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Sample records for croton floribundus spreng

  1. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  2. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  3. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g). PMID:27529211

  4. Phenolic contents, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume.

    PubMed

    Utami, Rahayu; Khalid, Nurhasniza; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Rahmani, Mawardi; Abdul, Ahmad Bustaman; Dachriyanus

    2013-03-01

    Elaeocarpus floribundus is higher plant that has been used as traditional medicine for treating several diseases. There is no previous report on phytochemicals and bioactivity studies of this species. In this investigation, triterpenoids friedelin, epifriedelanol and β-sitosterol were isolated from its leaves and stem bark. Determination of total phenolic content of methanolic extract of leaves and stem bark was carried out using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. All extracts and isolated compounds were subjected to screening of antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical scavenging method and cytotoxic activities by MTT assay towards human T4 lymphoblastoid (CEM-SS) and human cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. In the total phenolic content determination, methanolic extract of leaves gave higher value of 503.08±16.71 mg GAE/g DW than stem bark with value of 161.5±24.81 mg GAE/g DW. Polar extracts of leaves and stem bark possessed promising antioxidant activity with methanol extract of stem bark exhibited strongest activity with IC50 value of 7.36±0.01 μg/ml. In the cytotoxic activity assay, only chloroform extract of leaves showed significant activity with IC50 value of 25.6±0.06 μg/ml against CEM-SS cancer cell, while friedelin and epifriedelanol were found to be active against the two cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 3.54 to 11.45 μg/ml. PMID:23455191

  5. Alcmaeon of Croton.

    PubMed

    Debernardi, Alberto; Sala, Elena; D'Aliberti, Giuseppe; Talamonti, Giuseppe; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Collice, Massimo

    2010-02-01

    IN THE LATTER half of the sixth century BC, Croton was the site of the most famous medical school in Magna Graecia, where diseases of the human body were examined in a scientific and experimental manner instead of by using the contemporary supernatural, nearly magical concepts. Alcmaeon was one of the most active physicians interested in human physiology in the medical tradition of Croton. Although Alcmaeon was devoted to science and was a skillful experimentalist, little is known about his life and his exact birth date. The relative isolation of Alcmaeon from the great philosophical currents of his time probably facilitated his unprejudiced methodology and may have prevented him from disclosing his theories and demonstrating their value. He pioneered the concept of the relationship between the brain and the mind and was the first to identify the brain as the center of understanding and the essential organ for perceptions, sensations, and thoughts. Through systematic observations, Alcmaeon brought many things to light about the characteristics of the eye and the presence of channels connecting head sensory organs to the brain. He stated that the soul was immortal and introduced the tekmairesthai doctrine, through which the ideas of anamnesis and prognosis gave birth. We highlight his contributions to medical thought, and especially to neuroscience, which reveal Alcmaeon to be a thinker of considerable originality and one of the greatest philosophers, naturalists, and neuroscientists of all time. PMID:20087125

  6. Crotofolane diterpenoids from Croton caracasanus.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Katiuska; Compagnoneb, Reinaldo S; Riina, Ricarda; Briceño, Alexander; González, Teresa; Squitieri, Emilio; Landaetab, Carlos; Soscrún, Humberto; Suáreza, Alírica I

    2013-12-01

    Four new crotofolane-type diterpenoids, crotocarasin (A-D) (1-4), together with the known crotofolin E, were isolated from a dichloromethane extract of the stems of Croton caracasanus Pittier. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, and the structure of 3 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray data analyses. PMID:24555271

  7. Clerodane diterpenoids from Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Cai; Li, Jia-Gui; Li, Guo-Qiang; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Wu, Xia; Ye, Wen-Cai; Li, Yao-Lan

    2012-12-28

    Seven new clerodane diterpenoids (1-7) were isolated from roots of Croton crassifolius, along with six known compounds. The structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR), and the structures of 1, 3, 4, and 7 were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compounds 1-13 were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 using the cytopathic effect reduction assay. PMID:23194476

  8. A new multiflorane triterpenoid ester from Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.

    PubMed

    De Shan, M; Hu, L H; Chen, Z L

    2001-01-01

    A new triterpenoid ester 3,29-di-O-(p-methoxy)benzoylmultiflora-8-ene-3 alpha,29-diol-7-one from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng has been isolated. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic evidence and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. PMID:11561447

  9. 16. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. SECTION OF THE CROTON AQUEDUCT, PLATE V, PAGE 86. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  10. 10. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. SECTIONS OF THE CROTON AQUEDUCT, PLATES I, II, III, IV, PAGE 84 - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  11. Anti-inflammatory diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Yang, Mei-Lin; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Lai, Yuan-Yu; Li, Yue-Chiun; Thang, Tran Dinh; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-02-22

    Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Croton tonkinensis afforded two known kauranes (1, 2), eight new ent-kauranes (3-10), and 16 known ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids (12-27). In addition, 30 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with reported data. Among the isolated compounds, ent-18-acetoxykaur-16-en-15-one (20) displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release. PMID:23347584

  12. Chemical constituents of Croton oligandrum (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Abega, Destaing F; Kapche, Deccaux W F G; Ango, Patrick Y; Mapitse, Renameditswe; Yeboah, Samuel O; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T

    2014-01-01

    A new clerodane diterpene derivative named crotonoligaketone was obtained from the stem bark of Croton oligandrum along with eight known compounds including crotonadiol, imbricatadiol, crotonzambefuran B, 7-acetoxytrachiloban-18-oic acid, 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data and by comparison with those reported in the literature. PMID:25069155

  13. Isolation of a compound from Eupatorium adenophorum (Spreng.) [Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.)] causing hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Oelrichs, P B; Calanasan, C A; MacLeod, J K; Seawright, A A; Ng, J C

    1995-01-01

    Regular ingestion of Eupatorium adenophorum [Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.)] or Crofton weed causes chronic pulmonary disease in horses mainly in Australia, New Zealand, and the Himalayas. The disease is characterized by pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, emphysema, alveolar epithelisation and reduced tolerance to exercise. Horses apparently are the only animals affected and there are numerous reports of farms losing all their horses. The disorder was produced experimentally in horse feeding trials, and it was shown that characteristic lesions occurred in the lungs. In studies with laboratory animals, mice were shown to be suitable test animals, but in this species lesions occur in the liver rather than the lungs. The hepatic injury in these animals is characterized by multiple areas of focal necrosis of the parenchyma associated with degeneration and loss of the epithelium lining the small bile ducts. The active principle 9-oxo-10,11 dehydroagerophorone responsible for these lesions in mice has been isolated from E. adenophorum. Although the compound has been shown to exhibit toxicity to larvae of invertebrate species, no mammalian toxicity studies have been previously reported involving the isolated toxin. The mechanism of the toxic effect of the compound as well as its possible relevance to the respiratory disease in the horse remain to be investigated. PMID:8581319

  14. Diterpenoid derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Midiwo, Jacob O; Omosa, Leonidah K

    2015-04-01

    Kenyan Croton sylvaticus Hochst. ex Krauss gave four clerodane diterpenoids, the new ent-3,13E-clerodadiene-15-formate (1), the known 15-acetoxy-ent-3,13E-clerodadiene (2), ent-3,13E-clerodadien-15-ol (3) and hardwickiic acid (4), two known halimane diterpenoids, penduliflaworosin (5) and crotohalimaneic acid (6) and one labdane diterpenoid, labda-13E-ene-8a,15-diol (7). The compounds, when tested for their anti-microbial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Xanthomonas campestris and Candida albicans, were found to be inactive. PMID:25973474

  15. Cytotoxic phorbol esters of Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Lun; Li, Fu; Yu, Kai; Wang, Ming-Kui

    2013-05-24

    Chemical investigation of the seeds of Croton tiglium afforded eight new phorbol diesters (three phorbol diesters, 1-3, and five 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diesters, 4-8), together with 11 known phorbol diesters (nine phorbol diesters, 9-17, and two 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diesters, 18 and 19). The structures of compounds 1-8 were determined by spectroscopic data information and chemical degradation experiments. The cytotoxic activities of the phorbol diesters were evaluated against the SNU387 hepatic tumor cell line, and compound 3 exhibited the most potent activity (IC50 1.2 μM). PMID:23701597

  16. New clerodane diterpenoids from Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Maosong; Cao, Di; Gao, Youheng; Li, Shuhua; Zhu, Jinping; Yang, Bao; Zhou, Lian; Zhou, Yuan; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Two new clerodane diterpenoids (1-2), one new clerodane diterpenoid alkaloid (3), as well as thirteen known compounds were isolated from Croton crassifolius. The structures of new compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HRMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H (1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 is firstly reported as the clerodane-type diterpenoid alkaloid in natural products. All of the compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against CT26.WT cell using the MTT method. PMID:26611371

  17. Two new diterpenoids from Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Wen, Xiao-Qiong; Zeng, Xiao-Jun; Rui, Wen; Cen, Ying-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Two new clerodane-type diterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Croton crassifolius Geisel. The structures of these compounds were elucidated as 9-[2-(2(5H)-furanone-4-yl)ethyl]-4,8,9-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydronaphthalene-4-carboxylic acid (1) and methyl 9-[2-(2(5H)-furanone-4-yl)ethyl]-4,8,9-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydronaphthalene-4-carboxylic ester (2) by spectroscopic methods. PMID:22694251

  18. New Cytotoxic Tigliane Diterpenoids from Croton caudatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Yang, Kun-Xian; Yang, Xing-Wei; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Lu; Wang, Bei; Zhao, Yun-Li; Liu, Ya-Ping; Li, Yan; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Three new tigliane-type diterpenoids were isolated from the methanolic extract of the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus, trivially named crotusins A-C (1-3). The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral methods. These new compounds were highly oxygenated and heavily substituted. Cytotoxic activity against five human tumor cell lines was assessed for compounds 1-3 of which compound 3 showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.49 to 4.19 µM against these cells, while crotusins A and B exhibited moderate activity. PMID:27002392

  19. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Brasil, Davi Do Socorro Barros; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:26246738

  20. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Barros Brasil, Davi Do Socorro; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:27041867

  1. Carotenoid pigments in GAC fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiromitsu; Kieu, Nguyen Thi Minh; Kuze, Noriko; Tomisaka, Kazue; Van Chuyen, Nguyen

    2002-11-01

    The carotenoids in Gac fruit (Momordica Cochinchinensis spreng) were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the concentrations of beta-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin were measured. Lycopene was found to be predominantly present in the Gac seed membrane at a concentration of up to 380 microg/g of seed membrane. The concentration of lycopene in the Gac seed membrane was about ten-fold higher than that in known lycopene-rich fruit and vegetables, indicating that Gac fruit could be a new and potentially valuable source of lycopene. PMID:12506992

  2. Alkenes with antioxidative activities from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qin-Ge; Xu, Kun; Sang, Zhi-Pei; Wei, Rong-Rui; Liu, Wen-Min; Su, Ya-Lun; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Li, Lu-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Four new alkenes (1-4), and six known alkenes (5-12) were isolated from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and references. Compounds (1-12) were evaluated for antioxidative activities. Among them, compounds 1, 2, 4, and 7 exhibited significant antioxidative activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay with IC50=21.4-49.5 μM. The known compounds (5-12) were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26777629

  3. Seasonal variation of the chemical constituents from Croton species.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Pereira, A; Fernandes do Amaral, A C; de Araujo Silva, M; de Aquino Neto, F R

    2001-01-01

    The terpenes, sterols, alkaloid (glaucine) and alpha-tocopherol show seasonal variation for Croton hemiargyreus hemiargyreus and Croton echinocarpus. The amounts of triterpenes are higher during the tropical summer and in most samples the major sesquiterpene was characterized as caryophyllene. The seasonal variation of glaucine showed a maximum between June and October for C. hemiargyreus, and was present only in January and June in C. echinocarpus. PMID:11421450

  4. 40. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. PLAN OF TEE RECEIVING RESERVIOR, PLATE XXIII, PAGE 116. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  5. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or as a component of a coating... of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid used as a coating or as a component of a coating conforming...

  6. Bioactive constituents from Croton sparsiflorus Morong.

    PubMed

    Shahwar, Durre; Ahmad, Naeem; Yasmeen, Asma; Khan, Muhammad Akmal; Ullah, Sami; Rahman, Atta-ur

    2015-02-01

    Whole plant extracts of Croton sparsiflorus in methanol have shown significant enzyme inhibition and antioxidant activities. Bioassay-guided isolation of chloroform fraction at pH 3 resulted in the identification of crotsparinine (1) and crotsparine (2), while sparsiflorine (3) was purified from the chloroform fraction at pH 9. The structures of the compounds were confirmed through spectral analyses (EI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR). The isolated compounds 1-3 exhibited remarkable enzyme inhibition activity with IC50 values 27.01 ± 1.1, 22.26 ± 1.0 and 18.02 ± 1.3 μM in xanthine oxidase and 48.42 ± 1.5, 48.05 ± 1.4 and 7.42 ± 1.0 μM in acetylcholine esterase assays, respectively. These compounds also showed potent radical scavenging and reducing properties in DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively. The present results suggest the validity of the traditional uses of C. sparsiflorus in rheumatism and gout. Furthermore, the isolated noraporphine alkaloids can be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25115768

  7. Radiation copolymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone with crotonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Solovskii, M.V.; Ushakova, V.N.; Panarin, E.F.; Boimirzaev, A.S.; Nesterov, V.V.; Persinen, A.A.; Mikhal'chenko, G.A.

    1987-09-01

    It was experimentally shown that the method of radiation initiation of copolymerization can be used to synthesize copolymers of N-vinylpyrrolidone with crotonic acid with controlled composition, molecular weights, and molecular weight distribution. These copolymers also include those with characteristics that satisfy the requirements for synthetic polymers serving as modifiers of biologically active compounds.

  8. Carotenoids retention in processed curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. Spreng).

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Varnashree Boraiah; Subban, Nagarajan

    2013-02-01

    Lutein content and β-carotene content of dried curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. Spreng) by various methods [microwave, combo, infrared (IR), hot air oven, freeze drying, cross flow tray drying, sun and shade drying] have been evaluated. The dried leaves were treated with ice-cold acetone to get the extracts (0.69-3.64% w/w) on dry weight basis. Lutein content and β-carotene content of all these extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using an established method and found in the range of 8.2-99.5 mg/100 g and 2.9-19.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The results indicated that the microwave processed leaves contain higher levels of lutein (99.4 mg/100 g) and β-carotene (19.2 mg/100 g) compared with other drying methods. The cross flow dried (8.2 mg/100 g and 3.5 mg/100 g) and IR dried samples (23 mg/100 g and 2.9 mg/100 g) retained minimum amount of lutein and β-carotene, respectively. PMID:22694175

  9. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Greetha; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2016-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications. PMID:27043511

  10. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  11. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  12. [The spectrum characteristics of an invasion plant: Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Quan, Wen-ting; Zhou, Guan-hua; Wen, Zhen-he

    2010-07-01

    Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. (EAS) is a toxic invasion plant and has caused significant economic and environmental impacts in China. The EAS has the characteristics of widely distributing and quickly spreading. The traditional detecting and supervising methods become invalid when applied for managing the spatial distribution of EAS. Based on the analyzing results of the spectrum features of EAS, the present paper tried to structure the identifying models by remote sensing. The main objective of this paper is to develop an available method for detecting and mapping the spatial distribution of EAS. The study shows that the spectrum of EAS has two reflecting peaks and one absorbing trough. The corresponding wavelengths of those peaks are 560, 730 and 674 nm, respectively. The absorption characteristics of EAS at 647 nm are that the absorbing depth is 0.504 3-1.910 3, the absorbing width is 13.778 9-17.251 8 nm and the area at the left absorption band is greater than the right, and the corresponding area ratio of left to right is 1.771 9-2.444 1. The white flowers of EAS make the reflectance higher at visible bands, and the first-order derivatives of EAS spectral show a wave peak at 420 nm. Compared with the spectral feature of other representative materials, the absorbing characteristics at 647 nm, such as absorption width and absorption depth, and the peak at 420 nm of derivatives spectral are special features of EAS spectral, which can be used as remotely sensed parameters for detecting and mapping the EAS at florescence. PMID:20827985

  13. Phytochemical diversity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Padalia, Rajendra C; Jat, Sanjeev K; Thul, Sanjog; Sundaresan, Velusamy

    2013-04-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), commonly known as 'curry leaf tree', is a popular spice and condiment of India. To explore the diversity of the essential-oil yield and aroma profile of curry leaf, growing wild in foot and mid hills of north India, 58 populations were collected during spring season. M. koenigii populations were found to grow up to an altitude of 1487 m in north India. Comparative results showed considerable variations in the essential-oil yield and composition. The essential-oil yield varied from 0.14 to 0.80% in shade-dried leaves of different populations of M. koenigii. Analysis of the essential oils by GC and GC/MS, and the subsequent classification by statistical analysis resulted in four clusters with significant variations in their terpenoid composition. Major components of the essential oils of investigated populations were α-pinene (2; 4.5-71.5%), sabinene (3; <0.05-66.1%), (E)-caryophyllene (11; 1.6-18.0%), β-pinene (4; <0.05-13.6%), terpinen-4-ol (9; 0.0-8.4%), γ-terpinene (8; 0.2-7.4%), limonene (7; 1.1-5.5%), α-terpinene (6; 0.0-4.5%), (E)-nerolidol (14; 0.0-4.1%), α-humulene (12; 0.6-3.5%), α-thujene (1; 0.0-2.5%), β-elemene (10; 0.2-2.4%), β-selinene (13; 0.2-2.3%), and myrcene (5; 0.5-2.1%). Comparison of the present results with those in earlier reports revealed new chemotypes of M. koenigii in investigated populations from Western Himalaya. The present study documents M. koenigii populations having higher amounts of sabinene (3; up to 66.1%) for the first time. PMID:23576349

  14. Conversion of polyhydroxyalkanoates to methyl crotonate using whole cells.

    PubMed

    Spekreijse, J; Holgueras Ortega, J; Sanders, J P M; Bitter, J H; Scott, E L

    2016-07-01

    Isolated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be used to produce biobased bulk chemicals. However, isolation is complex and costly. To circumvent this, whole cells containing PHA may be used. Here, PHA containing 3-hydroxybutyrate and small amounts of 3-hydroxyvalerate was produced from wastewater and used in the conversion of the 3-hydroxybutyrate monomer to methyl crotonate. Due to the increased complexity of whole cell reaction mixtures compared to pure PHA, the effect of 3-hydroxyvalerate content, magnesium salts and water content was studied in order to evaluate the need for downstream processing. A water content up to 20% and the presence of 3-hydroxyvalerate have no influence on the conversion of the 3-hydroxybutyrate to methyl crotonate. The presence of Mg(2+)-ions resulted either in an increased yield or in byproduct formation depending on the counter ion. Overall, it is possible to bypass a major part of the downstream processing of PHA for the production of biobased chemicals. PMID:27023381

  15. Pyran-2-one Derivatives from the Roots of Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weihuan; Wang, Jiajian; Liang, Yeyin; Li, Yaolan; Wang, Guocai

    2016-06-01

    One new pyran-2-one derivative [crotonpyrone C (1)] and two known ones (2-3) were isolated from the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of the roots of Croton crassifolius. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic (IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR) and HRESIMS methods. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-angiogenic activity using a zebrafish model, but showed little activity. PMID:27534121

  16. Two new natural products from Croton kongensis Gagnep.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Meng, Zhaoqing; Li, Zhaoliang; Yang, Biao; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A new diterpenoid, 14β-hydroxy-3-oxo-ent-kaur-16-ene (1), and a new nor-lignan, 8S-( - )-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl)-dihydrofuran-8(8'H)-one (4), along with five known compounds were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Croton kongensis Gagnep. Their isolations were clarified and structures were elucidated by the extensive spectroscopic analyses, especially 2D NMR experiments. PMID:24684202

  17. A Novel Norclerodane Diterpenoid from the Roots of Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan-Xin; Li, Hui-Hong; Fan, Gai-Xia; Li, Zheng-Yu; Dong, Le-Le; Li, Hong-Yu; Fei, Dong-Qing

    2015-11-01

    A chemical investigation of Croton crassifolius afforded a novel norclerodane diterpenoid (1) with an unprecedented six-membered oxygen ring between C-1 and C-12, together with three known compounds. The structure of the new compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic (IR, 1D, and 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS techniques. This report describes the first example of a natural norclerodane with a 4H-chromene ring system. PMID:26749826

  18. Cytotoxic Orbitide from the Latex of Croton urucurana.

    PubMed

    Cândido-Bacani, Priscila de M; Figueiredo, Patrícia de O; Matos, Maria de F C; Garcez, Fernanda R; Garcez, Walmir S

    2015-11-25

    The bioactive ethyl acetate phase obtained from the latex of Croton urucurana Baillon afforded a novel orbitide (1), [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1, that proved active against NCI-ADR/RES (ovary, multidrug-resistance phenotype) cells with the same potency as doxorubicin (positive control) and inactive up to the highest concentration tested against nontumor NIH/3T3 cells. The structure elucidation was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, further supported by HRESIMS data and by application of Marfey's method for determination of the absolute configuration of its amino acid residues. This is the first orbitide obtained from C. urucurana. PMID:26561866

  19. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species. PMID:22428229

  20. Two new cembranoids from the leaves of Croton longissimus Airy Shaw.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Lhieochaiphant, Duangporn; Lhieochaiphant, Sorasak

    2013-04-01

    Two new cembrane-type diterpenoids (1 and 2) along with five known compounds (3-7) were isolated from leaves of Croton longissimus collected in Thailand. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence and compound 4 was found by HPLC analysis to be identical to oblongionoside B-a compound isolated from Croton oblongifolius-including the absolute configuration at the C-9 position. PMID:22926346

  1. Structural features of two polymorphs of ammonium uranyl crotonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenkov, A. V.; Peresypkina, E. V.; Pushkin, D. V.; Virovets, A. V.; Serezhkina, L. B.; Serezhkin, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    X-ray crystallography, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis were conducted for crystals of two polymorphs of NH4UO2(C3H5COO)3, which are the first examples of uranyl tricarboxylate complexes with ions of unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid. The main structural units of both polymorphs are anionic complexes [UO2(C3H5COO)3]-. Uranium atoms adopt hexagonal bipyramidal coordination polyhedron, and crotonate ions realize bidentate cyclic type of coordination. Due to different packing of ammonium ions and [UO2(C3H5COO)3]- complexes triclinic crystals of α-polymorph have layer structure and cubic crystals of β-polymorph have three dimensional structure. Features of three dimensional packing of R+ ions and [UO2L3]- complexes in structures of 25 known R[UO2L3] compounds are discussed.

