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Sample records for crps type ii

  1. Pathological mechanism of musculoskeletal manifestations associated with CRPS type II: an animal study.

    PubMed

    Ota, Hideyuki; Arai, Tetsuya; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Urano, Hideki; Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Kato, Shuichi; Yamamoto, Michiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) often complain of abnormal sensations beyond the affected body part, but causes of this spread of musculoskeletal manifestations into contiguous areas remain unclear. In addition, immobilization can predispose to the development of CRPS. We examined functional, biochemical, and histological alterations in affected parts, including contiguous zones, using an animal model. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to 5 groups: a normal group receiving no treatment, a sham operation group with surgical exploration, an immobilization group with surgical exploration plus internal knee joint immobilization, a surgical neuropathy group prepared by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) of the left L5 nerve root, and a surgical neuropathy+immobilization group with simultaneous SNL and knee joint immobilization. Mechanical allodynia and knee contracture were compared between groups, and tissues were harvested for histological assessments and gene and protein expression analyses. Neither surgical procedures nor immobilization induced detectable mechanical sensitivity. However, the addition of nerve injury resulted in detectable mechanical allodynia, and immobilization not only accelerated hyperalgesia, but also resulted in muscle fibrosis. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and other mediators of neurogenic inflammation were highly expressed not only in denervated muscles, but also in innervated muscles in contiguous areas, suggesting the spread of NGF production beyond the myotome of the injured nerve. Transforming growth factor β was involved in the development of contracture in CRPS. These findings imply that neuroinflammatory components play major roles in the progression and dispersion of both sensory pathologies and pathologies that are exacerbated by immobilization. PMID:25016218

  2. [Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I). Pathophysiology, diagnostics, and therapy].

    PubMed

    Köck, F X; Borisch, N; Koester, B; Grifka, J

    2003-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS type I)--formerly termed Sudeck's atrophy or reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)--causes chronic, poorly controllable pain, autonomic, sensorimotor disorders,and serious trophic alterations in the later stages. It develops in the distal extremities mostly after minimal trauma or surgical intervention and rarely spontaneously. The severity of symptoms is disproportionate to the causative event. The latest scientific findings show that the previously called reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), which was supposed to be a result of a hyperreactive autonomic nervous system,is a very complex syndrome that occurs on different integration levels of the nervous system. Sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) may be facultatively characteristic, but is not to be misunderstood as an underlying mechanism. A neurogenic inflammation reaction has recently been discussed, just as had been postulated by Paul Sudeck long before. That was the reason why the International Association for the Study of Pain (ISAP) introduced the more descriptive term "complex regional pain syndrome" (CRPS) type I in 1994. Due to the complexity of the process necessitating qualified knowledge, it is important to immediately refer patients to a specialized pain OPD or clinic. The diagnosis of CRPS type I is based upon a carefully taken case history and a clinical examination by an experienced practitioner. Imaging diagnostic tools and laboratory findings are of no or only low predicative value. The question of whether SMP exists after diagnosing CRPS type I is eminent for therapy planning. Therefore, diagnostic regional anesthetics are still important in spite of their uncertain prognostic relevance. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, medical treatment, and psychotherapy play an important role in the primary treatment of CRPS type I as noninvasive procedures. Despite heavy criticism, invasive sympathetic block, subsequent to adequate diagnostics, is an

  3. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS type-1) in an Adolescent Following Extravasation of Dextrose Containing Fluid-an Underdiagnosed Case

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Balkrishna; Biswas, Binay K; Khatiwada, Sindhu

    2011-01-01

    Due to its complex pathophysiology and wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, the diagnosis of CRPS is often missed in the early stage by primary care physicians. After being treated by a primary care physician for 5 months for chronic cellulitis, a 16-year-old girl was referred to our hospital with features of type-1 CRPS of the right upper extremity. Inability to diagnose early caused prolonged suffering to the girl with all the consequence of CRPS. The patient responded well with marked functional recovery from multimodal therapy. Ability to distinguish CRPS from other pain conditions, referral for specialty care at the appropriate time and full awareness of this condition and its clinical features among various healthcare professionals are essential in reducing patient suffering and stopping its progression towards difficult-to-treat situations. PMID:21716610

  4. Interaction of Hyperalgesia and Sensory Loss in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS I)

    PubMed Central

    Huge, Volker; Lauchart, Meike; Förderreuther, Stefanie; Kaufhold, Wibke; Valet, Michael; Azad, Shahnaz Christina; Beyer, Antje; Magerl, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Background Sensory abnormalities are a key feature of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). In order to characterise these changes in patients suffering from acute or chronic CRPS I, we used Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) in comparison to an age and gender matched control group. Methods 61 patients presenting with CRPS I of the upper extremity and 56 healthy subjects were prospectively assessed using QST. The patients' warm and cold detection thresholds (WDT; CDT), the heat and cold pain thresholds (HPT; CPT) and the occurrence of paradoxical heat sensation (PHS) were observed. Results In acute CRPS I, patients showed warm and cold hyperalgesia, indicated by significant changes in HPT and CPT. WDT and CDT were significantly increased as well, indicating warm and cold hypoaesthesia. In chronic CRPS, thermal hyperalgesia declined, but CDT as well as WDT further deteriorated. Solely patients with acute CRPS displayed PHS. To a minor degree, all QST changes were also present on the contralateral limb. Conclusions We propose three pathomechanisms of CRPS I, which follow a distinct time course: Thermal hyperalgesia, observed in acute CRPS, indicates an ongoing aseptic peripheral inflammation. Thermal hypoaesthesia, as detected in acute and chronic CRPS, signals a degeneration of A-delta and C-fibres, which further deteriorates in chronic CRPS. PHS in acute CRPS I indicates that both inflammation and degeneration are present, whilst in chronic CRPS I, the pathomechanism of degeneration dominates, signalled by the absence of PHS. The contralateral changes observed strongly suggest the involvement of the central nervous system. PMID:18648647

  5. Photoacoustic microscopy of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-1) after stellate ganglion blocks in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Yi, Xiaobin; Xing, Wenxin; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We used photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to assist diagnoses and monitor the progress and treatment outcome of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1). Blood vasculature and oxygen saturation (sO2) were imaged by PAM in eight adult patients with CRPS-1. Patients' hands and cuticles were imaged both before and after stellate ganglion block (SGB) for comparison. For all patients, both the vascular structure and sO2 could be assessed by PAM. In addition, more vessels and stronger signals were observed after SGB.

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I: historical perspective and critical issues

    PubMed Central

    Iolascon, Giovanni; de Sire, Alessandro; Moretti, Antimo; Gimigliano, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Summary The history of algodystrophy is controversial and its denomination has changed significantly over time. Silas Weir Mitchell described several cases of causalgia due to gunshot wounds that occurred during the American Civil War, increasing knowledge about this clinical condition. A later key milestone in the history of CRPS is tied to the name of Paul Sudeck that, using X-ray examinations, described findings of bone atrophy following a traumatic event or infection of the upper limb. The most widely accepted pathogenic hypothesis, proposed by Rene Leriche, supported a key role of the sympathetic nervous system in the onset of the typical clinical picture of the disease, which was thus defined as “reflex sympathetic dystrophy”. In the 50s John J. Bonica proposed a staging of CRPS. In a consensus conference held in Budapest in 2003, it was proposed a new classification system that included the presence of at least two clinical signs included in the four categories and at least three symptoms in its four categories. There have been other classification systems proposed for the diagnosis of CRPS, such as Veldman diagnostic criteria based on the presence of at least 4 signs and symptoms of the disease associated with a worsening of the same following the use of the limb and their location in the same area distal to the one that suffered the injury. On the other hand, the Atkins diagnostic criteria are much more objective than those proposed by IASP and are specifically applicable to an orthopaedic context. However, current classification systems and related criteria proposed to make a diagnosis of CRPS, do not include instrumental evaluations and imaging, but rely solely on clinical findings. This approach does not allow an optimal disease staging especially in orthopaedics. PMID:27134625

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I: historical perspective and critical issues.

    PubMed

    Iolascon, Giovanni; de Sire, Alessandro; Moretti, Antimo; Gimigliano, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The history of algodystrophy is controversial and its denomination has changed significantly over time. Silas Weir Mitchell described several cases of causalgia due to gunshot wounds that occurred during the American Civil War, increasing knowledge about this clinical condition. A later key milestone in the history of CRPS is tied to the name of Paul Sudeck that, using X-ray examinations, described findings of bone atrophy following a traumatic event or infection of the upper limb. The most widely accepted pathogenic hypothesis, proposed by Rene Leriche, supported a key role of the sympathetic nervous system in the onset of the typical clinical picture of the disease, which was thus defined as "reflex sympathetic dystrophy". In the 50s John J. Bonica proposed a staging of CRPS. In a consensus conference held in Budapest in 2003, it was proposed a new classification system that included the presence of at least two clinical signs included in the four categories and at least three symptoms in its four categories. There have been other classification systems proposed for the diagnosis of CRPS, such as Veldman diagnostic criteria based on the presence of at least 4 signs and symptoms of the disease associated with a worsening of the same following the use of the limb and their location in the same area distal to the one that suffered the injury. On the other hand, the Atkins diagnostic criteria are much more objective than those proposed by IASP and are specifically applicable to an orthopaedic context. However, current classification systems and related criteria proposed to make a diagnosis of CRPS, do not include instrumental evaluations and imaging, but rely solely on clinical findings. This approach does not allow an optimal disease staging especially in orthopaedics. PMID:27134625

  8. Stellate ganglion pulsed radiofrequency ablation for stretch induced complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Singh Rana, Shiv Pratap; Abraham, Mary; Gupta, Varun; Biswas, Shubhashish; Marda, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) following injury or nerve damage, as its name signifies, is a challenging entity, and its successful management requires a multidisciplinary approach. It not only manifests as severe pain, but also gives rise to functional disability, lack of sleep, lack of enjoyment of life and poor quality of life. Various pain interventional techniques have been described in the literature for the management of CRPS ranging from sympathetic blocks to spinal cord stimulator. A 34-year-old liver transplant donor, who developed position-induced right upper limb neuropathic pain suggestive of CRPS type II was managed initially with medications and later with stellate ganglion block under fluoroscopic guidance at cervical C7 position. Following an initial significant improvement in pain and allodynia, which was transient, a pulsed radiofrequency ablation of stellate ganglion was performed successfully to provide prolonged and sustained pain relief, which persisted up to 14 months of follow-up. PMID:26543471

  9. [Non-drug therapies for CRPS].

    PubMed

    Krämer, H H; Tanislav, C; Birklein, F

    2012-06-01

    State of the art CRPS therapy comprises medication, interventional therapies and non-pharmaceutical treatments like physiotherapy (PT), occupational therapy, PT with cognitive behavioural elements (mirror therapy, 'motor imagery', and 'graded exposure'), psychotherapeutic methods, local therapies and neurostimulation. These treatments are mostly as successful as medical or interventional treatment. These effects have been demonstrated in small but randomised controlled studies. Adjuvant therapies were shown to reduce pain and the severity of dysfunction in CRPS. Therefore, these non-drug therapies should be an essential part of any multimodal CRPS treatment. PMID:22833067

  10. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  11. Algodystrophy (CRPS) in minor orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Corradini, Costantino; Bosizio, Claudia; Moretti, Antimo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Algodystrophy or Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a painful disorder that develops especially at upper or lower extremities of the limbs after a fracture. This syndrome is probably due to bone microvascular changes with subsequent sympathetic nervous system involvement. The pain that characterizes CRPS is spontaneous, disproportionate to the traumatic event and is associated with hyperalgesia, and a variety of autonomic and trophic disorders. This condition has a variable incidence up to 37% of the cases, increasing along with the severity of the fracture. CRPS has a higher chance of developing in women, in older individuals, in smokers, and in patients with reduced bone strength. Early diagnosis is associated with remission in 80–90% of cases. Since the typical onset of the disease is insidious over 2 weeks after surgery, a diagnostic and therapeutic delay may occur. These are the major causes of a high percentage of chronic and disabling complications leading to impaired functional outcomes. In the acute or subacute phase, infusion of bisphosphonates has proven to be the first-choice of treatment with a high percentage of remissions. Moreover, it has been suggested the utility of vitamin C in prevention of CRPS. Furthermore, in the chronic phase electroanalgesia seems to provide promising results. PMID:27134628

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome after thromboendarterectomy: which type is it?

    PubMed

    Baillet, Georges; Planchon, Claude Alain; Tamgac, Feyzi; Thomassin, Martine; Foult, Jean-Marc

    2002-09-01

    The authors describe a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and discuss its type according to the presence or absence of nerve injury. A patient underwent thromboendarterectomy of the right popliteal artery. Subsequently, right lower limb reflex sympathetic dystrophy developed, which was confirmed by scintigraphy and responded well to calcitonin treatment. Typing according to the new classification of CRPS type I or II with possible nerve injury is discussed, and a short review of the literature is included. PMID:12192276

  13. [Neonatal mucolipidosis type II].

    PubMed

    Hmami, F; Oulmaati, A; Bouharrou, A

    2016-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type II (ML II, OMIM 252,500) is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by facial dysmorphia similar to Hurler syndrome and pronounced gingival hypertrophy. The disorder is caused by a defect in targeting acid hydrolases on the surface of lysosomes, which impede their entry and lead to accumulation of undigested substrates in lysosomes. The onset of the symptoms is usually in infancy, beginning in the 6th month of life. Early onset, at birth or even in utero, is a sign of severity and involves the specific dysmorphia as well as skeletal dysplasia related to hyperparathyroidism. We report on a severe neonatal form of this disorder revealed by respiratory distress with severe chest deformity. The dysmorphic syndrome, combining coarse features, pronounced gingival hypertrophy, with diffuse bone demineralization and secondary hyperparathyroidism associating significant elevation of parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase with normal levels of vitamin D and calcium were characteristics of mucolipidosis type II. Recognizing this specific association of anomalies helps eliminate the differential diagnosis and establish appropriate diagnosis and care. PMID:26552632

  14. No Higher Risk of CRPS After External Fixation of Distal Radial Fractures – Subgroup Analysis Under Randomised Vitamin C Prophylaxis§

    PubMed Central

    Zollinger, Paul E.; Kreis, Robert W.; van der Meulen, Hub G.; van der Elst, Maarten; Breederveld, Roelf S.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.

