we clinically assessed 3 patients with classic infantile Pompe disease and 39 patients with non-classic presentations, measured their acid alpha-glucosidase activities and analysed their GAA genes. Results Classic infantile patients had nearly absent residual enzyme activities and a typical clinical course with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy until the beginning of therapy. The disease manifestations in non-classic patients were heterogeneous. There was a broad variability in the decline of locomotive and respiratory function. The age of onset ranged from birth to late adulthood and correlated with enzyme activities. Molecular analysis revealed as many as 33 different mutations, 14 of which are novel. All classic infantile patients had two severe mutations. The most common mutation in the non-classic group was c.-32-13?T?>?G. It was associated with a milder course in this subgroup. Conclusions Disease manifestation strongly correlates with the nature of the GAA mutations, while the variable progression in non-classic Pompe disease is likely to be explained by yet unknown modifying factors. This study provides the first comprehensive dataset on the clinical course and the mutational spectrum of Pompe disease in Germany. PMID:22676651

2012-01-01

80

Correlation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Detection with Clinical/Immunoinflammatory Profile of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis Using a 16S rRNA Microarray Method: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether the detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) correlates with the clinical and immunoinflammatory profile of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP), as determined by by 16S rRNA gene-based microarray. Subjects and Methods Subgingival plaque samples from the deepest diseased site of 30 LAP patients [PD ? 5 mm, BoP and bone loss] were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based microarrays. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were analyzed for 14 cyto/chemokines. Peripheral blood was obtained and stimulated in vitro with P.gingivalis and E.coli to evaluate inflammatory response profiles. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels were also measured. Results Aa was detected in 56% of LAP patients and was shown to be an indicator for different bacterial community structures (p<0.01). Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cyto/chemokines were detected in LPS-stimulated blood samples in both Aa-detected and Aa-non-detected groups (p>0.05). Clinical parameters and serum LPS levels were similar between groups. However, Aa-non-detected GCF contained higher concentration of IL-8 than Aa-detected sites (p<0.05). TNF? and IL1? were elevated upon E.coli LPS stimulation of peripheral blood cells derived from patients with Aa-detected sites. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the detection of Aa in LAP affected sites, did not correlate with clinical severity of the disease at the time of sampling in this cross-sectional study, although it did associate with lower local levels of IL-8, a different subgingival bacterial profile and elevated LPS-induced levels of TNF? and IL1?. PMID:24376864

Gonçalves, Patricia F.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Huang, Hong; Paster, Bruce J.; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Wallet, Shannon M.; Shaddox, Luciana M.

2013-01-01

81

Generalized x-ray scattering cross section from nonequilibrium plasmas.  

PubMed

We propose a modified x-ray form factor that describes the scattering cross section in warm dense matter valid for both the plasma and the solid (crystalline) state. Our model accounts for the effect of lattice correlations on the electron-electron dynamic structure, as well as provides a smooth transition between the solid and the plasma scattering cross sections. In addition, we generalize the expression of the dynamic structure in the case of a two-temperature system (with different electron and ion temperatures). This work provides a unified description of the x-ray scattering processes in warm and dense matter, as the one encountered in inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics, material science, and high-energy density physics and it can be used to verify temperature relaxation mechanisms in such environments. PMID:17025545

Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L

2006-08-01

82

Radar cross section of insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

Riley, J. R.

1985-02-01

83

Prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients more than 6 months post-transplant: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Among kidney transplant recipients, non-adherence with immunosuppressive medications frequently precedes allograft loss. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of medication non-adherence among kidney transplant recipients. Methods We performed a single-center, cross-sectional study of kidney transplant recipients who were at least 6 months post-transplant. We measured self-reported adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Adherence Scale (ITAS, which is scored from 0 to 12, where higher scores indicate increased adherence) and barriers to adherence using the Immunosuppressive Therapy Barriers Scale (ITBS). We also used validated scales to measure perceived stress, health literacy, anxiety, depression, and interpersonal support. Results The 252 patients included in the study were 59.9% male, 27.0% Black, and at a median of 2.9 years post-transplant (interquartile range [IQR] 1.4-5.8). On the ITAS, 59.1% scored a perfect 12, 26.6% scored 10–11, and 14.3% scored 0–9. In univariate models, non-adherence (defined as ITAS score ?9) was significantly associated with increased scores on scales for perceived stress (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25) and depression (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28), and with more self-reported barriers to adherence on the ITBS (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, stress and depression were not associated with non-adherence. Higher scores on the ITBS (corresponding to more self-described barriers to adherence) were associated with lower scores on the ITAS (P?

2013-01-01

84

Prevalence, characteristics and correlates of a positive-dementia screen in patients on antiretroviral therapy in Bamenda, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background In this study we assess the prevalence, characteristics as well as socio-demographic and clinical correlates of a positive screen for HIV-associated dementia in a group of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Bamenda, Cameroon. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire was used to collect data on 400 patients attending the Bamenda Regional Hospital AIDS-treatment Centre. Patients were assessed for neurocognitive function using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) to assess finger-tapping (FT), alternating hand sequence (AHS) and a 4-word recall (4WR), each scored on a maximum of four. Results A total of 297 (74%) participants were females. The total IHDS score ranged from 6–12 with a mean of 9.02 and 85% of subjects screened positive for dementia (?10 on IHDS). Participants performed worst in the AHS assessment with a mean of 2.25 (IQR: 2–3). In multivariable analyses, screening positive for dementia was significantly associated with having primary education or less (aOR: 8.33, 95%CI: 3.85, 16.67), and having HIV symptoms (aOR: 12.16, 95%CI: 3.08, 48.05). Conclusions A very high proportion of patients on ART screened positive for dementia using the IHDS. This could potentially be an indication of a high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in this population and or a poor performance of the IHDS in patients on ART. Future studies will need to assess the validity of the IHDS in this population of patients on ART and also evaluate long term outcomes in patients with positive dementia screens. PMID:23855622

2013-01-01

85

Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional survey of UK doctors  

PubMed Central

Background Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. Methods A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8%) doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement), stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut), and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure), as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Results Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem. Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant correlation with Avocation/Leisure activities. Popular Culture and High Culture did not differ in their influence on Vocation/engagement, although there was a suggestion that Depersonalization was correlated with more interest in Popular Culture and less interest in High Culture. Conclusion In this cross-sectional study there is evidence, even after taking into account a wide range of individual difference measures, that doctors with greater Avocation/Leisure activities also have a greater sense of Vocation/Engagement. In contrast, being BurnedOut did not relate to Avocation/Leisure activities (but did relate to many other measures). Osler was probably correct in recommending to doctors that, 'While medicine is to be your vocation, or calling, see to it that you also have an avocation'. PMID:21878123

2011-01-01

86

Low-energy cross-section calculations of single molecules by electron impact: a classical Monte Carlo transport approach with quantum mechanical description.  

PubMed

The present state of modeling radio-induced effects at the cellular level does not account for the microscopic inhomogeneity of the nucleus from the non-aqueous contents (i.e. proteins, DNA) by approximating the entire cellular nucleus as a homogenous medium of water. Charged particle track-structure calculations utilizing this approximation are therefore neglecting to account for approximately 30% of the molecular variation within the nucleus. To truly understand what happens when biological matter is irradiated, charged particle track-structure calculations need detailed knowledge of the secondary electron cascade, resulting from interactions with not only the primary biological component-water--but also the non-aqueous contents, down to very low energies. This paper presents our work on a generic approach for calculating low-energy interaction cross-sections between incident charged particles and individual molecules. The purpose of our work is to develop a self-consistent computational method for predicting molecule-specific interaction cross-sections, such as the component molecules of DNA and proteins (i.e. nucleotides and amino acids), in the very low-energy regime. These results would then be applied in a track-structure code and thereby reduce the homogenous water approximation. The present methodology-inspired by seeking a combination of the accuracy of quantum mechanics and the scalability, robustness, and flexibility of Monte Carlo methods-begins with the calculation of a solution to the many-body Schrödinger equation and proceeds to use Monte Carlo methods to calculate the perturbations in the internal electron field to determine the interaction processes, such as ionization and excitation. As a test of our model, the approach is applied to a water molecule in the same method as it would be applied to a nucleotide or amino acid and compared with the low-energy cross-sections from the GEANT4-DNA physics package of the Geant4 simulation toolkit for the energy ranges of 7 eV to 1 keV. PMID:24731979

Madsen, J R; Akabani, G

2014-05-01

87

Low-energy cross-section calculations of single molecules by electron impact: a classical Monte Carlo transport approach with quantum mechanical description  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state of modeling radio-induced effects at the cellular level does not account for the microscopic inhomogeneity of the nucleus from the non-aqueous contents (i.e. proteins, DNA) by approximating the entire cellular nucleus as a homogenous medium of water. Charged particle track-structure calculations utilizing this approximation are therefore neglecting to account for approximately 30% of the molecular variation within the nucleus. To truly understand what happens when biological matter is irradiated, charged particle track-structure calculations need detailed knowledge of the secondary electron cascade, resulting from interactions with not only the primary biological component—water--but also the non-aqueous contents, down to very low energies. This paper presents our work on a generic approach for calculating low-energy interaction cross-sections between incident charged particles and individual molecules. The purpose of our work is to develop a self-consistent computational method for predicting molecule-specific interaction cross-sections, such as the component molecules of DNA and proteins (i.e. nucleotides and amino acids), in the very low-energy regime. These results would then be applied in a track-structure code and thereby reduce the homogenous water approximation. The present methodology—inspired by seeking a combination of the accuracy of quantum mechanics and the scalability, robustness, and flexibility of Monte Carlo methods—begins with the calculation of a solution to the many-body Schrödinger equation and proceeds to use Monte Carlo methods to calculate the perturbations in the internal electron field to determine the interaction processes, such as ionization and excitation. As a test of our model, the approach is applied to a water molecule in the same method as it would be applied to a nucleotide or amino acid and compared with the low-energy cross-sections from the GEANT4-DNA physics package of the Geant4 simulation toolkit for the energy ranges of 7 eV to 1 keV.

Madsen, J. R.; Akabani, G.

2014-05-01

88

The total charm cross section  

SciTech Connect

We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

Vogt, R

2007-09-14

89

XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

90

Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use amongst junior collegiates in twin cities of western Nepal: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey  

PubMed Central

Background College students are vulnerable to tobacco addiction. Tobacco industries often target college students for marketing. Studies about prevalence of tobacco use and its correlates among college students in Nepal are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in two cities of western Nepal during January-March, 2007. A pre-tested, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (in Nepali) adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) and a World Bank study was administered to a representative sample of 1600 students selected from 13 junior colleges by two-stage stratified random sampling. Results Overall prevalence of 'ever users' of tobacco products was 13.9%. Prevalence among boys and girls was 20.5% and 2.9% respectively. Prevalence of 'current users' was 10.2% (cigarette smoking: 9.4%, smokeless products: 6.5%, and both forms: 5.7%). Median age at initiation of cigarette smoking and chewable tobacco was 16 and 15 years respectively. Among the current cigarette smokers, 58.7% (88/150) were smoking at least one cigarette per day. Most (67.8%) 'Current users' purchased tobacco products by themselves from stores or got them from friends. Most of them (66.7%) smoked in tea stalls or restaurants followed by other public places (13.2%). The average daily expenditure was 20 Nepalese rupees (~0.3 USD) and most (59%) students reported of having adequate money to buy tobacco products. Majority (82%) of the students were exposed to tobacco advertisements through magazines/newspapers, and advertising hoardings during a period of 30 days prior to survey. The correlates of tobacco use were: age, gender, household asset score and knowledge about health risks, family members, teachers and friends using tobacco products, and purchasing tobacco products for family members. Conclusion School/college-based interventions like counseling to promote cessation among current users and tobacco education to prevent initiation are necessary. Enforcement of legislations to decrease availability, accessibility and affordability of tobacco products and policies to change social norms of tobacco use among parents and teachers are necessary to curb the tobacco use among college students. PMID:18366781

Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Kishore, PV; Paudel, Jagadish; Menezes, Ritesh G

2008-01-01

91

Inclusive cross section ratios at x > 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the ratios of inclusive electron scattering cross sections between nuclei and the deuteron, for values of the scaling variable x > 1 and for large momentum transfers. Employing microscopic nuclear spectral functions and describing the recoil-nucleon final state interaction using correlated Glauber theory, we find good agreement with experiment.

Benhar, O.; Fabrocini, A.; Fantoni, S.; Sick, I.

1995-02-01

92

Stratigraphic Cross Section of Northeast Texas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of Northeast Texas provide important clues about paleogeography, paleotectonics, and sea level fluctuation. This website describes several of these rock units and the geologic information they supply. An unpublished report with a thorough discussion, map, cross section, and numerous references is provided. Specific topics include Cretaceous stratigraphy, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic correlation, ammonites, Western Interior Seaway, Skull Creek Seaway, paleogeography, and paleotectonics.

Minor Keith

93

Self-reported sexually transmitted infections and their correlates among men who have sex with men in Norway: an Internet-based cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The incidences of reportable sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased since the late 1990 s in Norway. The objectives of our study were to assess factors, associated with recent selected STI among MSM, living in Norway in order to guide prevention measures. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional Internet-based survey during 1-19 October 2007 among members of a MSM-oriented Norwegian website using an anonymous questionnaire on demographics, sexual behaviour, drug and alcohol use, and STI. The studied outcomes were gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV or Chlamydia infection in the previous 12 months. Associations between self-reported selected STI and their correlates were analysed by multivariable Poisson regression. P value for trend (p-trend), adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals [] were calculated. Results Among 2430 eligible 16-74 years old respondents, 184 (8%) reported having had one of the following: syphilis (n = 17), gonorrhoea (n = 35), HIV (n = 42) or Chlamydia (n = 126) diagnosed in the past 12 months. Reporting Chlamydia was associated with non-western background (PR 2.8 [1.4-5.7]), number of lifetime male partners (p-trend < 0.001), unsafe sex under the influence of alcohol (PR 1.8 [1.1-2.9]) and with younger age (p-trend = 0.002). Reporting gonorrhoea was associated with unrevealed background (PR 5.9 [1.3-26.3]), having more than 50 lifetime male partners (PR 4.5 [1.3-15.6]) and more than 5 partners in the past 6 months (PR 3.1 [1.1-8.8]), while mid-range income was protective (PR 0.1 [0.0-0.6]). Reporting HIV was associated with residing in Oslo or Akershus county (PR 2.3 [1.2-4.6]), non-western background (PR 5.4 [1.9-15.3]), unrevealed income (PR 10.4 [1.5-71.4]), number of lifetime male partners (p-trend < 0.001) and being under the influence of selected drugs during sex in the past 12 months (PR 5.2 [2.7-11.4]). In addition, the frequency of feeling drunk was reversibly associated with HIV. Conclusions Our study demonstrates different associations of demographic and behavioural factors with different STI outcomes in the study population. Number of lifetime male partners was the most important potential predictor for Chlamydia and HIV. The STI prevention efforts among MSM should focus on Oslo and Akershus, promote safe sex practices and tackle sex-related drug and alcohol use. PMID:20815931

2010-01-01

94

Noncompliance with Ocular Hypertensive Treatment in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma among the Arab Population in Israel: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the noncompliance treatment rates among primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) Arab patients in Israel and to verify the associated factors for noncompliance. Patients and Methods. A cross-sectional study took place using a questionnaire. Patients were initially interviewed and requested to answer a questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed based on a pilot test. Items included information about age, gender, number of prescribed drugs, and multiple reasons for noncompliance with drug therapy. Setting. Ophthalmologic HMO clinics, located in 3 Arab cities in the center of Israel. Participants. 400 Arab participants (197 men, 203 women) undergoing routine clinical care were recruited. Results. General rate of noncompliance, for both genders, was found to be 50%. Factors associated with nonadherence included inadequate knowledge (32%), underestimation of the disease severity (25.5%), and denial 15.5%. Compliance rates were unaffected by gender or number of prescribed drugs. Compliance was significantly higher in younger patients (age < 50) and in older patients (age > 80), 63% and 77%, respectively, (P < 0.05). Conclusion(s). Noncompliance was found to be common among an Arab population in Israel, particularly between the ages of 50 and 80. Educational programs, improving patient-physician relationship, and personalizing treatment could provide means for improved adherence. PMID:23936632

Masoud, Muhannad; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Pikkel, Joseph

2013-01-01

95

A novel approach to elemental analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy based on direct correlation between the electron impact excitation cross section and the optical emission intensity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (LIPS) or Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) the relation between recombining electrons and optical emission intensity has been studied in hydrogen and different metals targets. The role played by the electron impact excitation cross section on the temporal trend of emission lines has addressed and a methodology for the evaluation of the excitation cross sections by optical emission spectroscopy has been tested on several species including H I, Fe I, Ni I, Co I and Ti II. In connection with the theory drawn in this paper, the results show a good agreement with respect to theoretical ones. These results allow the direct linking of the emission intensity to the electronic excitation binary collision. The latter does not depend on experimental conditions and can be applied for elemental analysis. The use of estimated cross sections forms the basis for a different calibration free approach. LIBS elemental analysis on iron meteorites (to be considered as ternary alloys) and on a set of copper based alloys demonstrates the promising use of this analytical approach.

De Giacomo, Alessandro

2011-09-01

96

Cross Section of Sagittal Otolith  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Cross section of a sagittal otolith from a juvenile Chinook salmon 79 days after emergence. The letters represent: H = hatch, E = emergence, FF = first feed, FW = freshwater residence, TDCK = tidal delta check, and D = tidal delta residence (40x objective)....

97

Total Cross Sections for Inelastic Scattering of Charged Particles by Atoms and Molecules. IV. Positive Lithium Ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Born cross sections for several important discrete excitations of Li+ from its ground state have been calculated with correlated wave functions. By extrapolation, cross sections for higher excitations have also been determined. Subtraction of the sum sigmaex of these excitation cross sections from the total inelastic-scattering cross section sigmatot obtained through a sum rule for the Bethe cross sections

Yong-Ki Kim; Mitio Inokuti

1970-01-01

98

Measurement of the cross section and angular correlations for associated production of a Z boson with b hadrons in pp collisions at = 7 TeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of proton-proton collisions in which two b hadrons are produced in association with a Z boson is reported. The collisions were recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeVwith the CMS detector at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 5.2 fb-1. The b hadrons are identified by means of displaced secondary vertices, without the use of reconstructed jets, permitting the study of b-hadron pair production at small angular separation. Differential cross sections are presented as a function of the angular separation of the b hadrons and the Z boson. In addition, inclusive measurements are presented. For both the inclusive and differential studies, different ranges of Z boson momentum are considered, and each measurement is compared to the predictions from different event generators at leading-order and next-to-leading-order accuracy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Gonzalez, J. Suarez; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Velde, C. Vander; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Dildick, S.; Garcia, G.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Rios, A. A. Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Selvaggi, M.; Garcia, J. M. Vizan; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Martins, M. Correa; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Figueiredo, D. Matos; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Da Silva, W. L. Prado; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Manganote, E. J. Tonelli; Pereira, A. Vilela; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Montoya, C. A. Carrillo; Sierra, L. F. Chaparro; Gomez, J. P.; Moreno, B. Gomez; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Tikvica, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Kamel, A. Ellithi; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; de Cassagnac, R. Granier; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Donckt, M. Vander; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.

2013-12-01

99

Early Mesoderm Development Cross Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the context of a cross section between the amniotic cavity and yolk sac, this FlashTM animation depicts mesoderm formation and differentiation into somites, dermatomes, myotomes, sclerotomes, notochord and coelom. Simultaneous development of neural tube, gut and vitelline duct is also displayed.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2011-07-07

100

Photoneutron cross sections for Au  

SciTech Connect

Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Okamoto 8-9-1, Higashinada, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Toyokawa, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Harada, H.; Kitatani, F. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Goko, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Nair, C. [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Lui, Y.-W. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

2011-10-28

101

LUMEN Cross-Section Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Loyola University Medical Education Network (LUMEN) presents this anatomy tutorial. The site is divided up into categories of cross-sectional images of the human body: Head and Neck, Upper Limb, male and female Thorax, Abdomen, male and female Pelvis, and Lower Limb. By clicking on each section, users select a cross-section of that part of the anatomy, and by clicking on each number, can find out the specific name of that area. Users can also choose to see an illustration of the area (by choosing â??Imageâ?), or an image from a CAT scan (by choosing â??CTâ?). This is an excellent resource for students in any health care or allied medical field, including nursing or nursesâ?? aides, patient care assistants, and diagnostic imaging technicians.

McNulty, John A.

102

Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

2011-01-01

103

Correlates of consistent condom use among men who have sex with men recruited through the Internet in Huzhou city: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that men who have sex with men (MSM) are currently a group at high risk of HIV infection in China. Our study aims to know the factors affecting consistent condom use among MSM recruited through the internet in Huzhou city. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 410 MSM living in Huzhou city via the Internet. The socio-demographic profiles (age, education level, employment status, etc.) and sexual risk behaviors of the respondents were investigated. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to compare the differences between consistent condom users and inconsistent condom users. Variables with significant bivariate between groups’ differences were used as candidate variables in a stepwise multivariate logistic regression model. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows 17.0, and a p value?

2013-01-01

104

CROSS SECTIONS FOR RADIATIVE RECOMBINATION AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT IN THE K, L, AND M SHELLS OF ONE-ELECTRON SYSTEMS WITH 1 ? Z ? 112 CALCULATED WITHIN AN EXACT RELATIVISTIC DESCRIPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive tabulation of total cross sections for radiative recombination and, consequently, for the photoelectric effect of hydrogenlike ions with charge numbers 1 ? Z ? 112 is presented for the K, L, and M shells and electron energies ranging from closely above the threshold to the relativistic regime. The cross sections, accurate to three digits, are based on fully

Akira Ichihara; Jörg Eichler

2000-01-01

105

Measurement of Heavy Quark cross-sections at CDF  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: The measurement of heavy quark cross-sections provides important tests of the QCD theory. This paper reviews recent measurements of single b-quark and correlated b-quark cross-sections at CDF. Two new measurements of the single b-quark production at CDF agree with the first result from CDF Run II. This clarifies the experimental situation and confirms the recent agreement of theoretical prediction with data. A new measurement of the correlated b{bar b} cross-section with dimuon events at CDF is presented. It agrees with theory and it does not confirm the anomalously large b{bar b} cross-section seen in Run I by CDF and D0 in dimuon events.

Annovi, Alberto; /Frascati

2007-09-01

106

Inclusive and pion production neutrino-nucleus cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the experimental data on the inclusive double-differential cross section by neutrinos charged current, measured by T2K, with the same model which was successful for the MiniBooNE quasielastic cross sections. As in our previous analysis the multinucleon component is needed in order to reproduce the data. For the total cross section, our evaluation is smaller than the SciBooNE data above 1 GeV. This indicates the opening of a new channel not included in our evaluation, presumably the two-pion-emission channel. We also check that our description holds for the exclusive single-pion-production channel by confronting our evaluation with the MiniBooNE double-differential cross section for a single charged pion and the Q2 distribution. Both are compatible with the data.

Martini, M.; Ericson, M.

2014-08-01

107

Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

108

Adherence to a Mediterranean diet in Morocco and its correlates: cross-sectional analysis of a sample of the adult Moroccan population  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary habits in Morocco are changing and the causes are not well understood. This study aimed to analyse socio-demographic factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) in a national random sample of the adult Moroccan population. Methods The data collected in this cross-sectional survey included socio-demographic factors and a food frequency questionnaire. MeDi adherence was assessed in 2214 individuals with complete dietary data. MeDi adherence was measured according to a simplified MeDi score based on the weekly frequency of intake of eight food groups (vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereal or potatoes, fish, red meat, dairy products and olive oil) with the use of the sex specific medians of the sample as cut-offs. A value of 0 or 1 was assigned to consumption of each component according to its presumed detrimental or beneficial effect on health. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between MeDi adherence (low score 1-4 vs. high 5-8) and other factors. Results Mean age of the sample was 41.4 (standard deviation 15.3) years, 45.4% were men and 29.9% had a low MeDi adherence. Married subjects (adjusted odds ratio ORa=0.68, 95% CI 0.55-0.84) were less likely to have a low MeDi adherence compared to single, divorced or widowed persons. Persons from rural areas (ORa=1.46, 95% CI: 1.02-2.08), were more often low MeDi adherents compared to those from urban areas. Obese persons (ORa=1.56, 95% CI: 1.16-2.11) were more prone to low MeDi adherence than normal weight individuals. Conclusion MeDi is far from being a universal pattern in the Moroccan population. Intervention strategies should be implemented in target groups to maintain the traditional MeDi pattern considered as the original diet in Morocco. PMID:22578133

2012-01-01

109

Cross sections for electron scattering by atomic potassium  

SciTech Connect

Electron elastic and collisional excitation cross sections from the ground state of potassium are calculated using the noniterative integral-equation method of Henry, Rountree, and Smith (Comput. Phys. Commun. 23, 233 (1981)) in the electron energy range 4{le}{ital E}{le}200 eV. Configuration-interaction target wave functions that take account of correlation and polarization effects are used to represent the ground state and the six lowest excited states 4{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, 5{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}, 3{ital d} {sup 2}{ital D}, 5{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, 4{ital d} {sup 2}{ital D}, and 6{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}. Elastic and discrete excitation cross sections are obtained in a seven-state close-coupling (7CC) approximation. The 7CC elastic and excitation cross sections are compared and contrasted. Near threshold the elastic cross section dominates the resonance, 4{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}{r arrow}4{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, and the sum of the other remaining excitation cross sections. Comparison of our total cross sections with some available experimental and theoretical data is also effected. The discrepancy between the recent measurement of the total cross section by Kwan {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Rev. A 44, 1620 (1991)) on the one hand and other measurements near threshold on the other hand is explained.