  2. ent-Kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis stimulate osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dao, Trong-Tuan; Lee, Kwang-Youl; Jeong, Hyung-Min; Nguyen, Phi-Hung; Tran, Tien Lam; Thuong, Phuong-Thien; Nguyen, Bich-Thu; Oh, Won-Keun

    2011-12-27

    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids (1-4) were isolated from the leaves of Croton tonkinensis by bioactivity-guided fractionation using an in vitro osteoblast differentiation assay. Their structures were identified as ent-11β-acetoxykaur-16-en-18-ol (1), ent-11α-hydroxy-18-acetoxykaur-16-ene (2), ent-14β-hydroxy-18-acetoxykaur-16-ene (3), and ent-7α-hydroxy-18-acetoxykaur-16-ene (4). Compounds 1-4 significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblastic gene promoter activity. Compounds 1-3 also increased the levels of ALP and collagen type I alpha mRNA in C2C12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that ent-kaurane diterpenoids from C. tonkinensis have a direct stimulatory effect on osteoblast differentiation and may be potential therapeutic molecules against bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:22085418

  3. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  4. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  5. Further insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Glauber Pacelli Gomes; de Souza, Terezinha Maria; de Paula Freire, Gabrielle; Farias, Davi Felipe; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; de Morais, Selene Maia; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed new insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species (Croton zehntneri, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton argyrophylloides, and Croton sonderianus) against Aedes aegypti mosquito. In addition, the acute toxicity upon mice was determined. All essential oils showed inhibition of egg hatching, with IC50 values ranging from 66.4 to 143.2 μg mL(-1), larvicidal activity with LC50 ranging from 25.5 to 94.6 μg mL(-1), and pupicidal action with PC50 ranging from 276.8 to over 500 μg mL(-1). Only L. sidoides, C. zehntneri, and C. argyrophylloides essential oils were able to inhibit the oviposition of female gravid mosquitoes with OD50 values of 35.3, 45.3, and 45.8 μg mL(-1), respectively. Oral acute toxicity in mice showed that C. sonderianus and C. argyrophylloides oils are nontoxic (LD50 > 6,000 mg.kg(-1)) while C. nepetaefolius, C. zehntneri, and L. sidoides oils are moderately toxic (LD50 3,840; 3,464, and 2,624 mg.kg(-1), respectively). The results indicate that these oils are promising sources of bioactive compounds, showing low or no toxicity to mammals. PMID:23435925

  6. Response of Brazilian native trees to acute ozone dose.

    PubMed

    Moura, Bárbara Baêsso; de Souza, Sílvia Ribeiro; Alves, Edenise Segala

    2014-03-01

    Ozone (O3) is a toxic secondary pollutant able to cause an intense oxidative stress that induces visual symptoms on sensitive plant species. Controlled fumigation experiment was conducted with the aim to verify the O3 sensibility of three tropical species: Piptadenia gonoachanta (Mart.) Macbr. (Fabaceae), Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae), and Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae). The microscopical features involved in the oxidative stress were recognized based on specific histochemical analysis. The three species showed visual symptoms, characterized as necrosis and stippling between the veins, mostly visible on the adaxial leaf surface. All the studied species presented hypersensitive-like response (HR-like), and peroxide hydrogen accumulation (H2O2) followed by cell death and proanthocyanidin oxidation in P. gonoachanta and A. graveolens. In P. gonoachanta, a decrease in chlorophyll autofluorescence occurred on symptomatic tissues, and in A. graveolens and C. floribundus, a polyphenol compound accumulation occurred. The responses of Brazilian native species were similar to those described for sensitive species from temperate climate, and microscopical markers may be useful for the detection of ozone symptoms in future studies in the field. PMID:24297466

  7. Geographic distribution of three alkaloid chemotypes of Croton lechleri.

    PubMed

    Milanowski, Dennis J; Winter, Rudolph E K; Elvin-Lewis, Memory P F; Lewis, Walter H

    2002-06-01

    Three known alkaloids, isoboldine (2), norisoboldine (1), and magnoflorine (8), have been isolated for the first time from Croton lechleri, a source of the wound healing latex "sangre de grado". An HPLC system was developed, and a large number of latex and leaf samples of C. lechleri from 22 sites in northern Peru and Ecuador were analyzed to gain an understanding of the natural variation in alkaloid content for the species. Up to six alkaloids were found to occur in the leaves including, in addition to those listed above, thaliporphine (3), glaucine (4), and taspine (9), whereas the latex contained only 9. Taspine (9) is the component that has been previously found to be responsible for the wound healing activity of C. lechleri latex, and its mean concentration throughout the range examined was found to be 9% of the latex by dry weight. In addition, three chemotypes are defined based on the alkaloid content of the leaves, and the geographic distribution of these chemotypes is discussed along with a quantitative analysis of the alkaloid content as a function of chemotype. PMID:12088421

  8. Essential oils composition of croton species from the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Nathalie A; Ribeiro, Alcy F; Carvalho, Elisangela Elena N; Domingos, Vanessa D; Lucas, Flávia Cristina A; Carreira, Léa Maria M; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2013-10-01

    The essential oils of leaves and twigs from the Euphorbiaceous Croton draconoides, C. urucurana and Julocroton triqueter were obtained and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In total, 101 volatile constituents were identified, comprising an average of 90% of the oil, mostly made up of mono- and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene hydrocarbons varied from 1.2 to 40.2%, the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from 34.0 to 49.6% and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes from 11.5 to 51.3%. The main compounds found in the oil of C. draconoides were beta-pinene (16.9%), alpha-pinene (16.5%), curzerene (12.8%), germacrene D (9.0%), gamma-elemene (4.7%), and elemol (4.4%). The oil of C. urucurana showed sesquicineole (23.0%), dehydro-sesquicineole (13.8%), beta-caryophyllene (7.9%), beta-bisabolol (5.0%), germacrene D (4.2%) and beta-elemene (4.1%) as the chief compounds. The oil of J. triqueter was dominated by beta-caryophyllene (16.3%), beta-phellandrene (10.2%), spathulenol (5.1%), caryophyllene oxide (5.0%), delta-cadinene (4.3%), (E)-nerolidol (4.3%), and alpha-copaene (4.1%). PMID:24354204

  9. Antiproliferative Activity of Flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B.; Santos, Deborah Y. A. C.; Salatino, Maria L. F.; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J. Pena; Lago, João Henrique G.; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T. G.; de Carvalho, João E.; Furlan, Cláudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1–F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1–F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes. PMID:26075219

  10. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J Pena; Lago, João Henrique G; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; de Carvalho, João E; Furlan, Cláudia M

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1-F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1-F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes. PMID:26075219

  11. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  12. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  13. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  14. Phytomining of heavy metals from soil by Croton bonplandianum using phytoremediation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, K. J.; Dave, B. R.; Parmar, P. P.; Subramanian, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Metal ions are not only valuable intermediates in metal extraction, but also important raw materials for technical applications. They possess some unique but, identical physical and chemical properties, which make them useful probes of low temperature geochemical reactions. Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. Metal concentration in soil typically ranges from less than one to as high as 100,000 mg/kg. Heavy metal contaminations of land resources continue to be the focus of numerous environmental studies and attract a great deal of attention worldwide. This is attributed to no--biodegradability and persistence of heavy metals in soils. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Complexation, separation, and removal of metal ions have become increasingly attractive areas of research and have led to new technical developments like phytoremediation that has numerous biotechnological implications of understanding of plant metal accumulation. Croton bonplandianum is newly identified as a potential heavy metal hypreaccumulator. In this study Croton bonplandianum was subjected for in vitro heavy metal accumulation, to explore the accumulation pattern of four heavy metals viz Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Zinc in various parts of Croton bonplandianum plant parts. It was found that the efficiency of Croton bonplandianum to accumulate heavy metals is Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni. The absorption of these heavy metals in plant parts revealed that the highest translocation of metals from ground to root was ground to be in the order of Pb (1.12) > Zn (0.26) > Ni (0.18) > Cd (0.15). The distribution of Cd in Croton bonplandianum followed the trend Root>Stem>Leaf; with Ni it was Root>Leaf>Stem, while Pb showed leaf>stem>root. Translocation of metals in Croton bonplandianum plant parts

  15. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM. PMID:24047122

  16. Crotonic acid as a bioactive factor in carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.).

    PubMed

    Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Wieczorek, Piotr P; Kafarski, Paweł

    2005-06-01

    Water extracts from the carrot seed (Daucus carota L.) var. Perfekcja exhibit plant growth inhibitory properties against cress, cucumber, onion and carrot in a dose-dependant manner. This property results from the action of low-and high-molecular components of the extract. The low-molecular component was identified as crotonic acid ((E)-2-butenoic acid). Its presence was also confirmed in other late varieties of carrot. The determined strong herbicidal properties of crotonic acid and its availability after release to soil combined with its high level in seeds suggest that it might be considered as an allelopathic and autotoxic factor in the seeds. PMID:15960983

  17. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  18. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery. PMID:22811599

  19. Tannic acid mitigates the DMBA/croton oil-induced skin cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Majed, Ferial; Rashid, Summya; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Nafees, Sana; Ali, Nemat; Ali, Rashid; Khan, Rehan; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Sultana, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and also one of the major causes of death worldwide. The toxic environmental pollutant 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is a skin-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against various types of chemical-induced toxicities and carcinogenesis as well. In the present study, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of tannic acid in DMBA + croton oil-induced skin cancer in Swiss albino mice. Protective effect of TA against skin cancer was evaluated in terms of antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and expression of inflammation and early tumour markers. DMBA + croton oil causes depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.001) and elevation of early inflammatory and tumour promotional events. TA prevents the DMBA + croton oil-induced toxicity through a protective mechanism that involves the reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-NOS, PCNA protein expression and level of proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-6 release at a very significant level (p < 0.001). It could be concluded from our results that TA attenuates DMBA + croton oil-induced tumour promotional potential possibly by inhibiting oxidative and inflammatory responses and acts as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agent. PMID:25399297

  20. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  1. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components...

  2. Would Sacaca, Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae) be an hepatotoxic plant like Germander, Teucrium chamaedrys L. (Labiatae)?

    PubMed

    Soares, Manoel do Carmo Pereira

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have consistently incriminated the medicinal plant germander (Teucrium chamaedrys L.) in epidemic and sporadic cases of liver diseases. The sacaca (Croton cajucara Benth), a common plant in Brazilian Amazon region also comes being incriminated in similar clinical cases. Of both plants were isolated diterpenoid compounds with similar chemical structures. PMID:15586905

  3. Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) fruit.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Betty K; Turner, Charlotta; Chapman, Mary H; McKeon, Thomas A

    2004-01-28

    In this study, we analyzed fatty acid and carotenoid composition of fruit tissues, including seed (which are surrounded by a bright red, oily aril) of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac in Vietnam. Carotenoid content was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, using a C(30) column and a method separating cis- and trans-isomers of the major carotenoids in this fruit. Mean values obtained in aril tissues were 1342 microg trans-, 204 microg cis-, and 2227 microg total lycopene; 597 microg trans-, 39 microg cis-, and 718 microg total beta-carotene; and 107 microg alpha-carotene/g FW. Mesocarp contained 11 microg trans-, 5 microg cis-beta-carotene/g FW, trace amounts of alpha-carotene, and no lycopene. Gac aril contained 22% fatty acids by weight, composed of 32% oleic, 29% palmitic, and 28% linoleic acids. Seeds contained primarily stearic acid (60.5%), smaller amounts of linoleic (20%), oleic (9%), and palmitic (5-6%) acids, and trace amounts of arachidic, cis-vaccenic, linolenic, and palmitoleic, eicosa-11-enoic acids, and eicosa-13-enoic (in one fruit only) acids. PMID:14733508

  4. Carotenoids concentration of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit oil using cross-flow filtration technology.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huỳnh Cang; Truong, Vinh; Debaste, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit, a traditional fruit in Vietnam and other countries of eastern Asia, contains an oil rich in carotenoids, especially lycopene and β-carotene. Carotenoids in gac fruit oil were concentrated using cross-flow filtration. In total recycle mode, effect of membrane pore size, temperature, and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on permeate flux and on retention coefficients has been exploited. Resistance of membrane, polarization concentration, and fouling were also analyzed. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. In batch mode, retentate was analyzed through index of acid, phospholipids, total carotenoids content (TCC), total antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, total solid content, color measurement, and viscosity. TCC in retentate is higher 8.6 times than that in feeding oil. Lipophilic antioxidant activities increase 6.8 times, while hydrophilic antioxidant activities reduce 40%. The major part of total resistance is due to polarization (55%) while fouling and intrinsic membrane contribute about 30% and 24%, respectively. PMID:25367308

  5. The effect of methanolic extract of Buchanania lanzan Spreng seeds on hematological indices

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mandeep Kumar; Das, Bhrigu Kumar; Patidar, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the current study was carried out to investigate the effects of methanolic extract of Buchanania lanzan Spreng seeds on hematological indices. Materials and Methods: Eighteen male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups, six in each. Group I animals received distilled water, Group II and III were treated with an oral dose of 1000 mg oil/kg and 2000 mg oil/kg of extract, respectively, for 7 days. At the end of the study, blood was collected and evaluated for packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts. Results: There was a significant dose-dependent increase in the hematological indices such as PCV, Hb, RBC, and WBC count in the treatment group. Conclusions: The improvement of PCV, Hb, and RBC values is an indication of the anti-anemic effect which may be due to the stimulation of RBC production in bone marrow. Further, stimulated production of WBC could be as a result of possible stimulus of the immune system. Hence, this study confirms that the extract of B. lanzan could be useful for the treatment of anemia. PMID:27127326

  6. Systematic significance of midrib vascular bundles in some Schefflera Spreng (Araliaceae) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor-Syaheera, M. Y.; Noraini, T.; Aida-Shafreena, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    Anatomy study was undertaken on midrib vascular bundles of six Schefflera Spreng species, namely as S. obovatilimba, S. borneensis, S.kinabaluensis, S.lineamentorum, S. opacus and S.petiolosa. The genus Schefflera belongs to the family Araliaceae. The objective of this study is to determine variations in the midrib anatomical characteristics that can be used to identify species. Leaves samples were collected from various forest reserves in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia., were fixed in AA (Acetic acid: Alcohol, in a ratio of 1:3), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, were stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, been mounted in Eupharal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown that all species have complex structure of vascular bundles. Each species has identical arrangement of vascular bundles and can be very useful for species identification. As a conclusion, variation in the midrib anatomical characteristics is outstanding and can has taxonomic value in the genus Schefflera respectively.

  7. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon. PMID:27049519

  8. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton

    PubMed Central

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon. PMID:27049519

  9. Oblongionosides A-F, megastigmane glycosides from the leaves of Croton oblongifolius Roxburgh.

    PubMed

    Takeshige, Yuya; Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Lhieochaiphant, Duangporn; Lhieochaiphant, Sorasak

    2012-08-01

    From the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves of Croton oblongifolius Roxburgh, collected in Chiang Mai, Thailand, six megastigmane glycosides, named oblongionosides A-F were isolated together with eight known compounds, and their structures elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Absolute structures were determined by HPLC analyses and application of the modified Mosher's method. PMID:22683317

  10. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yung-Jia; Huang, Tai-Hung; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chen, Ya-Wen; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a native Labiatae plant of Taiwan. The plants are commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cough, fever, sore throats, mumps, and mosquito bite. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the aqueous extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (PA) in vivo and in vitro. PA inhibited pain induced by acetic acid and formalin, and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect of PA was related to modulating antioxidant enzymes' activities in the liver and decreasing the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) in edema-paw tissue in mice. In vitro studies show that PA inhibited the proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PA blocked the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. Finally, the amount of carvacrol in the aqueous extract of PA was 1.88 mg/g extract. Our findings suggest that PA has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These effects were mediated by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators through blocking NF-κB activation. Meanwhile, the effects observed in this study provide evidence for folkloric uses of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. in relieving pain and inflammation. PMID:21915187

  11. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yung-Jia; Huang, Tai-Hung; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chen, Ya-Wen; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a native Labiatae plant of Taiwan. The plants are commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cough, fever, sore throats, mumps, and mosquito bite. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the aqueous extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (PA) in vivo and in vitro. PA inhibited pain induced by acetic acid and formalin, and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect of PA was related to modulating antioxidant enzymes' activities in the liver and decreasing the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) in edema-paw tissue in mice. In vitro studies show that PA inhibited the proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PA blocked the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. Finally, the amount of carvacrol in the aqueous extract of PA was 1.88 mg/g extract. Our findings suggest that PA has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These effects were mediated by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators through blocking NF-κB activation. Meanwhile, the effects observed in this study provide evidence for folkloric uses of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. in relieving pain and inflammation. PMID:21915187

  12. Croton membranaceus Improves Some Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in Genetic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, Samuel; Afriyie, Daniel; Appiah-Danquah, Akua Bempomaa; Asia, Jonas; Asiedu, Bernice; Santa, Sheila; Doku, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 17.3 million deaths per year globally. In Ghana, CVD accounts for 22.2% of deaths. Croton membranaceus (CM) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant in Ghana is mainly used traditionally for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and measles. However, some hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects have recently been reported but not scientifically examined. Aim The study aimed at establishing whether Croton membranaceus (CM) used for prostatitis had any effect on CVD markers. Materials and Methods In experiment 1, lipid profile changes were determined. Twenty four male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) were divided into 4 groups. Low (LD), intermediate (ID) and high dose (HD) groups received 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. CM aqueous root extracts (CMARE) for 60 days, respectively, the controls received distilled water. In experiment 2, blood glucose levels (BGL) were determined. 21 db/db mice were divided into 3 groups of 7 mice each alongside db/+ mice (7) (negative control). Groups 1 and 2 received 250 mg/kg b.wt CMARE and metformin, respectively. Group 3 (positive control) and db/+ mice (negative control) received distilled water. Mice were monitored for 15 hours. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 20. Results Hypotriglyceridaemic effect was observed (p=0.005). High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) showed significant increases (p=0.013) and decreases (p=0.003), respectively. A significant CRP reduction was observed for ID and HD groups (p = 0.010, p = 0.011, respectively). BGL was reduced in Metformin and Croton groups (p=0.000; p= 0.006, respectively) after 3 hours. Conclusion In conclusion, CMARE has positive effects on some CVD biomarkers and a hypoglycaemic effect. PMID:26816938

  13. New clerodane diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton euryphyllus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhenghong; Ning, Desheng; Wu, Xingde; Huang, Sisi; Li, Dianpeng; Lv, Shihong

    2015-03-15

    Three new nor-clerodane diterpenoids, crotoeurins A-C (1-3), together with four known ones were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Croton euryphyllus. Among them, crotoeurin A (1) is a new nor-clerodane diterpenoid dimer with a unique cyclobutane ring via a [2+2] cycloaddition. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited neurite outgrowth-promoting activity on NGF-mediated PC12 cells at concentration of 10μM. PMID:25690785

  14. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Croton bonplandianus from India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-02-01

    The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Croton bonplandianus Baill. was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 37 compounds have been identified, representing 96.2% of the total oil. The main constituents were identified as beta-caryophyllene (16.7%), germacrene D (14.7%), borneol (8.3%), Z-beta-damascenone (6.(%), isobornyl acetate (6.2%), alpha-humulene (6.1%), germacrene A (5.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.5%). The oil was rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (60.1%). PMID:24689307

  15. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively. PMID:26475984

  16. New labdane diterpenoids from Croton laui and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Chen, Li-Feng; Chen, Neng-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Nan; Jiang, Si-Qi; Jiang, Lin; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-10-01

    Nine new labdane diterpenoids (1-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Croton laui, along with eight known analogues (10-17). Their structures were identified on the basis of the spectral data (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), and the structure of 8 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In addition, compounds 1, 4, 7, 8, and 14 showed weak anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:27575472

  17. Crotonis Fructus and Its Constituent, Croton Oil, Stimulate Lipolysis in OP9 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Seong; Kim, Ha-Rim; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Young-Rae; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Ryu, Do-Gon; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Lee, Guem-San; Song, Je-Ho; Kwon, Kang-Beom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Crotonis fructus (CF) is the mature fruit of Croton tiglium L. and has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbance in Asia. It is well known that the main component of CF is croton oil (CO). The present study is to investigate the effects of CF extracts (CFE) and CO on lipolysis in OP9 adipocytes. Methods. Glycerol release to the culture supernatants was used as a marker of adipocyte lipolysis. Results. Treatment with various concentrations of CFE and CO stimulates glycerol release in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in glycerol release by CFE is more potent than isoproterenol, which is a β-adrenergic agonist as a positive control in our system. The increased lipolysis by CFE and CO was accompanied by an increase of phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (pHSL) but not nonphosphorylated HSL protein and mRNA. Pretreatment with H89, which is a protein kinase A inhibitor, significantly abolished the CFE- and CO-induced glycerol release in OP9 adipocytes. These results suggest that CFE and CO may be a candidate for the development of a lipolysis-stimulating agent in adipocytes. PMID:25435891

  18. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as “copalchi” in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  19. A study of the larvicidal activity of two Croton species from northeastern Brazil against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dória, Grace A A; Silva, Wellington J; Carvalho, Gilcia A; Alves, Péricles B; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-06-01

    The essential oils of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) and Croton pulegiodorus Baill. were selected for larvicidal evaluation against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and studied qualitatively and quantitatively by GC and GC-MS. Sixty-one compounds representing 92.03% (C. heliotropiifolius) and 85.68% (C. pulegiodorus) of the essential oils, respectively, have been identified. The major components of C. heliotropiifolius essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (35.82%), bicyclogermacrene (19.98%), and germacrene-D (11.85%). The major components in C. pulegiodorus essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (20.96%), bicyclogermacrene (16.89%), germacrene-D (10.55%), tau-cadinol (4.56%), and beta-copaen-4-alpha-ol (4.35%). The essential oil of C. pulegiodorus (LC50 159 ppm) was more effective against Ae. aegypti than that of C. heliotropiifolius (LC50 544 ppm). In order to verify whether the major compound of both essential oils is the active principle responsible for the larvicidal activity, beta-caryophyllene was purchased and its larvicidal potential was further evaluated. However, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 1038 ppm) showed weak larvicidal potency. Results of larvicidal evaluation suggest the existence of a synergistic effect of minor components in the essential oils. PMID:20645733

  20. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  1. Enhancement of the Norfloxacin Antibiotic Activity by Gaseous Contact with the Essential Oil of Croton zehntneri

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, HDM; Matias, EFF; Santos, KKA; Tintino, SR; Souza, CES; Guedes, GMM; Santos, FAD; Costa, JGM; Falcão-Silva, VS; Siqueira-Júnior, JP

    2010-01-01

    This is the first on the modulation of norfloxacin antibiotic activity by the volatile compounds of an essential oil. We report the chemical composition and antibiotic modifying activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (variety estragole), using the minimal inhibitory dose method and gaseous contact. The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and to inhibitory activity of efflux pump by gaseous contact. The main component of the essential oil of C. zehntneri was estragole (76,8%). The gaseous components of the oil enhanced the inhibition zone of norfloxacin in 39,5%. This result shows that this oil influences the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin, possibly affecting the bacterial NorA efflux system, and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of multidrug resistant pathogens. PMID:21264094

  2. Mild pyrolysis of P3HB/Switchgrass blends for the production of bio-oil enriched with crotonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mild pyrolysis of switchgrass/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) blends that mimic P3HB-producing switchgrass lines was studied in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor with the goal of simultaneously producing crotonic acid and switchgrass-based bio-oil. Factors such as pyrolysis temperature, residenc...

  3. Volatiles, a glutarimide alkaloid and antimicrobial effects of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Rosana N S; Guilhon, Giselle M S P; das Graças B Zoghbi, Maria; Araújo, Isabella S; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Santos, Lourivaldo S; do S B Brasil, Davi

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigation of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) collected in the Brazilian Amazon region was revisited. The chemical composition of the essential oils of leaves and stems was analyzed by GC/MS. It was found that both the oils comprise mainly terpenes, among which linalool was the major one (24.90 and 39.72%, respectively). Phytochemical investigation of the stem methanol extract led to the isolation of a new natural product from the glutarimide alkaloid group named N-[2,6-dioxo-1-(2-phenylethyl)-3-piperidinyl]-acetamide, confirming that C. pullei is a rich source of this class of alkaloids. The hexane and methanol extracts of the stems of C. pullei showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and the highest inhibition was observed when the methanol extract was tested against Staphylococcus aureus CCMB 262 and CCMB 263. PMID:23481881

  4. Two novel clerodane diterpenenes with NGF-potentiating activities from the twigs of Croton yanhuii.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yihang; Wang, Meicheng; Ren, Quanhui; Li, Shen; Xu, Jing; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-Qing; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-06-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and analog reagents to promote the neurite outgrowth of nerve cells against the neuron degeneration are expected to be potentially useful for the medical treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In our focus on the discovery of bioactive diterpenes, we investigated the chemical constituents of the plant Croton yanhuii. This investigation led to the isolation and identification of two novel clerodane diterpenes (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and mass (ESIMS and HR-ESIMS) spectroscopic data analyses. Further biological screenings showed that both of the compounds enhanced NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells. PMID:24685507

  5. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition. PMID:24660481

  6. Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton crassifolius and their anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Jian; Chung, Hau Yin; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Huang, Wei-Huan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-02-01

    Six diterpenoids [crassifolin J, K, L, M, N and O] along with eleven known ones were isolated from the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of the roots of Croton crassifolius (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). The structure and stereochemistry of crassifolin J was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and the absolute configurations of crassifolin K-M were determined by CD spectra. Twenty-three diterpenoids from this plant were screened for their anti-angiogenic activity using a wild-type zebrafish in vivo model. Four of the known compounds were active, of which penduliflaworosin possessed the best activity relative to the positive control (SU5416). Further study demonstrated that penduliflaworosin could inhibit vessel formation on Tg(fli1a:EGFP)y1-type zebrafish embryos. PMID:26725185

  7. Tigliane diterpenes from Croton mauritianus as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Corlay, Nina; Delang, Leen; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Neyts, Johan; Clerc, Patricia; Smadja, Jacqueline; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the leaves of Croton mauritianus using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1) and the new 12-O-decanoyl-7-hydroperoxy-phorbol-5-ene-13-acetate (2), along with loliolide, vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, annuionone D and bluemol C. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited chikungunya virus-induced cell death in cell culture with EC50s of 2.4±0.3 and 4.0±0.8 μM, respectively. PMID:24879904

  8. Purification and characterization of a toxin inhibiting protein synthesis from Croton mongue, a Madagascar Euphorbiaceae.

    PubMed

    Ralison, C; Creppy, E E; Boulanger, Y; Dirheimer, G

    1986-01-01

    Monguine, a thermostable toxic protein was extracted from the seeds of Croton mongue (Euphorbiaceae) and purified by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 and G-15. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified monguine in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and after treatment with 2-mercaptoethanol showed one band corresponding to a molecular weight of 9000. The same molecular weight was determined by analytical centrifugation. Amino acid analysis revealed a high content in both aspartic and glutamic acids (or the corresponding amides). The LD50 (24 h) is 12 mg/kg of mouse body weight. Monguine inhibits protein synthesis in hepatoma tissue culture cells and globin synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. PMID:3098307

  9. Tectonosedimentary evolution of the Crotone basin, Italy: Implications for Calabrian Arc geodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Smale, J.L. ); Rio, D. ); Thunell, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of outcrop, well, and offshore seismic data has allowed the Neogene tectonosedimentary evolution of an Ionian Sea satellite basin to be outlined. The Crotone basin contains a series of postorogenic sediments deposited since Serravallian time atop a complex nappe system emplaced in the early Miocene. The basin's evolution can be considered predominantly one of distension in a fore-arc setting punctuated by compressional events. The earliest sediments (middle-late Miocene) consist of conglomerates, marls, and evaporites infilling a rapidly subsiding basin. A basin-wide Messinian unconformity and associated intraformational folding mark the close of this sedimentary cycle. Reestablishment of marine conditions in the early Pliocene is documented by sediments which show a distinct color banding and apparent rhythmicity, which may represent the basin margin to lowermost Pliocene marl/limestone rhythmic couplets present in southern Calabria. A bounding unconformity surface of middle Pliocene age (3.0 Ma), which corresponds to a major northwest-southeast compressional event, closes this depositional sequence. The basin depocenter shifted markedly toward the southeast, and both chaotic and strong subparallel reflector seismic facies of wide-ranging thicknesses fill the depositional topography created during this tectonic episode. Basin subsidence decreases dramatically in the late Pliocene and cessates in response to basin margin uplift in the early Pleistocene. The chronostratigraphic hierarchy of these depositional sequences allows them to constrain the deformational history of the basin. In addition, similar depositional hierarchies in adjacent basins (i.e., Paola, Cefalu, and Tyrrhenian Sea) allow them to tie the stratigraphy and evolution of the Crotone basin to the geodynamic evolution of the Calabrian arc system.