    2010-01-01

    Operative and conservative treatment of wrist fractures might lead to complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type I. In our multicenter dose response study in which patients with distal radial fractures were randomly allocated to placebo or vitamin C in a daily dose of 200mg, 500mg or 1500mg during 50 days, an operated subgroup was analyzed. 48 (of 427) fractures) were operated (11.2%). Twenty-nine patients (60%) were treated with external fixation, 14 patients (29%) with K-wiring according to Kapandji and five patients (10%) with internal plate fixation. The 379 remaining patients were treated with a plaster. In the operated group of patients who received vitamin C no CRPS (0/37) was seen in comparison with one case of CRPS (Kapandji technique) in the operated group who received placebo (1/11 = 9%, p=.23). There was no CRPS after external fixation. In the conservatively treated group 17 cases of CRPS (17/379 = 4.5%) occurred in comparison with one in case of CRPS in the operated group (1/48 = 2.1%, p=.71). External fixation doesn’t necessarily lead to a higher incidence of CRPS in distal radial fractures. Vitamin C may also play a role in this. This subgroup analysis in operated distal radial fractures showed no CRPS occurrence with vitamin C prophylaxis. PMID:20309405

  15. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  16. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  17. Evidence for cortical hyperexcitability of the affected limb representation area in CRPS: a psychophysical and transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Elon; Chistyakov, Andrei V; Yudashkin, Marina; Kaplan, Boris; Hafner, Hava; Feinsod, Moshe

    2005-01-01

    Functional alterations in noxious, sensory and motor circuits within the central nervous system may play an important role in the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The aim of the present study was to search for further evidence of hyperexcitability in the hemisphere contralateral to the affected limb in patients with CRPS by employing both psychophysical and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) methods. Twelve patients with CRPS type I, confined to the distal part of a limb (six in an upper-limb and six in a lower-limb), were enrolled in the study. The quantitative thermal, mechanical and 'wind-up' like pain testing was performed at the most painful site in the affected limb and in the ipsilateral limb. Results were then compared to those found at mirror sites in the contralateral limbs. TMS was used to assess the inter-hemispheric difference in parameters of corticospinal excitability, intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation. The quantitative thermal and mechanical testing showed significant differences in cold, heat and mechanical pain thresholds, as well as in the first and last 'wind-up' stimuli between the affected and the contralateral limbs of the CRPS patients. No significant differences between the ipsilateral unaffected limbs and their contralateral pair limbs were found. A significant reduction in the short intracortical inhibition associated with a significant increase of the I-wave facilitation was found in the hemisphere contralateral to the affected side in the upper-limb CRPS group. No significant inter-hemispheric asymmetry between the affected and the non-affected sides was revealed in the lower-limb CRPS group. Taken together, these results suggest that in patients with well-localized CRPS, there is evidence for sensory and motor CNS hyperexcitability, though it seems to involve only corresponding regions within the CNS rather than the entire hemisphere. PMID:15621369

  18. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    PubMed

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces. PMID:26607545

  19. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Fermions—elementary particles such as electrons—are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals—materials hosting Weyl fermions—were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  20. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-01

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed. PMID:8588578

  1. Inflaming the brain: CRPS a model disease to understand neuroimmune interactions in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Linnman, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2013-06-01

    We review current concepts in CRPS from a neuroimaging perspective and point out topics and potential mechanisms that are suitable to be investigated in the next step towards understanding the pathophysiology of CRPS. We have outlined functional aspects of the syndrome, from initiating lesion via inflammatory mechanisms to CNS change and associated sickness behavior, with current evidence for up-regulation of immunological factors in CRPS, neuroimaging of systemic inflammation, and neuroimaging findings in CRPS. The initiation, maintenances and CNS targets implicated in CRPS and in the neuro-inflammatory reflex are discussed in terms of CRPS symptoms and recent preclinical studies. Potential avenues for investigating CRPS with PET and fMRI are described, along with roles of inflammation, treatment and behavior in CRPS. It is our hope that this outline will provoke discussion and promote further empirical studies on the interactions between central and peripheral inflammatory pathways manifest in CRPS. PMID:23188523

  2. Inflaming the Brain: CRPS a model disease to understand Neuroimmune interactions in Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Linnman, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2012-01-01

    We review current concepts in CRPS from a neuroimaging perspective and point out topics and potential mechanisms that are suitable to be investigated in the next step towards understanding the pathophysiology of CRPS. We have outlined functional aspects of the syndrome, from initiating lesion via inflammatory mechanisms to CNS change and associated sickness behavior, with current evidence for up-regulation of immunological factors in CRPS, neuroimaging of systemic inflammation, and neuroimaging findings in CRPS. The initiation, maintenances and CNS targets implicated in CRPS and in the neuro-inflammatory reflex are discussed in terms of CRPS symptoms and recent preclinical studies. Potential avenues for investigating CRPS with PET and fMRI are described, along with roles of inflammation, treatment and behavior in CRPS. It is our hope that this outline will provoke discussion and promote further empirical studies on the interactions between central and peripheral inflammatory pathways manifest in CRPS. PMID:23188523

  3. Patients with Ehlers Danlos syndrome and CRPS: a possible association?

    PubMed

    Stoler, Joan M; Oaklander, Anne Louise

    2006-07-01

    Rare patients are left with chronic pain, vasodysregulation, and other symptoms that define complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), after limb traumas. The predisposing factors are unknown. Genetic factors undoubtedly contribute, but have not yet been identified. We report four CRPS patients also diagnosed with the classical or hypermobility forms of Ehlers Danlos syndrome (EDS), inherited disorders of connective tissue. These patients had been diagnosed using standard diagnostic criteria for CRPS and for EDS. All had sustained joint injury; in three this had been surgically treated. The association of these two diagnoses leads us to hypothesize that EDS might contribute to the development of CRPS in one or more of the following ways: via stretch injury to nerves traversing hypermobile joints, increased fragility of nerve connective tissue, or nerve trauma from more frequent surgery. We review the clinical presentation of the different Ehlers Danlos syndromes and provide clinical criteria that can be used to screen CRPS patients for EDS for clinical or research purposes. PMID:16600507

  4. Treatment of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) using low dose naltrexone (LDN).

    PubMed

    Chopra, Pradeep; Cooper, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain syndrome, which involves glial activation and central sensitization in the central nervous system. Here, we describe positive outcomes of two CRPS patients, after they were treated with low-dose naltrexone (a glial attenuator), in combination with other CRPS therapies. Prominent CRPS symptoms remitted in these two patients, including dystonic spasms and fixed dystonia (respectively), following treatment with low-dose naltrexone (LDN). LDN, which is known to antagonize the Toll-like Receptor 4 pathway and attenuate activated microglia, was utilized in these patients after conventional CRPS pharmacotherapy failed to suppress their recalcitrant CRPS symptoms. PMID:23546884

  5. Neurocognitive and Neuroplastic Mechanisms of Novel Clinical Signs in CRPS

    PubMed Central

    Kuttikat, Anoop; Noreika, Valdas; Shenker, Nicholas; Chennu, Srivas; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Brown, Christopher Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, debilitating pain condition that usually arises after trauma to a limb, but its precise etiology remains elusive. Novel clinical signs based on body perceptual disturbances have been reported, but their pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Investigators have used functional neuroimaging techniques (including MEG, EEG, fMRI, and PET) to study changes mainly within the somatosensory and motor cortices. Here, we provide a focused review of the neuroimaging research findings that have generated insights into the potential neurocognitive and neuroplastic mechanisms underlying perceptual disturbances in CRPS. Neuroimaging findings, particularly with regard to somatosensory processing, have been promising but limited by a number of technique-specific factors (such as the complexity of neuroimaging investigations, poor spatial resolution of EEG/MEG, and use of modeling procedures that do not draw causal inferences) and more general factors including small samples sizes and poorly characterized patients. These factors have led to an underappreciation of the potential heterogeneity of pathophysiology that may underlie variable clinical presentation in CRPS. Also, until now, neurological deficits have been predominantly investigated separately from perceptual and cognitive disturbances. Here, we highlight the need to identify neurocognitive phenotypes of patients with CRPS that are underpinned by causal explanations for perceptual disturbances. We suggest that a combination of larger cohorts, patient phenotyping, the use of both high temporal, and spatial resolution neuroimaging methods, and the identification of simplified biomarkers is likely to be the most fruitful approach to identifying neurocognitive phenotypes in CRPS. Based on our review, we explain how such phenotypes could be characterized in terms of hierarchical models of perception and corresponding disturbances in recurrent processing

  6. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  7. Systemic inflammatory mediators in post-traumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS I) - longitudinal investigations and differences to control groups

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (CRPS I) is a disease that might affect an extremity after trauma or operation. The pathogenesis remains yet unclear. It has clinical signs of severe local inflammation as a result of an exaggerated inflammatory response but neurogenic dysregulation also contributes to it. Some studies investigated the role inflammatory mediators and cytokines; however, few longitudinal studies exist and control groups except healthy controls were not investigated yet. Methods To get further insights into the role of systemic inflammatory mediators in CRPS I, we investigated a variety of pro-, anti-, or neuro-inflammatory mediators such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), White Blood Cell Count (WBC), Interleukins 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 (p70), Interferon gamma, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor alpha (TNF-α) and its soluble Receptors I/II, soluble Selectins (E, L, P), Substance-P (SP), and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) at different time points in venous blood from patients with acute (AC) and chronic (CC) CRPS I, patients with forearm fractures (FR), with neuralgia (NE), and from healthy volunteers (C). Results No significant changes for serum parameters investigated in CRPS compared to control groups were found except for CC/C (CGRP p = 0.007), FR/C (CGRP p = 0.048) and AC/CC (IL-12 p = 0.02; TNFRI/II p = 0.01; SP p = 0.049). High interindividual variations were observed. No intra-or interindividual correlation of parameters with clinical course (e.g. chronification) or outcome was detectable. Conclusion Although clinically appearing as inflammation in acute stages, local rather than systemic inflammatory responses seem to be relevant in CRPS. Variable results from different studies might be explained by unpredictable intermittent release of mediators from local inflammatory processes into the blood combined with high interindividual variabilities. A clinically relevant difference to various control groups was not notable in this pilot study

  8. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  9. Rapid treatment-induced brain changes in pediatric CRPS.

    PubMed

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-03-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray, two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation. PMID:25515312

  10. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  11. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  12. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young; Chang, Won Seok; Moon, In Seok

    2016-07-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  13. Fear and Reward Circuit Alterations in Pediatric CRPS.

    PubMed

    Simons, Laura E; Erpelding, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jessica M; Serrano, Paul; Zhang, Kunyu; Lebel, Alyssa A; Sethna, Navil F; Berde, Charles B; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2015-01-01

    In chronic pain, a number of brain regions involved in emotion (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex) show significant functional and morphometric changes. One phenotypic manifestation of these changes is pain-related fear (PRF). PRF is associated with profoundly altered behavioral adaptations to chronic pain. For example, patients with a neuropathic pain condition known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) often avoid use of and may even neglect the affected body area(s), thus maintaining and likely enhancing PRF. These changes form part of an overall maladaptation to chronic pain. To examine fear-related brain circuit alterations in humans, 20 pediatric patients with CRPS and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in response to a well-established fearful faces paradigm. Despite no significant differences on self-reported emotional valence and arousal between the two groups, CRPS patients displayed a diminished response to fearful faces in regions associated with emotional processing compared to healthy controls. Additionally, increased PRF levels were associated with decreased activity in a number of brain regions including the right amygdala, insula, putamen, and caudate. Blunted activation in patients suggests that (a) individuals with chronic pain may have deficits in cognitive-affective brain circuits that may represent an underlying vulnerability or consequence to the chronic pain state; and (b) fear of pain may contribute and/or maintain these brain alterations. Our results shed new light on altered affective circuits in patients with chronic pain and identify PRF as a potentially important treatment target. PMID:26834606

  14. Fear and Reward Circuit Alterations in Pediatric CRPS

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Laura E.; Erpelding, Nathalie; Hernandez, Jessica M.; Serrano, Paul; Zhang, Kunyu; Lebel, Alyssa A.; Sethna, Navil F.; Berde, Charles B.; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    In chronic pain, a number of brain regions involved in emotion (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex) show significant functional and morphometric changes. One phenotypic manifestation of these changes is pain-related fear (PRF). PRF is associated with profoundly altered behavioral adaptations to chronic pain. For example, patients with a neuropathic pain condition known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) often avoid use of and may even neglect the affected body area(s), thus maintaining and likely enhancing PRF. These changes form part of an overall maladaptation to chronic pain. To examine fear-related brain circuit alterations in humans, 20 pediatric patients with CRPS and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in response to a well-established fearful faces paradigm. Despite no significant differences on self-reported emotional valence and arousal between the two groups, CRPS patients displayed a diminished response to fearful faces in regions associated with emotional processing compared to healthy controls. Additionally, increased PRF levels were associated with decreased activity in a number of brain regions including the right amygdala, insula, putamen, and caudate. Blunted activation in patients suggests that (a) individuals with chronic pain may have deficits in cognitive-affective brain circuits that may represent an underlying vulnerability or consequence to the chronic pain state; and (b) fear of pain may contribute and/or maintain these brain alterations. Our results shed new light on altered affective circuits in patients with chronic pain and identify PRF as a potentially important treatment target. PMID:26834606

  15. Visual Fixation in Chiari Type II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Chiari type II malformation is a congenital deformity of the hindbrain. Square wave jerks are horizontal involuntary saccades that interrupt fixation. Cerebellar disorders may be associated with frequent square wave jerks or saccadic oscillations such as ocular flutter. The effects of Chiari type II malformation on visual fixation are unknown. We recorded eye movements using an eye tracker in 21 participants with Chiari type II malformation, aged 8 to 19 years while they fixated a target for 1 minute. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy participants served as controls. Square wave jerks’ parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Saccadic oscillations were not seen. Chiari type II malformation is not associated with pathological square wave jerks or abnormal saccadic oscillations. The congenital nature of this deformity may permit compensation that preserves stable visual fixation. Alternatively, the deformity of Chiari type II malformation may spare parts of the cerebellum that usually cause fixation instability when damaged. PMID:19182152

  16. Habenula functional resting-state connectivity in pediatric CRPS

    PubMed Central

    Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E.; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2013-01-01

    The habenula (Hb) is a small brain structure located in the posterior end of the medial dorsal thalamus and through medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) Hb connections, it acts as a conduit of information between forebrain and brainstem structures. The role of the Hb in pain processing is well documented in animals and recently also in acute experimental pain in humans. However, its function remains unknown in chronic pain disorders. Here, we investigated Hb resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with healthy controls. Twelve pediatric patients with unilateral lower-extremity CRPS (9 females; 10–17 yr) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls provided informed consent to participate in the study. In healthy controls, Hb functional connections largely overlapped with previously described anatomical connections in cortical, subcortical, and brainstem structures. Compared with controls, patients exhibited an overall Hb rsFC reduction with the rest of the brain and, specifically, with the anterior midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor cortex, primary motor cortex, and premotor cortex. Our results suggest that Hb rsFC parallels anatomical Hb connections in the healthy state and that overall Hb rsFC is reduced in patients, particularly connections with forebrain areas. Patients' decreased Hb rsFC to brain regions implicated in motor, affective, cognitive, and pain inhibitory/modulatory processes may contribute to their symptomatology. PMID:24155006

  17. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:3309860

  18. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  19. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible. PMID:20387359

  20. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluyanov, Alexey; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, Andrei

    The Dirac equation of quantum field theory gives rise to massless Weyl fermions that respect Lorentz invariance. In condensed matter these fermions are realized as low energy excitations in Weyl semimetals. In these materials a topologically protected linear crossing of two bands, called a Weyl point, occurs at the Fermi level resulting in a point-like Fermi surface. Lorentz invariance, however, can be violated in condensed matter, and here we generalize the Dirac equation accordingly to obtain a fundamentally new kind of Weyl fermions. In particular, we report on a novel type of Weyl semimetal, with a new type of Weyl point that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets. This node, although still a protected crossing, has an open, not point-like, Fermi surface, resulting in physical properties very different from that of standard Weyl points. We show that an established material, WTe2, is an example of this novel type of topological semimetals.

  1. Coronal type II bursts and interplanetary type II bursts: Distinct shock drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanarayana, G. S.

    2012-02-01

    We study solar radio type II bursts combining with Wind/WAVES type II bursts and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The aim of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of shocks to cause type II bursts in the solar corona and the interplanetary space. We consider the following findings. The distribution of the cessation heights of type II emission is confined to a rather narrow range of height than the distribution of the heights of start frequencies. This is suggestive of the presence of a gradient for the Alfvén speed from the heliocentric height of ˜1.4 solar radii. The range of the kinetic energy of CMEs associated with coronal type II emission taken together with the suggested computation method and the Alfvén speed gradient, indicates the limit to the height up to which type II emission could be expected. This height is ˜2 solar radii from the center of the Sun. Further, the large time gap between the cessation time and heights of coronal type II emission and the commencement time and heights of most of the IP type II bursts do not account for the difference between the two heights and the average shock speed. Also, there is clear difference in the magnitude of the kinetic energies and the distinct characteristics of the CMEs associated with coronal and IP type II bursts. Hence, we suggest that in most instances the coronal type II bursts and IP type II bursts occur due to distinct shocks. We also address the question of the origin of type II bursts and discuss the possible explanation of observed results.