Msezane, A.Z.; Awuah, P.; Hiamang, S. (Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States) Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States)); Allotey, F.K.A. (University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana))

1992-12-01

110

Angular Correlation Between Kx-Rays and Gamma - in a Spherically-Deformed Nuclei and Measurement of Absolute Pair Production Cross-Sections Near Threshold Energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

(i) Measurements of the directional correlations between Kx-rays following internal conversion and (gamma) -rays in ('181)Ta have been made the correlation coefficients are:. A(,22)(K(alpha)(,1) - 133(gamma)) = 0.037 (+OR -) 0.012. A(,44)(K(alpha)(,1) - 133(gamma)) = 0.022 (+OR -) 0.017. A(,22)(K(alpha)(,2) - 133(gamma)) = 0.038 (+OR -) 0.017. A(,44)(K(alpha)(,2) - 133(gamma)) = 0.037 (+OR -) 0.029. The anisotropic correlation measurements in

Ali El Sayed Khalil

1982-01-01

111

The impact of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake on hospitalisation for respiratory disease in a rapidly aging society: a retrospective descriptive and cross-sectional study at the disaster base hospital in Ishinomaki  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the impact in an aging society of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake on hospitalisation for respiratory disease at the disaster base hospital. Design Descriptive and cross-sectional study. Setting Emergency care in Japanese Red Cross Ishinomaki Hospital, a regional disaster base hospital in Miyagi, Japan. Participants 322 emergency patients who were hospitalised for respiratory disease from 11 March to 9 May 2011, and 99 and 105 emergency patients who were hospitalised in the corresponding periods in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Main outcome measures Description and comparison of patient characteristics and disease distribution in terms of age, time after the disaster and activities of daily living (ADL). Results 1769 patients were admitted to our hospital during the study period (compared to 850 in 2009 and 1030 in 2010), among whom 322 were hospitalised for respiratory disease (compared to 99 in 2009 and 105 in 2010). Pneumonia (n=190, 59.0%) was the most frequent cause of admission for pulmonary disease, followed by acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD) (n=53, 16.5%), asthma attacks (n=27, 8.4%) and progression of lung cancer (n=22, 6.8%). Compared with the corresponding periods in 2009 and 2010, the increase in the absolute numbers of admissions was highest for pneumonia, followed by AE-COPD and asthma attacks. At hospitalisation, 195 patients were ‘dependent’ and 54 patients were ‘partially dependent’. Respiratory admissions accompanied by deterioration of ADL after the disaster were more frequent in elderly and female patients. Conclusions After the Great East Japan Earthquake, admissions for pneumonia and exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease in the elderly increased at the disaster base hospital. PMID:23293238

Yamanda, Shinsuke; Hanagama, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Satou, Hikari; Tokuda, Shinsaku; Niu, Kaijun; Yanai, Masaru

2013-01-01

112

Absorption cross section in Lifshitz black hole  

E-print Network

We derive the absorption cross section of a minimally coupled scalar in the Lifshitz black hole obtained from the new massive gravity. The absorption cross section reduces to the horizon area in the low energy and massless limit of s-wave mode propagation, indicating that the Lifshitz black hole also satisfies the universality of low energy absorption cross section for black holes.

Taeyoon Moon; Yun Soo Myung

2012-10-05

113

COMMUNICATIONS Determination of absolute photoionization cross sections  

E-print Network

product branching ratios in scattering experiments, absolute photo- ionization cross sections are requiredCOMMUNICATIONS Determination of absolute photoionization cross sections for vinyl and propargyl cross sections for vinyl and propargyl radicals at 10 eV of 11.1 2.2 and 8.3 1.6 Mb, respectively. From

Neumark, Daniel M.

114

Charge and energy-dependence of the Gaussian description of the triply differential cross sections for equal-energy sharing photo-double-ionization of two-electrons ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate triply differential cross sections (TDCSs) for the photo-double-ionization (PDI) of He-like ions, and equal electron energy sharing, by using the SC3 model for the three-body final state. These cross sections are fitted with the usual dipolar Gaussian form which is found able to describe the theoretical TDCS, and could be applied for the interpretation of experimental data even

S. Otranto; C. R. Garibotti

2005-01-01

115

SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium  

SciTech Connect

A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); VanDenburg, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01

116

(Fast neutron cross section measurements)  

SciTech Connect

In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months.

Not Available

1991-01-01

117

45. Neutrino Cross Section Measurements 1 45. Neutrino Cross Section Measurements  

E-print Network

comprehensive discussion of neutrino interaction cross sections, including neutrino-electron scattering.1. Inclusive Scattering Over the years, many experiments have measured the total cross section for neutrino (µ45. Neutrino Cross Section Measurements 1 45. Neutrino Cross Section Measurements Written in April

118

Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in healthy and different forms of tobacco users having chronic periodontitis: A cross-sectional biochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background: Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease with complex and multi-factorial origin. Tobacco usage has shown its adverse effect on periodontal health. Various components within saliva not only protect the integrity of oral tissues, but also provide clues to local and systemic diseases and conditions. Salivary thiocyanate (SCN) has been shown to be a chemical indicator in smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Noninvasive nature of salivary testing has made it an attractive and effective alternative to blood and urine testing. Limited studies are there comparing and correlating the salivary SCN levels in smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP). However, no studies show correlation of salivary SCN among gutka chewers with CP. Aims and Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate, compare, and correlate the SCN levels in periodontally healthy, CP, smokers with CP and gutka chewers with CP subjects. Materials and Methods: Study includes 120 subjects with age 18-55 years, categorized as periodonally healthy (n = 30), CP (n = 30), smokers (n = 30), and gutka chewers (n = 30) with CP. Required clinical parameters such as gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment loss were recorded and salivary SCN levels were estimated through ultraviolet-spectrophotometer. Results: Mean salivary SCN level were shown to be higher among smokers and gutka chewers with CP as compared to healthy and CP alone. Conclusion: The present study exhibited the significant increase in salivary SCN levels among smokers and gutka chewers when compared to others, concluding that the analysis of salivary SCN levels could be used as an adjunctive means of diagnosis. PMID:24963243

Kalburgi, C. Veena; Naik, K. Lavanya; Kokatnur, M. Vijayalaxmi; Warad, Shivaraj

2014-01-01

119

Correlation between dental caries experience and mutans streptococci counts using saliva and plaque as microbial risk indicators in 3-8 year old children. A cross Sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Determination of the relative amounts of mutans streptococcus in both saliva and plaque and to study its correlation with dental caries in children. Study Design: The study comprised of 60 children aged 3-8 years divided into 2 groups (30 children in each): Group A- Children with more than 4 carious teeth and Group B- Children without caries. Saliva and plaque was collected from children of both the groups with the help of Dentocult SM strip test kit (Orion Diagnostic). Following incubation, mutans streptococcus scores (from 0 to 3) in each individual was evaluated and compared between both the groups. Results: On comparing the two groups, mean ± SD of saliva score and plaque score was 2.40 ± 0.675 and 2.40 ± 0.621 respectively in group A, whereas it was 0.60 ± 0.498 and 0.83 ± 0.531 in children of group B showing a significant correlation (p = < 0.001) between mutans streptococci scores in both saliva and plaque and dental caries experience. Conclusions: There is a direct and strong co-relation between the salivary and plaque mutans streptococcus counts and caries activity in children aged 3-8 years. Key words:Mutans streptococci, dentocult, dental caries.

Sachdev, Vinod; Sandhu, Meera; Deep-Singh-Nanda, Kanwar

2015-01-01

120

A cross-sectional examination of socio-demographic and school-level correlates of children’s school travel mode in Ottawa, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Active school transport (AST) is an important source of children’s daily physical activity (PA). However, decreasing rates of AST have been reported in multiple countries during the last decades. The purpose of the present study was to examine the socio-demographic and school-level correlates of AST. Methods A stratified sample of children (N?=?567, mean age?=?10.0 years; 57.8% female) was recruited in the Ottawa area. Four sources of data were used for analyses: 1) child questionnaire including questions on school travel mode and time; 2) parent questionnaire providing information on household socio-demographic characteristics; 3) school administrator survey assessing school policies and practices pertaining to PA; and 4) school site audit performed by the study team. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify socio-demographic and school-level correlates of AST while controlling for school clustering. Results Individual factors associated with higher odds of AST were male gender (OR?=?1.99; 95% CI?=?1.30-3.03), journey time <5 minutes vs. >15 minutes (OR?=?2.26; 95% CI?=?1.17-4.37), and 5–15 minutes vs. >15 minutes (OR?=?2.27; 95% CI?=?1.27-4.03). Children were more likely to engage in AST if school administrators reported that crossing guards were employed (OR?=?2.29; 95% CI?=?1.22-4.30), or if they expressed major or moderate concerns about crime in the school neighbourhood (OR?=?3.34; 95% CI?=?1.34-8.32). In schools that identified safe routes to school and where traffic calming measures were observed, children were much more likely to engage in AST compared to schools without these features (OR?=?7.87; 95% CI?=?2.85-21.76). Moreover, if only one of these features was present, this was not associated with an increased likelihood of AST. Conclusion These findings suggest that providing crossing guards may facilitate AST. Additionally, there was a synergy between the identification of safe routes to school and the presence of traffic calming measures, suggesting that these strategies should be used in combination. PMID:24886211

2014-01-01

121

HIV-related risk behaviours and the correlates among rickshaw pullers of Kamrangirchar, Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study using probability sampling  

PubMed Central

Background National HIV serological and behavioural surveillance of Bangladesh repeatedly demonstrated a very high proportion of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city, having sex with female sex workers (FSWs) and using illicit substances. However, no study has been conducted to identify the correlates of having sex with FSWs among this population. This study aimed to describe behavioural profile of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city using probability samples and to identify the correlates for having sex with FSWs in order to focus HIV prevention intervention. Methods Six hundred rickshaw pullers were randomly selected from rickshaw garages in the Kamrangirchar area, the single largest slum cluster of Dhaka, Bangladesh, during March–April 2008 using the Proportion Probability to Size method. Participants were interviewed, with a response rate of 99.2% (n = 595), using a structured questionnaire and asked about illicit substance use, sexual behaviour and risk perception for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Independent predictors of having sex with FSWs were analysed by multivariate analysis. A qualitative study was subsequently conducted with 30 rickshaw pullers to supplement the findings of the initial survey. Results The proportion of survey respondents who had sex with FSWs and those who used illicit substances in the previous 12 months period were 7.9% and 24.9%, respectively, much lower than the results achieved in the 2003–04 behavioural surveillance (72.8% and 89.9%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed the characteristics of younger age, being never married, living alone with family remaining in other districts and using illicit substances in the previous 12 months were significantly associated with having sex with FSWs. Conclusion HIV-related risk behaviour of our study population of the rickshaw pullers was lower than what has been suggested by the results of behavioural surveillance. While this discrepancy should be addressed in further studies, our study emphasizes the importance of focused HIV prevention programs for rickshaw pullers as high-risk behaviour is displayed at an unacceptable level and concentrated in identifiable sub-populations. PMID:19284569

Hoque, Md Hafiz Ehsanul; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Zamani, Saman; Ravari, Shahrzad Mortazavi; Kihara, Masahiro

2009-01-01

122

Clinical, Functional and Health-Related Quality of Life Correlates of Clinically Significant Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36). Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD) (defined cut-off?8). Results 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc), and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. Conclusion High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ manifestations. PMID:24587375

Nguyen, Christelle; Ranque, Brigitte; Baubet, Thierry; Bérezné, Alice; Mestre-Stanislas, Caroline; Rannou, François; Papelard, Agathe; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Revel, Michel; Moro, Marie-Rose; Guillevin, Loïc; Poiraudeau, Serge; Mouthon, Luc

2014-01-01

123

Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site  

PubMed Central

Background Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains—work, travel and leisure—in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Methods Adult participants (n?=?640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. Results The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4–47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Conclusions Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide encouragement across all sociodemographic groups. PMID:24628997

2014-01-01

124

[Fast neutron cross section measurements  

SciTech Connect

From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

Knoll, G.F.

1992-10-26

125

PCS a code system for generating production cross section libraries  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the use of the PCS Code System. It summarizes the execution process for generating FORMAT2000 production cross section files from FORMAT2000 reaction cross section files. It also describes the process of assembling the ASCII versions of the high energy production files made from ENDL and Mark Chadwick`s calculations. Descriptions of the function of each code along with its input and output and use are given. {ital This document is under construction. Please submit entries, suggestions, questions, and corrections to} {bold (ljc@llnl.gov)} 3 tabs.

Cox, L.J.

1997-04-01

126

Rheologic results and their correlation to hemostatic changes in patients with moderate and severe preeclampsia: An observational cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Previous study have shown an association between failure of physiological hemodilution during 2nd trimester and an increased risk for the development of subsequent pregnancy complications such as early birth, birth of a growth retarded newborn (IUGR), low fetal birth weight and preeclampsia. The latter complication in particular goes along with dramatic changes in the placental perfusion as well as systemic maternal blood flow. Severity of preeclampsia may be preceded by distinct impaired hemodilution and reflected by the results of rheological parameters. A subgroup analysis was performed in a community based retrospective study of 4,985 consecutively recorded singleton pregnant women of whom 423 had preeclampsia. Mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin levels and blood rheological results at the time of delivery were assessed and compared in women with moderate and severe preeclampsia. Mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin levels were calculated from the maternal records. Rheological variables included plasma viscosity (KSPV 1 Fresenius) and Red blood cell aggregation in stasis and under low shear conditions (MA1-Aggregometer; Myrenne). According to the definition of the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG) 314 women had moderate preeclampsia (74.2%), while 109 had severe preeclampsia due to the presence of a blood pressure >170/110 mmHg (n = 41; 9.7%), and/or IUGR <5th percentile (n = 28; 6.6%), and/or HELLP-Syndrome (n = 10; 2.4%), and/or proteinuria ?5 g/24 h (n = 30; 7.1%). Age, BMI, smoking, and maternal weight were comparable in the groups, while gestational age at delivery as well as fetal outcome parameter were statistically significant unfavourable in patients with severe preeclampsia. Mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin level were statistically significantly higher in women who developed severe vs. moderate preeclampsia (m = 12.75 ± 0.99 g/dL vs. m = 12.50 ± 1.05 g/dL; p = 0.033). However, in the ROC calculations a hemoglobin value of 12.05 g/dL revealed best sensitivity (78%) and specificity (33.8%) in women with subsequent diagnosis of severe preeclampsia, whereas sensitivity was 100% for a value >10.95 g/dL. There were no statistically significant differences for none of the rheological parameters at the time of delivery between groups of patient with moderate v.s severe preeclampsia. Severe preeclampsia and IUGR, however, was associated with statistically significantly higher RBC aggregation as compared to patients with moderate preeclampsia. Plasma viscosity was statistically significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with Fibrinogen values (r = 0.16), leukocyte-(r = 0.11) and platelets-count (r = 0.127), and hemoglobin/hematocrit values in particular (r = 0.23/0.26). Although mean 2nd trimester hemoglobin concentration are higher in patients with subsequent development of severe preeclampsia, due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this parameter clinical use for identifying women at risk is of limited value. On the other hand, a hemoglobin value below 11.0 g/dL excluded the risk for severe preeclampsia to 100%. Blood rheological parameters at the time of delivery in the absence of IUGR are not markedly influenced by severity of preeclampsia. PMID:23089882

Soliman, Amr A; Csorba, Roland; Yilmaz, Asli; Tsikoaras, Panagioti; von Tempelhoff, Georg-Friedrich

2015-01-01

127

Photon-Nucleus Total Cross Sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative predictions for the energy and A dependence of the cross sections for nuclear photoabsorption and inelastic electron-nucleus scattering are given. In general, the nucleons do not contribute equally to the total photon-nucleus cross section when coherent contributions of photoproduced hadrons are taken into account. At low energies (Egamma~1 BeV), the cross sections are proportional to nuclear number A, but

Stanley J. Brodsky; Jon Pumplin

1969-01-01

128

Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

1994-01-01

129

The Primitive Streak, Cross Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FlashTM animation is the third of a seven part series that presents the primitive streak from different angles. This installment displays the cross section, which is conducive to observing invagination. Epiblast cells ingress through the middle of the germ disc, to differentiate into either endoderm or mesenchymal mesoderm. The endoderm proliferates to drive the hypoblast into the extraembryonic endoderm of the yolk sac. The mesenchyme spreads between the epiblast and endoderm. Although not drawn to scale, the progressive thickening from lateral to paraxial mesoderm is depicted. To open the animation using Internet Explorer follow these steps. (1.) Click the link for the animation. (2.) A dialog box may pop up that begins with the statement "Windows cannot open this file:" If this box does not appear proceed to step four. If it does choose "Select the program from a list," then click OK. (3.) Another dialog box will pop up that lists different programs. Make sure "Internet Explorer" is selected, then click OK. (4.) Internet Explorer will pop up. Beneath the toolbars at the top of the window a yellow bar will appear that reads "To help protect your security, Internet Explorer has restricted this webpage from running scripts or Active X controls that could access your computer. Click here for options..." Pass the cursor over this yellow bar and click the right mouse button. (5.) A dialog box will pop up. Left click the option "Allow Blocked Content." (6.) Another dialog box will appear labeled "Security Warning" asking you to confirm that you want to run the content. Click "Yes." (7.) The Flash animation will appear in the Internet Explorer Window. (8.) Instructions for navigating the lesson are provided by the first frame of the animation.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2011-06-23

130

Analytical partitioning of total cross sections for electron scattering on noble gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical analytical formulae are proposed, aiming at the description of partial cross sections for electron scattering on noble gases. Selected measurements of total, excitation and ionization cross sections for these gases have been fitted by these analytical formulae in the 20-5000reV energy range. The elastic cross sections, obtained as the difference, compare quite well with the elastic experimental data for

Roberto S. Brusa; Grzegorz P. Karwasz; Antonio Zecca

1996-01-01

131

K-shell photoionization cross sections - Calculations and simple fitting formulae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple analytic formulas are proposed to fit the theoretical Hartree-Dirac-Slater K-shell photoionization cross sections of atoms and ions with atomic number of 26 or higher. It is shown that the criterion of Kamrukov et al. (1983) permits the description of many cross sections for a variety of atoms and ions. Fitting parameters are shown for the photoionization cross sections of

I. M. Band; M. B. Trzhaskovskaia; D. A. Verner; D. G. Iakovlev

1990-01-01

132

Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.  

SciTech Connect

Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

2008-04-01

133

Reconstructing Cell Complexes From Cross-sections  

E-print Network

Reconstructing Cell Complexes From Cross-sections Scott E. Dillard1,2 , Dan Thoma1 and Bernd Hamann segmentations take the form of cell com- plexes. We present a method to infer a 3D cell complex from of a series structures found in nature. Given a prescribed matching of 2D cells in adjacent cross-sections we produce a 3

Hamann, Bernd

134

Optimization research for ash dam cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for the optimization analysis of ash dam slope stability calculation by using lattice method. A further study for the optimization design of ash dam cross section using exhaustion method is also provided. The numerical result analysis indicates that using combined optimization method of lattice and exhaustion to design ash dam cross section can achieve

Shouyi Li; Jihua Zhao; Yaolong Chen; Jusheng Yang

2005-01-01

135

Neutron removal cross section as a measure of neutron skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the relation between neutron removal cross section (?-N) and neutron skin thickness for finite neutron-rich nuclei using the statistical abrasion ablation model. Different sizes of neutron skin are obtained by adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutrons in the Fermi distribution. It is demonstrated that there is a good linear correlation between ?-N and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. Further analysis suggests that the relative increase of neutron removal cross section could be used as a quantitative measure for neutron skin thickness in neutron-rich nuclei.

Fang, D. Q.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Tian, W. D.; Wang, H. W.

2010-04-01

136

Neutron removal cross section as a measure of neutron skin  

E-print Network

We study the relation between neutron removal cross section ($\\sigma_{-N}$) and neutron skin thickness for finite neutron rich nuclei using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA) model. Different sizes of neutron skin are obtained by adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutrons in the Fermi distribution. It is demonstrated that there is a good linear correlation between $\\sigma_{-N}$ and the neutron skin thickness for neutron rich nuclei. Further analysis suggests that the relative increase of neutron removal cross section could be used as a quantitative measure for the neutron skin thickness in neutron rich nuclei.

D. Q. Fang; Y. G. Ma; X. Z. Cai; W. D. Tian; H. W. Wang

2010-04-20

137

Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

Jorgensen, Leland H.

1958-01-01

138

Parameterized Cross Sections for Pion Production in Proton-Proton Collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An accurate knowledge of cross sections for pion production in proton-proton collisions finds wide application in particle physics, astrophysics, cosmic ray physics, and space radiation problems, especially in situations where an incident proton is transported through some medium and knowledge of the output particle spectrum is required when given the input spectrum. In these cases, accurate parameterizations of the cross sections are desired. In this paper much of the experimental data are reviewed and compared with a wide variety of different cross section parameterizations. Therefore, parameterizations of neutral and charged pion cross sections are provided that give a very accurate description of the experimental data. Lorentz invariant differential cross sections, spectral distributions, and total cross section parameterizations are presented.

Blattnig, Steve R.; Swaminathan, Sudha R.; Kruger, Adam T.; Ngom, Moussa; Norbury, John W.; Tripathi, R. K.

2000-01-01

139

Silicon Detector System for Cross Section Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to estimate the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials it is necessary to know cosmic ray particles are broken up as they pass though these materials. The breakup of cosmic ray particles is characterized by the nuclear fragmentation cross sections, i.e. an effective geometrical cross section assigned to each target nucleus that represents its apparent size for fragmenting the incident particle. The values of these cross sections depend on the details of nuclear physics and cannot be calculated from first principles owing to the many-body nature of the interactions. The only way to determine them is to measure them. Once a sufficient number of cross sections have been measured, the systematic nature of the interactions allows other cross-sections to be estimated. The number of cross sections that contribute to the estimation of shielding effectiveness is very large 10,000. Fortunately most make minor contributions. These can be estimated from nuclear systematics. Only those who's uncertainties make significant contributions to the error in the shielding effectiveness estimations need to be measured. In the past it has proven difficult to measure light fragment production cross sections from the interactions of heavy cosmic rays owing to the size of the detectors used. We have developed a highly pixilated silicon (Si) detector system that can individually identify these light fragments while making efficient use of costly accelerator time. This system is an outgrowth of detector technology developed under a CDDF and a Code S sponsored cosmic ray experiment.

2003-01-01

140

Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

Norbury, John W.

2008-01-01

141

Absorption cross section in de Sitter space  

E-print Network

We study the wave equation for a minimally coupled massive scalar in three-dimensional de Sitter space. We compute the absorption cross section to investigate its cosmological horizon in the southern diamond. Although the absorption cross section is not defined exactly, we can be determined it from the fact that the low-energy $s(j=0)$-wave absorption cross section for a massless scalar is given by the area of the cosmological horizon. On the other hand, the low-temperature limit of $j\

Y. S. Myung

2003-02-10

142

Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

Richards, W. B.

1986-01-01

143

ENDF/B-6 neutron cross section measurement standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The document provides information on the neutron cross section standards placed in the ENDF/B-VI library. The H(n,n), (3)He(n,p), and C(n,n) cross sections were each obtained from well established R-matrix analysis techniques. The additional standards, i.e., the (6)Li(n,t), (10)B(n,alpha 1), Au(n,gamma), and (235)U(n,f) cross sections were obtained with a new method. The new method involves combining the results of a simultaneous evaluation and R-matrix analyses. Contained herein is a discussion of the development of the method, a description of the evaluation process, some information on the various experiments used in the analyses, comparisons of the R-matrix, simultaneous evaluation and combination results, and comparisons to ENDF/B-V. Tables of numerical data are given for each of the cross section standards. Also, the new ENDF/B-VI evaluation for the spontaneous fission neutron spectrum for (252)Cf is given.

Carlson, A. D.; Poenitz, W. P.; Hale, G. M.; Peelle, R. W.; Dodder, D. C.

1993-05-01

144

Negative ion detachment cross sections. Interim progress report  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below.

Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

1992-10-01

145

Analysis of charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross section  

SciTech Connect

A study of the cross section for chaged-current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering on nuclei has been performed using a description of nuclear dynamics based on the Relativistic Fermi Gas model (RFG). The role played by different parametrizations for the weak nucleon form factors is analyzed taking into account the relevance of the axial mass value. The results obtained are compared with the recent data for neutrinos measured by the MiniBooNE Collaboration.

Megias, G.; Caballero, J. A. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

2013-06-10

146

Absorption cross section of canonical acoustic holes  

SciTech Connect

We compute numerically the absorption cross section of a canonical acoustic hole for sound waves with arbitrary frequencies. Our outputs are in full agreement with the expected low- and high-frequency limits.

Crispino, Luis C. B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Matsas, George E. A. [Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2007-11-15

147

Status of neutron dosimetry cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Several new cross section libraries, such as ENDF/B-VI(release 2), IRDF-90,JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3 Dosimetry, have recently been made available to the dosimetry community. the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) has worked with these libraries since pre-release versions were available. this paper summarizes the results of the intercomparison and testing of dosimetry cross sections. As a result of this analysis, a compendium of the best dosimetry cross sections was assembled from the available libraries for use within the SNL RML. this library, referred to as the SNLRML Library, contains 66 general dosimetry sensors and 3 special dosimeters unique to the RML sensor inventory. The SNLRML cross sections have been put into a format compatible with commonly used spectrum determination codes.

Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.

1992-12-31

148

Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

1970-01-01

149

Cross section measurements with monoenergetic muon neutrinos  

E-print Network

The monoenergetic 236 MeV muon neutrino from charged kaon decay at rest (K[superscript +] ? ?[superscript +]?[subscript ?]) can be used to produce a novel set of cross section measurements. Applicable for short- and ...

Spitz, Joshua B.

150

A nuclear cross section data handbook  

SciTech Connect

Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

Fisher, H.O.M.

1989-12-01

151

Absorption cross section of RN black hole  

E-print Network

The behavior of a charged scalar field in the RN black hole space time is studied using WKB approximation. In the present work it is assumed that matter waves can get reflected from the event horizon. Using this effect, the Hawking temperature and the absorption cross section for RN black hole placed in a charged scalar field are calculated. The absorption cross section $\\sigma _{abs}$ is found to be inversely proportional to square of the Hawking temperature of the black hole.

Sini R.; V. C. Kuriakose

2007-08-23

152

Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

1978-01-01

153

Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards  

SciTech Connect

Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Bhat, M.R.

1980-01-01

154

Rising Total Hadron-Hadron Cross Sections  

E-print Network

A historical summary is made on the measurements concerning the rising total hadron-hadron cross sections at high energies. The first part of this paper concerns the total cross section measurements performed at the Brookhaven, Serpukhov and Fermilab fixed target accelerators; then the measurements at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), and at the CERN and at the Tevatron Fermilab proton-antiproton colliders; finally the cosmic ray measurements at even higher energies. A short discussion on Conclusions and Perspectives follows.

Giorgio Giacomelli

2007-12-06

155

Multicore fiber with rectangular cross-section.  

PubMed

We have fabricated, to our knowledge, the first rectangular cross-section multicore fiber with eight cores arranged in a line. We have shown that the rectangular cross-section remains practically unchanged during the fiber-drawing process. The heterogeneous version of the proposed fiber design could be beneficial for crosstalk reduction because of the low influence of fiber bends on crosstalk between neighboring cores. PMID:24686702

Egorova, O N; Semjonov, S L; Senatorov, A K; Salganskii, M Y; Koklyushkin, A V; Nazarov, V N; Korolev, A E; Kuksenkov, D V; Li, Ming-Jun; Dianov, E M

2014-04-01

156

Asymptotic cross sections for composite projectile reactions  

E-print Network

ASYMPTOTIC CROSS SECTIONS FOR COMPOSITE PROJECTILE REACTIONS A Thesis by ANDREA MAROLT PIMENTA NEVES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... Asymptotic Cross Sections for Composite Projectile Reactions. (August 1995) Andrea Marolt Pimenta Neves B. S. Mary Washington College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. John F. Reading The First Born Approximation has been used to compute excitation...

Neves, Andrea Marolt Pimenta

1995-01-01

157

Predicting the Total Charm Cross Section  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. Extracting the total charm cross section from data is a non-trivial task. To go from a finite number of measured D mesons in a particular decay channel to the total c{bar c} cross section one must: divide by the branching ratio for that channel; correct for the luminosity, {sigma}{sub D} = N{sub D}/Lt; extrapolate to full phase space from the finite detector acceptance; divide by two to get the pair cross section from the single Ds; and multiply by a correction factor to account for unmeasured charm hadrons. Early fixed-target data were at rather low p{sub T}, making the charm quark mass the most relevant scale. At proton and ion colliders, although the RHIC experiments can access the full pT range and thus the total cross section, the data reach rather high p{sub T}, p{sub T} >> m, making p{sub T} (m{sub T}) the most relevant scale. Here we focus on the total cross section calculation where the quark mass is the only relevant scale.

Vogt, R

2008-05-29

158

Photon scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than one percent with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than one percent with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules.

Ice, G. E.

1977-01-01

159

Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender and 3) examine whether socio-demographic disparity in oral health was explained by oral health-related behaviours. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 using one-stage cluster sampling design. Total of 2412 students (mean age 15.2 yr) completed self-administered questionnaires, whereas 1077 (mean age 14.9 yr) underwent dental-examination. Bivariate analyses were conducted using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics. Multiple variable analyses were conducted using stepwise standardized logistic regression (SLR) with odds ratios and 95% Confidence intervals (CI). Results 44.8% presented with fair to poor OHIS and 48.2% reported any OIDP. Older students, those from low socio-economic status families, had parents who couldn't afford dental care and had low educational-level reported oral impacts, poor oral hygiene, irregular toothbrushing, less dental attendance and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks more frequently than their counterparts. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that reporting any OIDP was independently associated with; older age-groups, parents do not afford dental care, smoking experience, no dental visits and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Behavioural factors accounted partly for association between low family SES and OIDP. Low family SES, no dental attendance and smoking experience were most important in males. Low family SES and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks were the most important correlates in females. Socio-behavioural factors associated with higher odds ratios for poor OHIS were; older age, belonging to the poorest household category and having parents who did not afford dental care across both genders. Conclusion Disparities in oral hygiene status and OIDP existed in relation to age, affording dental care, smoking and intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks. Gender differences should be considered in intervention studies, and modifiable behaviours have some relevance in reducing social disparity in oral health. PMID:21118499

2010-01-01

160

30 CFR 779.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 779.25 Section 779...RESOURCES § 779.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps, and plans showing— (1)...

2010-07-01

161

30 CFR 783.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 783.25 Section 783...RESOURCES § 783.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps, and plans showing— (1)...

2010-07-01

162

30 CFR 779.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 779.25 Section 779...RESOURCES § 779.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps, and plans showing— (1)...

2012-07-01

163

30 CFR 779.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 779.25 Section 779...RESOURCES § 779.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps, and plans showing— (1)...

2014-07-01

164

30 CFR 779.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 779.25 Section 779...RESOURCES § 779.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps, and plans showing— (1)...

2013-07-01

165

30 CFR 783.25 - Cross sections, maps, and plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Cross sections, maps, and plans. 783.25 Section 783...RESOURCES § 783.25 Cross sections, maps, and plans. (a) The application shall include cross sections, maps, and plans showing— (1)...

2011-07-01

166

NNLO jet cross sections by subtraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the computation of a class of integrals that appear when integrating the so-called iterated singly-unresolved approximate cross section of the NNLO subtraction scheme of Refs. [G. Somogyi, Z. Trócsányi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 06, 024 (2005), arXiv:hep-ph/0502226; G. Somogyi and Z. Trócsányi, (2006), arXiv:hep-ph/0609041; G. Somogyi, Z. Trócsányi, and V. Del Duca, JHEP 01, 070 (2007), arXiv:hep-ph/0609042; G. Somogyi and Z. Trócsányi, JHEP 01, 052 (2007), arXiv:hep-ph/0609043] over the factorised phase space of unresolved partons. The integrated approximate cross section itself can be written as the product of an insertion operator (in colour space) times the Born cross section. We give selected results for the insertion operator for processes with two and three hard partons in the final state.

Somogyi, G.; Bolzoni, P.; Trócsányi, Z.

2010-08-01

167

Absorption cross sections of stratospheric molecules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two classes of molecular species must be considered in a calculation of photochemical rates in the stratosphere. The first class consists of molecular oxygen and ozone, while the second class contains the remainder of the minor constituents. If accurate values of the transmitted fluxes are required at large optical depths, the cross sections for molecular oxygen and ozone must be known to within a few per cent at least. On the other hand, the photochemical rates for the minor species are given simply by the relevant cross sections. A review of published cross sections is presented, giving attention to molecular oxygen, ozone, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, ammonia, water vapor, hydrogen peroxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.

Hudson, R. D.

1974-01-01

168

Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)  

SciTech Connect

Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

Jung, Andreas W.

2012-01-01

169

The cross section for double Compton scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

Gould, R. J.

1984-01-01

170

Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

2008-09-01

171

Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

1999-01-01

172

Measurement of differential atomic collision cross sections.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for the study of differential angular scattering of atomic projectiles by gas targets is described. The design facilitates system alignment and provides for accurate reproducible location of components. The performance of the instrument is studied for scattering of H+ at 5-25 keV energies by helium and argon targets. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and charge transfer are presented as well as total charge transfer cross sections. The coefficients for secondary electron ejection by impact of H and H+ on a metal surface are compared.

Fitzwilson, R. L.; Thomas, E. W.

1971-01-01

173

Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements  

SciTech Connect

The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

Negret, Alexandru [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Reactorului 30, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2012-11-20

174

Neutron Capture Cross Section of ^239Pu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ^239Pu(n,?) cross section has been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) provided a highly segmented 4? measurement of the energy and multiplicity distributions for emitted ?-rays, while a PPAC detected coincidence fission fragments. The simultaneous measurement of (n,?) and (n,f) events resulting from a single sample allowed the (n,?) cross section to be measured as a ratio to fission with reduced systematic uncertainty. Results from the current analysis will be presented.

Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Gostic, J. M.; Henderson, R. A.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C.-Y.

2012-10-01

175

New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

1997-01-01

176

Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

1994-01-01

177

Cross sections of neutron-induced reactions  

SciTech Connect

We study the properties of the neutron-nucleus total and reaction cross sections for several nuclei. We have applied an analytical model, the nuclear Ramsauer model, justified it from the nuclear reaction theory approach, and extracted the values of 12 parameters used in the model. The given parametrization has an advantage as phenomenological optical model potentials are limited up to 150-200 MeV. The present model provides good estimates of the total cross sections for several nuclei particularly at high energies.

Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

2010-10-15

178

Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 239Pu(n,?) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,?) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission ?-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,?) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

2014-09-01

179

Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties  

SciTech Connect

Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

2009-10-05

180

Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

2008-01-01

181

Transport cross sections for collisions between particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program is described for calculating transport cross sections for collisions governed by tabulated interaction potentials between structureless particles. This program takes special care to treat multiple orbiting, where two or more sets of orbiting impact parameters and orbiting separations occur at the same energy. The program also takes into account situations where the long-range potential is repulsive.

Viehland, Larry A.; Chang, Yongbin

2010-10-01

182

Windows in direct dissociative recombination cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Model potential curves are used to show that large windows are present in direct dissociative-recombination cross sections from excited molecular-ion vibrational levels. The windows are due to the overlap of vibrational wave functions of the repulsive neutral states with the nodes of the ion vibrational wave function.

Guberman, Steven L.

1986-01-01

183

Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dijet production by almost real photons has been studied at HERA with the ZEUS detector. Jets have been identified using the cone algorithm. A cut on x?OBS, the fraction of the photon energy participating in the production of the two jets of highest transverse energy, is used to define cross sections sensitive to the parton distributions in the proton and

S. Bhadra; M. L. Cardy; C.-P. Fagerstroem; W. R. Frisken; K. M. Furutani; M. Khakzad; W. B. Schmidke; R. L. Talaga; H. Zhang; R. Ayad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; A. Contin; M. Corradi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; F. Palmonari; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; M. Eckert; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; M. Grothe; T. Haas; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. M. Mari; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; R. Schattevoy; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. J. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; N. Cartiglia; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; Q. Zhu; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajac; A. Kotanski; M. Przybycien; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; H. Beier; J. K. Bienlein; C. Coldewey; O. Deppe; K. Desler; G. Drews; M. Flasinski; D. J. Gilkinson; C. Glasman; P. Göttlicher; J. Große-Knetter; B. Gutjahr; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; H. Hultschig; Y. Iga; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; O. Manczak; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; B. Surrow; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; J. F. Zhou; H. J. Grabosch; A. Kharchilava; A. Leich; M. Mattingly; A. Meyer; S. Schlenstedt; N. Wulff; G. Barbagli; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; G. Maccarrone; S. de Pasquale; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; S. Eisenhardt; A. Freidhof; S. Söldner-Rembold; J. Schroeder; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; J. I. Fleck; D. H. Saxon; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; J. Mainusch; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; B. Y. H. Hung; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. P. O. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; Y. Zhang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. del Peso; J. Puga; J. Terron; J. F. de Trocóniz; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; D. Daniels; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; P. E. Luffman; L. Lindemann; J. D. McFall; C. Nath; V. A. Noyes; A. Quadt; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbiendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. Dal Corso; M. de Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; G. Marini; A. Nigro; E. Tassi; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; E. Barberis; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. van Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada; Y. Yamazaki; M. Chiba; R. Hamatsu; T. Hirose; K. Homma; S. Kitamura; Y. Nakamitsu; K. Yamauchi; R. Cirio; M. Costa; M. I. Ferrero; L. Lamberti; S. Maselli; C. Peroni

1995-01-01

184

Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks  

SciTech Connect

We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

Kahler, Albert C. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-28

185

Neutron scattering lengths and cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of thermal neutron scattering to the study of the structure and dynamics of condensed matter requires a knowledge of the scattering lengths and the corresponding scattering and absorption cross sections of the elements. Ln some cases, values for the individual isotopes are needed as well. This information is required to obtain an absolute normalization ofthe scatteredneutron distributions, tocalculate

Varley F. Sears

1992-01-01

186

Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

1992-01-01

187

Optical absorption cross sections of Si nanocrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the photoluminescence Auger saturation phenomenon, we deduce the values of the absorption cross section of silicon nanocrystals in a wide range of energies. The very large variation of their values versus energy of the absorbed light is attributed to the enhanced optical transition oscillator strength but reduced density of electronic states towards higher confinement energies. The overall spectral behavior

D. Kovalev; J. Diener; H. Heckler; G. Polisski; N. Künzner; F. Koch

2000-01-01

188

GMM estimation with cross sectional dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a spatial model of dependence among agents using a metric of economic distance. Measurements of this economic distance provide cross-sectional data with a structure similar to that provided by the time index in time-series data. Generalized method of moments estimators using such dependent data are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal. This paper presents a class

T. G. Conley

1999-01-01

189

Cross section for charmonium absorption by nucleons  

E-print Network

. Including both two-body and three-body final states, we find that with a cutoff parameter of 1 GeV at interaction vertices involving charm hadrons, the J/psi-N absorption cross section is at most 5 mb and is consistent with that extracted from J...

Liu, W.; Ko, Che Ming; Lin, ZW.

2002-01-01

190

Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

1978-01-01

191

Cross-sectional area of the mandible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The anatomy of the mandible was examined by measuring the cross-sectional area (CSA) of multiple regions of 10 fully dentulous hemimandibles to provide a better understanding of regional structural differences that may have implications regarding biomechanical strength, surgical reconstruction, and fracture site frequency.Materials and Methods: Fifteen cuts from the condyle to the symphysis were made of each hemimandible (n

Warren Schubert; Brian J Kobienia; Richard A Pollock

1997-01-01

192

State-selective cross sections of multiple photoionization in Ne  

SciTech Connect

Valence double photoionization of Ne atom has been investigated by multielectron spectroscopy. Complete information on energy correlation between ejected electrons allows the identification of Ne{sup 2+} final states and their formation mechanism. In addition to simultaneous two-electron emission from the valence shells, indirect processes mediated by singly charged excited states have been observed. We have first obtained direct double-photoionization cross sections state-selectively in a wide photon energy region, by evaluating the contributions of the indirect processes. We have also applied the coincidence spectroscopy to three-electron emission from the valence shells. Even in the three-electron emission, the coincidence analysis enables to observe individual Ne{sup 3+} final states related to the triple-photoionization process and to obtain the state-selective cross sections.

Kaneyasu, T.; Hikosaka, Y.; Shigemasa, E.; Penent, F.; Lablanquie, P.; Aoto, T.; Ito, K. [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); LCP-MR, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6 and CNRS (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

2007-07-15

193

Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

2011-02-24

194

Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.  

PubMed

Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion. PMID:23408647

Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

2013-04-01

195

Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

1985-01-01

196

Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 (United States); Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L. [George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States)

2011-06-01

197

Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haight, Robert C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arndt, Richard A [GWU; Briscoe, William J [GWU; Paris, Mark W [GWU; Strakovsky, Igor I [GWU; Workman, Ron L [GWU

2010-01-01

198

Representation of absorption cross sections in information system W@DIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research into generation of a set of absorption cross sections of atmospheric molecules is reviewed briefly. Particular emphasis is placed on a description of a software toolkit for building information objects that characterize molecules and weakly bound molecular complexes, an application that provides the import and export of the absorption cross sections and representation of metadata and ontolology of information resources collected in a set.

Voronina, Yu.; Lavrentiev, N.; Privezentsev, A.; Fazliev, A.; Firsov, K.

2014-11-01

199

Photonuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Gallium Isotopes  

E-print Network

The photon induced reactions which are named as photonuclear reactions have a great importance in many field of nuclear, radiation physics and related fields. Since we have planned to perform photonuclear reaction on gallium target with bremmstrahlung photons from clinical linear accelerator in the future, the cross-sections of neutron (photo-neutron ({\\gamma},xn)) and proton (photo-proton ({\\gamma},xn)) productions after photon activation have been calculated by using TALYS 1.2 computer code in this study. The target nucleus has been considered gallium which has two stable isotopes, 69Ga and 71Ga. According to the results, we have seen that the calculations are in harmony in the limited literature values. Furthermore, the pre-equilibrium and compound process contributions to the total cross-section have been investigated.

Serkan Akkoyun; Tuncay Bayram

2014-09-08

200

Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis  

E-print Network

In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

P. G. Giannaka; T. S. Kosmas

2015-02-25

201

Electron capture cross sections for stellar nucleosynthesis  

E-print Network

In the first stage of this work, we perform detailed calculations for the cross sections of the electron capture on nuclei under laboratory conditions. Towards this aim we exploit the advantages of a refined version of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random-phase approximation (pn-QRPA) and carry out state-by-state evaluations of the rates of exclusive processes that lead to any of the accessible transitions within the chosen model space. In the second stage of our present study, we translate the above mentioned $e^-$-capture cross sections to the stellar environment ones by inserting the temperature dependence through a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution describing the stellar electron gas. As a concrete nuclear target we use the $^{66}Zn$ isotope, which belongs to the iron group nuclei and plays prominent role in stellar nucleosynthesis at core collapse supernovae environment.

Giannaka, P G

2015-01-01

202

Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

1997-01-01

203

Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei valid for the entire energy range from a few A MeV to a few A GeV. The universal picture presented here treats the proton-nucleus collision as a special case of the nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

1996-01-01

204

Inclusive jet cross section at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The authors report preliminary measurements of the central inclusive jet cross section at 1.8 TeV by the D0 and the CDF collaborations at the p{anti p} Fermilab collider. They are based on an integrated luminosity of 92 and 87 pb-1, respectively. The cross sections are measured as a function of jet transverse energy in the pseudorapidity interval 0.1 < 1,711 < 0.7 (CDF), and the two pseudorapidity ranges 1,711 < 0.5 and 0.1 < Inj < 0.7 (D0). D0 reports good agreement with the Next-to-Leading Order QCD predictions currently available. CDF observes an excess above 200 GeV, which can be accommodated with a modification in the gluon distribution function at high x.

NONE

1998-01-01

205

Inclusive jet cross section at CDF  

SciTech Connect

This contribution reports on preliminary measurements of the inclusive jet production cross section in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using data collected with CDF corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 385 pb{sup -1}. Two analyzes are presented: one uses the longitudinally invariant k{sub T} algorithm to reconstruct the jets, the other uses the midpoint algorithm. Both are limited to jets with rapidity in the range 0.1 < |y{sup jet}| < 0.7. The measured cross sections are in good agreement with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions after including the non-perturbative corrections necessary to account for underlying event and hadronization effects.

Lefevre, R.; Martinez, M.; /Barcelona, IFAE

2005-01-01

206

Electron-collision cross sections for iodine  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a joint experimental and theoretical study of elastic electron scattering from atomic iodine. The experimental results were obtained by subtracting known cross sections from the measured data obtained with a pyrolyzed mixed beam containing a variety of atomic and molecular species. The calculations were performed using both a fully relativistic Dirac B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method and an optical model potential approach. Given the difficulty of the problem, the agreement between the two sets of theoretical predictions and the experimental data for the angle-differential and the angle-integrated elastic cross sections at 40 eV and 50 eV is satisfactory.

Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Hargreaves, L.R.; Jones, D.B.; Murrie, R.; Brunton, J.R. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Brunger, M.J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hoshino, M. [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, Chiyoda ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Buckman, S.J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-04-15

207

Neutron total cross section of 40Ca and cross section difference of 44Ca  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a 100-MeV electron linac and neutron time-of-flight facility to measure the neutron total cross section of 40Ca and the cross section difference of 44Ca- 40Ca for incident neutron energies of 6-60 MeV. Optical model calculations of 40Ca sigmaT have been made and compared to the data. Modifications of a global set of optical model parameters necessary to

H. S. Camarda; T. W. Phillips; R. M. White

1986-01-01

208

Production of microwave plasma in narrow cross sectional tubes: Effect of the shape of cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave plasma is produced in a conducting tube with a cross section smaller than the cutoff value. Waves of 2.45 GHz are launched perpendicularly to the multicusp magnetic field formed by permanent magnets surrounding the tube. Circular and square cross sectional tubes are tested. Overdense plasmas with a density of (0.8-2.0)×1011 cm-3 are obtained in the range of 10-4

Sudeep Bhattacharjee; Hiroshi Amemiya

1999-01-01

209

Non-circular cross-section stellarators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic surfaces and rotational transform of a stellarator with low poloidal-field wave number and elliptical minor cross-section have been computed numerically by utilizing a predictor-corrector code. The surfaces exhibit stagnation points the positions of which are related to the aspect ratio of the ellipse and the ?-number of the configuration. The rotational transform is less than in an equivalent

J. L. Shohet; D. T. Anderson; J. A. Tataronis

1976-01-01

210

{sup 231}Pa photofission cross section  

SciTech Connect

The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

1995-12-01

211

Ultrasonic cross-sectional imaging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An ultrasonic cross-sectional imaging apparatus comprising an ultrasonic probe, memory means and display means. The probe emits ultrasonic waves in non-interlaced fashion and receives echo data in non-interlaced fashion. The non-interlaced echo data are written into the memory means, read out therefrom in interlaced fashion and displayed by the display means as an image in interlaced fashion.

Yoshikawa, N.

1981-03-24

212

How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently  

SciTech Connect

Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

2008-09-03

213

How to calculate colourful cross sections efficiently  

E-print Network

Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

Gleisberg, Tanju; Krauss, Frank

2008-01-01

214

How to calculate colourful cross sections efficiently  

E-print Network

Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

Tanju Gleisberg; Stefan Hoeche; Frank Krauss

2008-08-27

215

Cross sections for electron scattering from magnesium  

SciTech Connect

A B-spline R-matrix (close-coupling) method has been used to perform a systematic study of angle-differential cross sections for electron scattering from neutral magnesium. The calculations cover elastic scattering and excitation of the five excited states (3s3p) {sup 3,1}P{sup o}, (3s3d) {sup 1}D, (3s4s) {sup 1}S, and (3s4p) {sup 1}P{sup o}. A multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method with nonorthogonal orbitals was employed for an accurate representation of the target wave functions. The close-coupling expansion for the collision problem included 37 bound states of neutral magnesium. Angle-differential cross sections are presented for incident electron energies from 10 to 100 eV. These results, as well as the corresponding angle-integrated cross sections, are compared with various experimental data and predictions from other close-coupling and distorted-wave calculations. In spite of a few remaining discrepancies, the overall agreement between our results and the experimental data is very satisfactory.

Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Gedeon, Sergey; Gedeon, Viktor; Lazur, Vladimir; Nagy, Elizabeth [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States); Department of Theoretical Physics, Uzhgorod State University, Uzhgorod 88000 (Ukraine)

2009-05-15

216

Measurement of molecular stopping cross sections of vaporous sulfur compounds and calculation of the atomic stopping cross section of sulfur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular stopping cross sections of hydrogen sulfide, methyl sulfide, methyl disulfide, carbon disulfide, ethylene sulfide, proplene sulfide, trimethylene sulfide, thiophene, and sulfur hexafluoride have beem measured for 0.3-2.0 MeV He+ ions. It is shown that the bond order correlation for the third period element sulfur is qualitatively in agreement with its second row counterpart, oxygen, but that the stopping cross-section dependence on bond order is considerably less (?5% in sulfur compared to ?17% in oxygen). In the energy region where the stopping contribution of the valence electrons is largest, the atomic stopping cross sections of sulfur for double-bonded, ring-structured, and single-bonded compounds decrease in the order eDB(S)?eRING(S)?eSB(S), a trend consistent with that observed for oxygen and carbon. The experimental results suggest a minimum d-orbital involvement in SF6 and reveal a lower peak energy Epeak and width d when S exists in the compound than when C, O, or F are present.

Olson, H. G.; Powers, D.

1981-02-01

217

Differential cross-section for positronium formation in electron-atomic hydrogen collisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The L=0 and 1 partial wave amplitudes obtained by a two-state coupled static approximation with correlation with the L greater than or equal to 2 Born amplitudes were combined to obtain the differential cross section for positronium formation in electron-atomic hydrogen collisions. For positron energies of 0.64 and 0.75 ryd, minima at the scattering angles of 57 deg and 51 deg are found. Total cross sections for positronium formation for low and intermediate impact energies are given. Measurement of the differential cross section for the process positron + helium yields positronium + helium ion for the detection of possible minima is suggested.

Drachman, R. J.; Omidvar, K.; Mcguire, J. H.

