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Sample records for cross-sectional multilevel analysis

  1. Adolescent substance use and peer use: a multilevel analysis of cross-sectional population data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited evidence exists concerning the importance of social contexts in adolescent substance use prevention. In addition to the important role schools play in educating young people, they are important ecological platforms for adolescent health, development and behaviors. In this light, school community contexts represent an important, but largely neglected, area of research in adolescent substance use and prevention, particularly with regard to peer influences. This study sought to add to a growing body of literature into peer contexts by testing a model of peer substance use simultaneously on individual and school community levels while taking account of several well established individual level factors. Method We analyzed population-based data from the 2009 Youth in Iceland school survey, with 7,084 participants (response rate of 83.5%) nested within 140 schools across Iceland. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Results School-level peer smoking and drunkenness were positively related to adolescent daily smoking and lifetime drunkenness after taking account of individual level peer smoking and drunkenness. These relationships held true for all respondents, irrespective of socio-economic status and other background variables, time spent with parents, academic performance, self-assessed peer respect for smoking and alcohol use, or if they have substance-using friends or not. On the other hand, the same relationships were not found with regard to individual and peer cannabis use. Conclusions The school-level findings in this study represent context effects that are over and above individual-level associations. This holds although we accounted for a large number of individual level variables that studies generally have not included. For the purpose of prevention, school communities should be targeted as a whole in substance use prevention programs in addition to reaching to individuals of particular concern. PMID:23902743

  2. A cross-sectional study of workplace social capital and blood pressure: a multilevel analysis at Japanese manufacturing companies

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Kunimoto, Masamizu; Tabata, Hidetoshi; Tsuchiya, Takuto; Kadowaki, Koji; Nakamura, Takehiro; Oyama, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We examined the contextual effect of workplace social capital on systolic blood pressure (SBP). Design Cross-sectional. Setting A conglomerate from 58 workplaces in Japan. Participants Of the 5844 workers at a Japanese conglomerate from 58 workplaces, 5368 were recruited. Individuals who received drugs for hypertension (n=531) and who lacked information on any variable (n=167) were excluded from the analyses, leaving 4735 individuals (3281 men and 1454 women) for inclusion. Primary and secondary outcome measures Systolic blood pressure. Results The contextual effect of workplace social capital on SBP was examined using a multilevel regression analysis with a random intercept. Coworker support had a contextual effect at the workplace level (coefficient=−1.97, p=0.043), while a lack of trust for coworkers (coefficient=0.27, p=0.039) and lack of helpfulness from coworkers were associated with SBP (coefficient=0.28, p=0.002). Conclusions The present study suggested that social capital at the workplace level has beneficial effects on SBP. PMID:23386581

  3. Multilevel analysis of self-perception in oral health and associated factors in Southern Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Olandoski, Marcia; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between individual and contextual variables related to self-perception in oral health among residents in the municipality of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The cross-sectional design involved 1,100 adults in 38 census tracts. The self-perception was evaluated using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) tool. A logistic multilevel analysis was performed. The multivariate analysis revealed that those who are of the female gender, older, with lower scores of quality of life and less social support, with poor healthy eating habits, smokers and those living in low-income census tracts presented higher odds of reporting worse oral health self-perception (OHIP-1). We concluded that individual and contextual variables are associated with oral health self-perception. This is essential information for planning health services wishing to meet the health needs of the population. PMID:25715291

  4. Subjective Health and Mental Well-Being of Adolescents and the Health Promoting School: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate; Inchley, Jo; Currie, Dorothy; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the health promoting school (HPS) on adolescent well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland were analysed using multilevel linear regression analyses for outcome measures: happiness, confidence,…

  5. Synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug prescribing variability in rheumatoid arthritis: a multilevel analysis of a cross-sectional national study.

    PubMed

    Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Sánchez-Alonso, Fernando; Martín-Martínez, María A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the variability in the prescription of csDMARDs for the treatment of RA between centers in Spain and to explore how this variability relates to demographic, disease, physician, and institutional characteristics. A cross-sectional nationwide study was carried out to examine data from 1352 patients. Multilevel logistic regression with two levels was performed to assess the relationships between individual and disease-related factors, as well as physician and hospital characteristics, vis-à-vis csDMARD prescription. Having three or more comorbidities (OR 0.353 [0.173-0.721]), disease duration (OR 0.321 [0.174-0.595]), and the existence of an early-arthritis unit (OR 0.552 [0.335-0.910]) were negatively associated with the prescription of one csDMARD versus nonprescription; contrary, the presence of rheumatoid factor (OR 1.909, 95 % CI [1.181-3.086]) was positively associated. On the other hand, while corticoid intake (OR 1.561 [1.088-2.240]), the maximum number of painful joints, and the presence of nursing consultation (OR 1.626 [1.078-2.452]) were positively associated with the prescription of multiple csDMARDs versus one csDMARD, patient's age (OR 0.984 [0.974-0.995]) and disease duration (OR 0.669 [0.462-0.968]) were negatively associated. Despite all these, variability in the prescription of csDMARDs between hospitals remained statistically significant after adjusting for these individual and hospital characteristics. Within the emAR II study, there was a marked variation in the number of csDMARDs prescribed between hospitals. The reasons for these variations remain unclear and cannot be solely related to disease or center characteristics. PMID:26403284

  6. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  7. Neutron total cross section of sulfur: Single level to multilevel to optical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. H.; Winters, R. R.

    1980-06-01

    This paper is a further analysis of the high resolution total cross section of sulfur for 25-1100 keV neutrons that previously were measured by Halperin, Johnson, Winters, and Macklin and evaluated by single-level analysis. The usual procedure in reporting the results of high resolution neutron cross sections has been to present the data and resonance parameters with corresponding neutron strength functions resulting from some type of R-matrix analysis. Often the important nonresonant phase shifts are not reported. In this paper, making use of both strength functions and phase shifts, we extend the analysis to include an average nuclear potential (a spherical optical model). An optical model analysis not only facilitates comparison with a broad spectrum of other nucleon-nucleus experiments, but also may provide an incentive for microstructure calculations. Six average empirical functions, two each for s12, p12, and p32 partial waves, are derived from the R-matrix analysis. From these we deduce optical model parameters, the real and imaginary well depths for s- and p-wave neutrons, and the spin-orbit well depth for p waves. The resulting real well is deeper for p waves than for s waves and for averages over partial waves at higher energies. The depth of the imaginary wells are about half those deduced at higher energies. An interesting feature of the analysis is that the multilevel curve including interference effects is produced from single-level parameters including the phase shifts. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 32S(n,n), En=25-1100 keV, multilevel analysis of σn,tot(E), deduced R', strength functions for l=0 and 1, optical model parameters for l=0 and 1.

  8. Does workplace social capital buffer the effects of job stress? A cross-sectional, multilevel analysis of cigarette smoking among U.S. manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Sapp, Amy L.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sorensen, Glorian; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether workplace social capital buffers the association between job stress and smoking status. Methods As part of the Harvard Cancer Prevention Project’s Healthy Directions-Small Business Study, interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by 1740 workers and 288 managers in 26 manufacturing firms (84% and 85% response). Social capital was assessed by multiple items measured at the individual-level among workers, and contextual-level among managers. Job stress was operationalized by the demand-control model. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations between job stressors and smoking, and test for effect modification by social capital measures. Results Workplace social capital (both summary measures) buffered associations between high job demands and smoking. One compositional item—worker trust in managers—buffered associations between job strain and smoking. Conclusion Workplace social capital may modify the effects of psychosocial working conditions on health behaviors. PMID:20595910

  9. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  10. Resonance Analysis and Evaluation of the Uranium -235 Neutron-Induced Cross-Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Luiz Carlos

    Neutron cross sections of fissile nuclei are of considerable interest for the understanding of parameters such as resonance absorption, resonance escape probability, resonance self-shielding, and the dependence of the reactivity on temperature. In the present study, new techniques for the evaluation of the ^{235}U neutron cross sections are described. The Reich-Moore formalism of the Bayesian computer code SAMMY was used to perform consistent R-matrix multilevel analyses of the selected neutron cross-section data. The Delta_3 -statistics of Dyson and Mehta, along with high -resolution data and the spin-separated fission cross-section data, have provided the possibility of developing a new methodology for the analysis and evaluation of neutron -nucleus cross-sections. The result of the analysis consists of a set of resonance parameters which describe the ^{235}U neutron cross sections up to 500 eV. The set of resonance parameters obtained through a R-matrix analysis are expected to satisfy statistical properties which lead to information on the nuclear structure. The resonance parameters were tested and showed good agreement with the theory. It is expected that the parametrization of the ^{235}U neutron cross sections obtained in this dissertation represents the current state of art in data as well as in theory and, therefore, can be of direct use in reactor calculations.

  11. SEU cross sections derived from a diffusion analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, L.D.

    1996-12-01

    A simple theoretical prediction of single-event upset (SEU) cross section versus linear energy transfer (LET) is derived from a diffusion analysis, and the result is compared to some real device curves. It was found that at least some real device curves show two regimes. One regime (high-LET) is characterized by a very good fit to the theoretical prediction, and the other (low-LET) is characterized by a very bad fit. The existence of a high-LET regime provides additional credibility for the increasingly popular postulate that diffusion has an important effect on the shape of the cross-sectional curve.

  12. Using the SPSS Mixed Procedure to Fit Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Multilevel Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peugh, James L.; Enders, Craig K.

    2005-01-01

    Beginning with Version 11, SPSS implemented the MIXED procedure, which is capable of performing many common hierarchical linear model analyses. The purpose of this article was to provide a tutorial for performing cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses using this popular software platform. In doing so, the authors borrowed heavily from Singer's…

  13. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  14. EGAF: Measurement and Analysis of Gamma-ray Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Abusaleem, K.; Basunia, M. S.; Bečvář, F.; Belgya, T.; Bernstein, L. A.; Choi, H. D.; Escher, J. E.; Genreith, C.; Hurst, A. M.; Krtička, M.; Renne, P. R.; Révay, Zs.; Rogers, A. M.; Rossbach, M.; Siem, S.; Sleaford, B.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; van Bibber, K.; Wiedeking, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) is the result of a 2000-2007 IAEA Coordinated Research Project to develop a database of thermal, prompt γ-ray cross sections, σγ, for all elemental and selected radioactive targets. No previous database of this kind had existed. EGAF was originally based on measurements using guided neutron beams from the Budapest Reactor on all elemental targets from Z=1-82, 90 and 92, except for He and Pm. The EGAF σγ data were published in the Database of Prompt Gamma Rays from Slow Neutron Capture for Elemental Analysis [1]. An international collaboration has formed to continue the EGAF measurements with isotopically enriched targets, derive total radiative thermal neutron cross sections, σ0, extend the σγ data from thermal to 20 MeV neutrons, compile a completed activation data file, improve sections of the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL) with more complete and up to date level and γ-ray data, evaluate statistical γ-ray data from reaction studies, and determine recommended neutron separations energies, Sn, for atomic mass evaluations. A new guided neutron beam facility has become available at the Garching (Munich) FRM II Reactor, and high energy neutron experimental facilities are being developed by a Berkeley area collaboration where 5-33 MeV neutron beams are available at the LBNL 88” cyclotron, 2.5 and 14 MeV beams at the University of California, Berkeley neutron generator laboratory, and high flux, 10 nṡcmṡ-2 s-1, neutron pulses available from the LLNL National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  15. Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelle, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

  16. An evaluation of wind turbine blade cross section analysis techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Laird, Daniel L.; Resor, Brian Ray

    2010-03-01

    The blades of a modern wind turbine are critical components central to capturing and transmitting most of the load experienced by the system. They are complex structural items composed of many layers of fiber and resin composite material and typically, one or more shear webs. Large turbine blades being developed today are beyond the point of effective trial-and-error design of the past and design for reliability is always extremely important. Section analysis tools are used to reduce the three-dimensional continuum blade structure to a simpler beam representation for use in system response calculations to support full system design and certification. One model simplification approach is to analyze the two-dimensional blade cross sections to determine the properties for the beam. Another technique is to determine beam properties using static deflections of a full three-dimensional finite element model of a blade. This paper provides insight into discrepancies observed in outputs from each approach. Simple two-dimensional geometries and three-dimensional blade models are analyzed in this investigation. Finally, a subset of computational and experimental section properties for a full turbine blade are compared.

  17. Systematic analysis of reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, W.; Suzuki, Y.; Abu-Ibrahim, B.; Kohama, A.

    2007-04-15

    We systematically analyze total reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes with N= 6-16 on a {sup 12}C target for wide range of incident energy. The intrinsic structure of the carbon isotope is described by a Slater determinant generated from a phenomenological mean-field potential, which reasonably well reproduces the ground-state properties for most of the even N isotopes. We need separate studies not only for odd nuclei but also for {sup 16}C and {sup 22}C to improve their wave functions. The density of the carbon isotope is constructed by eliminating the effect of the center-of-mass motion. For the calculations of the cross sections, we take two schemes, the Glauber approximation and the eikonal model using a global optical potential. Both the reaction models successfully reproduce low and high incident energy data on the cross sections of {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, and {sup 16}C on {sup 12}C. The calculated reaction cross sections of {sup 15}C are found to be considerably smaller than the empirical values observed at low energy. We find a consistent parametrization of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude, differently from previous ones. Finally, we predict the total reaction cross section of {sup 22}C on {sup 12}C.

  18. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). Bonding social capital (positive interaction) was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91). Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain. PMID:23289932

  19. Prevalence of Myopia in France: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Emilie; Ingrand, Pierre; Pelen, François; Bentaleb, Yacine; Weber, Michel; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Souied, Eric; Leveziel, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Refractive error (RE), particularly myopia, is the first cause of visual impairment throughout the world. This study aimed to depict the prevalence of myopia in a multicentric series of French individuals.This cross-sectional analysis was carried out between January 2012 and November 2013 in eye clinics dedicated to REs. Data collection included age, gender, best-corrected visual acuity, RE, and any relevant medical history involving laser refractive surgery and cataract surgery. Exclusion criteria consisted of monophthalm patients or those with incomplete demographic data.Prevalences in the overall population, by gender and by age groups were reported for mild myopia (-0.50 to -2.75 diopter [D]), moderate myopia (-3 to -5.75 D), high myopia (less than -6 D), and very high myopia (less than -10 D).The analysis included 100,429 individuals, mean age 38.5 years (± 16.9). Overall prevalence of myopia was 39.1% (95% CI 38.8-39.4). Prevalences of mild, moderate, high and very high myopia were respectively 25.1% (95% CI 25.4-24.9), 10.6% (95% CI 10.4-10.8), 3.4% (95% CI 3.3-3.5) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.48-0.57).Even if possible bias occurred in recruitment, our results are similar to RE data collected in nationally representative samples of Caucasians in other studies. This is to our knowledge, one of the largest European series of individuals dedicated to myopia prevalences in different age groups. These results confirm the importance of myopia as a major health issue in Western countries. PMID:26559276

  20. Commentary: Mediation Analysis, Causal Process, and Cross-Sectional Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrout, Patrick E.

    2011-01-01

    Maxwell, Cole, and Mitchell (2011) extended the work of Maxwell and Cole (2007), which raised important questions about whether mediation analyses based on cross-sectional data can shed light on longitudinal mediation process. The latest article considers longitudinal processes that can only be partially explained by an intervening variable, and…

  1. Cross section measurements via residual nuclear decays: Analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fengqun; Gao Lei; Li Kuohu; Song Yueli; Zhang Fang; Kong Xiangzhong; Luo Junhua

    2009-11-15

    We develop an approach to calculating the pure cross section of the ground state of artificial radioactive nuclides that subtracts the effect of an excited state on the ground state. We apply a formalism to obtaining pure cross sections by subtracting the effect of excited states in the reactions {sup 122}Te(n,2n){sup 121}Te{sup g} and {sup 128}Te(n,2n){sup 127}Te{sup g}, induced by neutrons of about 14 MeV. The cross sections are measured by an activation relative to the {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reaction and are compared with results that take into account the effect of the excited state. Measurements are carried out by {gamma} detection using a coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. As samples, spectroscopically pure Te powder is used. The fast neutrons are produced by the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. The neutron energies in these measurements are determined using the method of cross-section ratios between the {sup 90}Zr(n,2n){sup 89}Zr{sup m+g} and {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reactions.

  2. Section Builder: A finite element tool for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Uttam Kumar

    SectionBuilder is an innovative finite element based tool, developed for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections. The tool can handle the cross-sections with parametric shapes and arbitrary configurations. It can also handle arbitrary lay-ups for predefined beam cross-section geometries in a consistent manner. The material properties for each layer of the cross-section can be defined on the basis of the design requirements. This tool is capable of dealing with multi-cell composite cross-sections with arbitrary lay-ups. It has also the benefit of handling the variation of thickness of skin and D-spars for beams such as rotor blades. A typical cross-section is considered as a collection of interconnected walls. Walls with arbitrary lay-ups based on predefined geometries and material properties are generated first. The complex composite beam cross-sections are developed by connecting the walls using various types of connectors. These connectors are compatible with the walls, i.e., the thickness of the layers of the walls must match with those of the connectors at the place of connection. Cross-sections are often reinforced by core material for constructing realistic rotor blade cross-sections. The tool has the ability to integrate core materials into the cross-sections. A mapped mesh is considered for meshing parametric shapes, walls and various connectors, whereas a free mesh is considered for meshing the core materials. A new algorithm based on the Delaunay refinement algorithm is developed for creating the best possible free mesh for core materials. After meshing the cross-section, the tool determines the sectional properties using finite element analysis. This tool computes sectional properties including stiffness matrix, compliance matrix, mass matrix, and principal axes. A visualization environment is integrated with the tool for visualizing the stress and strain distributions over the cross-section.

  3. Covariance of Neutron Cross Sections for {sup 16}O through R-matrix Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kunieda, S.; Kawano, T.; Paris, M.; Hale, G.M.; Shibata, K.; Fukahori, T.

    2015-01-15

    Through the R-matrix analysis, neutron cross sections as well as the covariance are estimated for {sup 16}O in the resolved resonance range. Although we consider the current results are still preliminary, we present the summary of the cross section analysis and the results of data uncertainty/covariance, including those for the differential cross sections. It is found that the values obtained highlight consequences of nature in the theory as well as knowledge from measurements, which gives a realistic quantification of evaluated nuclear data covariances.

  4. Wave Propagation in Exponentially Varying Cross-Section Rods and Vibration Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Loghmani, Masih; Pooyanfar, Mostafa

    2008-09-01

    In this paper vibration as propagating waves is used to calculate frequencies of exponentially varying cross-section rods with various boundary conditions. From wave standpoint, vibrations propagate, reflect and transmit in structures. The propagation and reflection matrices are combined to provide a concise and systematic approach to free longitudinal vibration analysis of exponentially varying cross-section rods. The results are compared with another method.

  5. An analysis of MCNP cross-sections and tally methods for low-energy photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMarco, John J.; Wallace, Robert E.; Boedeker, Kirsten

    2002-04-01

    Monte Carlo calculations are frequently used to analyse a variety of radiological science applications using low-energy (10-1000 keV) photon sources. This study seeks to create a low-energy benchmark for the MCNP Monte Carlo code by simulating the absolute dose rate in water and the air-kerma rate for monoenergetic point sources with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV. The analysis compares four cross-section datasets as well as the tally method for collision kerma versus absorbed dose. The total photon attenuation coefficient cross-section for low atomic number elements has changed significantly as cross-section data have changed between 1967 and 1989. Differences of up to 10% are observed in the photoelectric cross-section for water at 30 keV between the standard MCNP cross-section dataset (DLC-200) and the most recent XCOM/NIST tabulation. At 30 keV, the absolute dose rate in water at 1.0 cm from the source increases by 7.8% after replacing the DLC-200 photoelectric cross-sections for water with those from the XCOM/NIST tabulation. The differences in the absolute dose rate are analysed when calculated with either the MCNP absorbed dose tally or the collision kerma tally. Significant differences between the collision kerma tally and the absorbed dose tally can occur when using the DLC-200 attenuation coefficients in conjunction with a modern tabulation of mass energy-absorption coefficients.

  6. Transport model based on three-dimensional cross-section generation for TRIGA core analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kriangchaiporn, N.; Ivanov, K.; Haghighat, A.; Sears, C. F.

    2006-07-01

    The development of a three-dimensional (3-D) transport model for TRIGA core analysis based on the discrete ordinates (S{sub n}) method has been conducted. The effective fine- and broad- group structures for the TRIGA cross-section libraries were selected based on CPXSD (Contribution and Point-wise Cross-Section Driven) methodology. Different 3-D pin/core configurations are used to verify and validate the selected effective group structures. Thirteen-group structure was finally selected to be used for core analysis. The results agree with continuous energy cross-section Monte Carlo calculations for eigenvalues and normalized pin power distributions, which are used as a reference in this research. (authors)

  7. Analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, R. E. Fadin, V. S.

    2015-01-15

    An analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section is presented. We investigate the difference between the relatively recent Maximon and Tjon result and the Mo and Tsai result, which was used in the analysis of experimental data. We also discuss the proton form factors ratio dependence on the way we take into account radiative corrections.

  8. A New Signal Processing Technique for Neutron Capture Cross Section Measurement Based on Pulse Width Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katabuchi, T.; Matsuhashi, T.; Terada, K.; Mizumoto, M.; Hirose, K.; Kimura, A.; Furutaka, K.; Hara, K. Y.; Harada, H.; Hori, J.; Igashira, M.; Kamiyama, T.; Kitatani, F.; Kino, K.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Koizumi, M.; Nakamura, S.; Oshima, M.; Toh, Y.

    2014-05-01

    A fast data acquisition method based on pulse width analysis was developed for γ-ray spectroscopy with an NaI(Tl) detector. The new method was tested in experiments with standard γ-ray sources and pulsed neutron beam from a spallation neutron source. Pulse height spectra were successfully reconstructed from pulse width distribution by use of an energy calibration curve. The 197Au(n, γ)198Au cross section was measured by this method to test the viability. The obtained experimental cross section showed a good agreement with a calculation using the resonance parameters of JENDL-4.0.

  9. Cross Section Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Including Secondary Neutron Energy and Angular Distributions.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1991-03-12

    Version 00 SUSD calculates sensitivity coefficients for one- and two-dimensional transport problems. Variance and standard deviation of detector responses or design parameters can be obtained using cross-section covariance matrices. In neutron transport problems, this code can perform sensitivity-uncertainty analysis for secondary angular distribution (SAD) or secondary energy distribution (SED).

  10. Slow Wave Vane Structure with Elliptical Cross-Section Slots, an Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical analysis of the wave equation in cylinders with elliptical cross-section slots was performed. Compared to slow wave structures with rectangular slots higher impedance and lower power dissipation losses are evident. These features could lead to improved designs of traveling wave magnetrons and gigahertz backward-wave oscillators as well as linear traveling wave tubes with relatively shallow slots.

  11. Analysis and Parametric Investigation of Active Open Cross Section Thin Wall Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, James

    The static behaviour of active Open Cross Section Thin Wall Beams (OCSTWB) with embedded Active/Macro Fibre Composites (AFCs/MFCs) has been investigated for the purpose of advancing the fundamental theory needed in the development of advanced smart structures. An efficient code that can analyze active OCSTWB using analytical equations has been studied. Various beam examples have been investigated in order to verify this recently developed analytical active OCSTWB analysis tool. The cross sectional stiffness constants and induced force, moments and bimoment predicted by this analytical code have been compared with those predicted by the 2-D finite element beam cross section analysis codes called the Variational Asymptotic Beam Sectional (VABS) analysis and the University of Michigan VABS (UM/VABS). Good agreement was observed between the results obtained from the analytical tool and VABS. The calculated cross sectional stiffness constants and induced force/moments, the constitutive relation and the six intrinstic static equilibrium equations for OCSTWB were all used together in a first-order accurate forward difference scheme in order to determine the average twist and deflections along the beam span. In order to further verify the analytical code, the static behaviour of a number of beam examples was investigated using 3-D Finite Element Analysis (FEA). For a particular cross section, the rigid body twist and displacements were minimized with the displacements of all the nodes in the 3-D FEA model that compose the cross section. This was done for a number of cross sections along the beam span in order to recover the global beam twist and displacement profiles from the 3-D FEA results. The global twist and deflections predicted by the analytical code agreed closely with those predicted by UM/VABS and 3-D FEA. The study was completed by a parametric investigation to determine the boundary conditions and the composite ply lay-ups of the active and passive plies that

  12. Unified nonlinear analysis for nonhomogeneous anisotropic beams with closed cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atilgan, Ali R.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    1991-01-01

    A unified methodology for geometrically nonlinear analysis of nonhomogeneous, anisotropic beams is presented. A 2D cross-sectional analysis and a nonlinear 1D global deformation analysis are derived from the common framework of a 3D, geometrically nonlinear theory of elasticity. The only restrictions are that the strain and local rotation are small compared to unity and that warping displacements are small relative to the cross-sectional dimensions. It is concluded that the warping solutions can be affected by large deformation and that this could alter the incremental stiffnes of the section. It is shown that sectional constants derived from the published, linear analysis can be used in the present nonlinear, 1D analysis governing the global deformation of the beam, which is based on intrinsic equations for nonlinear beam behavior. Excellent correlation is obtained with published experimental results for both isotropic and anisotropic beams undergoing large deflections.

  13. Analysis of a Measurement of 12C(n,2n)11C Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshaw, Garrett; Love, Ian; Yuly, Mark; Padalino, Stephen; Russ, Megan; Bienstock, Mollie; Simone, Angela; Ellison, Drew; Desmitt, Holly; Massey, Thomas; Sangster, Craig

    2013-10-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF), nuclear fusion reactions are initiated by bombarding a small fuel pellet with high power lasers. One ICF diagnostic tool involves placing graphite discs within the reaction chamber to determine the number of high-energy neutrons. This diagnostic requires accurate 12C(n, 2n)11C cross sections, which have not been previously well measured. An experiment to measure this cross section was conducted at Ohio University, in which DT neutrons irradiated polyethylene and graphite targets. The neutron flux was determined by counting recoil protons from the polyethylene in a silicon dE-E detector telescope. Preliminary cross sections were calculated using the incident neutron flux and the number of 11C nuclei in the graphite and polyethylene targets determined by counting, in a separate counting station, the gamma rays resulting from the positron decay of 11C. This poster will present the data analysis techniques used to determine these cross sections and the MCNPX simulation used to compute the corrections needed to account for the detector and target geometry. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  14. Boltzmann equation analysis of electron-molecule collision cross sections in water vapor and ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Yousfi, M.; Benabdessadok, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    Sets of electron-molecule collision cross sections for H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} have been determined from a classical technique of electron swarm parameter unfolding. This deconvolution method is based on a simplex algorithm using a powerful multiterm Boltzmann equation analysis established in the framework of the classical hydrodynamic approximation. It is well adapted for the simulation of the different classes of swarm experiments (i.e., time resolved, time of flight, and steady state experiments). The sets of collision cross sections that exist in the literature are reviewed and analyzed. Fitted sets of cross sections are determined for H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} which exhibit features characteristic of polar molecules such as high rotational excitation collision cross sections. The hydrodynamic swarm parameters (i.e., drift velocity, longitudinal and transverse diffusion coefficients, ionization and attachment coefficients) calculated from the fitted sets are in excellent agreement with the measured ones. These sets are finally used to calculate the transport and reaction coefficients needed for discharge modeling in two cases of typical gas mixtures for which experimental swarm data are very sparse or nonexistent (i.e., flue gas mixtures and gas mixtures for rf plasma surface treatment). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Modeling of gas absorption cross sections by use of principal-component-analysis model parameters.

    PubMed

    Bak, Jimmy

    2002-05-20

    Monitoring the amount of gaseous species in the atmosphere and exhaust gases by remote infrared spectroscopic methods calls for the use of a compilation of spectral data, which can be used to match spectra measured in a practical application. Model spectra are based on time-consuming line-by-line calculations of absorption cross sections in databases by use of temperature as input combined with path length and partial and total pressure. It is demonstrated that principal component analysis (PCA) can be used to compress the spectrum of absorption cross sections, which depend strongly on temperature, into a reduced representation of score values and loading vectors. The temperature range from 300 to 1000 K is studied. This range is divided into two subranges (300-650 K and 650-1000K), and separate PCA models are constructed for each. The relationship between the scores and the temperature values is highly nonlinear. It is shown, however, that because the score-temperature relationships are smooth and continuous, they can be modeled by polynomials of varying degrees. The accuracy of the data compression method is validated with line-by-line-calculated absorption data of carbon monoxide and water vapor. Relative deviations between the absorption cross sections reconstructed from the PCA model parameters and the line-by-line-calculated values are found to be smaller than 0.15% for cross sections exceeding 1.27 x 10(-21) cm(-1) atm(-1) (CO) and 0.20% for cross sections exceeding 4.03 x 10(-21) cm(-1) atm(-1) (H2O). The computing time is reduced by a factor of 10(4). PMID:12027171

  16. Analysis of human hair cross sections from two different population groups by Nuclear Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Eisa, M. E. M.

    2010-06-01

    Trace element analysis of hair is used as a screening technique to assess body-nutrient levels and/or toxicity due to environmental pollutants. With the aim to compare element content and spatial distribution within scalp hair-shaft cross sections of two distinct human population groups, and to assess possible similarities and/or differences, hair samples from Sudan and South Africa were collected. Proton backscattering and Micro-PIXE were used to determine the matrix composition and content of light and middle transition elements, with beam energies of 1.5 and 3.0 MeV. Mapping analysis showed a relatively similar content distribution for S, Cl, K and Ca within each group. However significant differences, particularly for heavier metals, such as Fe and Zn were also found. Correspondence Analysis of the data showed a clear separation between the two groups when the total content over the hair cross section was considered.