  2. Gliomatosis cerebri type II: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    D’Urso, Pietro Ivo; Marsigliante, Santo; Storelli, Carlo; Distante, Alessandro; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cimmino, Antonia; Luzi, Giuseppe; Gianfreda, Cosimo Damiano; Montinaro, Antonio; Ciappetta, Pasqualino

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Two types of gliomatosis cerebri exist: Type I and Type II. We report the results of a histological and genetic study of two cases of gliomatosis cerebri Type II, correlating these results with therapy and prognosis. Case presentation Two patients, a 52-year-old man (Patient 1) and a 76-year-old man (Patient 2) with gliomatosis cerebri II were admitted to our institution; they underwent surgical treatment and received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At the 24-month follow-up, Patient 1 was still alive, while Patient 2 had died. The poor prognosis of Patient 2 was underlined by molecular analysis which showed that the angiogenesis related genes VCAM1 and VEGF were overexpressed, reflecting the high degree of neovascularization. Conclusion Genes involved in drug resistance and metallothioneins were highly expressed in Patient 2 and this, associated with unmethylated O6-methylguanine methyltransferase, can explain the lack of response to chemotherapy. PMID:19830138

  3. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that affects ...

  4. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: identification of abnormal type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    We have extended the study of a mild case of type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis to include biochemical analyses of cartilage, bone, and the collagens produced by dermal fibroblasts. Type I collagen extracted from bone and types I and III collagen produced by dermal fibroblasts were normal, as was the hexosamine ratio of cartilage proteoglycans. Hyaline cartilage, however, contained approximately equal amounts of types I and II collagen and decreased amounts of type XI collagen. Unlike the normal SDS-PAGE mobility. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed extensive overmodification of all type II cyanogen bromide peptides in a pattern consistent with heterozygosity for an abnormal pro alpha 1(II) chain which impaired the assembly and/or folding of type II collagen. This interpretation implies that dominant mutations of the COL2A1 gene may cause type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis. More generally, emerging data implicating defects of type II collagen in the type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis-spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita spectrum and in the Kniest-Stickler syndrome spectrum suggest that diverse mutations of this gene may be associated with widely differing phenotypic outcome. PMID:3195588

  5. Biology of alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the many metabolic properties of alveolar type II cells, their production of surfactant, their role in innate immunity, and their importance in the repair process after lung injury. The review is based on the medical literature and results from our laboratory. Type II cells produce and secrete pulmonary surfactant and for that purpose they need to synthesize the lipids of surfactant. One of the regulators of lipogenesis is the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). This is a key transcription factor regulating fatty acid synthesis. Type II cells also proliferate to restore the epithelium after lung injury, clear alveolar fluid by transporting sodium from the apical to the basolateral surface, and participate in the innate immune response to inhaled materials and organisms. The type II cell is, in many ways, the defender of the alveolus. However, the type II cells work in concert with the other cells in the gas exchange regions of the lung to keep the alveoli open and reduce inflammation due to irritants in the air we breathe. PMID:16423262

  6. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  7. The first scintigraphic detection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Bernateck, Michael; Karst, Matthias; Gratz, Klaus F; Meyer, Geerd J; Fischer, Michael J; Knapp, Wolfram H; Koppert, Wolfgang; Brunkhorst, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha has been identified as a pathogenic factor in many immunologically based diseases and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In this case series, we used radiolabeled technetium anti-TNF-alpha antibody to scintigraphically image TNF-alpha in 3 patients with type 1 CRPS. The results show that TNF-alpha was localized only in affected hands of patients with early-stage CRPS. No uptake was seen in clinically unaffected hands and late-stage CRPS. Our findings support the growing evidence for neuroimmune disturbance in patients with CRPS and may have important further implications for specific anticytokine treatment in patients with CRPS. PMID:19910617

  8. Type II endoleaks: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Saggu, Greta K; Bown, Matthew J; Sayers, Robert D; Sidloff, David A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks are the most common endovascular complications of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR); however, there has been a divided opinion regarding their significance in EVAR. Some advocate a conservative approach unless there is clear evidence of sac expansion, while others maintain early intervention is best to prevent adverse late outcomes such as rupture. There is a lack of level-one evidence in this challenging group of patients, and due to a low event rate of complications, large numbers of patients would be required in well-designed trials to fully understand the natural history of type II endoleak. This review will discuss the imaging, management, and outcome of patients with isolated type II endoleaks following infra-renal EVAR. PMID:27042087

  9. Type II seesaw dominance in SO(10)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Ramirez, Alba; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-10-01

    Grand unified theories where the neutrino mass is given by type II seesaw have the potential to provide interesting connections between the neutrino and charged fermion sectors. We explore the possibility of having a dominant type II seesaw contribution in supersymmetric SO(10). We show that this can be achieved in the model where symmetry breaking is triggered by 54 and 45 dimensional representations, without the need for additional fields other than those already required to have a realistic charged fermion mass spectrum. Physical consequences, such as the implementation of the Bajc, Senjanovic, and Vissani mechanism, the possibility of the fields responsible for type II seesaw dominance being messengers of supersymmetry breaking, and the realization of baryo and leptogenesis in these theories, are discussed.

  10. [A case of type II achondrogenesis].

    PubMed

    Micheli, E; Perrone, C; Quarta Colosso, L; Vetrugno, M; Zecca, G; Indirli, G C; Greco, F; Elia, G; Ciancio, S

    1996-01-01

    We describe a rare case of type II achondrogenesis (gestational age = thirty-two weeks) dead forty-five minutes after birth. This congenital skeletal dysplasia is classified among the lethal osteochondrodysplasias. Clinical features were enough for diagnosis and autopsy added nothing to our clinical knowledges. PMID:8685014

  11. Biceps Tenodesis for Type II SLAP Tears.

    PubMed

    Tayrose, Gregory A; Karas, Spero G; Bosco, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    Tears of the superior glenoid labrum are a common cause of shoulder pain and disability, especially in overhead athletes such as pitchers, swimmers, and volleyball players. Type II SLAP lesions have been the most clinically important superior labral pathology, and the management of this lesion has been a very controversial topic. Currently, there are no high level studies in the literature to guide treatment. While the few level 3 and level 4 evidence studies that are available following arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP lesions all report reasonable overall patient satisfaction, persistent postoperative pain is common and associated with a low return to pre-injury level of sports participation. There has been a recent school of thought that biceps tenodesis, which maintains the length-tension relationship of the long head of biceps, should be the procedure of choice for patients with isolated type II SLAP lesions. The current paper reviews the role biceps tenodesis plays in the management of type II SLAP tears. PMID:26517164

  12. Magnetization of anisotropic Type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, R.G.

    1989-04-10

    Peculiarities of magnetization of anisotropic type II superconductors are of considerable interest in view of the discovery of high-T/sub c/ superconductors characterized by strongly asymmetric layered structure. Specifics of the penetration of magnetic flux into an anisotropic type II superconductor were discussed in the literature. This analysis gave the distribution of induction in an isolated vortex, its energy, and critical magnetic field H/sub c1/. However, the magnetization curve of anisotropic superconductors was not considered. This paper deals with the magnetic moment of uniaxial London superconductor in the interval H/sub c1/ /le/ H/sub 0/ << H/sub c2/, where H/sub 0/ is the external magnetic field strength.

  13. Therapeutic failure in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Witters, L A; Herbert, P N; Shulman, R S; Krauss, R M; Levy, R I

    1976-09-01

    The extended use of diet and cholestyramine therapy in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia was examined in patients who previously participated in a short-term, double-blind trial. A striking secondary failure in therapeutic response during 4 yr of use of this therapy was noted with plasma cholesterol rising an average of 15%. A 3 mo, out-patient, follow-up study designed to reinforce patient motivation and dietary and drug adherence resulted in a prompt but partial reversal of this therapeutic deterioration in 16 patients. Additional inpatient studies confirmed that patient noncompliance with the dietary regimen was the major factor responsible for the secondary failure. Cholestyramine together with a low cholesterol diet can be an effective agent in familial type II hyperlipoproteinemia, given a comprehensive program of out-patient follow-up with continued emphasis on dietary principles and drug adherence. PMID:183084

  14. Diabetic mastopathy in type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tsung, Jeffrey S H; Wang, Teh Y; Lin, Christopher K Z

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic mastopathy can mimic cancer. We report 2 cases of diabetic mastopathy in patients with long-standing type II diabetes. One was insulin-dependent, and the other had never been treated with insulin. These 2 patients had classical acoustical shadow on ultrasonograms. Breast core biopsies showed constellations of morphological features resembling diabetic mastopathy, including sclerotic changes of the fibrous stroma with keloid-like collagen fibers, few epithelioid fibroblasts, perivascular and interlobular mononuclear cell infiltrates, and focal atrophic changes of the ductal-lobular units. Both patients were free of malignancy at 3 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively. There are limited data on diabetic mastopathy in insulin-naive type II diabetes mellitus patients. Better awareness of this entity and its sonographic features may allow more patients to be spared from excisional biopsy. PMID:15660177

  15. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES II, V, AND VI. II.

    PubMed Central

    Rebers, Paul A.; Hurwitz, Esther; Heidelberger, Michael

    1961-01-01

    Rebers, Paul A. (Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J.), Esther Hurwitz, and Michael Heidelberger. Immunochemistry of pneumococcal types II, V, and VI. II. Inhibition tests in the type VI precipitating system. J. Bacteriol. 82:920–926. 1961.—As in other immune systems involving polysaccharides, rabbit antibodies but not those engendered in the horse were found sensitive to degradation of type VI pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharide (SVI), and were readily inhibited by fragments of SVI. Large amounts, 30 to 111 μmoles, of most sugars gave up to 15% inhibition, while sugar and polyol phosphates inhibited as much as 25%, with little relation to their presence or absence in SVI. The phosphate-free repeating unit of SVI was a good inhibitor, its phosphate monoester was better, and the “trimer” still better. The “trimer” precipitated most of the antibodies from horse anti-Pn VI. Although inhibition of precipitation of SVI anti-Pn horse sera could not be demonstrated with fragments of SVI, cross-reactions of antibodies in the horse sera could be inhibited. Precipitation of SII was inhibited by low concentrations of l-rhamnose, while even high concentrations of the other sugar components of SII and SVI were ineffective. Precipitation by guar gum was inhibited by galactose and α- and β-methyl-galactopyranosides, also by rhamnose, although guar gum does not contain this sugar, while SVI, the antigenic determinant, does. PMID:14490831

  16. Ubiquitous Torsional Motions in Type II Spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pontieu, B.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Hansteen, V. H.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-01

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s-1, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s-1, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s-1. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvénic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s-1. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvénic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  17. UBIQUITOUS TORSIONAL MOTIONS IN TYPE II SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    De Pontieu, B.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L. H. M.; Rutten, R. J.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-10

    Spicules are long, thin, highly dynamic features that jut out ubiquitously from the solar limb. They dominate the interface between the chromosphere and corona and may provide significant mass and energy to the corona. We use high-quality observations with the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to establish that so-called type II spicules are characterized by the simultaneous action of three different types of motion: (1) field-aligned flows of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}, (2) swaying motions of order 15-20 km s{sup -1}, and (3) torsional motions of order 25-30 km s{sup -1}. The first two modes have been studied in detail before, but not the torsional motions. Our analysis of many near-limb and off-limb spectra and narrowband images using multiple spectral lines yields strong evidence that most, if not all, type II spicules undergo large torsional modulation and that these motions, like spicule swaying, represent Alfvenic waves propagating outward at several hundred km s{sup -1}. The combined action of the different motions explains the similar morphology of spicule bushes in the outer red and blue wings of chromospheric lines, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting Doppler motions to derive estimates for field-aligned flows in spicules and determining the Alfvenic wave energy in the solar atmosphere. Our results also suggest that large torsional motion is an ingredient in the production of type II spicules and that spicules play an important role in the transport of helicity through the solar atmosphere.

  18. INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS LACKING TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Xie, H.; Maekelae, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the radio-emission characteristics of 222 interplanetary (IP) shocks detected by spacecraft at Sun-Earth L1 during solar cycle 23 (1996 to 2006, inclusive). A surprisingly large fraction of the IP shocks ({approx}34%) was radio quiet (RQ; i.e., the shocks lacked type II radio bursts). We examined the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and soft X-ray flares associated with such RQ shocks and compared them with those of the radio-loud (RL) shocks. The CMEs associated with the RQ shocks were generally slow (average speed {approx}535 km s{sup -1}) and only {approx}40% of the CMEs were halos. The corresponding numbers for CMEs associated with RL shocks were 1237 km s{sup -1} and 72%, respectively. Thus, the CME kinetic energy seems to be the deciding factor in the radio-emission properties of shocks. The lower kinetic energy of CMEs associated with RQ shocks is also suggested by the lower peak soft X-ray flux of the associated flares (C3.4 versus M4.7 for RL shocks). CMEs associated with RQ CMEs were generally accelerating within the coronagraph field of view (average acceleration {approx}+6.8 m s{sup -2}), while those associated with RL shocks were decelerating (average acceleration {approx}-3.5 m s{sup -2}). This suggests that many of the RQ shocks formed at large distances from the Sun, typically beyond 10 Rs, consistent with the absence of metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) type II radio bursts. A small fraction of RL shocks had type II radio emission solely in the kilometric (km) wavelength domain. Interestingly, the kinematics of the CMEs associated with the km type II bursts is similar to those of RQ shocks, except that the former are slightly more energetic. Comparison of the shock Mach numbers at 1 AU shows that the RQ shocks are mostly subcritical, suggesting that they were not efficient in accelerating electrons. The Mach number values also indicate that most of these are quasi-perpendicular shocks. The radio-quietness is predominant

  19. A novel mutation in type II methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, Michelle P; Joseph, Sumy; Holden, Kenton R

    2010-01-01

    Type II methemoglobinemia is a somatic deficiency of cytochrome b5 reductase with severe global neurologic impairment. We report a novel mutation in exon 3 of the CYB5R3 gene on chromosome 22 consisting of homozygous 1-base pair (bp) deletion noted as c.215delG; p.Gly72AlafsX100. The patient had improvement of gross motor skills, chewing, and swallowing that may be due to the initiation of daily ascorbic acid therapy. We hypothesize that a possible response to ascorbic acid may be related to the effect of making additional ferrous iron available for its role as a cofactor in carnitine synthesis. PMID:19471045

  20. Genetics Home Reference: microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions MOPDII microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II ( MOPDII ) is a condition characterized by ...

  1. Type-II superlattices: the Fraunhofer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Schmitz, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Wörl, Andreas; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2010-04-01

    In the past years, the development of the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice technology at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF) has been focused on achieving series-production readiness for third generation dualcolor superlattice detector arrays for the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range. The technology is ideally suited for airborne missile threat warning systems, due to its ability of low false alarm remote imaging of hot carbon dioxide signatures on a millisecond time scale. In a multi-wafer molecular beam epitaxy based process eleven 288×384 dualcolor detector arrays are fabricated on 3" GaSb substrates. Very homogeneous detector arrays with an excellent noise equivalent temperature difference have been realized. The current article presents the type-II superlattice dual-color technology developed at IAF and delivers insights into a range of test methodologies employed at various stages during the fabrication process, which ensure that the basic requirements for achieving high detector performance are met.