1976-01-01

218

Fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing data on near-barrier fusion excitation functions of medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems have been analyzed by using a simple diffused-barrier formula derived assuming the Gaussian shape of the barrier-height distributions. The fusion cross section is obtained by folding the Gaussian barrier distribution with the classical expression for the fusion cross section for a fixed barrier. The energy dependence of the fusion cross section, thus obtained, provides good description to the existing data on near-barrier fusion and capture excitation functions for medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems. The theoretical values for the parameters of the barrier distribution are estimated which can be used for fusion or capture cross-section predictions that are especially important for planning experiments for synthesizing new superheavy elements.

Atta, Debasis; Basu, D. N.

2014-12-01

219

Ab initio method for calculating total cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for calculating total cross sections without formally including nonelastic channels is presented. The idea is to use a one channel T-matrix variational principle with a complex correlation function. The derived T matrix is therefore not unitary. Elastic scattering is calculated from T-parallel-squared, but total scattering is derived from the imaginary part of T using the optical theorem. The method is applied to the spherically symmetric model of electron-hydrogen scattering. No spurious structure arises; results for sigma(el) and sigma(total) are in excellent agreement with calculations of Callaway and Oza (1984). The method has wide potential applicability.

Bhatia, A. K.; Schneider, B. I.; Temkin, A.

1993-01-01

220

Statistics of cross sections of Voronoi tessellations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate relationships between the volumes of cells of three-dimensional Voronoi tessellations and the lengths and areas of sections obtained by intersecting the tessellation with a randomly oriented plane. Here, in order to obtain analytical results, Voronoi cells are approximated to spheres. First, the probability density function for the lengths of the radii of the sections is derived and it is shown that it is related to the Meijer G function; its properties are discussed and comparisons are made with the numerical results. Next, the probability density function for the areas of cross sections is computed and compared with the results of numerical simulations.

Ferraro, M.; Zaninetti, L.

2011-10-01

221

NIST XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web program, funded in part by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (U.S.) is used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, in any element, compound or mixture, at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The contents section of the site contains an introduction, database for elements, interpolation and combination, instructions on how to run the XCOM program, and references. The site allows you to download a copy of XCOM (v. 3.1) for personal use.

222

Cross section measurements with monoenergetic muon neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monoenergetic 236 MeV muon neutrino from charged kaon decay at rest (K+??+??) can be used to produce a novel set of cross section measurements. Applicable for short- and long-baseline accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, among others, such measurements would provide a "standard candle" for the energy reconstruction and interaction kinematics relevant for charged current neutrino events near this energy. This neutrino can also be exercised as a unique known-energy, purely weak interacting probe of the nucleus. A number of experiments are set to come online in the next few years that will be able to collect and characterize thousands of these events.

Spitz, J.

2014-04-01

223

Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, 144Sm , 147Sm , 148Sm , 149Sm , 150Sm , 152Sm and 154Sm , have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering ?-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing ?-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

Gheorghe, I.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Glodariu, T.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstro/m, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

2015-02-01

224

Top Production Cross Sections at D0  

SciTech Connect

We report on measurements of the ttbar production cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the D0 experiment during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We use candidate events in lepton+jets and dilepton final states. In the most sensitive channel (lepton+jets channel), a neural network algorithm that uses lifetime information to identify b-quark jets is used to distinguish signal from background processes. We also present measurements of single top quark production at D0 using several multivariate techniques to separate signal from background.

Kvita, Jiri

2009-07-01

225

Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.

2005-02-01

226

Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

1970-01-01

227

JPRS report: Science and technology. China: Radar cross section studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

s of research in radar cross sections, target scattering, analysis of electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-D dielectric radome by complex astigmatic wave theory, and analysis of target radar cross sections by complex ray expansion are given.

1991-04-01

228

EXPLAINING DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN LONGITUDINAL AND CROSS-SECTIONAL MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Discrepancies between estimates obtained from longitudinal studies analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally pose questions about the validity of cross-sectional estimates of change. n some cases these discrepancies are the result of period effects, cohort effects, or selecti...

229

Measurement of actinide neutron cross sections  

SciTech Connect

The maintenance of strong scientific expertise is criticalto the U.S. nuclear attribution community. It is particularly importantto train students in actinide chemistry and physics. Neutroncross-section data are vital components to strategies for detectingexplosives and fissile materials, and these measurements requireexpertise in chemical separations, actinide target preparation, nuclearspectroscopy, and analytical chemistry. At the University of California,Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have trainedstudents in actinide chemistry for many years. LBNL is a leader innuclear data and has published the Table of Isotopes for over 60 years.Recently, LBNL led an international collaboration to measure thermalneutron capture radiative cross sections and prepared the EvaluatedGamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) in collaboration with the IAEA. Thisfile of 35,000 prompt and delayed gamma ray cross-sections for allelements from Z=1-92 is essential for the neutron interrogation ofnuclear materials. LBNL has also developed new, high flux neutrongenerators and recently opened a 1010 n/s D+D neutron generatorexperimental facility.

Firestone, Richard B.; Nitsche, Heino; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Perry, DaleL.; English, Gerald

2003-06-15

230

Neutronic Cross Section Calculations on Fluorine Nucleus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain light nuclei such as Lithium (Li), Beryllium (Be), Fluorine (F) (which are known as FL?BE) and its molten salt compounds (LiF, BeF2 and NaF) can serve as a coolant which can be used at high temperatures without reaching a high vapor pressure. These molten salt compounds are also a good neutron moderator. In this study, cross sections of neutron induced reactions have been calculated for fluorine target nucleus. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 19F( n, 2n), 19F( n, p), 19F( n, xn), 19F( n, xp) have been made. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, the ( n, 2n) and ( n, p) reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The multiple pre-equilibrium mean free path constant from internal transition have been investigated for 19F nucleus. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

Kara, A.; Tel, E.

2013-06-01

231

Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

232

Total cross sections for electron scattering by oxides of iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total (elastic + inelastic) cross sections for electron impact on FeO, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 have been calculated in the energy range 20–5000 eV by employing the additivity rule which expresses the total cross section of a molecule as an incoherent sum over the total cross sections of the constituent atoms of the molecule. The electron-atom cross sections have been obtained

K. L. Baluja; Anju Agrawal

1995-01-01

233

Evaluation of {sup 238}U inelastic scattering cross section  

SciTech Connect

A coupled-channels model is adopted for evaluation of {sup 238}U direct inelastic scattering cross sections to the excited levels which belong to the vibrational bands, as well as the ground state rotational band. A band-coupling-strength {beta} is determined from the experimental inelastic scattering cross section data. Experimental double differential cross sections (DDX) are also taken into account. The calculated level excitation cross sections and the calculated DDX reproduce consistently the available experimental data.

Kawano, Toshihiko; Fujikawa, Noboru; Yoshida, Kiyohiko; Kanda, Yukinori [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

1994-12-31

234

Electron production in proton collisions: total cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing data on the ionization of neutral atoms and molecules by proton impact are reviewed, and electron production cross-section data are collected. The three major experimental methods are discussed and possible sources of error identified. Some theoretical cross sections are discussed, and well-established methods of relating them to measured cross sections are reviewed. A mathematical equation is fitted to the

M. E. Rudd; Y. K Kim; D. H. Madison; J. W. Gallagher

1985-01-01

235

Viscous Flow through Pipes of Various Cross-Sections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interesting variety of pipe cross-sectional shapes can be generated, for which the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved exactly. The simplest cases include the known solutions for elliptical and equilateral triangle cross-sections. Students can find pipe cross-sections from solutions of Laplace's equation in two dimensions, and then plot the…

Lekner, John

2007-01-01

236

Calculation of Low-Energy Electron-Atom Transport Cross Sections from Total Cross-Section Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified effective-range theory (MERT) is used to determine the cross sections necessary for calculation of electron-atom transport coefficients. Two means of obtaining the transport cross sections are given: (1) direct integration of the weighted MERT differential cross section, and (2) inserting MERT phase shifts in a partial-wave formula for the transport cross sections. Both of these approaches are applied to

R. L. Fox

1968-01-01

237

Prevalence and characteristics of tremor in the NARCOMS multiple sclerosis registry: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives (1)To describe the prevalence and severity of tremor in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) registered within a large North American MS registry; (2) to provide detailed descriptions on the characteristics and severity of tremor in a subset of registrants and (3) to compare several measures of tremor severity for strength of agreement. Setting The North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) registry. Participants Registrants of NARCOMS reporting mild or greater tremor severity. Outcome measures We determined the cross-sectional prevalence of tremor in the NARCOMS registry over three semiannual updates between fall 2010 and fall 2011. A subset of registrants (n=552) completed a supplemental survey providing detailed descriptions of their tremor. Outcomes included descriptive characteristics of their tremors and correlations between outcome measures to determine the strength of agreement in assessing tremor severity. Results The estimated prevalence of tremor in NARCOMS ranged from 45% to 46.8%, with severe tremor affecting 5.5–5.9% of respondents. In the subset completing the supplemental survey, mild tremor severity was associated with younger age of MS diagnosis and tremor onset than those with moderate or severe tremor. However, tremor severity did not differ by duration of disease or tremor. Respondents provided descriptions of tremor symptoms on the Clinical Ataxia Rating Scale, which had a moderate to good (?=0.595) correlation with the Tremor Related Activities of Daily Living (TRADL) scale. Objectively scored Archimedes’ spirals had a weaker (?=0.358) correlation with the TRADL. Rates of unemployment, disability and symptomatic medication use increased with tremor severity, but were high even among those with mild tremor. Conclusions Tremor is common among NARCOMS registrants and severely disabling for some. Both ADL-based and symptom-descriptive measures of tremor severity can be used to stratify patients. PMID:25573524

Rinker, John R; Salter, Amber R; Walker, Harrison; Amara, Amy; Meador, William; Cutter, Gary R

2015-01-01

238

Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ..nu.., the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given.

Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

1980-05-01

239

Stellar (n,?) Cross Section of 62Ni  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 62Ni(n,?)63Ni(t1/2=100±2 yr) reaction plays an important role in the control of the flow path of the slow neutron-capture (s) nucleosynthesis process. We have measured for the first time the total cross section of this reaction for a quasi-Maxwellian (kT=25 keV) neutron flux. The measurement was performed by fast-neutron activation, combined with accelerator mass spectrometry to detect directly the 63Ni product nuclei. The experimental value of 28.4±2.8 mb, fairly consistent with a recent calculation, affects the calculated net yield of 62Ni itself and the whole distribution of nuclei with 62

Nassar, H.; Paul, M.; Ahmad, I.; Berkovits, D.; Bettan, M.; Collon, P.; Dababneh, S.; Ghelberg, S.; Greene, J. P.; Heger, A.; Heil, M.; Henderson, D. J.; Jiang, C. L.; Käppeler, F.; Koivisto, H.; O'Brien, S.; Pardo, R. C.; Patronis, N.; Pennington, T.; Plag, R.; Rehm, K. E.; Reifarth, R.; Scott, R.; Sinha, S.; Tang, X.; Vondrasek, R.

2005-03-01

240

Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

2002-01-01

241

Neutron scattering cross sections of iron  

SciTech Connect

Neutrons have been scattered on a sample of natural iron at 12 incident energies in the range between 9.4 MeV and 15.2 MeV. Differential cross sections measured at 30 to 40 angles (from 13 to 160 deg) were determined for the elastic scattering, for the inelastic scattering to the first excited state in {sup 56}Fe (Q = -0.847 MeV) and for pseudolevel energy bins (0.5 to 1.0 MeV) at excitation energies up to 5.5 MeV. At higher excitation energies the scattering spectrum is contaminated by scattered breakup neutrons from the source. The results of this work are compared with data from the literature.

Schmidt, D.; Mannhart, W.; Nolte, R. [PTB Braunschweig, Bundesallee (Germany)

1994-12-31

242

Neutron average cross sections of {sup 237}Np  

SciTech Connect

This work reports {sup 237}Np neutron resonance parameters obtained from the simultaneous analysis of time-of-flight data measured at the GELINA, ORELA, KURRI, and LANSCE facilities. A statistical analysis of these resonances relying on average R-matrix and optical model calculations was used to establish consistent l-dependent average resonance parameters involved in the description of the unresolved resonance range of the {sup 237}Np neutron cross sections. For neutron orbital angular momentum l=0, we obtained an average radiation width =39.3+-1.0 meV, a neutron strength function 10{sup 4}S{sub 0}=1.02+-0.14, a mean level spacing D{sub 0}=0.60+-0.03 eV, and a potential scattering length R{sup '}=9.8+-0.1 fm.

Noguere, G. [Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), DEN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Les Durance (France)

2010-04-15

243

Electron-impact total ionization cross sections of CF4, C2F6, and C3F8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both theoretical and experimental electron-impact total ionization cross sections of CF4, C2F6, and C3F8 are presented. The experimental cross sections have been measured as a function of incident electron energy T from threshold to 3 keV. A parallel plate condenser type apparatus was used. The molecular polarizability for C3F8 was empirically estimated to be ?=10.6 Å3±0.8 Å3. Theoretical cross sections calculated from the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) method, which combines a modified form of the Mott cross section and the Bethe cross section, are compared with the experimental cross sections. The BEB cross sections calculated from correlated molecular wave functions with theoretical estimates for multiple ionization are about 10% higher than the experimental data at the peak for CF4, while they are in excellent agreement with the experimental data for C2F6 and C3F8. Our analysis shows that the BEB theory implicitly includes part of neutral dissociation, such as CF4?CF3+F, and hence tends to be an upper limit to the total ionization cross section. We found that the difference between our best theory for CF4 and the present experimental cross section exhibits a remarkable similarity to the shape of the recently measured cross section for neutral dissociation, though there is no a priori reason for the similarity. Owing to the large number of bound electrons, the correlation included in our wave functions for C2F6 and C3F8 is more limited than for CF4. Hence, we believe that for these two molecules the calculated cross sections are lower than the true BEB values, in spite of the apparent excellent agreement between the theory and the experiment.

Nishimura, H.; Huo, Winifred M.; Ali, M. A.; Kim, Yong-Ki

1999-02-01

244

Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site  

PubMed Central

Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October–November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14–16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46–4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28–4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13–4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05–2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of role models smoking, refusal skills in social gatherings, and discussing harmful effects of smoking with family members and during gatherings with friends. PMID:25034345

Aryal, Umesh R.; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

2014-01-01

245

SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the calculated results, are presented. Additionally, the follwing information, presented in the appendixes, is intended to provide enough guidance that a researcher repeating the same task in the future should be able to obtain a vector of nuclei and cross sections ready for insertion into the transmutation library without any need for further instructions: (1) Complete TRITON/KENO-V input used for the analysis; (2) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the OPUS utility, used to postproces and to extract the nuclei concentrations for the transmutation library; (3) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the XSECLIST utility, used to postproces and to extract the 1-group cross sections for the transmutation library; (4) Details of an ad-hoc utility program developed to sort the nuclei and cross sections for the transmutation library.

ganda, francesco (090771)

2012-07-01

246

Theoretical predictions for ionization cross sections of DNA nucleobases impacted by light ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of DNA double strand breaks after irradiation is considered of prime importance for producing radio-induced cellular death or injury. However, up to now ion-induced collisions on DNA bases remain essentially experimentally approached and a theoretical model for cross section calculation is still lacking. Under these conditions, we here propose a quantum mechanical description of the ionization process induced by

C. Champion; H. Lekadir; M. E. Galassi; O. Fojón; R. D. Rivarola; J. Hanssen

2010-01-01

247

Photon-scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon-scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and for He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than 1% with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than 1% with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules. The degree of polarization of the synchrotron radiation beam has been measured by rotating the scattering plane about the beam axis; results are compared with theory.

Ice, G. E.; Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.

1978-01-01

248

Projectile angular-differential cross sections for single electron transfer in fast He+–He collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The four-body Coulomb–Born distorted wave approximation is applied to investigate the integral as well as projectile angular-differential cross sections for single-electron capture in the collision of energetic singly positive charged helium ions with helium atoms in their ground states. The formalism satisfies the correct boundary conditions. The influence of the dynamic electron correlations on the cross sections is studied by considering the inter electronic interactions in the complete perturbation potentials in post form. Also, the sensitivity of the cross sections to the static electronic correlations is studied by using the single-zeta and the highly correlated Byron–Joachain wave functions to describe the initial bound state of the active electrons. The obtained results for the energy range of 40–5000 keV/amu are reported and compared with other three- and four-body theoretical data and available experimental measurements. The comparison leads us to discuss the validity of the applied approach and survey the interaction effects on the cross sections by recognizing the electron–electron interaction. Particularly, for differential cross sections, the comparison of the present four-body method with the experiment shows that the agreement is not as good as that for its three-body version.

Ebrahim, Ghanbari-Adivi; Hoda, Ghavaminia

2015-03-01

249

Microscopic optical-model calculations of neutron total cross sections and cross section differences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the microscopic optical model of Jeukenne, Lejeune, and Mahaux we have calculated the absolute neutron total cross sections and cross section differences of 140Ce, 139Ce, 141Ce, 142Ce, and 40Ca, 44Ca from 6-60 MeV and have made comparisons with experimental data. Except for 142Ce, reasonable agreement with the mass 140 data was achieved with proton densities ?p of the nuclei determined by ?- data and neutron densities determined by the relationship ?n=(N/Z)?p which implies ?rnp =1/2 -1/2=0. Satisfactory agreement with the 142Ce data was obtained by choosing a ?n for 142Ce with ?rnp=0.05 fm and by a 10% increase in the strength of the 142Ce imaginary potential. Similar choices of ?rnp and imaginary potential strength were made for 44Ca in trying to fit the 44Ca data. Previous phenomenological analyses carried out for this data are in qualitative agreement with our results, which imply that the addition of a few neutrons to a nucleus with a closed neutron shell yields a nucleus with a slightly thicker neutron skin and a larger neutron reaction cross section when compared to their closed shell isotopes.

Camarda, H. S.; Dietrich, F. S.; Phillips, T. W.

1989-05-01

250

[Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

Knoll, G.F.

1992-10-26

251

Cross-Sectional Properties of Coronal Loops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we assess if coronal loop cross sections observed in EUV images are symmetrical or asymmetrical in nature. To do this, we identified individual loop structures observed in EUV images taken with the EUVI instruments on the STEREO satellites. To image loops from two unique angles, we chose loops clearly discernible in both EUVI imagers during the period when the satellites were separated by approximately 90 degrees, allowing us to make observations of individual loops from two unique vantage points. Preference was given to loops which could be clearly identified in both satellites, especially those which were not crossed by other bright structures or loops, so reasonable background subtractions could be made. Once identified, the images were co-aligned and straightened, using a spline routine, for comparison. In total we identified 11 clearly discernible loops and derived the standard deviation and widths for both perspectives of the loop. It was found that within instrumental errors the loops can be considered circular in nature.

West, Matthew; Zhukov, Andrei; Klimchuk, James

252

Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%-70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Ba?ara, I??l; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

2015-01-01

253

Inclusive two jet triply differential cross section  

SciTech Connect

We study the inclusive two jet triply differential cross section {ital d}{sup 3}{sigma}/{ital dE}{sub {ital T}}{ital d}{eta}{sub 1}{ital d}{eta}{sub 2} at Fermilab energies. Different {eta}{sub 1} and {eta}{sub 2} pseudorapidity regions are directly related to both the parton level matrix elements and the parton densities at leading order. We present the next-to-leading order [{ital O}({alpha}{sub {ital s}}{sup 3})] corrections and show that the shape of the distribution at fixed transverse energy {ital E}{sub {ital T}} is a particularly powerful tool for constraining the parton distributions at small to moderate {ital x} values. We investigate the renormalization and/or factorization scale uncertainty present in the normalization and shape of the distribution at next-to-leading order. We discuss specific slices of the distribution, the same-side/opposite-side ratio, and the signed pseudorapidity distribution in detail and compare them with preliminary experimental data.

Giele, W.T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)] [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Glover, E.W.N. [Physics Department, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)] [Physics Department, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kosower, D.A. [Service de Physique Theorique, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)] [Service de Physique Theorique, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

1995-08-01

254

Report on 241,242Am(n,x) surrogate cross section measurement  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this measurement is to determine the {sup 242}Am(n,f) and {sup 241}Am(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate {sup 243}Am. Gamma-ray data was also collected for the purpose of measuring the (n,2n) cross-sections. The experiment was conducted using the STARS/LIBERACE experimental facility located at the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory the first week of February 2011. A description of the experiment and status of the data analysis follow.

Burke, J T; Ressler, J J; Gostic, J; Henderson, R A; Bernstein, L A; Escher, J E; Bleuel, D; Kritcher, A; Matoon, C; Scielzo, N D; Stoyer, M A

2011-02-16

255

Cross sections for hard exclusive electroproduction of ? mesons on a hydrogen target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exclusive electroproduction of ? mesons was studied with the HERMES spectrometer at the DESY laboratory by scattering 27.6 GeV positron and electron beams off an internal hydrogen gas target. The virtual-photon cross sections were measured as a function of the Mandelstam variable t and the squared four momentum -Q of the exchanged virtual photon. A model calculation based on Generalized Parton Distributions is in fair agreement with the data at low values of |t| if power corrections are included. A model calculation based on the Regge formalism gives a good description of the magnitude and the t and Q dependences of the cross section.

HERMES Collaboration; Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Barion, L.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Bonomo, C.; Borissov, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Guler, H.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hasch, D.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Hristova, I.; Ilyichev, A.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lopez Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Pickert, N.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rock, S. E.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Streit, J.; Taroian, S.; Thomas, E.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Vogel, C.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

2008-01-01

256

Cross sections for hard exclusive electroproduction of ?+ mesons on a hydrogen target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exclusive electroproduction of ?+ mesons was studied with the HERMES spectrometer at the DESY laboratory by scattering 27.6 GeV positron and electron beams off an internal hydrogen gas target. The virtual-photon cross sections were measured as a function of the Mandelstam variable t and the squared four momentum -Q2 of the exchanged virtual photon. A model calculation based on Generalized Parton Distributions is in fair agreement with the data at low values of | t | if power corrections are included. A model calculation based on the Regge formalism gives a good description of the magnitude and the t and Q2 dependences of the cross section.

Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Barion, L.; Belostotski, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Bonomo, C.; Borissov, A.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Capitani, G. P.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; de Leo, R.; Demey, M.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; di Nezza, P.; Dreschler, J.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Frullani, S.; Gabbert, D.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Guler, H.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hasch, D.; Hill, G.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Hristova, I.; Ilyichev, A.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lamb, R.; Lapikás, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Linden-Levy, L. A.; Lopez Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Marianski, B.; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Pickert, N.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rock, S. E.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubacek, L.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schäfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Streit, J.; Taroian, S.; Thomas, E.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; van der Nat, P. B.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van Haarlem, Y.; van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Vogel, C.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, H.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.; Hermes Collaboration

2008-01-01

257

The 139La(n,gamma) cross section: key for the onset of the s process  

E-print Network

The nuclear resonance parameters and the capture cross section of the neutron magic isotope 139La has been measured n_TOF. The description of the experimental apparata is followed by the data analysis procedures. We extracted the resonance parameters, the main nuclear quantities such as the resonance integral, the average gamma widths for s- and p-waves, the nuclear level densities and the neutron strength functions. These results represent a signifcant improvement over previous data. The deduced Maxwellian-averaged capture cross sections are important for the interpretation of the most recent spectroscopic observations in low metallicity stars.

R. Terlizzi

2006-10-24

258

Theoretical study of evaporation cross sections in the synthesis of very neutron-deficient nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of rare-earth neutron-deficient nuclei with large Z/N ratio {approx_equal}0.88 is studied within the framework of the standard statistical model. The fusion cross sections are calculated on the basis of the nuclear reaction video model. The deexcitation process is calculated with the help of the statistical code alice. It is found that the excitation functions can be predicted using a few exited experimental data by carefully choosing the input parameters in the statistical model. The results obtained show that a satisfactory description of the experimental evaporation cross sections requires a great reduction in the theoretical fission barriers.

Wang Chengbin; Zhang Jinjuan [Physics Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Ren, Z. Z. [Physics Department of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2011-07-15

259

Electron collisions with CO: Elastic and vibrational excitation cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Absolute differential elastic and vibrational excitation cross sections up to v=11 were measured for CO in scattering angle ranges extending to 180 deg. at energies between 0.2 and 5 eV (and an elastic measurement at 10 eV). The lowest angles were 0 deg. for inelastic scattering and between 5 deg. and 20 deg. for elastic scattering, depending on energy. Integral cross sections were derived by integrating under the angular distributions and compared with previous beam and swarm measurements. The sum of the integral cross sections agrees very well with the available transmission measurements of the grand total cross section, thus validating the present measurements. The present elastic differential and integral cross sections are in excellent agreement with the best available measurement [Gibson et al., J. Phys. B 29, 3197 (1996)], but the v=1 inelastic cross section is about 25% higher. This could have consequences for simulations of cometary and planetary atmospheres.

Allan, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, chemin du Musee 9, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

2010-04-15

260

Electron ionization cross sections for the PH3 molecule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The partial single, double differential cross-sections with their total (sum of partial cross sections) of the phosphine (PH3) by direct and dissociative electron ionization have been evaluated by using modified Jain-Khare semi-empirical approach. To the best of my knowledge, no other data (experimental and/or theoretical) of differential cross sections is available till now for comparison. Partial and total integral ionization cross sections were also evaluated for PH3. Integral ionization cross-sections show good agreement with available experimental/or theoretical data. Ionization rate coefficients corresponding to partial ionization cross-sections have also been calculated by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of energy.