  17. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered. PMID:25963050

  18. DIFFERENTIAL CROSS SECTION ANALYSIS IN KAON PHOTOPRODUCTION USING ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

    SciTech Connect

    P. T. P. HUTAURUK, D. G. IRELAND, G. ROSNER

    2009-04-01

    Angular distributions of differential cross sections from the latest CLAS data sets,6 for the reaction γ + p→K+ + Λ have been analyzed using associated Legendre polynomials. This analysis is based upon theoretical calculations in Ref. 1 where all sixteen observables in kaon photoproduction can be classified into four Legendre classes. Each observable can be described by an expansion of associated Legendre polynomial functions. One of the questions to be addressed is how many associated Legendre polynomials are required to describe the data. In this preliminary analysis, we used data models with different numbers of associated Legendre polynomials. We then compared these models by calculating posterior probabilities of the models. We found that the CLAS data set needs no more than four associated Legendre polynomials to describe the differential cross section data. In addition, we also show the extracted coefficients of the best model.

  19. Autism Symptoms across Adulthood in Men with Fragile X Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Raspa, Melissa; Mihaila, Iulia; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis was used to examine age-related differences in ASD symptoms and corresponding differences in disruptive behavior and social skills in 281 adult men with fragile X syndrome. Four age groups were created: 18-21, 22-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years. The 18-21 year-old group was reported to have more impairments in verbal…

  20. Analysis of the cross section for {sup 232}Th photofission in the subbarrier energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhin, A. I. Soldatov, A. S.

    2009-06-15

    A theoretical analysis of the most detailed experimental data on the subbarrier fission of {sup 232}Th is performed. The energy dependences of the components of the cross sections for photofission through specific channels characterized by the quantum numbers J{sup {pi}K} are obtained on the basis of previously measured total photofission cross sections and angular distributions of fission fragments. A theoretical analysis of the subbarrier photofission of {sup 232}Th is performed on the basis of the results obtained for these components. This analysis relies on the one-dimensional fission model within which one assumes a three-humped structure of the fission barrier and introduces damping in the second and third wells by including an imaginary part in the potential used. Values are selected for the parameters of the fission barriers and are compared with similar data from other studies. It is shown that the energy dependences of the photofission cross sections in question can be described adequately.

  1. Cross sections for n+{sup 14}N from an R-matrix analysis of the {sup 15}N system

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, G.M.; Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program, a new evaluation of the neutron cross sections for {sup 14}N was made for ENDF/B-VI, based at energies below 2.5 MeV on a multichannel R-matrix analysis of reactions in the {sup 15}N system. The types of data used in the analysis, and the resulting cross sections and resonance structure for {sup 15}N are briefly described. The resonant features of the neutron cross sections were especially well determined by including precise, high-resolution neutron total cross section measurements from ORNL. While the new evaluated cross section appear to be significant improvements over the earlier ones, they still need to be tested more extensively against recent measurements of the differential elastic cross section from Oak Ridge.

  2. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar Silva; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Fernandes, Natalia Maria Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives–BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels). Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence. Results Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%), Caucasians (72%) with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%), with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35–30.89], p = 0.009; patient level), and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96–6.10], p = 0.04; meso level) were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01–25.14; p = 0.04). Conclusions Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously. PMID:26619070

  3. Multi-Dimensional, Discrete-Ordinates Based Cross Section Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-05-22

    are the latest versions available from NEA-DB). o The memory and data management was updated as well as the language level (code was rewritten from Fortran-77 to Fortran-95). SUSD3D is coupled to several discrete‑ordinates codes via binary interface files. SUSD3D can use the flux moment files produced by discrete ordinates codes: ANISN, DORT, TORT, ONEDANT, TWODANT, and THREEDANT. In some of these codes minor modifications are required. Variable dimensions used in the TORT‑DORT system are supported. In 3D analysis the geometry and material composition is taken directly from the TORT produced VARSCL binary file, reducing in this way the user's input to SUSD3D. Multigroup cross‑section sets are read in the GENDF format of the NJOY/GROUPR code system, and the covariance data are expected in the COVFIL format of NJOY/ERRORR or the COVERX format of PUFF‑2. The ZZ‑VITAMIN‑J/COVA cross section covariance matrix library can be used as an alternative to the NJOY code system. The package includes the ANGELO code to produce the covariance data in the required energy structure in the COVFIL format. The following cross section processing modules to be added to the NJOY‑94 code system are included in the package: o ERR34: an extension of the ERRORR module of the NJOY code system for the File‑34 processing. It is used to prepare multigroup SAD cross sections covariance matrices. o GROUPSR: An additional code module for the preparation of partial cross sections for SAD sensitivity analysis. Updated version of the same code from SUSD, extended to the ENDF‑6 format. o SEADR: An additional code module to prepare group covariance matrices for SAD/SED uncertainty analysis.« less

  4. The Neutron Time-of-Flight Cross Section Program at the University of Kentucky - Adventures in Analysis II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Hicks, S. F.; Combs, B. C.; Crider, B. P.; French, A. J.; Garza, E. A.; Henderson, S. L.; Howard, T. J.; Liu, S. H.; Nigam, S.; Pecha, R. L.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Rice, B. J.; Ross, T. J.; Santonil, Z. C.; Sidwell, L. C.; Steves, J. L.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-05-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron differential cross sections are measured at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (www.pa.uky.edu/accelerator/) at incident energies in the fast neutron region. The labo- ratorys facilities and instrumentation will be described and our measurement and analysis procedures outlined. Many corrections are required for neutron scattering experiments and the analysis utilizes information from many other cross section data sets and model calculations. Exploring and understanding the limitations of the foundational information and procedures are important for controlling the accuracy of the cross section results. We are examining the limitations in neutron detection efficiency, the normalization of (n,n'γ) cross sections,background reduction, spectrum stripping techniques, and attenuation and multiple scattering corrections. The resulting differential cross sections provide information on the compound elastic and coupled channels reaction mechanisms important for advanced reactor designs

  5. Statistical Model Analysis of (n, α) Cross Sections for 4.0-6.5 MeV Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Odsuren, M.; Gledenov, Y. M.; Zhang, G. H.; Sedysheva, M. V.; Munkhsaikhan, J.; Sansarbayar, E.

    2016-02-01

    The statistical model based on the Weisskopf-Ewing theory and constant nuclear temperature approximation is used for systematical analysis of the 4.0-6.5 MeV neutron induced (n, α) reaction cross sections. The α-clusterization effect was considered in the (n, α) cross sections. A certain dependence of the (n, α) cross sections on the relative neutron excess parameter of the target nuclei was observed. The systematic regularity of the (n, α) cross sections behaviour is useful to estimate the same reaction cross sections for unstable isotopes. The results of our analysis can be used for nuclear astrophysical calculations such as helium burning and possible branching in the s-process.

  6. Nonlinear analysis of cantilever shape memory alloy beams of variable cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashiqur Rahman, Muhammad; Arefin Kowser, Muhammad

    2007-04-01

    Cantilever beams, made of shape memory alloy (SMA), undergo much larger deflection in comparison to those made of other materials. Again, cantilever beams with reducing cross section along the span show much larger deflections compared to those of constant cross section beams. Analysis was conducted for such a cantilever beam with reducing cross-sectional area made of SMA, taking into account its highly nonlinear stress-strain curves. A computer code in C has been developed using the Runge-Kutta technique for the purpose of simulation. For rigorous analysis, the true stress-strain curves in tension as well as in compression have been used for the study. Moment-curvature and reduced modulus-curvature relations are obtained from the nonlinear stress-strain relations for different sections of the beam and used in the simulation. It is seen that load-deflection curves are initially linear but nonlinear and convex upward at a high load. Furthermore, the compressive stress in the beam is significantly higher than the tensile stress because of asymmetry. Interestingly, for the different cases considered, it is found that part of the SMA beam material may remain in the parent austenite phase, mixed phase or in the stress-induced martensitic phase. Importantly, it is found that more material can be removed from an SMA beam of uniform strength, originally designed without considering geometric nonlinearity and the effect of end-shortening. Comparison of the numerical results with the available theory shows very good agreement, verifying the soundness of the entire numerical simulation scheme.

  7. Molecular Structures and Ion Mobility Cross Sections: Analysis of the Effects of He and N2 Buffer Gas.

    PubMed

    Bleiholder, Christian; Johnson, Nicholas R; Contreras, Stephanie; Wyttenbach, Thomas; Bowers, Michael T

    2015-07-21

    An empirically observed correlation between ion mobility cross sections in helium and nitrogen buffer gases was examined as a function of temperature, molecular size, and shape. Experimental cross sections were determined for tetraglycine, bradykinin, angiotensin 2, melittin, and ubiquitin at 300 K and in the range from 80 to 550 K on home-built instruments and calculated by the projection superposition approximation (PSA) method. The PSA was also used to predict cross sections for larger systems such as human pancreatic alpha-amylase, concanavalin, Pichia pastoris lysyl oxidase, and Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase. The data show that the ratio of cross sections in helium and nitrogen depends significantly on the temperature of the buffer gas as well as the size and shape of the analyte ion. Therefore, the analysis of the data indicates that a simple formula that seeks to quantitatively relate the momentum transfer cross sections observed in two distinct buffer gases lacks a sound physical basis. PMID:26076363

  8. Determination of single photon ionization cross sections for quantitative analysis of complex organic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Adam, Thomas; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2007-11-01

    Soft single photon ionization (SPI)-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) is well suited for fast and comprehensive analysis of complex organic gas mixtures, which has been demonstrated in various applications. This work describes a calibration scheme for SPI, which enables quantification of a large number of compounds by only calibrating one compound of choice, in this case benzene. Photoionization cross sections of 22 substances were determined and related to the yield of benzene. These substances included six alkanes (pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane), three alkenes (propene, butane, pentene), two alkynes (propyne, butyne), two dienes (butadiene, isoprene), five monoaromatic species (benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene, monochlorobenzene) and NO. The cross sections of organic compounds differ by about one order of magnitude but the photoionization properties of compounds belonging to one compound class are rather similar. Therefore, the scheme can also be used for an approximate quantification of compound classes. This is demonstrated by a fast characterization and pattern recognition of two gasoline samples with different origins (Germany and South Africa) and a diesel sample (Germany). The on-line capability of the technique and the scheme is demonstrated by quantitatively monitoring and comparing the cold engine start of four vehicles: a gasoline passenger car, a diesel van, a motorbike and a two-stroke scooter. PMID:17874081

  9. Transitions, cross sections and neutron binding energy in 186Re by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, A. G.; Hurst, A. M.; Firestone, R. B.; Revay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; McHale, S. R.; McClory, J. W.; Detwiler, B.; Carroll, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    The nuclide 186Re possesses an isomer with 200,000 year half-life while its ground state has a half-life of 3.718 days. It is also odd-odd and well-deformed nucleus, so should exhibit a variety of other interesting nuclear-structure phenomena. However, the available nuclear data is rather sparse; for example, the energy of the isomer is only known to within + 7 keV and, with the exception of the J?=1- ground state, every proposed level is tentative in the ENSDF. Previously, Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) was utilized to study natRe with 186,188Re being produced via thermal neutron capture. Recently, an enriched 185Re target was irradiated by thermal neutrons at the Budapest Research Reactor to build on those results. Prompt (primary and secondary) and delayed gamma-ray transitions were measured with a large-volume, Compton-suppressed HPGe detector. Absolute cross sections for each gamma transition were deduced and corrected for self attenuation within the sample. Fifty-two primary gamma-ray transitions were newly identified and used to determine a revised value of the neutron binding energy. DICEBOX was used to simulate the decay scheme and the total radiative thermal neutron capture cross section was found to be 97+/-3 b Supported by DTRA (Detwiler) through HDTRA1-08-1-0014.

  10. Temperature Analysis of Coronal Loop Cross-Sections: Monolithic vs. Nanoflare Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, P.

    2011-05-01

    We present a first systematic study on the cross-sectional temperature structure of coronal loops using the six coronal temperature filters of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We analyze a sample of 100 loop snapshots measured at 10 different locations and 10 different times in active region NOAA 11089 on 2010 July 24, 21:00-22:00 UT. The cross-sectional flux profiles are measured and a cospatial background is subtracted in 6 filters in a temperature range of T ≈ 0.5-16 MK, and 4 different parameterizations of differential emission measure (DEM) distributions are fitted. We find that the reconstructed DEMs consist predominantly of narrowband peak temperature components with a thermal width of σlog(T) ≤ 0.11±0.02, close to the temperature resolution limit of the instrument, consistent with earlier triple-filter analysis from TRACE by Aschwanden and Nightingale (2005) and from EIS/Hinode by Warren et al. (2008) or Tripathi et al. (2009). We find that 66% of the loops could be fitted with a narrowband single-Gaussian DEM model, and 19% with a DEM consisting of two narrowband Gaussians (which mostly result from pairs of intersecting loops along the same line-of-sight). The mostly isothermal loop DEMs allow us also to derive an improved empirical response function of the AIA 94 [[Unable to Display Character: Ǻ

  11. Does habituation differ in chronic low back pain subjects compared to pain-free controls? A cross-sectional pain rating ERP study reanalyzed with the ERFIA multilevel method.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Catherine J; Vossen, Helen G M; Joosten, Engelbert A; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate cortical differences between chronic low back pain (CLBP) subjects and pain-free controls with respect to habituation and processing of stimulus intensity. The use of a novel event-related fixed-interval areas (ERFIA) multilevel technique enables the analysis of event-related electroencephalogram (EEG) of the whole post stimulus range at a single trial level. This technique makes it possible to disentangle the cortical processes of habituation and stimulus intensity.In a cross-sectional study, 78 individuals with CLBP and 85 pain-free controls underwent a rating paradigm of 150 nonpainful and painful somatosensory electrical stimuli. For each trial, the entire epoch was partitioned into 20-ms ERFIAs, which acted as dependent variables in a multilevel analysis. The variability of each consecutive ERFIA period was modeled with a set of predictor variables, including 3 forms of habituation and stimulus intensity.Seventy-six pain-free controls and 65 CLBP subjects were eligible for analysis. CLBP subjects showed a significantly decreased linear habituation at 340 to 460 ms in the midline electrodes and C3 (Ps < .05) and had a significantly more pronounced dishabituation for the regions of 400 to 460 ms and 800 to 820 ms for all electrodes, except for T3 and T4 (Ps < .05). No significant group differences for stimulus intensity processing were observed.In this study, group differences with respect to linear habituation and dishabituation were demonstrated. By means of the ERFIA multilevel technique, habituation effects were found in a broad post stimulus range and were not solely limited to peaks. This study suggests that habituation may be a key mechanism involved in the transition process to chronic pain. Future studies with a longitudinal design are required to solve this issue. PMID:25984683

  12. Correlation analysis of optical absorption cross section and rate coefficient measurements in reacting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hessler, J.P.; Ogren, P.J.

    1992-08-31

    A technique was developed for determining relative importance and correlation between reactions making up a complex kinetic system. This technique was used to investigate measurements of optical absorption cross sections and the correlation between cross sections and measured rate coefficients. It is concluded that (1) species, initial conditions, and temporal regions may be identified where cross sections may be measured without interference from the kinetic behavior of the observed species and (2) experiments designed to measure rate coefficients will always be correlated with the absorption cross section of the observed species. This correlation may reduce the accuracy of rate coefficient measurements.

  13. Principal-components analysis of fluorescence cross-section spectra from pathogenic and simulant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, Harold I.

    2005-10-01

    Principal-components analysis of a new set of highly resolved (<1 nm) fluorescence cross-section spectra excited at 354.7 nm over the 370 646 nm band has been used to demonstrate the potential ability of UV standoff lidars to discriminate among particular biological warfare agents and simulants over short ranges. The remapped spectra produced by this technique from Bacillus globigii (Bg) and Bacillus anthracis (Ba) spores were sufficiently different to allow them to be cleanly separated, and the Ba spectra obtained from Sterne and Ames strain spores were distinguishable. These patterns persisted as the spectral resolution was subsequently degraded in processing from ˜1 to 34 nm. This is to the author's knowledge the first time that resolved fluorescence spectra from biological warfare agents have been speciated or shown to be distinguishably different from those normally used surrogates by optical spectroscopy.

  14. FTR Set 500: a multigroup cross-section set for FTR analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F M

    1982-02-01

    FTR Set 500 is a 53-neutron-group, 20-photon-group, cross-section set based on ENDF/B-V cross sections and neutron spectra typical of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). This report describes the specifications and processing of Set 500 and provides one-group values of this set for use in limited FTR analyses.

  15. Capture cross section measurement analysis in the Californium-252 spectrum with the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Manojlovič, Stanko; Trkov, Andrej; Žerovnik, Gašper; Snoj, Luka

    2015-07-01

    Absolute average capture cross sections of gold, thorium, tantalum, molybdenum, copper and strontium in (252)Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were simulated for two types of experiment setups preformed by Z. Dezso and J. Csikai and by L. Green. The experiments were simulated with MCNP5 using cross section data from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The determination of neutron backscattering was calculated with the use of neutron flagging. Correction factors to experimentally measured values were determined to obtain average cross sections in a pure (252)Cf spontaneous fission spectrum. Influence of concrete wall thickness, air moisture and room size on the average cross section was analyzed. Correction factors amounted to about 30%. Corrected values corresponding to average cross sections in a pure (252)Cf spectrum were calculated for (197)Au, (232)Th, (181)Ta, (98)Mo, (65)Cu and (84)Sr. Average cross sections were also calculated with the RR_UNC software using IRDFF-v.1.05 and ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries. The revised average radiative capture cross sections are 75.5±0.1 mb for (197)Au, 87.0±1.6 mb for (232)Th , 98.0±4.5 mb for (181)Ta, 21.2±0.5 mb for (98)Mo, 10.3±0.3 mb for (63)Cu, and 34.9±6.5 mb for (84)Sr. PMID:25880611

  16. Older patients’ perceived burdens of their health problems: a cross-sectional analysis in 74 German general practices

    PubMed Central

    Junius-Walker, Ulrike; Wiese, Birgitt; Klaaßen-Mielke, Renate; Theile, Gudrun; Müller, Christiane Annette; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background Older patients often experience the burden of multiple health problems. Physicians need to consider them to arrive at a holistic treatment plan. Yet, it has not been systematically investigated as to which personal burdens ensue from certain health conditions. Objective The objective of this study is to examine older patients’ perceived burden of their health problems. Patients and methods The study presents a cross-sectional analysis in 74 German general practices; 836 patients, 72 years and older (mean 79±4.4), rated the burden of each health problem disclosed by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Patients rated each burden using three components: importance, emotional impact, and impact on daily activities. Cluster analyses were performed to define patterns in the rating of these components of burden. In a multilevel logistic regression analysis, independent factors that predict high and low burden were explored. Results Patients had a median of eleven health problems and rated the burden of altogether 8,900 health problems. Four clusters provided a good clustering structure. Two clusters describe a high burden, and a further two, a low burden. Patients attributed a high burden to social and psychological health problems (especially being a caregiver: odds ratio [OR] 10.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4–24.4), to specific symptoms (eg, claudication: OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0; pain: OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6–3.1), and physical disabilities. Patients rated a comparatively low burden for most of their medical findings, for cognitive impairment, and lifestyle issues (eg, hypertension: OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.2–0.3). Conclusion The patients experienced a relatively greater burden for physical disabilities, mood, or social issues than for diseases themselves. Physicians should interpret these burdens in the individual context and consider them in their treatment planning. PMID:26124648

  17. Cross-section Effects in the Super-Kamiokande Tau Appearance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Christopher

    2011-11-23

    In this talk, I explain the search for tau neutrino appearance in the atmospheric neutrino flux at Super-Kamiokande with a particular emphasis on the effect deep inelastic cross section uncertainties have on interpreting the result. In particular, I explain why the normalization of the DIS cross-section also needs to be treated as a parameter in the fit of tau normalization, and show how a neural net based on event parameters can separate various cross-section modes in the background sample.

  18. The age of peak performance in Ironman triathlon: a cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were, firstly, to investigate in a cross-sectional analysis the age of peak Ironman performance within one calendar year in all qualifiers for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii; secondly, to determine in a longitudinal analysis on a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii whether the age of peak Ironman performance and Ironman performance itself change across years; and thirdly, to determine the gender difference in performance. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, the age of the top ten finishers for all qualifier races for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii was determined in 2010. For a longitudinal analysis, the age and the performance of the annual top ten female and male finishers in a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii was determined in Ironman Switzerland between 1995 and 2010. Results In 19 of the 20 analyzed triathlons held in 2010, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between women and men (p > 0.05). The only difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders was in ‘Ironman Canada’ where men were older than women (p = 0.023). For all 20 races, the age of peak Ironman performance was 32.2 ± 1.5 years for men and 33.0 ± 1.6 years for women (p > 0.05). In Ironman Switzerland, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders for top ten women and men from 1995 to 2010 (F = 0.06, p = 0.8). The mean age of top ten women and men was 31.4 ± 1.7 and 31.5 ± 1.7 years (Cohen's d = 0.06), respectively. The gender difference in performance in the three disciplines and for overall race time decreased significantly across years. Men and women improved overall race times by approximately 1.2 and 4.2 min/year, respectively. Conclusions Women and men peak at a similar age of 32–33 years in an Ironman triathlon with no gender difference. In a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii, the age of peak Ironman performance remained unchanged across years. In contrast, gender

  19. Analysis of the influence of MOS device geometry on predicted SEU cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, K.; Massengill, L.; Schrimpf, R.; Barnaby, H.

    1999-12-01

    An investigation into the single-event sensitive area geometry of a body-tied-to-source (BTS) SOI nMOS transistor has been performed through a novel simulation technique. Results are presented which demonstrate the influence of spatial variations in charge collection efficiency on the shape of the predicted upset cross section curve. Observations are made on a technique for inferring sensitive area or intra-cell collection efficiencies from cross section data.

  20. Transport model based on three-dimensional cross-section generation for TRIGA core analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriangchaiporn, Nateekool

    This dissertation addresses the development of a reactor core physics model based on 3-D transport methodology utilizing 3-D multigroup fuel lattice cross-section generation and core calculation for PSBR. The proposed 3-D transport calculation scheme for reactor core simulations is based on the TORT code. The methodology includes development of algorithms for 2-D and 3-D cross-section generation. The fine- and broad-group structures for the TRIGA cross-section generation problems were developed based on the CPXSD (Contributon and Point-wise Cross-Section Driven) methodology that selects effective group structure. Along with the study of cross section generation, the parametric studies for SN calculations were performed to evaluate the impact of the spatial meshing, angular, and scattering order variables and to obtain the suitable values for cross-section collapsing of the TRIGA cell problem. The TRIGA core loading 2 is used to verify and validate the selected effective group structures. Finally, the 13 group structure was selected to use for core calculations. The results agree with continuous energy for eigenvalues and normalized pin power distribution. The Monte Carlo solutions are used as the references.

  1. [Development of the Coparental Regulation Inventory and cross-sectional analysis of mothers' encouragement and criticism].

    PubMed

    Kato, Michiyo; Kurosawa, Tai; Kamiya, Tetsuji

    2014-02-01

    We developed the Coparental Regulation Inventory to assess the regulatory behavior of the mothers in involving fathers with child rearing. We translated and modified the short form of the Parental Regulation Inventory (PRI) for Japanese couples in different stages of child rearing. An online questionnaire was conducted with mothers (n = 500) and fathers (n = 500) whose youngest child was less than 21-years-old. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors, which were labeled "encouragement" and "criticism". The resulting Coparental Regulation Inventory (the modified PRI) had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the scale was supported by its correlation with parenting alliance, marital satisfaction, and the father's involvement. These findings suggest that the scale is an adequate instrument for identifying the behaviors of mothers related to coparenting. In addition, we examined the frequency of encouragement and criticism used by the mother in relation to the child-rearing stage using cross-sectional analysis. In the mothers' reports, mothers with infants and children encouraged fathers more than mothers with early and late adolescents. Mothers with late adolescents criticized fathers less than mothers with infants. In the fathers' reports, mothers gave more encouragement to fathers who had infants than at any other age, whereas the child's age was not related to mothers' criticism perceived by the fathers. PMID:24669497

  2. Generalized warping effect in the dynamic analysis of beams of arbitrary cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikaros, I. C.; Sapountzakis, E. J.; Argyridi, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper a general formulation for the nonuniform warping dynamic analysis of beams of arbitrary simply or multiply connected cross section, under arbitrary external loading and general boundary conditions is presented taking into account the effects of rotary and warping inertia. The nonuniform warping distributions are taken into account by employing four independent warping parameters multiplying a shear warping function in each direction and two torsional warping functions, respectively, which are obtained by solving the corresponding boundary value problems, formulated exploiting the longitudinal local equilibrium equation. A shear stress "correction" is also performed in order to improve the stress field arising from the employed kinematical considerations. Ten initial boundary value problems are formulated with respect to the displacement and rotation components as well as to the independent warping parameters and solved using the Analog Equation Method, a Boundary Element Method based technique in combination with an appropriate time integration scheme. The warping functions and the geometric constants including the additional ones due to warping are evaluated employing a pure BEM approach.

  3. Variation in charges for 10 common blood tests in California hospitals: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Renee Y; Akosa Antwi, Yaa; Nath, Julia P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the variation in charges for 10 common blood tests across California hospitals in 2011, and to analyse the hospital and market-level factors that may explain any observed variation. Design, setting and participants We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the degree of charge variation between hospitals for 10 common blood tests using charge data reported by all non-federal California hospitals to the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development in 2011. Outcome measures Charges for 10 common blood tests at California hospitals during 2011. Results We found that charges for blood tests varied significantly between California hospitals. For example, charges for a lipid panel ranged from US$10 to US$10 169, a thousand-fold difference. Although government hospitals and teaching hospitals were found to charge significantly less than their counterparts for many blood tests, few other hospital characteristics and no market-level predictors significantly predicted charges for blood tests. Our models explained, at most, 21% of the variation between hospitals in charges for the blood test in question. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the seemingly arbitrary nature of the charge setting process, making it difficult for patients to act as true consumers in this era of ‘consumer-directed healthcare.’ PMID:25127708

  4. A pooled cross-section analysis of the health care expenditures of the OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Søgaard, J; Jönsson, B; Andersson, F

    1992-01-01

    This paper has two purposes. The first, empirical purpose is to estimate and evaluate the effects of aggregate income, institutional and socio-demographic factors on health care expenditures in the OECD countries. The second purpose is methodological, and comprises assessment of temporal instability, the choice of functional form, and misspecification of the estimated relationships. Data compiled over three years (1974, 1980 and 1987) from 19 OECD countries are used in a pooled cross-section regression analysis. Like previous studies, this one concludes that aggregate income measured by Gross Domestic Product per capita is the statistically most important factor in cross-national variation in health care expenditures, and that the aggregate income elasticity exceeds one. However, the data analyzed in this study also show some evidence that public financing of health care services is associated with lower expenditures per capita, and that countries with fee for service as the dominant form of remuneration have higher expenditures. The examined relationships appear to be temporally stable over the three years except for upward shifts, and there is no indication of statistical misspecification. This does not necessarily imply a correct specification, and we do note the presence of measurement errors in some of the variables. Moreover, the selected log-linear functional form appears to be non-optimal according to a likelihood criterion, and is rejected against a quadratic form. Based on the analyses from this study the results do not appear to be sensitive to use of the quadratic form specification. PMID:10172496

  5. Implementation of chronic illness care in German primary care practices – how do multimorbid older patients view routine care? A cross-sectional study using multilevel hierarchical modeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In primary care, patients with multiple chronic conditions are the rule rather than the exception. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an evidence-based framework for improving chronic illness care, but little is known about the extent to which it has been implemented in routine primary care. The aim of this study was to describe how multimorbid older patients assess the routine chronic care they receive in primary care practices in Germany, and to explore the extent to which factors at both the practice and patient level determine their views. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data from an observational cohort study involving 158 general practitioners (GP) and 3189 multimorbid patients. Standardized questionnaires were employed to collect data, and the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire used to assess the quality of care received. Multilevel hierarchical modeling was used to identify any existing association between the dependent variable, PACIC, and independent variables at the patient level (socio-economic factors, weighted count of chronic conditions, instrumental activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, graded chronic pain, no. of contacts with GP, existence of a disease management program (DMP) disease, self-efficacy, and social support) and the practice level (age and sex of GP, years in current practice, size and type of practice). Results The overall mean PACIC score was 2.4 (SD 0.8), with the mean subscale scores ranging from 2.0 (SD 1.0, subscale goal setting/tailoring) to 3.5 (SD 0.7, delivery system design). At the patient level, higher PACIC scores were associated with a DMP disease, more frequent GP contacts, higher social support, and higher autonomy of past occupation. At the practice level, solo practices were associated with higher PACIC values than other types of practice. Conclusions This study shows that from the perspective of multimorbid patients receiving care in German

  6. Combined SERS and Raman analysis for the identification of red pigments in cross-sections from historic oil paintings.