  10. Chemomodulatory Potential of Flaxseed Oil Against DMBA/Croton Oil-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Ritu; Goyal, P K

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of flaxseed oil to prevent chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Cancer was induced on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis model by single topical application of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA), as, initiator, and two weeks later it was promoted by croton oil treatment thrice a week on the dorsal surface of mice for 16 weeks. Flaxseed oil (FSO; 100µL/animal/d) was orally administered 1 week before and 1 week after DMBA application (Peri-initiation stage). The animals of the FSO-administered group showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence (76.67%), cumulative number of tumors (37), tumor yield (3.7), and tumor burden (4.81) when compared with the carcinogen-treated control animals. Biochemical parameters in skin and liver tissue such as LPO and phase I enzymes were significantly (P < .01) reduced in the FSO-treated experimental group, whereas the phase II enzymes (GST, DT-diaphorase) and antioxidant parameters (GSH, GPx, SOD, catalase, and vitamin C) exhibited a significant (P < .01) elevation when compared with the animals of the carcinogen-treated control group. Histopathological alterations in the carcinogen-treated control animals were also observed in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, keratinized pearl formation, and acanthosis in skin and tumors, whereas these were found to be reduced after FSO administration. The results of the present study demonstrate that the oral administration of FSO has the potential to modulate the levels of LPO, antioxidants, and detoxification enzymes in the DMBA-croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:26437861

  11. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and essential oil, eugenol.

    PubMed

    Tragoolpua, Y; Jatisatienr, A

    2007-12-01

    In this study, an extract from the flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and the essential oil, eugenol, were evaluated for their anti-herpes simplex virus properties on standard HSV-1(F), standard HSV-2(G) and ten HSV isolates. The plaque reduction assay showed that HSV-1(F), HSV-2(G), two HSV-1 isolates (2, 30) and four HSV-2 isolates (1, 2, 3, 21) were inhibited by E. caryophyllus. Only HSV-1 isolates 1 and 30 were inhibited by eugenol. Thus, strains or isolates of viruses may affect the range of inhibition. Moreover, particles of HSV standard strains were directly inactivated by E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The total virus yield of HSV standard strains and isolates at 30 h also declined after treatment with E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The E. caryophyllus extract exerted higher antiviral replication on HSV-2(G) than on HSV-1(F). The inhibition of the viral yield of HSV-1 isolates was higher than standard HSV-1(F) and standard HSV-2(G) was also inhibited more than most of the HSV-2 isolates. The anti-HSV activity of eugenol against HSV-1(F) and HSV isolates was stronger than with the E. caryophyllus crude extract. However, the percentage inhibition was more pronounced on HSV-1(F) than on HSV-2(G). Moreover, HSV-1(1) and HSV-2(1, 32) could not replicate when eugenol was included in the assay. PMID:17628885

  12. Renoprotective Effects of Vitex megapotamica (Spreng.) Moldenke in C57BL/6 LDLr-Null Mice Undergoing High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Valdinei de Oliveira; Gasparotto, Francielly Mourão; Pires, Vanessa Aranega; Maciel, Aline Antunes; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2015-01-01

    Although Vitex megapotamica (Spreng.) Moldenke is used in Brazilian folk medicine as hypolipidemic drug no study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of this species in an experimental model of atherosclerosis. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible renoprotective activity of methanolic extract obtained from Vitex megapotamica (MEVM) using C57BL/6 LDLr-null mice submitted to high fat diet (HFD). MEVM was orally administered at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, for three weeks, starting from the 2nd week of HFD. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diuretic activity were measured weekly. At the end of experiments the serum lipids, atherogenic index serum (AIS), oxidative stress, and markers of renal function were determined. HFD induced a significant increase in the systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, increase in AIS, and lipid peroxidation accompanied by an important reduction in renal function. Treatment with MEVM was able to prevent increase in SBP, total cholesterol, triglycerides, AIS, urea, and creatinine levels in LDLr-null mice. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and renal injury. The data reported here support the potential of Vitex megapotamica as candidate to be an herbal medicine used in cardiovascular or renal diseases. PMID:25788962

  13. Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Martins; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano; Aguiar, Milena Braga; Camara, Lilia Maria Carneiro; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Valença Junior, José Telmo; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against MRSA clinical isolates. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE), the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and its subfractions were determined by broth microdilution and bioautography against MRSA clinical isolates. The microdilution checkerboard method was used to assess in vitro drug combination studies. To induce abscess formation, bacterial suspensions were added to Citodex and inoculated subcutaneously into male Swiss mice. The treatment protocol consisted of 2 doses of HE, the EA fraction or vancomycin introduced intraperitoneally into mice 3 and 12 h after infection. The EA fraction and its subfractions presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, 0.25 to 0.5 mg/mL). The plant samples were bacteriostatic at 2x and 4x MIC and bactericidal at 100 mg/mL. The EA fraction presented synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciprofloxacin. A significant reduction of abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries, and inflammatory scores was observed in the HE and EA fraction-treated groups. The samples were effective in treating the animals in a dose-dependent fashion. The present study proved the effectiveness of P. amboinicus fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:23533472

  14. Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Martins; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano; Aguiar, Milena Braga; Camara, Lilia Maria Carneiro; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Valença Junior, José Telmo; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against MRSA clinical isolates. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE), the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and its subfractions were determined by broth microdilution and bioautography against MRSA clinical isolates. The microdilution checkerboard method was used to assess in vitro drug combination studies. To induce abscess formation, bacterial suspensions were added to Citodex and inoculated subcutaneously into male Swiss mice. The treatment protocol consisted of 2 doses of HE, the EA fraction or vancomycin introduced intraperitoneally into mice 3 and 12 h after infection. The EA fraction and its subfractions presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, 0.25 to 0.5 mg/mL). The plant samples were bacteriostatic at 2x and 4x MIC and bactericidal at 100 mg/mL. The EA fraction presented synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciprofloxacin. A significant reduction of abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries, and inflammatory scores was observed in the HE and EA fraction-treated groups. The samples were effective in treating the animals in a dose-dependent fashion. The present study proved the effectiveness of P. amboinicus fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:23533472

  15. Enhancement of immune responses to Newcastle disease vaccine by a supplement of extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, C; Bao, G; Hu, S

    2009-11-01

    The study evaluated the immunological effect of extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds (ECMS) on the immune response against Newcastle disease (ND) in chickens. Forty-eight chickens were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Each chicken was immunized with ND vaccine mixed with 0, 20, 40, or 80 microg of ECMS on d 35. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 postimmunization. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated by indirect ELISA assay and the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method. Results indicated that humoral immune response was enhanced by ECMS 14 d postimmunization. Eighty micrograms of ECMS was the best dose with the ND vaccine and was significantly different from the other groups 21 d after immunization. No significant differences were found in the cellular immune response, whereas the 80 microg of ECMS group had higher values than the other groups 35 d after immunization. No side effect was found on the growth performance during the experiment. PMID:19834078

  16. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, aril and seed) of Thai gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng).

    PubMed

    Kubola, Jittawan; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2011-08-01

    Three fractions (peel, pulp and aril) of gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) were investigated for their phytochemicals (lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein and phenolic compounds) and their antioxidant activity. The results showed that the aril had the highest contents for both lycopene and beta-carotene, whilst peel (yellow) contained the highest amount of lutein. Two major phenolic acid groups: hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic were identified and quantified. Gallic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were found in all fractions. Ferulic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most evident in pulp. Myricetin was the only flavonoid found in all fractions. Apigenin was the most predominant flavonoid in pulp (red), whereas rutin and luteolin gave the highest content in aril. The extracts of different fractions exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in the systems tested. The aril extract showed the highest FRAP value. The greatest antioxidant activities of peel and pulp extracts were at immature stage, whereas those in the seed extracts increased from mature stage to ripe stage. The contents of total phenolic and total flavonoid in peel and pulp decreased during the fruit development stage (immature>ripe fruit) and subsequently displayed lower antioxidant capacity, except for the seed. PMID:25214106

  17. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Interestingly, we found that extraction with n-butanol is most efficient in producing the hair promoting activity. In addition, the soluble fraction of the n-butanol extract was further separated by silica gel chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC) resulting in isolating four single fractions which have hair growth regeneration potential. Furthermore, administration of ATRES extracts to dorsal skin area increased the number of hair follicles compared with control mouse group. Interestingly, administration of ATRES extract stimulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) but not of keratin growth factor (KGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Taken together, these results suggest that ATRES possesses strong hair growth promoting potential which controls the expression of IGF-1. PMID:26078771

  18. Croton cajucara Benth. leaf extract scavenges the stable free radical DPPH and protects against oxidative stress induced by paraquat.

    PubMed

    Tieppo, Marcelo; Porawski, Marilene; Salvador, Mirian; Moreira, Andrea Janz; Collado, Pilar Sanzchez; González-Gallego, Javier; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant effects of extracts from Croton cajucara BENTH. leaves was investigated in different in vitro and in vivo models. Extracts showed inhibitory radical scavenging activity against the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (75%, 43% and 25% of the standard trolox at 1, 10 and 100 mg/ml, respectively; IC50 218 mg/ml). Percentage survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells treated with 10 mM paraquat increased by 21% and 55%, when 1 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extract, respectively, were added. The cytosolic concentration of TBARS increased in animals treated with paraquat (+283%), while values did not significantly differ from the controls in rats additionally receiving the leaf extract. Paraquat administration also induced a significant increase in hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminiscence (+76%), that was partially prevented by the leaf extract (+31%). Liver SOD activity was a 158% higher in animals receiving paraquat as compared to the controls. This effect was abolished by administration of the leaf extract. Paraquat administration did not significantly modify the activity of GPx or catalase. Croton cajucara extract increased GPx and catalase activities in paraquat treated-animals by 342% and 70%, respectively. Our results confirm that Croton cajucara leaf extract present radical scavenging activity and reduce oxidative stress induced by paraquat, suggesting the beneficial use as a potential source of antioxidant agents of natural origin. PMID:16394531

  19. Species diversity of Fergusonina Malloch gall flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) forming leaf bud galls on snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex), with a description of a new species from Tasmania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) fly is described from terminal leaf bud galls (TLBGs) from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (snow gum) species complex. Fergusonina tasmaniensis Nelson sp.n. is the first species from the genus Fergusonina to be described from Tasmania...

  20. Three new species of Fergusonina Malloch fly (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Her. (E. baxteri (Benth.) Maiden & Blakely complex, E. dalrympleana Maiden and E. pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) flies are described from terminal leaf bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Hér. from south eastern Australia. Fergusonina omlandi Nelson and Yeates sp. nov. is the third fly from the genus Fergusonina to be described from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (...

  1. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality—selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  2. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses; Marcellino, Lucilia Helena; Micheli, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality-selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  3. Essential oil of Nepeta x faassenii Bergmans ex Stearn (N. mussinii Spreng. x N. nepetella L.): a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko; Blagojević, Polina D; Rabbitt, Kevin; Menezes, Fabio de Sousa

    2011-07-01

    Analysis (GC and GC/MS) of an essential oil sample obtained from dry leaves of Nepeta x faassenii Bergmans ex Steam, a hybrid species produced by crossbreeding N. mussinii Spreng. with N. nepetella L., led to the identification of 109 constituents that represented 95.9% of the oil. The major constituents were 4aalpha,7alpha,7aalpha-nepetalactone (67.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.6%), germacrene D (4.8%), beta-pinene (2.7%), (E)-beta-ocimene (2.6%), 4aalpha,7beta,7aalpha-nepetalactone (2.3%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (1.0%). Chemical composition of the oil was compared, using multivariate statistical analyses (MVA) with those of the oils of other Nepeta taxa, in particular N. mussinii and N. nepetella. This was done in order to explore the mode of inheritance of the monoterpene biosynthetic apparatus of N. faassenii. Chemical composition of the volatiles of a Nepeta taxon (different populations) can be subject to variation due to environmental and geographical factors. To accommodate this fact in the MVAs, along side with N. faassenii essential oil, additional 6 oils (3 different populations of N. nuda L. and N. cataria L. from Serbia) were included in this study (isolated and analyzed (chemically and statistically)). The MVA analyses recognized N. faassenii as being closely related to both N. mussinii and N. nepetella. If the relative content of oil constituents per plant and not per chromatogram were used as variables in the MVA (this was done by simple multiplication of the yields and relative percentages of components) a higher degree of mutual similarity (in respect to the monoterpene biosynthesis) of N. faassenii to N. mussinii, than to the other parent species, was observed. PMID:21834248

  4. Genetic diversity analysis of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. using AFLP molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T G; Pereira, A M S; Coppede, J S; França, S C; Ming, L C; Bertoni, B W

    2016-01-01

    Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. is a medicinal plant native to Cerrado vegetation in Brazil, and it is popularly used to treat urogenital tract infections. The objective of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of natural C. antisyphiliticus populations using AFLP molecular markers. Accessions were collected in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Goiás. The genotyping of individuals was performed using a LI-COR® DNA Analyzer 4300. The variability within populations was found to be greater than the variability between them. The F(ST) value was 0.3830, which indicated that the populations were highly structured. A higher percentage of polymorphic loci (92.16%) and greater genetic diversity were found in the population accessions from Pratinha-MG. Gene flow was considered restricted (N(m) = 1.18), and there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The populations of C. antisyphiliticus exhibited an island-model structure, which demonstrates the vulnerability of the species. PMID:26909989

  5. The antiulcer effect of Croton cajucara Benth in normoproteic and malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    De Paula, Ana Claudia B; Gracioso, Juliano S; Toma, Walber; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Carneiro, Everardo M; Brito, Alba R M Souza

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the antiulcerogenic effects of the essential oil (EO) of Croton cajucara Benth in rats fed with a normal protein (NP) and low-protein diet (MN). NP and MN rats were treated with the essential oil for 15 days after chronic ulceration was induced. The EO accelerated healing of acetic acid-induced gastric lesions in NP and MN rats (p<0.05). In a similar experiment on chronic ulceration, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) mRNA expression increased in NP rats but not in MN rats. In assays of acute antiulcerogenic activity, C. cajucara increased somatostatin plasma levels and decreased gastrin plasma levels in both animal groups. The EO significantly prevented ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in NP and MN rats (p<0.001). Histological examination showed initial regeneration, formation of inflammatory infiltrate and angiogenesis in the epithelium surface of acetic acid-induced ulcers in NP and MN rats. C. cajucara prevented gastric lesions in both animal groups when ethanol methodology was used. We concluded that the EO showed an antiulcerogenic activity mediated by increased somatostatin secretion and EGF mRNA expression. PMID:18434121

  6. Effects of Croton rhamnifolioides essential oil on Aedes aegypti oviposition, larval toxicity and trypsin activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Lira, Camila S; Lima, Bheatriz N; Napoleão, Thiago H; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Maranhão, Claudia A; Brandão, Sofia S F; Navarro, Daniela M A F

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous reports are available concerning the larvicidal potential of essential oils, very few investigations have focused on their mechanisms of action. In the present study, we have investigated the chemical composition of the leaf oil of Croton rhamnifolioides during storage and its effects on oviposition and survival of larvae of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. In addition, we have established a possible mechanism of action for the larvicidal activity of the essential oil. GC-MS analyses revealed marked differences in the composition of oil that had been freshly isolated and that of a sample that had been stored in a sealed amber-glass vial under refrigeration for three years. However, both fresh and stored oil exhibited substantial larvicidal activities with LC50 values of 122.35 and 89.03 ppm, respectively, and oviposition deterrent effects against gravid females at concentrations of 50 and 100 µg·mL-1. These results demonstrate that the larvicidal effect of the essential oil was unchanged during three years of storage even though its chemical composition altered. Hence, the essential oil could be used in the preparation of commercial products. In addition, we observed that the trypsin-like activity of mosquito larvae was inhibited in vitro by the essential oil of C. rhamnifolioides, suggesting that the larvicidal effect may be associated with inhibition of this enzyme. PMID:25317582

  7. Leaf uptake of methyl ethyl ketone and croton aldehyde by Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Akira; Tobe, Seita; Shimizu, Sachie

    2013-05-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is an abundant ketone in the urban atmosphere and croton aldehyde (CA) is a strong irritant to eye, nose, and throat. The use of plants able to absorb these compounds is one suggested mitigation method. In order to investigate this method, we determined the uptake rate of these compounds by leaves of two tree species, Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum var. awabuki. Using a flow-through chamber method, we found that these species were capable of absorbing both compounds. We also confirmed that the uptake rate of these compounds normalized to the fumigated concentration (AN) was higher at higher light intensities and that there was a linear relationship between AN and stomatal conductance (gS) for both tree species. In concentration-varying experiments, the uptake of MEK and CA seemed to be restricted by partitioning of MEK between leaf water and air. The ratio of the intercellular VOC concentration (Ci) to the fumigated concentration (Ca) for CA was zero, and the ratio ranged from 0.63 to 0.76 for MEK. The more efficient CA uptake ability may be the result of higher partitioning of CA into leaf water. Our present and previous results also suggest that plant MEK uptake ability was different across plant species, depending on the VOC conversion speed inside leaves.

  8. Antinociceptive and wound healing activities of Croton adamantinus Müll. Arg. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Morais Nogueira, Lenise; Cassundé, Nathalia Maria Rodrigues; Jorge, Roberta Jeane Bezerra; dos Santos, Simone Maria; Magalhães, Lucimere Paulino Machado; Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; de Sena, Kêsia Xisto da Fonseca Ribeiro; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Martins, René Duarte

    2013-10-01

    Leaves of Croton adamantinus have been used to treat inflammation and skin wounds in the semi-arid area of the Northeast of Brazil. In order to evaluate if the essential oil (EO) was responsible for the claimed activities; antinociceptive, wound healing and antimicrobial tests were carried out. Twenty constituents were identified in C. adamantinus EO by GC-MS, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR, the major compounds being methyl-eugenol (14.81%) and 1,8-cineol (13.74%). Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by the formalin test and the abdominal contortion assay in mice. The EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) decreased the licking time of both phases of the formalin test when compared to the vehicle, but not to morphine (7.5 mg/kg). In the abdominal contortion assay, the EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of contortions compared to the vehicle and to indometacin (10 mg/kg). The wound healing activity was verified also using two experimental models: excisional wound and dead space. Topical treatment with the EO (1%) increased the wound contraction from the third day of treatment (compared with nitrofurazone 0.2%), while systemic treatment (50 mg/kg/day) increased granulation tissue formation and reduced the water content. C. adamantinus EO also showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in disk diffusion method. These results corroborate the ethnobotanical use of this specie by Brazilian population. PMID:23339025

  9. Five new phorbol esters with cytotoxic and selective anti-inflammatory activities from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Din-Xiang; He, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Yong-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Five new phorbol esters, (four phorbol diesters, 1-4, and one 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diester, 5), as well as four known phorbol esters analogues (6-9) were isolated and identified from the branches and leaves of Croton tiglium. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic, and mass spectrometric analysis. Among them, compound (1) was the first example of a naturally occurring phorbol ester with the 20-aldehyde group. Compounds 2-5, and 7-9 showed potent cytotoxicity against the K562, A549, DU145, H1975, MCF-7, U937, SGC-7901, HL60, Hela, and MOLT-4 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 to 43 μM, while none of the compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects on normal human cell lines 293T and LX-2, respectively. In addition, compound 3 exhibited moderate COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition, with IC50 values of 0.14 and 8.5 μM, respectively. PMID:25819096

  10. Eight new diterpenoids and two new nor-diterpenoids from the stems of Croton cascarilloides.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Toyoda, Hiroki; Harinantenaina, Liva; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Takeda, Yoshio; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    From the stems of Croton cascarilloides, eight new diterpenoids, named crotocascarins A-H (1-8), having a crotofolane skeleton were isolated along with two new nor-diterpenoids (9 and 10), named crotocascarins α and β, derived through rearrangement of the crotofolane skeleton. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses. The absolute structures of the diterpene moiety were determined by application of the circular dichroism (CD) rule for the γ-lactone ring. The relative structures of the two crotofolanes (1 and 2) and one rearranged compound (9) were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analyses. Compounds 1, 2 and 9 possessed 2-methylbutyric acid in their molecules, the absolute configuration of which was found to be 2S by comparison of its HPLC behavior with that of an authentic sample. Therefore, the absolute structures of these crotocascarins (1, 2 and 9) were unambiguously determined. The absolute structures of crotofolanes are reported for the first time in this paper. PMID:23370306

  11. Chronic treatment with bark infusion from Croton cajucara lowers plasma triglyceride levels in genetic hyperlipidemic mice.

    PubMed

    Bighetti, Eliete J B; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; de Faria, Eliana C; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2004-06-01

    Aqueous infusion and preparations containing dehydrocrotonin (DHC) and essential oil from Croton cajucara bark were tested for plasma lipid-lowering effects in genetically modified hyperlipidemic mice. Two mouse models were tested: 1) primary hypercholesterolemia resulting from the LDL-receptor gene knockout, and 2) combined hyperlipidemia resulting from crosses of LDL-receptor knockout mice with transgenic mice overexpressing apolipo protein (apo) CIII and cholesteryl ester-transfer protein. Mice treated with bark infusion, DHC, essential oil, or placebos for 25 days showed no signals of toxicity as judged by biochemical tests for liver and kidney functions. The bark infusion reduced triglyceride plasma levels by 40%, while essential oil and DHC had no significant effects on plasma lipid levels. The bark infusion treatment promoted a redistribution of cholesterol among the lipoprotein fractions in combined hyperlipidemic mice. There was a marked reduction in the VLDL fraction and an increase in the HDL fraction, in such a way that the (VLDL + LDL)/HDL ratio was reduced by half. The bark infusion treatment did not modify cholesterol distribution in hypercholesterolemic mice. In conclusion, C. cajucara bark infusion reduced plasma triglycerides levels and promoted a redistribution of cholesterol among lipoproteins in genetically combined hyperlipidemic mice. These changes modify risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:15381962

  12. Antiulcer activity and subacute toxicity of trans-dehydrocrotonin from Croton cajucara.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jaime A; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Souza Brito, Alba R M

    2004-08-01

    The antiulcerogenic activity of trans-dehydrocrotonin (DHC), a nor-clerodane diterpene isolated from Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and its subacute (35 days) toxicity were studied in mice and rats, respectively. For the antiulcerogenic tests, models of gastric ulcers induced in mice by ethanol/HCl or stress were used. In both models, an oral dose of DHC (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced (P < 0.01) the formation of gastric lesions. DHC was also tested for its ability to scavenge free radicals, but no such action was observed in rat liver mitochondria. To assess the subacute toxicity, rats were treated orally with DHC (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. A significant increase in liver weight was observed in male and female rats at highest doses, whereas a significant reduction in plasma alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol levels and an increase in gamma glutamyl transpeptidase were observed only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg) in female rats. DHC caused histopathological alterations in the liver that included a turbid tumefaction, microvacuolar degeneration and nuclear alterations. Despite the beneficial antiulcerogenic activity of DHC, our results suggest that the long-term use of this compound may induce liver damage. PMID:15497821

  13. Cytotoxicity of trans-dehydrocrotonin from Croton cajucara on V79 cells and rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J A; Haun, M

    1999-08-01

    The cytotoxicity of trans-dehydrocrotonin (DHC), an antiulcerogenic diterpene from Croton cajucara (Euphorbiaceae), was assessed on a V79 fibroblast cell line and on rat hepatocytes. Three independent endpoints for cytotoxicity were evaluated: DNA content, MTT reduction and neutral red uptake (NRU). For the V79 cells IC50 values of 253 and 360 microM were obtained for the NRU and MTT tests. The cytotoxic effect of DHC was time exposure dependent and no ability to recover after treatment was observed. For the rat hepatocytes IC50 values of 8, 300 and 400 microM for the MTT, DNA and NRU assays were obtained. The greater toxicity observed for the MTT test was inhibited when the experiment was performed using non-fresh hepatocytes in an age-dependent fashion. The treatment of V79 cells with the conditioned medium resulting after hepatocyte incubation with DHC showed an enhancement of MTT reduction without any evident toxic effects on fibroblasts. These results suggest that DHC has basal cytotoxic effects as observed on V79 fibroblasts and expresses a selective cytotoxicity after its metabolization by the hepatocytes. The bioactivation of DHC is mediated by cytochrome P450 and could generate metabolites that have no toxicity for V79 fibroblasts. PMID:10483371

  14. Acute and chronic oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Chaotham, Chatchai; Chivapat, Songpol; Chaikitwattana, Anan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE) was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value (LD₅₀ = 10.25 g/kg). The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11-1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550-1,100 mg/kg/day). These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans. PMID:24286075

  15. Refining DNA Barcoding Coupled High Resolution Melting for Discrimination of 12 Closely Related Croton Species

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Ounjai, Sarawut; Rora, Jantarika A.; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding coupled high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) is an emerging method for species discrimination based on DNA dissociation kinetics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of different primer sets, derived from selected DNA regions, for Bar-HRM analysis of species in Croton (Euphorbiaceae), one of the largest genera of plants with over 1,200 species. Seven primer pairs were evaluated (matK, rbcL1, rbcL2, rbcL3, rpoC, trnL and ITS1) from four plastid regions, matK, rbcL, rpoC, and trnL, and the nuclear ribosomal marker ITS1. The primer pair derived from the ITS1 region was the single most effective region for the identification of the tested species, whereas the rbcL1 primer pair gave the lowest resolution. It was observed that the ITS1 barcode was the most useful DNA barcoding region overall for species discrimination out of all of the regions and primers assessed. Our Bar-HRM results here also provide further support for the hypothesis that both sequence and base composition affect DNA duplex stability. PMID:26406615