Kumar, Rajeev

2014-08-01

261

Experimental verification of theoretical cross sections for FIB PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray production cross sections were found for films of Cr, Cu, Ge, Ag, W and Au, using incident H + and Be + ions at energies from 300 keV to 3.5 MeV. These experimental cross section results were compared with the cross section results obtained using software which calculates inner shell ionization and X-ray production cross sections. The software uses the ECPSSR-UA approach to finding X-ray production cross sections. This program was found to be useful for predicting cross sections for H + and Be + ions at the energies in this study. The software was then used to predict results for Li +, Be + and B + ions at 280 keV, energies available in the Arizona State University focused ion beam laboratory.

Streib, Kenneth L.; Alford, Terry L.; Mayer, James W.

2006-08-01

262

Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering ?-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4? neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several ?N2 units of B(M1)? strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

2014-05-01

263

Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering ? rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4? neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized ? rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several ?N2 units of B(M1)? strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

2012-07-01

264

Determining the Uncertainty on the Total Heavy Flavor Cross Section  

SciTech Connect

We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total heavy quark cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice, the number of light flavors and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. At first glance, the uncertainty bands on the total charm cross sections obtained by integrating the FONLL inclusive cross section and by integrating the partonic total cross sections appear to be incompatible. We explain how this apparent difference arises and describe how the two results can be reconciled. The small charm quark mass amplifies the effect of varying the other parameters in the calculation, making the uncertainty on the total charm cross section difficult to quantify. On the other hand, the bottom quark total cross section is under much better theoretical control and differences between the two approaches are small.

Vogt, R

2008-07-22

265

High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

1996-08-01

266

Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

2008-01-01

267

The total cross section for electron scattering by atomic hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate total cross section for electron scattering by H(1s) in the intermediate energy regime of 1.0-3.7 Ryd is constructed by the addition of the best cross sections for elastic scattering, bound-state excitation, and ionization that are currently available. The theoretical cross sections arising from intermediate energy R-matrix (IERM) calculations are used for elastic scattering and n = 2 excitation.

T. T. Scholz; H. R. J. Walters; P. G. Burke

1990-01-01

268

Total cross sections for electron scattering by He  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of total cross sections for scattering of electrons by He has been evaluated over the energy range of zero to 3000 eV by means of the analysis of experiments and theories on total cross sections for elastic scattering, ionisation and excitation, and on differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. Between 0 and 19.8 eV, where no

F. J. de Heer; R. H. J. Jansen

1977-01-01

269

Cross-sections for electron impact ionization of O2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a crossed electron beam-molecular beam collision geometry and the relative flow technique measurements have been made to generate a uniform set of electron impact ionization cross-section data for O2 for electron impact energies from threshold to 1000 eV. Present values of total, partial and dissociative ionization cross-sections are compared with previously published data. Cross-sections for the formation of O2(+) from O2 have been measured for the first time.

Krishnakumar, E.; Srivastava, S. K.

1992-01-01

270

Cross sections for the dissociative attachment of electrons to NO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cross sections for the production of O(-) by electron attachment to NO are reported. It is found that the maximum value of the cross section is about 52 percent higher than the measurement of Rapp and Briglia (1965). Cross sections for the process of polar dissociation, e + NO yields N(+) + O(_), have also been measured, and the threshold energy for this process has been obtained.

Krishnakumar, E.; Srivastava, S. K.

1988-01-01

271

Nonlinear acoustic waves in channels with variable cross sections  

E-print Network

The point symmetry group is studied for the generalized Webster-type equation describing non-linear acoustic waves in lossy channels with variable cross sections. It is shown that, for certain types of cross section profiles, the admitted symmetry group is extended and the invariant solutions corresponding to these profiles are obtained. Approximate analytic solutions to the generalized Webster equation are derived for channels with smoothly varying cross sections and arbitrary initial conditions.

Vladimir F. Kovalev; Oleg V. Rudenko

2012-11-02

272

Drell-Yan Cross Section in the Jet Calculus Scheme  

E-print Network

We calculate factorized cross sections for lepton pair production mediated by a virtual photon in hadron-hadron collisions using the jet calculus scheme, in which a kinematical constraint due to parton radiation is taken into account. This method guarantees a proper phase space boundary for subtraction terms. Some properties of the calculated cross sections are examined. We also discuss matching between the hard scattering cross sections and parton showers at the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

Hidekazu Tanaka; Hirokazu Kobayashi

2009-05-02

273

Next-to-leading order cross sections for tagged reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the phase space slicing method of Giele, Glover and Kosower for performing next-to-leading order jet cross section calculations in two important ways: we show how to include fragmentation functions and how to include massive particles. These extensions allow the application of this method not just to jet cross sections but also to cross sections in which a particular final state particle, including a D or B meson, is tagged.

Keller, Stéphane; Laenen, Eric

1999-06-01

274

Microscopic Calculation of Absolute Values of Two-nucleon Transfer Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

Arguably, the greatest achievement of many-body physics in the fifties was that of developing the tools for a complete description and a thorough understanding of superconductivity in metals. At the basis of it one finds BCS theory and the Josephson effect. The first recognized the central role played by the appearance of a macroscopic coherent field usually viewed as a condensate of strongly overlapping Cooper pairs, the quasiparticle vacuum. The second made it clear that a true gap is not essential for such a state of matter to exist, but rather a finite expectation value of the pair field. Consequently, the specific probe to study the superconducting state is Cooper pair tunneling. Important progress in the understanding of pairing in atomic nuclei may arise from the systematic study of two-particle transfer reactions. Although this subject of research started about the time of the BCS papers, the quantitative calculation of absolute cross sections taking properly into account the full non-locality of the Cooper pairs (correlation length much larger than nuclear dimensions) is still an open question. In what follows we present results obtained, within a second order DWBA framework, of two-nucleon transfer reactions induced both by heavy and light ions. The calculations were carried out making use of software specifically developed for this purpose. It includes sequential, simultaneous and non-orthogonality contributions to the process. Microscopic form factors are used which take into account the relevant structure aspects of the process, such as the nature of the single-particle wavefunctions, the spectroscopic factors, and the interaction potential responsible for the transfer. Overall agreement with the experimental absolute values of the differential cross section is obtained without any free parameter.

Potel, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bayman, B. F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Barranco, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Sevilla, 41092 Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n (Spain); Vigezzi, E. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Broglia, R. A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)

2009-08-26

275

Common Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index Correlate with Local but Not Global Atheroma Burden: A Cross Sectional Study Using Whole Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography  

PubMed Central

Background Common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) are used as surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, and have been shown to correlate with arterial stiffness, however their correlation with global atherosclerotic burden has not been previously assessed. We compare CIMT and ABPI with atheroma burden as measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA). Methods 50 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease were recruited. CIMT was measured using ultrasound while rest and exercise ABPI were performed. WB-MRA was performed in a 1.5T MRI scanner using 4 volume acquisitions with a divided dose of intravenous gadolinium gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet, FR). The WB-MRA data was divided into 31 anatomical arterial segments with each scored according to degree of luminal narrowing: 0?=?normal, 1?=?<50%, 2?=?50–70%, 3?=?70–99%, 4?=?vessel occlusion. The segment scores were summed and from this a standardized atheroma score was calculated. Results The atherosclerotic burden was high with a standardised atheroma score of 39.5±11. Common CIMT showed a positive correlation with the whole body atheroma score (? 0.32, p?=?0.045), however this was due to its strong correlation with the neck and thoracic segments (? 0.42 p?=?0.01) with no correlation with the rest of the body. ABPI correlated with the whole body atheroma score (? ?0.39, p?=?0.012), which was due to a strong correlation with the ilio-femoral vessels with no correlation with the thoracic or neck vessels. On multiple linear regression, no correlation between CIMT and global atheroma burden was present (? 0.13 p?=?0.45), while the correlation between ABPI and atheroma burden persisted (? ?0.45 p?=?0.005). Conclusion ABPI but not CIMT correlates with global atheroma burden as measured by whole body contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. However this is primarily due to a strong correlation with ilio-femoral atheroma burden. PMID:24933122

Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Khan, Faisel; Lambert, Matthew A.; Adamson, Carly L.; Gardner, Michael; Gandy, Stephen J.; Ramkumar, Prasad Guntur; Belch, Jill J. F.; Struthers, Allan D.; Rauchhaus, Petra; Morris, Andrew D.; Houston, J. Graeme

2014-01-01

276

Fine structure of high-energy absorption cross sections for black holes  

E-print Network

The high-energy absorption cross section of the Schwarzschild black hole is well approximated, in the eikonal regime, by the sum of two terms: the geometrical cross section of the black hole photon sphere and the contribution of a sinc function involving the geometrical characteristics (orbital period and Lyapunov exponent) of the null unstable geodesics lying on this photon sphere. From a numerical analysis, we show that, beyond the eikonal description, this absorption cross section presents a simple fine structure. We then describe it analytically by using Regge pole techniques and interpret it in geometrical terms. We naturally extend our analysis to arbitrary static spherically symmetric black holes endowed with a photon sphere and we then apply our formalism to Schwarzschild-Tangherlini and Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. Finally, on the example of the Schwarzschild black hole, we show numerically that a complicated hyperfine structure lying beyond the fine structure can also be observed.

Yves Décanini; Antoine Folacci; Bernard Raffaelli

2011-08-24

277

Isotopic dependence of the cross section for the induced fission of heavy nuclei  

SciTech Connect

The cross sections for the induced fission of {sup 211-223}Ra, {sup 203-211}Rn, and {sup 221-231}Th nuclei undergoing peripheral collisions with {sup 208}Pb nuclei are calculated on the basis of the statistical model. The role of the N = 126 neutron shell is studied. The level density in excited nuclei is determined within the Fermi gas model and a model that takes into account the collective enhancement of the level density. The inclusion of a particle-hole excitation in addition to a collective Coulomb excitation makes it possible to obtain a satisfactory description of experimental cross sections for the fission of radium isotopes. The calculated ratios of the cross sections for the induced fission of {sup 236}U ({sup 237}U) and {sup 238}U ({sup 239}U) nuclei agree with experimental data.

Bolgova, O. N.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.; Ivanova, S. P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Scheid, W. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany)

2009-06-15

278

Cross-section measurement of the $^{130}$Ba(p,$?$)$^{131}$La reaction for $?$-process nucleosynthesis  

E-print Network

A measurement of total cross-section values of the $^{130}$Ba(p,$\\gamma$)$^{131}$La reaction at low proton energies allows a stringent test of statistical model predictions with different proton+nucleus optical model potentials. Since no experimental data are available for proton-capture reactions in this mass region around A~$\\approx$~130, this measurement can be an important input to test the global applicability of proton+nucleus optical model potentials. The total reaction cross-section values were measured by means of the activation method. After the irradiation with protons, the reaction yield was determined by use of $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy using two clover-type high-purity germanium detectors. In total, cross-section values for eight different proton energies could be determined in the energy range between 3.6 MeV $\\leq E_p \\leq$ 5.0 MeV, thus, inside the astrophysically relevant energy region. The measured cross-section values were compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations using the statistical model codes TALYS and SMARAGD with different proton+nucleus optical model potentials. With the semi-microscopic JLM proton+nucleus optical model potential used in the SMARAGD code, the absolute cross-section values are reproduced well, but the energy dependence is too steep at the lowest energies. The best description is given by a TALYS calculation using the semi-microscopic Bauge proton+nucleus optical model potential using a constant renormalization factor.

L. Netterdon; A. Endres; G. G. Kiss; J. Mayer; T. Rauscher; P. Scholz; K. Sonnabend; Zs. Török; A. Zilges

2014-09-27

279

Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

2011-10-18

280

New Geant4 cross section models for PIXE simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have implemented in the Geant4 simulation toolkit a set of new ionisation cross sections for the simulation of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), based upon theoretical and semi-empirical models. The set provides a model based on the so-called ECPSSR theory for the computation of K-shell ionisation cross sections for proton and alpha particle impact. A second model is based upon semi-empirical expressions proposed by Orlic for the calculation of L i-subshells ionisation cross sections for proton impact. Our developments are compared to ionisation cross sections already existing in the Geant4 toolkit and to experimental data.

Ben Abdelouahed, H.; Incerti, S.; Mantero, A.

2009-01-01

281

Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares  

SciTech Connect

A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

1999-09-27

282

Application of cross-sectional time series modeling for the prediction of energy expenditure from heart rate and accelerometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate estimation of energy expenditure (EE) in children and adolescents is required for a better understanding of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting energy balance. Cross-sectional time series (CSTS) models, which account for correlation structure of repeated observati...

283

X-ray incoherent scattering total cross sections and energy-absorption cross sections by means of simple calculation routines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple but accurate expressions for the total cross sections and energy-absorption cross sections for inelastic scattering of x rays from atomic, molecular, and condensed matter are developed. The starting point is the relativistic impulse approximation for Compton scattering of x rays. This gives the inelastic-scattering cross-section differential with respect to energy and solid-angle interval. Integration over energy of this expression

R. Ribberfors

1983-01-01

284

A database of 660 peptide ion cross sections: Use of intrinsic size parameters for bona fide predictions of cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ion trap\\/ion mobility\\/time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique has been used to measure collision cross sections for\\u000a 660 peptide ions generated by tryptic digestion of 34 common proteins. Measured cross sections have been compiled into a database\\u000a that contains peptide molecular weight and sequence information. The database is used to generate average intrinsic contributions\\u000a to cross section (size parameters) for different

Stephen J. Valentine; Anne E. Counterman; David E. Clemmer

1999-01-01

285

Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of L? x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was ?2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

Llovet, Xavier, E-mail: xavier@ccit.ub.edu [Centres Científics i Tecnològics, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluís Solé i Sabarís 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [Centres Científics i Tecnològics, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluís Solé i Sabarís 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Powell, Cedric J. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8370 (United States)] [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8370 (United States); Salvat, Francesc [Facultat de Física (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [Facultat de Física (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jablonski, Aleksander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-03-15

286

Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

1990-01-01

287

Interpreting sediment transport data with channel cross section analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspended sediment load estimation is important for the management of stream environments. However suspended load data are uncommon and scalable models are needed to take maximum advantage of the measurements available. One of the most commonly used models for correlating suspended sediment load is an empirical power law relationship (Qs=aQ^b, Qs: suspended load, Q: flow rate). However, the relationship of log-scaled suspended load to flow rate has multiple exponents for different flow regimes at a given site, so a single power law relationship is not a good fit. Thus we are exploring an alternative approach that employs channel cross section data historically collected by the US Geological Survey during stream gauge calibration. For our research, daily flow and sediment discharge were selected from about 180 possible USGS gauging sites in California. Among those, about 20 sites were relatively unaffected by human activities, and had more than three years of data including near monthly measurements of channel cross section data. From our analysis, a slope break was consistently observed in the relationship of log-scaled suspended load to flow rate as illustrated in Figure 1 for Redwood Creek at Orick, CA. Most of the selected natural sites clearly show this slope break. The slope break corresponds to a transition of flow from a flat, wide stream to flow constrained by steep banks as verified in Figure 2 for the same site. This suggests that physical factors in the streams such as shear stress are affected by this channel morphological change and result in the greater exponent of sediment load during higher flow regime. Figure1. Daily values of measured sediment transport and flow rate reported by USGS between 1970 and 2001. Figure2. Near monthly values of measured mean water depth and width reported by USGS between 1969 and 1987.

Park, J.; Hunt, J. R.

2013-12-01

288

Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

2009-01-01

289

Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

Itikawa, Yukikazu

2015-03-01

290

Random Phase Approximation and neutrino-nucleus cross sections  

E-print Network

The Random Phase Approximation theory is used to calculate the total cross sections of electron neutrinos on $^{12}$C nucleus. The role of the excitation of the discrete spectrum is discussed. A comparison with electron scattering and muon capture data is presented. The cross section of electron neutrinos coming from muon decay at rest is calculated.

Giampaolo Co'

2006-05-22

291

Temperature dependence of the HNO3 UV absorption cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The temperature dependence of the HNO3 absorption cross sections between 240 and 360 K over the wavelength range 195 to 350 nm has been measured using a diode array spectrometer. Absorption cross sections were determined using both (1) absolute pressure measurements at 298 K and (2) a dual absorption cell arrangement in which the absorption spectrum at various temperatures is measured relative to the room temperature absorption spectrum. The HNO3 absorption spectrum showed a temperature dependence which is weak at short wavelengths but stronger at longer wavelengths which are important for photolysis in the lower stratosphere. The 298 K absorption cross sections were found to be larger than the values currently recommended for atmospheric modeling (DeMore et al., 1992). Our absorption cross section data are critically compared with the previous measurements of both room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption cross sections. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of HNO3 are recommended for use in atmospheric modeling. These temperature dependent HNO3 absorption cross sections were used in a two-dimensional dynamical-photochemical model to demonstrate the effects of the revised absorption cross sections on loss rate of HNO3 and the abundance of NO2 in the stratosphere.

Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Solomon, Susan

1993-01-01

292

The two-jet cross section at high Q2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the reliability of NLO QCD predictions for the two-jet cross section at high Q2. If the standard cone algorithm is used in the lab frame, the cross section is divergent. If instead the kicons/Journals/Common/perp" ALT="perp" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> algorithm is used, the NLO corrections and scale dependence are small.

Pötter, B.; Seymour, M. H.

1999-07-01

293

A New Technique To Investigate Total Reaction Cross Sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the total reaction cross sections of several systems, especially weakly bound systems, by the use of a recently developed technique. We show a systematic behavior for the different systems, with larger reaction cross sections for systems with halo nuclei as projectiles.

Shorto, J. M. B.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Canto, L. F.; Chamon, L. C.

2010-08-01

294

Single Event Upset cross sections at various data rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data which show that Single Event Upset (SEU) cross section varies linearly with frequency for most devices tested. We show that the SEU cross section can increase dramatically away from a linear relationship when the test setup is not optimized, or when testing near the maximum operating frequency. We also observe non-linear behavior in some complex circuit topologies.

R. A. Reed; M. A. Carts; P. W. Marshall; C. J. Marshall; S. Buchner; M. La Macchia; B. Mathes; D. McMorrow

1996-01-01

295

Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential  

SciTech Connect

The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

Aziz, Azni Abdul [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kulliyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan (Malaysia); Quantum Science Center, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lump (Malaysia); Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Quantum Science Center, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Institute of Space Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Se (Malaysia); Yusof, Norhasliza [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Quantum Science Center, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Muhammad Zamrun, F. [Quantum Science Center, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jurusan Fisika FMIPA, Universitas Haluoleo Kendari, Sulawesi Tenggara, J3232 (Indonesia)

2014-05-02

296

Electron impact ionization cross sections of phosphorus and arsenic molecules  

E-print Network

77 Electron impact ionization cross sections of phosphorus and arsenic molecules G. Monnom, Ph'ionisation dissociative obtenues par bombardement électronique des molécules d'arsenic As4 et As2 et de phosphore P4 et P2 ionization total cross sections of arsenic As4 and As2 molecules and phosphorus P4 and P2 molecules

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

A New Technique To Investigate Total Reaction Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the total reaction cross sections of several systems, especially weakly bound systems, by the use of a recently developed technique. We show a systematic behavior for the different systems, with larger reaction cross sections for systems with halo nuclei as projectiles.

Shorto, J. M. B.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Niteroi, 24210-340 (Brazil); Canto, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68528, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972 (Brazil); Chamon, L. C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo, 05315-970 (Brazil)

2010-08-04

298

Absorption cross section and absorption coefficient of the ?-? annihilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-photon annihilation (?-? annihilation) is an important absorption mechanism in the theory of radiative transfer of gamma ?-ray astronomy. The expression of the annihilation cross section given by QED theory in the frame of momentum center is changed into the laboratory reference frame by the use of the skill of relativistic transformation. The new expression of cross section is

J. J. Ling; D. B. Liu; L. Chen

2002-01-01

299

Date: June 11, 2004 Priority Cross-sections  

E-print Network

Date: June 11, 2004 Priority Cross-sections Joint Nordic Analyses of Important Cross significance for the Nordic elec- tricity market. The present report "Priority Cross-sections" concludes to a technical and socio-economic analysis. The analysis aims to understand the transports in the Nordel system

300

Emission Cross Sections for Neutral Xenon Impacted by Xe+  

E-print Network

Emission Cross Sections for Neutral Xenon Impacted by Xe+ and Xe2+ by Jason D. Sommerville A Thesis Emission cross sections for Neutral Xenon Impacted by Xe+ and Xe2+ by Jason D. Sommerville is hereby for eleven transitions from the 5p5 6p configuration to the 5p5 6s configuration of neutral xenon occur- ring

King, Lyon B.

301

Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender

Hawa S Mbawalla; Joyce R Masalu; Anne N Åstrøm

2010-01-01

302

Absolute total electron impact ionization cross-sections for many-atom organic and halocarbon species.  

PubMed

The experimental determination of absolute total electron impact ionization cross-sections for polyatomic molecules has traditionally been a difficult task and restricted to a small range of species. This article reviews the performance of three models to estimate the maximum ionization cross-sections of some 65 polyatomic organic and halocarbon species. Cross-sections for all of the species studied have been measured experimentally using the same instrument, providing a complete data set for comparison with the model predictions. The three models studied are the empirical correlation between maximum ionization cross-section and molecular polarizability, the well-known binary encounter Bethe (BEB) model, and the functional group additivity model. The excellent agreement with experiment found for all three models, provided that calculated electronic structure parameters of suitably high quality are used for the first two, allows the prediction of total electron-impact ionization cross-sections to at least 7% precision for similar molecules that have not been experimentally characterized. PMID:22142325

Bull, James N; Harland, Peter W; Vallance, Claire

2012-01-12

303

Systematics of Fission Cross Sections in the MeV Range  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-nine years ago J. W. Behrens published a paper on the systematics of fission cross sections (3 5 MeV average). His study included 57 isotopes of elements ranging from radium through einsteinium (Z = 88 to 99). A systematic trend was seen for the element range from protactinium through curium. For a given element, the fission cross section decreased as the A-number increased. Fission cross sections are considerably more accurate now than those available in 1980. The current study represents an update of the Behrens study. Data for 11 elements and 53 nuclides were used. Trends for both the (Z,A) variation and the (2Z N) correlation are demonstrated. The current study clearly shows that the trends are quite well represented by straight lines. The trend for the fission cross sections of a given element to decrease with increasing A-number is observed for values of A < 248. For A > 248 there is a trend for the fission cross section to increase with increasing A-number.

Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Wright, Richard Q [ORNL

2009-01-01

304

High-energy behavior of hadronic total cross sections from lattice QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of a nonperturbative approach to soft high-energy hadron-hadron scattering, based on the analytic continuation of Wilson-loop correlation functions from Euclidean to Minkowskian theory, we shall investigate the asymptotic energy dependence of hadron-hadron total cross sections in lattice QCD: we will show, using best fits of the lattice data with proper functional forms satisfying unitarity and other physical constraints, how indications emerge in favor of a universal asymptotic high-energy behavior of the kind Blog2 s for hadronic total cross sections.

Meggiolaro, Enrico; Giordano, Matteo; Moretti, Niccolò

2013-01-01

305

Measurements of the breakup and neutron removal cross sections for {sup 16}C  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the breakup and the neutron removal reactions of {sup 16}C have been made at 46 MeV/A and the decay cross sections measured. A correlation between the cluster breakup channels and the reaction Q value suggests that the reaction mechanism is strongly linked to quasielastic processes. No enhancement of the two-body cluster breakup cross section is seen for {sup 16}C. This result would indicate that {sup 16}C does not have a well developed cluster structure in the ground state, in agreement with recent calculations.

Ashwood, N. I.; Freer, M.; Clarke, N.M.; Curtis, N.; Soic, N.; Ziman, V.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Angelique, J.C.; Lecouey, J.L.; Marques, F.M.; Normand, G.; Orr, N.A.; Timis, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ISMRA and Universite de Caen, IN2P3-CNRS, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Bouchat, V.; Hanappe, F.; Kerckx, Y.; Materna, T. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP 226, B-1050 Brussels(Belgium); Catford, W.N. [School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ISMRA and Universite de Caen, IN2P3-CNRS, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L. [Institut de Recherches Subatomique, IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, Boite Postale 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Labiche, M. [Department of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Paisley, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom)] [and others

2004-12-01

306

Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Tony S [INL

2010-01-01

307

Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

1988-01-01

308

Fission Cross Section Measurements of Actinides at LANSCE  

SciTech Connect

Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the 235U standard. Recent measurements include the 233, 238U, 239-242Pu, and 243Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for fission cross sections of 243Am and 233U will be presented.

F. Tovesson; A. B. Laptev; T. S. Hill

2011-08-01

309

Quick-look techniques for evaluating two-dimensional cross sections in detached contractional settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 30 yr, geologists and geophysicists have used bal- ancing techniques to constrain their cross-sectional interpretations in detached contractional settings. The quality of the resulting in- terpretations commonly directly correlates to the quality of the data, the balancing and interpretational experience of the inter- preter, and the time allotted for the interpretation. We demystify the balancing process and

M. Scott Wilkerson; Connie L. Dicken

310

Combined inclusive diffractive cross sections measured with forward proton spectrometers at HERA  

SciTech Connect

A combination is presented of the inclusive diffractive cross section measurements made by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA. The analysis uses samples of diffractive deep inelastic scattering data where leading protons are detected by dedicated spectrometers. Correlations of systematic uncertainties are taken into account by the combination method, resulting in improved precision.