    PubMed

    Frano, Kristen A; Mayhew, Hannah E; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2014-12-21

    The analysis of paint cross-sections can reveal a remarkable amount of information about the layers and materials in a painting without visibly altering the artwork. Although a variety of analytical approaches are used to detect inorganic pigments as well as organic binders, proteins, and lipids in cross-sections, they do not provide for the unambiguous identification of natural, organic colorants. Here, we develop a novel combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), light microscopy, and normal Raman scattering (NRS) approach for the identification of red organic and inorganic pigments in paint cross-sections obtained from historic 18th and 19th century oil paintings. In particular, Ag nanoparticles are directly applied to localized areas of paint cross-sections mounted in polyester resin for SERS analysis of the organic pigments. This combined extractionless non-hydrolysis SERS and NRS approach provides for the definitive identification of carmine lake, madder lake, and vermilion in multiple paint layers. To our knowledge, this study represents the first in situ identification of natural, organic pigments within paint cross-sections from oil paintings. Furthermore, the combination of SERS and normal Raman, with light microscopy provides conservators with a more comprehensive understanding of a painting from a single sample and without the need for sample pretreatment. PMID:25340987

  7. CFD-based numerical analysis of a variable cross-section cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jinlong; Huang, Weiping

    2014-08-01

    Using ANSYS-CFX, a general purpose fluid dynamics program, the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a variable cross-section cylinder is simulated under uniform current with high Reynolds numbers. Large eddy simulation (LES) is conducted for studying the fluid-structure interaction. The vortex shedding in the wake, the motion trajectories of a cylinder, the variation of drag and lift forces on the cylinder are analyzed. The results show that the vortices of variable cross-section cylinder are chaotic and are varying along the cylinder. In places where cross-sections are changing significantly, the vortices are more irregular. The motion trail of the cylinder is almost the same but irregular. The drag and lift coefficients of the cylinder are varying with the changes of diameters.

  8. An analysis of the load-bearing capacity of members of square cross section with a series of perpendicular notches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miastkowski, Jozef; Szczebiot, Ryszard

    The authors analyze the load-bearing capacity of structural members with square cross sections which have been weakened on their perimeters by a series of perpendicular notches. The analysis is based on complete solutions for axisymmetric bars with perpendicular notches and estimates of load-bearing capacity obtained from kinematically acceptable failure mechanisms. A procedure for determining the optimal distance (spacing) between the notches in the case of bars weakened by a series of perpendicular notches is described. The practical value of the analysis presented was confirmed by the results of experiments conducted on aluminum alloy test pieces of square cross section for plastic working weakened by two peripheral perpendicular notches.

  9. Health insurance selection in Chile: a cross-sectional and panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Cristian; Schott, Whitney

    2014-05-01

    In Chile, workers are mandated to choose either public or private health insurance coverage. Although private insurance premiums depend on health risk, public insurance premiums are solely linked to income. This structure implies that individuals with higher health risks may tend to avoid private insurance, leaving the public insurance system responsible for their care. This article attempts to explore the determinants of health insurance selection (private vs public) by individuals in Chile and to test empirically whether adverse selection indeed exists. We use panel data from Chile's 'Encuesta de Proteccion Social' survey, which allows us to control for a rich set of individual observed and unobserved characteristics using both a cross-sectional analysis and fixed-effect methods. Results suggest that age, sex, job type, income quintile and self-reported health are the most important factors in explaining the type of insurance selected by individuals. Asymmetry in insurance mobility caused by restrictions on pre-existing conditions may explain why specific illnesses have an unambiguous relationship with insurance selection. Empirical evidence tends to indicate that some sorting by health risk and income levels takes place in Chile. In addition, by covering a less healthy population with higher utilization of general health consultations, the public insurance system may be incurring disproportionate expenses. Results suggest that if decreasing segmentation and unequal access to health services are important policy objectives, special emphasis should be placed on asymmetries in the premium structure and inter-system mobility within the health care system. Preliminary analysis of the impact of the 'Garantias Explicitas de Salud' plan (explicit guarantees on health care plan) on insurance selection is also considered. PMID:23558960

  10. REM Sleep Behavior and Motor Findings in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Abhimanyu; Rosenthal, Liana S.; Gamaldo, Charlene; Salas, Rachel E.; Pontone, Gregory M.; McCoy, Arita; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) represents a major public health challenge that will only grow in our aging population. Understanding the connection between PD and associated prodromal conditions, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder (RBD), is critical to identifying prevention strategies. However, the relationship between RBD and severity of motor findings in early PD is unknown. This study aims to examine this relationship. Methods The study population consisted of 418 PD patients who completed the Movement Disorders Society-United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM) disorder questionnaires at the baseline visit of the Michael J. Fox's Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). Cross-sectional analysis was carried out to assess the association between REM Sleep Behavior Screening Questionnaire score and MDS UPDRS-3 (motor) score categories. Correlation with a higher score category was described as “worse motor findings”. A score of 5 on the REM disorder questionnaire was defined as predictive of RBD. Results Out of the 418 PD patients, 113 (27.0%) had RBD. With univariate logistic regression analysis, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.66 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.028). Even with age, gender, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores taken into account, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.69 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.025). Discussion PD patients with RBD symptoms had worse motor findings than those unlikely to have RBD. This association provides further evidence for the relationship between RBD and PD. PMID:25009765

  11. An X-Ray Analysis Database of Photoionization Cross Sections Including Variable Ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ping; Cohen, David H.; MacFarlane, Joseph J.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of research efforts in the following areas are discussed: review of the major theoretical and experimental data of subshell photoionization cross sections and ionization edges of atomic ions to assess the accuracy of the data, and to compile the most reliable of these data in our own database; detailed atomic physics calculations to complement the database for all ions of 17 cosmically abundant elements; reconciling the data from various sources and our own calculations; and fitting cross sections with functional approximations and incorporating these functions into a compact computer code.Also, efforts included adapting an ionization equilibrium code, tabulating results, and incorporating them into the overall program and testing the code (both ionization equilibrium and opacity codes) with existing observational data. The background and scientific applications of this work are discussed. Atomic physics cross section models and calculations are described. Calculation results are compared with available experimental data and other theoretical data. The functional approximations used for fitting cross sections are outlined and applications of the database are discussed.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Multivariate Analysis of Children's Attitudes towards Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, E. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Past research has shown that children can be biased against peers with disabilities, but the association of attitudes with gender, age and disability preferences, as well as interactions between these variables, are unclear. The objectives of this study were to examine these issues in a cross-sectional, split-plot study to clarify: (1)…

  13. Cross-sectional analysis of W-cored Ni nanoparticle via focused ion beam milling with impregnation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten and nickel bimetallic nanoparticle is synthesized by radio frequency thermal plasma process which belongs to the vapor phase condensation technology. The morphology and chemical composition of the synthesized particle were investigated using the conventional nanoparticle transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample. A few part of them looked like core/shell structured particle, but ambiguities were caused by either TEM sample preparation or TEM analysis. In order to clarify whether a core/shell structure is developed for the particle, various methodologies were tried to prepare a cross-sectional TEM sample. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was conducted for cold-compacted particles, dispersed particles on silicon wafer, and impregnated particles with epoxy which is compatible with electron beam. A sound cross-sectional sample was just obtained from cyanoacrylate impregnation and FIB milling procedure. A tungsten-cored nickel shell structure was precisely confirmed with aid of cross-sectional sample preparation method. PMID:25288920

  14. Cross-sectional echocardiography. II. Analysis of mathematic models for quantifying volume of the formalin-fixed left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, H L; Heng, M K; Meerbaum, S; Gueret, P; Hestenes, J; Dula, E; Corday, E

    1980-06-01

    Cross-sectional echocardiography was used to quantify volume in 21 canine left ventricles that were fixed in formalin and immersed in mineral oil. Area, length and diameter measurements were obtained from short- and long-axis cross-sectional images of the left ventricle and volume was calculated by seven mathematic models. Calculated volume was then compared, by linear regression and percent error analyses, with fluid volume of the left ventricle, obtained by filling the chamber with a known amount of fluid. Volumes ranged from 13-146 ml. Mathematic models using short-axis area and long-axis length gave higher correlation coefficients (r = 0.982 and r = 0.969) and lower mean errors (10-20%) than standard formulas previously used for M-mode echo and angiography. Thus, short-axis area analysis with cross-sectional echocardiography is well-suited for quantifying left ventricular volumes in dogs. PMID:7371124

  15. Evaluation of the COPD Assessment Test and GOLD patient types: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Villar, Alberto; Calero-Acuña, Carmen; Represas-Represas, Cristina; Lopez-Ramírez, Cecilia; Fernández, Virginia Leiro; Soler-Cataluña, Juan Jose; Casamor, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Background The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) has been recently developed to quantify COPD impact in routine practice. However, no relationship with other measures in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy has been evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship of the CAT with other GOLD multidimensional axes, patient types, and the number of comorbidities. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (On-Sint) study. The CAT score was administered to all participants at the inclusion visit. A GOLD 2011 strategy consisting of modified Medical Research Council scale (MRC) scores was devised to study the relationship between the CAT, and GOLD 2011 axes and patient types. The relationship with comorbidities was assessed using the Charlson comorbidity index, grouped as zero, one to two, and three or more. Results The CAT questionnaire was completed by 1,212 patients with COPD. The CAT maintained a relationship with all the three axes, with a ceiling effect for dyspnea and no distinction between mild and moderate functional impairment. The CAT score increased across GOLD 2011 patient types A–D, with similar scores for types B and C. Within each GOLD 2011 patient type, there was a considerably wide distribution of CAT values. Conclusion Our study indicates a correlation between CAT and the GOLD 2011 classification axes as well as the number of comorbidities. The CAT score can help clinicians, as a complementary tool to evaluate patients with COPD within the different GOLD patient types. PMID:26064045

  16. Effect of the 2 p 2 h cross-section uncertainties on an analysis of neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankowski, Artur M.; Benhar, Omar; Mariani, Camillo; Vagnoni, Erica

    2016-06-01

    We report the results of a study aimed at quantifying the impact on the oscillation analysis of the uncertainties associated with the description of the neutrino-nucleus cross section in the two-particle-two-hole sector. The results of our calculations, based on the kinematic method of energy reconstruction and carried out comparing two data-driven approaches, show that the existing discrepancies in the neutrino cross sections have a sizable effect on the extracted oscillation parameters, particularly in the antineutrino channel.

  17. Numerical analysis of flows of rarefied gases in long channels with octagonal cross section shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Szalmas, L.

    2014-12-09

    Isothermal, pressure driven rarefied gas flows through long channels with octagonal cross section shapes are analyzed computationally. The capillary is between inlet and outlet reservoirs. The cross section is constant along the axial direction. The boundary condition at the solid-gas interface is assumed to be diffuse reflection. Since the channel is long, the gaseous velocity is small compared to the average molecular speed. Consequently, a linearized description can be used. The flow is described by the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic model. The solution of the problem is divided into two stages. First, the local flow field is determined by assuming the local pressure gradient. Secondly, the global flow behavior is deduced by the consideration of the conservation of the mass along the axis of the capillary. The kinetic equation is solved by the discrete velocity method on the cross section. Both spatial and velocity spaces are discretized. A body fitted rectangular grid is used for the spatial space. Near the boundary, first-order, while in the interior part of the flow domain, second-order finite-differences are applied to approximate the spatial derivatives. This combination results into an efficient and straightforward numerical treatment. The velocity space is represented by a Gauss-Legendre quadrature. The kinetic equation is solved in an iterative manner. The local dimensionless flow rate is calculated and tabulated for a wide range of the gaseous rarefaction for octagonal cross sections with various geometrical parameters. It exhibits the Knudsen minimum phenomenon. The flow rates in the octagonal channel are compared to those through capillaries with circular and square cross sections. Typical velocity profiles are also shown. The mass flow rate and the distribution of the pressure are determined and presented for global pressure driven flows.

  18. Do socioeconomic inequalities in mortality vary between different Spanish cities? a pooled cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between deprivation and mortality in urban settings is well established. This relationship has been found for several causes of death in Spanish cities in independent analyses (the MEDEA project). However, no joint analysis which pools the strength of this relationship across several cities has ever been undertaken. Such an analysis would determine, if appropriate, a joint relationship by linking the associations found. Methods A pooled cross-sectional analysis of the data from the MEDEA project has been carried out for each of the causes of death studied. Specifically, a meta-analysis has been carried out to pool the relative risks in eleven Spanish cities. Different deprivation-mortality relationships across the cities are considered in the analysis (fixed and random effects models). The size of the cities is also considered as a possible factor explaining differences between cities. Results Twenty studies have been carried out for different combinations of sex and causes of death. For nine of them (men: prostate cancer, diabetes, mental illnesses, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular disease; women: diabetes, mental illnesses, respiratory diseases, cirrhosis) no differences were found between cities in the effect of deprivation on mortality; in four cases (men: respiratory diseases, all causes of mortality; women: breast cancer, Alzheimer’s disease) differences not associated with the size of the city have been determined; in two cases (men: cirrhosis; women: lung cancer) differences strictly linked to the size of the city have been determined, and in five cases (men: lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease; women: ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, all causes of mortality) both kinds of differences have been found. Except for lung cancer in women, every significant relationship between deprivation and mortality goes in the same direction: deprivation increases mortality. Variability in the relative risks across

  19. Prevalence of Smokeless Tobacco among Low Socioeconomic Populations: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Mohammad Nurul; Shahjahan, Mohammad; Yeasmin, Mahbuba; Ahmed, Nasar U.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cost, social acceptability and non-stringent regulations pertaining to smokeless tobacco (SLT) product sales have made people choose and continue using SLT. If disaggregated data on smokeless forms and smoked practices of tobacco are reviewed, the incidence of SLT remains static. There is a strong positive correlation of SLT intake with the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular disease, particularly in the low socioeconomic populations. Aims To investigate the prevalence of smokeless tobacco, its initiation influence and risk factors associated with the practice among lower socioeconomic populations of Bangladesh. In this study, we explore the utilization of SLT among lower socioeconomic populations in industrialized zone of Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional analysis using both quantitative and categorical approaches was employed. Using systematic random sampling method, four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted and 459 participants were interviewed. Multiple logistic regression model was applied to distinguish the significant factors among the SLT users. Results Almost fifty percent of the respondents initiated SLT usage at the age of 15–24 years and another 22 percent respondents were smoking and using SLT concurrently. The bulk of the women respondents used SLT during their pregnancy. Nearly twenty five percent of the respondents tried to quit the practice of SLT and one-quarter had a plan to quit SLT in the future. More than twenty percent respondents were suffering from dental decay. A noteworthy correlation was found by gender (p<0.01), sufferings from SLT related disease (p<0.05). The multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that, males were 2.7 times more knowledgeable than that of females (p<0.01) about the adversative health condition of SLT usage. The respondents suffering from SLT related diseases were 3.7 times as more knowledgeable about the effect of the practice of SLT than the respondents without diseases (p<0

  20. Essential Indicators Identifying Chronic Inorganic Mercury Intoxication: Pooled Analysis across Multiple Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background The continuous exposure to inorganic mercury vapour in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas leads to chronic health problems. It is therefore essential to have a quick, but reliable risk assessing tool to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. This study re-evaluates the state-of-the-art toolkit to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication by analysing data from multiple pooled cross-sectional studies. The primary research question aims to reduce the currently used set of indicators without affecting essentially the capability to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on established biomonitoring exposure limits for mercury in blood, hair, urine and urine adjusted by creatinine, where the biomonitoring exposure limits are compared to thresholds most associated with chronic inorganic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining. Methods Health data from miners and community members in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe were obtained as part of the Global Mercury Project and pooled into one dataset together with their biomarkers mercury in urine, blood and hair. The individual prognostic impact of the indicators on the diagnosis of mercury intoxication is quantified using logistic regression models. The selection is performed by a stepwise forward/backward selection. Different models are compared based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and Cohen`s kappa is used to evaluate the level of agreement between the diagnosis of mercury intoxication based on the currently used set of indicators and the result based on our reduced set of indicators. The sensitivity analysis of biomarker exposure limits of mercury is based on a sequence of chi square tests. Results The variable selection in logistic regression reduced the number of medical indicators from thirteen to ten in addition to the biomarkers. The estimated level of agreement using ten of thirteen medical

  1. Publication and reporting of clinical trial results: cross sectional analysis across academic medical centers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruijun; Desai, Nihar R; Ross, Joseph S; Zhang, Weiwei; Chau, Katherine H; Wayda, Brian; Murugiah, Karthik; Lu, Daniel Y; Mittal, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine rates of publication and reporting of results within two years for all completed clinical trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov across leading academic medical centers in the United States. Design Cross sectional analysis. Setting Academic medical centers in the United States. Participants Academic medical centers with 40 or more completed interventional trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods Using the Aggregate Analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov database and manual review, we identified all interventional clinical trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with a primary completion date between October 2007 and September 2010 and with a lead investigator affiliated with an academic medical center. Main outcome measures The proportion of trials that disseminated results, defined as publication or reporting of results on ClinicalTrials.gov, overall and within 24 months of study completion. Results We identified 4347 interventional clinical trials across 51 academic medical centers. Among the trials, 1005 (23%) enrolled more than 100 patients, 1216 (28%) were double blind, and 2169 (50%) were phase II through IV. Overall, academic medical centers disseminated results for 2892 (66%) trials, with 1560 (35.9%) achieving this within 24 months of study completion. The proportion of clinical trials with results disseminated within 24 months of study completion ranged from 16.2% (6/37) to 55.3% (57/103) across academic medical centers. The proportion of clinical trials published within 24 months of study completion ranged from 10.8% (4/37) to 40.3% (31/77) across academic medical centers, whereas results reporting on ClinicalTrials.gov ranged from 1.6% (2/122) to 40.7% (72/177). Conclusions Despite the ethical mandate and expressed values and mission of academic institutions, there is poor performance and noticeable variation in the dissemination of clinical trial results across leading academic medical centers. PMID:26888209

  2. The LAW Library -- A multigroup cross-section library for use in radioactive waste analysis calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, N.M.; Arwood, J.W.; Wright, R.Q.; Parks, C.V.

    1994-08-01

    The 238-group LAW Library is a new multigroup neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-V data, with five sets of data taken from ENDF/B-VI ({sup 14}N{sub 7}, {sup 15}N{sub 7}, {sup 16}O{sub 8}, {sup 154Eu}{sub 63}, and {sup 155}Eu{sub 63}). These five nuclides are included because the new evaluations are thought to be superior to those in Version 5. The LAW Library contains data for over 300 materials and will be distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was generated for use in neutronics calculations required in radioactive waste analyses, although it has equal utility in any study requiring multigroup neutron cross sections.

  3. The use of cross-section warping functions in composite rotor blade analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmatka, J. B.

    1992-07-01

    During the contracted period, our research was concentrated into three areas. The first was the development of an accurate and a computationally efficient method for predicting the cross-section warping functions in an arbitrary cross-section composed of isotropic and/or anisotropic materials. The second area of research was the development of a general higher-order one-dimensional theory for anisotropic beams. The third area of research was the development of an analytical model for assessing the extension-bend-twist coupling behavior of nonhomogeneous anisotropic beams with initial twist. In the remaining six chapters of this report, the three different research areas and associated sub-research areas are covered independently including separate introductions, theoretical developments, numerical results, and references.

  4. The use of cross-section warping functions in composite rotor blade analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    During the contracted period, our research was concentrated into three areas. The first was the development of an accurate and a computationally efficient method for predicting the cross-section warping functions in an arbitrary cross-section composed of isotropic and/or anisotropic materials. The second area of research was the development of a general higher-order one-dimensional theory for anisotropic beams. The third area of research was the development of an analytical model for assessing the extension-bend-twist coupling behavior of nonhomogeneous anisotropic beams with initial twist. In the remaining six chapters of this report, the three different research areas and associated sub-research areas are covered independently including separate introductions, theoretical developments, numerical results, and references.

  5. Predicting Children's Media Use in the USA: Differences in Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sook-Jung; Bartolic, Silvia; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of children's media use in the USA, comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Data come from Waves 1 and 2 of the Child Development Supplement (CDS-I; CDS-II), a nationally representative sample of American children aged 0-12 in 1997 and 5-18 in 2002. Twenty-four hour time use…

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Nuclide Importance to One-Group Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Yoshikane

    2001-07-15

    The importance of nuclides is useful when investigating nuclide characteristics in a given neutron spectrum. However, it is derived using one-group microscopic cross sections, which may contain large errors or uncertainties. The sensitivity coefficient shows the effect of these errors or uncertainties on the importance.The equations for calculating sensitivity coefficients of importance to one-group nuclear constants are derived using the perturbation method. Numerical values are also evaluated for some important cases for fast and thermal reactor systems.Many characteristics of the sensitivity coefficients are derived from the derived equations and numerical results. The matrix of sensitivity coefficients seems diagonally dominant. However, it is not always satisfied in a detailed structure. The detailed structure of the matrix and the characteristics of coefficients are given.By using the obtained sensitivity coefficients, some demonstration calculations have been performed. The effects of error and uncertainty of nuclear data and of the change of one-group cross-section input caused by fuel design changes through the neutron spectrum are investigated. These calculations show that the sensitivity coefficient is useful when evaluating error or uncertainty of nuclide importance caused by the cross-section data error or uncertainty and when checking effectiveness of fuel cell or core design change for improving neutron economy.

  7. Observational intensity bias associated with illness adjustment: cross sectional analysis of insurance claims

    PubMed Central

    Staiger, Douglas O; Sharp, Sandra M; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Bevan, Gwyn; McPherson, Klim; Welch, H Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the bias associated with frequency of visits by physicians in adjusting for illness, using diagnoses recorded in administrative databases. Setting Claims data from the US Medicare program for services provided in 2007 among 306 US hospital referral regions. Design Cross sectional analysis. Participants 20% sample of fee for service Medicare beneficiaries residing in the United States in 2007 (n=5 153 877). Main outcome measures The effect of illness adjustment on regional mortality and spending rates using standard and visit corrected illness methods for adjustment. The standard method adjusts using comorbidity measures based on diagnoses listed in administrative databases; the modified method corrects these measures for the frequency of visits by physicians. Three conventions for measuring comorbidity are used: the Charlson comorbidity index, Iezzoni chronic conditions, and hierarchical condition categories risk scores. Results The visit corrected Charlson comorbidity index explained more of the variation in age, sex, and race mortality across the 306 hospital referral regions than did the standard index (R2=0.21 v 0.11, P<0.001) and, compared with sex and race adjusted mortality, reduced regional variation, whereas adjustment using the standard Charlson comorbidity index increased it. Although visit corrected and age, sex, and race adjusted mortality rates were similar in hospital referral regions with the highest and lowest fifths of visits, adjustment using the standard index resulted in a rate that was 18% lower in the highest fifth (46.4 v 56.3 deaths per 1000, P<0.001). Age, sex, and race adjusted spending as well as visit corrected spending was more than 30% greater in the highest fifth of visits than in the lowest fifth, but only 12% greater after adjustment using the standard index. Similar results were obtained using the Iezzoni and the hierarchical condition categories conventions for measuring comorbidity. Conclusion The

  8. Personal Health Record Reach in the Veterans Health Administration: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Cynthia A; Feng, Hua; McInnes, D Keith; Rao, Sowmya R; Rothendler, James A; Haggstrom, David A; Abel, Erica A; Cioffari, Lisa S; Houston, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Background My HealtheVet (MHV) is the personal health record and patient portal developed by the United States Veterans Health Administration (VA). While millions of American veterans have registered for MHV, little is known about how a patient’s health status may affect adoption and use of the personal health record. Objective Our aim was to characterize the reach of the VA personal health record by clinical condition. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of all veterans nationwide with at least one inpatient admission or two outpatient visits between April 2010 and March 2012. We compared adoption (registration, authentication, opt-in to use secure messaging) and use (prescription refill and secure messaging) of MHV in April 2012 across 18 specific clinical conditions prevalent in and of high priority to the VA. We calculated predicted probabilities of adoption by condition using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographics, comorbidities, and clustering of patients within facilities. Results Among 6,012,875 veterans, 6.20% were women, 61.45% were Caucasian, and 26.31% resided in rural areas. The mean age was 63.3 years. Nationwide, 18.64% had registered for MHV, 11.06% refilled prescriptions via MHV, and 1.91% used secure messaging with their clinical providers. Results from the multivariable regression suggest that patients with HIV, hyperlipidemia, and spinal cord injury had the highest predicted probabilities of adoption, whereas those with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, alcohol or drug abuse, and stroke had the lowest. Variation was observed across diagnoses in actual (unadjusted) adoption and use, with registration rates ranging from 29.19% of patients with traumatic brain injury to 14.18% of those with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. Some of the variation in actual reach can be explained by facility-level differences in MHV adoption and by differences in patients’ sociodemographic characteristics (eg

  9. Biopharmaceuticals and monoclonal antibodies in oncology trials--a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, T

    2011-01-01

    intervention in cancer trials (14%) compared with trials in non-cancer conditions (6%). Further subgroup analysis based on the 20 cancer subtypes with the highest mortality revealed that biological therapeutics comprise 43% in malignant melanoma trials and more than 20% in five other cancer types. Two-thirds of all monoclonal antibody are registered in cancer trials (1033, 4.6% of all cancer trials). The subgroup analysis demonstrated a predominance of lymphoma and leukaemia trials for antibody interventions, with 204 and 163 trials registered, respectively. In non-cancer conditions only 503 (0.9%) trials investigate monoclonal antibody interventions. A retrospective longitudinal analysis of the trials demonstrated that monoclonal antibody trials are increasingly frequently registered in non-cancer as well as cancer conditions. However, biopharmaceutical trials continue to be registered more frequently only in non-cancer conditions, but have come to a plateau in cancers. This study is limited by analysis of data from one database only. While the NIH Clinical Trials Database used is the most comprehensive and internationally recognised of its kind, it is possible that the results may have been modified if other databases were also included. Protein engineering has paved the way for biopharmaceutical clinical interventions. A cross-sectional analysis of trials registered on the NIH Clinical Trial Database shows that biological interventions are increasingly entered into clinical trials. While oncological diseases used to lead this effort, biotherapeutic trials in non-cancer conditions have now become more frequent in comparison. Monoclonal antibodies, however, are still mainly investigated in oncological conditions. Haemato-oncological diseases are most frequently investigated for mAb interventions, although they are not among the eight most common causes of cancer mortality. This may reflect the fact that pre-clinical research, understanding of molecular mechanisms and target

  10. Two-photon double ionization of the H2 molecule: Cross sections and amplitude analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2013-02-01

    We perform time-dependent calculations of triply differential cross sections (TDCS) of two-photon double-electron ionization of the aligned H2 molecule. Our TDCS results for equal energy sharing between photoelectrons agree quite well with a recent time-dependent calculation by Guan [X. Guan, K. Bartschat, and B. I. Schneider, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.77.043421 77, 043421 (2008)] who employed a slightly different numerical technique. We supplement these studies by calculating TDCS at an unequal energy sharing and by generating symmetrized ionization amplitudes.

  11. Determinants of motor vehicle deaths in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Zlatoper, T J

    1991-10-01

    This paper uses 1987 state-level data and least-squares regression to estimate a model of motor vehicle deaths in the United States. The model includes several factors accounted for in previous cross-sectional studies of these fatalities. The estimates suggest that income, the ratio of urban to rural driving, expenditures on highway police and safety, motor vehicle inspection laws, and adult seat belt use laws with secondary enforcement provisions are inversely related to motor vehicle death rates. They also indicate that volume of driving, speed, speed variance, driving density, alcohol consumption, temperature, and a dummy variable for western states are directly related to the rates. PMID:1741898

  12. Measurement of the D ∗± cross section using a soft-pion analysis in two-photon processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, R.; Abe, K.; Abe, T.; Adachi, I.; Aoki, M.; Aoki, M.; Awa, S.; Belusevic, R.; Emi, K.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, K.; Fujii, T.; Fujimoto, J.; Fujita, K.; Fujiwara, N.; Hayashii, H.; Howell, B.; Iida, N.; Ikeda, H.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Kajikawa, R.; Kaneyuki, K.; Kato, S.; Kawabata, S.; Kichimi, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Koltick, D.; Levine, I.; Minami, S.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Muramatsu, K.; Nagai, K.; Nagira, T.; Nakano, E.; Nakabayashi, K.; Nitoh, O.; Noguchi, S.; Ochiai, F.; Ohnishi, Y.; Okuno, H.; Okusawa, T.; Shimozawa, K.; Shinohara, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Sugiyama, N.; Suzuki, S.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, T.; Takemoto, M.; Tanimori, T.; Tauchi, T.; Teramae, F.; Teramoto, Y.; Toomi, N.; Toyama, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uno, S.; Watanabe, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Topaz Collaboration

    1994-06-01

    The differential cross section of {dσ(e +e - → e +e - D ∗± X) }/{dP T} was measured using a soft-pion analysis D ∗± → π s± D 0overline(D 0) at TRISTAN. The average s was 58.7 GeV and the integrated luminosity used in this analysis was 198 pb -, respectively.

  13. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations. Methods Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health. Results The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783) showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23–.34), anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29–.40) and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30–.44). Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450) showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13–0.21). Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10–0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028). Limitations All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias. Conclusions Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work. PMID:26305785

  14. Analysis of density effects in plasmas and their influence on electron-impact cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkhiri, M.; Poirier, M.