  2. Perturbative type II amplitudes for BPS interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-02-01

    We consider the perturbative contributions to the {{ R }}4, {D}4{{ R }}4 and {D}6{{ R }}4 interactions in toroidally compactified type II string theory. These BPS interactions do not receive perturbative contributions beyond genus three. We derive Poisson equations satisfied by these moduli dependent string amplitudes. These T-duality invariant equations have eigenvalues that are completely determined by the structure of the integrands of the multi-loop amplitudes. The source terms are given by boundary terms of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces corresponding to both separating and non-separating nodes. These are determined directly from the string amplitudes, as well as from U-duality constraints and logarithmic divergences of maximal supergravity. We explicitly solve these Poisson equations in nine and eight-dimensions.

  3. Type II supernovae as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamuy, Mario Andres

    I report photometry and spectroscopy for 16 Type II supernovae (SNe) observed during the Calan/Tololo, SOIRS, and CTIO SN programs, a valuable resource for astrophysical studies. I perform a detailed assessment of the performance of the "expanding photosphere method" (EPM) in the determination of extragalactic distances. EPM proves very sensitive to the many steps involved in the analysis which can make it an art instead of an objective measurement tool. To minimize biases I implement objective procedures to compute synthetic magnitudes, measure true photospheric velocities, interpolate velocities, estimate dust extinction and realistic errors. While EPM performs well during the initial phases of SN evolution, I find distance residuals as large as 50% as the photosphere approaches the H recombination temperature. Despite the effort to lend credence to EPM, it proves necessary to exercise great care to avoid biasing the results. The main sources of uncertainties are observational errors (8%), dilution factors (11%), velocity interpolations (12%), and dust extinction (14%). The EPM Hubble diagram suggests the true error in an individual EPM distance is 20%. I find values of 63 +/- 8 and 67 +/- 7 km s-1 Mpc-1 for the Hubble constant, depending on the redshift sample chosen for the analysis. This result is independent of the extragalactic distance scale which yields 65 +/- 5 from Cepheid/SNe la distances. From four objects the comparison of EPM and Tully-Fisher yields D(EPM)/D(TF) = 0.82 +/- 0.12. I derive bolometric corrections for plateau SNe (SNe II-P) that permit me to obtain reliable bolometric luminosities from BVI photometry. Despite the great diversity displayed by SNe II-P, the duration of the plateau is approximately the same and the luminosities and expansion velocities measured in the middle of the plateau prove highly correlated. From the luminosity of the exponential tail I obtain 56Co masses ranging between 0.02 and 0.28 M⊙ , and some evidence that SNe

  4. Demonstration of efficient full aperture Type I/Type II third harmonic conversion on Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, P.J.; Henesian, M.A.; Marchi, F.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1987-11-19

    Type I/Type II third harmonic conversion has been implemented at the 74 cm aperture of the Nova laser system. We discuss the performance capabilities and alignment issues of this scheme for Nova relative to conventional Type II/Type II conversion. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Meta-heuristic CRPS minimization for the calibration of short-range probabilistic forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Seyedeh Atefeh; Rahmani, Morteza; Azadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the probabilistic short-range temperature forecasts over synoptic meteorological stations across Iran using non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR). NGR creates a Gaussian forecast probability density function (PDF) from the ensemble output. The mean of the normal predictive PDF is a bias-corrected weighted average of the ensemble members and its variance is a linear function of the raw ensemble variance. The coefficients for the mean and variance are estimated by minimizing the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) during a training period. CRPS is a scoring rule for distributional forecasts. In the paper of Gneiting et al. (Mon Weather Rev 133:1098-1118, 2005), Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) method is used to minimize the CRPS. Since BFGS is a conventional optimization method with its own limitations, we suggest using the particle swarm optimization (PSO), a robust meta-heuristic method, to minimize the CRPS. The ensemble prediction system used in this study consists of nine different configurations of the weather research and forecasting model for 48-h forecasts of temperature during autumn and winter 2011 and 2012. The probabilistic forecasts were evaluated using several common verification scores including Brier score, attribute diagram and rank histogram. Results show that both BFGS and PSO find the optimal solution and show the same evaluation scores, but PSO can do this with a feasible random first guess and much less computational complexity.

  6. Meta-heuristic CRPS minimization for the calibration of short-range probabilistic forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Seyedeh Atefeh; Rahmani, Morteza; Azadi, Majid

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the probabilistic short-range temperature forecasts over synoptic meteorological stations across Iran using non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR). NGR creates a Gaussian forecast probability density function (PDF) from the ensemble output. The mean of the normal predictive PDF is a bias-corrected weighted average of the ensemble members and its variance is a linear function of the raw ensemble variance. The coefficients for the mean and variance are estimated by minimizing the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) during a training period. CRPS is a scoring rule for distributional forecasts. In the paper of Gneiting et al. (Mon Weather Rev 133:1098-1118, 2005), Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) method is used to minimize the CRPS. Since BFGS is a conventional optimization method with its own limitations, we suggest using the particle swarm optimization (PSO), a robust meta-heuristic method, to minimize the CRPS. The ensemble prediction system used in this study consists of nine different configurations of the weather research and forecasting model for 48-h forecasts of temperature during autumn and winter 2011 and 2012. The probabilistic forecasts were evaluated using several common verification scores including Brier score, attribute diagram and rank histogram. Results show that both BFGS and PSO find the optimal solution and show the same evaluation scores, but PSO can do this with a feasible random first guess and much less computational complexity.

  7. Recent concepts of ovarian carcinogenesis: type I and type II.

    PubMed

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    Type I ovarian tumors, where precursor lesions in the ovary have clearly been described, include endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous, low grade serous, and transitional cell carcinomas, while type II tumors, where such lesions have not been described clearly and tumors may develop de novo from the tubal and/or ovarian surface epithelium, comprise high grade serous carcinomas, undifferentiated carcinomas, and carcinosarcomas. The carcinogenesis of endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (CCC) arising from endometriotic cysts is significantly influenced by the free iron concentration, which is associated with cancer development through the induction of persistent oxidative stress. A subset of mucinous carcinomas develop in association with ovarian teratomas; however, the majority of these tumors do not harbor any teratomatous component. Other theories of their origin include mucinous metaplasia of surface epithelial inclusions, endometriosis, and Brenner tumors. Low grade serous carcinomas are thought to evolve in a stepwise fashion from benign serous cystadenoma to a serous borderline tumor (SBT). With regard to high grade serous carcinoma, the serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) of the junction of the fallopian tube epithelium with the mesothelium of the tubal serosa, termed the "tubal peritoneal junction" (TPJ), undergo malignant transformation due to their location, and metastasize to the nearby ovary and surrounding pelvic peritoneum. Other theories of their origin include the ovarian hilum cells. PMID:24868556

  8. Learning Objects, Type II Applications, and Embedded Pedagogical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadanidis, George; Schindler, Karen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the extent to which learning objects that focus on higher level thinking might be seen as Type II applications, as defined by Maddux, Johnson, and Willis (2001). We conclude that learning objects are at best hybrid applications, with some Type I and some Type II characteristics. We also consider whether the educational…

  9. Type II Migration and Giant Planet Survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Type II migration, in which a newly formed large planet opens a gap in its precursor circumstellar nebula and subsequently evolves with it, has been implicated as a delivery mechanism responsible for close stellar companions. Large scale migration is possible in a viscously spreading disk of surface density sigma (r,t) when most of it is sacrificed to the primary in order to promote a small portion of the disk to much higher angular momentum orbits. Embedded planets generally follow its evolution unless their own angular momentum is comparable to that of the disk. The fraction of the starting disk mass, M (sub d) = 2pi integral rsigma(r,0)dr, that is consumed by the star depends on the distance at which material escapes the disk's outer boundary. If the disk is allowed to expand indefinitely, virtually all of the disk will fall into the primary in order to send a vanishingly small portion to infinity. For such a case, it is difficult to explain the survival of any giant planets, including Jupiter and Saturn. Realistically, however, there are processes that could truncate a disk at a finite distance, r(sub d). Recent numerical modeling has illustrated that planets can survive in this case. We show here that much of these results can be understood by simple conservation arguments.

  10. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  11. [Achondrogenesis type I and II and hypochondrogenesis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bueno, M; Toledo, F; Toledo, J; Villegas, T; López, S; Remírez, J; García-Julián, G

    1980-10-01

    A study is made of achondrogenesis in relation to four observations of early fatal development. One case corresponds to type I (Parenti-Fraccaro); another to type II (Langer-Saldino); the final two, brothers, seem to come under the variation of hypochondrogenesis. In this study, authors stress the heterogenous nature of lethal, neonatal (short-limb) nanisms of which currently include: Type I and II achondrogenesis, hypochondrogenesis, homozygote achondroplasia, classical Torrance-type and San Diego-type thanatophoric dysplasia. PMID:7469190

  12. Type-II Superlattice Avalanche Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun

    Type-II superlattice avalanche photodiodes have shown advantages compared to conventional mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for infrared wavelength detection. However, surface or interface leakage current has been a major issue for superlattice avalanche photodiodes, especially in infrared wavelength region. First, passivation of the superlattice device with ammonium sulfide and thioacetamide was carried out, and its surface quality was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The study showed that both ammonium sulfide and thiacetamide passivation can actively remove the native oxide at the surface. Thiacetamide passivation combine more sulfur bonds with III-V elements than that of ammonium sulfide. Another X-ray photoelectron spectra of thiacetamide-treated atomic layer deposited zinc sulfide capped InAs/GaSb superlattice was performed to investigate the interface sulfur bond conditions. Sb--S and As--S bonds disappear while In-S bond gets enhanced, indicating that Indium Sulfide should be the major components at the interface after ZnS deposition. Second, the simulation of electrical characteristics for zinc sulfide, silicon nitride and silicon dioxide passivated superlattice devices was performed by SILVACO software to fit the experimental results and to discover the surface current mechanism. Different surface current mechanism strengths were found. Third, several novel dual-carrier avalanche photodiode structures were designed and simulated. The structures had alternate carrier multiplication regions, placed next to a wider electron multiplication region, creating dual-carrier multiplication feedback systems. Gain and excess noise factor of these structures were simulated and compared based on the dead space multiplication theory under uniform electric field. From the simulation, the applied bias can be greatly lowered or the thickness can be shrunk to achieve the same gain from the conventional device. The width of the thin region was the most

  13. Type II superlattice technology for LWIR detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Azulai, D.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, R.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Klin, O.; Krasovitsky, L.; Langof, L.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shtrichman, I.; Rappaport, N.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Tuito, A.

    2016-05-01

    SCD has developed a range of advanced infrared detectors based on III-V semiconductor heterostructures grown on GaSb. The XBn/XBp family of barrier detectors enables diffusion limited dark currents, comparable with MCT Rule-07, and high quantum efficiencies. This work describes some of the technical challenges that were overcome, and the ultimate performance that was finally achieved, for SCD's new 15 μm pitch "Pelican-D LW" type II superlattice (T2SL) XBp array detector. This detector is the first of SCD's line of high performance two dimensional arrays working in the LWIR spectral range, and was designed with a ~9.3 micron cut-off wavelength and a format of 640 x 512 pixels. It contains InAs/GaSb and InAs/AlSb T2SLs, engineered using k • p modeling of the energy bands and photo-response. The wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy and are fabricated into Focal Plane Array (FPA) detectors using standard FPA processes, including wet and dry etching, indium bump hybridization, under-fill, and back-side polishing. The FPA has a quantum efficiency of nearly 50%, and operates at 77 K and F/2.7 with background limited performance. The pixel operability of the FPA is above 99% and it exhibits a stable residual non uniformity (RNU) of better than 0.04% of the dynamic range. The FPA uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and the complete detector closely follows the interfaces of SCD's MWIR Pelican-D detector. The Pelican- D LW detector is now in the final stages of qualification and transfer to production, with first prototypes already integrated into new electro-optical systems.

  14. [Osteochondrodysplasia determined genetically by a collagen type II gene mutation].

    PubMed

    Czarny-Ratajczak, M; Rogala, P; Wolnik-Brzozowska, D; Latos-Bieleńska, A

    2001-01-01

    Chondrodysplasias are a heterogenous group of skeletal dysplasias, affecting the growing cartilage. The main part of chondrodysplasias is caused by mutations in various types of collagen genes. The current classification within this group of disorder relies on clinical, histological and radiographic features. Type II collagenopathies comprise part of chondrodysplasias, consisting of hereditary disorders caused by defects in the type II collagen. Collagen type II is coded by a large gene--COL2A1. The chromosomal location for the human COL2A1 gene is 12q13.11-q13.12. Defects in collagen type II are caused by point mutations in the COL2A1 gene. Type II collagenopathies form a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from lethal achondrogenesis type II, hypochondrogenesis, through severe forms like spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia congenita, Marshall syndrome, to the mild forms--Stickler syndrome and early osteoarthritis. The pathological changes in the patients are observed in the growth plate, nucleus pulposus and vitreous body, where the abnormal collagen type II is distributed. This article presents the genetic background of collagenopathies type II and the results of current molecular studies of the patients. Both the molecular and the clinical studies may promise a better understanding of the relationship between the genotype and the phenotype. We present the patients, who were diagnosed at the Department of Medical Genetics and in the Orthopaedic Department in Poznań. PMID:11481990

  15. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mato, J M; Gallego, S V; Elcoro, L; Tasci, E; Aroyo, M I

    2016-07-20

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out. PMID:27218611

  16. Symmetry conditions for type II multiferroicity in commensurate magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Mato, J. M.; Gallego, S. V.; Elcoro, L.; Tasci, E.; Aroyo, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Type II multiferroics are magnetically ordered phases that exhibit ferroelectricity as a magnetic induced effect. We show that in single-k magnetic phases the presence in the paramagnetic phase of non-symmorphic symmetry combined with some specific type of magnetic propagation vector can be sufficient for the occurrence of this type of multiferroic behaviour. Other symmetry scenarios especially favourable for spin driven multiferroicity are also presented. We review and classify known type II multiferroics under this viewpoint. In addition, some other magnetic phases which due to their symmetry properties can exhibit type II multiferroicity are pointed out.

  17. Biomarkers of Type II Synthetic Pyrethroid Pesticides in Freshwater Fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Type II synthetic pyrethroids contain an alpha-cyano group which renders them more neurotoxic than their noncyano type I counterparts. A wide array of biomarkers have been employed to delineate the toxic responses of freshwater fish to various type II synthetic pyrethroids. These include hematological, enzymatic, cytological, genetic, omic and other types of biomarkers. This review puts together the applications of different biomarkers in freshwater fish species in response to the toxicity of the major type II pyrethroid pesticides and assesses their present status, while speculating on the possible future directions. PMID:24868555

  18. The type II collagenopathies: a spectrum of chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Spranger, J; Winterpacht, A; Zabel, B

    1994-02-01

    With the application of molecular techniques the aetiopathogenesis of skeletal dysplasias is gradually elucidated. Recent advances show that some bone dysplasias result from defects in the biosynthesis of type II (cartilage) collagen. Clinical entities caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene coding for type II collagen comprise achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, Kniest dysplasia, Stickler arthroophthalmopathy and mild dominant spondyloarthropathy. The mutations are expressed in the heterozygous state, and inheritance of type II collagenopathies is autosomal dominant. The wide range of clinical manifestations is not well understood but characterization of the basic defect may provide clues to establish specific genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:8157027

  19. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... accumulation of GAGs within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes. Lysosomes are compartments in the cell that digest and ... that cause molecules to build up inside the lysosomes, including MPS II, are called lysosomal storage disorders. ...