Ruspa, Marta [Univ. Piemonte Orientale, via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Collaboration: H1 Collaboration; ZEUS Collaboration

2013-04-15

311

Educational attainment, deprivation-affluence and self reported health in Britain: a cross sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The level of material deprivation or affluence is strongly and independently correlated with all cause mortality at an area level, but educational attainment, after controlling for deprivation-affluence, remains strongly associated with coronary and infant mortality. This study investigated whether these relations hold at an individual level with self reported morbidity. DESIGN: Analysis of the cross sectional associations of

I. R. White; D. Blane; J. N. Morris; P. Mourouga

1999-01-01

312

Differential Single-Capture Cross Sections for Fast Alpha-Helium Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-body theoretical study of the single charge transfer process in collision of energetic alpha ions with helium atoms in their ground states is presented. The model utilizes the Coulomb-Born distorted wave approximation with correct boundary conditions to calculate the single-electron capture differential and integral cross sections. The influence of the dynamic and static electron correlations on the capture probability is investigated. The results of the calculations are compared with the recent experimental measurements for differential cross sections and with the other theoretical manipulations. The results for scattering at extreme forward angles are in good agreement with the experimental measurements, but in other scattering angles the agreement is poor. However, the present four-body results for integral cross sections are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

Ghanbari-Adivi, Ebrahim; Ghavaminia, Hoda

2014-08-01

313

AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library  

SciTech Connect

The cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The project builds on two covariance libraries developed earlier, with considerable input from BNL and LANL. In 2006, international effort under WPEC Subgroup 26 produced BOLNA covariance library by putting together data, often preliminary, from various sources for most important materials for nuclear reactor technology. This was followed in 2007 by collaborative effort of four US national laboratories to produce covariances, often of modest quality - hence the name low-fidelity, for virtually complete set of materials included in ENDF/B-VII.0. The present project is focusing on covariances of 4-5 major reaction channels for 110 materials of importance for power reactors. The work started under Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2008, which changed to Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) in 2009. With the 2011 release the name has changed to the Covariance Multigroup Matrix for Advanced Reactor Applications (COMMARA) version 2.0. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for AFCI data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. Responsibility of BNL was defined as developing covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work; LANL responsibility was defined as covariances for light nuclei and actinides. The COMMARA-2.0 covariance library has been developed by BNL-LANL collaboration for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative applications over the period of three years, 2008-2010. It contains covariances for 110 materials relevant to fast reactor R&D. The library is to be used together with the ENDF/B-VII.0 central values of the latest official release of US files of evaluated neutron cross sections. COMMARA-2.0 library contains neutron cross section covariances for 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural materials and fission products, and 20 actinides. Covariances are given in 33-energy groups, from 10?5 eV to 19.6 MeV, obtained by processing with LANL processing code NJOY using 1/E flux. In addition to these 110 files, the library contains 20 files with nu-bar covariances, 3 files with covariances of prompt fission neutron spectra (238,239,240-Pu), and 2 files with mu-bar covariances (23-Na, 56-Fe). Over the period of three years several working versions of the library have been released and tested by ANL and INL reactor analysts. Useful feedback has been collected allowing gradual improvements of the library. In addition, QA system was developed to check basic properties and features of the whole library, allowing visual inspection of uncertainty and correlations plots, inspection of uncertainties of integral quantities with independent databases, and dispersion of cross sections between major evaluated libraries. The COMMARA-2.0 beta version of the library was released to ANL and INL reactor analysts in October 2010. The final version, described in the present report, was released in March 2011.

Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

2011-03-01

314

The impact of television viewing on brain structures: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.  

PubMed

Television (TV) viewing is known to affect children's verbal abilities and other physical, cognitive, and emotional development in psychological studies. However, the brain structural development associated with TV viewing has never been investigated. Here we examined cross-sectional correlations between the duration of TV viewing and regional gray/white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV) among 133 boys and 143 girls as well as correlations between the duration of TV viewing and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 111 boys and 105 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the frontopolar and medial prefrontal areas in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV/rWMV of areas of the visual cortex in cross-sectional analyses, and positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the hypothalamus/septum and sensorimotor areas in longitudinal analyses. We also confirmed negative effects of TV viewing on verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These anatomical correlates may be linked to previously known effects of TV viewing on verbal competence, aggression, and physical activity. In particular, the present results showed effects of TV viewing on the frontopolar area of the brain, which has been associated with intellectual abilities. PMID:24256892

Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

2015-05-01

315

Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2005-01-01

316

Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH2) over a wide range of energies from 0.01 eV to 5 keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12 eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a ?* shape resonance at 3.41 eV and a ?* resonance at 15.3 eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77 eV and 14.9 eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18 eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Desai, Hardik; Vinodkumar, P. C.

2014-09-01

317

Thermal neutron capture cross sections of the palladium isotopes  

SciTech Connect

Precise thermal neutron capture {gamma}-ray cross sections {sigma}{sub {gamma}} were measured for all elements with Z=1-83,90, and 92, for He and Pm, at the Budapest Reactor. These data were evaluated with additional information from the literature to generate the Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF). Isotopic radiative neutron cross sections can be deduced from the total transition cross section feeding the ground state, {sigma}{sub 0}={sigma}{sigma}{sub {gamma}}(GS) if the decay scheme is complete. The EGAF file contains partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for all stable palladium isotopes. None of these decay schemes are complete, although in each case transitions de-exciting low-lying levels are known. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations of the palladium thermal neutron capture decay schemes using the computer code DICEBOX. The simulated populations of low low-lying levels are normalized to the measured {sigma}{sub {gamma}} values from EGAF and the total radiative neutron cross section {sigma}{sub 0} is obtained. The {sigma}{sub 0} values derived for the palladium isotopes agree well with previous measurements and were in several cases more precise. Complementary use of {gamma}-ray cross-section data and Monte Carlo calculations has proven effective in determining both the palladium total radiative cross sections and new nuclear structure information.

Krticka, M. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Firestone, R. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McNabb, D. P.; Sleaford, B.; Agvaanluvsan, U. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-414, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Belgya, T.; Revay, Z. S. [Institute of Isotope and Surface Chemistry, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary)

2008-05-15

318

Cross-Sectional Drawing Techniques And The Artist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Democritus, a Greek pholosopher of the fifth century B.C. described the use of cross-sections in analyzing a solid form, this method was not extensively developed in art until the Renaissance. The earliest treatise documenting the integration of the cross-section and linear perspective is Piero della Francesca's De prospective pingendi (c. 1480), in which a drawing of the human head is mathematically conceived and plotted by means of cross-section contours. Piero's method anticipates contemporary biostereometric techniques and current theories of visual perception. Outside of theoretical treatises the complete cross-section rarely occurs in art, though certain pictorial elements such as the religious halo can be interpreted as cross-sections. The chan-ging representation of the halo in art of the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods parallels the development of the artist's concepts and techniques for representing form and space. During the Renaissance and Baroque periods the widespread use of contour hatching, a drawing technique based on the cross-section, indicates that the cross-section concept has played a greater role in pictorial representation than has generally been recognized.

Berry, William A.

1980-07-01

319

Electron impact rotationally elastic total cross section for formamide  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on formamide (HCONH{sub 2}) over a wide range of energies from 0.01?eV to 5?keV. Total cross sections over such a wide range are reported for the first time as the earlier reported data is up to maximum of 12?eV. Below ionization threshold of the target, we performed ab initio calculations using UK molecular R-Matrix code within static, exchange plus polarization (SEP), and close coupling approximations. Twenty eight target states are included in close coupling formalism. Total 350 channels and 2410 configuration state functions are included in the calculations. We observe a ?* shape resonance at 3.41?eV and a ?* resonance at 15.3?eV as against similar resonances reported at 3.77?eV and 14.9?eV, respectively, by Goumans et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 217 (2009)] using SEP model. The cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent with a smooth cross over at 18?eV. The vertical excitation energies, electronic excitation cross sections, differential cross sections, momentum transfer, and total cross sections are computed. In absence of experimental data, we compared our computed total cross sections with available other theoretical results.

Vinodkumar, Minaxi, E-mail: minaxivinod@yahoo.co.in [V P and R P T P Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India); Limbachiya, Chetan, E-mail: chetanlimbachiya2@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Desai, Hardik, E-mail: hardikdesai.phy@gmail.com; Vinodkumar, P. C., E-mail: p.c.vinodkumar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120 (India)

2014-09-28

320

Cross sections for electron scattering from ?-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on measurements of integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of Rydberg electronic-states in ?-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The energy range of these experiments was 20-50 eV. There are currently no other results against which we can directly compare those measured data. We also report results from our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction computations, namely for the total cross section, elastic ICS, inelastic ICS (all discrete electronic states and neutral dissociation) and the total ionisation ICS. Where possible, our calculated cross sections are compared to the limited available data of each scattering process.

Duque, H. V.; Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Thorn, P. A.; Pettifer, Z.; da Silva, G. B.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Duflot, D.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Ratnavelu, K.; White, R. D.; Brunger, M. J.

2014-07-01

321

Aerodynamic Research on Fuselages with Rectangular Cross Section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of the deflected flow caused by the fuselage (especially by unsymmetrical attitudes) on the lift and the rolling moment due to sideslip has been discussed for infinitely long fuselages with circular and elliptical cross section. The aim of this work is to add rectangular cross sections and, primarily, to give a principle by which one can get practically usable contours through simple conformal mapping. In a few examples, the velocity field in the wing region and the induced flow produced are calculated and are compared with corresponding results from elliptical and strictly rectangular cross sections.

Maruhn, K.

1958-01-01

322

Comparison of fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides  

E-print Network

The fission and capture cross sections of minor actinides given in JENDL-3.3 are compared with other evaluated data and experimental data. The comparison was made for 32 nuclides of Th-227, 228, 229, 230, 233, 234, Pa-231, 232, 233, U-232, 234, 236, 237, Np-236, 237, 238, Pu-236, 237, 238, 242, 244, Am-241, 242, 242m, 243, Cm-242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 and 248. Given in the present report are figures of these cross sections and tables of cross sections at 0.0253 eV and resonance integrals.

Nakagawa, T

2003-01-01

323

Actinide Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section Measurements At LANSCE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the 235U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the 233,238U, 239-242Pu and 243Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with existing evaluations and previous data.

Tovesson, F.; Laptev, A. B.; Hill, T. S.

2011-06-01

324

Electron-impact cross sections of SiH2 using the R -matrix method at low energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron-impact collision cross sections are calculated for a SiH2 molecule using the R -matrix approach in the low-energy range. The elastic and electron-excited inelastic cross sections are calculated in the correlated and uncorrelated approximations. All electronic states arising due to single-electron transitions from Hartree-Fock configurations up to threshold are considered in the target wave-function expansion. Partial waves up to l =4 are used to represent continuum electron orbitals. The Born corrected converged cross sections are obtained for the radical with a nonzero dipole moment by considering the contributions of higher partial waves (l >4 ). The effect of a small dipole moment on cross sections is analyzed. Besides determining the cross sections, the role of active space in the target and scattering problem, including the resonances is discussed. This work reports elastic, inelastic, and differential cross sections and few-electron-collision energy-transfer parameters. In particular, we show the viscosity cross sections and rate coefficients for elastic and electron-excited processes.

Bharadvaja, Anand; Kaur, Savinder; Baluja, K. L.

2015-03-01

325

Using MiniBooNE neutral current elastic cross section results to constrain 3+1 sterile neutrino models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MiniBooNE Neutral Current Elastic (NCEL) cross section results are used to extract limits in the ? m 2 - sin2 ? ?s plane for a 3+1 sterile neutrino model with a mass splitting 0 .1 ? ? m 2 ? 10 .0 eV2. GENIE is used with a cross section model close to the one employed by MiniBooNE to make event rate predictions using simulations on the MiniBooNE target material CH2. The axial mass is a free parameter in all fits. Sterile modifications to the flux and changes to the cross section in the simulation relate the two and allow limits to be set on sterile neutrino mixing using cross section results. The large axial mass problem makes it necessary for experiments to perform their own axial mass fits, but a prior fit to the same dataset could mask a sterile oscillation signal if the sterile and cross section model parameters are not independent. We find that for the NCEL dataset there are significant correlations between the sterile and cross section model parameters, making a fit to both models simultaneously necessary to get robust results. Failure to do this results in stronger than warranted limits on the sterile parameters. The general problems that the current uncertainty on charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) and NCEL cross sections at MiniBooNE energies pose for sterile neutrino measurements are discussed.

Wilkinson, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Thompson, Lee

2014-01-01

326

Toward multi-differential cross sections: measuring two angularities on a single jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analytic study of differential cross sections in QCD has typically focused on individual observables, such as mass or thrust, to great success. Here, we present a first study of double differential jet cross sections considering two recoil-free angularities measured on a single jet. By analyzing the phase space defined by the two angularities and using methods from soft-collinear effective theory, we prove that the double differential cross section factorizes at the boundaries of the phase space. We also show that the cross section in the bulk of the phase space cannot be factorized using only soft and collinear modes, excluding the possibility of a global factorization theorem in soft-collinear effective theory. Nevertheless, we are able to define a simple interpolation procedure that smoothly connects the factorization theorem at one boundary to the other. We present an explicit example of this at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy and show that the interpolation is unique up to ? {/s 4} order in the exponent of the cross section, under reasonable assumptions. This is evidence that the interpolation is sufficiently robust to account for all logarithms in the bulk of phase space to the accuracy of the boundary factorization theorem. We compare our analytic calculation of the double differential cross section to Monte Carlo simulation and find qualitative agreement. Because our arguments rely on general structures of the phase space, we expect that much of our analysis would be relevant for the study of phenomenologically well-motivated observables, such as N -subjettiness, energy correlation functions, and planar flow.

Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

2014-09-01

327

Total electron scattering cross sections of CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6 in the energy range 200-1400 eV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total electron scattering cross section of CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6 molecules have been obtained for 200-1400-eV energy electrons by measuring the attenuation of the electron beam through a gas cell. The present cross sections are compared to existing experimental cross sections as well as to theoretical predictions. The correlation between the total electron scattering cross section and the number of target-molecule electrons is discussed.

Ariyasinghe, W. M.; Powers, D.

2002-11-01

328

Jet-radius dependence of inclusive-jet cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured for different jet radii in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering for boson virtualities Q2 > 125 GeV2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 81.7 pb-1. Jets were identified in the Breit frame using the kT cluster algorithm in the longitudinally inclusive mode for different values of the jet radius R. Differential cross sections are presented as functions of Q2 and the jet transverse energy, ET,Bjet. The dependence on R of the inclusive-jet cross section has been measured for Q2 > 125 and 500 GeV2 and found to be linear with R in the range studied. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements for 0.5 ? R ? 1. A value of ?s (MZ) has been extracted from the measurements of the inclusive-jet cross section d? / dQ2 with R = 1 for Q2 > 500 GeV2: ?s (MZ) = 0.1207 ± 0.0014 (stat .)-0.0033+0.0035 (exp .) -0.0023 +0.0022 (th .). The variation of ?s with ET,Bjet is in a good agreement with the running of ?s as predicted by QCD.

Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Jechow, M.; Pavel, N.; Yagües Molina, A. G.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Bindi, M.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Jüngst, M.; Kind, O. M.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Renner, R.; Samson, U.; Schönberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wang, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Morris, J. D.; Namsoo, T.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ma, K. J.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Gil, M.; Olkiewicz, K.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Adler, V.; Behrens, U.; Bloch, I.; Bonato, A.; Borras, K.; Coppola, N.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Gladkov, D.; Göttlicher, P.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Horn, C.; Kahle, B.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Montanari, A.; Notz, D.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Santamarta, R.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stösslein, U.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Ferrando, J.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Gosau, T.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Salehi, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Wichmann, K.; Wick, K.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Kataoka, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Dossanov, A.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Soares, M.; Terrón, J.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Liu, C.; Walsh, R.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Rubinsky, I.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Katkov, I. I.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zotkin, S. A.; Abt, I.; Büttner, C.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Schmidke, W. B.; Sutiak, J.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cottrell, A.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Foster, B.; Korcsak-Gorzo, K.; Patel, S.; Roberfroid, V.; Robertson, A.; Straub, P. B.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Walczak, R.; Bellan, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Ciesielski, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Ukleja, J.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Gabareen, A.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Kuze, M.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Shimizu, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Martin, J. F.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Gwenlan, C.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Sutton, M. R.; Targett-Adams, C.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Giller, I.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Rosin, M.; Brownson, E.; Danielson, T.; Everett, A.; Kçira, D.; Reeder, D. D.; Ryan, P.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Cui, Y.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.; ZEUS Collaboration

2007-05-01

329

Factors influencing the satisfaction of rural physician assistants: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine factors that attract physician assistants (PAs) to rural settings, and what they found satisfying about their practice and community. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All PAs who were practicing in both nonmetropolitan counties and rural communities in metropolitan counties, in a single midwestern US state, served as the population for the study. A total of 414 usable questionnaires were returned of the 1,072 distributed, a 39% response rate. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and robust regression analyses were used. Statistical models were tested to identify antecedents of four job satisfaction factors (satisfaction with professional respect, satisfaction with supervising physician, satisfaction with authority/ autonomy, and satisfaction with workload/salary). The strongest predictor of all four job satisfaction factors was community satisfaction, followed by importance of job practice. Additionally, the four job satisfaction factors had some significant associations with importance of socialization, community importance, practice attributes (years of practice, years in current location, specialty, and facility type), job responsibilities (percentage of patient load not discussed with physician, weekly hours as PA, inpatient visits), and demographics (marital status, race, age, education). PMID:24598896

Filipova, Anna A

2014-01-01

330

Paris NN potential constrained by recent antiprotonic-atom data and np total cross sections  

SciTech Connect

We report on an updated Paris NN optical potential. The long- and intermediate-range real parts are obtained by G-parity transformation of the Paris NN potential based on a theoretical dispersion-relation treatment of the correlated and uncorrelated two-pion exchange. The short-range imaginary potential parametrization results from the calculation of the NN annihilation box diagram into two mesons with a nucleon-antinucleon intermediate state in the crossed channel. The parametrized real and imaginary short range parts are determined by fitting not only the existing experimental data included in the 1999 version of the Paris NN potential, but also the recent antiprotonic-hydrogen data and np total cross sections. The description of these new observables is improved. Only this readjusted potential generates an isospin zero {sup 1}S{sub 0}, 52 MeV broad quasibound state at 4.8 MeV below the threshold. Recent BES data on J/{psi} decays could support the existence of such a state.

El-Bennich, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies, Groupe Theorie, IN2P3-CNRS, Universites Pierre and Marie Curie et Paris Diderot, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, Cedex (France); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et de Hautes Energies, Groupe Theorie, IN2P3-CNRS, Universites Pierre and Marie Curie et Paris Diderot, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, Cedex (France); Wycech, S. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland)

2009-05-15

331

Calculation of He photoionization with excitation and de-excitation cross section  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present calculation results for photo-ionization with de- excitation of excited He and helium-like ions at high but non- relativistic photon energies phi. The cross-section of this process is expressed in fact via integrals similar to that used already in description of two-electron ionization and ionization with excitation. In principle, the considered process can be separated pure experimentally from other

Miron Ya. Amusia; Rajmund Krivec

2005-01-01

332

Systematic study of helium-induced L shell ionization cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental data set consisting of about 500 published cross section values has been applied to test the performance of various theoretical approximations for the description of the helium-induced L-subshell ionization of heavy elements (Z2 = 66-92). The large discrepancy observed previously between the L2-subshell data and the predictions of the ECPSSR model has been greatly reduced including the effect

László Sarkadi; Takeshi Mukoyama

1991-01-01

333

Negative ion detachment cross sections. [Physics Dept. , College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below.

Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

1992-10-01

334

A one- and two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path of the AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) modular code system  

SciTech Connect

AARE, a code package to perform Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering, is a linked modular system for fission reactor core and shielding, as well as fusion blanket, analysis. Its cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path presently includes the cross-section processing and reformatting code TRAMIX, cross-section homogenization and library reformatting code MIXIT, the 1-dimensional transport code ONEDANT, the 2-dimensional transport code TRISM, and the 1- and 2- dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty code SENSIBL. IN the present work, a short description of the whole AARE system is given, followed by a detailed description of the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path. 23 refs., 2 figs.

Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.

1988-01-01

335

12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

336

Meson-exchange Currents and Quasielastic Neutrino Cross Sections  

E-print Network

We illustrate and discuss the role of meson-exchange currents in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering induced by charged currents, comparing the results with the recent MiniBooNE data for differential and integrated cross sections.

M. B. Barbaro; J. E. Amaro; J. A. Caballero; T. W. Donnelly; J. M. Udias; C. F. Williamson

2011-10-21

337

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

338

Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCCCN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to HCCCN (cyanoacetylene or propiolonitrile) in the range of 0–10 eV electron energy are presented here, which have been determined from a new analysis of previously reported data (Graupner et al 2006 New J. Phys. 8 117). The highest cross sections are observed for the formation of CN? at 5.3 eV and CCCN? at 5.1 eV; approximately 0.06 Å2 and 0.05 Å2 respectively. As part of the re-analysis, it was necessary to determine absolute cross sections for electron-impact ionization of HCCCN with the binary-encounter Bethe method. These electron-impact ionization absolute cross sections for HCCCN are also presented here; the maximum value was found to be ˜6.6 Å2 at ˜80 eV.

Gilmore, TD; Field, TA

2015-02-01

339

Precision measurement of the 238Pu(n,?) cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron-capture cross section for 238Pu was measured by using the detector for advanced neutron-capture experiments (DANCE) array, which is a highly segmented and highly efficient 4? ?-ray calorimeter. The neutron-capture events were recognized by the total ?-ray energy deposited in DANCE, which is equal to the reaction Q value plus the incident neutron energy. The absolute neutron-capture cross section was derived as a function of incident neutron energy from thermal to about 30 keV. The measured cross section for incident neutron energy below 18 eV was performed for the first time by using the direct method and does not support the most recently adopted changes in endf/b-vii.1 where the neutron-capture cross section was lowered by as much as a factor of ˜3 in the neighborhood of 0.3 eV from those evaluated in endf/b-vii.0.

Chyzh, A.; Wu, C. Y.; Kwan, E.; Henderson, R. A.; Gostic, J. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

2013-10-01

340

Giant dipole resonance parameters with uncertainties from photonuclear cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Updated values and corresponding uncertainties of isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR or GDR) model parameters are presented that are obtained by the least-squares fitting of theoretical photoabsorption cross sections to experimental data. The theoretical photoabsorption cross section is taken as a sum of the components corresponding to excitation of the GDR and quasideuteron contribution to the experimental photoabsorption cross section. The present compilation covers experimental data as of January 2010. - Highlights: {yields} Experimental {sigma} ({gamma}, abs) or a sum of partial cross sections are taken as input to the fitting. {yields} Data include contributions from photoproton reactions. {yields} Standard (SLO) or modified (SMLO) Lorentzian approaches are used for formulating GDR models. {yields} Spherical or axially deformed nuclear shapes are used in GDR least-squares fit. {yields} Values and uncertainties of the SLO and SMLO GDR model parameters are tabulated.

Plujko, V.A. [Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv (Ukraine); Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Capote, R., E-mail: R.CapoteNoy@iaea.org [NAPC-Nuclear Data Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400,Vienna (Austria); Gorbachenko, O.M. [Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv (Ukraine)

2011-09-15

341

Black Hole Cross Section at the Large Hadron Collider  

E-print Network

Black hole production at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was first discussed in 1999. Since then, much work has been performed in predicting the black hole cross section. In light of the start up of the LHC, it is now timely to review the state of these calculations. We review the uncertainties in estimating the black hole cross section in higher dimensions. One would like to make this estimate as precise as possible since the predicted values, or lower limits, obtain for the fundamental Planck scale and number of extra dimensions from experiments will depend directly on the accuracy of the cross section. Based on the current knowledge of the cross section, we give a range of lower limits on the fundamental Planck scale that could be obtained at LHC energies.

Douglas M. Gingrich

2006-12-22

342

Hadronic cross sections, elastic slope and physical bounds  

SciTech Connect

An almost model-independent parametrization for the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to elastic slope is discussed. Its applicability in studies of asymptotia and analyses of extensive air shower in cosmic-ray physics is also outlined.

Fagundes, D. A.; Menon, M. J. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas SP (Brazil)

2013-03-25

343

8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

344

The impact of parent-child interaction on brain structures: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.  