    2014-12-01

    Density effects in plasmas are analyzed using a Thomas-Fermi approach for free electrons. First, scaling properties are determined for the free-electron potential and density. For hydrogen-like ions, the first two terms of an analytical expansion of this potential as a function of the plasma coupling parameter are obtained. In such ions, from these properties and numerical calculations, a simple analytical fit is proposed for the plasma potential, which holds for any electron density, temperature, and atomic number, at least assuming that Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics is applicable. This allows one to analyze perturbatively the influence of the plasma potential on energies, wave functions, transition rates, and electron-impact collision rates for single-electron ions. Second, plasmas with an arbitrary charge state are considered, using a modified version of the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC) package with a plasma potential based on a Thomas-Fermi approach. Various methods for the collision cross-section calculations are reviewed. The influence of plasma density on these cross sections is analyzed in detail. Moreover, it is demonstrated that, in a given transition, the radiative and collisional-excitation rates are differently affected by the plasma density. Some analytical expressions are proposed for hydrogen-like ions in the limit where the Born or Lotz approximation applies and are compared to the numerical results from the FAC.

  15. A double fluorescence staining protocol to determine the cross-sectional area of myofibers using image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Fassel, T. A.; Schultz, E.; Greaser, M. L.; Cassens, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    A double fluorescence staining protocol was developed to facilitate computer based image analysis. Myofibers from experimentally treated (irradiated) and control growing turkey skeletal muscle were labeled with the anti-myosin antibody MF-20 and detected using fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC). Extracellular material was stained with concanavalin A (ConA)-Texas red. The cross-sectional area of the myofibers was determined by calculating the number of pixels (0.83 mu m(2)) overlying each myofiber after subtracting the ConA-Texas red image from the MF-20-FITC image for each region of interest. As expected, myofibers in the irradiated muscle were smaller (P < 0.05) than those in the non-irradiated muscle. This double fluorescence staining protocol combined with image analysis is accurate and less labor-intensive than classical procedures for determining the cross-sectional area of myofibers.

  16. Heavy ion induced mutations in mammalian cells: Cross sections and molecular analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, U.; Schmidt, P.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Our investigations of heavy ion-induced mutations in mammalian cells, which had been begun a few years ago, were systematically continued. For the first time, it was possible to cover a large LET range with a few kinds of ions. To do this, both UNILAC and SIS were used to yield comparable data for a large energy range. This is a necessary condition for a comprehensive description of the influence of such ion parameters as energy and LET. In these experiments, the induced resistance against the poison 6-thioguanin (6-TG), which is linked to the HPRT locus on the genome, is being used as mutation system. In addition to the mutation-induction cross-section measurements, the molecular changes of the DNA are being investigated by means of Multiplex PCR ('Polymerase Chain Reaction') gene amplification. From these experiments we expect further elucidation of the mutation-inducing mechanisms composing the biological action of heavy-ion radiation.

  17. Modal Analysis of Guided Waves in a Bar with Arbitrary Cross-Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Suyama, Mitsunobu; Abe, Tsukasa

    Guided waves, i.e., ultrasonic wave packets propagating in the longitudinal direction, are a promising technique for rapid long-range nondestructive inspection of bar-like structures such as pipes and rails. Guided wave inspection requires determining guided wave velocities (dispersion curves) and wave structures. A computational technique is available to obtain the dispersion curves and wave structures for structures with complex cross-sections. This study develops a more accurate technique using the mirror relation of guided wave modes and an iteration method for solving the eigenproblem. Experimental studies of a JIS 6-kg rail verify that dispersion curves and wave structures can be obtained with sufficient accuracy for typical out-of-plain vibration modes. Wave structures were obtained by measuring waveforms at several points on the curved surface of the rail with a laser interferometer controlled by robot arms.

  18. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  19. Tracing Developmental Changes through Conversation Analysis: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yo-An; Hellermann, John

    2014-01-01

    The descriptive focus of conversation analysis (CA) has not been considered optimal for second language (L2) acquisition research. Recently, however, some CA researchers have addressed the developmental agenda by examining longitudinal data (e.g., Brouwer, C., 2004; Ishida, M., 2009; Markee, N., 2008; Pekarek-Doehler, S., 2010). The present…

  20. An Updated Analysis on the Rise of the Hadronic Total Cross-Section at the Lhc Energy Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, M. J.; Silva, P. V. R. G.

    2013-08-01

    A forward amplitude analysis on pp and \\bar {p}p elastic scattering above 5 GeV is presented. The dataset includes the recent high-precision TOTEM measurements of the pp total and elastic (integrated) cross-sections at 7 TeV and 8 TeV. Following previous works, the leading high-energy contribution for the total cross-section (σtot) is parametrized as lnγ(s/sh), where γ and sh are free real fit parameters. Singly-subtracted derivative dispersion relations are used to connect σtot and the rho parameter (ρ) in an analytical way. Different fit procedures are considered, including individual fits to σtot data, global fits to σtot and ρ data, constrained and unconstrained data reductions. The results favor a rise of the σtot faster than the log-squared bound by Froissart and Martin at the LHC energy region. The parametrization for σtot is extended to fit the elastic cross-section (σel) data with satisfactory results. The analysis indicates an asymptotic ratio σel/σtot consistent with 1/3 (as already obtained in a previous work). A critical discussion on the correlation, practical role and physical implications of the parameters γ and sh is presented. The discussion confronts the 2002 prediction of σtot by the COMPETE Collaboration and the recent result by the Particle Data Group (2012 edition of the Review of Particle Physics). Some conjectures on possible implications of a fast rise of the proton-proton total cross-section at the highest energies are also presented.

  1. VELM61 and VELM22: Multigroup cross-section libraries for sodium-cooled reactor shield analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two coupled neutron and photon multigroup cross-section libraries, derived from ENDF/B-V nuclear data, are described. The energy group structures, 61n/23..gamma.. and 22n/10..gamma.., are subsets of the Vitamin-E 174n/38..gamma.. group structure, and are tailored to the iron and sodium resonances, windows, and capture gamma-ray spectra. Each of the two libraries are available in two formats, the AMPX master format and the ANISN format. Cross sections for all materials in the Vitamin-E library were collapsed using a standard energy weighting function, and in addition, several cross-section sets for each of the major constituents of commercial grade sodium, stainless steel (types 304 and 316), and carbon steel were derived using several problem-dependent weighting functions for averaging the fine groups. Effects of various group structures and weighting functions on the accuracy of the broad group libraries are studied by ANISN analysis of a typical sodium-iron shield configuration.

  2. Community characteristics associated with where urgent care centers are located: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Le, Sidney T; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the community characteristics associated with non-hospital-based urgent care centres wherever they are located. Design National cross-sectional study evaluating the association between non-hospital-based urgent care centers, and their demographic characteristics in a community, using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions. Setting Communities in the USA with non-hospital-based urgent care centers, as identified using a 2014 national database from the Urgent Care Association of America. Participants 31 022 communities encompassing 6898 urgent care centers across the USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures Presence of a non-hospital-based urgent care center within a community. Results Communities with non-hospital-based urgent care centers are urban (75.7% with vs 22.2% without; p<0.001 across rural urban commuting area levels), and are located in areas with higher income levels (38.6% in highest quartile with vs 22.3% without; p<0.001 across quartiles) and higher levels of private insurance (29.6% in highest quartile with vs 23.9% without; p<0.001 across quartiles). Conclusions While the growth of the urgent care industry may have other promising implications, policymakers should recognise that it may exacerbate disparities in access to acute care faced by poorer, uninsured patients, and may also have financial implications for providers that are providing overlapping services, such as emergency departments and primary care practices. PMID:27056591

  3. Uncertainty analysis of Lead cross sections on reactor safety for ELECTRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassan, Erwin; Sjöstrand, Henrik; Duan, Junfeng; Gustavsson, Cecilia; Pomp, Stephan; Österlund, Michael; Rochman, Dimitri; Koning, Arjan J.

    2014-06-01

    The Total Monte Carlo (TMC) method was used in this study to assess the impact of Pb-206, 207 and 208 nuclear data uncertainties on keff , βeff, coolant temperature coefficient, the coolant void worth for the ELECTRA reactor. Relatively large uncertainties were observed in the keff and the coolant void worth for all the isotopes with significant contribution coming from Pb-208 nuclear data. The large Pb-208 nuclear data uncertainty observed was further investigated by studying the impact of partial channels on the keff and the βeff. Various sections of ENDF file: elastic scattering (n, el), inelastic scattering (n, inl), neutron capture (n, γ), (n, 2n), resonance parameters and the angular distribution were varied randomly and distributions in keff and the βeff obtained. The dominant contributions to the uncertainty in the keff from Pb-208 came from uncertainties in the resonance parameters; however, elastic scattering cross section and the angular distribution also had significant impact. The impact of nuclear data uncertainties on the βeff was observed to be small.

  4. Analysis and Design of Rectangular-Cross-Section Nozzles for Scramjet Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.; Korte, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The flow in the square-cross-section Mach-6 nozzle used in the NASA Langley Research Center Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility has been analyzed using three-dimensional viscous CFD methods. The primary cause of the non-uniform flow exiting the nozzle is identified as cross-flow pressure gradients imposed on wall boundary layers. The cross-flow pressure gradients cause the boundary layer to roll up into counter-rotating vortex pairs on each of the four sides of the nozzle. These four vortex pairs produce significant non-uniformity in the nozzle-exit flow. In order to improve the quality of the test flow in the facility, two alternative nozzle designs (one axisymmetric and one rectangular with a 2-D contour) have been investigated. While the axisymmetric design produced the most uniform flow, the 2-D design also produced very good flow. The 2-D design was selected for further refinement, resulting in a new nozzle design which has been constructed and awaits calibration.

  5. Individual and interpersonal triggers to quit smoking in China: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Im, Pek Kei; McNeill, Ann; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Xu, Steve; Quah, Anne C. K.; Jiang, Yuan; Shahab, Lion

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the most prominent individual and interpersonal triggers to quit smoking in China and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Data come from Waves 1-3 (2006-2009) of the ITC China Survey, analysed cross-sectionally as person-waves (N=14,358). Measures included socio-demographic and smoking characteristics. Those who quit between waves (4.3%) were asked about triggers that “very much” led them to stop smoking, and continuing smokers about triggers that “very much” made them think about quitting. Triggers covered individual (personal health concerns, cigarette price, smoking restrictions, advertisements, warning labels) and interpersonal factors (family/societal disapproval of smoking, setting an example to children, concerns about second-hand smoke). Results Over a third of respondents (34.9%) endorsed at least one trigger strongly; quitters were more likely than smokers to mention any trigger. While similar proportions of smokers endorsed individual (24.4%) and interpersonal triggers (24.0%), quitters endorsed more individual (61.1%) than interpersonal (48.3%) triggers. However, the most common triggers (‘personal health concerns’; ‘setting an example to children’) were the same, endorsed by two-thirds of quitters and a quarter of smokers, as were the least common triggers (‘warning labels’; ‘cigarette price’), endorsed by one in ten quitters and one in twenty smokers. Lower dependence among smokers and greater education among all respondents were associated with endorsing any trigger. Conclusions Individual rather than interpersonal triggers appear more important for quitters. Major opportunities to motivate quit attempts are missed in China, particularly with regard to taxation and risk communication. Interventions need to focus on more dependent and less-educated smokers. PMID:25888422

  6. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  7. 2005 cross section analysis and recommendations for further studies at Everest, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. A key CCC/USDA goal for this meeting was to discuss the recent (Phase III) environmental studies performed by Argonne at Everest, Kansas, and to obtain KDHE input on the selection of possible remedial approaches to be examined as part of the Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. Argonne distributed a brief Scoping Memo (Argonne 2005) to the CCC/USDA and the KDHE before the meeting to facilitate the intended pre-CAS discussions. As a result of the September meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities for the Everest site, for further assistance in identifying and evaluating remedial alternatives for the CAS. The requested actions include the following: (1) Construction of one or more additional, strategically located interpretive cross sections to improve the depiction of the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater and contaminant movement along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility. (2) Development of technical recommendations for a stepwise pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property. (3) Identification of potential locations for several additional monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. This report presents an update on efforts of the CCC/USDA and Argonne to address the KDHE concerns, and it proposes several additional actions for consideration.

  8. One-Dimensional, Multigroup Cross Section and Design Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Code System - Generalized Perturbation Theory.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1981-02-02

    Version: 00 SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections (of standard multigroup cross-section sets) and for secondary energy distributions (SED's) of multigroup scattering matrices.

  9. Practice size and quality attainment under the new GMS contract: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingying; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mackay, Daniel F; Watt, Graham CM

    2006-01-01

    Background The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) of the new General Medical Services contract, for the first time, incentivises certain areas of general practice workload over others. The ability of practices to deliver high quality care may be related to the size of the practice itself. Aim To explore the relationship between practice size and points attained in the QOF. Design of study Cross-sectional analyses of routinely available data. Setting Urban general practice in mainland Scotland. Method QOF points and disease prevalence were obtained for all urban general practices in Scotland (n = 638) and linked to data on the practice, GP and patient population. The relationship between QOF point attainment, disease prevalence and practice size was examined using univariate statistical analyses. Results Smaller practices were more likely to be located in areas of socioeconomic deprivation; had patients with poorer health; and were less likely to participate in voluntary practice-based quality schemes. Overall, smaller practices received fewer QOF points compared to larger practices (P = 0.003), due to lower point attainment in the organisational domain (P = 0.002). There were no differences across practice size in the other domains of the QOF, including clinical care. Smaller practices reported higher levels of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and mental health conditions and lower levels of asthma, epilepsy and hypothyroidism. There was no difference in the reported prevalence of hypertension or coronary heart disease (CHD) across practices, in contrast to CHD mortality for patients aged under 70 years, where the mortality rate was 40% greater for single-handed practices compared with large practices. Conclusions Although smaller practices obtained fewer points than larger practices under the QOF, this was due to lower scores in the organisational domain of the contract rather than to lower scores for clinical care. Single-handed practices, in common

  10. A one- and two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path of the AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) modular code system

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    AARE, a code package to perform Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering, is a linked modular system for fission reactor core and shielding, as well as fusion blanket, analysis. Its cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path presently includes the cross-section processing and reformatting code TRAMIX, cross-section homogenization and library reformatting code MIXIT, the 1-dimensional transport code ONEDANT, the 2-dimensional transport code TRISM, and the 1- and 2- dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty code SENSIBL. IN the present work, a short description of the whole AARE system is given, followed by a detailed description of the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Exploring the Potential of a School Impact on Pupil Weight Status: Exploratory Factor Analysis and Repeat Cross-Sectional Study of the National Child Measurement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew James; Wyatt, Katrina M.; Williams, Craig A.; Logan, Stuart; Henley, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Schools are common sites for obesity prevention interventions. Although many theories suggest that the school context influences weight status, there has been little empirical research. The objective of this study was to explore whether features of the school context were consistently and meaningfully associated with pupil weight status (overweight or obese). Exploratory factor analysis of routinely collected data on 319 primary schools in Devon, England, was used to identify possible school-based contextual factors. Repeated cross-sectional multilevel analysis of five years (2006/07-2010/11) of data from the National Child Measurement Programme was then used to test for consistent and meaningful associations. Four school-based contextual factors were derived which ranked schools according to deprivation, location, resource and prioritisation of physical activity. None of which were meaningfully and consistently associated with pupil weight status, across the five years. The lack of consistent associations between the factors and pupil weight status suggests that the school context is not inherently obesogenic. In contrast, incorporating findings from education research indicates that schools may be equalising weight status, and obesity prevention research, policy and practice might need to address what is happening outside schools and particularly during the school holidays. PMID:26700027

  12. Calculation of the energy dependence of the fusion cross section and total cross sections for peripheral reactions on the basis of an analysis of data on elastic heavy-ion scattering: Strongly bound ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdnyakov, Yu. A.

    2007-09-15

    A method is proposed for calculating the energy dependence of the fusion cross section (in general, the sum of the cross sections for complete and incomplete fusion, quasifission, and reactions of deep-inelastic scattering) {sigma}{sub F}(E) and the total cross section for peripheral (or quasielastic) reactions, {sigma}{sub D}(E). The method is based on an analysis of a limited set of angular distributions for the elastic scattering in a given pair of nuclei. The predictive power of the method is illustrated by considering the {sup 16}O + {sup 208}Pb, {sup 16}O + {sup 40}Ca, and {sup 16}O + {sup 28}Si systems. For each of these systems, the calculations were performed at energies in the range extending from subbarrier values to those exceeding the barrier height substantially. The results of the calculations are found to be in good agreement with relevant experimental data, whereby the reliability of the method is confirmed. By virtue of this, it is proposed to employ the method to study the energy dependences {sigma}{sub F}(E) and {sigma}{sub D}(E) in collisions involving unstable nuclei, for which it is difficult to determine experimentally the above dependences because of a low intensity of secondary beams.

  13. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  14. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT) study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62) were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2) were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population), social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p < .001) of the variance in the intention to engage in physical activity for 60 minutes every day. Important correlates of intention to engage in physical activity were attitude (beta = .225, p < .001), self-efficacy (beta = .271, p < .001), descriptive norm (beta = .172, p < .001) and barriers (beta = -.169, p < .01). Social-cognitive variables accounted for 52% (p < .001) of the variance in physical active behaviour (being physical active for 60 minutes every day). The intention to engage in physical activity (beta = .469, p < .001) and self-efficacy (beta = .243, p < .001) were, in turn, important correlates of physical active behavior. In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p < .01, R2 = .06, p < .001). An

  15. Training-mediated leftward asymmetries during music processing: A cross-sectional and longitudinal fMRI analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Robert J.; Bruijn, Bente; Norton, Andrea C.; Winner, Ellen; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Practicing a musical instrument has a profound impact on the structure and function of the human brain. The present fMRI study explored how relative hemispheric asymmetries in task-related activity during music processing (same/different discrimination) are shaped by musical training (quantified as cumulative hours of instrument practice), using both a large (N = 84) cross-sectional data set of children and adults, and a smaller (N = 20) two time-point longitudinal data set of children tracked over 3 to 5 years. The cross-sectional analysis revealed a significant leftward asymmetry in task-related activation, with peaks in Heschl's gyrus and supramarginal gyrus (SMG). The SMG peak was further characterized by a leftward asymmetry in the partial correlation strength with subjects' cumulative hours of practice, controlling for subjects' age and task performance. This SMG peak was found to exhibit a similar pattern of response in the longitudinal data set (in this case, with subjects' cumulative hours of practice over the course of the study), controlling for age, scan interval, and amount of instrument practice prior to the first scan. This study presents novel insights into the ways musical instrument training shapes task-related asymmetries in neural activity during music processing. PMID:23470982

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  17. Analysis of Collisional Cross Sections of Rydberg nS and nD States of Ultracold Caesium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhigang; Miao, Jingyuan; Zhao, Kejia; Li, Difei; Yang, Zhijun; Wu, Fan; Wu, Zhaochun; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang

    2016-05-01

    We present a simple analytical formula derived from an existing theoretical model and a detailed theoretical investigation of effects of the van der Waals interaction and dipole–dipole interaction on collisional cross sections as functions of various parameters. We analyze the main mechanism leading to large collisional cross sections on the basis of our previous experimental results using the present formula and also analyze the effects of some other factors on collisional cross sections.

  18. Measurement and analysis of the neutron-induced fission cross sections of {sup 247}Cm, {sup 250}Cr and {sup 254}Es

    SciTech Connect

    Danon, Y.; Moore, M.S.; Koehler, P.E.; Lougheed, R.W.; Hoff, R.W.; Hill, N.W.

    1994-05-01

    A series of fission cross section measurements were performed on {sup 247}Cm, {sup 250}Cf and {sup 254}Es. This paper summarizes the most recent results and details the resonance parameter analysis done on {sup 247}Cm.

  19. 242Amm fission cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, J. C.; White, R. M.; Howe, R. E.; Landrum, J. H.; Dougan, R. J.; Dupzyk, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Amm has been measured over the energy region from 10-3 eV to ~20 MeV in a series of experiments utilizing a linac-produced "white" neutron source and a monoenergetic source of 14.1 MeV neutrons. The cross section was measured relative to that of 235U in the thermal (0.001 to ~3 eV) and high energy (1 keV to ~20 MeV) regions and normalized to the ENDF/B-V 235U(n,f) evaluated cross section. In the resonance energy region (0.5 eV to 10 keV) the neutron flux was measured using thin lithium glass scintillators and the relative cross section thus obtained was normalized to the thermal energy measurement. This procedure allowed a consistency check between the thermal and high energy data. The cross section data have a statistical accuracy of ~0.5% at thermal energies and in the 1-MeV energy region, and a systematic uncertainty of ~5%. We confirmed that 242Amm has the largest thermal fission cross section known with a 2200 m/sec value of 6328 b. Results of a Breit-Wigner sum-of-single-levels analysis of 48 fission resonances up to 20 eV are presented and the connection of these resonance properties to the large thermal cross section is discussed. Our measurements are compared with previously reported results.

  20. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  1. A Cross-Sectional Behavioral Genetic Analysis of Task Persistence in the Transition to Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; DeThorne, Laura S.

    2005-01-01

    Task persistence, measured by a composite score of independent teacher, tester and observer reports, was examined using behavioral genetic analysis. Participants included 92 monozygotic and 137 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs in Kindergarten or 1st grade (4.3 to 7.9 years old). Task persistence was widely distributed, higher among older children,…

  2. Electromyography and sonomyography analysis of the tibialis anterior: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Foot dorsiflexion plays an essential role in both controlling balance and human gait. Electromyography (EMG) and sonomyography (SMG) can provide information on several aspects of muscle function. The aim was to establish the relationship between the EMG and SMG variables during isotonic contractions of foot dorsiflexors. Methods Twenty-seven healthy young adults performed the foot dorsiflexion test on a device designed ad hoc. EMG variables were maximum peak and area under the curve. Muscular architecture variables were muscle thickness and pennation angle. Descriptive statistical analysis, inferential analysis and a multivariate linear regression model were carried out. The confidence level was established with a statistically significant p-value of less than 0.05. Results The correlation between EMG variables and SMG variables was r = 0.462 (p < 0.05). The linear regression model to the dependent variable “peak normalized tibialis anterior (TA)” from the independent variables “pennation angle and thickness”, was significant (p = 0.002) with an explained variance of R2 = 0.693 and SEE = 0.16. Conclusions There is a significant relationship and degree of contribution between EMG and SMG variables during isotonic contractions of the TA muscle. Our results suggest that EMG and SMG can be feasible tools for monitoring and assessment of foot dorsiflexors. TA muscle parameterization and assessment is relevant in order to know that increased strength accelerates the recovery of lower limb injuries. PMID:24507748

  3. A cross-sectional analysis of how young adults perceive tobacco brands: implications for FCTC signatories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for the elimination of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. To test whether tobacco packaging functions as advertising by communicating attractive and distinctive brand attributes, we explored how young adult smokers and non-smokers interpreted familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands. Methods We conducted an on-line survey of 1035 young adult smokers and non-smokers aged 18–30. Participants evaluated eight tobacco brands using ten attributes based on brand personality scales. We used factor analysis and ANOVA to examine patterns in brand-attribute associations. Results Young adults distinguished between brands on the basis of their packaging alone, associated each brand with specific attributes, and were equally able to interpret familiar and unfamiliar brands. Contrary to our expectations, non-smokers made more favourable brand-attribute associations than smokers, but both groups described Basic, a near generic brand, as ‘plain’ or ‘budget’. There were no significant gender or ethnicity differences. Conclusions Tobacco packaging uses logos, colours and imagery to create desirable connotations that promote and reinforce smoking. By functioning in the same way as advertising, on-pack branding breaches Article 13 of the FCTC and refutes tobacco companies’ claims that pack livery serves only as an indentifying device that simplifies smokers’ decision-making. Given this evidence, signatories should see plain packaging policies as a priority consistent with their FCTC obligations to eliminate all tobacco advertising and promotion. PMID:22985407

  4. A Study of Sedentary Behaviour in the Older Finnish Twin Cohort: A Cross Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on total sitting time among the Finnish twin cohort. Also, heritability and environmental factors were analysed. The final sample included 6713 twin individuals 53–67 years of age (46% men). Among them there were 1940 complete twin pairs (732 monozygotic [MZ] and 1208 dizygotic [DZ] twin pairs). Sedentary behaviour was queried with a self-reported questionnaire with multiple-choice questions about sitting time at different domains. The mean total sitting time per day was 6 hours 41 minutes (standard deviation: 2 hours 41 minutes). The total sitting time was less in women than in men (P = 0.002). Older age was associated with less total sitting time (P < 0.001). Those with higher body mass index had higher total sitting time in age and sex adjusted analysis (P < 0.001). MZ pairs were more similar for sitting time than DZ pairs, with initial estimates of heritability for the total sitting time of 35%.The influence of shared environmental factors was negligible (1%), while most (64%) of the variation could be ascribed to unique environmental factors, the latter including measurement error. PMID:24822182

  5. Chronic low back pain patient groups in primary care – A cross sectional cluster analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the heterogeneous nature of chronic low back pain (CLBP), it is necessary to identify patient groups and evaluate treatments within these groups. We aimed to identify groups of patients with CLBP in the primary care setting. Methods We performed a k-means cluster analysis on a large data set (n = 634) of primary care patients with CLBP. Variables of sociodemographic data, pain characteristics, psychological status (i.e., depression, anxiety, somatization), and the patient resources of resilience and coping strategies were included. Results We found three clusters that can be characterized as “pensioners with age-associated pain caused by degenerative diseases”, “middle-aged patients with high mental distress and poor coping resources”, and “middle-aged patients who are less pain-affected and better positioned with regard to their mental health”. Conclusions Our results supported current knowledge concerning groups of CLBP patients in primary care. In particular, we identified a group that was most disabled and distressed, and which was mainly characterized by psychological variables. As shown in our study, pain-related coping strategies and resilience were low in these patients and might be addressed in differentiating treatment strategies. Future studies should focus on the identification of this group in order to achieve effective treatment allocation. Trial registration German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00003123 PMID:24131707

  6. An Odontometric Approach for Estimation of Stature in Indians: Cross- Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sumit Kumar; Kedia, Neal Bharat; Singh, Abhinav Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Height/stature is one of the useful anthropometric parameter for individual identification. Correlation of stature to long bones, even fragmentary bones is frequently reported among various populations. As teeth have the advantage of being composed largely of hard tissue which is relatively indestructible, the careful study of these can enable reliable determination of stature of the person in life. Aim The present study was designed to elucidate the anthropometric correlation of tooth dimensions with stature and also devises regression formulae. Materials and Methods This study was carried out on 361 Indian students (151 males and 210 females) in the age range of 21- 45 years to estimate stature using odontometry. Stature and tooth measurements were taken on each partcipant following standard methods and techniques. Karl Pearson’s correlation co-efficient and linear regression was used to estimate stature. Results Regression analysis showed that the canine width can aid in estimation of stature as an adjunct when only teeth are available for identification. Conclusion Tooth dimensions can be used only as a supplementary approach for the estimation of stature but with caution. PMID:27134995

  7. Cross sectional analysis of mortality by country of birth in England and Wales, 1970-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wild, S.; McKeigue, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortalities for selected groups of immigrants with the national average. DESIGN: Analysis of mortality for adults aged 20-69 in 1970-2 and 1989-92 using population data from 1971 and 1991 censuses. Mortality of Scottish and Irish immigrants aged 25-74 was also compared with mortality in Scotland and Ireland for 1991. SETTING: England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised mortality ratios for deaths from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lung cancer, and breast cancer. RESULTS: In 1989-92 mortality from all causes was higher than the national average for Scottish immigrants, by 32% for men and 36% for women; for Irish immigrants it was higher by 39% for men and 20% for women; and for Caribbean born men it was lower by 23%. Ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer accounted for 30-40% of the excess mortality in Scottish and Irish immigrants. For south Asians, excess mortality from circulatory disease was balanced by lower mortality from cancer. Standardised mortality ratios for cerebrovascular disease in 1989-92 were highest for west African immigrants (271 for men and 181 for women). CONCLUSIONS: Widening differences in mortality ratios for migrants compared with the general population were not simply due to socioeconomic inequalities. The low mortality from all causes for Caribbean immigrants could largely be attributed to low mortality from ischaemic heart disease, which is unexplained. The excess mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases in migrants from both west Africa and the Caribbean suggests that genetic factors underlie the susceptibility to hypertension in people of black African descent. PMID:9116545

  8. A cross-sectional analysis of reported corporate environmental sustainability practices.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Dopart, Pamela; Ferracini, Tyler; Sahmel, Jennifer; Merryman, Kimberly; Gaffney, Shannon; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2010-12-01

    The concept of sustainability evolved throughout the 1970s and 1980s, but was formally described by the 27 principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development in 1992. Despite the passage of nearly 20years, to date there are no uniform set of federal rules, regulations, or guidelines specifically governing the environmental aspects of sustainability practices or related requirements in the United States. In this benchmark analysis, we have collected information on the sustainability programs of the five largest US companies in each of the 26 industrial sectors [based on the Forbes Global 2000 through 2009 (n=130)]. For each company, we reviewed the most recent corporate sustainability, citizenship, or responsibility report, limiting our scope to environmental components, if available. Ten criteria were identified and analyzed, including leadership, reporting, external review, certification, and individual components of environmental sustainability programs. With respect to the prevalence of sustainability components between various business sectors, we found that the Drugs and Biotechnology (87%), Household and Personal Products (87%) and Oil and Gas Operations (87%) industries had the most comprehensive environmental sustainability programs. Using the nine components of environmental sustainability as a benchmark, we identified four key components as the characteristics of the most comprehensive environmental sustainability programs. These were (1) empowering leadership with a commitment to sustainability (80%), (2) standardized reporting (87%), (3) third-party evaluation of the sustainability programs (73%), and (4) obtaining ISO 14001 certification (73%). We found that many firms shaped their own definition of sustainability and developed their associated sustainability programs based on their sector, stakeholder interests, products or services, and business model. We noted an emerging area that we have called product sustainability - one in which

  9. Pulse-width analysis for neutron capture cross-section measurement using an NaI(Tl) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katabuchi, Tatsuya; Matsuhashi, Taihei; Terada, Kazushi; Arai, Takuro; Furutaka, Kazuyoshi; Hara, Kaoru Y.; Harada, Hideo; Hirose, Kentaro; Hori, Jun-ichi; Igashira, Masayuki; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kimura, Atsushi; Kino, Koichi; Kitatani, Fumito; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki; Koizumi, Mitsuo; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Nakamura, Shoji; Oshima, Masumi; Toh, Yosuke

    2014-11-01

    A fast data acquisition method based on pulse-width analysis was developed for measuring neutron capture cross-sections using an NaI(Tl) detector. The new method was tested by detecting γ-rays from standard γ-ray sources and neutron-induced reactions. Non-linear relation between the γ-ray energy and the pulse width of the detector output signal was studied. The neutron beam experiments were performed using a pulsed neutron beam from a spallation neutron source at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. Detector-deposited energy spectra were reconstructed from the pulse-width spectra using the parameterized relation between the pulse width and the γ-ray energy. Time response properties of the pulse-width analysis method were compared with the traditional pulse-height analysis method. Detailed analysis of the experimental results demonstrated that the present method was more resistive to intense γ-ray bursts from the spallation neutron source.