  20. Type II lepra reaction--an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ray, Avas Chandra; Sen, Sumit; Banerjee, Sabyasachi; Mukhopadhyay, Jotideb

    2012-06-01

    Type II lepra reaction usually present with skin lesions. We report a 23 years old male patient presented with fever for two weeks with no visible skin lesion suggestive of leprosy and with no history of either completion or concurrent anti leprosy drug treatment was eventually turned out to be a case of Hansen's presenting with type II lepra reaction. PMID:23409423

  1. Vortex Dynamics Studies in Type II Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhigang

    1993-03-01

    Vibrating reed, ac susceptibility and resistance measurements have been used to study the dynamics of vortices in type II superconductors. In Nb measurements, in spite of the low T _{c}'s and long coherence lengths compared to the high T_{c} superconductors, we find an extended region of temperature and field over which reversible flux line motion occurs when the Nb reed is oriented with its long dimension perpendicular to the applied field. We observe a strong, frequency-independent depression of the "irreversibility temperature" T _{Q}(H) below the resistively determined critical temperature T_{R}. The results of the ac susceptibility measurements also support these results. We concluded that observation of an extended region of magnetic reversibility is not restricted to high T_{c} or extremely anisotropic materials, and depends upon the geometry of samples with respect to the applied field direction. In NbSe_2 measurements, vibrating reed measurements were performed with the hexagonal c-axis approximately parallel or perpendicular to an applied magnetic field. Field-cooling data revealed an unusual peak in the frequency shift of the reed, accompanied by two peaks in reed dissipation. The upper peak occurs near the temperature where R~ 0, and the lower peak is very sample and amplitude dependent and hysteretic. The ac susceptibility results also show that corresponding features. The interplay of superconductivity and density waves were investigated by comparing data for NbSe _2 with the results for NbS_2 , which has a comparable superconducting T _{c } and crystal structure. In NbS_2 measurements, we did not see such a peak in the frequency shift nor the double peak feature in the dissipation in either vibrating reed measurements or ac susceptibility measurements. We have also studied the (Ba,K)BiO_3 system. It is cubic at its superconducting composition, but exhibits a moderately high T_{c }=30 K that is intermediate between conventional and high T_{rm c

  2. Unmyelinated type II afferent neurons report cochlear damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian cochlea, acoustic information is carried to the brain by the predominant (95%) large-diameter, myelinated type I afferents, each of which is postsynaptic to a single inner hair cell. The remaining thin, unmyelinated type II afferents extend hundreds of microns along the cochlear duct to contact many outer hair cells. Despite this extensive arbor, type II afferents are weakly activated by outer hair cell transmitter release and are insensitive to sound. Intriguingly, type II afferents remain intact in damaged regions of the cochlea. Here, we show that type II afferents are activated when outer hair cells are damaged. This response depends on both ionotropic (P2X) and metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors, binding ATP released from nearby supporting cells in response to hair cell damage. Selective activation of P2Y receptors increased type II afferent excitability by the closure of KCNQ-type potassium channels, a potential mechanism for the painful hypersensitivity (that we term “noxacusis” to distinguish from hyperacusis without pain) that can accompany hearing loss. Exposure to the KCNQ channel activator retigabine suppressed the type II fiber’s response to hair cell damage. Type II afferents may be the cochlea’s nociceptors, prompting avoidance of further damage to the irreparable inner ear. PMID:26553995

  3. Complex Interaction of Sensory and Motor Signs and Symptoms in Chronic CRPS

    PubMed Central

    Huge, Volker; Lauchart, Meike; Magerl, Walter; Beyer, Antje; Moehnle, Patrick; Kaufhold, Wibke; Schelling, Gustav; Azad, Shahnaz Christina

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia as well as sensory abnormalities, autonomic, trophic, and motor disturbances are key features of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). This study was conceived to comprehensively characterize the interaction of these symptoms in 118 patients with chronic upper limb CRPS (duration of disease: 43±23 months). Disease-related stress, depression, and the degree of accompanying motor disability were likewise assessed. Stress and depression were measured by Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Score and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Test. Motor disability of the affected hand was determined by Sequential Occupational Dexterity Assessment and Michigan Hand Questionnaire. Sensory changes were assessed by Quantitative Sensory Testing according to the standards of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. Almost two-thirds of all patients exhibited spontaneous pain at rest. Hand force as well as hand motor function were found to be substantially impaired. Results of Quantitative Sensory Testing revealed a distinct pattern of generalized bilateral sensory loss and hyperalgesia, most prominently to blunt pressure. Patients reported substantial motor complaints confirmed by the objective motor disability testings. Interestingly, patients displayed clinically relevant levels of stress and depression. We conclude that chronic CRPS is characterized by a combination of ongoing pain, pain-related disability, stress and depression, potentially triggered by peripheral nerve/tissue damage and ensuing sensory loss. In order to consolidate the different dimensions of disturbances in chronic CRPS, we developed a model based on interaction analysis suggesting a complex hierarchical interaction of peripheral (injury/sensory loss) and central factors (pain/disability/stress/depression) predicting motor dysfunction and hyperalgesia. PMID:21559525

  4. Prediction of Type II Burst Radiation for Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIs are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else blast waves. Recent quantitative theories for type II radiation show that the amount of radiation depends on the speed and spatial extent of the 3D shock, as well as on the background plasma, magnetic field configuration, and the number of superthermal electrons available for acceleration by the shock. In principle, then, Type II bursts may provide 1-3 day warnings of large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. In this paper we couple the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our new ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. The modeling includes initialization with coronal and active region magnetic fields reconstructed from solar magnetograms, coronal densities determined by 1 AU data, and CMEs modelled using STEREO coronagraph data. Two events with type IIs and strong CMEs are analyzed: 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for both type II bursts. This strongly supports the type II theory, implies real understanding of the physics involved, and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  5. Potassium currents in rat type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, T E; Jacobs, E R; Silver, M R

    1988-01-01

    1. Type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from adult rats and grown in primary culture were studied using the whole-cell configuration of the gigohm-seal voltage clamp technique. 2. The average specific capacitance of type II cells was 2.5 microF/cm2, suggesting that type II cell membranes in vitro are irregular, with an actual area more than twice the apparent area. 3. Most type II cells have time- and voltage-dependent outward currents carried by potassium ions. Potassium currents activate with a sigmoid time course upon membrane depolarization, and inactivate during maintained depolarization. The average maximum whole-cell K+ conductance was 1.6 nS. 4. Two distinct types of K+-selective channels underlie outward currents in type II cells. Most cells have currents resembling delayed rectifier K+ currents in skeletal muscle, nerve and immune cells. A few cells had a different type of K+ conductance which is more sensitive to block by tetraethylammonium ions, has faster 'tail currents', and activates at more positive potentials. 5. In some experiments, individual type II cells were identified by staining with phosphine, a fluorescent dye which is concentrated in lamellar bodies. Both types of K+ channels were seen in type II cells identified with this dye. 6. Phosphine added to the bathing solution reversibly reduced K+ currents and shifted K+ channel activation to more positive potentials. Excitation of phosphine to fluoresce reduced irreversibly K+ currents in type II cells. The usefulness of phosphine as a means of identifying cells for study is discussed. PMID:2457683

  6. Type II collagen screening in the human chondrodysplasias.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Campbell, D; Machado, M A; Chou, J

    1989-12-01

    Abnormalities of type II collagen have been considered strong candidates for causing human condrodysplasias. We have employed peptide mapping to screen for several types of type II colagen abnormalities in cartilage samples from 66 patients with 20 separate disorders. Except for achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino) and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) congenita in which abnormalities have been described and diastrophic dysplasia in which the changes were probably secondary, no abnormalities were detected. Within the limitations of the screening technique, the results combined with other data from the literature suggest that abnormalities of this molecule are not common causes of chondrodysplasias outside of the achondrogenesis type II-SED congenita family of disorders. PMID:2624272

  7. Herringbone bursts associated with type II solar radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed observations of the herringbone (HB) fine structure on type II solar radio bursts are presented. Data from the Culgoora radiospectrograph, radiometer and radioheliograph are analyzed. The characteristic spectral profiles, frequency drift rates and exciter velocities, fluxes, source sizes, brightness temperatures, and polarizations of individual HB bursts are determined. Correlations between individual bursts within the characteristic groups of bursts and the properties of the associated type II bursts are examined. These data are compatible with HB bursts being radiation at multiples of the plasma frequency generated by electron streams accelerated by the type II shock. HB bursts are physically distinct phenomena from type II and type III bursts, differing significantly in emission processes and/or source conditions; this conclusion indicates that many of the presently available theoretical ideas for HB bursts are incorrect.

  8. SN 2014G is a Type II-L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eenmae, Tonis; Martin, John C.; Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta

    2014-02-01

    We report a revised spectroscopic classification of Type II-L for SN 2014G. The initial classification of SN 2014G was Type IIn (CBET 3787). That early spectrum showed a blue continuum with no clear absorption and several very narrow emission lines, which in retrospect may be from an H II region near the SN. More recent spectra taken several weeks after peak brightness with the Tartu Observatory 1.5 m Telescope and with the ASP-32 spectrograph on 18 Feb 2014 UT and the Multiple Mirror Telescope Hectospec MOS on 25 Feb 2014 UT reveal a spectrum of a regular Type II supernova.

  9. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen. PMID:3057886

  10. Type-II Fuzzy Decision Support System for Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ather; Sarwar, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Type-II fuzzy sets are used to convey the uncertainties in the membership function of type-I fuzzy sets. Linguistic information in expert rules does not give any information about the geometry of the membership functions. These membership functions are mostly constructed through numerical data or range of classes. But there exists an uncertainty about the shape of the membership, that is, whether to go for a triangle membership function or a trapezoidal membership function. In this paper we use a type-II fuzzy set to overcome this uncertainty, and develop a fuzzy decision support system of fertilizers based on a type-II fuzzy set. This type-II fuzzy system takes cropping time and soil nutrients in the form of spatial surfaces as input, fuzzifies it using a type-II fuzzy membership function, and implies fuzzy rules on it in the fuzzy inference engine. The output of the fuzzy inference engine, which is in the form of interval value type-II fuzzy sets, reduced to an interval type-I fuzzy set, defuzzifies it to a crisp value and generates a spatial surface of fertilizers. This spatial surface shows the spatial trend of the required amount of fertilizer needed to cultivate a specific crop. The complexity of our algorithm is O(mnr), where m is the height of the raster, n is the width of the raster, and r is the number of expert rules. PMID:24892071

  11. A COL2A1 mutation in achondrogenesis type II results in the replacement of type II collagen by type I and III collagens in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chan, D; Cole, W G; Chow, C W; Mundlos, S; Bateman, J F

    1995-01-27

    An autosomal dominant mutation in the COL2A1 gene was identified in a fetus with achondrogenesis type II. A transition of G2853 to A in exon 41 produced a substitution of Gly769 by Ser within the triple helical domain of the alpha 1(II) chain of type II collagen, interrupting the mandatory Gly-X-Y triplet sequence required for the normal formation of stable triple helical type II collagen molecules, resulting in the complete absence of type II collagen in the cartilage, which had a gelatinous composition. Type I and III collagens were the major species found in cartilage tissue and synthesized by cultured chondrocytes along with cartilage type XI collagen. However, cultured chondrocytes produced a trace amount of type II collagen, which was retained within the cells and not secreted. In situ hybridization of cartilage sections showed that the chondrocytes produced both type II and type I collagen mRNA. As a result, it is likely that the chondrocytes produced type II collagen molecules, which were then degraded. The close proximity of the Gly769 substitution by Ser to the mammalian collagenase cleavage site at Gly775-Leu776 may have produced an unstable domain that was highly susceptible to proteolysis. The type I and III collagens that replaced type II collagen were unable to maintain the normal structure of the hyaline cartilage but did support chondrocyte maturation, evidenced by the expression of type X collagen in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate cartilage. PMID:7829510

  12. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  13. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  14. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  15. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  16. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  17. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as...: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of...

  18. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino)--a case report.

    PubMed

    Swar, M O; Srikrishna, B V

    1995-09-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystophy characterised by extreme micromelia. Definitive clinical and radiographic criteria have been established to differentiate Type II Achondrogenesis (Langer-Saldino) from type I Achondrogenesis (Parenti-Fraccaro). The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive for both types. We are presenting a case of Type II Achondrogenesis, a still born male to consanguinous parents. The clinical features included an enlarged head, protuberant abdomen and short stubby limbs. The mother had earlier delivered two still born males presumably with similar features. Radiographic characteristics of absence of rib fractures and well ossified iliac bones with concave medial margins and absent or deficient ossification of the sacrum, ischiae, and pubic bones differentiated Type II Achondrogenesis from Type I Achondrogenesis. PMID:8798967

  19. PKMiner: a database for exploring type II polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial aromatic polyketides are a pharmacologically important group of natural products synthesized by type II polyketide synthases (type II PKSs) in actinobacteria. Isolation of novel aromatic polyketides from microbial sources is currently impeded because of the lack of knowledge about prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis and the difficulties in finding and optimizing target microorganisms. Comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and the prediction of possible polyketide chemotypes in various actinobacterial genomes will thus enable the discovery or synthesis of novel polyketides in the most plausible microorganisms. Description We performed a comprehensive computational analysis of type II PKSs and their gene clusters in actinobacterial genomes. By identifying type II PKS subclasses from the sequence analysis of 280 known type II PKSs, we developed highly accurate domain classifiers for these subclasses and derived prediction rules for aromatic polyketide chemotypes generated by different combinations of type II PKS domains. Using 319 available actinobacterial genomes, we predicted 231 type II PKSs from 40 PKS gene clusters in 25 actinobacterial genomes, and polyketide chemotypes corresponding to 22 novel PKS gene clusters in 16 genomes. These results showed that the microorganisms capable of producing aromatic polyketides are specifically distributed within a certain suborder of Actinomycetales such as Catenulisporineae, Frankineae, Micrococcineae, Micromonosporineae, Pseudonocardineae, Streptomycineae, and Streptosporangineae. Conclusions We could identify the novel candidates of type II PKS gene clusters and their polyketide chemotypes in actinobacterial genomes by comprehensive analysis of type II PKSs and prediction of aromatic polyketides. The genome analysis results indicated that the specific suborders in actinomycetes could be used as prolific taxa for polyketide synthesis. The chemotype-prediction rules with the suggested type II PKS

  20. Achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocakoc, Ercan; Kiris, Adem

    2002-07-01

    We present a case of achondrogenesis type II with normally developed extremities that was confirmed with postmortem ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. The length of the long bones may vary and the diagnosis of achondrogenesis should not be ruled out with normally developed extremities. Intrauterine sonographic examination of the vertebrae is very important and the absence of vertebral body ossification may be the unique finding of achondrogenesis type II. Axial ultrasonographic images and postmortem plain radiographs are useful to clarify the pathology. PMID:12124695

  1. Histological types of polypoid cutaneous melanoma II.

    PubMed

    Knezević, Fabijan; Duancić, Vjekoslav; Sitić, Sanda; Horvat-Knezević, Anica; Benković, Vesna; Ramić, Snjezana; Kostović, Kresimir; Ramljak, Vesna; Vrdoljak, Danko Velemir; Stanec, Mladen; Bozović, Angelina

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which histological types of melanoma can clinically and morphologically appear as polypoid melanomas. In 645 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma we have analyzed criteria for diagnosis of polypoid cutaneous melanoma and afterwards we have analyzed growth phase in each polypoid melanoma, histological type of atypical melanocytes, the number of epidermal ridges which are occupied by atypical melanocytes, and distribution according to age, sex and location, as well as the disease free survival. According to the criteria for polypoid melanomas we have found 147 (22.8%) polypoid cutaneous melanomas. Analyzing the growth phases, histological types of atypical melanocytes and the number of affected epidermal ridges in the group of polypoid melanomas we have ascertained 2 (1.4%) ALMs, 4 (2.8%) LMMs, 42 (28.6%) SSMs and 99 (67.2%) NMs. Our conclusion is that polypoid cutaneous melanomas are morphological forms of various histological melanoma types (ALM, LMM, SSM and NM) and they can all display polypoid morphological form. Polypoid cutaneous melanomas are most often of nodular histological type. PMID:18217457

  2. Period-Luminosity Relation for Type II Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Feast, Michael W.; Menzies, John W.