  16. Antileishmanial Activity of a Linalool-Rich Essential Oil from Croton cajucara

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Rodrigues, Igor de Almeida; Soares, Rosangela Maria A.; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a linalool-rich essential oil from the leaves of Croton cajucara against Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. Morphological changes in L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with 15 ng of essential oil per ml were observed by transmission electron microscopy; leishmanial nuclear and kinetoplast chromatin destruction, followed by cell lysis, was observed within 1 h. Pretreatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these macrophages and L. amazonensis, with a concomitant increase by 220% in the level of nitric oxide production by the infected macrophages. Treatment of preinfected macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these cells and the parasites, which led to a 60% increase in the amount of nitric oxide produced by the preinfected macrophages. These results provide new perspectives on the development of drugs with activities against Leishmania, as linalool-rich essential oil is a strikingly potent leishmanicidal plant extract (50% lethal doses, 8.3 ng/ml for promastigotes and 8.7 ng/ml for amastigotes) which inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes at very low concentrations (MIC, 85.0 pg/ml) and which presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian cells. PMID:12760864

  17. Decoctions of Bridelia micrantha and Croton macrostachyus may have anticonvulsant and sedative effects.

    PubMed

    Ngo Bum, E; Ngah, E; Ngo Mune, R M; Ze Minkoulou, D M; Talla, E; Moto, F C O; Ngoupaye, G T; Taiwe, G S; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V

    2012-07-01

    Bridelia micrantha and Croton macrostachyus are medicinal plants used empirically in traditional medicine to treat epilepsy. In vivo mice model (maximal electroshock, strychnine, pentylenetetrazol, picrotoxin, isonicotinic hydrazide acid)-induced convulsions were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant activities of those plants. Diazepam-induced sleep was used for the evaluation of the sedative properties. B. micrantha protected 100, 80, 80, and 80% of mice against PIC, STR, PTZ and MES-induced seizures, respectively. C. macrostachyus at the doses 34 and 67 mg/kg protected 80, 80, 80 and 60% of mice from PIC, STR, PTZ and MES-induced seizures, respectively. B. micrantha and C. macrostachyus also delayed the onset to seizures in INH test. B. micrantha was more potent than C. macrostachyus in protecting mice against convulsions. The co-administration of the sub effective dose of the decoction of B. micrantha or C. macrostachyus with the sub effective dose of diazepam or clonazepam resulted in a synergistic effect. The decoctions of B. micrantha and C. macrostachyus also exerted sedative activity by increasing the total duration of sleep induced by diazepam and by reducing the latency time to sleep. The effect of the decoctions of B. micrantha and C. macrostachyus suggests the presence of anticonvulsant activities that might show efficacy against secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures and primary generalized seizures in humans. PMID:22583623

  18. New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Eastman, Harry; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Walker, Larry A; Muhammad, Ilias; Kerubo, Leonidah O; Midiwo, Jacob O

    2016-07-01

    The roots of the endangered medicinal plant Croton megalocarpoides collected in Kenya were investigated and twenty-two compounds isolated. Among them were twelve new ent-clerodane (1-12) and a new abietane (13) diterpenoids, alongside the known crotocorylifuran (4 a), two known abietane and four known ent-trachylobane diterpenoids, and the triterpenoids, lupeol and acetyl aleurotolic acid. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, HRMS and ECD. The isolated compounds were evaluated against a series of microorganisms (fungal and bacteria) and also against Plasmodium falciparum, however no activity was observed. PMID:27286332

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Jackie K.; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7–22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens. PMID:27293897

  20. Activity of sap from Croton lechleri on rat vascular and gastric smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Froldi, G; Zagotto, G; Filippini, R; Montopoli, M; Dorigo, P; Caparrotta, L

    2009-08-01

    The effects of red sap from Croton lechleri (SdD), Euphorbiaceae, on vascular and gastric smooth muscles were investigated. SdD, from 10 to 1000 microg/ml, induced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction in rat caudal arteries, which was endothelium-independent. In arterial preparations pre-constricted by phenylephrine (0.1 microM) or KCl (30 mM), SdD also produced concentration-dependent vasoconstriction. To study the mechanisms implicated in this effect we used selective inhibitors such as prazosin (0.1 microM), an antagonist of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, atropine (0.1 microM), an antagonist of muscarinic receptors, and ritanserin (50 nM), a 5-HT(2A) antagonist; none of these influenced vasoconstriction caused by SdD. Likewise, nifedipine (50 nM), an inhibitor of L-type calcium channels, did not modify the action of SdD. Capsaicin (100 nM), an agonist of vanilloid receptors, also did not affect vasoconstriction by SdD. We also investigated the action of SdD (10-1000 microg/ml) on rat gastric fundus; per se the sap slightly increased contractile tension. When the gastric fundus was pre-treated with SdD (100 microg/ml) the contraction induced by carbachol (1 microM) was increased, whereas that by KCl (60mM) or capsaicin (100 nM) were unchanged. The data shows that SdD increased contractile tension in a concentration-dependent way, both on vascular and gastric smooth muscles. The vasoconstriction is unrelated to alpha(1), M, 5-HT(2A) and vanilloid receptors as well as L-type calcium channels. SdD increased also contraction by carbachol on rat gastric fundus. Thus for the first time, experimental data provides evidence that sap from C. lechleri owns constricting activity on smooth muscles. PMID:19406630

  1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 7-hydroxy-calamenene-rich essential oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Mariana M B; Chaves, Francisco C M; Almeida, Catia A; Bizzo, Humberto R; Duarte, Rafael S; Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S

    2013-01-01

    Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as "sacaca". Two morphotypes are known: white and red "sacaca". The essential oils (EO) obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%-37.5%). The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10⁻³ μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10⁻⁸ μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC(50) less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice. PMID:23325101

  2. Chemopreventive effect of Lagenaria siceraria in two stages DMBA plus croton oil induced skin papillomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Kale, Raosaheb K; Tiku, Ashu B

    2013-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is a dietary or therapeutic strategy to prevent, suppress, or delay carcinogenesis either at initiation or progression level with nontoxic agents. Use of natural dietary compounds has been a major chemopreventive approach to modulate tumorigenic pathways. In the present study, we have evaluated Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd), a common vegetable of Indian household for its chemomodulatory potential. The fruit has been used in traditional medicine for a very long time for health benefits and to cure pain, ulcers, fever, cough, asthma, and other bronchial disorders. However, despite its reported beneficial effect the chemo modulatory potential of this plant has not been reported. Therefore chemopreventive effect of bottle gourd juice (BGJ) was studied against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) plus croton oil induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. The effect was studied both at antiinitiation and antiinitiation/promotion level followed by histopathological study. A dose of 2.5% and 5% given in drinking water showed significant decrease in papilloma number, papilloma incidence, papilloma multiplicity, papilloma latency, papilloma volume, and papilloma size in different size range. Histopathological study showed chemopreventive effect by minimizing loss of stratification, a decrease in number of epithelial layers, reducing dermal infiltration and protection for various cytoplasmic changes. Higher dose of BGJ was found to be more effective than lower dose and the chemopreventive effect was maximum for antiinitiation/promotion treatment. Altogether, this study reports the chemopreventive effect of Lagenaria siceraria on skin papillomagenesis for the first time and suggests that its consumption may help in suppression of skin cancer. PMID:23914728

  3. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action. PMID:23990384

  4. Toxic effects of crotocaudin extracted from the medicinal plant Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    The compound crotocaudin extracted from the stem bark of the medicinal plant Croton tiglium Linn. was administered for 24 h or 96 h to the freshwater vector snail Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata Lamarck in order to test its toxicity. L. acuminata is the intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. It was observed that the molluscicidal activity of crotocaudin against L. acuminata is time- as well as dose-dependent. There was a significant negative correlation among LC50 values and exposure periods, i.e. increasing the exposure time, the LC50 value of crotocaudin decreased from 5.37 microM (24 h) > 2.08 microM (48 h) > 1.36 microM (72 h) to 1.01 microM (96 h), respectively, against L. acuminata. The toxicological experiments to proof for environmental toxicity, if any, have also been carried out on the non-target freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) [Channidae (Ophicephalidae)], which shares the habitat with L. acuminata. The sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of LC50) administered over 24 h caused significant changes in the carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolisms in nervous, hepatopancreas, and ovotestis tissues of Lymnaea acuminata. Channa punctatus was also exposed to sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of 24-h LC50 of L. acuminata) for 96 h which showed significant alterations in the metabolism in muscle, liver, and gonad tissues. After withdrawal of crotocaudin the snail tissues recovered in part after 7 days and the fish tissues completely. PMID:20653234

  5. Subchronic toxicity studies of the ethanolic root extract of Croton zambesicus.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Jude E; Nwafor, Paul A; Ekpo, Memfin D

    2010-04-01

    Subchronic toxicity study of the crude root extract of Croton zambesicus (27-81 mg/kg), which is used traditionally as malarial remedy, was carried out in rodents to evaluate the safety profile. Effect of the extract on body weights, haematological indices as well as liver and kidney functions and histology of various organs were investigated. Subchronic treatment of rats for 21 days caused comparable increase in body weights of rats in extract treated and control groups. The extract caused a dose-dependent increases in RBC, PCV, Hb, WBC, bleeding time and clotting time. The increases were only significant (P<0.05) at the highest dose of the extract (81 mg/kg) for RBC and WBC when compared to control. There was no significant (P>0.05) differences in the means of other haematological parameters in the extract treated groups compared to control. The extract caused significant (P<0.05-0.01) increases in the level of serum total protein, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin and total cholesterol. The was no significant (P>0.05) changes in the levels of albumin and AST. The extract did not produce any significant (P>0.05) changes in the mean concentrations of urea, creatinine, Na+, K+, and Cl- ions of rats in the extract treated groups compared to that of control. Histopathologic analysis of the vital organs revealed no significant lesions in the brain, liver, kidney, heart, spleen, ovary, and testis. The results suggest the extract to be safe when taken orally though with an insignificant effect on the liver. PMID:20363693

  6. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, D.; Vitvar, T.; McDonnell, J.; Hassett, J.; Duncan, J.; Kendall, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for ??18O, NO3-, and SO42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm runoff

  7. Bio-based n-butanol prepared from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate: optimization of the reduction of n-butyl crotonate to n-butanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using metabolic engineering approaches, the biopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) can be over-produced in organisms such as bacteria and plants such as switchgrass. Thermolysis of P3HB, either in isolated form or within biomass, yields crotonic acid. It is a potential bio-derived platform chemic...

  8. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its main constituent anethole block excitability of rat peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Albuquerque, Aline Alice Cavalcante; do Vale, Otoni Cardoso; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2015-03-01

    Croton zehntneri is an aromatic plant native to Northeast Brazil and employed by local people to treat various diseases. The leaves of this plant have a rich content of essential oil. The essential oil of C. zehntneri samples, with anethole as the major constituent and anethole itself, have been reported to have several pharmacological activities such as antispasmodic, cardiovascular, and gastroprotective effects and inducing the blockade of neuromuscular transmission and antinociception. Since several works have demonstrated that essential oils and their constituents block cell excitability and in view of the multiple effects of C. zehntneri essential oil and anethole on biological tissues, we undertook this investigation aiming to characterize and compare the effects of this essential oil and its major constituent on nerve excitability. Sciatic nerves of Wistar rats were used. They were mounted in a moist chamber, and evoked compound action potentials were recorded. Nerves were exposed in vitro to the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole (0.1-1 mg/mL) up to 180 min, and alterations in excitability (rheobase and chronaxie) and conductibility (peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity) parameters of the compound action potentials were evaluated. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole blocked, in a concentration-dependent manner with similar pharmacological potencies (IC50: 0.32 ± 0.07 and 0.22 ± 0.11 mg/mL, respectively), rat sciatic nerve compound action potentials. Strength-duration curves for both agents were shifted upward and to the right compared to the control curve, and the rheobase and chronaxie were increased following essential oil and anethole exposure. The time courses of the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole effects on peak-to-peak amplitude of compound action potentials followed an exponential decay and reached a steady state. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole caused a similar reduction in

  9. Antimicrobial and selected in vitro enzyme inhibitory effects of leaf extracts, flavonols and indole alkaloids isolated from Croton menyharthii.

    PubMed

    Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Croton species are used in folk medicine in the management of infections, inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases. In order to isolate, characterize and evaluate the bioactive constituents of Croton menyharthii Pax leaf extracts, repeated column fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract afforded three flavonols identified by NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic methods as myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (myricetrin, 1), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2) and quercetin (3) along with an indole alkaloid, (E)-N-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-5-hydroxytryptamine, [trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin, 4]. All the compounds are reported from the leaf extract of this plant for the first time. The crude extracts, four solvent fractions (hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate and butanol) and isolated compounds obtained from the leaves were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on selected bacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Amongst the compounds, quercetin (3) was the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans while myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (4) were the most active compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitory activity of myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) against COX-2 was insignificant while that of the other three compounds 2-4 was low. The AChE inhibitory activity of the alkaloid, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin was high, with a percentage inhibitory activity of 72.6% and an IC50 value of 15.0 µg/mL. The rest of the compounds only had moderate activity. Croton menyharthii leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit α-glucosidase at very low IC50 values compared to the synthetic drug acarbose. Structure activity relationship of the isolated flavonols 1-3 is briefly outlined. Compounds 1-4 and the leaf extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of activities. This validates the

  10. Anti-oxidative and cholinesterase inhibitory effects of leaf extracts and their isolated compounds from two closely related Croton species.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus) and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models) and the microplate assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were carried out separately to study the activities of the crude leaf extracts and four solvent fractions from each of the two Croton species. Bioassay guided fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of 20% aqueous methanol extract of C. gratissimus on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns resulted in the isolation of kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2), apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3) and kampferol (4). The extract of C. zambesicus yielded quercetin-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether (helichrysoside- 3'-methyl ether, 1), kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3). Three of the isolated compounds and their different combinations were also included in the bioassays. In all the assays performed, the antioxidant capacity and AChE inhibitory effects of C. zambesicus extracts were weaker than those of C. gratissimus. This suggests that C. gratissimus may not be substituted by C. zambesicus, despite the similarity in some of their constituents. Generally, the combinations made from the isolated compounds showed better activities in most of the assays compared to the individual isolated compounds. This suggests mechanisms such as synergism and/or additive effects to be taking place. This study established low, moderate and high antioxidant

  11. Antiulcerogenic Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Croton campestris A. St.-Hill in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Francisco E. B.; de Oliveira, Dayanne R.; Bento, Elizângela B.; Leite, Laura H. I.; Souza, Daniele O.; Siebra, Ana Luiza A.; Sampaio, Renata S.; Martins, Anita O. P. B.; Ramos, Andreza G. B.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Lacerda-Neto, Luiz J.; Figueiredo, Patricia R. L.; Oliveira, Larissa R.; Rodrigues, Cristina K. S.; Sales, Valterlúcio S.; Figueiredo, Francisco R. S. D. N.; Nascimento, Emmily P.; Monteiro, Alefe B.; Amaro, Érika N.; Costa, José G. M.; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Kerntopf, Marta R.

    2013-01-01

    Croton campestris A. St.-Hill., popularly known as “velame do campo,” is a species native to the savannah area of Northeast Brazil, which is used by traditional communities in folk medicine for variety of health problems, especially detoxification, inflammation, and gastritis. The hydroalcoholic extract of C. campestris leaves (HELCC) was assessed for its antiulcerogenic effect in gastric lesion models and effect on intestinal motility in mice, and possible mechanisms of action were examined. HELCC showed significant gastroprotective action in all models of gastric ulcer evaluated; the results suggest that this action probably involves the nitric oxide pathway. HELCC did not show alteration of intestinal motility in mice. It was also found that C. campestris represents a promising natural source with important biological potential, justifying some of its uses in folk medicine. PMID:23864894

  12. Antinociceptive and Smooth Muscle Relaxant Activity of Croton tiglium L Seed: An In-vitro and In-vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan; Zhang, Jingze; Hu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The seed of Croton tiglium L. (SCT) is a well known folk medicine. In China, it has used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, intestinal inflammation, rheumatism, and so on. Previous studies established its purgative and inflammation properties. In addition, the effects of essential oil of SCT on intestinal transit and gastrointestinal tract has been studied. In the present study, we evaluated the antinociceptive effect of SCT through the writhing test in mice, investigated the effects of it on spontaneous smooth muscle contractions of isolated rabbit jejunum and examined the in-vitro results through the in-vivo small intestine propulsion. We further investigated the possible compounds using HPLC-MS, and six compounds were tentatively identified as phorbol esters. Furthermore, the possible fragmentation pathways of phorbol esters were proposed, and we also detected the possible compounds in the active parts. PMID:24250486

  13. [Croton oil-induced hemorrhoid model in rat: comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of diflucortolone valerate with other glucocorticoids].

    PubMed

    Nishiki, K; Nishinaga, K; Kudoh, D; Iwai, K

    1988-10-01

    A hemorrhoid model was prepared by means of application of croton oil onto the recto-anus of rats. Cotton swab soaked with the inducer, which consisted of water, pyridine, diethylether and 6% croton oil in diethylether, was inserted into the anus. The following conditions were found to be optimal for preparing the model: cotton swab containing 0.16 ml of the inducer solution was applied to the anus of a 6 week-old rat (body wt. about 140 g) for 10 sec. The edema developed linearly until 7-8 hr after application, and the severity of the edema was sustained almost constantly for more than 24 hr. Macroscopic observations at 6 hr p. a. revealed homogeneous and consistent inflammation in the recto-anus applied region. Histological observation showed appearance of edema, infiltration of fibrin, inflammatory cells, vasodilation, blood congestion and medium to high degrees of necrosis in the mucosal epithelium. Thus this model was useful for evaluating the effect of anti-hemorrhoidal drugs on intumescence and vasodilatation. The efficacy of diflucortolone valerate, hydrocortisone caproate and hydrocortisone was evaluated in this model. Wet weight and vasopermeability increased by the inducer was suppressed strongly by simultaneous application of the corticoids, and the degree of suppression was parallel with the potency of the glucocorticoid activity. Compared to Scheriproct, Posterisan forte, Posterisan and Borraginol N, Neriproct showed the strongest effects in the protection against and treatment of the experimental hemorrhoid. Scheriproct, which was less active than Neriproct, was also found to have higher efficacy than the others. PMID:3243508

  14. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities of leaf extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill. against lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Bhavana, J; Kalaivani, M K; Sumathy, A

    2016-06-01

    The acetone extract (AcE) of the Croton bonplandianus Baill., an exotic weed of the Euphorbiaceae family was studied for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line and antioxidant capacities using MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining), cell cycle analysis and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Based on the cytotoxic activity, the extract was tested for the apoptotic effect using AO/EB and Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptosis was characterized by chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Further, to determine the stage of cell death, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and AcE was found to arrest G2/M phase in a dose dependent manner. The number of cells in G2/M phase increases with concurrent accumulation of cells in sub G₀/G₁phase indicates the induction of apoptosis at G2M phase. The free radical scavenging activity of the AcE against DPPH was considerably significant. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and antioxidant effect of the AcE could be well correlated with the presence of potent free radical scavenging secondary metabolites such as phenols (43 ± 0.05 µg/mL), flavonoids (3.5 ± 0.07 µg/mL) and tannin (0.36 ± 0.1 µg/mL). Our study has shown that A549 cells were more sensitive to AcE with an IC₅₀ of 15.68 ± 0.006 µg/mL compared to the standard drug 2.20 ± 0.008 µg/mL (cisplatin). The results suggest that Croton bonplandianus could serve as a potential source of alternative therapeutic agent for treating cancer. Further research is required to isolate the active principle compound and determination of its anticancer property. PMID:27468464

  15. Bioassay-guided isolation of an anti-ulcer diterpenoid from Croton reflexifolius: role of nitric oxide, prostaglandins and sulfhydryls.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Trejo, Benito; Sánchez-Mendoza, María Elena; Becerra-García, Anabel Ariana; Cedillo-Portugal, Ernestina; Castillo-Henkel, Carlos; Arrieta, Jesús

    2008-07-01

    Croton reflexifolius H. B. K (Euphorbiaceae) is a very common medicinal plant in the Huastecan region of Mexico that, according to local folk medicine, is considered useful in the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcer. We have aimed to test the validity of this practice by using the experimental model of an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in male Wistar rats. The results showed that C. reflexifolius had gastroprotector activity, that the hexane extract had the highest protective activity (64.38+/-7.72%), and that polyalthic acid isolated from this extract was the main active gastroprotector agent. Rats treated orally with polyalthic acid showed a gastroprotective effect similar to that elicited by carbenoxolone. As with carbenoxolone, the effect elicited by polyalthic acid was attenuated by pretreatment with either N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (70 mgkg(-1), i.p.), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mgkg(-1), s.c.), a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggested that the gastroprotective mechanism of this diterpenoid involved the participation of both NO and endogenous sulfhydryl groups. Contrary to carbenoxolone, the gastroprotective effect of polyalthic acid was not affected by the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with indometacin (10 mgkg(-1), s. c.). In conclusion, Croton reflexifolius contains compounds with gastroprotector activity. Polyalthic acid, which was isolated from this plant, was the main compound with gastroprotector activity, having effectiveness similar to that found with the use of carbenoxolone. Whereas NO and sulfhydryl groups were involved in the mechanisms of gastroprotective action of polyalthic acid, prostaglandins were not. PMID:18549681

  16. Direct effect of croton oil on intestinal epithelial cells and colonic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Lan, Mei; Wu, Han-Ping; Shi, Yong-Quan; Lu, Ju; Ding, Jie; Wu, Kai-Cun; Jin, Jian-Ping; Fan, Dai Ming

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the direct effect of croton oil (CO) on human intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) and guinea pig colonic smooth muscle cells in vitro. METHODS: Growth curves of HIEC were drawn by MTT colorimetry. The dynamics of cell proliferation was analyzed with flow cytometry, and morphological changes were observed under light and electron microscopy after long-term (6 weeks) treatment with CO.Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA was detected by dot blot in HIEC treated with CO. Genes related to CO were screened by DD-PCR, and the direct effect of CO on the contractility of isolated guinea pig colonic smooth muscle cells was observed. RESULTS: High concentration (20-40 mg·L-1) CO inhibited cell growth significantly (1, 3, 5, 7 d OD sequence: (20 mg·L-1 ) 0.040 ± 0.003, 0.081 ± 0.012, 0.147 ± 0.022,0.024 ± 0.016; (40 mg·L-1) 0.033 ± 0.044, 0.056 ± 0.012, 0.104 ± 0.010, 0.189 ± 0.006; OD control 0.031 ± 0.008, 0.096 ± 0.012, 0.173 ± 0.009, 0.300 ± 0.016, P < 0.01), which appeared to be related directly to the dosage. Compared with the control, the fraction number of cells in G1 phase decreased from 0.60 to 0.58, while that in S phase increased from 0.30 to 0.34 and DNA index also increased after 6 weeks of treatment with CO (the dosage was increased gradually from 4 to 40 mg·L-1). Light microscopic observation revealed that cells had karyomegaly, less plasma and karyoplasm lopsidedness. Electron microscopy also showed an increase in cell proliferation and in the quantity of abnormal nuclei with pathologic mitosis. Expression of COX-2 mRNA decreased significantly in HIEC treated with CO. Thirteen differential cDNA fragments were cloned from HIEC treated with CO, one of which was 100 percent homologous with human mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II. The length of isolated guinea pig colonic smooth muscle cells was significantly shortened after treatment with CO (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: At a high CO concentration ( > 20 mg·L-1

  17. In situ fourier transform infrared study of crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic acid, and maleic anhydride oxidation on a V-P-O industrial catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wenig, R.W.; Schrader, G.L.

    1987-10-22

    Crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic (2-butenoic) acid, and maleic anhydride were fed to an in situ infrared cell at 300/sup 0/C containing a P/V = 1.1 vanadium-phosphorous-oxide (V-P-O) catalyst used for the selective oxidation of n-butane. Crotyl alcohol was used as a mechanistic probe for the formation of reactive olefin species observed during previous n-butane and 1-butene studies. Crotonic acid, maleic acid, and maleic anhydride were fed as probes for the existence of other possible adsorbed intermediates. Olefin species and maleic acid are proposed as possible reaction intermediates in n-butane selective oxidation to maleic anhydride. The involvement of peroxide species in the oxidation of butadiene to maleic acid is also discussed.

  18. Superelectrophilic Activation of Crotonic/Methacrylic Acids: Direct Access to Thiochroman-4-ones from Benzenethiols by Microwave-Assisted One-Pot Alkylation/Cyclic Acylation.