  10. Employees' Willingness to Participate in Work-Related Learning: A Multilevel Analysis of Employees' Learning Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Onghena, Patrick; Smet, Kelly; Dochy, Filip

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on employees' learning intentions, or the willingness to undertake formal work-related learning. This cross-sectional survey study included a sample of 1,243 employees that are nested within 21 organisations. The results of the multilevel analysis show that self-directedness in career processes, time management,…

  11. New analysis of the low-energy π±p differential cross-sections of the CHAOS Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsinos, E.; Rasche, G.

    2015-07-01

    In a previous paper, we reported the results of a partial-wave analysis (PWA) of the pion-nucleon (πN) differential cross-sections (DCSs) of the CHAOS Collaboration and came to the conclusion that the angular distribution of their π+p data sets is incompatible with the rest of the modern (meson factory) database. The present work, re-addressing this issue, has been instigated by a number of recent improvements in our analysis, namely regarding the inclusion of the theoretical uncertainties when investigating the reproduction of experimental data sets on the basis of a given "theoretical" solution, modifications in the parametrization of the form factors of the proton and of the pion entering the electromagnetic part of the πN amplitude, and the inclusion of the effects of the variation of the σ-meson mass when fitting the ETH model of the πN interaction to the experimental data. The new analysis of the CHAOS DCSs confirms our earlier conclusions and casts doubt on the value for the πN Σ term, which Stahov, Clement and Wagner have extracted from these data.

  12. Two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the LBM (Lithium Blanket Module) experiments at LOTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent common Los Alamos/PSI effort, a sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty path for the modular code system AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) was developed. This path includes the cross-section code TRAMIX, the one-dimensional finite difference S/sub N/-transport code ONEDANT, the two-dimensional finite element S/sub N/-transport code TRISM, and the one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty code SENSIBL. Within the framework of the present work a complete set of forward and adjoint two-dimensional TRISM calculations were performed both for the bare, as well as for the Pb- and Be-preceeded, LBM using MATXS8 libraries. Then a two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for all cases was performed. The goal of this analysis was the determination of the uncertainties of a calculated tritium production per source neutron from lithium along the central Li/sub 2/O rod in the LBM. Considered were the contributions from /sup 1/H, /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, /sup 9/Be, /sup nat/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 16/O, /sup 23/Na, /sup 27/Al, /sup nat/Si, /sup nat/Cr, /sup nat/Fe, /sup nat/Ni, and /sup nat/Pb. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Coping and back problems: analysis of multiple data sources on an entire cross-sectional cohort of Swedish military recruits

    PubMed Central

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Larsen, Kristian; Ahlstrand, Ingvar; Volinn, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    Background As the literature now stands, a bewildering number and variety of biological, psychological and social factors are, apparently, implicated in back problems. However, if and how these have a direct influence on back problems is not clear. Obesity, for example, has in many studies been shown to be associated with back problems but there is no evidence for a causal link. This could be explained by a dearth of suitably designed studies but also because obesity may be but a proxy for some other, truly explanatory variable. Coping has been linked with, particularly, persistent back problems as well as with health in general. The question is, whether coping could be the explanatory link between, for example, these two variables. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using data from the Swedish Army, consisting of the entire cohort of males (N = 48,502) summoned in 1998 to serve in the military. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between five independent variables and two dependent variables ("outcome variables"). The independent variables were two anthropomorphic variables (height and body mass index), two psychological variables (intellectual capacity and coping in relation to stress), and one social variable (type of education). The two outcome variables were back problems and ill health. In particular, we wanted to determine whether controlling for coping would affect the associations between the other four independent variables and the two outcome variables. Methods Data for the analysis come from a battery of standardized examinations, including medical examinations, a test of intellectual capacity, and a test of coping in relation to stress. Each of these examinations was conducted independently of the others. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for the outcome variables of back problems and ill health. Results The associations between height, body mass index, intellectual capacity, type of education and the two

  14. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician’s interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  15. Evaluation of Collision Cross Section Calibrants for Structural Analysis of Lipids by Traveling Wave Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hines, Kelly M; May, Jody C; McLean, John A; Xu, Libin

    2016-07-19

    Collision cross section (CCS) measurement of lipids using traveling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry (TWIM-MS) is of high interest to the lipidomics field. However, currently available calibrants for CCS measurement using TWIM are predominantly peptides that display quite different physical properties and gas-phase conformations from lipids, which could lead to large CCS calibration errors for lipids. Here we report the direct CCS measurement of a series of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) in nitrogen using a drift tube ion mobility (DTIM) instrument and an evaluation of the accuracy and reproducibility of PCs and PEs as CCS calibrants for phospholipids against different classes of calibrants, including polyalanine (PolyAla), tetraalkylammonium salts (TAA), and hexakis(fluoroalkoxy)phosphazines (HFAP), in both positive and negative modes in TWIM-MS analysis. We demonstrate that structurally mismatched calibrants lead to larger errors in calibrated CCS values while the structurally matched calibrants, PCs and PEs, gave highly accurate and reproducible CCS values at different traveling wave parameters. Using the lipid calibrants, the majority of the CCS values of several classes of phospholipids measured by TWIM are within 2% error of the CCS values measured by DTIM. The development of phospholipid CCS calibrants will enable high-accuracy structural studies of lipids and add an additional level of validation in the assignment of identifications in untargeted lipidomics experiments. PMID:27321977

  16. Variability in the components of high density lipoprotein particles measured in human ovarian follicular fluid - A cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Michael S.; Kim, Keewan; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Browne, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assess the variability of follicular fluid (FF) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle components. Design FF specimens were collected from two contralateral follicles on the day of oocyte retrieval and analyzed for HDL components. We characterized analytes by age, body mass index (BMI), race and smoking using a cross-sectional design. Biological variability was assessed using two-stage nested analysis of variance. Setting Reproductive health center. Patients One-hundred eighty in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Nineteen HDL components including HDL-cholesterol and free (unesterified) and esterified forms, phospholipids, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-1 and A-2, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities, and seven lipophilic vitamins and micronutrients. Results For some analytes, a majority of total measurement variability was attributed to sources between-follicles, suggesting an important role for the integrity of the blood-follicle-barrier and in situ remodeling of plasma derived constituents. For other analytes, variability was mostly attributed to sources between-women, likely indicative of plasma levels. Variability between-follicles decreased with increasing age, differed by BMI and smoking, and generally were lower for Asians and women with diminished ovarian reserve. Conclusions Substantial variability in FF HDL components exist between-follicles among women undergoing IVF, as well as between-women by age, BMI, race, smoking and by infertility diagnosis. PMID:24581578

  17. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenya; Kudo, Mitsuhiro; Arito, Heihachiro; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Takata, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician's interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  18. 2D Cross Sectional Analysis and Associated Electrochemistry of Composite Electrodes Containing Dispersed Agglomerates of Nanocrystalline Magnetite, Fe₃O₄.

    PubMed

    Bock, David C; Kirshenbaum, Kevin C; Wang, Jiajun; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-06-24

    When electroactive nanomaterials are fully incorporated into an electrode structure, characterization of the crystallite sizes, agglomerate sizes, and dispersion of the electroactive materials can lend insight into the complex electrochemistry associated with composite electrodes. In this study, composite magnetite electrodes were sectioned using ultramicrotome techniques, which facilitated the direct observation of crystallites and agglomerates of magnetite (Fe3O4) as well as their dispersal patterns in large representative sections of electrode, via 2D cross sectional analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Further, the electrochemistry of these electrodes were recorded, and Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) was used to determine the distribution of oxidation states of the reduced magnetite. Unexpectedly, while two crystallite sizes of magnetite were employed in the production of the composite electrodes, the magnetite agglomerate sizes and degrees of dispersion in the two composite electrodes were similar to each other. This observation illustrates the necessity for careful characterization of composite electrodes, in order to understand the effects of crystallite size, agglomerate size, and level of dispersion on electrochemistry. PMID:26024206

  19. Differential collision cross-sections for atomic oxygen: Analysis of space flight instruments for solar terrestrial physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the status of the Cross-section Facility at MSFC is presented. A facility was designed, fabricated, assembled, tested, and operated for measurement of differential scattering cross sections important to understand the induced environment for a vehicle (e.g., Space Station) in low earth orbit. A user's manual for the facility is also presented. The performance of the facility was evaluated and found to be satisfactory in all the essential areas. Differential scattering cross sections were measured and results for the scattering measurements are included. Input to the development of the Ultraviolet Imager Optical System is also discussed. Design, fabrication, and evaluation of UV filters using a four-layer aluminum base are reported.

  20. Cross-sectional echocardiography. I. Analysis of mathematic models for quantifying mass of the left ventricle in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, H L; Heng, M K; Meerbaum, S; Hestenes, J D; Cobo, J M; Davidson, R M; Corday, E

    1979-11-01

    Cross-sectional echocardiography was used to quantify left ventricular mass noninvasively in 21 dogs. Short- and long-axis cross-sectional images of the left ventricle were reproducibly traced at endocardial and epicardial borders during stop-motion video-tape replay. We used area, length and diameter measurements to calculate left ventricular mass by seven mathematic models, including the standard formulas used with M-mode echocardiography and cineangiography. Calculated mass was compared with excised weight of the left ventricle by regression and percent error analyses. Formulas using short-axis areas and long-axis length resulted in higher correlation coefficients (0.94--0.95) and lower mean errors (6--7%) than for standard formulas. Since short-axis areas account for regional left ventricular irregularities, noninvasive quantification of left ventricular mass by cross-sectional echocardiography in dogs is most accurate with formulas using short-axis areas. PMID:487544

  1. Analysis of colliding nuclear matter in terms of symmetry energy and cross-section using computational method

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Arun Bharti, Arun; Gautam, Sakshi

    2015-08-28

    Here we perform a systematic study to extract the information for colliding nuclear matter via symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon cross section in the fragmentation of some asymmetric colliding nuclei (O{sup 16}+Br{sup 80,} {sup 84,} {sup 92}) in the energy range between 50-200 MeV/nucleon. The simulations are carried out using isospin-dependent quantum-molecular dynamics (IQMD) computational approach for central collisions. Our study reveals that fragmentation pattern of neutron-rich colliding nuclei is sensitive to symmetry energy at lower incident energies, whereas isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section becomes dominant for reactions at higher incident energies.

  2. Predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease is influenced by the risk equation adopted: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Benjamin J; Bracken, Richard M; Turner, Daniel; Morgan, Kerry; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Thomas, Michael; Williams, Sally P; Williams, Meurig; Rice, Sam; Stephens, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Background Validated risk equations are currently recommended to assess individuals to determine those at ‘high risk’ of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is no longer a risk ‘equation of choice’. Aim This study examined the differences between four commonly-used CVD risk equations. Design and setting Cross-sectional analysis of individuals who participated in a workplace-based risk assessment in Carmarthenshire, south Wales. Method Analysis of 790 individuals (474 females, 316 males) with no prior diagnosis of CVD or diabetes. Ten-year CVD risk was predicted by entering the relevant variables into the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham BMI, and JBS2 risk equations. Results The Framingham BMI and JBS2 risk equations predicted a higher absolute risk than the QRISK2 and Framingham Lipids equations, and CVD risk increased concomitantly with age irrespective of which risk equation was adopted. Only a small proportion of females (0–2.1%) were predicted to be at high risk of developing CVD using any of the risk algorithms. The proportion of males predicted at high risk ranged from 5.4% (QRISK2) to 20.3% (JBS2). After age stratification, few differences between isolated risk factors were observed in males, although a greater proportion of males aged ≥50 years were predicted to be at ‘high risk’ independent of risk equation used. Conclusions Different risk equations can influence the predicted 10-year CVD risk of individuals. More males were predicted at ‘high risk’ using the JBS2 or Framingham BMI equations. Consideration should also be given to the number of isolated risk factors, especially in younger adults when evaluating CVD risk. PMID:25267049

  3. Decision-tree analysis of clinical data to aid diagnostic reasoning for equine laminitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C E; Shaw, D J; Verheyen, K L P; Newton, J R

    2016-04-23

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of selected clinical signs in laminitis cases and non-laminitic but lame controls to evaluate their capability to discriminate laminitis from other causes of lameness. Participating veterinary practitioners completed a checklist of laminitis-associated clinical signs identified by literature review. Cases were defined as horses/ponies with veterinary-diagnosed, clinically apparent laminitis; controls were horses/ponies with any lameness other than laminitis. Associations were tested by logistic regression with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals, with veterinary practice as an a priori fixed effect. Multivariable analysis using graphical classification tree-based statistical models linked laminitis prevalence with specific combinations of clinical signs. Data were collected for 588 cases and 201 controls. Five clinical signs had a difference in prevalence of greater than +50 per cent: 'reluctance to walk' (OR 4.4), 'short, stilted gait at walk' (OR 9.4), 'difficulty turning' (OR 16.9), 'shifting weight' (OR 17.7) and 'increased digital pulse' (OR 13.2) (all P<0.001). 'Bilateral forelimb lameness' was the best discriminator; 92 per cent of animals with this clinical sign had laminitis (OR 40.5, P<0.001). If, in addition, horses/ponies had an 'increased digital pulse', 99 per cent were identified as laminitis. 'Presence of a flat/convex sole' also significantly enhanced clinical diagnosis discrimination (OR 15.5, P<0.001). This is the first epidemiological laminitis study to use decision-tree analysis, providing the first evidence base for evaluating clinical signs to differentially diagnose laminitis from other causes of lameness. Improved evaluation of the clinical signs displayed by laminitic animals examined by first-opinion practitioners will lead to equine welfare improvements. PMID:26969668

  4. Development of a Methodology for Analysis of the Fe-56 ENDF-B/VI Cross Sections with a Time-of-Flight Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wenner, Michael T.; Haghighat, Alireza; Adams, James M.; Carlson, Allan D.; Grimes, Steven M.; Massey, Thomas N.

    2005-05-24

    This paper discusses a methodology developed for analysis of a time-of-flight (TOF) experiment performed for examination of iron cross sections. The methodology combines measurements from several experimental setups and Monte Carlo simulations. Neutron TOF spectra are obtained via the spherical shell transmission method with iron shells of two thicknesses and using both 15N(p,n) and D(d,n) neutron source interactions at various beam angles. Experimental data were used to determine a source distribution for Monte Carlo Simulations. Comparison of experiments and calculations identified discrepancies over several energy ranges that may be attributed to inaccuracies in the Fe-56 inelastic scattering cross-section. To further investigate this issue, the Fe-56 scattering cross sections were adjusted, and used in the Monte Carlo simulations. The results of these simulations demonstrate that the adjusted cross-sections result in significant reductions (as large as {approx}40%) in the discrepancies between experimental and calculated spectra The adjusted cross-sections were collapsed into a multigroup form and applied to a 1-D Pressure Vessel fluence calculation, which resulted in noticeable effects. Further studies are warranted.

  5. Social class, marginality and self-assessed health: a cross-sectional analysis of the health gradient in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Background Examining the association between social inequality and health is not new. However, there is little empirical evidence of this association in the Latin American literature, much less from the Mexican scholars. Its research, including the one conducted in Mexico, has mostly followed a theoretical approach and has not been able to provide strong empirical evidence of their important theoretical and conceptual contributions, mainly because reliable, complete and valid data are unavailable. Methods To empirically examine the gradient effect of social class on self-rated health in Mexico, a secondary cross-sectional mixed-level analysis was designed. Using individual level data from the Second National Health Survey (ENSA II), social class categories were specified following a stratification approach according to the occupation and education indicators available from ENSA II. Two types of categories were made, one for t urban and one for the rural labor force. Two indicators of perceived health status were used as health outcomes: self-assessed health and reported morbidity. Furthermore, the marginality index, an indicator of relative deprivation was used to examine its contextual effect at the state and regional level. The analysis was conducted using logistic multivariate models. Results The cross-sectional analysis showed a gradient effect of social class for good assessed-health. Relative to the low urban class, the odds ratio (OR) for a good perception of health for individuals belonging to the high urban class was 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–3.9). The OR for the middle high class was 2.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.4–3.4), while the OR for the middle low class was 1.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.6–2.1). However, for the rural labour force an OR of 1.5 was only significant between the high class who considered their health as good relative to the low class (95% confidence interval: 1.02–2.2). At the aggregate level, the results also showed

  6. The association between prevalent neck pain and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J. David; Carroll, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between grades of neck pain severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), using a population-based, cross-sectional mailed survey. The literature suggests that physical and mental HRQoL is worse for individuals with neck pain compared to those without neck pain. However, the strength of the association varies across studies. Discrepancies in study results may be attributed to the use of different definitions and measures of neck pain and differences in the selection of covariates used as control variables in the analyses. The Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey was mailed to 2,184 randomly selected Saskatchewan adults of whom 1,131 returned the questionnaire. Neck pain was measured with the Chronic Pain Questionnaire and categorized into four increasing grades of severity. We measured HRQoL with the SF-36 Health Survey and computed the physical and mental component summary scores. We built separate multiple linear regression models to examine the association between grades of neck pain and physical and mental summary scores while controlling for sociodemographic, general health and comorbidity covariates. Our crude analysis suggests that a gradient exists between the severity of neck pain and HRQoL. Compared to individuals without neck pain, those with Grades III–IV neck pain have significantly lower physical (mean difference = −13.9/100; 95% CI = −16.4, −11.3) and mental (mean difference = −10.8/100; 95% CI = −13.6, −8.1) HRQoL. Controlling for covariates greatly reduced the strength of association between neck pain and physical HRQoL and accounted for the observed association between neck pain and mental HRQoL. In the comorbidity model, the strength of association between Grades III–IV neck pain and PCS decreased by more than 50% (mean difference = −4.5/100; 95% CI = −6.9, −2.0). In the final PCS model, Grades III–IV neck pain coefficients changed only slightly

  7. Transport analysis of measured neutron leakage spectra from spheres as tests of evaluated high energy cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, D. D.; Shook, D. F.; Fieno, D.

    1973-01-01

    Integral tests of evaluated ENDF/B high-energy cross sections have been made by comparing measured and calculated neutron leakage flux spectra from spheres of various materials. An Am-Be (alpha,n) source was used to provide fast neutrons at the center of the test spheres of Be, CH2, Pb, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W. The absolute leakage flux spectra were measured in the energy range 0.5 to 12 MeV using a calibrated NE213 liquid scintillator neutron spectrometer. Absolute calculations of the spectra were made using version 3 ENDF/B cross sections and an S sub n discrete ordinates multigroup transport code. Generally excellent agreement was obtained for Be, CH2, Pb, and Mo, and good agreement was observed for Nb although discrepancies were observed for some energy ranges. Poor comparative results, obtained for Ta and W, are attributed to unsatisfactory nonelastic cross sections. The experimental sphere leakage flux spectra are tabulated and serve as possible benchmarks for these elements against which reevaluated cross sections may be tested.

  8. The Importance of Physical Fitness versus Physical Activity for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in male police officers. Data from screenings and physical fitness assessments indicated physical activity must be sufficient to influence fitness before obtaining statistically significant risk-reducing…

  9. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study

    PubMed Central

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Kühn, Tilman; Hirche, Frank; Buijsse, Brian; Dierkes, Jutta; Fritsche, Andreas; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal) ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items. Results Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL) levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function. Conclusions In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk. PMID:26193703

  10. Clinical Outcomes and Costs Associated with In-Hospital Biliary Complications after Liver Transplantation: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, AP; Taber, DJ; Sutter, AG; Nadig, SN; Dowden, JE; McGillicuddy, JW; Baliga, PK; Chavin, KD

    2014-01-01

    In-hospital biliary complications (BCs) after liver transplantation (LT) are reported in up to 20% of patients and contribute to poor outcomes and increased costs. Existing single center outcome and cost analyses studies are limited in scope. This is a cross-sectional analysis of national data involving 7,967 patients transplanted between 2011–12 with the primary aim of determining the association between BCs and clinical outcomes and costs. Age, race, diagnosis, and severity of illness are associated with the development of BCs. BCs develop in 14.6% of LT recipients and have substantial implications for peri-operative outcomes, including length of hospital and ICU stay (27·9 vs 19·6 mean days, p<0·001 and 12·0 vs 8·3 mean days, p<0·001 respectively), in-hospital morbidity (39% vs 27%, p<0·001), 30-day readmissions (14·8% vs 11·2%, p<0·001), and in-hospital mortality (5·8% vs 4·0%, p<0·001). BCs contributed to a mean increase in in-hospital costs of $36,212 (p<0·001), due to increases in accommodations ($9,539, p<0·001), surgical services ($3,988, p<0·001), and pharmacy services ($8,445, p<0·001). BCs are a predominant etiology for in-hospital morbidity and mortality, while contributing significantly to the high cost of LT. Efforts should be focused on understanding salient and modifiable risk factors, while developing innovative strategies to reduce BCs. PMID:25319035

  11. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness and adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Katherine A; Proctor, David N; Chow, Mosuk; Troy, Lisa M; Wang, Na; Vita, Joseph A; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Mitchell, Gary F; Jacques, Paul F; Hamburg, Naomi M; West, Sheila G

    2015-06-14

    Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are early predictors of CVD. Intervention studies have suggested that diet is related to vascular health, but most prior studies have tested individual foods or nutrients and relied on small samples of younger adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and vascular health in a large cross-sectional analysis. In 5887 adults in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts, diet quality was quantified with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index (DGAI-2010). Endothelial function was assessed via brachial artery ultrasound and arterial stiffness via arterial tonometry. In age-, sex- and cohort-adjusted analyses, a higher DGAI-2010 score (greater adherence) was modestly associated with a lower resting flow velocity, hyperaemic response, mean arterial pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and augmentation index, but not associated with resting arterial diameter or flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In multivariable models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, only the association of a higher DGAI-2010 score with a lower baseline flow velocity and augmentation index persisted (β = - 0·002, P= 0·003 and β = - 0·05 ± 0·02, P< 0·001, respectively). Age-stratified multivariate-adjusted analyses suggested that the relationship of higher DGAI-2010 scores with lower mean arterial pressure, PWV and augmentation index was more pronounced among adults younger than 50 years. Better adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, particularly in younger adults, is associated with a lower peripheral blood flow velocity and arterial wave reflection, but not FMD. The present results suggest a link between adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and favourable vascular health. PMID:25885520

  12. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Variation in Charges and Prices across California for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Renee Y.; Akosa Antwi, Yaa; Weber, Ellerie; Brownell Nath, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background Though past studies have shown wide variation in aggregate hospital price indices and specific procedures, few have documented or explained such variation for distinct and common episodes of care. Objectives We sought to examine the variability in charges for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a drug-eluting stent and without major complications (MS-DRG-247), and determine whether hospital and market characteristics influenced these charges. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adults admitted to California hospitals in 2011 for MS-DRG-247 using patient discharge data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. We used a two-part linear regression model to first estimate hospital-specific charges adjusted for patient characteristics, and then examine whether the between-hospital variation in those estimated charges was explained by hospital and market characteristics. Results Adjusted charges for the average California patient admitted for uncomplicated PCI ranged from $22,047 to $165,386 (median: $88,350) depending on which hospital the patient visited. Hospitals in areas with the highest cost of living, those in rural areas, and those with more Medicare patients had higher charges, while government-owned hospitals charged less. Overall, our model explained 43% of the variation in adjusted charges. Estimated discounted prices paid by private insurers ranged from $3,421 to $80,903 (median: $28,571). Conclusions Charges and estimated discounted prices vary widely between hospitals for the average California patient undergoing PCI without major complications, a common and relatively homogeneous episode of care. Though observable hospital characteristics account for some of this variation, the majority remains unexplained. PMID:25089905

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life and its Determinants Among Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Didarloo, Alireza; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a chronic and threatening condition. However, there are controversies on the factors affecting the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate HRQOL and its determinants among females with type II diabetes referred to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy city, Northwest of Iran. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 352 eligible females with diabetes referring to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy. The study data were collected using a three-part instrument including a socio-demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire to assess patients’ knowledge on diabetes and the world health organization’s quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics, analyses were conducted using frequency, independent samples t–test, correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results The total mean score of QOL was 58.02 ± 17.63. The lowest and the highest mean scores were observed in physical health and social relationship domains (53.84 ± 17.09) and (65.08 ± 14.87), respectively. The regression models revealed that age, education, duration of disease, and family income were significantly associated with all areas of quality of life (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that co-morbidity was significantly correlated with the overall quality of life and the physical health domain (P < 0.01). Conclusions The mean score of quality of life (QOL) in females with diabetes was far from desirable condition. These findings can help physicians and healthcare providers to design suitable interventions to improve the patients QOL. PMID:27331054

  14. Prevalence and costs of treating uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension in primary care: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, James P; Fletcher, Kate; McManus, Richard J; Mant, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment for uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension is recommended in most international guidelines but there is little evidence to indicate that therapy is beneficial. Aim To estimate the prevalence of this condition in an untreated population and the potential costs of initiating therapy in such patients. Design and setting Cross-sectional study of anonymised patient records in 19 general practices in the West Midlands, UK. Method Data relating to patient demographics, existing cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk factors (blood pressure and cholesterol) were extracted from patient records. Patients with a blood pressure of 140/90–159/99 mmHg, no CVD, and <20% 10-year cardiovascular risk were classified as having uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension. Missing data were imputed. The prevalence of untreated, uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension was estimated using descriptive statistics and extrapolated using national data. The cost of achieving blood pressure control in this population was examined in a cost–impact analysis using published costs from previous studies. Results Of the 34 975 patients (aged 40–74 years) in this study, untreated, uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension was present in 2867 individuals (8.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9 to 8.5). This is equivalent to 1 892 519 patients in England and Wales, for whom the additional cost of controlling blood pressure, according to guidelines, was estimated at £106–229 million per annum, depending on the health professional delivering care. Conclusion Untreated, uncomplicated stage 1 hypertension is relatively common, affecting 1 in 12 patients aged 40–74 years in primary care. Current international guidelines and pay-for-performance targets, if followed, will incur significant costs for a patient benefit that is debatable. PMID:25267050

  15. The Influence of Various Factors on High School Football Helmet Face Mask Removal: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E; Decoster, Laura C; Norkus, Susan A; Cappaert, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Most research on face mask removal has been performed on unused equipment. Objective: To identify and compare factors that influence the condition of helmet components and their relationship to face mask removal. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective study. Setting: Five athletic equipment reconditioning/recertification facilities. Participants: 2584 helmets from 46 high school football teams representing 5 geographic regions. Intervention(s): Helmet characteristics (brand, model, hardware components) were recorded. Helmets were mounted and face mask removal was attempted using a cordless screwdriver. The 2004 season profiles and weather histories were obtained for each high school. Main Outcome Measure(s): Success and failure (including reason) for removal of 4 screws from the face mask were noted. Failure rates among regions, teams, reconditioning year, and screw color (type) were compared. Weather histories were compared. We conducted a discriminant analysis to determine if weather variables, region, helmet brand and model, reconditioning year, and screw color could predict successful face mask removal. Metallurgic analysis of screw samples was performed. Results: All screws were successfully removed from 2165 (84%) helmets. At least 1 screw could not be removed from 419 (16%) helmets. Significant differences were found for mean screw failure per helmet among the 5 regions, with the Midwest having the lowest failure rate (0.08 ± 0.38) and the Southern (0.33 ± 0.72), the highest. Differences were found in screw failure rates among the 46 teams (F1,45 = 9.4, P < .01). Helmets with the longest interval since last reconditioning (3 years) had the highest failure rate, 0.47 ± 0.93. Differences in success rates were found among 4 screw types (χ21,4 = 647, P < .01), with silver screws having the lowest percentage of failures (3.4%). A discriminant analysis (Λ = .932, χ214,n=2584 = 175.34, P < .001) revealed screw type to be the strongest predictor of