    2009-09-01

    We have estimated JHKs magnitudes corrected to mean intensity for LMC type II Cepheids found in the OGLE-III survey. Period-luminosity relations (PLRs) are derived in JHKs as well as in a reddening-free VI parameter. The BL Her stars (P<4 d) and the W Vir stars (P = 4 to 20 d) are co-linear in these PLRs. The slopes of the infrared relations agree with those found previously for type II Cepheids in globular clusters within the uncertainties. Using the pulsation parallaxes of V553 Cen and SW Tau, the data lead to an LMC modulus of 18.46+/-0.10 mag, uncorrected for any metallicity effects. We have now established the PLR of type II Cepheids as a distance indicator by confirming that (almost) the same PLR satisfies the distributions in the PL diagram of type II Cepheids in (at least) two different systems, i.e. the LMC and Galactic globular clusters, and by calibrating the zero point of the PLR. RV Tau stars in the LMC, as a group, are not co-linear with the shorter-period type II Cepheids in the infrared PLRs in marked contrast to such stars in globular clusters. We note differences in period distribution and infrared colors for RV Tau stars in the LMC, globular clusters and Galactic field. We also compare the PLR of type II Cepheids with that of classical Cepheids.

  3. Isolation and Culture of Human Alveolar Type II Pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Witherden, I R; Tetley, T D

    2001-01-01

    Alveolar type II pneumocytes (alveolar type II cells; TII cells) play an important role in the homeostasis of the alveolar unit. They are the progenitor cells to the type I pneumocyte and are therefore responsible for regeneration of alveolar epithelium following alveolar epithelial cell damage. The type I cell covers over 90% of the alveolar surface, reflecting its capacity to stretch into a flattened cell with very little depth (approx. 0.1 µm), but with a large surface area, to facilitate gas exchange. Nevertheless, the type II cell outnumbers type I cells, estimated to be by 2:1 in rodents. Most of the type II cell lies buried in the interstitium of the alveolus, with only the apical tip of the cell reaching into the airspace, through which another crucial function, provision of alveolar surfactant, occurs. Surfactant synthesis and secretion is a unique feature of type II cells; surfactant consists of a high proportion of phospholipids (approx. 90%) and a small proportion of protein (approx. 10%), which contains surfactant apoprotein (SP), of which four have so far been described, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D (1,2). Surfactant is highly surface active and is essential to prevent alveolar collapse. In addition, surfactant has many other roles, including pulmonary host defense. Compromised surfactant synthesis and function are believed to be a feature of numerous disease states (1,2), including infant respiratory distress syndrome, adult respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar proteinosis, and microbial infection. PMID:21336897

  4. Mg II 2800 A emission in late type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    The largest body of data on ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars now available is the series of scans made with the long wavelength spectrometer onboard OAO-2. Some features of selected scans from this series and estimates of Mg II emission fluxes were reported earlier. Since that time, the effects of sky background, scattered light and variable instrumental sensitivity have become better understood. Additional stars are used to define more clearly the transition from Mg II 2800 A absorption to emission with advancing spectral type, and additional scans of alpha Sco provide a better estimate of Mg II emission strength for this supergiant in OAO observations.

  5. Propionibacterium acnes Types I and II Represent Phylogenetically Distinct Groups

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Andrew; Valanne, Susanna; Ramage, Gordon; Tunney, Michael M.; Glenn, Josephine V.; McLorinan, Gregory C.; Bhatia, Ajay; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Lodes, Michael; Persing, David H.; Patrick, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Although two phenotypes of the opportunistic pathogen Propionibacterium acnes (types I and II) have been described, epidemiological investigations of their roles in different infections have not been widely reported. Using immunofluorescence microscopy with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) QUBPa1 and QUBPa2, specific for types I and II, respectively, we investigated the prevalences of the two types among 132 P. acnes isolates. Analysis of isolates from failed prosthetic hip implants (n = 40) revealed approximately equal numbers of type I and II organisms. Isolates from failed prosthetic hip-associated bone (n = 6) and tissue (n = 38) samples, as well as isolates from acne (n = 22), dental infections (n = 8), and skin removed during surgical incision (n = 18) were predominately of type I. A total of 11 (8%) isolates showed atypical MAb labeling and could not be conclusively identified. Phylogenetic analysis of P. acnes by nucleotide sequencing revealed the 16S rRNA gene to be highly conserved between types I and II. In contrast, sequence analysis of recA and a putative hemolysin gene (tly) revealed significantly greater type-specific polymorphisms that corresponded to phylogenetically distinct cluster groups. All 11 isolates with atypical MAb labeling were identified as type I by sequencing. Within the recA and tly phylogenetic trees, nine of these isolates formed a cluster distinct from other type I organisms, suggesting a further phylogenetic subdivision within type I. Our study therefore demonstrates that the phenotypic differences between P. acnes types I and II reflect deeper differences in their phylogeny. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing provides an accurate method for identifying the type status of P. acnes isolates. PMID:15634990

  6. [Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) - difficulties in diagnostics, therapy and assessment].

    PubMed

    Böger, A

    2015-03-01

    CRPS is still widely unknown among physicians. However, surgeons and GPs should know the diagnostic criteria and the modern therapeutic approaches in order to start early therapy according to recent medical guidelines. Pain specialists and/ or neurologists should be involved because of their clinical and neuroanatomic knowledge. First-line therapy comprises neither extensive instrumental diagnostic procedures nor invasive treatments, which - in some cases - could even worsen the disease. The key point is a variety of specific physiotherapeutic techniques. The prognosis is not as poor as many physicians believe. PMID:25971143

  7. Plasticity of Hopx+ Type I alveolar cells to regenerate Type II cells in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajan; Barkauskas, Christina E.; Takeda, Norifumi; Bowie, Emily J.; Aghajanian, Haig; Wang, Qiaohong; Padmanabhan, Arun; Manderfield, Lauren J.; Gupta, Mudit; Li, Deqiang; Li, Li; Trivedi, Chinmay M.; Hogan, Brigid L. M.; Epstein, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The plasticity of differentiated cells in adult tissues undergoing repair is an area of intense research. Pulmonary alveolar Type II cells produce surfactant and function as progenitors in the adult, demonstrating both self-renewal and differentiation into gas exchanging Type I cells. In vivo, Type I cells are thought to be terminally differentiated and their ability to give rise to alternate lineages has not been reported. Here, we show that Hopx becomes restricted to Type I cells during development. However, unexpectedly, lineage-labeled Hopx+ cells both proliferate and generate Type II cells during adult alveolar regrowth following partial pneumonectomy. In clonal 3D culture, single Hopx+ Type I cells generate organoids composed of Type I and Type II cells, a process modulated by TGFβ signaling. These findings demonstrate unanticipated plasticity of Type I cells and a bi-directional lineage relationship between distinct differentiated alveolar epithelial cell types in vivo and in single cell culture. PMID:25865356

  8. Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajan; Barkauskas, Christina E; Takeda, Norifumi; Bowie, Emily J; Aghajanian, Haig; Wang, Qiaohong; Padmanabhan, Arun; Manderfield, Lauren J; Gupta, Mudit; Li, Deqiang; Li, Li; Trivedi, Chinmay M; Hogan, Brigid L M; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The plasticity of differentiated cells in adult tissues undergoing repair is an area of intense research. Pulmonary alveolar type II cells produce surfactant and function as progenitors in the adult, demonstrating both self-renewal and differentiation into gas exchanging type I cells. In vivo, type I cells are thought to be terminally differentiated and their ability to give rise to alternate lineages has not been reported. Here we show that Hopx becomes restricted to type I cells during development. However, unexpectedly, lineage-labelled Hopx(+) cells both proliferate and generate type II cells during adult alveolar regrowth following partial pneumonectomy. In clonal 3D culture, single Hopx(+) type I cells generate organoids composed of type I and type II cells, a process modulated by TGFβ signalling. These findings demonstrate unanticipated plasticity of type I cells and a bidirectional lineage relationship between distinct differentiated alveolar epithelial cell types in vivo and in single-cell culture. PMID:25865356

  9. Biceps instability and Slap type II tear in overhead athletes.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Cheli, Andrea; Pari, Carlotta; Massari, Leo; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Type II lesions are common lesions encountered in overhead athletes with controversies arising in term of timing for treatment, surgical approach, rehabilitation and functional results. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic repair of type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes, focusing on the time elapsed from diagnosis and treatment, time needed to return to sport, rate of return to sport and to previous level of performance, providing an overview concerning evidence for the effectiveness of different surgical approaches to type II SLAP tears in overhead athletes. A internet search on peer reviewed Journal from 1990, first descriprion of this pathology, to 2012, have been conducted evaluating the outcomes for both isolated Slap II tear overhead athletes and those who presented associated lesions treated. The results have been analyzed according to the scale reported focusing on return to sport and level of activity. Apart from a single study, non prospective level I and II studies were detected. Return to play at the same level ranged form 22% to 94% with different range of technique utilized with the majority of the authors recommending the fixation of these lesions but biceps tenodesis can lead to higher satisfaction racte when directly compated to the anchor fixation. Associated pathologies such as partial or full tickness rotator cuff tear did not clearly affect the outcomes and complications rate. There is no consensus regarding timing and treatment for type II SLAP, especially in overhead athletes who need to regain a high level of performance. PMID:23738307

  10. A sample of Type II-L supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faran, T.; Poznanski, D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Leonard, D. C.; Li, W.; Modjaz, M.; Serduke, F. J. D.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    What are Type II-Linear supernovae (SNe II-L)? This class, which has been ill defined for decades, now receives significant attention - both theoretically, in order to understand what happens to stars in the ˜15-25 M⊙ range, and observationally, with two independent studies suggesting that they cannot be cleanly separated photometrically from the regular hydrogen-rich SNe II-P characterized by a marked plateau in their light curve. Here, we analyse the multiband light curves and extensive spectroscopic coverage of a sample of 35 SNe II and find that 11 of them could be SNe II-L. The spectra of these SNe are hydrogen deficient, typically have shallow Hα absorption, may show indirect signs of helium via strong O I λ7774 absorption, and have faster line velocities consistent with a thin hydrogen shell. The light curves can be mostly differentiated from those of the regular, hydrogen-rich SNe II-P by their steeper decline rates and higher luminosity, and we propose to define them based on their decline in the V band: SNe II-L decline by more than 0.5 mag from peak brightness by day 50 after explosion. Using our sample we provide template light curves for SNe II-L and II-P in four photometric bands.

  11. Multiplicity among F-type Stars. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.

    2015-08-01

    In continuation of our previous study we present an updated census of new companions and model atmosphere analyses for some 50 southern dwarfs, mostly in the mass range 0.90≤slant M≤slant 1.10 {M}⊙ . For the common-proper-motion companions μ Vir B, HR 2225 B, HD 67199 B, and HD 114853 B, we confirm their physical association from their radial velocities. We report the discovery of the F-type visual binary α For as a field blue straggler and confirm (ζ Ret, HR 5864) or identify (HD 67199, HR 4013, HR 8843) another five mass transfer systems or candidates. For the F stars {τ }1 Eri and 111 Tau, we present 10σ and 7σ cases for astrometric binaries by virtue of the very accurate van Leeuwen Hipparcos parallaxes. Following the work of Shaya & Olling, we suggest the F-type star ι Vir to be a wide (0.37 pc) hierarchical quadruple system. We confirm the visual binary NLTT 23781/2 as a common-proper-motion object to the very wide (0.54 pc) F star 40 Leo, but discard the G star HD 128987 as an ultra-wide (1.01 pc) physical companion to the α Lib quadruple system on account of a diverse metallicity. The improved statistics of our sample establishes the previously discovered positive correlation of stellar multiplicities with primary mass. For the F star multiplicity census in the mass range 1.10≤slant M≤slant 1.70 {M}⊙ , we find that at least a quarter consists of triple or higher level systems and at least two out of three F stars are non-single.

  12. Transient neonatal hyperparathyroidism: a presenting feature of mucolipidosis type II.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, Anpalakan; Garibaldi, Luigi; Murphy, Robyn; Ibrahim, Jennifer

    2006-06-01

    The phenotype of mucolipidosis type II (ML II), a disorder of lysosomal enzyme transport, includes mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Hurler syndrome)-like features and dysostosis multiplex, usually apparent after 6 months of age. We describe here the natural history of neonatal hyperparathyroidism, a recently described presentation of ML II. A female neonate presented with multiple fractures and radiological features of osteopenia and 'rickets-like' changes. Longitudinal evaluation, while the patient was treated with vitamin D 800-3,000 IU/day orally, indicated secondary hyperparathyroidism which resolved, biochemically and radiologically, by age 4 months. Neonatal hyperparathyroidism in ML II is severe, transient, and probably secondary to impaired placental calcium transport, simulating a condition observed in the offspring of chronically hypocalcemic mothers. PMID:16886594

  13. Lysosomes from rabbit type II cells catabolize surfactant lipids.

    PubMed

    Rider, E D; Ikegami, M; Pinkerton, K E; Peake, J L; Jobe, A H

    2000-01-01

    The role of a lysosome fraction from rabbit type II cells in surfactant dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) catabolism was investigated in vivo using radiolabeled DPPC and dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine (1, 2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; DEPC), a phospholipase A(1)- and A(2)-resistant analog of DPPC. Freshly isolated type II cells were gently disrupted by shearing, and lysosomes were isolated with Percoll density gradients (density range 1.0591-1.1457 g/ml). The lysosome fractions were relatively free of contaminating organelles as determined by electron microscopy and organelle marker enzymes. After intratracheal injection of rabbits with [(3)H]DPPC and [(14)C]DEPC associated with a trace amount of natural rabbit surfactant, the degradation-resistant DEPC accumulated 16-fold compared with DPPC in lysosome fractions at 15 h. Lysosomes can be isolated from freshly isolated type II cells, and lysosomes from type II cells are the primary catabolic organelle for alveolar surfactant DPPC following reuptake by type II cells in vivo. PMID:10645892

  14. The use of divalent metal ions by type II topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Deweese, Joseph E; Osheroff, Neil

    2010-07-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:20703329

  15. Glutathione synthesis and homeostasis in isolated type II alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B.; Prough, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    After isolation of Type II cells from neonatal rat lung, the glutathione (GSH) levels in these cells were greatly depressed. The total glutathione content could be increased 5-fold within 12-24 h by incubating the cells in media containing sulfur amino acids. Similarly, the activity of ..gamma..-glutamyltranspeptidase was low immediately after isolation, but was increased 2-fold during the first 24 h culture. Addition of either GSH or GSSG to the culture media increased the GSH content of Type II cells 2-2.5-fold. Buthionine sulfoximine and NaF prevented this replenishment of GSH during 24 h culture. When the rates of de novo synthesis of GSH and GSSG from /sup 35/S-cysteine were measured, the amounts of newly formed GSH decreased to 80% in the presence of GSH or GSSG. This suggests that exogenous GSH/GSSG can be taken up by the Type II cells to replenish the intracellular pool of GSH. Methionine was not as effective as cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. These results suggest that GSH levels in the isolated Type II cell can be maintained by de novo synthesis or uptake of exogenous GSH. Most of the GSH synthesized from cysteine, however, was excreted into the media of the cultured cells indicative of a potential role for the type II cell in export of the non-protein thiol.