    PubMed

    Vaghoo, Habiba; Prakash, G K Surya; Narayanan, Arjun; Choudhary, Rohit; Paknia, Farzaneh; Mathew, Thomas; Olah, George A

    2015-12-18

    An efficient microwave-assisted protocol for the synthesis of 2-/3-methylthiochroman-4-ones by superacid-catalyzed alkylation followed by cyclic acylation (cyclization via intramolecular acylation) is described. Using easily accessible benzenethiols and crotonic acid/methacrylic acid with triflic acid (as catalyst of choice for needed optimal acidity), the reaction was tuned toward the formation of the cyclized products in good selectivity and yield. A mechanism involving the formation of carbenium-carboxonium superelectrophilic species is suggested. PMID:26636718

  19. Oxygenative and Dehydrogenative [3 + 3] Benzannulation Reactions of α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes and γ-Phosphonyl Crotonates Mediated by Air: Regioselective Synthesis of 4-Hydroxybiaryl-2-carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prabhakar Ramchandra; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Menon, Rajeev S

    2016-02-19

    Regioselective synthesis of 4-hydroxybiphenyl-2-carboxylates via the base-mediated oxygenative [3 + 3] benzannulation reaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and γ-phosphonyl crotonates is reported. A hydroxyl group is installed in the final product on the originally phosphorus-bound carbon via a novel oxygenative and dehydrogenative transformation. The reaction proceeds rapidly in an open flask, uses atmospheric oxygen as an oxidant, and affords good yields of substituted biaryl phenols. PMID:26859060

  20. Quercetin attenuates the development of 7, 12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) and croton oil-induced skin cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Huma; Dixit, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the chemopreventive potential of quercetin in an experimental skin carcinogenesis mouse model. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7, 12-dimethyl Benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) and Croton oil in Swiss albino mouse. Quercetin was orally administered at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 16 weeks in mouse to evaluate chemopreventive potential. Skin cancer was assessed by histopathological analysis. We found that quercetin reduced the tumor size and the cumulative number of papillomas. The mean latent period was significantly increased as compared to carcinogen treated controls. Quercetin significantly decreased the serum levels of glutamate oxalate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. It significantly increased the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase. The elevated level of lipid peroxides in the control group was significantly inhibited by quercetin. Futhermore, DNA damage was significantly decreased in quercetin treated mice as compared to DMBA and croton oil treated mice. The results suggest that quercetin exerts chemopreventive effect on DMBA and croton oil induced skin cancer in mice by increasing antioxidant activities. PMID:25859269

  1. Investigations on Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. for inhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages and in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neeraj K.; Khan, Mohd. Shahid; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Silica gel column chromatography fractionation of the dichloromethane extract (LCD) of Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. led to the isolation of five compounds namely β-sitosterol (1) + stigmasterol (2), lupeol (3), oleanolic acid (4) and laballenic acid (5). Also, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of sub-fraction (LCD-F1) of this extract showed the presence of eleven (6-16) compounds. In addition to this, 3-5 and LCD-F1 were evaluated for lipopolysachharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Results directed that 4 and 5 were found to inhibit these mediators at half maximal inhibitory concentration of 17.12 to 57.20 μM while IC50 for LCD-F1 was found to be 15.56 to 31.71 μg/mL. Furthermore, LCD at a dose of 50, 100 and 400 mg/Kg was found to reduce significantly LPS induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. All the results findings evoked that the anti-inflammatory effects of Leucas cephalotes is partially mediated through the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators and hence can be utilized for the development of anti-inflammatory candidates. PMID:26535039

  2. Magnetic fabric of Plio-Pleistocene sediments from the Crotone fore-arc basin: Insights on the recent tectonic evolution of the Calabrian Arc (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrì, Patrizia; Speranza, Fabio; Capraro, Luca

    2014-11-01

    Low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analyses were performed on 532 samples collected in 36 (mostly lower Pliocene to lower Pleistocene) marine clay sites from the Crotone basin, a fore-arc basin located on top of the external Calabrian accretionary wedge. The Crotone basin formed since mid-late Miocene under a predominant extensional tectonic regime, but it was influenced thereafter by complex interactions with NW-SE left-lateral strike-faults bounding the basin, which also yielded post-1.2 Ma ∼30° counterclockwise block rotations. The basin is filled by continental to marine sediments yielding one of the thickest and best-exposed Neogene succession available worldwide. The deep-marine facies - represented by blue-grey marly clays gave the best results, as they both preserved a clear magnetic fabric, and provided accurate chronology based on previously published magnetostratigraphy and calcareous plankton (i.e. foraminifers and nannofossils) biostratigraphy. Magnetic susceptibility range and rock magnetic analyses both indicate that AMS reflects paramagnetic clay matrix crystal arrangement. The fabric is predominantly oblate to triaxial, the anisotropy degree low (<1.06), and the magnetic foliation mostly subparallel to bedding. Magnetic lineation is defined in 30 out of 36 sites (where the e12 angle is <35°). By also considering local structural analysis data, we find that magnetic fabric was generally acquired during the first tectonic phases occurring after sediment deposition, thus validating its use as temporally dependent strain proxy. Although most of the magnetic lineations trend NW-SE and are orthogonal to normal faults (as observed elsewhere in Calabria), few NE-SW compressive lineations show that the Neogene extensional regime of the Crotone basin was punctuated by compressive episodes. Finally, compressive lineations (prolate magnetic fabric) documented along the strike-slip fault bounding the basin to the south support the

  3. Structural Evolution of the Crotone Basin: Successive Shortening and Extension Episodes Parallel to the Calabrian Forearc (South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, M.; Seeber, L.

    2008-12-01

    At 10-12 Ma, the continental fragment of Calabria separated from Sardinia and became the crystalline core of a forearc in a NW-directed subduction system that is being consuming the Mesozoic (Neo-Tethys) oceanic lithosphere. The southeastward rollback of this arc has left in its wake the Tyrrhenian Sea by back-arc spreading. This system is confined between the continental margins of Africa and its Apulian promontory and created matching oblique-collision orogens (Sicilian Maghrebides and Apennines, respectively) along the margins. These progressive collisions shortened the arc because the gap between the margins narrowed to the SE. However, the arc is now lengthening after passing the point of closest approach of Sicily and Apulia, probably in the Quaternary. We seek evidence of this and other neotectonic episodes in the evolution of the forearc in the Crotone basin, which is situated on the accretionary E side of Calabria. A widespread unconformity correlated with the onset of rollback marks a regional foundering controlled by multidirectional extensional growth faults. These faults are consistently capped by the Messinian evaporite sequence. This sequence ends with a widespread unconformity that marks the final desiccation of the Ionian Sea ~5Ma. Mechanical changes due to drop in pore pressure and backward tilting of the accretionary wedge due to flexural unloading may be responsible for the landward emplacement of an accretionary mélange on the NE side of the Crotone Basin and the deposition of a characteristic conglomerate that locally caps the evaporites. After a well known mid-Pliocene basin-forming extensional event, we find evidence for a basin- wide contraction affecting the entire Neogene sequence up to the mid-to-late Pliocene. Vergence ranges from N to NW from east to west across the basin and is consistent with longitudinal shortening of the forearc. The shortening structures are cut or reactivated(?) by extensional faulting which we associate with

  4. Concentrations of pesticides and pesticide degradates in the Croton River Watershed in southeastern New York, July-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Bode, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-seven pesticides and (or) pesticide degradates were detected in baseflow samples collected from 47 stream sites in the Croton River Watershed (374 square miles) in southeastern New York in the summer of 2000. The Croton Reservoir provides about 10 percent of New York City's water supply. Maximum concentrations of most pesticides detected did not exceed 0.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, was conducted from July through September 2000 and entailed analysis of the samples for more than 150 pesticides and their degradates. Nine compounds were detected at a concentration greater than 0.10 ?g/L; three of these were insecticides (diazinon, carbaryl, and imidacloprid), one was a fungicide (mycobutanil), and five were herbicides (simazine, 2,4-D, diuron, hexazinone, and 2,4-D methyl esther). Only two of these compounds (simazine and 2,4-D) were detected at a concentration exceeding 1 ?g/L; the simazine concentration exceeded the New York State surface-water standard of 0.5 ?g/L. Two insecticides (diazinon and azinphos-methyl) exceeded aquatic-life-protection standard in one sample each. Concentrations of three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and malathion) were more than 50 percent of the aquatic-life-protection standards in one sample each. Total concentrations of insecticides and herbicides (the sum of the concentrations, whereby all concentrations below the detection limit were set to zero), and the concentrations of the herbicide prometon and the insecticide diazinon, were highest in samples from watersheds with population densities greater than 510 per square mile (21 sites); therefore, the presence of these compounds is attributable to urban, residential, and other developed land uses. The data obtained in this study are useful for making general comparisons among watersheds with differing land uses, but the concentrations represent

  5. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil Obtained from the Leaves of Croton cordiifolius Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lenise de Morais; da Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Simone Maria; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Ferraz, Igor Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Thaíse Torres; Mota, Carlos Renato França de Carvalho; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Martins, René Duarte; Havt, Alexandre; Ximenes, Rafael Matos

    2015-01-01

    Croton cordiifolius Baill. is a shrub known as "quebra-faca" and is used to treat inflammation, pain, wounds, and gastrointestinal disturbances in the semiarid region in the northeast of Brazil. In an ethnobotanical survey in the state of Pernambuco, "quebra-faca" use was cited in 33% of the interviews. Thus, we decided to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil from C. cordiifolius (CcEO). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 1,8-cineole (25.09%) and α-phellandrene (15.43%) as major constituents. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using murine models of chemically induced pain (writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests). Opioid and central nervous systems (CNS) involvement were also investigated. Regarding antinociceptive activity, CcEO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of writhing responses induced by acetic acid and decreased the licking times in both phases of the formalin test. CcEO also was evaluated in capsaicin- and glutamate-induced nociception. While no effect was observed in the capsaicin test, CcEO (100 mg/kg) was effective in the glutamate test. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not affect the antinociceptive activity of CcEO in writhing test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of CcEO could be explained, at least in part, by inhibition of the glutamatergic system. PMID:25821494

  6. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  7. Effects of 7-hydroxycalamenene isolated from Croton cajucara essential oil on growth, lipid content and ultrastructural aspects of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Mariana M B; Almeida, Catia A; Chaves, Francisco C M; Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Rozental, Sonia; Bizzo, Humberto R; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S

    2014-05-01

    The leaves and bark of Croton cajucara, a shrub from the Amazon region, have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, malaria, and gastrointestinal and liver disorders. The essential oil from the leaves, rich in linalool, presented antileishmanial and antimicrobial activities. A chemotype of this species was found with an essential oil rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene. During our studies of the C. cajucara essential oil, we isolated 7-hydroxycalamenene at > 98 % purity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 7-hydroxycalamenene against Absidia cylindrospora, Cunninghamella elegans, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides, Mucor mucedo, Mucor plumbeus, Mucor ramosissimus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum ranged from 19.53 to 2500 µg/mL. The reference drug used, amphotericin B, presented a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.085 µg/mL to 43.87 µg/mL. 7-Hydroxycalamenene also altered spore differentiation and total lipid content. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed significant alterations in the cellular structure of R. oryzae. PMID:24841967

  8. Effects of Sangre de Drago from Croton lechleri Muell.-Arg. on the production of active oxygen radicals.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, C; Witting Schaus, F; Coussio, J; Cicca, G

    1997-10-01

    The total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) of 'Sangre de Drago' from Croton lechleri (Euphorbiaceae) was determined by monitoring the intensity of luminol enhanced chemiluminescence enhanced by peroxyl radicals derived from thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane). The TRAP index was calculated as 935.4 +/- 141 microM, measured as equivalents of Trolox concentration. On the other hand, the additive incorporation of lower concentrations yielded an instantaneous increase in chemiluminescence, suggesting a prooxidant activity at these levels. DNA sugar damage induced by Fe(II) salts was also used to determine the capacity of the latex to suppress hydroxyl radical-mediated degradation of DNA. As in the case of luminol enhanced chemiluminescence, Sangre de Drago was highly effective in reducing oxidation of DNA at higher concentrations, but showed an increase in the production of TBARS at lower doses, as compared to the control. Finally, antioxidant activity was tested using hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence in rat liver homogenates, and the latex showed an increase in light emission, suggesting the presence of prooxidant compounds. PMID:9406898

  9. The toxic effects of a chronic administration of the gut-stimulating principle in Croton penduliflorus hutch. seeds in mice.

    PubMed

    Asuzu, I U; Shetty, S N; Anika, S M

    1989-03-01

    Albino mice (8-10 wks) weighing between 14 and 25 g were divided into 2 groups and dosed orally once per week with 2 doses (7 mg/kg and 21 mg/kg) of the gut-stimulating principle in Croton penduliflorus seeds (CP crystals) for 12 weeks. Some mice (3-4) from each group were killed at 10 days intervals for the first 6 wks of the experiment and at 20 days intervals for the last 6 weeks. Gross and histopathological changes in the brain, heart, liver, kidney, adrenal, spleen, testis, lung and various segments of the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, duodenum, ileum and colon were observed. The relative weights of the visceral organs were also recorded. Significant weight change in the spleen was evident. The congestion of the lung was the most common gross pathological observation made. Other observations were splenomegaly, enlarged heart, swollen uterine horns, etc. Histopathological changes observed included haemorrhages in the lungs, myocardium, liver, kidney, testis, brain etc. Goblet cell hyperplasia with mucin present in the lumen were observed in the jejunum, ileum and colon. In conclusion, CP crystals produced severe lesions in the visceral organs and the brain after chronic oral administration at low and high dosage levels which should indicate caution in administering the extract to humans. PMID:2714210

  10. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of estragole, obtained from the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Thallita C B; De Lima, Sidney G; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Rocha, Márcio S; Islam, Torequl; Da Silva, Teresinha G; Militão, Gardenia C G

    2015-03-01

    Croton zehntneri (Euphorbiaceae) is a native aromatic plant from Northeast region of Brazil. The monoterpenoid estragole (ESL) has been isolated by classical chromatographic methods from the essential oil (EO) of C. zehnteneri leaves and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS, its antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials being assessed. The analysis of the EO enabled the identification of 100% of the integrated constituents, of which yield was about 1.8%. The main components identified were: eucalyptol, estragole (84.7%) and spathulenol. The dosage of 50 μg/disk of ESL presented fairly significant zones of inhibition against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The ESL presented toxicity against Artemia salina with LC50 and LC90 of 4,54 and 8,47 μg mL-1. However, in tumor inhibition assays (human cells), there were no rewarding inhibition in any of the human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HEP-2 and NCI-H292). PMID:25789792

  11. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil Obtained from the Leaves of Croton cordiifolius Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lenise de Morais; da Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; dos Santos, Simone Maria; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Ferraz, Igor Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Thaíse Torres; Mota, Carlos Renato França de Carvalho; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Martins, René Duarte; Ximenes, Rafael Matos

    2015-01-01

    Croton cordiifolius Baill. is a shrub known as “quebra-faca” and is used to treat inflammation, pain, wounds, and gastrointestinal disturbances in the semiarid region in the northeast of Brazil. In an ethnobotanical survey in the state of Pernambuco, “quebra-faca” use was cited in 33% of the interviews. Thus, we decided to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil from C. cordiifolius (CcEO). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 1,8-cineole (25.09%) and α-phellandrene (15.43%) as major constituents. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using murine models of chemically induced pain (writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests). Opioid and central nervous systems (CNS) involvement were also investigated. Regarding antinociceptive activity, CcEO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of writhing responses induced by acetic acid and decreased the licking times in both phases of the formalin test. CcEO also was evaluated in capsaicin- and glutamate-induced nociception. While no effect was observed in the capsaicin test, CcEO (100 mg/kg) was effective in the glutamate test. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not affect the antinociceptive activity of CcEO in writhing test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of CcEO could be explained, at least in part, by inhibition of the glutamatergic system. PMID:25821494

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Croton sparsiflorus morong leaf extract and their antibacterial and antifungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Elumalai, K.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. Especially, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by the leaf extract lead the biological activity. In the present work, the synthesized Ag NPs by using the leaf extract of Croton sparsiflorus morong Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) along with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Vis peak at 457 nm confirmed the Ag NPs due to the absorption. Cubic structural analysis and 16 nm particle size of the Ag NPs were calculated by using XRD analysis. The surface morphology along with the presence of Ag NPs was identified by using FE-SEM and EDX, respectively. The FT-IR study revealed with the functional groups of the Ag NPs. Finally, the present research has been explored to exhibit the significant antimicrobial activities.

  13. Chemical composition and efficacy of dichloromethane extract of Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Righi, Adne A; Motta, Lucimar B; Klafke, Guilherme M; Pohl, Paula C; Furlan, Cláudia M; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Negri, Giuseppina; Labruna, Marcelo B; Salatino, Antonio

    2013-02-18

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, causing high economic impact on cattle production. The control of tick infestations is regarded worldwide as critical and has been based on the use of organophosphates, synthetic pyretroids, amitraz and recently ivermectin and fipronil. The present study reports the analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the constituents of leaf extracts of Croton sphaerogynus and results of acaricidal activity against the cattle tick R. microplus. The larval package test using the serial dilutions 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0% and 20.0% (v/v) gave mortality rates 2.25%, 8.26%, 8.81%, 24.80%, 83.66% and 99.32%, respectively. Relevant constituents identified were abietanes, podocarpenes and clerodane type furano diterpenes. The present work may represent a possibility of attainment of natural substances useful for the control of R. microplus. PMID:23200750

  14. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus. Plastid localization and conversion to a farnesyl diphosphate synthase by mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Sitthithaworn, W; Kojima, N; Viroonchatapan, E; Suh, D Y; Iwanami, N; Hayashi, T; Noji, M; Saito, K; Niwa, Y; Sankawa, U

    2001-02-01

    cDNAs encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) of two diterpene-producing plants, Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus, have been isolated using the homology-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Both clones contained highly conserved aspartate-rich motifs (DDXX(XX)D) and their N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. When expressed in Escherichia coli, both the full-length and truncated proteins in which the putative targeting sequence was deleted catalyzed the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to produce geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). The structural factors determining the product length in plant GGPPSs were investigated by constructing S. dulcis GGPPS mutants on the basis of sequence comparison with the first aspartate-rich motif (FARM) of plant farnesyl diphosphate synthase. The result indicated that in plant GGPPSs small amino acids, Met and Ser, at the fourth and fifth positions before FARM and Pro and Cys insertion in FARM play essential roles in determination of product length. Further, when a chimeric gene comprised of the putative transit peptide of the S. dulcis GGPPS gene and a green fluorescent protein was introduced into Arabidopsis leaves by particle gun bombardment, the chimeric protein was localized in chloroplasts, indicating that the cloned S. dulcis GGPPS is a chloroplast protein. PMID:11217109

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Croton cajucara Benth linalool-rich essential oil on artificial biofilms and planktonic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Alviano, W S; Mendonça-Filho, R R; Alviano, D S; Bizzo, H R; Souto-Padrón, T; Rodrigues, M L; Bolognese, A M; Alviano, C S; Souza, M M G

    2005-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that a linalool-rich essential oil from Croton cajucara Benth presents leishmanicidal activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that this essential oil inhibits the growth of reference samples of Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans cell suspensions, all of them associated with oral cavity disease. The purified linalool fraction was only inhibitory for C. albicans. Microbes of saliva specimens from human individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances, as well as the reference strains, were used to construct an artificial biofilm which was exposed to linalool or to the essential oil. As in microbial suspensions, the essential oil was toxic for all the microorganisms, while the purified linalool fraction mainly inhibited the growth of C. albicans. The compounds of the essential oil were separated by thin layer chromatography and exposed to the above-cited microorganisms. In this analysis, the proliferation of the bacterial cells was inhibited by still uncharacterized molecules, and linalool was confirmed as the antifungal component of the essential oil. The effects of linalool on the cell biology of C. albicans were evaluated by electron microscopy, which showed that linalool induced a reduction in cell size and abnormal germination. Neither the crude essential oil nor the purified linalool fraction is toxic to mammalian cells, which suggests that the essential oil or its purified components may be useful to control the microbial population in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:15720570

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. Through Alteration in Production of TNF-α, ROS and Expression of Certain Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ashim K.; Mazumder, Tamal; Chatterjee, Shankar N.

    2011-01-01

    Search for a novel anti-inflammatory agent from a herbal source, such as Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng., a plant from the Eastern Himalayas, is of prime interest in the present investigation. Inflammation causes tissue destruction and development of diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and so forth. The ethanolic leaf extract of E. adenophorum (EEA) was administered intravenously and in other cases topically at the site of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in mouse foot paw induced with dinitrofluorobenzene. EEA can effectively inhibit DTH reaction and bring back normalcy to the paw much earlier than the controls. Efficacy of EEA on regulatory mechanisms for inflammation has also been considered. Intravenous administration of EEA increased the number of CD4+ T cells in spleen and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum of DTH mice. Initially it was difficult to reconcile with the anti-inflammatory role of EEA and simultaneous induction of TNF-α, an established pro-inflammatory cytokine. EEA induces higher expression of TNF-α gene and amount of the cytokine in serum. We discussed the other role of TNF-α, its involvement in repairing tissue damage incurred in course of inflammatory reaction. EEA also induces TGF-β encoding a cytokine involved in tissue repair mechanism. EEA inhibits expression of another pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-1β and downregulates cycloxygenase 2 (COX2) gene responsible for metabolism of inflammatory mediators like prostaglandins. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory role of EEA is also revealed through its inhibition of hydroxyl radical generation. Notably EEA does not necessarily affect the expression of other inflammation-related genes such as IL-6, IL-10 and IKK. The present study reports and analyzes for the first time the anti-inflammatory property of the leaf extract of E. adenophorum. PMID:21808653

  17. Unprecedented 1,14-seco-crotofolanes from Croton insularis: oxidative cleavage of crotofolin C by a putative homo-Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Lidiya A; Savchenko, Andrei I; Pierce, Carly J; Gordon, Victoria A; Reddell, Paul W; Parsons, Peter G; Williams, Craig M

    2014-10-27

    EBC-162 isolated from Croton insularis, obtained from the northern rainforest of Australia, was structurally affirmed as crotofolin C (4). Novel oxidative degradation products, EBC-233 and EBC-300, which are the first crotofolane endoperoxides, were also isolated. Both endoperoxides were found to be stable intermediates, which are proposed to undergo an unprecedented homo-Baeyer-Villiger biosynthetic rearrangement to give a new class of 1,14-seco-crotofolane diterpenes. Prolonged storage of all isolates assisted in authenticating their natural product status. Anticancer activities of reported compounds are presented. PMID:25233878

  18. Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Wanjohi, John M; Midiwo, Jacob O; Kerubo, Leonidah O

    2013-12-01

    Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies. PMID:24356872

  19. Anti-atherogenic and anti-ischemic potentials of Croton membranaceus observed during sub-chronic toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Afriyie, Dan K.; Asare, George A.; Bugyei, Kwasi; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac; Gyan, Ben A.; Adjei, Samuel; Addo, Phyllis; Sittie, Archibald; Nyarko, Alexander K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Croton membranaceus (CM) is used for benign prostate hyperplasia treatment. Objective: Sub-chronic toxicity studies are non-existent and provided the basis for this study. Materials and Methods: 90 days oral administration of a low dose (LD) (30 mg/kg b. wt.), medium dose (MD) (150 mg/kg b. wt.), and high dose (HD) (300 mg/kg b. wt.) CM aqueous root extract to 3 groups (n=6 each) of male Sprague-Dawley rats, alongside a control group, was undertaken. Urinalysis, hepato-renal function tests, lipid profile, cardiac enzymes, and routine hematology tests were performed. Results: Triglyceride levels (C=1.05±0.19, LD=0.64±0.08, MD=0.55±0.04, HD=0.50±0.02 mmol/L) were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Very low density lipoprotein (C=0.48±0.09, LD=0.29±0.04, MD=0.25±0.02, HD=0.23±0.01 mmol/L) decreased significantly (P<0.05). Cardiac enzymes-creatinine kinase (C=568±172, LD=315±79, MD=441±209, HD=286±81 IU/L) decreased markedly (P<0.05) alongside lactate dehydrogenase (C=2675±875, LD=1667±1229, MD=1186±442, HD=855±239 IU/L) (P<0.05). Conclusion: C. membranaceus aqueous root extract is non-toxic but demonstrates anti-atherogenic and anti-ischemic potentials. PMID:23598919

  20. Shrinkage of Prostate and Improved Quality of Life: Management of BPH Patients with Croton membranaceus Ethanolic Root Extract.

    PubMed

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Daniel; Ngala, Robert A; Appiah, Alfred A; Anang, Yvonne; Musah, Iddi; Adjei, Samuel; Bamfo-Quaicoe, Kwabena; Sule, Derick; Gyan, Ben A; Arhin, Peter; Edoh, Dominic A

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate. The study aimed at validating the use of freeze-dried Croton membranaceus ethanolic root extract for BPH management. Thirty-three patients were observed before and after 3-month administration of 20 mg t.i.d orally. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used. Total/free PSA (tPSA, fPSA), renal, liver function, lipid tests, and ultrasonographic imaging were performed. Thirty (30) patients (66 ± 11 years) completed the study. IPSS results showed 37% had severe, 40% moderate, and 23% mild symptoms before; 57% and 43% had moderate and mild symptoms, respectively, after treatment. IIED of patients' results showed 30% with severe, 40% moderate, 24% mild-moderate, 3% mild, and 3% no erectile dysfunction before treatment and 20% severe, 43% moderate, and 37% mild-moderate dysfunction, after treatment. Quality of life (QoL) improved (P = 0.001). Significant but non-pathological increases in total and indirect bilirubin as well as apolipoprotein A occurred. Mean tPSA reduced from 27.9 ± 19.0 to 16.2 ± 11.8 ng/mL (P = 0.002); fPSA from 6.1 ± 4.8 to 3.9 ± 2.9 ng/mL (P = 0.045); and prostate volume from 101.8 ± 41.3 to 54.5 ± 24.8 cm(3)  (P = 0.023). C. membranaceus shrinks the prostate and improves QoL. PMID:26106434

  1. Inhibition of DMBA/croton oil-induced two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis by diphenylmethyl selenocyanate.