  16. Impact of clinical pharmacist collaboration in patients beginning insulin pump therapy: a retrospective and cross-sectional analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Ledford, James L.; Hess, Rick; Johnson, Frank P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To measure clinical and qualitative outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus transitioning from intensive insulin therapy using multiple daily injections (MDI) to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) initiated and managed by clinical pharmacists under a collaborative practice agreement in a primary care setting without an endocrinologist. Research design and methods This study was a retrospective and cross-sectional analysis of data from an electronic medical record (EMR) and patient survey at a large primary care private practice. Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who were ≥18 years old, started on CSII between 2007 and 2010, and had at least one follow-up visit post-CSII were analyzed. Mean HbA1c results were stratified across 3-month intervals post-CSII initiation and compared to pre-CSII levels. Body mass index (BMI), the number of diabetes-related clinic visits with the primary care physician (PCP), and non-insulin diabetes medication use was compared pre- and post-CSII initiation. Paper-based questionnaires were used to assess patient satisfaction with CSII vs MDI and pharmacist-led services. Results Twenty-five patients were included in the analysis. HbA1c decreased from 8.69 to 7.52% pre and post-CSII, respectively (p < 0.001). HbA1c also decreased across all 3-month intervals post-CSII. BMI decreased from 33.0 to 32.3 kg/m2 pre- and post-CSII, respectively (p = 0.085). Fewer diabetes-related PCP visits were completed post-CSII (5.09 vs 3.78 visits/year, p = 0.009), and less non-insulin diabetes medications were prescribed post-CSII (p < 0.001). Patients felt more comfortable controlling glycemic excursions and resultant insulin adjustments with CSII compared to MDI (p < 0.001). Conclusions Pharmacist-led CSII services appear to improve diabetes control in patients requiring intensive insulin therapy. Patients report greater comfort using CSII and strong confidence in the abilities of the pharmacist

  17. Violence against Congolese refugee women in Rwanda and mental health: a cross-sectional study using latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather L; Falb, Kathryn L; Willie, Tiara; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Bienkowski, Lauren; Meerdink, Ned; Gupta, Jhumka

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of conflict-related violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) and their associations with emotional distress among Congolese refugee women living in Rwanda. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Two Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Participants 548 ever-married Congolese refugee women of reproductive age (15–49 years) residing in Rwanda. Primary outcome measure Our primary outcome was emotional distress as measured using the Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). For analysis, we considered participants with scores greater than 10 to be experiencing emotional distress and participants with scores of 10 or less not to be experiencing emotional distress. Results Almost half of women (49%) reported experiencing physical, emotional or sexual violence during the conflict, and less than 10% of women reported experiencing of any type of violence after fleeing the conflict. Lifetime IPV was reported by approximately 22% of women. Latent class analysis derived four distinct classes of violence experiences, including the Low All Violence class, the High Violence During Conflict class, the High IPV class and the High Violence During and After Conflict class. In multivariate regression models, latent class was strongly associated with emotional distress. Compared with women in the Low All Violence class, women in the High Violence During and After Conflict class and women in the High Violence During Conflict had 2.7 times (95% CI 1.11 to 6.74) and 2.3 times (95% CI 1.30 to 4.07) the odds of experiencing emotional distress in the past 4 weeks, respectively. Furthermore, women in the High IPV class had a 4.7 times (95% CI 2.53 to 8.59) greater odds of experiencing emotional distress compared with women in the Low All Violence class. Conclusions Experiences of IPV do not consistently correlate with experiences of conflict-related violence, and women who experience high levels of IPV may have the greatest likelihood for poor mental health

  18. Urban sprawl, obesity, and cancer mortality in the United States: cross-sectional analysis and methodological challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban sprawl has the potential to influence cancer mortality via direct and indirect effects on obesity, access to health services, physical activity, transportation choices and other correlates of sprawl and urbanization. Methods This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of associations between urban sprawl and cancer mortality in urban and suburban counties of the United States. This ecological analysis was designed to examine whether urban sprawl is associated with total and obesity-related cancer mortality and to what extent these associations differed in different regions of the US. A major focus of our analyses was to adequately account for spatial heterogeneity in mortality. Therefore, we fit a series of regression models, stratified by gender, successively testing for the presence of spatial heterogeneity. Our resulting models included county level variables related to race, smoking, obesity, access to health services, insurance status, socioeconomic position, and broad geographic region as well as a measure of urban sprawl and several interactions. Our most complex models also included random effects to account for any county-level spatial autocorrelation that remained unexplained by these variables. Results Total cancer mortality rates were higher in less sprawling areas and contrary to our initial hypothesis; this was also true of obesity related cancers in six of seven U.S. regions (census divisions) where there were statistically significant associations between the sprawl index and mortality. We also found significant interactions (p < 0.05) between region and urban sprawl for total and obesity related cancer mortality in both sexes. Thus, the association between urban sprawl and cancer mortality differs in different regions of the US. Conclusions Despite higher levels of obesity in more sprawling counties in the US, mortality from obesity related cancer was not greater in such counties. Identification of disparities in cancer

  19. The African Origin of Complex Projectile Technology: An Analysis Using Tip Cross-Sectional Area and Perimeter

    PubMed Central

    Sisk, Matthew L.; Shea, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a body of literature focusing on the functionality of modern and stylistically distinct projectile points, comparatively little attention has been paid to quantifying the functionality of the early stages of projectile use. Previous work identified a simple ballistics measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Area, as a way of determining if a given class of stone points could have served as effective projectile armatures. Here we use this in combination with an alternate measure, the Tip Cross-Sectional Perimeter, a more accurate proxy of the force needed to penetrate a target to a lethal depth. The current study discusses this measure and uses it to analyze a collection of measurements from African Middle Stone Age pointed stone artifacts. Several point types that were rejected in previous studies are statistically indistinguishable from ethnographic projectile points using this new measure. The ramifications of this finding for a Middle Stone Age origin of complex projectile technology is discussed. PMID:21755048

  20. Calculation and analysis of cross-sections for p+184W reactions up to 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Jun; Han, Yin-Lu

    2015-08-01

    A set of optimal proton optical potential parameters for p+ 184W reactions are obtained at incident proton energy up to 250 MeV. Based on these parameters, the reaction cross-sections, elastic scattering angular distributions, energy spectra and double differential cross sections of proton-induced reactions on 184W are calculated and analyzed by using theoretical models which integrate the optical model, distorted Born wave approximation theory, intra-nuclear cascade model, exciton model, Hauser-Feshbach theory and evaporation model. The calculated results are compared with existing experimental data and good agreement is achieved. Supported by National Basic Research Program of China, Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System for Nuclear Waste Transmutation (2007CB209903) and Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Thorium Molten Salt Reactor Nuclear Energy System (XDA02010100)

  1. Circular-harmonic vector analysis of a dielectric waveguide with a cross-cut-circle cross section.

    PubMed

    Yang, S C; Kim, H S; Lee, H J

    1995-11-20

    Vector-wave solutions of dielectric waveguides with cross-cut-circle cross sections, which are commonly produced by reflow of the waveguide core on a planar substrate at high temperature, are rigorously analyzed by the use of the point-matching method. As a numerical example, the propagation constant, electromagnetic-field distribution, and convergence of mode solutions for a semicircular waveguide are presented, and the properties of these modes are discussed. PMID:21060651

  2. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Auais, Mohammad; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context. Methods A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Tirana (Albania), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score < 8 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. The 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles. Results In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01–1.88, respectively) or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18–2.12, respectively). Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant. Conclusion Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal

  3. Outdoor artificial light at night, obesity, and sleep health: Cross-sectional analysis in the KoGES study.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yong Seo; Song, Jin-Young; Joo, Eun-Yeon; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Sang-kun; Jung, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a common disorder with many complications. Although chronodisruption plays a role in obesity, few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between artificial light at night (ALAN) and obesity. Since sleep health is related to both obesity and ALAN, we investigated the association between outdoor ALAN and obesity after adjusting for sleep health. We also investigated the association between outdoor ALAN and sleep health. This cross-sectional survey included 8526 adults, 39-70 years of age, who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Outdoor ALAN data were obtained from satellite images provided by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. We obtained individual data regarding outdoor ALAN; body mass index; depression; and sleep health including sleep duration, mid-sleep time, and insomnia; and other demographic data including age, sex, educational level, type of residential building, monthly household income, alcohol consumption, smoking status and consumption of caffeine or alcohol before sleep. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between outdoor ALAN and obesity. The prevalence of obesity differed significantly according to sex (women 47% versus men 39%, p < 0.001) and outdoor ALAN (high 55% versus low 40%, p < 0.001). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between high outdoor ALAN and obesity (odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.35, p < 0.001). Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that high outdoor ALAN was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for age and sex (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.14-1.37, p < 0.001) and even after controlling for various other confounding factors including age, sex, educational level, type of residential building, monthly household income, alcohol consumption, smoking, consumption of caffeine or alcohol before sleep, delayed sleep pattern, short sleep duration and

  4. Frequency and Risk Indicators of Tooth Decay among Pregnant Women in France: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Kaminski, Monique; Lelong, Nathalie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Sixou, Michel; Nabet, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. Methods A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women’s medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. Results 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d. = 2.8). Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR = 1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45]), lower educational level (aOR = 1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23]) and dental plaque (aOR = 1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]). The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. Discussion The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations. PMID:22586442

  5. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Late HAART Initiation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Late Testers and Late Presenters

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Wehbe, Firas; Cesar, Carina; Cortés, Claudia; Padgett, Denis; Koenig, Serena; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine; Masys, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI) in this region. Methodology Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico) from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4+ count ≤200cells/mm3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT) were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP) initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. Principal Findings Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817) who had baseline CD4+ available (n = 8515), 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52–59]), Chile (80%[95%CI:77–82]), Haiti (76%[95%CI:74–77]), Honduras (91%[95%CI:87–94]), Mexico (79%[95%CI:75–83]), Peru (86%[95%CI:84–88]). The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras) (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7), with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA). Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02–1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02–1.43; respectively), but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94–1.21). Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87–0.98) (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA). LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. Conclusion LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation

  6. Utilization of Emergency Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Training Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Huseyin; Aksoy, Ulku; Ozturk, Mustafa; Ozyurt, Sezin; Acmaz, Gokhan; Karadag, Ozge Idem; Yucel, Burak; Aydin, Turgut

    2015-01-01

    Background Overutilization and inappropriate use of emergency departments (EDs) by patients with non-urgent health problems has become a major concern worldwide. This study aims to describe the characteristics of obstetric and gynecologic patients admitted to the Department of Emergency Obstetric and Gynecology. Methods A retrospective and cross-sectional study was designed at our Emergency Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital of Medicine between January 1 and December 31, 2013. A total of 30,853 patients applying to emergency service were retrospectively analyzed from the admission charts, patient files and hospital automation system. Patients were assessed in terms of demographic features, presentation times, complaints, admission type (with own facilities, with consultation or with ambulance), diagnoses (urgent or non-ergent), discharge rates, clinical admission, rejection rate of examination, and rejection rate of hospitalization. Results A total of 30,853 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The mean age of patients was 27.69 ± 8.44 years; 51% of patients were between 20 and 29 years old. The categories of patients in urgent and non-urgent were 69% and 31% respectively. Most common presentation time period was between 19:00 and 21:00. Labor pain, pain and bleeding during pregnency, routine antenatal control, pelvic pain and menstrual irregularity were the most common complaints. Labor pain with the rate of 21% was the most common cause of ED admission. All patients who presented with labor pain were hospitalized. Patients hospitalized for labor constituted 56% of all hospitalized patients. Among patients, 62% were treated on an outpatient basis and 38% were hospitalized. Of patients, 3.54% refused to hospitalization. The cases using the ambulance to admission constituted 1.07% of all ED patients. Of these patients who have used ambulance 3.65% refused to the patient examination. Conclusions To improve the

  7. Determination of the interatomic potential from elastic differential cross sections at fixed energy: Functional sensitivity analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, T.; Rabitz, H.

    1989-02-01

    Elastic differential cross sections in atomic crossed beam experiments contain detailed information about the underlying interatomic potentials. The functional sensitivity density of the cross sections with respect to the potential deltasigma(theta)/deltaV(R) reveals such information and has been implemented in an iterative inversion procedure, analogous to that of the Newton--Raphson technique. The stability of the inversion is achieved with the use of the regularization method of Tikhonov and Miller. It is shown that given a set of well resolved and noise-free differential cross section data within a limited angular range and given a reasonable starting reference potential, the recovered potential accurately resembles the desired one in the important region, i.e., the region to which the scattering data are sensitive. The region of importance depends upon the collision energy relative to the well depth of the potential under study; usually a higher collision energy penetrates deeper into the repulsive part of the potential and thus accordingly yields a more accurate potential in that part. The inversion procedure produces also a quality function indicating the well determined radial region. Moreover, the extracted potential is quite independent of the functional form of the reference potential in contrast to curve fitting approaches. As illustrations, the model inert gas systems He--Ne and Ne--Ar have been considered. For collision energies within an order of magnitude of the associated potential well depth, the attractive part of the potential can be determined to high precision provided that scattering data at small enough angles are available.

  8. Mechanical design and analysis of the 2D cross-section of the SSC collider dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, J.; Kerby, J.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the two dimensional cross-section of the base-line collider dipole magnet for the Superconducting Super Collider. The components described here are the collar laminations, the tapered keys that lock the upper and lower collars, the yoke laminations, the cold mass shell. We describe in detail the shape of the outer surface of the collars which defines the yoke-collar interface, and the shape of the collar interior, which defines the conductor placement. Other features of the collar and yoke will be described in somewhat less detail. 20 refs., 12 figs. , 6 tabs.

  9. Out-of-pocket Cost Burden in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Cross-sectional Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Aaron T.; Damman, Jennifer L.; Ziring, David A.; Gleghorn, Elizabeth E.; Garcia-Careaga, Manuel G.; Gugig, Roberto R.; Hunter, Anna K.; Burgis, Jennifer C.; Bass, Dorsey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), can result in significant morbidity requiring frequent health care utilization. Although it is known that the overall financial impact of pediatric IBD is significant, the direct out-of-pocket (OOP) cost burden on the parents of children with IBD has not been explored. We hypothesized that affected children with a more relapsing disease course and families in lower income strata, ineligible for need-based assistance programs, disparately absorb ongoing financial stress. Methods: We completed a cross-sectional analysis among parents of children with IBD residing in California using an online HIPAA-secure Qualtrics survey. Multicenter recruitment occurred between December 4, 2013 and September 18, 2014 at the point-of-care from site investigators, informational flyers distributed at regional CCFA conferences, and social media campaigns equally targeting Northern, Central, and Southern California. IBD-, patient-, and family-specific information were collected from the parents of pediatric patients with IBD patients younger than 18 years of age at time of study, carry a confirmed diagnosis of CD or UC, reside in and receive pediatric gastroenterology care in California, and do not have other chronic diseases requiring ongoing medical care. Results: We collected 150 unique surveys from parents of children with IBD (67 CD; 83 UC). The median patient age was 14 years for both CD and UC, with an overall 3.7 years (SD 2.8 yr) difference between survey completion and time of IBD diagnosis. Annually, 63.6%, 28.6%, and 5.3% of families had an OOP cost burden >$500, >$1000, and >5000, respectively. Approximately one-third (36.0%) of patients had emergency department (ED) visits over the past year, with 59.2% of these patients spending >$500 on emergency department copays, including 11.1% who spent >$5000. Although 43.3% contributed <$500 on procedure and test

  10. A population health approach to reducing observational intensity bias in health risk adjustment: cross sectional analysis of insurance claims

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Sandra M; Bevan, Gwyn; Skinner, Jonathan S; Gottlieb, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the performance of two new approaches to risk adjustment that are free of the influence of observational intensity with methods that depend on diagnoses listed in administrative databases. Setting Administrative data from the US Medicare program for services provided in 2007 among 306 US hospital referral regions. Design Cross sectional analysis. Participants 20% sample of fee for service Medicare beneficiaries residing in one of 306 hospital referral regions in the United States in 2007 (n=5 153 877). Main outcome measures The effect of health risk adjustment on age, sex, and race adjusted mortality and spending rates among hospital referral regions using four indices: the standard Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services—Hierarchical Condition Categories (HCC) index used by the US Medicare program (calculated from diagnoses listed in Medicare’s administrative database); a visit corrected HCC index (to reduce the effects of observational intensity on frequency of diagnoses); a poverty index (based on US census); and a population health index (calculated using data on incidence of hip fractures and strokes, and responses from a population based annual survey of health from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Results Estimated variation in age, sex, and race adjusted mortality rates across hospital referral regions was reduced using the indices based on population health, poverty, and visit corrected HCC, but increased using the standard HCC index. Most of the residual variation in age, sex, and race adjusted mortality was explained (in terms of weighted R2) by the population health index: R2=0.65. The other indices explained less: R2=0.20 for the visit corrected HCC index; 0.19 for the poverty index, and 0.02 for the standard HCC index. The residual variation in age, sex, race, and price adjusted spending per capita across the 306 hospital referral regions explained by the indices (in terms of weighted R2) were 0.50 for

  11. Reporting of euthanasia in medical practice in Flanders, Belgium: cross sectional analysis of reported and unreported cases

    PubMed Central

    Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Rurup, Mette L; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the rate of reporting of euthanasia cases to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee and to compare the characteristics of reported and unreported cases of euthanasia. Design Cross sectional analysis. Setting Flanders, Belgium. Participants A stratified at random sample was drawn of people who died between 1 June 2007 and 30 November 2007. The certifying physician of each death was sent a questionnaire on end of life decision making in the death concerned. Main outcome measures The rate of euthanasia cases reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee; physicians’ reasons for not reporting cases of euthanasia; the relation between reporting and non-reporting and the characteristics of the physician and patient; the time by which life was shortened according to the physician; the labelling of the end of life decision by the physician involved; and differences in characteristics of due care between reported and unreported euthanasia cases. Results The survey response rate was 58.4% (3623/6202 eligible cases). The estimated total number of cases of euthanasia in Flanders in 2007 was 1040 (95% CI 970 to 1109), thus the incidence of euthanasia was estimated as 1.9% of all deaths (95% CI 1.6% to 2.3%). Approximately half (549/1040 (52.8%, 95% CI 43.9% to 60.5%)) of all estimated cases of euthanasia were reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee. Physicians who perceived their case as euthanasia reported it in 93.1% (67/72) of cases. Cases of euthanasia were reported less often when the time by which life was shortened was less than one week compared with when the perceived life shortening was greater (37.3% v 74.1%; P<0.001). Unreported cases were generally dealt with less carefully than reported cases: a written request for euthanasia was more often absent (87.7% v 17.6% verbal request only; P<0.001), other physicians and caregivers specialised in palliative care were consulted less often (54.6% v 97.5%; 33.0% v 63

  12. Analysis of normalized radar cross section (sigma-O) signature of Amazon rain forest using SEASAT scatterometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, E. M.; Sweet, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The normalized radar cross section (NRCS) signature of the Amazon rain forest was SEASAT scatterometer data. Statistics of the measured (NRCS) values were determined from multiple orbit passes for three local time periods. Plots of mean normalized radar cross section, dB against incidence angle as a function of beam and polarization show that less than 0.3 dB relative bias exists between all beams over a range of incidence angle from 30 deg to 53 deg. The backscattered measurements analyzed show the Amazon rain forest to be relatively homogeneous, azimuthally isotropic and insensitive to polarization. The return from the rain forest target appears relatively consistent and stable, except for the small diurnal variation (0.75 dB) that occurs at sunrise. Because of the relative stability of the rain forest target and the scatterometer instrument, the response of versus incidence angle was able to detect errors in the estimated yaw altitude angle. Also, small instrument gain biases in some of the processing channels were detected. This led to the development of an improved NRCS algorithm, which uses a more accurate method for estimating the system noise power.

  13. RootAnalyzer: A Cross-Section Image Analysis Tool for Automated Characterization of Root Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Joshua; Laga, Hamid; Huang, Chun Yuan; Heuer, Sigrid; Miklavcic, Stanley J.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of plant root anatomical features is a key factor in effective water and nutrient uptake. Existing techniques for phenotyping root anatomical traits are often based on manual or semi-automatic segmentation and annotation of microscopic images of root cross sections. In this article, we propose a fully automated tool, hereinafter referred to as RootAnalyzer, for efficiently extracting and analyzing anatomical traits from root-cross section images. Using a range of image processing techniques such as local thresholding and nearest neighbor identification, RootAnalyzer segments the plant root from the image’s background, classifies and characterizes the cortex, stele, endodermis and epidermis, and subsequently produces statistics about the morphological properties of the root cells and tissues. We use RootAnalyzer to analyze 15 images of wheat plants and one maize plant image and evaluate its performance against manually-obtained ground truth data. The comparison shows that RootAnalyzer can fully characterize most root tissue regions with over 90% accuracy. PMID:26398501

  14. R-matrix analysis of the {sup 240}Pu neutron cross sections in the thermal to 5700 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Bouland, O.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.

    1997-08-01

    Resonance analysis of high resolution neutron transmission data and of fission cross sections were performed in the neutron energy range from the thermal regions to 5,700 eV by using the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY. The experimental data base is described and the method of analysis is given. The experimental data were carefully examined in order to identify more resonances than those found in the current evaluated data files. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are given. A new set of the average values of the parameters is proposed, which could be used for calculation of the average cross sections in the unresolved resonance region. The resonance parameters are available IN ENDF-6 format at the national or international data centers.

  15. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  16. Evaluation of the /sup 7/Li(n,n't)/sup 4/He cross section for ENDF/B-VI and application to uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.G.; Davidson, J.W.; Muir, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    A new covariance analysis of n+/sup 7/Li cross section data has been completed for Version VI of ENDF/B. The analysis updates our 1981 work for ENDF/B-V.2 to include new data that has become available since that time and to incorporate cross correlations between different experiments. The bulk of the new measured data consists of some 10 new (or newly revised) tritium-production measurements involving about 70 new data points. The new analysis results in only small changes in the previous evaluation of the tritium-production cross section but significantly reduces the magnitudes of uncertainties due to the more extensive and accurate data base that was used. A two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the Lithium Blanket Module experiments at the LOTUS facility was performed in order to assess the effects of the new /sup 7/Li cross sections on tritium breeding uncertainty in a realistic system. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Neutron total cross section and resonance parameters of /sup 231/Pa

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, A.R.Z.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Patterson, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    Time-of-flight measurements of the neutron total cross section of /sup 231/Pa were carried out, in the energy range 0.01 to 10,000 eV, on two sample thicknesses using the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator as the pulsed neutron source. The multilevel R matrix code MULTI, which includes instrumental resolution and the Doppler broadening, has been used to fit the data. The resonance parameters obtained from the present multilevel R matrix analysis of /sup 231/Pa transmission data from 0.03 to 120 eV are given. 14 refs.

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Neutron Cross-Sections Considered for Design and Safety Studies of Lfr and SFR Generation IV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucek, Kamil; Carlsson, Johan; Wider, Hartmut

    2006-04-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of several design and safety parameters with regard to five different nuclear data libraries, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3. More specifically, the effective multiplication factor, burn-up reactivity swing and decay heat generation in available LFR and SFR designs were estimated. Monte Carlo codes MCNP and MCB were used in the analyses of the neutronic and burn-up performance of the systems. Thermo-hydraulic safety calculations were performed by the STAR-CD CFD code. For the LFR, ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEF2.2 showed to give a harder neutron spectrum than JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 data due to the lower inelastic scattering cross-section of lead in these libraries. Hence, the neutron economy of the system becomes more favourable and keff is higher when calculated with ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEF2.2 data. As for actinide cross-section data, the uncertainties in the keff values appeared to be mainly due to 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am. Differences in the estimated burn-up reactivity swings proved to be significant, for an SFR as large as a factor of three (when comparing ENDF/B-VI.8 results to those of JENDL3.2). Uncertainties in the evaluation of short-term decay heat generation showed to be of the order of several per cent. Significant differences were, understandably, observed between decay heat generation data quoted in literature for LWR-UOX and those calculated for an LFR (U,TRU)O2 spent fuel. A corresponding difference in calculated core parameters (outlet coolant temperature) during protected total Loss-of-Power was evaluated.

  19. X-ray analysis of residual stress gradients in TiN coatings by a Laplace space approach and cross-sectional nanodiffraction: a critical comparison

    PubMed Central

    Stefenelli, Mario; Todt, Juraj; Riedl, Angelika; Ecker, Werner; Müller, Thomas; Daniel, Rostislav; Burghammer, Manfred; Keckes, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Novel scanning synchrotron cross-sectional nanobeam and conventional laboratory as well as synchrotron Laplace X-ray diffraction methods are used to characterize residual stresses in exemplary 11.5 µm-thick TiN coatings. Both real and Laplace space approaches reveal a homogeneous tensile stress state and a very pronounced compressive stress gradient in as-deposited and blasted coatings, respectively. The unique capabilities of the cross-sectional approach operating with a beam size of 100 nm in diameter allow the analysis of stress variation with sub-micrometre resolution at arbitrary depths and the correlation of the stress evolution with the local coating microstructure. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are extensively discussed. PMID:24068842

  20. Post irradiation experiment analysis using the APOLLO2 deterministic tool. Validation of JEFF-3.1.1 thermal and epithermal actinides neutron induced cross sections through MELUSINE experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, D.; Fabbris, O.

    2012-07-01

    Two different experiments performed in the 8 MWth MELUSINE experimental power pool reactor aimed at analyzing 1 GWd/t spent fuel pellets doped with several actinides. The goal was to measure the averaged neutron induced capture cross section in two very different neutron spectra (a PWR-like and an under-moderated one). This paper summarizes the combined deterministic APOLLO2-stochastic TRIPOLI4 analysis using the JEFF-3.1.1 European nuclear data library. A very good agreement is observed for most of neutron induced capture cross section of actinides and a clear underestimation for the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) as an accurate validation of its associated isomeric ratio are emphasized. Finally, a possible huge resonant fluctuation (factor of 2.7 regarding to the 1=0 resonance total orbital momenta) is suggested for isomeric ratio. (authors)

  1. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  2. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  3. Z-dependence analysis of M x-ray production cross sections for heavy elements with 60≤Z≤90 by protons impact

    SciTech Connect

    Deghfel, B.; Kahoul, A.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    Motivated by the large deviation between the experiment and the predictions of the most often used model of ionization process by a charged particle, namely ECPSSR model, a large database of experimental M-shell X-ray production cross-sections by protons energies varying from 0.1 to 4.0 MeV for elements with atomic number 60 ≤ Z ≤ 90, is collected from various sources published from 1980 till 2009 to deduce an empirical M x-ray production cross section. This latter is then deduced from the available experimental data as a function of the scaled velocity parameter by using the whole range of elements (collective analysis) or by introducing the dependence of these cross sections on the atomic number of the target, noted as “Z-dependence analysis” in addition to the collective one. The corresponding results and their deviation from the experimental data are presented for selected elements. Also, a comparison is made for selected elements between our results and other theoretical as well as experimental works.

  4. Analysis of blood flow in pulmonary hypertension with the pulsed Doppler flowmeter combined with cross sectional echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, M; Miyatake, K; Kinoshita, N; Sakakibara, H; Nimura, Y

    1984-01-01

    Blood flow patterns were analysed at nine points in the pulmonary area using the pulsed Doppler technique combined with cross-sectional echocardiography in 53 patients with heart disease and 10 healthy subjects. In subjects with a normal pulmonary artery pressure the blood flow pattern in systole showed a gradual acceleration and deceleration with a rounded summit in mid systole, designated the round type. In patients with pulmonary hypertension it showed a rapid acceleration and early deceleration with a sharp peak in early systole, designated the triangular type. The acceleration time index, defined as the ratio of the time interval from the beginning to the peak of ejection to the ejection time, showed a significant inverse correlation with mean pulmonary artery pressure. In pulmonary hypertension a prominent reverse flow occurred in the right posterior part of the pulmonary trunk during mid-systole and early diastole, indicating the presence of a vortex. Similar flow patterns were also seen in patients with idiopathic pulmonary artery dilatation. The factors responsible for the triangular type were principally the reduced capacitance and increased impedance of the pulmonary vascular tree. Those responsible for the reverse flow were the curved path of the blood flow and dilatation of the pulmonary artery. Images PMID:6231042

  5. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Near-threshold behaviour of electron elastic scattering cross sections for Fr: a Regge pole analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.; Sokolovski, D.

    2006-11-01

    Elastic partial and integral cross sections for e--Fr scattering are investigated at electron energies E's near the threshold to understand the mechanism of electron attachment and predict new manifestations. The calculation uses the Mulholland formula, implemented within the complex angular momentum description of scattering wherein resonances are rigorously defined as singularities of the S-matrix. We benchmark our approach by comparing the calculated results with those from the recent Dirac R-matrix method (Bahrim et al 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 042710). We find that near threshold there is no Ramsauer-Townsend minimum and that there is a shape resonance at E = 0.034 eV, in agreement with the Bahrim et al results. However, contrary to the Dirac R-matrix data, a new sharp f-resonance appears at E = 0.354 eV and a p-wave Wigner threshold behaviour is identified. Some results for e--Cs are also presented. The general agreement with the Dirac R-matrix results gives credence to our simple and novel approach.