  16. The Use of Divalent Metal Ions by Type II Topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    Deweese, Joseph E.; Osheroff, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:20703329

  17. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end. PMID:12686625

  18. Nephrocalcinosis as adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Luiken, G P M; van Riemsdijk, I C; Petrij, F; Zandbergen, A A M; Dees, A

    2014-02-01

    Bartter syndrome consists a group of rare autosomal-recessive renal tubulopathies characterised by renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and hyperreninaemic hyperaldosteronism. It is classified into five types. Mutations in the KCNJ1 gene (classified as type II) usually cause the neonatal form of Bartter syndrome. We describe an adult patient with a homozygous KCNJ1 mutation resulting in a remarkably mild phenotype of neonatal type Bartter syndrome. PMID:24659592

  19. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  20. Getting miles away from Terman: Did the CRPS fund Catharine Cox Miles's unsilenced psychology of sex?

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Psychologist Catharine Cox Miles (1890-1984) is often remembered as the junior author, with Lewis Terman, of Sex and Personality. Written with support from the Committee for Research on the Problems of Sex (CRPS), Sex and Personality introduced the "masculinity-femininity" personality measure to psychology in 1936. Miles has been overlooked by some historians and constructed as a silent, indirect feminist by others. Private letters show that Terman and Miles had different assumptions about the need for library research work to precede the empirical work for Sex and Personality. Miles's 1935 chapter on the "Social Psychology of Sex" shows that her theoretical formulation of sex differed from Terman's in its emphasis on female embodiment, respect for the emerging tradition of the sex survey, and its opinions about the determinants of marital happiness, and the variability of intelligence. Ironically, CRPS monies wired to Terman may have funded Miles to develop this early formulation of the psychology of sex. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397910

  1. A Type II Radio Burst without a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, W.; Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Sun, J. Q.

    2015-05-01

    Type II radio bursts are thought to be a signature of coronal shocks. In this paper, we analyze a short-lived type II burst that started at 07:40 UT on 2011 February 28. By carefully checking white-light images, we find that the type II radio burst is not accompanied by a coronal mass ejection, only by a C2.4 class flare and narrow jet. However, in the EUV images provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we find a wave-like structure that propagated at a speed of ∼600 km s‑1 during the burst. The relationship between the type II radio burst and the wave-like structure is, in particular, explored. For this purpose, we first derive the density distribution under the wave by the differential emission measure method, which is used to restrict the empirical density model. We then use the restricted density model to invert the speed of the shock that produces the observed frequency drift rate in the dynamic spectrum. The inverted shock speed is similar to the speed of the wave-like structure. This implies that the wave-like structure is most likely a coronal shock that produces the type II radio burst. We also examine the evolution of the magnetic field in the flare-associated active region and find continuous flux emergence and cancellation taking place near the flare site. Based on these facts, we propose a new mechanism for the formation of the type II radio burst, i.e., the expansion of the strongly inclined magnetic loops after reconnecting with a nearby emerging flux acts as a piston to generate the shock wave.

  2. Predicted Unusual Magnetoresponse in Type-II Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2016-08-01

    We show several distinct signatures in the magnetoresponse of type-II Weyl semimetals. The energy tilt tends to squeeze the Landau levels (LLs), and, for a type-II Weyl node, there always exists a critical angle between the B field and the tilt, at which the LL spectrum collapses, regardless of the field strength. Before the collapse, signatures also appear in the magneto-optical spectrum, including the invariable presence of intraband peaks, the absence of absorption tails, and the special anisotropic field dependence.

  3. Predicted Unusual Magnetoresponse in Type-II Weyl Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2016-08-12

    We show several distinct signatures in the magnetoresponse of type-II Weyl semimetals. The energy tilt tends to squeeze the Landau levels (LLs), and, for a type-II Weyl node, there always exists a critical angle between the B field and the tilt, at which the LL spectrum collapses, regardless of the field strength. Before the collapse, signatures also appear in the magneto-optical spectrum, including the invariable presence of intraband peaks, the absence of absorption tails, and the special anisotropic field dependence. PMID:27563994

  4. Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen E-mail: g9522528@oz.nthu.edu.tw

    2009-01-15

    Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space.

  5. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Doh, J W; Kim, C J; Chi, J G

    2000-10-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal form of congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis) detected by prenatal ultrasonography at 20-week gestation. A dwarfed fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs was terminated transvaginally. Radiologic and histopathologic examination revealed features of mild form of achondrogenesis type II. Although the case had no known risk factor and the phenotypic abnormality was mild, modern development in prenatal screening made the early detection possible. PMID:11069003

  6. Kinetic Simulations of Solar Type II Radio Burst Emission Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ganse, Urs; Burkart, Thomas; Spanier, Felix; Vainio, Rami

    2010-03-25

    Using our kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulation code, we have examined the behavior of different plasma modes in the environment close to a CME shock front, with special focus on the modes that may contribute to the formation of type II radio bursts. Apart from electron velocity spectra, numerical dispersion plots obtained from simulation data allow for analysis of wave modes in the simulated plasma, especially showing growth and damping of these modes over time. These plots reveal features at 2omega{sub p} which are not predicted by linear wave theory, that may be results of nonlinear three wave interaction processes as theoretically predicted for type II emission processes.

  7. Fundus changes in mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis type II: vitreous fluorophotometry.

    PubMed Central

    Raines, M F; Duvall-Young, J; Short, C D

    1989-01-01

    We have described a complex abnormality of retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane, and choriocapillaris in mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN) type II. Patients with MCGN type II were examined by vitreous fluorophotometry which reveals that there is a breakdown of the blood retinal barrier (BRB) in those patients with the typical fundus lesions. The function of this barrier was calculated as a penetration ratio and was statistically greater in these patients when compared with a group of (a) normal persons, (b) patients with drusen, and (c) patients with other forms of glomerulonephritis. Images PMID:2605145

  8. Ricci inheritance collineations in Bianchi type II spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Tahir; Akhtar, Sumaira Saleem; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.; Khan, Suhail

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a complete classification of Bianchi type II spacetime according to Ricci inheritance collineations (RICs). The RICs are classified considering cases when the Ricci tensor is both degenerate as well as non-degenerate. In case of non-degenerate Ricci tensor, it is found that Bianchi type II spacetime admits 4-, 5-, 6- or 7-dimensional Lie algebra of RICs. In the case when the Ricci tensor is degenerate, majority cases give rise to infinitely many RICs, while remaining cases admit finite RICs given by 4, 5 or 6.

  9. Pharmacophore modeling studies of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qing-Qing; Xie, Huan-Zhang; Ren, Ji-Xia; Li, Lin-Li; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2009-02-01

    In this study, chemical feature based pharmacophore models of type I and type II kinase inhibitors of Tie2 have been developed with the aid of HipHop and HypoRefine modules within Catalyst program package. The best HipHop pharmacophore model Hypo1_I for type I kinase inhibitors contains one hydrogen-bond acceptor, one hydrogen-bond donor, one general hydrophobic, one hydrophobic aromatic, and one ring aromatic feature. And the best HypoRefine model Hypo1_II for type II kinase inhibitors, which was characterized by the best correlation coefficient (0.976032) and the lowest RMSD (0.74204), consists of two hydrogen-bond donors, one hydrophobic aromatic, and two general hydrophobic features, as well as two excluded volumes. These pharmacophore models have been validated by using either or both test set and cross validation methods, which shows that both the Hypo1_I and Hypo1_II have a good predictive ability. The space arrangements of the pharmacophore features in Hypo1_II are consistent with the locations of the three portions making up a typical type II kinase inhibitor, namely, the portion occupying the ATP binding region (ATP-binding-region portion, AP), that occupying the hydrophobic region (hydrophobic-region portion, HP), and that linking AP and HP (bridge portion, BP). Our study also reveals that the ATP-binding-region portion of the type II kinase inhibitors plays an important role to the bioactivity of the type II kinase inhibitors. Structural modifications on this portion should be helpful to further improve the inhibitory potency of type II kinase inhibitors. PMID:19138543

  10. Towards a Cosmological Hubble Diagram for Type II-PSupernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter; Sullivan, Mark; Ellis, Richard; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Leonard, Douglas C.; Howell, D. Andrew; Astier, Pierre; Carlberg, RaymondG.; Conley, Alex; Fabbro, Sebastien; Fouchez, Dominique; Neill, James D.; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J; Regnault, Nicolas

    2006-03-20

    We present the first high-redshift Hubble diagram for Type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P) based upon five events at redshift upto z {approx}0.3. This diagram was constructed using photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey and absorption line spectroscopy from the Keck observatory. The method used to measure distances to these supernovae is based on recent work by Hamuy&Pinto (2002) and exploits a correlation between the absolute brightness of SNeII-P and the expansion velocities derived from the minimum of the Fe II 516.9 nm P-Cygni feature observed during the plateau phases. We present three refinements to this method which significantly improve the practicality of measuring the distances of SNe II-P at cosmologically interesting redshifts. These are an extinction correction measurement based on the V-I colors at day 50, across-correlation measurement for the expansion velocity and the ability to extrapolate such velocities accurately over almost the entire plateau phase. We apply this revised method to our dataset of high-redshift SNe II-P and find that the resulting Hubble diagram has a scatter of only 0.26 magnitudes, thus demonstrating the feasibility of measuring the expansion history, with present facilities, using a method independent of that based upon supernovae of Type Ia.

  11. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase expression: transcriptional regulation of the type I and type II genes.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, A; Gu, J J; Spychala, J; Mitchell, B S

    1996-01-01

    Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is an essential rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo guanine nucleotide synthetic pathway that catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP. Enzyme activity is accounted for by the expression of two distinct but closely related genes termed IMPDH I and II. Increased IMPDH activity has been linked to both cellular proliferation and neoplastic transformation and generally ascribed to an increase in the expression of the type II gene. We have characterized the type I and type II genes and identified elements important in the transcriptional regulation of both genes. The type II IMPDH gene contains a 466 bp 5' flanking region spanning the translation start site that contains several transcription factor binding sites and mediates increased transcription of a CAT reporter gene in peripheral blood T lymphocytes when these cells are induced to proliferate. The single functional IMPDH type I gene contains exon-intron boundaries and exon structures that are nearly identical to those in the type II gene. In contrast to the type II gene, however, it contains two putative promoter sites, each with the potential for transcriptional regulation. We conclude that these two genes most probably arose from an early gene duplication event and that their highly conserved structures and differential regulation at the transcriptional level argue strongly for a significant role for each gene in cellular metabolism, growth, and differentiation. PMID:8869741

  12. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  13. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: treatment updates.

    PubMed

    Koeberl, D D; Kishnani, P S; Chen, Y T

    2007-04-01

    Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  14. Glycogen storage disease types I and II: Treatment updates

    PubMed Central

    Kishnani, P. S.; Chen, Y. T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prior to 2006 therapy for glycogen storage diseases consisted primarily of dietary interventions, which in the case of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type II (GSD II; Pompe disease) remained essentially palliative. Despite improved survival and growth, long-term complications of GSD type I (GSD I) have not responded to dietary therapy with uncooked cornstarch or continuous gastric feeding. The recognized significant risk of renal disease and liver malignancy in GSD I has prompted efforts towards curative therapy, including organ transplantation, in those deemed at risk. Results of clinical trials in infantile Pompe disease with alglucosidase alfa (Myozyme) showed prolonged survival reversal of cardiomyopathy, and motor gains. This resulted in broad label approval of Myozyme for Pompe disease in 2006. Furthermore, the development of experimental therapies, such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy, holds promise for the availability of curative therapy in GSD I and GSD II/Pompe disease in the future. PMID:17308886

  15. Auroral kilometric radiation triggered by type II solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    The previously-reported triggering of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) during type III solar radio bursts was attributed to the incoming radio waves rather than other aspects of the burst's causative solar flare. This conclusion has now been confirmed by ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 observations showing AKR which seems to have been triggered also by a subsequent type II solar radio burst, up to eleven hours after the flare.

  16. Comparing the Host Galaxies of Type Ia, Type II, and Type Ibc Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Dennefeld, M.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Hammer, F.; Deng, L. C.; Flores, H.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.

    2014-08-01

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D n (4000), Hδ A , stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D n (4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D n (4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (~0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  17. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), Hδ{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  18. Soft vortex matter in a type-I/type-II superconducting bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendová, L.; Milošević, M. V.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic flux patterns are known to strongly differ in the intermediate state of type-I and type-II superconductors. Using a type-I/type-II bilayer we demonstrate hybridization of these flux phases into a plethora of unique new ones. Owing to a complicated multibody interaction between individual fluxoids, many different intriguing patterns are possible under applied magnetic field, such as few-vortex clusters, vortex chains, mazes, or labyrinthal structures resembling the phenomena readily encountered in soft-matter physics. However, in our system the patterns are tunable by sample parameters, magnetic field, current, and temperature, which reveals transitions from short-range clustering to long-range ordered phases such as parallel chains, gels, glasses, and crystalline vortex lattices, or phases where lamellar type-I flux domains in one layer serve as a bedding potential for type-II vortices in the other, configurations clearly beyond the soft-matter analogy.

  19. Pulmonary Alveolar Type II Cells Isolated from Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, Leland G.; Mason, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    It is unclear what factors control the secretion of pulmonary surface active material from alveolar type II cells in vivo. Other workers have suggested that cholinergic stimuli, adrenergic stimuli, and prostaglandins may all stimulate secretion. We isolated type II cells from the lungs of rats by treatment with elastase, discontinuous density centrifugation, and adherence in primary culture. β-Adrenergic agonists, but not cholinergic agonists, caused an increase in the release of [14C]disaturated phosphatidylcholine, the major component of surface-active material, from type II cells in culture. The β-adrenergic effect was stereo-selective, (−)-isoproterenol being 50 times more potent than (+)-isoproterenol. Terbutaline, 10 μM, a noncatecholamine β-2 adrenergic agonist, caused a release of 2.0±0.5 (mean±SD) times the basal release of [14C]disaturated phosphatidylcholine in 3 h; the concentration of terbutaline causing half maximal stimulation was 800 nM. The terbutaline effect was blocked by propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist (calculated Kd = 6 nM), but not by phentolamine, an α-adrenergic antagonist. Isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and 8-Br cyclic AMP, but not 8-Br cyclic guanosine monophosphate, also stimulated release. We conclude that type II cells secrete disaturated phosphatidylcholine in response to treatment with adrenergic stimulation. PMID:34631

  20. Free flap transfer for complex regional pain syndrome type II

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ken; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko; Shibata, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II was successfully treated using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer with digital nerve coaptation to the cutaneous nerve of the flap. Release of the scarred tissue and soft tissue coverage with targeted sensory nerve coaptation were useful in relieving severe pain.

  1. Knowledge Is Power: Teaching Children about Type II Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild-Berner, Natalie; Balgopal, Meena

    2011-01-01

    World Diabetes Day (November 14) offers a wonderful opportunity to educate elementary children about the power they have to control their health. First lady Michelle Obama has urged Americans to educate themselves about childhood obesity, which is often associated with the onset of type II diabetes (Rabin 2010). The authors developed activities to…

  2. Acceleration of Type II Spicules in the Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths <=50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are ~150-460 km s-1, horizontally localized within ~2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are ~20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached ~100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) × 1022 ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as ~100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be ~0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of ~106 ergs cm-2 s-1 associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  3. The Luminosities of Type II Cepheids and RR Lyrae Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feast, Michael W.