    PubMed

    Das, R K; Ghosh, S; Sengupta, A; Das, S; Bhattacharya, S

    2004-10-01

    Selenium, an essential micronutrient, is associated with antioxidant functions, physiological defence mechanisms against different diseases including several types of cancers. Search for new selenium compounds with more chemopreventive activities and lesser toxicities are in progress. In the present study, the antioxidative roles of a synthetic organoselenium compound, diphenylmethyl selenocyanate, were evaluated against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil-induced two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. The compound was administered orally in carcinogen-induced mice in two different non-toxic doses: 2 mg/kg body weight and 3 mg/kg body weight. Significant inhibition in the incidence of papilloma formation (58-80%) as well as in the cumulative number of papilloma per papilloma-bearing mouse were observed in the treated groups as compared with the carcinogen control group. The compound was also found to significantly upregulate different phase II detoxifying enzymes in liver cytosol such as glutathione-S-transferase (P<0.01), catalase (P<0.01) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.01) when measured after 15 days and also after 12 weeks of first DMBA treatment. Lipid peroxidation measured as the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver microsomes was significantly inhibited (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner by diphenylmethyl selenocyanate. Thus the compound exerts its chemopreventive activity by reducing papilloma formation during chemically induced carcinogenesis, which in turn, may be through modulating the level of lipid peroxidation and phase II detoxifying enzyme system at the doses evaluated. PMID:15452454

  2. Field and experimental evidence for coseismic ruptures along shallow creeping faults in forearc sediments of the Crotone Basin, South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Fabrizio; Aldega, Luca; De Paola, Nicola; Faoro, Igor; Storti, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Large seismic slip occurring along shallow creeping faults in tectonically active areas represents an unsolved paradox, which is largely due to our poor understanding of the mechanics governing creeping faults, and to the lack of documented geological evidence showing how coseismic rupturing overprints creep in near-surface conditions. In this contribution we integrate field, petrophysical, mineralogical and friction data to characterize the signature of coseismic ruptures propagating along shallow creeping faults affecting unconsolidated forearc sediments of the seismically active Crotone Basin, in South Italy. Field observations of fault zones show widespread foliated cataclasites in fault cores, locally overprinted by sharp slip surfaces decorated by thin (0.5-1.5 cm) black gouge layers. Compared to foliated cataclasites, black gouges have much lower grain size, porosity and permeability, which may have facilitated slip weakening by thermal fluid pressurization. Moreover, black gouges are characterized by distinct mineralogical assemblages compatible with high temperatures (180-200°C) due to frictional heating during seismic slip. Foliated cataclasites and black gouges were also produced by laboratory friction experiments performed on host sediments at sub-seismic (≤ 0.1 m/s) and seismic (1 m/s) slip rates, respectively. Black gouges display low friction coefficients (0.3) and velocity-weakening behaviours, as opposed to high friction coefficients (0.65) and velocity-strengthening behaviours shown by the foliated cataclasites. Our results show that narrow black gouges developed within foliated cataclasites represent a potential diagnostic marker for episodic seismic activity in shallow creeping faults. These findings can help understanding the time-space partitioning between aseismic and seismic slip of faults at shallow crustal levels, impacting on seismic hazard evaluation of subduction zones and forearc regions affected by destructive earthquakes and

  3. Toxicological evaluation of essential oil from the leaves of Croton tetradenius (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti and Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Karine da Silva; E Silva, Sandra Lúcia da Cunha; de Souza, Ivone Antonia; Gualberto, Simone Andrade; da Cruz, Rômulo Carlos Dantas; Dos Santos, Frances Regiane; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo

    2016-09-01

    For control of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, botanical insecticides can be a viable alternative. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of the leaves of Croton tetradenius on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults. We also evaluated the acute toxicity in Mus musculus. The essential oil chemical analysis was performed using chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. Female mice were used for assessing toxicity according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Test Guideline 423/2001. Doses administered to mice orally and intraperitoneally were 5, 50, 300, and 2000 mg kg(-1). There was a greater toxic effect on larvae (LC50 = 0.152 mg mL(-1) and LC90 = 0.297 mg mL(-1)) and on adults (LC50 = 1.842 mg mL(-1) and LC90 = 3.156 mg mL(-1)) of Ae. aegypti after 24 h of exposure, when compared to other periods of exposure. Chemical analysis revealed 26 components, with camphor (25.49 %) as the major component. The acute toxicity via the intraperitoneal route identified an LD50 = 200 mg kg(-1) and by the oral route an LD50 = 500 mg kg(-1). Thus, the essential oil of C. tetradenius presents insecticidal potential for Ae. aegypti and has high safety threshold at the concentrations evaluated in this study. PMID:27169864

  4. Attenuation of DMBA/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma by Apodytes dimidiata mediated by its antioxidant and antimutagenic potential.

    PubMed

    Divya, Menon K; Salini, Sasidharan; Meera, Nair; Lincy, Lawrence; Seema, Menon; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C; Babu, Thekkekara D

    2016-09-01

    Context Considering the role of cellular oxidative stress in mutations and subsequent transformation, phytochemicals with antioxidant potential has become a primary choice as chemopreventives. Apodytes dimidiata E. Mey. Ex. Arn (Icacinaceae), a widely used plant in Zulu traditional medicine, is reported to possess antioxidant activity. Objective To investigate the chemopreventive efficacy of methanol extract of A. dimidiata leaf (AMF). Materials and methods Antimutagenic potential of AMF (25, 50 and 75 μg/plate) was evaluated by the Ames test. The ability of AMF (100 and 250 mg/kg orally) on restoration of depleted antioxidant status by sodium fluoride (NaF) was analysed on BALB/c mice. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma model was studied up to 20 weeks to analyse the anticarcinogenic effect of AMF (1%, 3% and 5% topically, twice weekly for 6 weeks). Phytochemicals of AMF were characterized by GC-MS. Results AMF (75 μg/plate) reverted 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPDA) induced mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, TA 98, 100 and 102 by 74.8%, 72.5% and 69.3%, respectively. Against sodium azide, the percentage reversion was 80.4, 71.3 and 71.3. In mice, AMF (250 mg/kg for 4 days) increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities by 48.71% and 30.3% against the NaF-induced drop. GSH level was improved by 48.59% with a concomitant decrease in TBARS (57.67%). The skin papilloma reduction was 79.32% for 5% AMF. Squalene, dodecanoic, tetradecanoic and hexadecanoic acids are the known antioxidant and chemopreventive molecules identified by GC-MS. Discussion and conclusion Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of AMF might have contributed to its anticarcinogenic potential. PMID:26878464

  5. Shrinkage of Prostate and Improved Quality of Life: Management of BPH Patients with Croton membranaceus Ethanolic Root Extract

    PubMed Central

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Daniel; Ngala, Robert A.; Appiah, Alfred A.; Anang, Yvonne; Musah, Iddi; Adjei, Samuel; Bamfo-Quaicoe, Kwabena; Sule, Derick; Gyan, Ben A.; Arhin, Peter; Edoh, Dominic A.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate. The study aimed at validating the use of freeze-dried Croton membranaceus ethanolic root extract for BPH management. Thirty-three patients were observed before and after 3-month administration of 20 mg t.i.d orally. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used. Total/free PSA (tPSA, fPSA), renal, liver function, lipid tests, and ultrasonographic imaging were performed. Thirty (30) patients (66 ± 11 years) completed the study. IPSS results showed 37% had severe, 40% moderate, and 23% mild symptoms before; 57% and 43% had moderate and mild symptoms, respectively, after treatment. IIED of patients' results showed 30% with severe, 40% moderate, 24% mild-moderate, 3% mild, and 3% no erectile dysfunction before treatment and 20% severe, 43% moderate, and 37% mild-moderate dysfunction, after treatment. Quality of life (QoL) improved (P = 0.001). Significant but non-pathological increases in total and indirect bilirubin as well as apolipoprotein A occurred. Mean tPSA reduced from 27.9 ± 19.0 to 16.2 ± 11.8 ng/mL (P = 0.002); fPSA from 6.1 ± 4.8 to 3.9 ± 2.9 ng/mL (P = 0.045); and prostate volume from 101.8 ± 41.3 to 54.5 ± 24.8 cm3  (P = 0.023). C. membranaceus shrinks the prostate and improves QoL. PMID:26106434

  6. Methanol Extract of Croton Pycnanthus Benth. Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing the MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts are differentiated from monocytes/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Croton pycnanthus Benth. (CPB) is a herbal plant that belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPB on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL-dependent signaling pathways. Methods Methanol extract of CPB was obtained from International Biological Material Research Center. Osteoclast differentiation was achieved by culturing mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with M-CSF and RANKL. Osteoclast numbers were evaluated by counting multinuclear cells positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The activation of signaling molecules were assessed after acute stimulation of cells with high dose of RANKL by Western blotting with phospho-specific antibodies. Results CPB reduced the generation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathways. The induction of the expression of c-Fos, nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) by RANKL was also suppressed. Conclusions CPB exerts negative effects on osteoclast differentiation in response to the RANKL. The inhibitory mechanism involves the suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and subsequently the down-regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. PMID:25489576

  7. In vivo antimalarial activity of the crude root and fruit extracts of Croton macrostachyus (Euphorbiaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in mice.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Laychiluh Bantie

    2015-07-01

    Euphorbiaceae (Croton macrostachyus H.; bā dòu) is used in Ethiopian folklore medicine for the treatment of malaria, gonorrhea, diabetes, wounds, fungal infections, and helminths. No scientific investigations have been performed to substantiate these claims. This study aimed to investigate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 80% methanol extract of the fruit and the root of Croton macrostachyus H. in a rodent model of malaria. The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei was used to inoculate healthy 8-week-old male Swiss albino mice weighing 23-27 g. Each of the hydroalcoholic crude extracts (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg) were administered to different groups of mice. The parameters of parasitemia, survival time, body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume were determined using Peter's test and Rane's test. Both extracts significantly inhibited parasitemia and increased survival time in infected mice. Maximum suppression and prolongation were obtained at the highest doses used in the study. The crude extracts prevented loss of weight and temperature, but did not affect the packed cell volume. This study suggests that the root and fruit extracts of the plant both have promising antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei in a dose-dependent manner, which supports the folkloric use of the plant for treating malaria. PMID:26151030

  8. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-01-01

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder. PMID:24427514

  9. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  10. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-02-01

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder. PMID:24427514

  11. Assessment of the Polyphenolic Content, Free Radical Scavenging, Anti-inflammatory, and Antimicrobial Activities of Acetone and Aqueous Extracts of Lippia javanica (Burm.F.) Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Asowata-Ayodele, Abiola M.; Otunola, Gloria A.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lippia javanica (Burm.F.) Spreng is one of the spice plants commonly found in almost every part of South Africa. Apart from its culinary uses, it is also traditionally used as an insect repellant and infusion for fever, flu, kidney stone treatment, cough, common cold, and chest pain. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the aqueous and acetone extracts were determined by measuring their effects against 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, 2,2’azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), nitric oxide, phosphomolybdate, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and reducing power. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against four bacterial (two Gram-positive, two Gram-negative) strains and 9 fungal pathogens using the agar well diffusion and microdilution methods. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by determining the inhibition against protein denaturation and membrane stabilizing effects. Objective: The polyphenolic content, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and acetone extracts of the plant were evaluated. Results: A significantly high total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activities were observed in the acetone extracts of the plants. The study also revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of protein denaturation and membrane stabilization effects by both the aqueous and acetone extracts at the concentrations studied. The ability of L. javanica extracts to inhibit protein denaturation and maintain membrane stability could be responsible for its folkloric use. The overall antimicrobial activity indicates that both extracts were active against the bacterial strains but the acetone extract exhibited the most potent antifungal activity higher than even the reference drugs. Conclusion: Overall, the acetone extract of L. javanica exhibited a more pronounced antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects than the aqueous extract. SUMMARY The

  12. The inhibitory effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists on gastrointestinal transit during croton oil-induced intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Pol, O.; Valle, L.; Ferrer, I.; Puig, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The peripheral effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists were investigated in a model of intestinal inflammation induced by intragastric administration of croton oil (CO). Our hypothesis was that inflammation would 'sensitize' adrenoceptors in peripheral and/or central terminals of myenteric and submucous plexus neurones, and enhance systemic effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. 2. Male swiss CD-1 mice, received intragastrically CO (0.05 ml), castor oil (CA, 0.1 ml) or saline (SS) 3 h before the study: gastrointestinal transit (GIT) was evaluated 20 min afterwards with a charcoal meal. The presence of inflammation was assessed by electron microscopy. 3. The intragastric administration of CA or CO caused an increase in GIT and weight loss, but only CO induced an inflammatory response. Both clonidine (imidazoline1/alpha(2)-agonist) and UK-14304 (alpha(2)-agonist) produced dose-related inhibitions of GIT in all groups. During inflammatory diarrhoea (CO), potencies of systemic (s.c.) clonidine and UK-14304 were significantly increased 3.5 and 2.1 times, respectively, while potencies remained unaltered in the presence of diarrhoea without inflammation (CA). The effects were reversed by administration (s.c.) of receptor-specific adrenoceptor antagonists, but not by naloxone. 4. Clonidine was 8.3 (SS) and 2.8 (CO) times more potent when administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), than when administered s.c. Inflammation of the gut did not alter the potency of i.c.v. clonidine, demonstrating that enhanced effects of s.c. clonidine are mediated by peripheral receptors. During inflammation, i.c.v. efaroxan did not antagonize low doses of s.c. clonidine (ED20 and ED50S), but partially reversed ED80S, further supporting the peripheral effects of the agonists in CO treated animals. 5. The results demonstrate that inflammation of the gut enhances the potency of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists by a peripheral mechanism. The results also suggest that the inflammatory

  13. Protective effect of Croton caudatus Geisel leaf extract against experimental visceral leishmaniasis induces proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dey, Somaditya; Mukherjee, Debarati; Chakraborty, Sondipon; Mallick, Suvadip; Dutta, Aritri; Ghosh, Joydip; Swapana, Ningombam; Maiti, Swatilekha; Ghorai, Narayan; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Pal, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    In the present state of overwhelming emergence of drug-unresponsive phenotypes of Leishmania donovani and persistent severe toxicity in conventional anti-leishmanial therapy, in search for novel leads, the aim of this study has been fixed to identify the active extract(s) of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook effective against the parasitic protozoans in vitro and in vivo. C. caudatus Geisel. is often used by Chakma and Hmar community, the local tribes of north-east India for medicinal and veterinary purposes. Among the five semi-purified extracts tested, C. caudatus leaves, extracted in hexane and subsequently semi-purified in a column packed with silica gel (70-130 µM; mesh size 60 A°) using ethyl acetate-hexane solvent (9:1), was found to be the most effective growth inhibitor (JDHex) against the Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes. JDHex significantly altered the biochemical parameters (protein, lipid and carbohydrates) in promastigotes followed by the morphological changes, DNA condensation and subsequent apoptosis in L. donovani. In consequent steps, it has been also proved that JDHex reduced the replication of intracellular amastigotes with concomitant release of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α in vitro. Significantly, the 50% inhibitory concentration of JDHex was estimated much lower against the intracellular amastigotes (2.5 µg/mL) in comparison to promastigotes (10 µg/mL). JDHex was also found efficient in reducing parasite burden in spleen and liver when treated in vivo and increased the intracellular IFN-γ and decreased the IL-10 in CD4+ T cells in splenocytes of orally treated animals. The results of this study support the importance in exploration of novel anti-leishmanial leads from C. caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. against the L. donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) infection. Partial chemical characterization of JDHex revealed the presence of terpenoids. However, the further chemical

  14. In vivo antimalarial activity of the crude leaf extract and solvent fractions of Croton macrostachyus Hocsht. (Euphorbiaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The issue of resistance in malarial infection makes development of novel drugs a necessity. An alternative source for discovering such drugs is natural products. Croton macrostachyus H. (Euphorbiaceae) is used in Ethiopian folklore medicine for the treatment of malaria and found to possess antimalarial activity in vitro. However, no further scientific investigations have been carried out to substantiate the claim. This study therefore aimed at investigating the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions of the leaves of Croton macrostachyus H. in rodent model of malaria. Methods A rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, was used to inoculate healthy male Swiss Albino mice of age 6–8 weeks and weight 23–27 g. A hydro-alcoholic crude extract and the solvent fractions (chloroform, methanol and aqueous) were administered at different doses 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg. Parameters, including parasitemia, survival time, body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume were then determined using standard tests such as Peter’s and Rane’s test. Results Chemoprotective effect exerted by the crude extract and fractions ranged between 44-91% and 12-76%, respectvely. The chemotherapeutic effect of the crude extract and chloroform fraction was in the range of 39-83% and 66-82%, respectively. Maximum effect in both tests was observed with the larger dose of the crude extract and chloroform fraction. The crude extract prevented loss of weight and reduction in temperature but did not affect packed cell volume. However, the chloroform fraction did also reverse reduction in packed cell volume due to the absence of saponins in the fraction. Conclusions The results collectively indicate that the plant has a promising antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei, which upholds the earlier in vitro findings as well as its folkloric use. Thus, it could be considred as a potential source to develop new antimalarial agents. PMID

  15. Composite sedimentary record of falling stages of Pleistocene glacio-eustatic cycles in a shelf setting (Crotone basin, south Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, F.; Sgavetti, M.; Rio, D.; D'Alessandro, A.; Prosser, G.

    1999-08-01

    A thick Pleistocene shelf and nearshore cyclical succession was deposited in the S. Mauro sub-basin of the Crotone basin (southern Italy). The regressive units of the cycles are mostly represented by coastal siliciclastic and bioclastic prograding wedges showing a clinoform geometry. These are separated by blanket-like deposits of high lateral persistence recording major transgressive episodes. The aim of this paper is (1) to describe facies patterns and depositional setting of two prograding wedges, particularly focussing on their polycyclic internal architecture, (2) to analyze these units within a sequence-stratigraphic framework, and (3) to speculate on the possible origin of the small-scale cyclicity. The two wedges analyzed in this paper consist of a number of shingles. Individual shingles consist of two physically connected units: (1) a relatively thin package of sigmoid clinoforms, grading into (2) a volumetrically dominant package of oblique-tangential clinoforms with toplap terminations. The shingles are bounded by seaward-dipping surfaces with sigmoid clinoform geometry, which are ravinement surfaces updip, passing into conformable flooding surfaces downdip. The wedges are thus organized into high-frequency, small-scale sequences, each comprising transgressive, highstand and falling-stage systems tracts. As a whole, individual prograding wedges are interpreted as forced-regressive units, as the shoreline was subject to an overall shift basinwards and downwards along a low-angle trajectory, in spite of the repeated minor relative sea-level rises. Tectonic subsidence, and particularly the syndepositional growth of gentle synclines, are thought to have been the key factors allowing the preservation of these forced-regressive units. Progradation of the wedges took place in a high-energy wave climate characterized by high frequency of storms and very efficient alongshore redistribution of sediments. Recurrent, storm-driven, offshore currents led to intense

  16. Near-infrared and ultraviolet induced isomerization of crotonic acid in N{sub 2} and Xe cryomatrices: First observation of two high-energy trans C–O conformers and mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Kuş, Nihal; Fausto, Rui

    2014-12-21

    E-crotonic acid was isolated in cryogenic solid N{sub 2} and xenon matrices, and subjected to Laser ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. In the deposited matrices, the two low-energy cis C–O E-cc and E-ct conformers, which are the only forms significantly populated in the gas phase, were observed. UV irradiation (λ= 250 nm) of the compound in N{sub 2} matrix allows for experimental detection, not just of the two low-energy cis C–O isomers of Z-crotonic acid previously observed in the experiments carried out in argon matrix [Z-cc and Z-ct; R. Fausto, A. Kulbida, and O. Schrems, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 3755–3770 (1995)] but also of the never observed before high-energy forms of both E- and Z-crotonic acids bearing the carboxylic acid group in the trans arrangement (E-tc and Z-tc conformers). In turn, NIR irradiation experiments in the N{sub 2} matrix allow to produce the high-energy E-tc trans C–O conformer in a selective way, from the initially deposited E-cc form. The vibrational signatures of all the 6 rotameric structures of the crotonic acids experimentally observed, including those of the new trans C–O forms, were determined and the individual spectra fully assigned, also with support of theoretically obtained data. On the other hand, as found before for the compound isolated in argon matrix, the experiments performed in xenon matrix failed to experimental detection of the trans C–O forms. This demonstrates that in noble gas matrices these forms are not stable long enough to allow for their observation by steady state spectroscopy techniques. In these matrices, the trans C–O forms convert spontaneously into their cis C–O counterparts, by tunnelling. Some mechanistic details of the studied processes were extracted and discussed.

  17. Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C; Prendergast, Hew D V

    2004-02-01

    "Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew. PMID:14752556

  18. The epimer of kaurenoic acid from Croton antisyphiliticus is cytotoxic toward B-16 and HeLa tumor cells through apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, V C; Pereira, S I V; Coppede, J; Martins, J S; Rizo, W F; Beleboni, R O; Marins, M; Pereira, P S; Pereira, A M S; Fachin, A L

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of death in developing countries due to increased life expectancy of the population and changes in lifestyle. Studies on active principles of plant have motivated researchers to develop new antitumor agents that are specific and effective for treatment of neoplasms. Kaurane diterpenes are considered important compounds in the development of new and highly effective anticancer chemotherapeutic agents due to their cytotoxic properties in the induction of apoptosis. We evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of the epimer of kaurenoic acid (EKA) isolated from the medicinal plant Croton antisyphiliticus (Euphorbiaceae) toward tumor cell lines HeLa and B-16 and normal fibroblasts 3T3. Based on analyses with the MTT test, EKA showed cytotoxic activity, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 59.41, 68.18 and 60.30 µg/mL for the B-16, HeLa and 3T3 cell lines, respectively. The assay for necrotic or apoptotic cells by differential staining showed induction of apoptosis in all three cell lines. We conclude that EKA is not selective between tumor and normal cell lines; the mechanism of action of EKA is induction of apoptosis, which is part of the innate mechanism of cell defense against neoplasia. PMID:23613246

  19. Relocation of Croton sonderianus (Euphorbiaceae) seeds by Pheidole fallax Mayr (Formicidae): a case of post-dispersal seed protection by ants?

    PubMed

    Lôbo, D; Tabarelli, M; Leal, I R

    2011-01-01

    Although seed dispersal by ants might reduce seed predation near the parent plants, predation on discarded seeds clustered on nest refuse piles may reduce any initial benefit provided by seed removal. Here we examine the fate of Croton sonderianus seeds that were discarded by Pheidole fallax Mayr ants on their nest refuses in caatinga vegetation of northeast Brazil. We collected all seeds discarded in refuse piles of 20 nests and within a radius of 50 cm from their borders, and examined them for evidence of predation. A total of 3,017 seeds were recorded either located in the P. fallax refuse piles (89.1%) or nest vicinity (10.9%). Predation was three fold higher in nest vicinity as compared to refuse piles. By removing seeds from beneath parent plants and relocating then to refuse piles, P. fallax is possibly providing double protection services for C. sonderianus seeds. Our findings represent the first evidence for predator-avoidance as benefit for plants resulting from ant seed-dispersal in the neotropics. PMID:21952959

  20. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus. cDNA cloning, functional expression, and conversion to a farnesyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Kojima, N; Sitthithaworn, W; Viroonchatapan, E; Suh, D Y; Iwanami, N; Hayashi, T; Sankaw, U

    2000-07-01

    cDNAs encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) of two diterpene producing plants, Scoparia dulcis and Croton sublyratus, were isolated using the homology-based polymerase chain reaction method. Both cloned genes showed high amino acid sequence homology (60-70%) to other plant GGPPSs and contained highly conserved aspartate-rich motifs. The obtained clones were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and showed sufficient GGPPS activity to catalyze the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and isopentenyl diphosphate to form geranylgeranyl diphosphate. To investigate the factor determining the product chain length of plant GGPPSs, S. dulcis GGPPS mutants in which either the small amino acids at the fourth and fifth positions before the first aspartate-rich motif (FARM) were replaced with aromatic amino acids or in which two additional amino acids in FARM were deleted were constructed. Both mutants behaved like FPPS-like enzymes and almost exclusively produced FPP when dimethylallyl diphosphate was used as a primer substrate, and failed to accept FPP as a primer substrate. These results indicate that both small amino acids at the fourth and fifth positions before FARM and the amino acid insertion in FARM play essential roles in product length determination in plant GGPPSs. PMID:10923851

  1. Sulfide-Sulfate Mineralizations in Verzino Area (Crotone Basin, Southern Italy): New insights on localized hydrothermal fluid circulations and their relationship with tectonics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, Gabriele; Lucci, Federico; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Pizzino, Luca; Cantucci, Barbara; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2010-05-01

    In this early stage of the work we present a preliminary study of hydrothermal mineralizations found in Verzino locality, Crotone Basin, Southern Appennines, (Calabria, Italy). Both geochemical and petrographic investigations were developed with the aim of understanding the genesis of the sulfide-sulfate associations present in the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" formation, deepening their relationship with fluids circulation. These mineralizations have been recognized only in two "Calanchi" morphostructures - Badlands like morphology developed by the differential erosional pattern of the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" fm. - and constituting the northwestern flank of a little valley evolved in the Miocene sedimentary sequence from "Conglomerato di S.Nicola" fm. to "Evaporiti Superiori" fm. The mineralizations are distributed along isooriented centimetric veins (with mean direction of N120) and in nodules diffused close to the veins. These hydrothermal mineralizations are constituted by an associations of Pyrite spherical nodules (millimetric to centimetric in radius with occurrences of well developed octahedral habit single crystals), sulphate crystals (Gypsum, Jarosite, NatroJarosite), Oxides (Goethite mainly), millimetric veins of Barite and micrometric Ankerite specimens. The data (mineral habits, semiquantitative compositions and x-Ray spectra), obtained by an integration of S.E.M and XRD investigations, permit us, at the current stage of the study, to hypothesize a possible hydrothermal origin (whose temperature range estimate needs further investigations) for the sulfide-sulfate mineral phases. At the moment, we exclude their primary or secondary sedimentary provenance. The comparison of our results with the previous scientific literature focused on hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate systems (Vinogradov and Stephanov, 1964; Kostov, 1968; Plummer 1971; Boles, 1978; Ferrini and Moretti 1998) allows us to propose a possible "thermal window" ranging in the interval 50°C-230