PubMed

There is a vast amount of evidence from psychological studies that the amount of parent-child interaction affects the development of children's verbal skills and knowledge. However, despite the vast amount of literature, brain structural development associated with the amount of parent-child interaction has never been investigated. In the present human study, we used voxel-based morphometry to measure regional gray matter density (rGMD) and examined cross-sectional correlations between the amount of time spent with parents and rGMD among 127 boys and 135 girls. We also assessed correlations between the amount of time spent with parents and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 106 boys and 102 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found negative effects of spending time with parents on rGMD in areas in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) via cross-sectional analyses as well as in the contingent areas of the right STG. We also confirmed positive effects of spending time with parents on the Verbal Comprehension score in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. rGMD in partly overlapping or contingent areas of the right STG was negatively correlated with age and the Verbal Comprehension score in cross-sectional analyses. Subsequent analyses revealed verbal parent-child interactions have similar effects on Verbal Comprehension scores and rGMD in the right STG in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These findings indicate that parent-child interactions affect the right STG, which may be associated with verbal skills. PMID:25653378

Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

2015-02-01

345

Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

1995-01-01

346

Total cross sections for electron scattering by molecular hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total cross sections for electron scattering by H2 are obtained for impact energies ranging from 25 to 750 eV. The method used is a linearisation of the Ramsauer-type experiment, which enables good angular and energy resolution; the accuracy obtained in the total cross sections is better than 4%. The authors compare their results with existing experimental data of other groups

B. van Wingerden; R. W. Wagenaar; F. J. de Heer

1980-01-01

347

Continuum effects in electron-helium total cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that total cross sections for the excitation of target states with large spectroscopic factors may be calculated accurately by representing the states by their leading independent-particle configurations. With this approximation coupled-channels calculations agree only qualitatively with experimental total cross sections for the first five states of helium. R-matrix calculations using configuration interaction show better qualitative agreement. The

I. E. McCarthy; K. Ratnavelu; A. M. Weigold

1988-01-01

348

Total cross sections for positron and electron scattering from pyrimidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report original measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the important biomolecule pyrimidine. The energy range of these measurements was 0.3-45 eV, while the energy resolution was ~260 meV. In addition, we report theoretical results, calculated within the independent atom-screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) formalism, for the corresponding electron impact total cross sections. In that

A. Zecca; L. Chiari; G. García; F. Blanco; E. Trainotti; M. J. Brunger

2010-01-01

349

Inclusive jet differential cross sections in photoproduction at HERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusive jet differential cross sections for the reaction ep ? jet + X at Q2 below 4 GeV2 have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 0.55 pb?1. These cross sections are given in the kinematic region 0.2 < y < 0.85, for jet pseudorapidities in the ep-laboratory range ?1 < ?jet < 2

S. Bhadra; W. R. Frisken; K. M. Furutani; B. Musgrave; J. Repond; J. Schlereth; R. Stanek; R. L. Talaga; J. Thron; F. Arzarello; R. Ayad; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; D. Boscherini; A. Bruni; G. Bruni; P. Bruni; G. Cara Romeo; G. Castellini; M. Chiarini; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; F. Ciralli; A. Contin; S. D'Auria; F. Frasconi; I. Gialas; P. Giusti; G. Iacobucci; G. Laurenti; G. Levi; A. Margotti; T. Massam; R. Nania; C. Nemoz; F. Palmonari; A. Polini; G. Sartorelli; R. Timellini; Y. Zamora Garcia; A. Zichichi; A. Bargende; J. Crittenden; K. Desch; B. Diekmann; T. Doeker; M. Eckart; L. Feld; A. Frey; M. Geerts; G. Geitz; M. Grothe; H. Hartmann; D. Haun; K. Heinloth; E. Hilger; H.-P. Jakob; U. F. Katz; S. M. Mari; A. Mass; S. Mengel; J. Mollen; E. Paul; Ch. Rembser; R. Schattevoy; J.-L. Schneider; D. Schramm; J. Stamm; R. Wedemeyer; S. Campbell-Robson; A. Cassidy; N. Dyce; B. Foster; S. George; R. Gilmore; G. P. Heath; H. F. Heath; T. J. Llewellyn; C. J. S. Morgado; D. J. P. Norman; J. A. O'Mara; R. J. Tapper; S. S. Wilson; R. Yoshida; R. R. Rau; M. Arneodo; L. Iannotti; M. Schioppa; G. Susinno; A. Bernstein; A. Caldwell; J. A. Parsons; S. Ritz; F. Sciulli; P. B. Straub; L. Wai; S. Yang; P. Borzemski; J. Chwastowski; A. Eskreys; K. Piotrzkowski; M. Zachara; L. Zawiejski; L. Adamczyk; B. Bednarek; K. Eskreys; K. Jelen; D. Kisielewska; T. Kowalski; E. Rulikowska-Zarebska; L. Suszycki; J. Zajac; T. Kedzierski; A. Kotanski; M. Przybycien; L. A. T. Bauerdick; U. Behrens; J. K. Bienlein; S. Böttcher; C. Coldewey; G. Drews; M. Flasinski; D. J. Gilkinson; P. Göttlicher; B. Gutjahr; T. Haas; W. Hain; D. Hasell; H. Heßling; H. Hultschig; Y. Iga; P. Joos; M. Kasemann; R. Klanner; W. Koch; L. Köpke; U. Kötz; H. Kowalski; W. Kröger; J. Krüger; J. Labs; A. Ladage; B. Löhr; M. Löwe; D. Lüke; O. Manczak; J. S. T. Ng; S. Nickel; D. Notz; K. Ohrenberg; M. Roco; M. Rohde; J. Roldán; U. Schneekloth; W. Schulz; F. Selonke; E. Stiliaris; T. Voß; D. Westphal; G. Wolf; C. Youngman; H. J. Grabosch; A. Leich; A. Meyer; C. Rethfeldt; S. Schlenstedt; G. Barbagli; P. Pelfer; G. Anzivino; G. Maccarrone; S. de Pasquale; S. Qian; L. Votano; A. Bamberger; A. Freidhof; T. Poser; S. Söldner-Rembold; J. Schroeder; G. Theisen; T. Trefzger; N. H. Brook; P. J. Bussey; A. T. Doyle; I. Fleck; V. A. Jamieson; D. H. Saxon; M. L. Utley; A. S. Wilson; A. Dannemann; U. Holm; D. Horstmann; H. Kammerlocher; B. Krebs; T. Neumann; R. Sinkus; K. Wick; E. Badura; B. D. Burow; A. Fürtjes; L. Hagge; E. Lohrmann; J. Mainusch; J. Milewski; M. Nakahata; N. Pavel; G. Poelz; W. Schott; J. Terron; F. Zetsche; T. C. Bacon; R. Beuselinck; I. Butterworth; E. Gallo; V. L. Harris; B. H. Hung; K. R. Long; D. B. Miller; P. P. O. Morawitz; A. Prinias; J. K. Sedgbeer; A. F. Whitfield; U. Mallik; E. McCliment; M. Z. Wang; S. M. Wang; J. T. Wu; Y. Zhang; P. Cloth; D. Filges; S. H. An; S. M. Hong; S. W. Nam; S. K. Park; M. H. Suh; S. H. Yon; R. Imlay; S. Kartik; H.-J. Kim; R. R. McNeil; W. Metcalf; V. K. Nadendla; F. Barreiro; G. Cases; R. Graciani; J. M. Hernández; L. Hervás; L. Labarga; J. del Peso; J. Puga; J. F. de Trocóniz; F. Ikraiam; J. K. Mayer; G. R. Smith; F. Corriveau; D. S. Hanna; J. Hartmann; L. W. Hung; J. N. Lim; C. G. Matthews; P. M. Patel; L. E. Sinclair; D. G. Stairs; M. St. Laurent; R. Ullmann; G. Zacek; V. Bashkirov; B. A. Dolgoshein; A. Stifutkin; G. L. Bashindzhagyan; P. F. Ermolov; L. K. Gladilin; Y. A. Golubkov; V. D. Kobrin; V. A. Kuzmin; A. S. Proskuryakov; A. A. Savin; L. M. Shcheglova; A. N. Solomin; N. P. Zotov; S. Bentvelsen; M. Botje; F. Chlebana; A. Dake; J. Engelen; P. de Jong; M. de Kamps; P. Kooijman; A. Kruse; V. O'dell; A. Tenner; H. Tiecke; W. Verkerke; M. Vreeswijk; L. Wiggers; E. de Wolf; R. van Woudenberg; D. Acosta; B. Bylsma; L. S. Durkin; K. Honscheid; C. Li; T. Y. Ling; K. W. McLean; W. N. Murray; I. H. Park; T. A. Romanowski; R. Seidlein; D. S. Bailey; G. A. Blair; A. Byrne; R. J. Cashmore; A. M. Cooper-Sarkar; D. Daniels; R. C. E. Devenish; N. Harnew; M. Lancaster; P. E. Luffman; L. Lindemann; J. McFall; C. Nath; A. Quadt; H. Uijterwaal; R. Walczak; F. F. Wilson; T. Yip; G. Abbiendi; A. Bertolin; R. Brugnera; R. Carlin; F. dal Corso; M. de Giorgi; U. Dosselli; S. Limentani; M. Morandin; M. Posocco; L. Stanco; R. Stroili; C. Voci; J. Bulmahn; J. M. Butterworth; R. G. Feild; B. Y. Oh; J. J. Whitmore; G. D'Agostini; M. Iori; G. Marini; M. Mattioli; A. Nigro; E. Tassi; J. C. Hart; N. A. McCubbin; K. Prytz; T. P. Shah; T. L. Short; E. Barberis; N. Cartiglia; T. Dubbs; C. Heusch; M. van Hook; B. Hubbard; W. Lockman; J. T. Rahn; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Seiden; J. Biltzinger; R. J. Seifert; A. H. Walenta; G. Zech; H. Abramowicz; G. Briskin; S. Dagan; A. Levy; T. Hasegawa; M. Hazumi; T. Ishii; M. Kuze; S. Mine; Y. Nagasawa; T. Nagira; M. Nakao; I. Suzuki; K. Tokushuku; S. Yamada

1995-01-01

350

The PhotoIonization Cross Section of Lithium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photo-ionization cross section of lithium is calculated using Hartree-Fock wave functions. Good agreement is obtained between the dipole length and dipole velocity formulae for the cross section over the wavelength range considered, 2300 Å-1800 Å. The mean value at the spectral head is found to be 1.16 × 10-18 cm2, considerably smaller than either of the previous theoretical estimates

A L Stewart

1954-01-01

351

Photoabsorption Cross Section for Silicon Doped with Indium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photo-ionization cross section for indium as an acceptor in a silicon lattice has been deduced from optical transmission coupled with wide-range Hall-effect measurements. The normalized energy dependence observed in our samples agrees well with results previously reported, but the cross section we report has a maximum value of sigma=3.3×10-17 cm2 at hnu=0.3 eV. This is several times smaller than

R. A. Messenger; J. S. Blakemore

1971-01-01

352

New Geant4 cross section models for PIXE simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have implemented in the Geant4 simulation toolkit a set of new ionisation cross sections for the simulation of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), based upon theoretical and semi-empirical models. The set provides a model based on the so-called ECPSSR theory for the computation of K-shell ionisation cross sections for proton and alpha particle impact. A second model is based

H. Ben Abdelouahed; S. Incerti; A. Mantero

2009-01-01

353

Total cross section and elastic scattering from TEVATRON to LHC  

E-print Network

A review of measurements of the total cross section in ppbar collisions at the TEVATRON and an outlook on the expected performance for similar determinations at the LHC is given. The experimental method is based on the optical theorem to determine the total cross section independent of the machine luminosity. It consists of the extrapolation of the t-spectrum for elastic scattering to t-->0 with a simultaneous measurement of the total inelastic rate.

H. Stenzel

2009-07-17

354

Absolute Total np and pp Cross Section Determinations  

E-print Network

Absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses of NN scattering data. These cross sections are compared with most recent ENDF/B and JENDL data files, and the Nijmegen partial-wave analysis. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B and JENDL evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region.

R. A. Arndt; W. J. Briscoe; A. B. Laptev; I. I. Strakovsky; R. L. Workman

2009-01-05

355

Hadronic Cross sections: from cyclotrons to colliders to cosmic rays  

E-print Network

We present evidence for the saturation of the Froissart bound at high energy for {\\em all hadronic} total cross sections at high energies, and use this to unify $pp$ (and $\\bar p p$) total cross sections over the energy range from cyclotrons to colliders to ultra-high energy cosmic rays, an energy span from $\\sqrt s = 4$ GeV to 80 TeV.

Martin M. Block

2010-09-02

356

Electron-Impact Excitation Cross Sections for Metal Vapors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two simple scaling methods to generate integrated cross sections from plane-wave Born cross sections for dipole-allowed excitations of metal vapors by electron impact(Y.-K. Kim, Phys. Rev. A, 64), in print. are shown to produce cross sections comparable in accuracy to those obtained by more sophisticated collision theories, such as the convergent close-coupling method. The scaled cross sections ?_BE and ?f are: ?_BE=?_PW×[T/(T+B+E)], ?_f=?_PWsc×(f_mc/f_sc), where ?_PW=unscaled plane-wave Born cross section, T=incident electron energy, B=binding energy of the target electron, E=excitation energy, f_mc and f_sc are the dipole f-values calculated from multiconfiguration wave functions and single-configuration wave functions, respectively. The two scalings can be used consecutively. The scaled cross section for the 4s-4p excitation of Cu is in excellent agreement with the experiment by Ismail and Teubner.(M. Ismail and P. J. O. Teubner, J. Phys. B 28) 4149 (1995) Many examples of resonance transitions of atoms, including Ag, Au, and Hg, will be presented.

Kim, Yong-Ki

2001-10-01

357

Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr+ + Kr and Kr2+ + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr+ + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr2+ + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr2+ + Kr ? Kr+ + Kr+ reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 Å2 with an exception near 70-80 eV.

Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

2013-04-01

358

A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

Berenbrock, C.

2006-01-01

359

Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models  

SciTech Connect

Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

Hause, Michael L. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02159 (United States); Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States)

2013-04-28

360

Detection and interpretation of ocean roughness variations across the Gulf Stream inferred from radar cross section observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar cross section data shows that the Gulf Stream has a higher cross section per unit area (interpreted here as a greater roughness) than the water on the continental shelf. A steep gradient in cross section was often seen at the expected location of the western boundary. There were also longer-scale (10-20 km) gradual fluctuations within the stream of significant magnitude. These roughness variations are correlated with the surface shear stress that the local wind imposes on the sea. Using the available surface-truth information concerning the wind speed and direction, an assumed Gulf Stream velocity profile, and high-resolution ocean-surface temperature data obtained by the VHRR onboard a NOAA-NESS polar-orbiting satellite, the present study demonstrates that the computed surface stress variation bears a striking resemblance to the measured radar cross-section variations.

Weissman, D. E.; Thompson, T. W.

1977-01-01

361

Cross-section Trichometry: A Clinical Tool for Assessing the Progression and Treatment Response of Alopecia  

PubMed Central

Background: To properly assess the progression and treatment response of alopecia, one must measure the changes in hair mass, which is influenced by both the density and diameter of hair. Unfortunately, a convenient device for hair mass evaluation had not been available to dermatologists until the recent introduction of the cross-section trichometer, which directly measures the cross-sectional area of an isolated bundle of hair. Objective: We sought to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of the HairCheck® device, a commercial product derived from the original cross-section trichometer. Materials and Methods: Bundles of surgical silk and human hair were used to evaluate the ability of the HairCheck® device to detect and measure small changes in the number and diameter of strands, and bundle weight. Results: Strong correlations were observed between the bundle's cross-sectional area, displayed as the numeric Hair Mass Index (HMI), the number of strands, the silk/hair diameter, and the bundle dry weight. Conclusion: HMI strongly correlated with the number and diameter of silk/hair, and the weight of the bundle, suggesting that it can serve as a valid indicator of hair mass. We have given the name cross-section trichometry (CST) to the methodology of obtaining the HMI using the HairCheck® system. CST is a simple modality for the quantification of hair mass, and may be used as a convenient and useful tool to clinically assess changes in hair mass caused by thinning, shedding, breakage, or growth in males and females with progressive alopecia or those receiving alopecia treatment. PMID:23766610

Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Mauro, Lucia M; Tabas, Irene A; Chen, Anne L; Llanes, Isabel C; Jimenez, Joaquin J

2012-01-01

362

Determination of Helium - Helium Potential Energy Function by Inversion of Differential Cross Sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The He - He interaction at short range was studied via a detailed examination of Firsov's inversion theory and the various conditions to which it is subject. Experimental differential cross sections at 0.5 keV and 1.0 keV determined by Abrahams and Peterson were inverted to obtain He(,2) ground state potential energies. It was found that the practical application of Firsov's theory is subject to three conditions. These conditions result from (1) difficulties associated with the absolute measurement of differential cross sections, (2) lack of experimental measurements for scattering at angles less than some minimum angle, and (3) inelastic scattering contributions to the cross section at large scattering angles. A practical procedure for inversion of experimental cross sections was investigated. This procedure explicitly treats the three conditions cited above. It was found that experimental differential cross sections must be corrected for the effect of finite scattering geometry. A procedure for effecting this correction was developed. A semi-theoretical He(,2) potential energy function was determined by slightly adjusting the scale of distance for a potential energy function obtained by inversion such that at 0.529 A the potential energy is 25.0 eV. Electronic energies derived from this potential energy function are within 1.0 eV of ab initio He(,2) electronic energies over the range 0.5 A to 1.0 A and are not in conflict with the variation theorem of quantum mechanics. This result supports the Born-Oppenheimer description of He - He scattering. It was observed that the equations describing both direct and inverse classical scattering consist of integrals which can be reduced to the form. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). A quadrature formula based on expansion of f(x,y) in shifted Chebyshev polynomials has been derived for evaluating this integral.

Lambrakos, Samuel George

363

Numerical analysis of flows of rarefied gases in long channels with octagonal cross section shapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isothermal, pressure driven rarefied gas flows through long channels with octagonal cross section shapes are analyzed computationally. The capillary is between inlet and outlet reservoirs. The cross section is constant along the axial direction. The boundary condition at the solid-gas interface is assumed to be diffuse reflection. Since the channel is long, the gaseous velocity is small compared to the average molecular speed. Consequently, a linearized description can be used. The flow is described by the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic model. The solution of the problem is divided into two stages. First, the local flow field is determined by assuming the local pressure gradient. Secondly, the global flow behavior is deduced by the consideration of the conservation of the mass along the axis of the capillary. The kinetic equation is solved by the discrete velocity method on the cross section. Both spatial and velocity spaces are discretized. A body fitted rectangular grid is used for the spatial space. Near the boundary, first-order, while in the interior part of the flow domain, second-order finite-differences are applied to approximate the spatial derivatives. This combination results into an efficient and straightforward numerical treatment. The velocity space is represented by a Gauss-Legendre quadrature. The kinetic equation is solved in an iterative manner. The local dimensionless flow rate is calculated and tabulated for a wide range of the gaseous rarefaction for octagonal cross sections with various geometrical parameters. It exhibits the Knudsen minimum phenomenon. The flow rates in the octagonal channel are compared to those through capillaries with circular and square cross sections. Typical velocity profiles are also shown. The mass flow rate and the distribution of the pressure are determined and presented for global pressure driven flows.

Szalmas, L.

2014-12-01

364

New Global Fit to the Total Photon-Proton Cross-Section sigma L+T and to the Structure Function F2  

E-print Network

A fit to world data on the photon-proton cross section sigma L+T and the unpolarised structure function F2 is presented. The 23-parameter ALLM model based on Reggeon and Pomeron exchange is used. Cross section data were reconstructed to avoid inconsistencies with respect to R of the published F2 data base. Parameter uncertainties and correlations are obtained.

Dominik Gabbert; Lara De Nardo

2007-08-23

365

Kinetics and energetics of electron impact ionization of molecules: Ionization cross section, appearance energies and kinetic energy release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much effort has been recently devoted to the experimental determination of absolute partial and total electron impact ionization cross sections of molecules and radicals due to the ever increasing importance of these cross sections in many applications such as low- and high-temperature plasma physics and chemistry, atmospheric physics and mass spectrometry. In addition supporting calculations have been recently developed in order to allow the analytic quantitative description of these cross section functions for modeling codes. This review summarizes recent experimental and theoretical progress in this area of electron impact ionization including also a short description of (i) recent advances in the field of electron/ion collisions (i.e., kinetic energy release distributions in dissociative excitation reactions of molecular ions) and (ii) a novel approach to the determination of electron induced appearance energies. .

Matt, S.; Fiegele, T.; Hanel, G.; Muigg, D.; Denifl, G.; Becker, K.; Deutsch, H.; Echt, O.; Mason, N.; Stamatovic, A.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

2000-11-01

366

Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions.  

PubMed

When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes that can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured ejected electron energy spectra. PMID:12194359

Toburen, L H; Shinpaugh, J L; Justiniano, E L B

2002-01-01

367

Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

2011-01-01

368

Role of channel and floodplain cross-section geometry in the basin response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross section geometry affects the relative contribution of dispersion mechanismNon-linearity in the response varies depending on the cross section geometryNetwork and hillslope effects on dispersion vary with cross section geometry

A. I. Mejia; S. M. Reed

2011-01-01

369

Reexamination of the neutron skin thickness using neutron removal cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron removal cross section [?-N(Z)] is defined for the projectile-like fragment isotopes and extended to the lower Z isotopes in the projectile fragmentation reaction. The cross sections of fragments in 1 A GeV even Ca42-52+C12 projectile fragmentation reactions are calculated using the statistical abrasion-ablation model. The correlations between ?-N(Z) of different fragment isotopes and neutron skin thickness (Sn) for finite neutron-rich nuclei are revisited. Good linear ?-N(Z)-Sn correlations are observed in fragment isotopes, and it is suggested that ?-N(Z) be used as an observable to determine Sn of neutron-rich nucleus in addition to ?-N for isotopes of the projectile nucleus.

Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling; Yu, Mian

2010-11-01

370

Reexamination of the neutron skin thickness using neutron removal cross sections  

SciTech Connect

The neutron removal cross section [{sigma}{sub -N}(Z)] is defined for the projectile-like fragment isotopes and extended to the lower Z isotopes in the projectile fragmentation reaction. The cross sections of fragments in 1 A GeV even {sup 42-52}Ca+{sup 12}C projectile fragmentation reactions are calculated using the statistical abrasion-ablation model. The correlations between {sigma}{sub -N}(Z) of different fragment isotopes and neutron skin thickness (S{sub n}) for finite neutron-rich nuclei are revisited. Good linear {sigma}{sub -N}(Z)-S{sub n} correlations are observed in fragment isotopes, and it is suggested that {sigma}{sub -N}(Z) be used as an observable to determine S{sub n} of neutron-rich nucleus in addition to {sigma}{sub -N} for isotopes of the projectile nucleus.

Ma Chunwang; Wei Huiling; Yu Mian [Department of Physics, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Department of Life Sciences and Technology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003 (China)

2010-11-15

371

A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross-Section Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4p acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

T. Hill; K. Jewell; M. Heffner; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; L. Snyder; D. M. Asner; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; L. Wood; R. G. Baker; J. L. Klay; R. Kudo; S. Barrett; J. King; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; L. Yao; C. Brune; S. Grimes; N. Kornilov; T. N. Massey; J. Bundgaard; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; U. Hager; E. Burgett; J. Deaven; V. Kleinrath; C. McGrath; B. Wendt; N. Hertel; D. Isenhower; N. Pickle; H. Qu; S. Sharma; R. T. Thornton; D. Tovwell; R. S. Towell; S.

2014-09-01

372

Total electron scattering and electronic state excitations cross sections for O2, CO, and CH4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Available electron collision cross section data concerning total and elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, and ionization for O2, CO, and CH4 have been critically reviewed, and a set of cross sections for modeling of planetary atmospheric behavior is recommended. Utilizing these recommended cross sections, we derived total electronic state excitation cross sections and upper limits for dissociation cross sections, which in the case of CH4 should very closely equal the actual dissociation cross section.

Kanik, I.; Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.

1993-01-01

373

Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American women to determine prevalence of lifetime and past-year IPV and partner injury; examine IPV in relation to pregnancy; and assess demographic and socioeconomic correlates of past-year IPV. METHODS:

Lorraine Halinka Malcoe; Bonnie M Duran; Juliann M Montgomery

2004-01-01

374

Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis among Japanese blood donors: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate an association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), an established precursor of gastric cancer, we performed a cross-sectional study using IgG antibody against H. pylori and pepsinogens of blood donors in four prefectures in Japan. Although a geographic correlation between the age-adjusted prevalence rates for H. pylori infection and those for CAG was

Akira Fukao; Shouko Komatsu; Yoshitaka Tsubono; Shigeru Hisamichi; Hitoshi Ohori; Takeshi Kizawa; Noriko Ohsato; Norio Fujino; Nobuyoshi Endo; Masaharu Iha

1993-01-01

375

Measurement of the W + jet cross section at CDF  

SciTech Connect

A measurement of W {yields} ev + n-jet cross sections in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the Collider Detector at Fermilab in Run II is presented. The measurement is based on an integrated luminosity of 320 pb{sup -1}, and includes events with jet multiplicity from {ge} 1 to {ge} 4. In each jet multiplicity sample the differential and cumulative cross sections with respect to the transverse energy of the n{sup th}-leading jet are measured. For W + {ge} 2 jets the differential cross section with respect to the 2-leading jets invariant mass m{sub j{sub 1}j{sub 2}} and angular separation {Delta}R{sub j{sub 1}j{sub 2}} is also reported. The data are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo simulations.

Messina, Andrea; /Michigan State U.

2006-10-01

376

Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 {plus_minus} 0.18) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} for {approx} 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections.

Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Raith, W.; Sperber, W. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Jacobsen, F.; Lynn, K.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

377

Recent positron-atom cross section measurements and calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent cross section results for low-energy positron scattering from atomic targets. A comparison of the latest measurements and calculations for positron collisions with the noble gases and a brief update of the newest studies on other atoms is presented. In particular, we provide an overview of the cross sections for elastic scattering, positronium formation, direct and total ionisation, as well as total scattering, at energies typically between about 0.1 and a few hundred eV. We discuss the differences in the current experimental data sets and compare those results to the available theoretical models. Recommended data sets for the total cross section are also reported for each noble gas. A summary of the recent developments in the scattering from other atoms, such as atomic hydrogen, the alkali and alkaline-earth metals, and two-electron systems is finally provided.

Chiari, Luca; Zecca, Antonio

2014-10-01

378

pi+- p differential cross sections at low energies  

SciTech Connect

Differential cross sections for pi- p and pi+ p elastic scattering were measured at five energies between 19.9 and 43.3 MeV. The use of the CHAOS magnetic spectrometer at TRIUMF, supplemented by a range telescope for muon background suppression, provided simultaneous coverage of a large part of the full angular range, thus allowing very precise relative cross section measurements. The absolute normalization was determined with a typical accuracy of 5 %. This was verified in a simultaneous measurement of muon proton elastic scattering. The measured cross sections show some deviations from phase shift analysis predictions, in particular at large angles and low energies. From the new data we determine the real part of the isospin forward scattering amplitude.