  6. Family Structure, Mother-Child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate A.; Currie, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between mother-child and father-child communication and children's life satisfaction, and the moderating effect of communication with stepparents. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland…

  7. The influence of the built environment on outcomes from a "walking school bus study": a cross-sectional analysis using geographical information systems.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Blossom, Jeff; Robinson, Alyssa I; Chen, Minghua L; Uscanga, Doris K; Mendoza, Jason A

    2014-11-01

    Active commuting to school increases children's daily physical activity. The built environment is associated with children's physical activity levels in cross-sectional studies. This study examined the role of the built environment on the outcomes of a "walking school bus" study. Geographical information systems was used to map out and compare the built environments around schools participating in a pilot walking school bus randomised controlled trial, as well as along school routes. Multi-level modelling was used to determine the built environment attributes associated with the outcomes of active commuting to school and accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MPVA). There were no differences in the surrounding built environments of control (n = 4) and intervention (n = 4) schools participating in the walking school bus study. Among school walking routes, park space was inversely associated with active commuting to school (β = -0.008, SE = 0.004, P = 0.03), while mixed-land use was positively associated with daily MPVA (β = 60.0, SE = 24.3, P = 0.02). There was effect modification such that high traffic volume and high street connectivity were associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The results of this study suggest that the built environment may play a role in active school commuting outcomes and daily physical activity. PMID:25545924

  8. The influence of the built environment on outcomes from a “walking school bus study”: a cross-sectional analysis using geographical information systems

    PubMed Central

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Blossom, Jeff; Robinson, Alyssa I.; Chen, Minghua L.; Uscanga, Doris K.; Mendoza, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting to school increases children’s daily physical activity. The built environment is associated with children’s physical activity levels in cross-sectional studies. This study examined the role of the built environment on the outcomes of a “walking school bus” study. Geographical information systems was used to map out and compare the built environments around schools participating in a pilot walking school bus randomised controlled trial, as well as along school routes. Multi-level modelling was used to determine the built environment attributes associated with the outcomes of active commuting to school and accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MPVA). There were no differences in the surrounding built environments of control (n = 4) and intervention (n = 4) schools participating in the walking school bus study. Among school walking routes, park space was inversely associated with active commuting to school (β = −0.008, SE = 0.004, P = 0.03), while mixed-land use was positively associated with daily MPVA (β = 60.0, SE = 24.3, P = 0.02). There was effect modification such that high traffic volume and high street connectivity were associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The results of this study suggest that the built environment may play a role in active school commuting outcomes and daily physical activity. PMID:25545924

  9. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  10. The total charm cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  11. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  12. (Fast neutron cross section measurements)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months.

  13. Sense of Coherence among Older Adult Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jueng, Ruo-Nan; Tsai, Der-Chong; Chen, I-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background Growing evidence shows that sense of coherence (SOC) is related to health promotion. Knowledge of SOC among older adults in Taiwan is limited. The present study aimed to investigate SOC status and its relationship to personal and environmental factors among older adult residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in northeastern Taiwan. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed in Yilan, Taiwan. With face-to-face interviews, we obtained data from 104 LTCF residents (aged 65 years and older) using the Chinese version of Antonovsky's short 13-item SOC scale. We also collected the information on personal characteristics, physical and social environmental resources. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze factors potentially influencing SOC. Results Of the participants, the mean score (±standard deviation) of SOC was 58.3 (±8.8), while scores on SOC subscales (comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness) were 23.4 ±4.5, 17.9 ±3.8, and 17.0 ±3.2, respectively. Education level, activities of daily living and number of LTCF staff were found to be independently associated with SOC status after adjusting for demographic characteristics, health status, and environmental resources. In addition, interactions between personal and environmental factors had a crucial influence on SOC status. Conclusions Participants in this study had relatively low SOC scores compared to their counterparts in Western countries. In addition to personal factors, environmental factors can play a significant role in SOC status among older adult LTCF residents. Comprehensive evaluation of SOC status should consider person-environment interaction effects. PMID:26751949

  14. Urban-Rural Differences in Bone Mineral Density: A Cross Sectional Analysis Based on the Hyderabad Indian Migration Study

    PubMed Central

    Viljakainen, Heli T.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kinra, Sanjay; Ebrahim, Shah; Kuper, Hannah; Radhakrishna, K. V.; Kulkarni, Bharati; Tobias, Jon H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fracture risk is rising in countries undergoing rapid rural to urban migration, but whether this reflects an adverse effect of urbanization on intrinsic bone strength, as reflected by bone mineral density (BMD), is currently unknown. Methods Lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) BMD, and total body fat and lean mass, were obtained from DXA scans performed in the Hyderabad arm of the Indian Migration Study (54% male, mean age 49 years). Sib-pair comparisons were performed between rural-urban migrants (RUM) and rural non-migrated (RNM) siblings (N = 185 sib-pairs). Results In analyses adjusted for height, gender, age and occupation, rural to urban migration was associated with higher lumbar and hip BMD and greater predicted hip strength; ΔLS BMD 0.030 (0.005, 0.055) g/cm2, ΔTH BMD 0.044 (0.024; 0.064) g/cm2, Δcross-sectional moment of inertia 0.162 (0.036, 0.289) cm4. These differences were largely attenuated after adjusting for body composition, insulin levels and current lifestyle factors ie. years of smoking, alcohol consumption and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Further analyses suggested that differences in lean mass, and to a lesser extent fat mass, largely explained the BMD differences which we observed. Conclusions Rural to urban migration as an adult is associated with higher BMD and greater predicted hip strength, reflecting associated alterations in body composition. It remains to be seen how differences in BMD between migration groups will translate into fracture risk in becoming years. PMID:26484878

  15. The sexual health of male sex workers in England: analysis of cross-sectional data from genitourinary medicine clinics

    PubMed Central

    Mc Grath-Lone, Louise; Marsh, Kimberly; Hughes, Gwenda; Ward, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Male sex workers (MSW) are thought to be at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI), however, limited comparative data with other groups are available. Disparities among MSWs by migrant status may also exist. Using newly available, cross-sectional surveillance data, the characteristics of MSWs and other male genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic attendees can be investigated. Methods Demographic characteristics, STI prevalence and service usage among MSWs and other male attendees between 1 January and 31 December 2011 were compared using logistic regression. Results In 2011, 627 780 men attended GUM clinics; 488 (0.08%) were identified as MSWs. MSWs used a variety of services, however, one in seven had no HIV test at presentation. Adjusting for demographic factors and self-reported sexual orientation, MSWs had increased risk of some STIs and reinfection compared to other male attendees (eg, ORadj of gonorrhoea infection: 2.21, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.01, p<0.001, 14.1% vs 4.8% reinfected in 2011, p=0.005). Service usage did not vary between migrant and UK-born MSWs, but migrant MSWs were twice as likely to be diagnosed with chlamydia. Conclusions Some STIs are more prevalent and some reinfections more common among MSWs than other male attendees. A minority of MSWs do not appear to access STI/HIV testing through GUM clinics, and targeted interventions to improve uptake of testing in MSWs should be developed. Service usage and sexual health of MSWs does not appear to vary greatly by migrant status, though the increased risk of chlamydia infection among migrant MSWs should be investigated further. PMID:24273126

  16. Drug use during early pregnancy: Cross-sectional analysis from the Childbirth and Health Study in Primary Care in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Emil L.; Gudmundsdottir, Anna M.; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sigurdsson, Johann A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To analyse drug use in early pregnancy with special focus on socio-demographic factors associated with psychotropic and analgesic drug use. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects. A total of 1765 women were invited via their local health care centres, and 1111 participated at 11–16 weeks of pregnancy by filling out a postal questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and obstetric background, stressful life events, and drug use. Main outcome measures. Drug use prior to and early on in pregnancy, socio-demographic factors, smoking, and adverse life events were investigated. Drug categories screened for were psychotropics (collective term for antidepressants, relaxants, and sleep medication), analgesics, hormones, nicotine, vitamins/minerals, and homeopathic medicine. Results. Drug use from the aforementioned drug categories, excluding vitamins/minerals and homeopathic medicine, was reduced by 18% during early pregnancy, compared with six months prior to conception (49% vs. 60%). Psychotropic drug use during early pregnancy was associated with elementary maternal education (p < 0.5), being unemployed (p < 0.001), being single/divorced/separated (p < 0.01), smoking prior to or during pregnancy (p < 0.01), forced to change job/move house (p < 0.001), and psychotropic drug use six months prior to pregnancy (p < 0.001). No items on the stressful life events scale were associated with increased analgesic use, which increased only with multiparity. Conclusions. Use of analgesics and psychotropic drugs seems common in pregnancy. Our results indicate that lack of a support network, stressful life events, and lower status in society may predispose women to more drug use. GPs and midwives responsible for maternity care could take this into account when evaluating risk and gain for women and foetuses in the primary care setting. PMID:25299613

  17. The effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents: an exploratory cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Lee M; Wong, Wing S

    2011-06-01

    The negative association of insomnia and internet addiction with mental health is widely documented in the literature, yet little is known about their inter-relationships. The primary aim of this study was to examine the inter-relationships between insomnia, internet addiction and depression. A total of 719 Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong participated in this school-based cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), the 12-item version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and questions assessing internet use pattern and sociodemographic characteristics. The classification of internet addiction and insomnia was based on the CIAS cutoff global score >63 and PSQI cutoff global score >5, respectively. Multiple regression analyses tested the effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression. Among students with internet addiction (17.2%), 51.7% were also identified as insomniacs. Internet addicts scored significantly poorer on all PSQI components, except sleep duration, than their non-addicted counterparts. After adjustment for gender and internet use time, both internet addiction (β=0.05; Sobel test Z=6.50, P<0.001) and insomnia (β=0.59; Sobel test Z=4.49, P<0.001) demonstrated a significant association with depression. Overall, there is high comorbidity between internet addiction and insomnia. Both insomnia and internet addiction emerged as significant explanatory factors, but they exerted differential effects on depression. Future research should be directed at determining the causal relationship between internet addiction and insomnia, and its underlying mechanism with depression. PMID:20819144

  18. Analysis of variation in charges and prices paid for vaginal and caesarean section births: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Renee Y; Akosa Antwi, Yaa; Weber, Ellerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the between-hospital variation of charges and discounted prices for uncomplicated vaginal and caesarean section deliveries, and to determine the institutional and market-level characteristics that influence adjusted charges. Design, setting and participants Using data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), we conducted a cross-sectional study of all privately insured patients admitted to California hospitals in 2011 for uncomplicated vaginal delivery (diagnosis-related group (DRG) 775) or uncomplicated caesarean section (DRG 766). Outcome measures Hospital charges and discounted prices adjusted for each patient's clinical and demographic characteristics. Results We analysed 76 766 vaginal deliveries and 32 660 caesarean sections in California in 2011. After adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics, we found that the average California woman could be charged as little as US$3296 or as much as US$37 227 for a vaginal delivery, and US$8312–US$70 908 for a caesarean section depending on which hospital she was admitted to. The discounted prices were, on an average, 37% of the charges. We found that hospitals in markets with middling competition had significantly lower adjusted charges for vaginal deliveries, while hospitals with higher wage indices and casemixes, as well as for-profit hospitals, had higher adjusted charges. Hospitals in markets with higher uninsurance rates charged significantly less for caesarean sections, while for-profit hospitals and hospitals with higher wage indices charged more. However, the institutional and market-level factors included in our models explained only 35–36% of the between-hospital variation in charges. Conclusions These results indicate that charges and discounted prices for two common, relatively homogeneous diagnosis groups—uncomplicated vaginal delivery and caesarean section—vary widely between hospitals and are not well

  19. A simple approach to SEU cross section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshkin, V.V.; Tverskoy, M.G.

    1998-12-01

    The simplified method for determination of proton induced SEU cross section is presented. The method is based on results of the analysis of experimental SEU cross sections initiated by fast nucleons. The possibility of SEU cross section measurement at single proton energy for SEU rate prediction is shown.

  20. Hepcidin and Risk for Anemia in CKD: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analysis in the CKiD Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Meredith A.; Kim, Ji Young; Roy, Cindy N.; Warady, Bradley A.; White, Colin T.; Furth, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepcidin, a key iron regulatory protein, is elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Its role in the development and progression of the anemia of CKD in children remains poorly defined. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal study in children aged 1–16 years with stage 2–4 CKD in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) cohort (n=133) with hepcidin measured at baseline and hemoglobin (HGB) measured annually in follow-up. Anemia was defined as HGB < 5th percentile for age/sex OR treatment with an erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA). Results Hepcidin levels correlated negatively with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r=−0.22, p=0.01) and positively with ferritin (r=0.67, p<0.001). At the lower end of the GFR spectrum at baseline (10th percentile, 27.5 ml/min/1.73m2), higher hepcidin was associated with a 0.87 g/dL decrease in HGB during follow-up (95% CI −1.69, −0.05 g/dL, p=0.038). At higher GFR percentiles there was no significant association between baseline hepcidin and HGB during follow-up. Among 90 non-anemic subjects at baseline, 23.3% developed incident anemia. In subjects with GFR ≤ the median, a higher hepcidin level was associated with an increased risk for incident anemia (at 10th %ile GFR, HR 3.471, 95% CI 1.228, 9.810, p=0.019; at 25th %ile GFR HR 2.641, 95% CI 1.213, 5.750, p=0.014; at 50th %ile GFR, HR 1.953, 95% CI 1.011, 3.772, p=0.046). Among subjects with GFR in the 75th percentile or above, incrementally higher baseline hepcidin was not associated with increased anemia risk. Conclusions Higher hepcidin levels are associated with a decreased HGB and an increased risk for incident anemia, and this association is most significant among subjects with lower GFR. PMID:25380788

  1. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non

  2. Risk factors for postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 mortality in Nigeria: a pooled cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ezeh, Osita Kingsley; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Dibley, Michael John; Hall, John Joseph; Page, Andrew Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify common factors associated with post-neonatal, infant, child and under-5 mortality in Nigeria. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional data of three Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for the years 2003, 2008 and 2013 were used. A multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling method was used to gather information on 63 844 singleton live-born infants of the most recent birth of a mother within a 5-year period before each survey was examined using cox regression models. Main outcome measures Postneonatal mortality (death between 1 and 11 months), infant mortality (death between birth and 11 months), child mortality (death between 12 and 59 months) and under-5 mortality (death between birth and 59 months). Results Multivariable analyses indicated that children born to mothers with no formal education was significantly associated with mortality across all four age ranges (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.66 for postneonatal; HR=1.38, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.84 for infant; HR=2.13, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.89 for child; HR=1.19, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41 for under-5). Other significant factors included living in rural areas (HR=1.48, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.89 for postneonatal; HR=1.23, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.47 for infant; HR=1.52, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.99 for child; HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.50 for under-5), and poor households (HR=2.47, 95% CI 1.76 to 3.47 for postneonatal; HR=1.40, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.78 for infant; HR=1.72, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.49 for child; HR=1.43, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.76 for under-5). Conclusions This study found that no formal education, poor households and living in rural areas increased the risk of postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 mortality among Nigerian children. Community-based interventions for reducing under-5 deaths are needed and should target children born to mothers of low socioeconomic status. PMID:25818271

  3. Smoking and serum vitamin D in older Chinese people: cross-sectional analysis based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, C Q; Chan, Y H; Xu, L; Jin, Y L; Zhu, T; Zhang, W S; Cheng, K K; Lam, T H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies on serum vitamin D in smokers showed conflicting results. We examined the association of smoking status with serum vitamin D in older Chinese men, taking advantage of a community-based sample with natural exposure to vitamin D. Design Cross-sectional study based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS). Setting Community-based sample from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Participants 612 male participants aged 50+years recruited from 2009 to 2011. Results The mean (SD) of vitamin D concentration was 58.3 (17.2), 57.0 (15.0) and 54.7 (15.4) nmol/L for never, former and current smokers, respectively. Adjusted for multiple confounders, vitamin D decreased from never to former, then to current smokers (P for trend 0.02). Compared to never smokers, current smokers had lower serum concentrations of vitamin D, and the concentrations decreased with the increasing number of cigarettes per day (−3.11 (95% CI −9.05 to 2.82), −3.29 (−8.3 to 1.72) and −4.61 (−8.89 to −0.33) for 1–9, 10–19 and 20+cigarettes per day, respectively; p for trend 0.01), duration of smoking (−1.39 (−6.09 to 3.30) and −5.39 (−9.42 to −1.35) for 1–39 and 40+years, respectively; p for trend 0.008) as well as pack-years (−2.89 (−6.78 to 1.01) and −5.58 (−10.48 to −0.67) for 1–39 and 40+pack-years, respectively; p for trend 0.009). Longer duration of quitting smoking was associated with higher vitamin D than was current smoking (P for trend 0.04). Conclusions Current smokers had lower vitamin D than never smokers, and the association showed a dose–response pattern. PMID:27338881

  4. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S

    2014-01-29

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions. PMID:24872597

  5. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis

    PubMed Central

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Jank, Wolfgang S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions. PMID:24872597

  6. Radar cross section studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The ultimate goal is to generate experimental techniques and computer codes of rather general capability that would enable the aerospace industry to evaluate the scattering properties of aerodynamic shapes. Another goal involves developing an understanding of scattering mechanisms so that modification of the vehicular structure could be introduced within constraints set by aerodynamics. The development of indoor scattering measurement systems with special attention given to the compact range is another goal. There has been considerable progress in advancing state-of-the-art scattering measurements and control and analysis of the electromagnetic scattering from general targets.

  7. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  8. The environmental correlates of overall and neighborhood based recreational walking (a cross-sectional analysis of the RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Preliminary evidence suggests that recreational walking has different environmental determinants than utilitarian walking. However, previous studies are limited in their assessment of environmental exposures and recreational walking and in the applied modeling strategies. Accounting for individual sociodemographic profiles and weather over the walking assessment period, the study examined whether numerous street network-based neighborhood characteristics related to the sociodemographic, physical, service, social-interactional, and symbolic environments were associated with overall recreational walking and recreational walking in one’s residential neighborhood and could explain their spatial distribution. Methods Based on the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris region, France, n = 7105, 2007–2008 data), multilevel-spatial regression analyses were conducted to investigate environmental factors associated with recreational walking (evaluated by questionnaire at baseline). A risk score approach was applied to quantify the overall disparities in recreational walking that were predicted by the environmental determinants. Results Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported recreational walking over the past 7 days. Their mean reported recreational walking time was 3h31mn. After individual-level adjustment, a higher neighborhood education, a higher density of destinations, green and open spaces of quality, and the absence of exposure to air traffic were associated with higher odds of recreational walking and/or a higher recreational walking time in one’s residential neighborhood. As the overall disparities that were predicted by these environmental factors, the odds of reporting recreational walking and the odds of a higher recreational walking time in one’s neighborhood were, respectively, 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56, 1.62] times and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.87) times higher in the most vs. the least supportive environments (based on the

  9. Comparison of IUPAC k0 Values and Neutron Cross Sections to Determine a Self-consistent Set of Data for Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Revay, Zsolt

    2009-12-01

    Independent databases of nuclear constants for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been independently maintained by the physics and chemistry communities for many year. They contain thermal neturon cross sections s0, standardization values k0, and transition probabilities Pg. Chemistry databases tend to rely upon direct measurements of the nuclear constants k0 and Pg which are often published in chemistry journals while the physics databases typically include evaluated s0 and Pg data from a variety of experiments published mainly in physics journals. The IAEA/LBNL Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) also contains prompt and delayed g-ray cross sections sg from Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) measurements that can also be used to determine k0 and s0 values. As a result several independent databases of fundamental constants for NAA have evolved containing slightly different and sometimes discrepant results. An IAEA CRP for a Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis was established to compare these databases and investigate the possibilitiy of producing a self-consistent set of s0, k0, sg, and Pg values for NAA and other applications. Preliminary results of this IAEA CRP comparison are given in this paper.

  10. Generalized multilevel function-on-scalar regression and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Jeff; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Schrack, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript considers regression models for generalized, multilevel functional responses: functions are generalized in that they follow an exponential family distribution and multilevel in that they are clustered within groups or subjects. This data structure is increasingly common across scientific domains and is exemplified by our motivating example, in which binary curves indicating physical activity or inactivity are observed for nearly 600 subjects over 5 days. We use a generalized linear model to incorporate scalar covariates into the mean structure, and decompose subject-specific and subject-day-specific deviations using multilevel functional principal components analysis. Thus, functional fixed effects are estimated while accounting for within-function and within-subject correlations, and major directions of variability within and between subjects are identified. Fixed effect coefficient functions and principal component basis functions are estimated using penalized splines; model parameters are estimated in a Bayesian framework using Stan, a programming language that implements a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampler. Simulations designed to mimic the application have good estimation and inferential properties with reasonable computation times for moderate datasets, in both cross-sectional and multilevel scenarios; code is publicly available. In the application we identify effects of age and BMI on the time-specific change in probability of being active over a 24-hour period; in addition, the principal components analysis identifies the patterns of activity that distinguish subjects and days within subjects. PMID:25620473

  11. Childhood Adversities Increase the Risk of Psychosis: A Meta-analysis of Patient-Control, Prospective- and Cross-sectional Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Filippo; Smeets, Feikje; Drukker, Marjan; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Lataster, Tineke; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Read, John; van Os, Jim; Bentall, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood are associated with psychosis. To examine the association between childhood adversity and trauma (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, neglect, parental death, and bullying) and psychosis outcome, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Web of Science were searched from January 1980 through November 2011. We included prospective cohort studies, large-scale cross-sectional studies investigating the association between childhood adversity and psychotic symptoms or illness, case-control studies comparing the prevalence of adverse events between psychotic patients and controls using dichotomous or continuous measures, and case-control studies comparing the prevalence of psychotic symptoms between exposed and nonexposed subjects using dichotomous or continuous measures of adversity and psychosis. The analysis included 18 case-control studies (n = 2048 psychotic patients and 1856 nonpsychiatric controls), 10 prospective and quasi-prospective studies (n = 41 803) and 8 population-based cross-sectional studies (n = 35 546). There were significant associations between adversity and psychosis across all research designs, with an overall effect of OR = 2.78 (95% CI = 2.34–3.31). The integration of the case-control studies indicated that patients with psychosis were 2.72 times more likely to have been exposed to childhood adversity than controls (95% CI = 1.90–3.88). The association between childhood adversity and psychosis was also significant in population-based cross-sectional studies (OR = 2.99 [95% CI = 2.12–4.20]) as well as in prospective and quasi-prospective studies (OR = 2.75 [95% CI = 2.17–3.47]). The estimated population attributable risk was 33% (16%–47%). These findings indicate that childhood adversity is strongly associated with increased risk for psychosis. PMID:22461484

  12. Combination of measurements of inclusive deep inelastic {e^{± }p} scattering cross sections and QCD analysis of HERA data. H1 and ZEUS Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antunović, B.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt Dubak, A.; Behrens, U.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bertolin, A.; Bloch, I.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Brock, I.; Brook, N. H.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Buniatyan, A.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Contreras, J. G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dolinska, G.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Figiel, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Foster, B.; Gabathuler, E.; Gach, G.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henkenjohann, P.; Hladkỳ, J.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jomhari, N. Z.; Jung, H.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Kiesling, C.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kostka, P.; Kotański, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, K.; Krupa, B.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lipka, K.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Morozov, A.; Muhammad Nasir, N.; Müller, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, R. J.; Olsson, J. E.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Paul, E.; Perez, E.; Perlański, W.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polifka, R.; Przybycień, M.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitt, S.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sefkow, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Shushkevich, S.; Shyrma, Yu.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Słomiński, W.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Stanco, L.; Steder, M.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Thompson, P. D.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Traynor, D.; Trofymov, A.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wegener, D.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Wünsch, E.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Žáček, J.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhang, Z.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Žlebčík, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    A combination is presented of all inclusive deep inelastic cross sections previously published by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations at HERA for neutral and charged current e^{± }p scattering for zero beam polarisation. The data were taken at proton beam energies of 920, 820, 575 and 460 GeV and an electron beam energy of 27.5 GeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb^{-1} and span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q^2, and Bjorken x. The correlations of the systematic uncertainties were evaluated and taken into account for the combination. The combined cross sections were input to QCD analyses at leading order, next-to-leading order and at next-to-next-to-leading order, providing a new set of parton distribution functions, called HERAPDF2.0. In addition to the experimental uncertainties, model and parameterisation uncertainties were assessed for these parton distribution functions. Variants of HERAPDF2.0 with an alternative gluon parameterisation, HERAPDF2.0AG, and using fixed-flavour-number schemes, HERAPDF2.0FF, are presented. The analysis was extended by including HERA data on charm and jet production, resulting in the variant HERAPDF2.0Jets. The inclusion of jet-production cross sections made a simultaneous determination of these parton distributions and the strong coupling constant possible, resulting in α _s(M_Z^2)=0.1183 ± 0.0009 (exp) ± 0.0005(model/parameterisation) ± 0.0012(hadronisation) ^{+0.0037}_{-0.0030}(scale). An extraction of xF_3^{γ Z} and results on electroweak unification and scaling violations are also presented.

  13. Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective- and cross-sectional cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Varese, Filippo; Smeets, Feikje; Drukker, Marjan; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Lataster, Tineke; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Read, John; van Os, Jim; Bentall, Richard P

    2012-06-01

    Evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood are associated with psychosis. To examine the association between childhood adversity and trauma (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, neglect, parental death, and bullying) and psychosis outcome, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Web of Science were searched from January 1980 through November 2011. We included prospective cohort studies, large-scale cross-sectional studies investigating the association between childhood adversity and psychotic symptoms or illness, case-control studies comparing the prevalence of adverse events between psychotic patients and controls using dichotomous or continuous measures, and case-control studies comparing the prevalence of psychotic symptoms between exposed and nonexposed subjects using dichotomous or continuous measures of adversity and psychosis. The analysis included 18 case-control studies (n = 2048 psychotic patients and 1856 nonpsychiatric controls), 10 prospective and quasi-prospective studies (n = 41,803) and 8 population-based cross-sectional studies (n = 35,546). There were significant associations between adversity and psychosis across all research designs, with an overall effect of OR = 2.78 (95% CI = 2.34-3.31). The integration of the case-control studies indicated that patients with psychosis were 2.72 times more likely to have been exposed to childhood adversity than controls (95% CI = 1.90-3.88). The association between childhood adversity and psychosis was also significant in population-based cross-sectional studies (OR = 2.99 [95% CI = 2.12-4.20]) as well as in prospective and quasi-prospective studies (OR = 2.75 [95% CI = 2.17-3.47]). The estimated population attributable risk was 33% (16%-47%). These findings indicate that childhood adversity is strongly associated with increased risk for psychosis. PMID:22461484

  14. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  15. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  16. Basin analysis of Upper Cretaceous strata of the Washakie and Red Desert basins, southwestern Wyoming, employing computer-generated maps and cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kohles, K.M.; Potts, J. ); Reid, F.S.

    1991-03-01

    The Washakie and Red Desert basins comprise the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basins of southwestern Wyoming. Stratigraphically the basins are dominated by a thick package of Cretaceous clastic sediments, as much as 16,000 ft thick, which resulted from several major transgressive-regressive cycles. Upper Cretaceous strata deposited during the latest cycle contain extensive deposits of commercial hydrocarbons, particularly gas. Much of the present structural configuration of the area is the result of the Laramide Orogeny in Late Cretaceous time. To facilitate a comprehensive geological analysis of the area a computerized subsurface data base was constructed from available well logs for approximately 3,000 wells in the Washakie and Red Desert basins. This data base contains correlated tops for most of the major Upper Cretaceous stratigraphic units, including selected subdivisions and net sand thickness values. Consistent correlations were achieved through the use of a tight, loop-tied cross section and key well network containing over 400 correlated well-logs. A complete suite of structure contour maps on all correlated horizons was generated from the data base with commercially available software. These maps, along with selected computer-generated structural cross sections, reveal a detailed subsurface picture of the Washakie and Red Desert basins. Isopachous maps of selected intervals were also produced to illustrate the Late Cretaceous depositional history of the area.

  17. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  18. Measurement and isobar-model analysis of the doubly differential cross section for the. pi. /sup +/ produced in. pi. /sup -/p. -->. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/n

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, D.M.

    1981-11-01

    The doubly differential cross section d/sup 2/sigma/d..cap omega..dT for ..pi../sup +/ mesons produced in the reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/n was measured at 203, 230, 256, and 358 MeV with a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. A set of five previous measurements at 254, 280, 292, 331, and 356 MeV was reanalyzed with the new measurements. Integrated cross sections were calculated for the combined data set with unprecedented accuracy for this energy range. The chiral-symmetry-breaking parameter was determined to be epsilon = -0.03 +- 0.26 by extrapolating the mean square modulus of the matrix element to threshold and comparing the threshold matrix element with the prediction of soft-pion theory. This value of epsilon is consistent with zero as required by the Weinberg Lagrangian. Measurements at the three highest energies were compared with the results of an isobar-model analysis of bubble-chamber events by an LBL-SLAC collaboration. After allowing for an overall normalization difference, the measurements at 331 and 358 MeV were in excellent agreement with the results of their analysis. The measurement at 292 MeV required variation of the PS11(epsilonN) amplitude, as well as the overall normalization, which could be due to the limited number of bubble-chamber events available for the LBL-SLAC analysis at this energy. A partial-wave analysis of the measurements was also carried out with the VPI isobar model. Within this model, the matrix element contains a background term calculated from a phenomenological ..pi..N Lagrangian that is consistent with the hypotheses of current algebra and PCAC. The reaction was found to be dominated by the initial P11 wave. Production of the ..delta.. isobar from initial D waves was found to be significant at the two highest energies.