  2. An ent-kaurane diterpenoid from Croton tonkinensis induces apoptosis by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase in SK-HEP1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sul, Young Hoon; Lee, Myung Sun; Cha, Eun Young; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Song, In Sang

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer with high mortality worldwide. Traditional chemotherapy for HCC is not widely accepted by clinical practitioners because of its toxic side effects. Thus, there is a need to identify chemotherapeutic drugs against HCC. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a biologic sensor for cellular energy status that acts a tumor suppressor and a potential cancer therapeutic target. The traditional Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis shows cytotoxicity in various cancer cells; however, its anticancer mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we determined whether the ent-kaurane diterpenoid ent-18-acetoxy-7β-hydroxy kaur-15-oxo-16-ene (CrT1) isolated from this plant plays a role as a chemotherapeutic drug targeting AMPK. CrT1 blocked proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manners in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP1 cells. CrT1 induced sub-G(1) arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis. CrT1 activated caspase-3, -7, -8, -9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and its effect was inhibited by z-VAD-fmk suppressing caspase-3 cleavage. CrT1 induced increases in p53 and Bax levels but decreased Bcl(2) levels. In addition, CrT1 resulted in increased translocation of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. We showed that CrT1-activated AMPK activation was followed by modulating the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K pathway and was inactivated by treating cells with compound C. Treatment with CrT1 and aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) synergistically activated AMPK. CrT1-induced AMPK activation regulated cell viability and apoptosis. These results suggest that CrT1 is a novel AMPK activator and that AMPK activation in SK-HEP1 cells is responsible for CrT1-induced anticancer activity including apoptosis. PMID:23302650

  3. In vitro cytocidal effects of the essential oil from Croton cajucara (red sacaca) and its major constituent 7- hydroxycalamenene against Leishmania chagasi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious form of leishmaniasis and can be lethal if left untreated. Currently available treatments for these parasitic diseases are frequently associated to severe side effects. The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, we investigated the effects of the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from the leaves of C. cajucara (red sacaca) against Leishmania chagasi, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Methods Promastigotes were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil for determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effects of the essential oil on parasite ultrastructure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate its efficacy against infected cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi promastigotes were treated with the inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil and its purified component 7-hydroxycalamenene against L. chagasi were 250 and 15.6 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed important nuclear and kinetoplastic alterations in L. chagasi promastigotes. Pre-treatment of macrophages and parasites with the essential oil reduced parasite/macrophage interaction by 52.8%, while it increased the production of nitric oxide by L. chagasi-infected macrophages by 80%. Conclusion These results indicate that the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from C. cajucara is a promising source of leishmanicidal compounds. PMID:24088644

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins-rich extract from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) on croton oil-induced ear edema and Propionibacterium acnes plus LPS-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui; Lv, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Guo-En; Li, Yi-Fang; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2014-08-01

    Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) has been known to play a protective role in human health due to its high anthocyanin content. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of bilberry extract (BE, containing 42.04% anthocyanin) on Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced liver injury and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. Results showed that BE could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and liver inflammation provoked by P. acnes plus LPS, as reflected by the reduced plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. These findings were confirmed by hepatic pathological examination. Moreover, BE administration markedly suppressed the increase of liver mRNA levels of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and the protein levels of iNOS, TNF-α and NF-κB. In addition, liver malondialdehyde and NO contents were significantly reduced by BE treatment. These results indicated that BE has potent protective effects on acute and immunological inflammation, which might contribute to the study of the anti-inflammatory effects of natural products and healthy food. PMID:24548119

  5. Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark essential oil as possible mutagen-protective food ingredient against heterocyclic amines from cooked food.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Damiano; Guerrini, Alessandra; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo; Maietti, Silvia; Poppi, Irene; Tacchini, Massimo; Sacchetti, Gianni

    2013-08-15

    The Amazonian Croton lechleri stem bark essential oil was tested for its anti-mutagenic potential by performing the Ames test against heterocyclic amines (HCAs), in continuing research on applicative functional profile of this phytocomplex as food ingredient (Rossi et al., 2011). Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was used with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The anti-mutagenic properties was assayed with the following HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), the imidazoles 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-aminodipirydo-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2). All HCAs with S9 induced mutagenicity at 10(-10) mol/plate. Without S9, IQ and MeIQ showed mutagenicity at 10(-8) mol/plate, MeIQx and Glu-P-1 at 10(-5) mol/plate, while Glu-P-2 was inactive. In presence of HACs (10(-9) mol/plate), C. lechleri essential oil was tested for mutagen-protective properties (concentration range: 0.01-0.10 mg/plate) taking the Highest Uneffective Dose (HUD) as threshold reference. With S9 mix, C. lechleri essential oil displayed a significant reduction of revertants at 0.05 mg/plate, from 21% to 34%. The essential oil showed mutagen-protective efficacy against IQ and MeIQ tested as direct mutagens (10(-7) mol/plate), with a revertants percentage reduction of 39% and 40%, respectively. No anti-mutagen capacity was noted for MeIQx and Glu-P-1 (10(-5) mol/plate). Since HACs are known as possible colon and liver cancer inducers, C. lechleri essential oil was tested for its cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative capacity against LoVo and HepG2 cancer cell lines showing IC50 of 74.95±0.05 μg/ml (LoVo) and 82.28±0.03 μg/ml (HepG2), displaying a promising role of this essential oil as a functional food ingredient with interesting mutagen preventing properties. PMID:23561129

  6. Koenimbin, a natural dietary compound of Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng: inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and targeting of derived MCF7 breast cancer stem cells (CD44+/CD24−/low): an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohan, Syam; Arya, Aditya; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Keong, Yeap Swee; Siyamak, Ebrahimi Nigjeh; Fani, Somayeh; Firoozi, Maryam; Yong, Chung Lip; Sukari, Mohamed Aspollah; Kamalidehghan, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhibition of breast cancer stem cells has been shown to be an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention. The aims of this work were to evaluate the efficacy of koenimbin, isolated from Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng, in the inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and to target MCF7 breast cancer stem cells through apoptosis in vitro. Methods Koenimbin-induced cell viability was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release were observed using high-content screening. Cell cycle arrest was examined using flow cytometry, while human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were used to investigate the mechanism of apoptosis. Protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl2, and heat shock protein 70 were confirmed using Western blotting. Caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9 levels were measured, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity was assessed using a high-content screening assay. Aldefluor™ and mammosphere formation assays were used to evaluate the effect of koenimbin on MCF7 breast cancer stem cells in vitro. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was investigated using Western blotting. Results Koenimbin-induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells was mediated by cell death-transducing signals regulating the mitochondrial membrane potential by downregulating Bcl2 and upregulating Bax, due to cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Koenimbin induced significant (P<0.05) sub-G0 phase arrest in breast cancer cells. Cytochrome c release triggered caspase-9 activation, which then activated caspase-7, leading to apoptotic changes. This form of apoptosis is closely associated with the intrinsic pathway and inhibition of NF-κB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Koenimbin significantly (P<0.05) decreased the aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cell population in MCF7 cancer stem cells and

  7. Nutrients, Dissolved Organic Carbon, Color, and Disinfection Byproducts in Base Flow and Stormflow in Streams of the Croton Watershed, Westchester and Putnam Counties, New York, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The Croton Watershed is unique among New York City's water-supply watersheds because it has the highest percentages of suburban development (52 percent) and wetland area (6 percent). As the City moves toward filtration of this water supply, there is a need to document water-quality contributions from both human and natural sources within the watershed that can inform watershed-management decisions. Streamwater samples from 24 small (0.1 to 1.5 mi2) subbasins and three wastewater-treatment plants (2000-02) were used to document the seasonal concentrations, values, and formation potentials of selected nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), color, and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during stormflow and base-flow conditions. The subbasins were categorized by three types of drainage efficiency and a range of land uses and housing densities. Analyte concentrations in subbasin streams differed in response to the subbasin charateristics. Nutrient concentrations were lowest in undeveloped, forested subbasins that were well drained and increased with all types of development, which included residential, urban commercial/industrial, golf-course, and horse-farm land uses. These concentrations were further modified by subbasin drainage efficiency. DOC, in contrast, was highly dependent on drainage efficiency. Color intensity and DBP formation potentials were, in turn, associated with DOC and thus showed a similar response to drainage efficiency. Every constituent exhibited seasonal changes in concentration. Nutrients. Total (unfiltered) phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and nitrate were associated primarily with residential development, urban, golf-course, and horse-farm land uses. Base-flow and stormflow concentrations of the TP, SRP, and nitrate generally increased with increasing housing density. TP and SRP concentrations were nearly an order of magnitude higher in stormflow than in base flow, whereas nitrate concentrations showed little difference

  8. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Marisa; Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Aguiar-Silva, Cristiane; Brandão, Solange E; Dafré-Martinelli, Marcelle; Dias, Ana Paula L; Engela, Marcela R G S; Gagliano, Janayne; Moura, Barbara B; Alves, Edenise S; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Gomes, Eduardo P C; Furlan, Claudia M; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G

    2015-07-01

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. PMID:25818087

  9. ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through the phosphorylation of JNK mediated by reactive oxygen species and dual-specificity JNK kinase MKK4.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Phuong Thien; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Ohta, Saho; Shiota, Shinichiro; Kanta, Hironori; Takeuchi, Kenji; Ito, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    To search for new chemotherapeutic agents to treat colorectal cancer, we isolated a number of natural ent-kaurane diterpenoids from the plant Croton tonkinensis. Among them, only CeKDs with the 15-oxo-16-ene moiety induced the apoptosis of colorectal cancer cell lines Caco-2 and LS180. The active CeKD induced the activation of ERK and JNK, but the inactive ones induced that of ERK, but not that of JNK. It thus appears that JNK seemed to play an important role in the apoptotic activity of the active compounds. The dualspecificity JNK kinase MKK4 was activated in both colorectal cancer cells treated with the active CeKD, but MKK7 was not activated. Further, the active CeKD, but not the inactive one, enhanced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both cells. CeKD-induced cell apoptosis and ROS generation, as well as JNK activation, were inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. These findings suggest that ROS stimulated the phosphorylation of JNK mediated by MKK4 and played a critical role in CeKD-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. PMID:24476312

  10. Cytotoxic, apoptotic, and sensitization properties of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep on human liver cancer HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh Quan; Iscache, Anne Laure; Pham, Quoc Long; Gairin, Jean Edouard

    2016-04-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. A very poor prognosis and a lack of effective treatments make liver cancer a major public health problem, notably in less developed regions, particularly in eastern Asia. This fully justifies the search of new molecules and therapeutic strategies against HCC. Ent-kaurane diterpenoids are natural compounds displaying a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects including anticancer activity. In this study, we analyzed the pharmacological properties of a family of ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep in human HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines, used as cellular reference models for in vitro evaluation of new molecules active on HCC. A structure-related cytotoxicity was observed against both HCC cell lines, enlighting the role of the 16-en-15-one skeleton of ent-kaurane diterpenoids. Cytotoxicity was closely correlated to apoptosis, evidenced by concentration-dependent subG1 cell accumulation, and increased annexin V expression. In addition, subtoxic concentration of ent-kaurane diterpenoid dramatically enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to doxorubicin. All together, our data bring strong support to the potential interest of ent-kaurane diterpenoids, alone or in combination with a cytotoxic agent, in cancer and more precisely against HCC. PMID:26713517

  11. The tsunami-like sea level disturbance in Crotone harbor, Italy, after the Mw6.5 strike-slip earthquake of 17 November 2015 in Lefkada Isl., Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Tatyana; Annunziato, Alessandro; Charalampakis, Marinos; Romano, Fabrizio; Volpe, Manuela; Tonini, Roberto; Gerardinger, Andrea; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.

    2016-04-01

    On 17 November 2015 an Mw6.5 earthquake ruptured offshore Lefkada Isl. in Ionian Sea, Greece, causing two human victims, minor damage and several ground failures including coastal landslides. Fault plane solutions released by CMT/Harvard, NOA and other institutes have indicated that the faulting style was strike-slip right-lateral, which is quite typical for the area, as for example, the Mw6.3 event that occurred on August 14, 2003, in exactly the same fault zone. In spite of the very low tsunami potential commonly associated to this faulting mechanism, a tsunami-like sea level change was recorded after the earthquake by one tide-gauge in the Crotone harbor, Italy. Preliminary tsunami numerical simulations were performed to reproduce the observed signal. The spectral analysis of the synthetic mareograms close to the entrance of the harbor shows the presence of some peaks that could justify the relation between the natural port resonance and the observed wave amplification. Of particular interest is the coupling between the tsunami energy and the natural modes of basin oscillation enhancing tsunami wave amplitude in harbors through resonance, as shown in some historical events in the Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  12. Functional expression of a putative geraniol 8-hydroxylase by reconstitution of bacterially expressed plant CYP76F45 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase CPR I from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Sintupachee, Siriluk; Promden, Worrawat; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2015-10-01

    While attempting to isolate the enzyme geranylgeraniol 18-hydroxylase, which is involved in plaunotol biosynthesis in Croton stellatopilosus (Cs), the cDNAs for a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase(designated as CYP76F45) and an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (designated as CPR I based on its classification) were isolated from the leaf. The CYP76F45 and CsCPR I genes have open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 507- and 711-amino acid proteins with predicted relative molecular weights of 56.7 and 79.0 kDa,respectively. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that both CYP76F45 (63–73%) and CsCPR I (79–83%) share relatively high sequence identities with homologous proteins in other plant species.Phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed that CYP76F45 belongs to the CYP76 family and that CsCPR I belongs to Class I of dicotyledonous CPRs, with both being closely related to Ricinus communis genes. Functional characterization of both enzymes, each expressed separately in Escherichia coli as recombinant proteins,showed that only simultaneous incubation of the membrane bound proteins with the substrate geraniol (GOH) and the coenzyme NADPH could form 8-hydroxygeraniol. The enzyme mixture could also utilize acyclic sesquiterpene farnesol (FOH) with a comparable substrate preference ratio (GOH:FOH) of 54:46. The levelsof the CYP76F45 and CsCPR I transcripts in the shoots, leaves and twigs of C. stellatopilosus were correlated with the levels of a major monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, identified tentatively as 19-Evallesamine,that accumulated in these plant parts. These results suggested that CYP76F45 and CPR I function as the enzyme geraniol-8-hydroxylase (G8H), which is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid in C. stellatopilosus [corrected]. PMID:26300313

  13. Variation in the population structure between a natural and a human-modified forest for a pioneer tropical tree species not restricted to large gaps

    PubMed Central

    Silvestrini, Milene; dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maës

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of tree species in tropical forests is generally related to the occurrence of disturbances and shifts in the local environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and biotic factors. Thus, the distribution of pioneer tree species is expected to vary according to the gap characteristics and with human disturbances. We asked whether there was variation in the distribution of a pioneer species under different environmental conditions generated by natural disturbances, and between two forests with contrasting levels of human disturbance. To answer this question, we studied the distribution patterns and population persistence of the pioneer tree species Croton floribundus in the size and age gap range of a primary Brazilian forest. Additionally, we compared the plant density of two size-classes between a primary and an early successional human-disturbed forest. Croton floribundus was found to be widespread and equally distributed along the gap-size gradient in the primary forest. Overall density did not vary with gap size or age (F-ratio = 0.062, P = 0.941), and while juveniles were found to have a higher density in the early successional forest (P = 0.021), tree density was found to be similar between forests (P = 0.058). Our results indicate that the population structure of a pioneer tree species with long life span and a broad gap-size niche preference varied between natural and human-disturbed forests, but not with the level of natural disturbance. We believe this can be explained by the extreme environmental changes that occur after human disturbance. The ecological processes that affect the distribution of pioneer species in natural and human-modified forests may be similar, but our results suggest they act differently under the contrasting environmental conditions generated by natural and human disturbances. PMID:26120431

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAS CEPHALOTES (ROTH) SPRENG. LEAF

    PubMed Central

    Madhukiran, B.L.; Vijaya, Lakshmi K.; Uma, Maheswari Devi P.

    2002-01-01

    Leucas cephalotes a common ethanomedicinal plant, is used by folklore of Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh for fevers and urinary tract infections. In the present study leaves of L. cephalotes were shade dried, powerdered and extracts were made by Soxhlet Extractor using different organic solvents like hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and ethylacetate. The antimicrobial activity of these organic extracts was evaluated against pathogenic organisms of staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These isolates were obtained from clinical specimens like urine, blood and pus of Sri Venkateshwara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati. The zone of inhibition was determined for these pathogenic microorganism by using specific standards and respective controls for determining Minimum inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Among these tested organic extracts, hexane and methanolic extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity index for each tested extract has been calculated. PMID:22557062

  15. Antibacterial properties of leucas cephalotes (roth) spreng. Leaf.

    PubMed

    Madhukiran, B L; Vijaya, Lakshmi K; Uma, Maheswari Devi P

    2002-04-01

    Leucas cephalotes a common ethanomedicinal plant, is used by folklore of Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh for fevers and urinary tract infections. In the present study leaves of L. cephalotes were shade dried, powerdered and extracts were made by Soxhlet Extractor using different organic solvents like hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and ethylacetate. The antimicrobial activity of these organic extracts was evaluated against pathogenic organisms of staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These isolates were obtained from clinical specimens like urine, blood and pus of Sri Venkateshwara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati. The zone of inhibition was determined for these pathogenic microorganism by using specific standards and respective controls for determining Minimum inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Among these tested organic extracts, hexane and methanolic extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity index for each tested extract has been calculated. PMID:22557062

  16. Natural sources of salinity in the Brazos River, Texas with particular reference to the Croton and salt Croton Creek basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, R.C.; Hughes, Leon S.; Yost, I.D.

    1964-01-01

    The salt water may be disposed of by impounding it in reservoirs for evaporation or by injecting it underground through oil wells, oil tests, or wells drilled for saltwater disposal. Sediments in which the salt water possibly could be injected underlie the. Dove Creek Salt Flats at depths of less than 7,000 feet.

  17. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Vats, Manisha; Singh, Harneet; Sardana, Satish

    2011-01-01

    Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity. PMID:24031791

  18. Population structure and genetic diversity in natural populations of Theobroma speciosum Willd. Ex Spreng (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Giustina, L D; Luz, L N; Vieira, F S; Rossi, F S; Soares-Lopes, C R A; Pereira, T N S; Rossi, A A B

    2014-01-01

    The genus Theobroma found in the Amazon region is composed of 22 species, including Theobroma speciosum, better known as cacauí. These species are constantly threatened by forest fragmentation caused by human activities and require conservation strategies and management aimed at preserving them in their natural environments. The main objective of this study was to analyze the population structure and genetic diversity within and between natural populations of T. speciosum by using ISSR molecular markers to understand the population structure of the species. Four natural populations belonging to the Amazon rainforest (BAC, CRO, FLA, and PNA), located in the State of Mato Grosso, were selected. Amplification reactions were performed using 15 ISSR primers. A total of 101 loci were found, of which 54.46% were polymorphic at the species level. The BAC population showed higher genetic diversity (H=0.095 and I=0.144) and higher percentage of polymorphism (28.71%). The populations showed an FST value of 0.604, indicating marked genetic differentiation. The highest genetic variation was found between populations. Gene flow was low between populations, indicating genetic isolation between populations. PMID:24615108

  19. In vivo antimalarial activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour) spreng on Plasmodium berghei yoelii.

    PubMed

    Periyanayagam, K; Nirmala Devi, K; Suseela, L; Uma, A; Ismail, M

    2008-06-01

    An invivo study of aqueous extract of the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus on Plasmodium berghei yoelii was conducted on laboratory infected albino mice and compared with standard drug chloroquine. Reduction of parasitemia at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of aqueous extract for 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 96 hrs were determined. The reduction of parasitemia after 96 hrs was 100%, 67.9% and 76.2% for standard, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of aqueous extract respectively. The isolation of active principle responsible for the reduction of parasitemia may give a promising drug molecule. PMID:19301696

  20. Effect of subinihibitory and inhibitory concentrations of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng essential oil on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Braga, Milena Aguiar; de Oliveira, Francisco F M; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Brito e Cabral, Paula; de Melo Santiago, Thiago; Sousa, Jeanlex S; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida T

    2012-08-15

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activity and some mechanisms used by subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil, obtained from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, against a standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 5 multiresistant clinical isolates of the bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), the rate of kill and the pH sensitivity of the essential oil were determined by microdilution tests performed in 96-well plates. Subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil were tested in order to check its action on K. pneumoniae membrane permeability, capsule expression, urease activity and cell morphology. The MIC and MBC of the essential oil were 0.09±0.01%. A complete inhibition of the bacterial growth was observed after 2 h of incubation with twice the MIC of the essential oil. A better MIC was found when neutral or alkaline pH broth was used. Alteration in membrane permeability was found by the increase of crystal violet uptake when the bacteria were incubated with twice the MIC levels of the essential oil. The urease activity could be prevented when all the subinhibitory concentrations were tested in comparison to the untreated group (p<0.001). Alteration of the bacterial morphology besides inhibition of the capsule expression was verified by atomic force microscopy, and Anthony's stain method, respectively. Our data allow us to conclude that the essential oil of P. amboinicus can be a good candidate for future research. PMID:22776104

  1. Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seed extract suppresses breast cancer growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Yanping; Yang, Xiaoyan Ou; Zhan, Yingzhuan

    2015-10-01

    The herb Momordica cochinchinensis has been used for a variety of purposes, and been shown to have anti‑cancer properties. The present study assessed the potency and the underlying mechanisms of action of the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (ESMC2) on breast cancer cells. Therefore, the effects of ESMC2 on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of MDA‑MB‑231 cells were investigated. The results showed that ESMC2 exerted a marked growth inhibitory effect on the cells. Cell cycle arrest in G2 phase following treatment with ESMC2 was associated with a marked increase in the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. In addition, ESMC2 dose‑dependently induced cell apoptosis, which was mediated via upregulation of the apoptosis-associated proteins p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer and Bcl-2-associated death promoter expression, as well as downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B, Bcl‑2 and myeloid cell leukemia‑1. Furthermore, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt phosphorylation were decreased by ESMC2 in a dose‑dependent manner, indicating that ESMC2 exerted its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/JNK pathway. Furthermore, nude mouse xenotransplant models were used to evaluate the tumor growth inhibitory effects of ESMC2. The possible chemical components of ESMC2 were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 12 compounds were detected from the major peaks based on the similarity index with entries of a compound database. The results of the present study may aid in the development of novel therapies for breast cancer. PMID:26252798

  2. Inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis by water extract of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng).

    PubMed

    Tien, Pham Gia; Kayama, Fujio; Konishi, Fumio; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kasono, Keizo; Hung, Nguyen Thi Kim; Kuroki, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, San-E; Van, Chuyen Nguyen; Kawakami, Masanobu

    2005-04-01

    The antitumor activity of the crude water extract from Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. A water extract prepared from 0.75 and 0.25 mg dry weight of Gac fruit per gram body weight was given daily to Balb/c mice (n=15/group). The water extract inhibited the growth of the colon 26-20 adenocarcinoma cell line, transplanted in Balb/c mice, reducing wet tumor weight by 23.6%. Histological and immunohistochemical results indicated that Gac water extract reduced the density of blood vessels around the carcinoma. The water extract also produced a marked suppression of cell proliferation in colon 26-20 and HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated a significant accumulation of cells in the S phase by water extract. Immunoblotting showed that cyclin A, Cdk2, p27waf1/Kip1 were down-regulated, whereas the protein level of p21waf1/Cip1 was not decreased. Treatment of colon 26-20 cells with Gac extract induced necrosis rather than apoptosis. The antitumor component was confirmed as a protein with molecular weight of 35 kDa, retained in the water-soluble high molecular weight fraction. Thus, the bioactive antitumor compound in Gac extract is a protein, which is distinct from lycopene, another compound in Gac fruit with potential antitumor activity. PMID:15753981

  3. Lippia javanica (Burm F) Spreng: its general constituents and bioactivity on mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nzira, L; Per, M; Peter, F; Claus, B

    2009-04-01

    Mosquito repellent plants are used in the rural areas of Zimbabwe despite the fact that very few of them have been biologically evaluated. Leaves of the plant Lippia javanica, were collected from Mumurwi village, Zimbabwe and evaluated for repellency against laboratory reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Major plant compounds were identified using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Fraction 'A' contained coumarins, flavonoids and essential oils and offered a protection time of 8 and 5.5hrs in choice and non-choice experiments respectively. Fraction 'B1' contained flavonoids with a protection time of 1 and 0.5hrs in choice and non choice experiments respectively. Fraction 'B2' contained coumarins and essential oils and offered a protection time of 2hrs in either test. No major compounds were identified from the following fractions: 'C1', 'C2', 'D1', 'E1', 'E2', 'F1' and 'F2' and all of them failed to give 100% repellence. The 'C1' supernatant fraction contained coumarins and provided protection from mosquito bites for 1 and 0.5 hrs in choice and non-choice experiments respectively. Fraction 'C2' did not have the major compounds but gave a protection time of 1 hr in either experiment. Fraction 'D2' contained essential oils only and it provided a protection time of 2.5hrs in choice experiments. Analysis by MS showed the presence of alpha pinene, 1,3-5 cycloheptatriene, beta phellandrene, (+)-2-carene, 3-carene, eucalyptol and caryophyllene oxide. L. javanica offered protection from mosquito bites for 8hrs (choice) and 5.5hrs (non choice experiments). The combined presence of coumarins, flavonoids and essential oils have an additive effect compared with individual plant fractions. PMID:19696732

  4. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    PubMed

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics. PMID:26126944

  5. Old sleeping Sicilian beauty: seed germination in the palaeoendemic Petagnaea gussonei (Spreng.) Rauschert (Saniculoideae, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    De Castro, O; Gianguzzi, L; Carucci, F; De Luca, A; Gesuele, R; Guida, M

    2015-09-01

    Petagnaea gussonei (Apiaceae) is a perennial herbaceous species endemic to northeast Sicily (Nebrodi Mountains). It is considered a remnant of the Sicilian Tertiary flora, and is endangered according to the Red List. There is no information in the literature about the germinability of its seeds, even though seed production is know to occur. The aim of this study was to obtain data to better understand seed germination of this species and its biological implications. Thus, several approaches were employed: vitality analyses, gibberellic acid supply, germination and soil microbial flora analyses via end-point and qPCR. The results suggest that seed germination occurs after ca. 1.5 years at a rate of ca. 11%. The seeds can be classified as physiologically dormant, and probably require prolonged cold stratification for germination. Because seed germination is low, it is likely that agamic reproduction represents an important mean for its conservation and survival. These results have important implications for P. gussonei survival and should be considered in possible re-introduction attempts aimed at restoring threatened populations. PMID:25847095

  6. Effects of maturity on physicochemical properties of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.).

    PubMed

    Tran, Xuan T; Parks, Sophie E; Roach, Paul D; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh H

    2016-03-01

    The aril around the seeds of Gac fruit is rich in fatty acids and carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene). Understanding how these qualities are affected by fruit maturity at harvest may identify indices for quality assessment. Some physical and chemical properties of Gac fruit were determined for fruit harvested between 8 and 16 weeks after pollination (WAP). Fruit respiration rates and ethylene production rates were assessed after harvest and up to 20 days in storage at 20°C. Fruit harvested at 14 WAP had the highest oil (0.27 ± 0.02 g/g DW), lycopene content (0.45 ± 0.09 mg/g FW), and β-carotene content (0.33 ± 0.05 mg/g FW) which declined by 16 WAP. External skin color and aril TSS were indicative of oil and carotenoid contents in aril. Skin color, TSS and potentially firmness were good indices of fruit quality. Harvesting less mature fruit at 12 WAP would be practical as the fruit were firmer and more capable of transport; however, quality during postharvest ripening may be limited. Fruits continued to ripen after they were harvested and an ethylene peak in the least mature fruit may reflect a climacteric behavior but this needs further investigation. PMID:27004120

  7. The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino, Felício; Medeiros, Rosália Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Neto, Vicente Queiroga

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as “marmeleiro”, in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative. PMID:24688510

  8. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this section. (1) Specifications. (i) The chloroform-soluble portion of the water extractives of the coated film obtained with distilled water at 120 °F for 24 hours does not exceed 0.5 milligram per...