H. Denz; P. Amaudruz; J.T. Brack; J. Breitschopf; P. Camerini; J.L. Clark; H. Clement; L. Felawka; E. Fragiacomo; E.F. Gibson; N. Grion; G.J. Hofman; B. Jamieson; E.L. Mathie; R. Meier; G. Moloney; D. Ottewell; O. Patarakin; J.D. Patterson; M.M. Pavan; S. Piano; K. Raywood; R.A. Ristinen; R. Rui; M.E. Sevior; G.R. Smith; J. Stahov; R. Tacik; G.J. Wagner; F. von Wrochem; D.M. Yeomans

2005-12-03

379

A new method for the calculation of photodissociation cross sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A time-independent quantum mechanical approach to the calculation of photodissociation cross sections is developed. The method is based on the use of a discrete variable representation and the application of absorbing boundary conditions. Both total photodissociation cross sections and partial cross sections (hence product state distributions) are obtained using the same basic technique, but the calculation is particularly efficient when only the former quantity is required. The method is applied to the photodissociation of HCl(+) for which accurate potential energy curves and dipole moment functions are available, to the photodissociation of ClCN which is a direct process, involving a single excited electrosonic state, and to the photodissociation of ICN, which involves several strongly coupled excited electronic states.

Seideman, Tamar

1993-01-01

380

Dosimetry and cross section measurements at RTNS II  

SciTech Connect

Numerous measurements have been conducted at TRNS-II in order to map the neutron field for materials irradiations, to measure activation cross sections, and to measure helium production cross sections. Experiments of up to two weeks duration irradiated large numbers of activation dosimetry and helium samples both close to the source and throughout the target room. Many other samples have been irradiated in piggy-back positions over periods lasting many months. All of these experiments fall into four main classes, namely, fluence-mapping, activation dosimetry, the production of long-lived isotopes, and helium generation measurements. Radiometric dosimetry and activation cross section measurements were performed at Argonne National Laboratory; helium production was measured at Rockwell International Corporation. This paper briefly summarizes the principal results of our measurements at RTNS-II; references are given for more detailed publications. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Greenwood, L.R.; Kneff, D.W.

1987-01-01

381

Lanl Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section Measurement Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well established program of neutron-induced fission cross section measurement at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is supporting the Fuel Cycle Research program (FC R&D). Combining measurements at two LANSCE facilities, the Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research facility (WNR), cover neutron energies over 10 orders of magnitude: from sub-thermal up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate fission ionization chamber was used as a fission fragment detector. The 235U(n,f) standard was used as the reference. Fission cross sections have been measured for multiple actinides. The new data presented here completes the suite of long-lived Uranium isotopes that were investigated with this experimental approach. The cross section data are presented in comparison with existing evaluations and previous measurements.

Laptev, A. B.; Tovesson, F.; Hill, T. S.

2014-09-01

382

pi+- p differential cross sections at low energies  

E-print Network

Differential cross sections for pi- p and pi+ p elastic scattering were measured at five energies between 19.9 and 43.3 MeV. The use of the CHAOS magnetic spectrometer at TRIUMF, supplemented by a range telescope for muon background suppression, provided simultaneous coverage of a large part of the full angular range, thus allowing very precise relative cross section measurements. The absolute normalisation was determined with a typical accuracy of 5 %. This was verified in a simultaneous measurement of muon proton elastic scattering. The measured cross sections show some deviations from phase shift analysis predictions, in particular at large angles and low energies. From the new data we determine the real part of the isospin forward scattering amplitude.

H. Denz; P. Amaudruz; J. T. Brack; J. Breitschopf; P. Camerini; J. L. Clark; H. Clement; L. Felawka; E. Fragiacomo; E. F. Gibson; N. Grion; G. J. Hofman; B. Jamieson; E. L. Mathie; R. Meier; G. Moloney; D. Ottewell; O. Patarakin; J. D. Patterson; M. M. Pavan; S. Piano; K. Raywood; R. A. Ristinen; R. Rui; M. E. Sevior; G. R. Smith; J. Stahov; R. Tacik; G. J. Wagner; F. von Wrochem; D. M. Yeomans

2005-12-03

383

Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

2009-01-01

384

Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: /sup 55/Mn(n,..gamma..), /sup 59/Co(n,..gamma..) and /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed.

Holden, N.E.

1981-01-01

385

Measurements of multiphoton action cross sections for multiphoton microscopy  

PubMed Central

We report quantitative measurements of two-, three-, and four-photon excitation action cross sections of several commonly used fluorophores and fluorescent proteins at three different excitation wavelengths of 800 nm, 1300 nm, and 1680 nm. The measured cross section values are consistent with simple quantum mechanic estimations. These values indicate that the optimum repetition rate for deep tissue 3-photon microscopy is approximately 1 to 2 MHz. We further demonstrate that it is feasible to perform 4-photon fluorescence microscopy of GFP labeled microglia in mouse brain in vivo at 1700 nm. 4-photon excitation increases the accessibility of fluorophores at the long wavelength spectral window of 1700 nm. PMID:25360361

Cheng, Li-Chung; Horton, Nicholas G.; Wang, Ke; Chen, Shean-Jen; Xu, Chris

2014-01-01

386

Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

Yamada, T.; Ushiroda, S.; Kondo, Y.

2008-12-01

387

Impact dynamics of granular jets with noncircular cross sections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using high-speed photography, we investigate two distinct regimes of the impact dynamics of granular jets with noncircular cross sections. In the steady-state regime, we observe the formation of thin granular sheets with anisotropic shapes and show that the degree of anisotropy increases with the aspect ratio of the jet's cross section. Our results illustrate the liquidlike behavior of granular materials during impact and demonstrate that a collective hydrodynamic flow emerges from strongly interacting discrete particles. We discuss the analogy between our experiments and those from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, where similar anisotropic ejecta from a quark-gluon plasma have been observed in heavy-ion impact.

Cheng, Xiang; Gordillo, Leonardo; Zhang, Wendy W.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.

2014-04-01

388

Inelastic cross sections from gamma-ray measurements  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of gamma rays following neutron induced reactions have been studied with the Germanium Array for Neutron-induced Excitations (GEANIE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for many years. Gamma-ray excitation functions and coincidence studies provide insight into nuclear reaction mechanisms as well as expanding our knowledge of energy levels and gamma-rays. Samples studied with Ge detectors at LANSCE range from Be to Pu. Fe, Cr and Ti have been considered for use as reference cross sections. An overview of the measurements and efforts to create a reliable neutron-induced gamma-ray reference cross section will be presented.

Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-06

389

Cross sections and spectra for charged-particle induced reactions  

SciTech Connect

Using calculational methods based on R-matrix theory, we have obtained cross sections and spectra for a number of charged-particle reactions, including those initiated by d+t, t+t, and t+{sup 6}Li. The three-body resonance model used to calculate the spectra resembles the sequential-decay model, but it sometimes gives different results. Contributions from resonances involving the detected particle can produce the broad structure underlying the narrow peaks in the spectra that is often attributed to ``three-body phase space.`` We will show examples of calculated cross sections and spectra, compared to the measured data.

Hale, G.M.; Talley, T.L.

1994-06-01

390

Cross section measurements for studies on nuclear transmutation and nucleosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Neutron cross section measurements with a new {gamma}-ray detection system have started at the Tokyo Institute of Technology for studies on the nuclear transmutation of long-lived fission product nuclides and transuranic nuclides and on the nucleosynthesis in stars and in the primordial universe. The first results about the capture cross sections and/or capture {gamma}-ray spectra of {sup 1}H, {sup 10,11}B, {sup 19}F, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 161,162,163}Dy are presented and discussed.

Igashira, Masayuki; Masuda, Koji; Nagai, Yasuki; Kitazawa, Hideo [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

1994-12-31

391

Neutrino versus antineutrino cross sections and CP violation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the nuclear interactions of neutrinos versus those of antineutrinos, a relevant comparison for CP violation experiments in the neutrino sector. We consider the MiniBooNE quasielastic-like double-differential neutrino and antineutrino cross sections that are dependent on the energy profiles of the neutrino fluxes and hence specific to the MiniBooNE setup. We combine them introducing their sum (? +? ¯) and their difference (? -? ¯) . We show that the last combination gives general information on the multinucleon content of the axial-vector interference term. Our theoretical model reproduces well the two cross-section combinations, confirming the need for a sizable multinucleon component.

Ericson, M.; Martini, M.

2015-03-01

392

Singly differential cross sections with exchange for Ps-fragmentation  

E-print Network

Ps ionization in Ps-atom scattering is of fundamental importance. The singly differential cross sections (SDCS) provides more accurate information to test a theory than integrated or total ionization cross section since the averaging over one parameter is not required. We evaluate the SDCS for Ps-ionization with respect to the longitudinal energy distribution of the break-up positron and electron in Ps-H and Ps-He scattering and compare them with the recently available experimental and theoretical data.

Hasi Ray

2008-08-28

393

Transition to chaotic scattering: signatures in the differential cross section.  

PubMed

We show that bifurcations in chaotic scattering manifest themselves through the appearance of an infinitely fine-scale structure of singularities in the cross section. These "rainbow singularities" are created in a cascade, which is closely related to the bifurcation cascade undergone by the set of trapped orbits (the chaotic saddle). This cascade provides a signature in the differential cross section of the complex pattern of bifurcations of orbits underlying the transition to chaotic scattering. We show that there is a power law with a universal coefficient governing the sequence of births of rainbow singularities and we verify this prediction by numerical simulations. PMID:18999505

Schelin, Adriane B; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Grebogi, Celso

2008-10-01

394

Iterative cross section sequence graph for handwritten character segmentation.  

PubMed

The iterative cross section sequence graph (ICSSG) is an algorithm for handwritten character segmentation. It expands the cross section sequence graph concept by applying it iteratively at equally spaced thresholds. The iterative thresholding reduces the effect of information loss associated with image binarization. ICSSG preserves the characters' skeletal structure by preventing the interference of pixels that causes flooding of adjacent characters' segments. Improving the structural quality of the characters' skeleton facilitates better feature extraction and classification, which improves the overall performance of optical character recognition (OCR). Experimental results showed significant improvements in OCR recognition rates compared to other well-established segmentation algorithms. PMID:17688219

Dawoud, Amer

2007-08-01

395

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

2013-01-01

396

Substance use and psychiatric disorders in Irish adolescents: a cross-sectional study of patients attending substance abuse treatment service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information exists on the levels of psychiatric disorders among substance abusing adolescents in Ireland. The aim of the study is examine the pattern of psychiatric disorders and explore for gender differences among adolescents with a substance use disorder (SUD) in Ireland. A cross-sectional descriptive study and retrospective review of medical records on the 144 most recent admissions at the

Philip D. James; Bobby P. Smyth; Tunde Apantaku-Olajide

2012-01-01

397

Calculating the cross-sectional passage of a conical valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

To design a self-regulating expansion refrigerator and to predict its characteristics, the authors find a relationship for the cross-sectional area of the conical valve passage which governs the cryogenic agent's flow rate, as a function of the lift of the shutoff device. A design drawing is provided of the passage section of a conical valve. The proposed equations are recommended

Yu. I. Landa

1987-01-01

398

Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin  

MedlinePLUS

Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

399

Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Lu isotopes  

SciTech Connect

The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 175}Lu and {sup 176}Lu have been measured in the energy range 3-225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam, and capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard using isotopically enriched as well as natural lutetium oxide samples. Overall uncertainties of {approx}1% could be achieved in the final cross section ratios to the gold standard, about a factor of 5 smaller than in previous works. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 8 and 100 keV. These values are systematically larger by {approx}7% than those reported in recent evaluations. These results are of crucial importance for the assessment of the s-process branchings at A 175/176.

Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kazakov, L. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Kaluga-Region (Russian Federation)

2006-01-15

400

Service building. Cross section thru dry dock nos. 4 & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Service building. Cross section thru dry dock nos. 4 & 5 showing service bldg & 20-75-150 ton cranes (dry dock associates, May 23, 1941). In files of Cushman & Wakefield, building no. 501, Philadelphia Naval Business Center. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Service Building, Dry Docks No. 4 & 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

401

Measurements of the fission cross section of {sup 237}Np  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been made of the fission cross section of {sup 237}Np below 2 MeV neutron energy in order to improve the data base of this important cross section. The data were obtained with a white neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The measurements were made with ionization chambers containing {sup 237}Np deposits located at the end of a 60-m flight path. The fission cross section data are relative to the {sup 235}U(n,f) standard at the higher energies. At the lower energies, the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}) standard was used to determine the energy dependence of the neutron fluence and the normalization was based on the very accurate 7.8 to 11.0 eV resonance integral for {sup 235}U(n,f). The results of this work indicate that the ENDF/B-VI evaluation of the {sup 237}Np(n,f) cross section is about a factor of three low in the 5 eV to 5 keV energy region but only about 3% lower than this work near 1 MeV neutron energy.

Carlson, A.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Parker, W.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lisowski, P.W.; Morgan, G.L.; Seestrom, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hill, N.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Meggers, K. [Univ. of Kiel, Geesthacht (Germany)

1994-12-31

402

Experiments on internal strain in lava dome cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple experiments have been conducted to study the strain evolution in lava dome cross sections. A viscous fluid is injected vertically from a reservoir into a feeding conduit. Silicone putty is used as analogue magma. Two-dimensional experiments allow the assessment of the internal strain within the dome. Particle paths are symmetrical on either side of a central line passing through

C. Buisson; O. Merle

2002-01-01

403

Top quark cross-section measurements at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Run II of the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is well under way and data samples larger than those of Run I are at hand. In this contribution the author summarizes the current status of cross-section measurements for top-quark pair (t{bar t}) production at the CDF and D0 experiments.

Wolfgang Wagner

2003-12-11

404

Cross section measurements via residual nuclear decays: Analysis methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an approach to calculating the pure cross section of the ground state of artificial radioactive nuclides that subtracts the effect of an excited state on the ground state. We apply a formalism to obtaining pure cross sections by subtracting the effect of excited states in the reactions Te122(n,2n)Te121g and Te128(n,2n)Te127g, induced by neutrons of about 14 MeV. The cross sections are measured by an activation relative to the Nb93(n,2n)Nb92m reaction and are compared with results that take into account the effect of the excited state. Measurements are carried out by ? detection using a coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. As samples, spectroscopically pure Te powder is used. The fast neutrons are produced by the H3(d,n)He4 reaction. The neutron energies in these measurements are determined using the method of cross-section ratios between the Zr90(n,2n)Zr89m+g and Nb93(n,2n)Nb92m reactions.

Zhou, Fengqun; Gao, Lei; Kong, Xiangzhong; Luo, Junhua; Li, Kuohu; Song, Yueli; Zhang, Fang

2009-11-01

405

Measurement of the Z??? cross section with the ATLAS detector  

E-print Network

The Z??? cross section is measured with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in four different final states determined by the decay modes of the ? leptons: muon-hadron, electron-hadron, electron-muon, and muon-muon. The analysis ...

Taylor, Frank E.

406

Photoelectric K-Absorption Cross Section of Beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous photoelectric absorption cross section of Be has been measured for photon energies extending from the K edge energy, at 110 eV, to 180 eV. The measurements were carried out by the application of technical improvements which included a more precise electronic method for determining the surface density of absorbers and auxiliary equipment for transfering samples into the spectrograph

T. J. Peterson; E. J. McGuire; D. H. Tomboulian

1963-01-01

407

Charge Transfer Cross Sections for Dysprosium and Cerium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symmetric charge transfer cross sections between singly ionized ions and their parent atoms were measured for dysprosium and cerium in the impact energy range of 100 2000 eV. The primary ion beam was extracted from a laser ion source in which the atoms were ionized by laser resonant photo-ionization. The slow ions produced in the charge transfer reaction and the

Koji Tamura; Hajime Adachi; TakemasaShibata TakemasaShibata

1999-01-01

408

Calculations of PhotoIonization Cross Sections for Lithium Atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-ionization cross sections for the ground and the n <= 5 excited states of lithium atoms are calculated in the photoelectron energy ranging from threshold to 0.5 Rydberg. The wavefunctions for both the bound and continuum states are obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation numerically in a symplectic scheme. Our results are in excellent agreement with the recent experimental measurements

Yue-Ying Qi; Yong Wu; Jian-Guo Wang; Pei-Zhu Ding

2008-01-01

409

Skin effect in toroidal conductors with circular cross-section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper deals with the current density distributions in toroidal conductors of circular cross-section. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A review of the analytical solutions existing in the literature only for the case of very thin skin depth is presented. Findings – Results are given for different aspect ratios of torus. The accuracy of these analytical solutions is verified by comparison

A. Aliferov; S. Lupi

2008-01-01

410

Scattering from chiral cylinders of circular cross-sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-analytical solution is presented to the problem of electromagnetic scattering from a collection of parallel chiral cylinders of circular cross-section. The cylinders are illuminated by either a TEz or a TMz incident plane wave. The solution procedure is useful in predicting the scattering properties of arbitrary shaped two-dimensional scatterers composed of dielectric, conducting, and chiral media.

A. Z. Elsherbeni; M. Al Sarkawy; S. F. Mahmoud

2003-01-01

411

Scattering by a dielectric cylinder of arbitrary cross section shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and equations are developed for the scattering pattern of a dielectric cylinder of arbitrary cross section shape. The harmonic incident wave is assumed to have its electric vector parallel with the axis of the cylinder, and the field intensities are assumed to be independent of distance along the axis. Solutions are readily obtained for inhomogeneous cylinders when the

JACK H. RICHMOND

1965-01-01

412

Multiply Reflected Gaussian Beams in a Circular Cross Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-collimated beam reflected repeatedly within a circular cross section undergoes periodic focusing and defocusing. This behavior is of interest for tracking of beams around a type of acoustic surface wave disk delay line, and it also relates to beam monitoring after oblique injection into the endface of a multimode optical fiber. The problem is analyzed by considering first the

Sang-Yung Shin; LEOPOLD B. FELSEN

1978-01-01

413

NEODYMIUM NEUTRON CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS D. P. Barry1  

E-print Network

NEODYMIUM NEUTRON CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS D. P. Barry1 , M. J. Trbovich1 , Y. Danon1 , R. C at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LINAC using metallic neodymium samples. The capture measurements were made for all naturally occurring neodymium isotopes lie within the energy range of 1.0­ 500 eV. The resulting

Danon, Yaron

414

Predictions of diffractive cross sections in proton-proton collisions  

SciTech Connect

We review our pre-LHC predictions of the total, elastic, total-inelastic, and diffractive components of proton-proton cross sections at high energies, expressed in the form of unitarized expressions based on a special parton-model approach to diffraction employing inclusive proton parton distribution functions and QCD color factors and compare with recent LHC results.

Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

2013-04-15

415

Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This graduate text provides an intuitive but rigorous treatment of contemporary methods used in microeconometric research. The book makes clear that applied microeconometrics is about the estimation of marginal and treatment effects, and that parametric estimation is simply a means to this end. It also clarifies the distinction between causality and statistical association. The book focuses specifically on cross section

Jeffrey M. Wooldridge

2002-01-01

416

Estimating the Raman cross sections of single carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

Estimating the Raman cross sections of single carbon nanotubes Johanna E. Bohn, Pablo G. Etchegoin's) of individual carbon nanotubes is measured for 633 and 785 nm laser excitations, respectively. This is shown measurements of individual nanotubes at 633 nm ex- citation. We find typical values of differential cross

Maruyama, Shigeo

417

Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

418

10. Historic American Buildings Survey CROSS SECTION ST. PATRICK'S ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic American Buildings Survey CROSS SECTION - ST. PATRICK'S R. C. CHURCH c. 1839 - JAMES GALLIER, ARCHITECT, IN COLLECTION OF THE LOUISIANA STATE MUSEUM, JACKSON SQUARE, NEW ORLEANS, LA. - St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, 724 Camp Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

419

Accurate momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential  

SciTech Connect

Accurate expression for the momentum transfer cross section for the attractive Yukawa potential is proposed. This simple analytic expression agrees with the numerical results better than to within ±2% in the regime relevant for ion-particle collisions in complex (dusty) plasmas.

Khrapak, S. A., E-mail: Sergey.Khrapak@dlr.de [Forschungsgruppe Komplexe Plasmen, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany)

2014-04-15

420

Nuclear Science and Technology, November 2000. NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS  

E-print Network

and the corresponding nuclear waste management it is necessary to know nuclear data on spectra and reaction crossNuclear Science and Technology, November 2000. 1 NEUTRON CROSS SECTION EVALUATIONS FOR 238 U UP and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk, Russia A.Ventura ENEA, Nuclear Data Center and INFN, Bologna Section

421

Benchmark experiments to test plutonium and stainless steel cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutronics calculations of physical systems containing fissionable material in various configurations are often necessary to assess criticality safety and economic parameters. Criticality safety of the material must be assured for all configurations in the fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing, and transportation processes. Integral criticality experiments are utilized to evaluate neutron cross sections, test theoretical methods, and validate calculational procedures. The

U. P. Jenquin; S. R. Bierman

1978-01-01

422

Benchmark experiments to test plutonium and stainless steel cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Neutronics calculations of physical systems containing fissionable material in various configurations are often necessary to assess criticality safety and economic parameters. Criticality safety of the material must be assured for all configurations in the fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing, and transportation processes. Integral criticality experiments are utilized to evaluate neutron cross sections, test theoretical methods, and validate calculational procedures. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) commissioned Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to ascertain the accuracy of the neutron cross sections for the isotopes of plutonium and the constituents of stainless steel and determine if improvements can be made in application to criticality safety analysis. NRC's particular area of interest is in the transportation of light--water reactor spent fuel assemblies. The project was divided into two tasks. The first task was to define a set of integral experimental measurements (benchmarks). The second task is to use these benchmarks in neutronics calculations such that the accuracy of ENDF/B-IV plutonium and stainless steel cross sections can be assessed. The results of the second task should help to identify deficiencies in the neutron cross sections. The results of the first task are given.

Jenquin, U.P.; Bierman, S.R.

1978-06-01

423

K-shell ECPSSR cross sections for analytical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the ECPSSR cross section calculation are examined. Direct integration procedures of the electronic form factor and the methods using the tabulated universal functions are reviewed and compared. A simple yet accurate direct integration procedure is proposed. Different approximations for the energy loss correction are shown to differ up to few percent in the low velocity region.

Z. Smit

1989-01-01

424

Neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am  

SciTech Connect

The neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665{+-}33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for E{sub n}<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. {gamma}{sub n} neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553{+-}7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2008-09-15

425

Gluon Distributions and Fits using Dipole Cross-Sections  

E-print Network

I investigate the relationship between the gluon distribution obtained using a dipole model fit to low-x data on F_2(x,Q^2) and standard gluons obtained from global fits with the collinear factorization theorem at fixed order. I stress the necessity to do fits of this type carefully, and in particular to include the contribution from heavy flavours to the inclusive structure function. I find that the dipole cross-section must be rather steeper than the gluon distribution, which at least partially explains why dipole model fits produce dipole cross-sections growing quite strongly at small x, while DGLAP based fits have valence-like, or even negative, small-x gluons as inputs. However, I also find that the gluon distributions obtained from the dipole fits are much too small to match onto the conventional DGLAP gluons at high Q^2, i.e. approx 50 GeV^2, where the two approaches should coincide. The main reason for this discrepancy is found to be the large approximations made in converting the dipole cross-sections into structure functions using formulae which are designed only for asymptotically small x. The shortcomings in this step affect the accuracy of the extracted dipole cross-sections in terms of size and shape, and hence also in terms of interpretation, at all scales.

R. S. Thorne

2005-01-14

426

Cross-sectional survey of users of Internet depression communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Internet-based depression communities provide a forum for individuals to communicate and share information and ideas. There has been little research into the health status and other characteristics of users of these communities. METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of Internet depression communities to identify depressive morbidity among users of Internet depression communities in six European countries; to investigate whether users were

John Powell; Noel McCarthy; Gunther Eysenbach

2003-01-01

427

45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing 2042-F-23, entitled General Arrangement of Power Plant, Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

428

44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing 2042-F-15, entitled Machine and Blacksmith Shop; Plan, Elevations, and Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

429

GP registrar well-being: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), a specifically developed

Peter Schattner; Dennis Mazalin; Ciaran Pier; Jo Wainer; Mee Yoke Ling

2010-01-01

430

44. CROSS SECTION OF GRAND CANAL (not to scale, but ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. CROSS SECTION OF GRAND CANAL (not to scale, but representative of all six canals) Plan Sheet D-29976, Venice Canals Rehabilitation, Sheet No. 7 of 26 (delineated by T. Wu and E. Lee, March 1991) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

431

Commentary: Mediation Analysis, Causal Process, and Cross-Sectional Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maxwell, Cole, and Mitchell (2011) extended the work of Maxwell and Cole (2007), which raised important questions about whether mediation analyses based on cross-sectional data can shed light on longitudinal mediation process. The latest article considers longitudinal processes that can only be partially explained by an intervening variable, and…

Shrout, Patrick E.

2011-01-01

432

Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive catalogue of drill?hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross?sections in Adobe Illustrator format.

Faulds, James E.

2013-12-31

433

Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections  

DOE Data Explorer

Comprehensive catalogue of drill?hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross?sections in Adobe Illustrator format.

Faulds, James E.

434

Rapidity gap survival probability and total cross sections  

E-print Network

We discuss recent calculations of the survival probability of the large rapidity gaps in exclusive processes of the type pp --> p+A+p at high energies. Absorptive or screening effects are important, and one consequence is that the total cross section at the LHC is predicted to be only about