  19. Multilevel analysis in road safety research.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Martensen, Heike; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    Hierarchical structures in road safety data are receiving increasing attention in the literature and multilevel (ML) models are proposed for appropriately handling the resulting dependences among the observations. However, so far no empirical synthesis exists of the actual added value of ML modelling techniques as compared to other modelling approaches. This paper summarizes the statistical and conceptual background and motivations for multilevel analyses in road safety research. It then provides a review of several ML analyses applied to aggregate and disaggregate (accident) data. In each case, the relevance of ML modelling techniques is assessed by examining whether ML model formulations (i) allow improving the fit of the model to the data, (ii) allow identifying and explaining random variation at specific levels of the hierarchy considered, and (iii) yield different (more correct) conclusions than single-level model formulations with respect to the significance of the parameter estimates. The evidence reviewed offers different conclusions depending on whether the analysis concerns aggregate data or disaggregate data. In the first case, the application of ML analysis techniques appears straightforward and relevant. The studies based on disaggregate accident data, on the other hand, offer mixed findings: computational problems can be encountered, and ML applications are not systematically necessary. The general recommendation concerning disaggregate accident data is to proceed to a preliminary investigation of the necessity of ML analyses and of the additional information to be expected from their application. PMID:23769622

  20. Geometric morphometric analysis of craniofacial variation, ontogeny and modularity in a cross-sectional sample of modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Wellens, H L L; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Halazonetis, D J

    2013-01-01

    This investigation aimed to quantify craniofacial variation in a sample of modern humans. In all, 187 consecutive orthodontic patients were collected, of which 79 were male (mean age 13.3, SD 3.7, range 7.5–40.8) and 99 were female (mean age 12.3, SD 1.9, range 8.7–19.1). The male and female subgroups were tested for differences in mean shapes and ontogenetic trajectories, and shape variability was characterized using principal component analysis. The hypothesis of modularity was tested for six different modularity scenarios. The results showed that there were subtle but significant differences in the male and female Procrustes mean shapes. Males were significantly larger. Mild sexual ontogenetic allometric divergence was noted. Principal component analysis indicated that, of the four retained biologically interpretable components, the two most important sources of variability were (i) vertical shape variation (i.e. dolichofacial vs. brachyfacial growth patterns) and (ii) sagittal relationships (maxillary prognatism vs. mandibular retrognathism, and vice versa). The mandible and maxilla were found to constitute one module, independent of the skull base. Additionally, we were able to confirm the presence of an anterior and posterior craniofacial columnar module, separated by the pterygomaxillary plane, as proposed by Enlow. These modules can be further subdivided into four sub-modules, involving the posterior skull base, the ethmomaxillary complex, a pharyngeal module, and the anterior part of the jaws. PMID:23425043

  1. Dimensional and morphological analysis of various rugae patterns in Kerala (South India) sample population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Selvamani, Manickam; Hosallimath, Shilpa; Madhushankari; Basandi, Praveen Shivappa; Yamunadevi, Andamuthu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Analysis of palatal rugae patterns, which are similar to fingerprints, is one of the techniques used in forensic sciences for human identification. As palatal rugae patterns are genetically determined, they can also be used in population differentiation and gender determination. Hence, we aimed to record the distribution of the predominant rugae pattern in Kerala population. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 maxillary study models (40 males and 60 females) recorded from Kerala population within the age group of 17-25 years were analyzed. The dental casts were examined for the interpretation of the total number, length, shape, location and unification of rugae. Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were employed for statistical analysis. Result: The total number of rugae was significantly (P < 0.001) greater in females than males. Regarding the shape, wavy pattern predominated in both males and females, followed by curve, straight, divergent, convergent and circular pattern. Circular pattern was more in males than females. The rugae patterns were located more in between mesial aspect of first premolar to mesial aspect of second premolar. Conclusion: The palatal rugae and their features of an individual may be considered as a reliable guide for identification purpose, provided antemortem casts are available. Nevertheless, gender differentiation is evident in terms of number and shape of rugae. PMID:26283818

  2. Cross sectional TEM analysis of duplex HIPIMS and DC magnetron sputtered Mo and W doped carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J.; Castillo Muller, I.; Mandal, P.; Abbas, A.; West, G.; Rainforth, W. M.; Ehiasarian, A.; Hovsepian, P.

    2015-10-01

    A FIB lift-out sample was made from a wear-resistant carbon coating deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) with Mo and W. TEM analysis found columnar grains extending the whole ∼1800 nm thick film. Within the grains, the carbon was found to be organised into clusters showing some onion-like structure, with amorphous material between them; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) found these clusters to be Mo- and W-rich in a later, thinner sample of the same material. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) showed no difference in C-K edge, implying the bonding type to be the same in cluster and matrix. These clusters were arranged into stripes parallel to the film plane, of spacing 7-8 nm; there was a modulation in spacing between clusters within these stripes that produced a second, coarser set of striations of spacing ∼37 nm.

  3. An algorithm for the analysis of inductive antennas of arbitrary cross-section for heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrman, I.S.; Colestock, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    The application of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating to near ignited plasmas will require launching structures that will be capable of withstanding the harsh plasma environment. The recessed antenna configuration is expected to provide sufficient protection for the structure, but to date no analysis has been done to determine if adequate coupling can be achieved in such a configuration. In this work we present a method for determining the current distribution for the antenna in the direction transverse to current flow and predict antenna loading in the presence of plasma. Antennas of arbitrary cross section are analyzed above ground planes of arbitrary shape. Results from ANDES, the ANtenna DESign code, are presented and compared to experimental results.

  4. The influence of neighbourhood formality status and socio-economic position on self-rated health among adult men and women: a multilevel, cross sectional, population study from Aleppo, Syria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH)), adjusted for individual characteristics and neighbourhood formality. After controlling for individual and neighbourhood SES measures, women living in informal neighbourhoods were less likely to report poor SRH than women living in formal neighbourhoods (OR= 0.4; 95% CI (0.2- 0.8) (versus poor SRH) and OR=0.5; 95%; CI (0.3-0.9) (versus normal SRH). Conclusions Findings support evidence from high income countries that certain characteristic of neighbourhoods affect men and women in different ways. Further research from similar urban settings in

  5. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi Shahrabi, Narges; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Mobaraki, Hossein; Mafimoradi, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The centralization of human activities is associated with different pollutants which enter into environment easily and cause the urban environment more vulnerable. Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for Tehran metropolis, many plans and regulations have been developed. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study was to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods A Qualitative content analysis in addition to a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professional were used to identify 1) key sources of Tehran’s air pollution, 2) recognize challenges towards effective performance of pertinent plans and 3), offer effective solutions. Results Related challenges to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories including lack of integrated and organized stewardship and PEST challenges. Conclusion For controlling the air pollution of Tehran effectively, various controlling alternatives were identified as systematization of plan preparation process, standardization and utilization of new technologies & experts, infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination mechanisms, improving citizens’ participatory capacity and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Controlling air pollution in Tehran needs a serious attention of policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:26171340

  6. Physical Activity and Self-Reported Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Cutter, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the possibility of a linear, inverse association between physical activity and the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods The sample included 561 persons with MS who completed demographic, cardiovascular comorbidity, disability status, and physical activity self-report assessments, and then wore an accelerometer for 7 days. The data were analyzed using bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Results Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that there were statistically significant, inverse associations between the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities and objectively measured (r = −0.192, p = 0.0001) and self-reported (r = −0.151, p = 0.0001) physical activity. The first multiple linear regression indicated that objectively measured physical activity was significantly associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities (B = −0.003, SE B = 0.001, β = −0.128), even after controlling for confounding variables. The second multiple linear regression indicated that self-reported physical activity, too, was significantly associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities (B = −0.011, SE B = 0.004, β = −0.114), even after controlling for confounding variables. Conclusion Physical activity was associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities, independent of disability status and other possible confounding variables, in persons with MS. PMID:21597305

  7. Influence of Surface Preparation on Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Cross Sections of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Moutinho, H. R.; Dhere, R. G.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2011-06-01

    In this work we investigated different methods to prepare cross sections of CdTe/CdS solar cells for EBSD and SKPM analyses. We observed that procedures used to prepare surfaces for EBSD are not suitable to prepare cross sections, and we were able to develop a process using polishing and ion-beam milling. This process resulted in very good results and allowed us to reveal important aspects of the cross section of the CdTe film. For SKPM, polishing and a light ion-beam milling resulted in cross sections that provided good data. We were able to observe the depletion region on the CdTe film and the p-n junction as well as the interdiffusion layer between CdTe and CdS. However, preparing good-quality cross sections for SKPM is not a reproducible process, and artifacts are often observed.

  8. Thirty Years of Orphan Drug Legislation and the Development of Drugs to Treat Rare Seizure Conditions: A Cross Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a serious chronic health condition with a high morbidity impairing the life of patients and afflicted families. Many epileptic conditions, especially those affecting children, are rare disorders generating an urgent medical need for more efficacious therapy options. Therefore, we assessed the output of the US and European orphan drug legislations. Methods Quantitative analysis of the FDA and EMA databases for orphan drug designations according to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Results Within the US Orphan Drug Act 40 designations were granted delivering nine approvals, i.e. clobazam, diazepam viscous solution for rectal administration, felbamate, fosphenytoin, lamotrigine, repository corticotropin, rufinamide, topiramate, and vigabatrin. Since 2000 the EMA granted six orphan drug designations whereof two compounds were approved, i.e. rufinamide and stiripentol. In the US, two orphan drug designations were withdrawn. Orphan drugs were approved for conditions including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, Dravet syndrome, and status epilepticus. Comparing time to approval for rufinamide, which was approved in the US and the EU to treat rare seizure conditions, the process seems faster in the EU (2.2 years) than in the US (4.3 years). Conclusion Orphan drug development in the US and in the EU delivered only few molecular entities to treat rare seizure disorders. The development programs focused on already approved antiepileptic drugs or alternative pharmaceutical formulations. Most orphan drugs approved in the US are not approved in the EU to treat rare seizures although some were introduced after 2000 when the EU adopted the Orphan Drug Regulation. PMID:27557111

  9. Intimate partner violence is associated with HIV infection in women in Kenya: A cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and women’s risk of HIV infection has attracted much recent attention, with varying results in terms of whether there is an association and what the magnitude of association is. Understanding this relationship is important for HIV surveillance and intervention programs. Methods We analyzed data from the 2008-2009 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in Kenya, on 1,904 women aged 15-49. A generalized linear mixed model was adapted to explore the relationship between IPV and HIV prevalence, controlling for sociodemographic variables, and treating DHS survey clusters, province and ethnicity as random effects. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to calculate a single IPV score for each woman. The effect of HIV risk behaviours on the association between IPV and HIV was also assessed. Results Controlling for relevant sociodemographic factors, we found that HIV risk was significantly associated with IPV (P <0.01). After adjustment for risk factors as well as sociodemographic variables, the positive association between IPV and HIV remained significant (P=0.035). The estimated effect size of this model corresponds to an odds ratio of 1.55 for HIV infection comparing a woman who experienced no IPV and a woman at the 95th percentile for our IPV index. Conclusion This study provides further evidence that IPV and HIV are associated. In addition, we found that this association remains even when we controlled for several HIV risk factors. This implies that IPV can be used as a marker of potential HIV risk, and may be causally associated with HIV risk. Further, these results suggest that IPV monitoring and prevention may have a useful role in HIV prevention in Kenya. Further research, ideally based on longitudinal observations, is needed to disentangle these relationships. PMID:23711189

  10. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  11. Impact of Internet Use on Loneliness and Contact with Others Among Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older adults are at increased risk of experiencing loneliness and depression, particularly as they move into different types of care communities. Information and communication technology (ICT) usage may help older adults to maintain contact with social ties. However, prior research is not consistent about whether ICT use increases or decreases isolation and loneliness among older adults. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine how Internet use affects perceived social isolation and loneliness of older adults in assisted and independent living communities. We also examined the perceptions of how Internet use affects communication and social interaction. Methods One wave of data from an ongoing study of ICT usage among older adults in assisted and independent living communities in Alabama was used. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between frequency of going online and isolation and loneliness (n=205) and perceptions of the effects of Internet use on communication and social interaction (n=60). Results After controlling for the number of friends and family, physical/emotional social limitations, age, and study arm, a 1-point increase in the frequency of going online was associated with a 0.147-point decrease in loneliness scores (P=.005). Going online was not associated with perceived social isolation (P=.14). Among the measures of perception of the social effects of the Internet, each 1-point increase in the frequency of going online was associated with an increase in agreement that using the Internet had: (1) made it easier to reach people (b=0.508, P<.001), (2) contributed to the ability to stay in touch (b=0.516, P<.001), (3) made it easier to meet new people (b=0.297, P=.01, (4) increased the quantity of communication with others (b=0.306, P=.01), (5) made the respondent feel less isolated (b=0.491, P<.001), (6) helped the respondent feel more connected to friends and family (b=0.392, P=.001), and (7) increased the

  12. Clinical and computed tomographic predictors of chronic bronchitis in COPD: a cross sectional analysis of the COPDGene study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic bronchitis (CB) has been related to poor outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). From a clinical standpoint, we have shown that subjects with CB in a group with moderate to severe airflow obstruction were younger, more likely to be current smokers, male, Caucasian, had worse health related quality of life, more dyspnea, and increased exacerbation history compared to those without CB. We sought to further refine our clinical characterization of chronic bronchitics in a larger cohort and analyze the CT correlates of CB in COPD subjects. We hypothesized that COPD patients with CB would have thicker airways and a greater history of smoking, acute bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, and occupational exposures compared to those without CB. Methods We divided 2703 GOLD 1–4 subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene®) Study into two groups based on symptoms: chronic bronchitis (CB+, n = 663, 24.5%) and no chronic bronchitis (CB-, n = 2040, 75.5%). Subjects underwent extensive clinical characterization, and quantitative CT analysis to calculate mean wall area percent (WA%) of 6 segmental airways was performed using VIDA PW2 (http://www.vidadiagnostics.com). Square roots of the wall areas of bronchi with internal perimeters 10 mm and 15 mm (Pi10 and Pi15, respectively), % emphysema, %gas trapping, were calculated using 3D Slicer (http://www.slicer.org). Results There were no differences in % emphysema (11.4 ± 12.0 vs. 12.0 ± 12.6%, p = 0.347) or % gas trapping (35.3 ± 21.2 vs. 36.3 ± 20.6%, p = 0.272) between groups. Mean segmental WA% (63.0 ± 3.2 vs. 62.0 ± 3.1%, p < 0.0001), Pi10 (3.72 ± 0.15 vs. 3.69 ± 0.14 mm, p < 0.0001), and Pi15 (5.24 ± 0.22 vs. 5.17 ± 0.20, p < 0.0001) were greater in the CB + group. Greater percentages of gastroesophageal reflux, allergic rhinitis, histories of asthma and acute bronchitis, exposures to dusts and

  13. Health and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics in Western Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Methods Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HKS), attitude score (AS), and dietary diversity score (DDS) were constructed indices. χ2 test and Student’s t-test were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, to assess the difference in KAP among pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the impact of the number of ANC visits (none, <4, ≥4) on knowledge and practice scores, adjusting for maternal socio-demographic confounders, such as age, gestational age, education level and household wealth index. Results Among the 979 pregnant women in the survey, 59% had attended ANC clinics while 39% had not. The mean (±SD) NKS was 4.6 (1.9) out of 11, HKS was 6.2 (1.7) out of 12, DDS was 4.9 (1.4) out of 12, and AS was 7.4 (2.2) out of 10. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and DDS were not significantly different between ANC clinic attending and non-attending women. Among women who attended ANC clinics, 82.6% received malaria and/or antihelmintic treatment, compared to 29.6% of ANC clinic non-attendees. Higher number of ANC clinic visits and higher maternal education level were significantly positively associated with maternal health knowledge. Conclusions Substantial opportunities exist for antenatal KAP improvement among women in Western Kenya, some of which could occur with greater ANC attendance. Further research is needed to understand multi-level factors that may affect maternal knowledge and practices. PMID:23845074

  14. A Multilevel Analysis of Parental Discipline and Child Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Snyder, Jim

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate graphical and analytical methods for multilevel (2- and 3-level) models using the analysis of observed microsocial interaction between parent-child dyads as an example. We also present multilevel path diagrams and argue that while not as compact as equations, path diagrams may communicate results better to a wider audience. The…

  15. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  16. Comparative analysis of cross sections of residual nuclei on separated tin isotopes at a beam energy of protons and deuterons 3.65 GeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Balabekyan, A. R.; Demekhina, N. A.; Simonyan, A. E.

    2013-03-15

    The cross sections of residual nuclei in the separated tin isotopes ({sup 112}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, and {sup 124}Sn), irradiated with proton and deuteron beams with energy 3.65 GeV/nucleon, are investigated. Parametrization by ten parametric semi-empirical formula was conducted with the aim of determining the total cross sections and analyzing the measurement results. The dependence of total inelastic cross sections on the mass number of the target and the structure of the incoming particle was investigated via the comparison of the obtained data.

  17. Multilevel Interventions: Study Design and Analysis Issues

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Cary P.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Taplin, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel interventions, implemented at the individual, physician, clinic, health-care organization, and/or community level, increasingly are proposed and used in the belief that they will lead to more substantial and sustained changes in behaviors related to cancer prevention, detection, and treatment than would single-level interventions. It is important to understand how intervention components are related to patient outcomes and identify barriers to implementation. Designs that permit such assessments are uncommon, however. Thus, an important way of expanding our knowledge about multilevel interventions would be to assess the impact of interventions at different levels on patients as well as the independent and synergistic effects of influences from different levels. It also would be useful to assess the impact of interventions on outcomes at different levels. Multilevel interventions are much more expensive and complicated to implement and evaluate than are single-level interventions. Given how little evidence there is about the value of multilevel interventions, however, it is incumbent upon those arguing for this approach to do multilevel research that explicates the contributions that interventions at different levels make to the desired outcomes. Only then will we know whether multilevel interventions are better than more focused interventions and gain greater insights into the kinds of interventions that can be implemented effectively and efficiently to improve health and health care for individuals with cancer. This chapter reviews designs for assessing multilevel interventions and analytic ways of controlling for potentially confounding variables that can account for the complex structure of multilevel data. PMID:22623596

  18. Limits to dark matter annihilation cross-section from a combined analysis of MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf satellite galaxies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ahnen, M. L.

    2016-02-16

    Here, we present the first joint analysis of gamma-ray data from the MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes and the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) to search for gamma-ray signals from dark matter annihilation in dwarf satellite galaxies. We combine 158 hours of Segue 1 observations with MAGIC with 6-year observations of 15 dwarf satellite galaxies by the Fermi-LAT. We obtain limits on the annihilation cross-section for dark matter particle masses between 10 GeV and 100 TeV - the widest mass range ever explored by a single gamma-ray analysis. These limits improve on previously published Fermi-LAT and MAGIC results by up to amore » factor of two at certain masses. Our new inclusive analysis approach is completely generic and can be used to perform a global, sensitivity-optimized dark matter search by combining data from present and future gamma-ray and neutrino detectors.« less

  19. Markers of Inflammation and Coagulation after Long-Term Exposure to Coarse Particulate Matter: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Jennifer; Mendelsohn-Victor, Kari; Jacobs, David R.; Cushman, Mary; Sheppard, Lianne; Thorne, Peter S.; Burke, Gregory L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Kaufman, Joel D.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Toxicological research suggests that coarse particles (PM10–2.5) are inflammatory, but responses are complex and may be best summarized by multiple inflammatory markers. Few human studies have investigated associations with PM10–2.5 and, of those, none have explored long-term exposures. Here we examine long-term associations with inflammation and coagulation in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Participants included 3,295 adults (45–84 years of age) from three metropolitan areas. Site-specific spatial models were used to estimate 5-year concentrations of PM10–2.5 mass and copper, zinc, phosphorus, silicon, and endotoxin found in PM10–2.5. Outcomes included interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, total homocysteine, D-dimer, factor VIII, plasmin–antiplasmin complex, and inflammation and coagulation scores. We used multivariable regression with multiply imputed data to estimate associations while controlling for potential confounders, including co-pollutants such as fine particulate matter. Results Some limited evidence was found of relationships between inflammation and coagulation and PM10–2.5. Endotoxin was the PM10–2.5 component most strongly associated with inflammation, with an interquartile range (IQR) increase (0.08 EU/m3) associated with 0.15 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.28; p = 0.03) and 0.08 (95% CI: –0.07, 0.23; p = 0.28) higher inflammation scores before and after control for city, respectively. Copper was the component with the strongest association with coagulation, with a 4-ng/m3 increase associated with 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.30; p = 0.0008) and 0.12 (95% CI: –0.05, 0.30; p = 0.16) unit higher coagulation scores before and after city adjustment, respectively. Conclusions Our cross-sectional analysis provided some evidence that long-term PM10–2.5 exposure was associated with inflammation and coagulation, but associations were modest and depended on particle composition. Citation Adar SD, D’Souza J

  20. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Traffic noise has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Potential modes of action are through stress and sleep disturbance, which may lead to endocrine dysregulation and overweight. Objectives We aimed to investigate the relationship between residential traffic and railway noise and adiposity. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993–1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated. Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. Results Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic factors showed that 5-year mean road traffic noise exposure preceding enrollment was associated with a 0.35-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.21, 0.50) and a 0.18-point higher BMI (95% CI: 0.12, 0.23) per 10 dB. Small, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure–response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1.19) and a 0.19-point higher BMI (95% CI: 0.0072, 0.37) compared with unexposed participants (0–20 dB). Conclusions The present study finds positive associations between residential exposure to road traffic and railway noise and adiposity. Citation Christensen JS, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Nordsborg RB, Ketzel M, Sørensen TI, Sørensen M. 2016. Road traffic and railway noise exposures and adiposity in adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Danish Diet

  1. Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    PubMed Central

    Tzivian, Lilian; Dlugaj, Martha; Winkler, Angela; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hennig, Frauke; Fuks, Kateryna B.; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Schikowski, Tamara; Weimar, Christian; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    , Moebus S, Hoffmann B, on behalf of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study Investigative Group. 2016. Long-term air pollution and traffic noise exposures and mild cognitive impairment in older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1361–1368; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509824 PMID:26863687

  2. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  3. Associations between aspects of pain and cognitive performance and the contribution of depressive symptoms in mid-life women: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomey, Kristin; Greendale, Gail A; Kravitz, Howard M; Bromberger, Joyce T; Burns, John W; Dugan, Sheila A; de Leon, Carlos F Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Pain has been associated with cognitive problems in pain patients. This study evaluated the extent to which experiences of pain are associated with cognitive performance in a community sample of mid-life women, and the contribution of depressive symptoms to this association. A cross-sectional analysis was used with data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Associations between aspects of pain and cognitive performance were evaluated using statistical models with and without depressive symptoms. The cognitive performance score was a composite of three cognitive tests, the Digit Span Backward Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test and the East Boston Memory Test. Greater pain experiences that interfered with daily work were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance, [β (SE) -0.074 (0.021); p value<0.01] and this association was partially explained by depressive symptoms [β (SE) -0.061 (0.022); p value<0.01 after adjusting for depressive symptoms]. Additionally, an independent association between a greater composite pain score and poorer cognitive performance was identified without adjusting for depressive symptoms, [β (SE) -0.002 (0.0009); p value<0.05] but was no longer significant after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that in mid-life women, greater pain is associated with poorer cognitive performance, and depressive symptoms play an important role in this association. Clinicians should be aware of these relationships when evaluating patients. PMID:25466300

  4. A cross-sectional analysis of women’s mental health problems: examining the association with different types of violence among a sample of Brazilian mothers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental health problems are the major cause of disability in poor countries, and women are the individuals most affected. The World Health Organization points out that violence against women is the leading cause of mental health problems. This study seeks to identify explanatory factors for women’s mental health problems, highlighting situations of violence suffered by them during childhood, when living with a partner and in the community. Method A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with 389 mothers with schoolchildren in a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Profile variables and childhood and adult life experiences were researched and organized in three analytical blocks. A binary logistic regression model was used, divided into hierarchical blocks. Results The final model shows that women who were the victims of severe physical violence by their partner were more likely (OR = 8.2) to suffer from mental health problems than those who had never been exposed to this type of violence. The mothers of children with behavior problems are more likely to have mental health problems (OR = 3.0) than mothers whose children do not manifest behavioral problems. Conclusion This study shows that women’s mental health problems are particularly related to the experience of physical violence, especially that occurring in intimate partner relationships. Based on this premise, this work recommends that multidimensional issues need to be included in women’s health assistance programs duly incorporating the specificity of victimization by violence. PMID:23587110

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis C and B virus among patients infected with HIV: a cross-sectional analysis of a large HIV care programme in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Zaw, Sai Ko Ko; Tun, Sai Thein Than; Thida, Aye; Aung, Thet Ko; Maung, Win; Shwe, Myint; Aye, Mar Mar; Clevenbergh, Phillipe

    2013-07-01

    Co-infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatitis B virus (HBV) influences the morbidity and mortality of patients with HIV. A cross sectional analysis was of 11,032 HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Integrated HIV Care Program from May 2005 to April 2012 and Epi-info 3.5 was used to determine the serological prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 36 ± 8.4 years (adult cohort) and 7 ± 3 years (paediatric cohort). The sero prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C (anti HCV antibodies) and triple infection are 8.7%, 5.3% and 0.35%, respectively. Men who have sex with men are at the highest risk of being co-infected with hepatitis B while intravenous drug users are at the highest risk of being co-infected with hepatitis C. It is important to screen for hepatitis B and C in HIV infected people in order to provide quality care for HIV patients with co-infection. PMID:23800421

  6. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  7. Risk factors for morbidity and death in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of CT diagnosed bronchiectatic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is a relative lack of information about the death rate and morbidity of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and most studies are limited due to referral bias. We wanted to assess death rate and morbidity in those patients at our hospital. Methods Adult patients seen at our department between June 2006 and November 2009 were recruited if the key string "bronchiect-" was mentioned in electronic clinical records and if chest CT imaging was available. Clinical records of all patients with confirmed radiologic diagnosis of bronchiectasis were reviewed and clinical characteristics were analyzed. Results 539 patients with a radiographic diagnosis of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis were identified in a retrospective cross-sectional analysis giving a prevalence of 2.6% in our hospital population. A wide range of etiologies was found with idiopathic bronchiectasis in 26%. In the 41 months interval, 57 patients (10.6%) died. We found a median exacerbation rate of 1.94 per year. Bacterial colonization status was associated with more deaths, exacerbation rate, symptoms and reduced pulmonary function. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 48% of our patients. Conclusions We evaluated a large non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis population, and provided new epidemiological data on associations between clinical characteristics and deaths and morbidity in these patients. PMID:22423975

  8. The Association between Antidepressant Medications and Coronary Heart Disease in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis on the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Andrew H.; Brunoni, Andre R.; Bittencourt, Marcio S.; Nunes, Maria A.; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have highlighted associations between use of antidepressant medications and coronary heart disease (CHD). Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) are not recommended in patients with CHD as they may increase morbidity and mortality. However, this class of antidepressants is freely prescribed in public health pharmacies, while access to other classes of antidepressants is restricted in Brazil. Here, we examine the associations between antidepressant use and prevalent CHD in a large cohort from Brazil. Methods: Participants included 14,994 civil servants aged 35–74 years from the baseline assessment of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CHD (n = 710) included stable angina, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization. Univariate (unadjusted) and multivariate (adjusted) logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: After full adjustment for covariates, TCA use (n = 156) was associated with a twofold increase in prevalent CHD, relative to non-use (n = 14,076). Additional sensitivity analysis revealed a threefold association for myocardial infarction (OR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.41–6.21) and coronary revascularization (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.28–6.66). There were no significant associations between antidepressant use and stable angina pectoris. Conclusion: Findings highlight a strong association between TCA use and prevalent CHD. While the cross-sectional design is an important limitation of the present study, findings have important implications for the treatment of cardiac patients in Brazil. PMID:25657993

  9. Influenza Vaccination and Associated Factors among Korean Cancer Survivors : A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Influenza vaccination is important for cancer survivors, a population with impaired immunity. This study was designed to assess influenza vaccination patterns among Korean cancer survivors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires from 943 cancer survivors and 41,233 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2011). We identified the adjusted influenza vaccination rates and assessed factors associated with influenza vaccination using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted influenza vaccination rate than the general population. The rates for influenza vaccination in specific cancer types such as stomach, hepatic, colon, and lung cancers were significantly higher than non-cancer survivors. Among all cancer survivors, those with chronic diseases, elderly subjects, and rural dwellers were more likely to receive influenza vaccination; those with cervical cancer were less likely to receive influenza vaccination. Cancer survivors were more likely to receive influenza vaccinations than non-cancer survivors, but this was not true for particular groups, especially younger cancer survivors. Cancer survivors represent a sharply growing population; therefore, immunization against influenza among cancer survivors should be concerned as their significant preventative healthcare services. Graphical Abstract PMID:25120314

  10. Analysis of state-to-state differential cross sections in two-dimensional Xe-CO{sub 2} scattering with long-range effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pliego, J.R. Jr.; Belchior, J.C.; Braga, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    Differential rotational cross sections as a function of {Delta}{ital j} and the scattering angle are calculated using the two-dimensional (2D) close-coupled equations and a comparison with the 2D classical trajectory method is presented. A full potential, i.e., including repulsive and attractive forces, is used and the analysis of rainbow structure is discussed in detail. The rainbow positions have been identified by following the classical trajectory and it has been found that the rainbows can be attributed mainly to the attractive part of the interaction potential. The 2D ellipsoid model [Phys. Rev. A {bold 22}, 2617 (1980)] is also applied to analyze the rainbow trajectory and did not predict the same number of rainbows obtained via 2D classical trajectory. In addition, it showed a large deviation for the angular region of the first impact. This model, as expected, was able to explain a larger {Delta}{ital j} transition when attractive forces were included. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}