  9. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this section. (1) Specifications. (i) The chloroform-soluble portion of the water extractives of the coated film obtained with distilled water at 120 °F for 24 hours does not exceed 0.5 milligram per...

  10. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Croton oblongifolius and its Antibacterial Activity against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Tadtong, Sarin; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2015-08-01

    The essential oil of C. oblongifolius Roxb. stem bark was obtained by hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis by GC-MS identified 29 compounds. Terpinen-4-ol (17.8%) was a major component, together with α-guaiene (7.9%), E-caryophyllene (7.0%), myrcene (6.7%), (+)-cyclosativene (5.1%), sabinene (4.8%), aciphyllene (4.7%), pogostol (4.6%), gamma-terpinene (3.4%), α-muurolol (3.2%) and germecrene D (3.2%). The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919 with an MIC of 0.125%, v/v. PMID:26434141

  11. Foliar accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in native tree species from the Atlantic Forest (SE-Brazil).

    PubMed

    Dias, Ana Paula L; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic to living organisms. They can accumulate on foliar surfaces due to their affinity with apolar organic compounds, which enables the use of native plant species as sentinels of atmospheric PAH deposition in polluted ecosystems. The present study extends the knowledge about this subject in the tropical region by focusing on the PAH accumulation in the foliage of dominant tree species (Astronium graveolens, Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha) in four remnants of Semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest surrounded by diversified sources of PAHs and located in the cities of Campinas, Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópilis (central-eastern part of São Paulo State, SE-Brazil). Leaves of the tree species were collected in the forest remnants during the wet and dry seasons (2011 to 2013). All samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector for identification of 14 PAHs. The native tree species showed distinct capacities to accumulate PAHs. All of them accumulated proportionally more light PAHs than heavy PAHs, mainly during the dry period. P. gonoacantha was the most effective accumulator species. Higher accumulations of most of the PAHs occurred during the dry periods. The predominance of moderately (1 ≤ EF < 5) to highly enriched (EF ≥ 5) leaf samples of P. gonoacantha with regard to BaA and PHE in all of the forest remnants indicated that vehicular sources were widely distributed in the entire region. The predominance of the moderate to high enrichment of ACE in leaf samples from the forest remnants located in Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópolis indicated that they were also affected by emissions from petrochemical industries. PMID:26657363

  12. Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 μg C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 μg C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

  13. In vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 10(6) promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10(7) L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 10(6) L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921

  14. In Vitro and In Vivo Leishmanicidal Activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes Júnior, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 106  promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 107  L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 106  L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921

  15. In vitro acaricidal activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) extracts against synthetic pyrethroid-resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Singh, Harkirat; Prerna, Mranalini; Daundkar, Prashant S; Sharma, S K; Dumka, V K

    2015-04-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance status against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Faridkot district, Punjab (India). The slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and resistance levels were determined from the regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Results indicated presence of resistance of levels I and II against cypermethrin (resistance factor (RF) = 2.82) and deltamethrin (RF = 8.44), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous (MLAq), ethanol (MLE), chloroform (MLC), acetone (MLA) and hexane (MLH) extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii against these synthetic pyrethroid (SP)-resistant engorged adult females of R. (B.) microplus by determination of per cent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), per cent inhibition of oviposition (%IO) and hatching rate. The per cent mortality caused by various extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0% varied from 0.0 to 100.0% with maximum per cent mortality of 10.0, 100.0, 70.0, 40.0 and 10.0 recorded against MLAq, MLE, MLC, MLA and MLH, respectively. Among all extracts, the highest acaricidal property against SP-resistant R. (B.) microplus was exhibited by the MLE as it showed the minimum LC50 [95% confidence limit (CL)] values of 2.97% (2.82-3.12%), followed by MLC as 10.26% (8.84-11.91 %) and MLA as 18.22% (16.18-20.52%). The average egg mass weight recorded in live ticks treated with various concentrations of different extracts was lower than the respective control group ticks and was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in ticks treated with MLH extract. However, no significant effect on hatchability of eggs of treated groups when compared to control was recorded. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the RI was recorded in MLH extract-treated ticks, and the %IO varied from 0.07 to 34.73% with various extracts and was recorded maximum with highest concentration of MLH. The results of the current study indicate that the extracts of M. koenigii can be used for control of SP-resistant ticks. PMID:25633856

  16. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest. PMID:26743910

  17. Chemical Composition and Physical Characteristics of the Essential Oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng of Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yentema, Onadja; Alioune, Ouedraogo; Abdoul Dorosso, Samate

    Essential oils have a significant role in the society where they are variously used in fields such as medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, chemical and food-processing industries. This justifies interest which they cause and thus systematic studies are undertaken on aromatic species, allowing without any doubt their use advisedly. This study concerns the characterization of the essential oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus of Burkina Faso, extracted by drive with the water vapor in a distillation operation. The analysis of the chemical composition is carried out by Gas Chromatography. It shows that the 16 made up ones identified account for 65. 2% of the essential oil composition. These compounds belong to the two classes regularly met in essential oils: the mono ones and sesquiterpenes. However, proportion of monoterpenes (53. 2%) is higher than that of sesquiterpenes (12%). Among the identified compounds two monoterpenes (the piperitone and δ-2-carene) remain the principal components in the essential oil. Then the authors determine the density d = 0.9057 by double weighing, the optical activity α = +28.175 by polarimetry and the refractive index n = 1.465 by an interferometric method which they describe. Cymbopogon schoenanthus is an aromatic plant of the family of Poaceae very often used in traditional pharmacopoeia for internal as well as external treatments.

  18. THE POWER OF WORDS WITH EMPHASIS ON THE CIVIL RIGHTS CRISIS--UNIT FOR TEAM ONE, CROTON SCHOOL. SUMMER 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BYRD, C.; AND OTHERS

    THE STUDENT SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPRESS THE PURPOSE OF SYMBOLS AND USE WORDS IN SPEAKING AND WRITING A PARAGRAPH USING DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORDS OF DIFFERENT SHADES OF MEANING AND LEVELS OF DIFFICULTY. HE SHOULD BE ABLE TO ADD PREFIXES, SUFFIXES, AND OTHER AFFIXES TO A LIST OF ROOT WORDS AND UNDERSTAND WORDS AND THEIR ORIGINS. GIVEN A PARAGRAPH, THE…

  19. Chemoprevention by Triticum Aestivum of mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and croton oil - association with oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Arya, Priyanka; Kumar, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    Chemopreventive action of wheat grass (Triticum astivum) leaf extract in Swiss albino mice was evaluated. Oral administration of wheat grass leaf extract at a dose level of 20 ml/kg body weight per day at pre, peri, and post-initional phases and in combination group, caused significant variation in tumour incidence and tumour yield as compared to the control group. Moreover, the average latent period was significantly increased from 9.87 ± 0.12 to 13.4 ± 0.23 weeks in the combination group, together with significant elevation of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) and reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed as compared to the control group. PMID:21517247

  20. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

    2012-08-01

    Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human

  1. Influence of salt stress on essential oil yield and composition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng. ssp. Laniger (Hook) Maire et Weil).

    PubMed

    Khadhri, Ayda; Neffati, Mohamed; Smiti, Samira; Nogueira, José Manuel F; Araujo, Maria Eduarda M

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon is an aromatic plant valued for its citrus scent aroma. In this article, the effect of saline irrigation water on yield and quality of Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. was evaluated. Compounds of essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and/or (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that the growth of the aerial part was not affected at a concentration of 50 mmol NaCl. Under salt stress, the content of major chemical compounds was affected differently by the treatment level. PMID:21246437

  2. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi: a malarial vector mosquito.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Annadurai; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2010-10-01

    Essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus was studied for its chemical composition and larvicidal potential against the malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Totally 26 compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS. The major chemical compounds were carvacrol (28.65%) followed by thymol (21.66%), α-humulene (9.67%), undecanal (8.29%), γ-terpinene (7.76%), ρ-cymene (6.46%), caryophyllene oxide (5.85%), α-terpineol (3.28%) and β-selinene (2.01%). The larvicidal assay was conducted to record the LC(50) and LC(90) values and the larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The LC(50) values of the oil were 33.54 (after 12 h) and 28.37 ppm (after 24 h). The LC(90) values of the oil were 70.27 (after 12 h) and 59.38 ppm (after 24 h). The results of the present study showed that the essential oil of P. amboinicus is one of the inexpensive and eco-friendly sources of natural mosquito larvicidal agent to control/reduce the population of malarial vector mosquito. PMID:20668876

  3. Enhancement of immune responses to infectious bursal disease vaccine by supplement of an extract made from Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Z I; Xiao, C W; Hu, S H; Habib, M; Soomro, N A

    2010-06-01

    The immunological effect of an extract from Momordica cochinchinensis seed (ECMS) on immune responses against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in chickens was evaluated. Fifty-two birds were equally divided into 4 groups and immunized with inactivated IBD vaccine alone (controls) or IBD vaccine emulsified with ECMS (20, 40, and 80 microg). Serum IgG antibody levels against IBD and BW were measured on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d after immunization. The ELISA results revealed that the chickens that received 20 microg of ECMS had significantly enhanced antibody levels on 14, 21, 28, and 35 d when compared with controls (P<0.05). A significant increase in mitogenic stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was also recorded in all ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). No adverse effect of ECMS was noted on growth performance, although average weight gain was significantly higher in 20 microg (7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d) and 40 or 80 microg (14 d) of ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). Further studies are suggested for the investigation of immunological effects of ECMS. PMID:20460658

  4. Indole acetic acid production by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. and their variation in extragenic repetitive DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sethia, Bedhya; Mustafa, Mariam; Manohar, Sneha; Patil, Savita V; Jayamohan, Nellickal Subramanian; Kumudini, Belur Satyan

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas (FP) is a heterogenous group of growth promoting rhizobacteria that regulate plant growth by releasing secondary metabolic compounds viz., indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. In the present study, IAA producing FPs from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus were characterized morphologically, biochemically and at the molecular level. Molecular identification of the isolates were carried out using Pseudomonas specific primers. The effect of varying time (24, 48, 72 and 96 h), Trp concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μg x ml(-1)), temperature (10, 26, 37 and 50 ± 2 degrees C) and pH (6, 7 and 8) on IAA production by 10 best isolates were studied. Results showed higher IAA production at 72 h incubation, at 300 μg x ml(-1) Trp concentration, temperature 26 ± 2 degrees C and pH 7. TLC with acidified ethyl acetate extract showed that the IAA produced has a similar Rf value to that of the standard IAA. Results of TLC were confirmed by HPLC analysis. Genetic diversity of the isolates was also studied using 40 RAPD and 4 Rep primers. Genetic diversity parameters such as dominance, Shannon index and Simpson index were calculated. Out of 40 RAPD primers tested, 9 (2 OP-D series and 7 OP-E series) were shortlisted for further analysis. Studies using RAPD, ERIC, BOX, REP and GTG5 primers revealed that isolates exhibit significant diversity in repetitive DNA sequences irrespective of the rhizosphere. PMID:26155673

  5. Is salt stress tolerance in Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng. associated with its nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbiosis? An analysis at the photosynthetic level.

    PubMed

    Batista-Santos, Paula; Duro, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana P; Semedo, José N; Alves, Paula; da Costa, Mário; Graça, Inês; Pais, Isabel P; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Lidon, Fernando C; Leitão, António E; Pawlowski, Katharina; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I; Ramalho, José C

    2015-11-01

    Casuarina glauca is an actinorhizal tree which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing Frankia bacteria. This plant is commonly found in saline zones and is widely used to remediate marginal soils and prevent desertification. The nature of its ability to survive in extreme environments and the extent of Frankia contribution to stress tolerance remain unknown. Thus, we evaluated the ability of C. glauca to cope with salt stress and the influence of the symbiosis on this trait. To this end, we analysed the impact of salt on plant growth, mineral contents, water relations, photosynthetic-related parameters and non-structural sugars in nodulated vs. non-nodulated plants. Although the effects on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance started to become measurable in the presence of 200 mM NaCl, photochemical (e.g., photosynthetic electron flow) and biochemical (e.g., activity of photosynthetic enzymes) parameters were only strongly impaired when NaCl levels reached 600 mM. These results indicate the maintenance of high tissue hydration under salt stress, probably associated with enhanced osmotic potential. Furthermore, the maintenance of photosynthetic assimilation potential (A(max)), together with the increase in the quantum yield of down-regulated energy dissipation of PSII (Y(NPQ)), suggested a down-regulation of photosynthesis instead of photo-damaging effects. A comparison of the impact of increasing NaCl levels on the activities of photosynthetic (RubisCO and ribulose-5 phosphate kinase) and respiratory (pyruvate kinase and NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase) enzymes vs. photosynthetic electron flow and fluorescence parameters, revealed that biochemical impairments are more limiting than photochemical damage. Altogether, these results indicate that, under controlled conditions, C. glauca tolerates high NaCl levels and that this capacity is linked to photosynthetic adjustments. PMID:26245981

  6. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  7. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L.

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  8. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  9. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems) based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng)] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana) that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology and phytochemical studies

  10. Nickel, Zn and Cd localisation in seeds of metal hyperaccumulators using μ-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer; Walsh, Kerry B.; Singh, Balwant

    2009-06-01

    Metal hyperaccumulators are a rare group of plant species that accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of metals in above ground tissues without showing symptoms of phytotoxicity. Quantitative localisation of the accumulated metals in seed tissues is of considerable interest to help understand the eco-physiology of these unique plant species. We investigated the spatial localisation of metals within seeds of Ni hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. adpressus, H. floribundus subsp. floribundus and Pimelea leptospermoides and dual-metal (Cd and Zn) hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens using quantitative micro-proton induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy. Intact seeds were hand-sectioned, sandwiched between Formvar films and irradiated using the 3 MeV high energy heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO. Elemental maps of whole H. floribundus subsp. adpressus seeds showed an average Ni concentration of 5.1 × 10 3 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) with highest Ni concentration in cotyledonary tissues (7.6 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW), followed by the embryonic axis (4.4 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). Nickel concentration in whole H. floribundus subsp. floribundus seeds was 3.5 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW without a clear pattern of Ni localisation. The average Ni concentration in whole P. leptospermoides seeds was 2.6 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW, and Ni was preferentially localised in the embryonic axis (4.3 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW). In T. caerulescens, Cd concentrations were similar in cotyledon (4.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) and embryonic axis (3.3 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) tissues, whereas Zn was highest in cotyledonary tissues (1.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). In all species, the presence of the accumulated metal within the cotyledonary and embryonic axis tissues indicates that the accumulated metal was able to move apoplastically within the seed.

  11. The role of an aromatic group in remote chiral induction during conjugate addition of α-sulfonylallylic carbanions to ethyl crotonate

    PubMed Central

    Levinger, Shlomo; Nair, Ranjeet

    2008-01-01

    Summary The impact of a remote aromatic nucleus on the stereochemical outcome of the conjugate addition of α-sulfonylallylic carbanions to an α,β-unsaturated ester was investigated. α-Regioselectivity coupled with anti-diastereoselectivity is accompanied by a prominent preference for relative configuration 3 over 4. The 9-anthryl moiety has shown itself greatly superior over all other groups in this bias. A lithium ion–aromatic π interaction has been postulated as decisive for the remote transmission of chirality. PMID:18941617

  12. 3. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the New York Croton Aqueduct, New York: New York, 1843. PLATE VI, SING SING KILL BRIDGE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  13. 1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT HASTINGS: ARCH PROVIDED ACCESS TO STONE QUARRY. PLATE XVII, PAGE 106. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Quarry Railroad Bridge, Aqueduct Lane at Williams Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester County, NY

  14. Protective effect and mechanism of action of saponins isolated from the seeds of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) against cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kiwon; Lee, Dahae; Yu, Jae Sik; Namgung, Hojin; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the renoprotective effect and mechanism of Momordicae Semen, gac seeds, against the cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells. In order to identify the active components, three major saponins were isolated from extract of the gac seed, gypsogenin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (1), quillaic acid 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), and momordica saponin I (3). Compounds 1 and 2 ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity up to 80% of the control value at both 5 and 25μM. Phosphorylation of MAPKs was decreased along cisplatin treatment after treatment with compounds 1 and 2. These results show that blocking the MAPKs signaling cascade plays a critical role in mediating the renoprotective effect of Momordicae Semen extract and compounds 1 and 2. PMID:26838808

  15. Antioxidative ability and membrane integrity in salt-induced responses of Casuarina glauca Sieber ex Spreng. in symbiosis with N2-fixing Frankia Thr or supplemented with mineral nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Scotti-Campos, Paula; Duro, Nuno; Costa, Mário da; Pais, Isabel P; Rodrigues, Ana P; Batista-Santos, Paula; Semedo, José N; Leitão, A Eduardo; Lidon, Fernando C; Pawlowski, Katharina; Ramalho, José C; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    The actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca tolerates extreme environmental conditions, such as high salinity. This species is also able to establish a root-nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing bacteria of the genus Frankia. Recent studies have shown that C. glauca tolerance to high salt concentrations is innate and linked to photosynthetic adjustments. In this study we have examined the impact of increasing NaCl concentrations (200, 400 and 600mM) on membrane integrity as well as on the control of oxidative stress in branchlets of symbiotic (NOD+) and non-symbiotic (KNO3+) C. glauca. Membrane selectivity was maintained in both plant groups at 200mM NaCl, accompanied by an increase in the activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase). Regarding cellular membrane lipid composition, linolenic acid (C18:3) showed a significant decline at 200mM NaCl in both NOD+ and KNO3+ plants. In addition, total fatty acids (TFA) and C18:2 also decreased in NOD+ plants at this salt concentration, resulting in malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Such initial impact at 200mM NaCl is probably due to the fact that NOD+ plants are subjected to a double stress, i.e., salinity and low nitrogen availability. At 400mM NaCl a strong reduction of TFA and C18:3 levels was observed in both plant groups. This was accompanied by a decrease in the unsaturation degree of membrane lipids in NOD+. However, in both NOD+ and KNO3+ lipid modifications were not reflected by membrane leakage at 200 or 400mM, suggesting acclimation mechanisms at the membrane level. The fact that membrane selectivity was impaired only at 600mM NaCl in both groups of plants points to a high tolerance of C. glauca to salt stress independently of the symbiotic relation with Frankia. PMID:27070734

  16. 77 FR 74510 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Aves., St. Louis (Independent City), 12001125 NEBRASKA Sioux County Agate Springs Ranch, Address... (Boundary Increase), Main St., Central & Croton Aves., Ossining, 12001133 TEXAS Walker County Austin...

  17. 19. Photocopied December 1977, from 'Report of J.B.J.', Vol I, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopied December 1977, from 'Report of J.B.J.', Vol I, Jervis Library. CROSS SECTION OF CROTON DAM AS ORIGINALLY BUILT, SHOWING FORE-EMBANKMENT AND 1 TO 1-1/4 SLOPE ON DOWN RIVER SIDE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  18. Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei: Progress report, November 16, 1986-November 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the growth and metabolism of Syntrophomonas wolfei in pure culture with crotonate as the energy source. S. wolfei grows in crotonate mineral salts medium without rumen fluid with cobalamin, thymine, lipoic acid and biotin added. However, after four to six transfers in this medium, growth ceases, indicating that another vitamin is required. The chemically defined medium allows large batches of S. wolfei to be grown for enzyme purification. All the enzymes involved in the oxidation of crotonyl-CoA to acetate have been detected. The pure culture of S. wolfei or coculture of S. wolfei grown with crotonate contain high activities of a crotonate: acetyl-CoA CoA-transferase activity. This activity is not detected in cocultures grown with butyrate. Thus, we believe that the reason why S. wolfei can now grow with crotonate is that an alteration or mutation occurred which allows the organism to activate this crotonate. S. wolfei also makes small amounts of H/sub 2/ when grown in pure culture with crotonate. A methyl viologen-dependent hydrogenase activity was found. We have also demonstrated the production of H/sub 2/ from 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA in cell-free extracts of S. wolfei by coupling H/sub 2/ production to CH/sub 4/ production with the addition of Methanobacterium bryantii and directly using a hydrogen electrode. These results clearly show that S. wolfei makes H/sub 2/. S. wolfei does not contain formate dehydrogenase or CO dehydrogenase activities.

  19. 31. Photocopied December 1977, from plate in board of Alderman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopied December 1977, from plate in board of Alderman Document 55, NYC: January 4, 1838. PLANS FOR CROSSING THE HARLEM RIVER BY CAST IRON PIPES OR INVERTED SYPHON. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  20. 5. Photocopied December 1977, from Charles B. Stuart, Lives and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied December 1977, from Charles B. Stuart, Lives and Works of Civil and Military Engineers, New York, 1871. PORTRAIT OF MAJOR DAVID BATES DOUGLASS. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  1. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST. WATER IN THE AQUEDUCT CAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST. WATER IN THE AQUEDUCT CAN CAN BE DIVERTED AT THE WASTE WEIR TO BE DISCHARGED INTO THE CULVERT IN FOREGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Northern Waste Weir, Snowden Avenue & Van Wick Street, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  2. STIMULATION OF REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRA- CHLOROETHENE (PCE) IN ANAEROBIC AQUIFER MICROCOSMS BY ADDITION OF SHORT-CHAIN ORGANIC ACIDS OR ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the addition of common fermentation products on the dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene was studied in methanogenic slurries made with aquifer solids. Lactate, propionate, crotonate, butyrate, and ethanol stimulated dehalogenation activity, while acetate, methanol, ...

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  4. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT CENTER. WASTE WEIR BUILDING IS AT RIGHT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  5. Cholinesterase activity in rat liver and serum during experimentally induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Simon, G; Budavári, I

    1977-01-01

    Cholinesterase activity of albino rats with acute local oedematous inflammation induced by turpentine, croton oil or Freund's adjuvant was elevated in the liver homogenate but decreased in the serum. Aprotinin administration prevented the decrease of serum activity. In the oedema fluid of rats treated with croton oil an enzyme with cholinester splitting activity was detected and it was shown to be identical with serum cholinesterase (EC 3. 1. 1. 8.). PMID:311577

  6. Review of traditional and non-traditional medicinal genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU collection evaluated for flavonoid concentrations and anthocyanin indexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-traditional medicinal species include velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), Desmodium species, Termanus labialis (L.f.) Spreng. and the traditional species consists of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). There is a need to identify plant sources of flavonoids and anthocyanins since they have s...

  7. Arctostaphylos uva urai, Bearberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Bearberry or kinnikinnick [Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Ericaceae], has a circumboreal distribution. Most Arctostaphylos species (i.e A. patula Greene, A. viscida Parr...

  8. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  9. Genetic diversity for seed mineral composition in Teramnus labialis, a wild relative of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teramnus labialis (L.) Spreng. is a wild relative of soybean whose seeds are collected and used as a food source by tribal populations in Asia. In order to assess the potential of this legume to provide dietary minerals for humans, fourteen diverse accessions were grown under controlled, nutrient-r...

  10. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...