    2010-02-01

    Recent work on the luminosities of type II Cepheids (CephIIs) and RR Lyrae variables is reviewed. In the near infrared (JHK_{s}) the CephIIs in globular clusters show a narrow, linear, period-luminosity relation over their whole period range (˜ 1 to 100 days). The CephIIs in the general field of the LMC follow this relation for periods shorter than ˜ 20 days. At longer period (the region of the RV Tau stars), the LMC field stars have a significant scatter and in the mean are more luminous than the PL relation. The OGLEIII optical data for the LMC field variables show similar trends. Infrared colours of stars in the RV Tau period range show marked mean differences between three groupings; the Galactic field, the LMC field, and globular clusters. In the case of the Galactic field, at least, this may be strongly influenced by selection effects. In the period range ˜ 4 to 20 days (the W Vir range) there are stars lying above the PL relation which may be recognized by their light curves and are all likely to be binaries. The bright Galactic variable, κ Pav probably belongs to this group. There is evidence that CephIIs in the general field (LMC and Galaxy) have a wider range of masses than those in globular clusters. At present the CephII PL zero-point depends on the pulsation parallaxes of two stars. Zero-points of RR Lyrae M_{V}-[Fe/H] and K_{s}-log P relations can be obtained from trigonometrical, statistical and pulsation parallaxes. These zero-points are compared with those for CephIIs and with the classical Cepheid scale using variables of these three types in the LMC. Within the uncertainties (˜ 0.1m) the various scales are in agreement.

  4. SPECTRA OF TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES AND RELATED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E. G.; Rogalla, Danielle; Thacker-Lynn, Lauren E-mail: drogall1@bigred.unl.edu

    2011-02-15

    We present low-resolution spectra for variable stars in the Cepheid period range from the ROTSE-I Demonstration Project and the All Sky Automated Survey, some of which were previously identified as type II Cepheid candidates. We have derived effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities from the spectra. Based on this, three types of variables were identified: Cepheid strip stars, cool stars that lie along the red subgiant and giant branch, and cool main-sequence stars. Many fewer type II Cepheids were found than expected and most have amplitudes less than 0.4 mag. The cool variables include many likely binaries as well as intrinsic variables. Variation among the main-sequence stars is likely to be mostly due to binarity or stellar activity.

  5. Cognitive, Medical, and Neuroimaging Characteristics of Attenuated Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Yund, Brianna; Rudser, Kyle; Ahmed, Alia; Kovac, Victor; Nestrasil, Igor; Raiman, Julian; Mamak, Eva; Harmatz, Paul; Steiner, Robert; Lau, Heather; Vekaria, Pooja; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Delaney, Kathleen; Whitley, Chester; Shapiro, Elsa G.

    2014-01-01

    The phenotype of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II), also called Hunter syndrome, has not been previously studied in systematic manner. In contrast to the “severe” phenotype, the “attenuated” phenotype does not present with behavioral or cognitive impairment; however the presence of mild behavior and cognitive impairment that might impact long term functional outcomes is unknown. Previously, significant MRI abnormalities have been found in MPS II. Recent evidence suggests white matter abnormalities in many MPS disorders. Methods As the initial cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal study, we studied the association of brain volumes and somatic disease burden with neuropsychological outcomes, including measures of intelligence, memory and attention in 20 patients with attenuated MPS II with a mean age of 15.8. MRI volumes were compared to 55 normal controls. Results While IQ and memory were average, measures of attention were one standard deviation below the average range. Corpus callosum volumes were significantly different from age-matched controls, differing by 22%. Normal age-related volume increases in white matter were not seen in MPS II patients as they were in controls. Somatic disease burden and white matter and corpus callosum volumes were significantly associated with attention deficits. Neither age at evaluation nor age at starting treatment predicted attention outcomes. Conclusions Despite average intelligence, attention is compromised in attenuated MPS II. Results confirm an important role of corpus callosum and cortical white matter abnormality in MPS II as well as the somatic disease burden in contributing to attention difficulties. Awareness by the patient and caregivers with appropriate management and symptomatic support will benefit the attenuated MPS II patient. PMID:25541100

  6. Isolation and Culture of Alveolar Epithelial Type I and Type II Cells from Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Robert F.; Dobbs, Leland G.

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary alveolar epithelium, comprised of alveolar Type I (TI) and Type II (TII) cells, covers more than 99% of the internal surface area of the lungs. The study of isolated and cultured alveolar epithelial TI and TII cells has provided a large amount of information about the functions of both cell types. This chapter provides information about methods for isolating and culturing both of these cell types from rat lungs. PMID:23097106

  7. Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and their Correlation with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, L. M.; Ledbetter, K.

    2015-08-01

    Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010 to 2013, we present an analysis of the 123 decametric–hectometric (DH) type II solar radio bursts during this period, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with solar energetic proton (SEP) properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We present a useful catalog of the type II burst, type III burst, Langmuir wave, and proton flux properties for these 123 events, which we employ to develop a statistical relationship between the radio properties and peak proton flux that can be used to forecast SEP events. We find that all SEP events with a peak \\gt 10 MeV flux above 15 protons cm‑2 s‑1 sr‑1 are associated with a type II burst and virtually all SEP events, 92%, are also associated with a type III radio burst. Based on a principal component analysis, the radio burst properties that are most highly correlated with the occurrence of gradual SEP events and account for the most variance in the radio properties are the type III burst intensity and duration. Further, a logistic regression analysis with the radio-derived principal component (dominated by the type III and type II radio burst intensity and type III duration) obtains SEP predictions approaching the human forecaster rates, with a false alarm rate of 22%, a probability of detection of 62%, and with 85% of the classifications correct. Therefore, type III radio bursts that occur along with a DH type II burst are shown to be an important diagnostic that can be used to forecast SEP events.

  8. Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honnappa, Vijayakumar; Raveesha, K. H.; Subramanian, K. R.

    Coronal magnetic fields from multiple type II bursts Vijayakumar H Doddamani1*, Raveesha K H2 and Subramanian3 1Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 2CMR Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India 3 Retd, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Karnataka state, India Abstract Magnetic fields play an important role in the astrophysical processes occurring in solar corona. In the solar atmosphere, magnetic field interacts with the plasma, producing abundant eruptive activities. They are considered to be the main factors for coronal heating, particle acceleration and the formation of structures like prominences, flares and Coronal Mass Ejections. The magnetic field in solar atmosphere in the range of 1.1-3 Rsun is especially important as an interface between the photospheric magnetic field and the solar wind. Its structure and time dependent change affects space weather by modifying solar wind conditions, Cho (2000). Type II doublet bursts can be used for the estimation of the strength of the magnetic field at two different heights. Two type II bursts occur sometimes in sequence. By relating the speed of the type II radio burst to Alfven Mach Number, the Alfven speed of the shock wave generating type II radio burst can be calculated. Using the relation between the Alfven speed and the mean frequency of emission, the magnetic field strength can be determined at a particular height. We have used the relative bandwidth and drift rate properties of multiple type II radio bursts to derive magnetic field strengths at two different heights and also the gradient of the magnetic field in the outer corona. The magnetic field strength has been derived for different density factors. It varied from 1.2 to 2.5 gauss at a solar height of 1.4 Rsun. The empirical relation of the variation of the magnetic field with height is found to be of the form B(R) = In the present case the power law index ‘γ’ varied from -3 to -2 for variation of

  9. Microanalysis of quantum dots with type II band alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarney, Wendy; Little, John; Svensson, Stefan

    2006-03-01

    We will discuss the structural characterization of a system consisting of undoped self-assembled InSb quantum dots having a type II band alignment with the surrounding In0.53Ga0.47As matrix. This differs from systems using conventional type-I quantum dots that must be doped and that rely on intersubband transitions for infrared photoresponse. Type II dots grown in a superlattice structure combine the advantages of quantum dots (3-dimensional confinement) with the tunability and photovoltaic operation of the type II superlattice. We grew a high surface density of InSb quantum dots with a narrow distribution of sizes and shapes and free of dislocations within the body of the dots. The dots are relaxed due to an array of misfit dislocations confined at the basal dot/matrix interface. This makes burying the dots with InGaAs not feasible without generating dislocations due to the large dot/matrix lattice mismatch. We are experimenting with strain-compensating or graded strain overlayers to lower the lattice mismatch.

  10. Type II restriction endonucleases—a historical perspective and more

    PubMed Central

    Pingoud, Alfred; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Wende, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This article continues the series of Surveys and Summaries on restriction endonucleases (REases) begun this year in Nucleic Acids Research. Here we discuss ‘Type II’ REases, the kind used for DNA analysis and cloning. We focus on their biochemistry: what they are, what they do, and how they do it. Type II REases are produced by prokaryotes to combat bacteriophages. With extreme accuracy, each recognizes a particular sequence in double-stranded DNA and cleaves at a fixed position within or nearby. The discoveries of these enzymes in the 1970s, and of the uses to which they could be put, have since impacted every corner of the life sciences. They became the enabling tools of molecular biology, genetics and biotechnology, and made analysis at the most fundamental levels routine. Hundreds of different REases have been discovered and are available commercially. Their genes have been cloned, sequenced and overexpressed. Most have been characterized to some extent, but few have been studied in depth. Here, we describe the original discoveries in this field, and the properties of the first Type II REases investigated. We discuss the mechanisms of sequence recognition and catalysis, and the varied oligomeric modes in which Type II REases act. We describe the surprising heterogeneity revealed by comparisons of their sequences and structures. PMID:24878924

  11. On the nature of rapidly fading Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Pruzhinskaya, Maria V.; Ergon, Mattias; Blinnikov, Sergei I.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that Type II supernovae with rapidly fading light curves (a.k.a. Type IIL supernovae) are explosions of progenitors with low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes which are of the order of 1 M⊙. We investigate light-curve properties of supernovae from such progenitors. We confirm that such progenitors lead to rapidly fading Type II supernovae. We find that the luminosity of supernovae from such progenitors with the canonical explosion energy of 1051 erg and 56Ni mass of 0.05 M⊙ can increase temporarily shortly before all the hydrogen in the envelope recombines. As a result, a bump appears in their light curves. The bump appears because the heating from the nuclear decay of 56Ni can keep the bottom of hydrogen-rich layers in the ejecta ionized, and thus the photosphere can stay there for a while. We find that the light-curve bump becomes less significant when we make explosion energy larger (≳2 × 1051 erg), 56Ni mass smaller (≲0.01 M⊙), 56Ni mixed in the ejecta, or the progenitor radius larger. Helium mixing in hydrogen-rich layers makes the light-curve decline rates large but does not help reducing the light-curve bump. Because the light-curve bump we found in our light-curve models has not been observed in rapidly fading Type II supernovae, they may be characterized by not only low-mass hydrogen-rich envelopes but also higher explosion energy, larger degrees of 56Ni mixing, and/or larger progenitor radii than slowly fading Type II supernovae, so that the light-curve bump does not become significant.

  12. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  13. K3-fibrations and heterotic-type II string duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, A.; Lerche, W.; Mayr, P.

    1995-02-01

    We analyze the map between heterotic and type II N = 2 supersymmetric string theories for certain two and three moduli examples found by Kachru and Vafa. The appearance of elliptic j-functions can be traced back to specializations of the Picard-Fuchs equations to systems for K3 surfaces. For the three-moduli example we write the mirror maps and Yukawa couplings in the weak coupling limit in terms of j-functions; the expressions agree with those obtained in perturbative calculations in the heterotic string in an impressive way. We also discuss symmetries of the world-sheet instanton numbers in the type II theory, and interpret them in terms of S-duality of the non-perturbative heterotic string.

  14. Unification of type-II strings and T duality.

    PubMed

    Hohm, Olaf; Kwak, Seung Ki; Zwiebach, Barton

    2011-10-21

    We present a unified description of the low-energy limits of type-II string theories. This is achieved by a formulation that doubles the space-time coordinates in order to realize the T-duality group O(10,10) geometrically. The Ramond-Ramond fields are described by a spinor of O(10,10), which couples to the gravitational fields via the Spin(10,10) representative of the so-called generalized metric. This theory, which is supplemented by a T-duality covariant self-duality constraint, unifies the type-II theories in that each of them is obtained for a particular subspace of the doubled space. PMID:22107505

  15. The ketogenic diet for type II bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Phelps, James R; Siemers, Susan V; El-Mallakh, Rif S

    2013-01-01

    Successful mood stabilizing treatments reduce intracellular sodium in an activity-dependent manner. This can also be achieved with acidification of the blood, as is the case with the ketogenic diet. Two women with type II bipolar disorder were able to maintain ketosis for prolonged periods of time (2 and 3 years, respectively). Both experienced mood stabilization that exceeded that achieved with medication; experienced a significant subjective improvement that was distinctly related to ketosis; and tolerated the diet well. There were no significant adverse effects in either case. These cases demonstrate that the ketogenic diet is a potentially sustainable option for mood stabilization in type II bipolar illness. They also support the hypothesis that acidic plasma may stabilize mood, perhaps by reducing intracellular sodium and calcium. PMID:23030231

  16. Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Type II Achalasia.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Jason; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-31

    It has been suggested that patients with certain motility disorders may progress overtime to develop achalasia. We describe a 66 year-old woman who presented with dysphagia for solids and liquids for a period of 18 months. Her initial workup showed normal endoscopy and non-specific esophageal motility disorder on conventional manometry. Six months later, due to persistence of symptoms, the patient underwent a high resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) demonstrating jackhammer esophagus. The patient was treated with a high dose proton pump inhibitor but without resolution of her symptoms. During the last year, the patient reported repeated episodes of food regurgitation and a significant weight loss. A repeat HREM revealed type II achalasia. Multiple case reports, and only a few prospective studies have demonstrated progression from certain esophageal motility disorders to achalasia. However, this report is the first to describe a case of jackhammer esophagus progressing to type II achalasia. PMID:26717932

  17. Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Type II Achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Jason; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with certain motility disorders may progress overtime to develop achalasia. We describe a 66 year-old woman who presented with dysphagia for solids and liquids for a period of 18 months. Her initial workup showed normal endoscopy and non-specific esophageal motility disorder on conventional manometry. Six months later, due to persistence of symptoms, the patient underwent a high resolution esophageal manometry (HREM) demonstrating jackhammer esophagus. The patient was treated with a high dose proton pump inhibitor but without resolution of her symptoms. During the last year, the patient reported repeated episodes of food regurgitation and a significant weight loss. A repeat HREM revealed type II achalasia. Multiple case reports, and only a few prospective studies have demonstrated progression from certain esophageal motility disorders to achalasia. However, this report is the first to describe a case of jackhammer esophagus progressing to type II achalasia. PMID:26717932

  18. THE CONNECTION OF TYPE II SPICULES TO THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.; McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Olluri, Kosovare

    2012-02-20

    We examine the hypothesis that plasma associated with 'Type II' spicules is heated to coronal temperatures, and that the upward moving hot plasma constitutes a significant mass supply to the solar corona. One-dimensional hydrodynamical models including time-dependent ionization are brought to bear on the problem. These calculations indicate that heating of field-aligned spicule flows should produce significant differential Doppler shifts between emission lines formed in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. At present, observational evidence for the computed 60-90 km s{sup -1} differential shifts is weak, but the data are limited by difficulties in comparing the proper motion of Type II spicules with spectral and kinematic properties of an associated transition region and coronal emission lines. Future observations with the upcoming infrared interferometer spectrometer instrument should clarify if Doppler shifts are consistent with the dynamics modeled here.

  19. Subclinical Onychomycosis in Patients With Type II Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    El Tawdy, Amira; Zaki, Naglaa; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Rateb, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Fungal organisms could be present in the nail without any clinical manifestations. As onychomycosis in diabetics has more serious complications, early detection of such infection could be helpful to prevent them. We aim in this study to assess the possibility of detecting subclinical onychomycosis in type II diabetic patients and addressing possible associated neuropathy. A cross sectional, observational study included patients with type II diabetes with normal big toe nail. All were subjected to nail clipping of the big toe nail, followed by staining with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic-Acid-Schiff (PAS) stains and examined microscopically. A total of 106 patients were included, fungal infection was identified in eight specimens, all were uncontrolled diabetes, and six had neuropathy. Using the nail clipping and microscopic examination with PAS stain to detect such subclinical infection could be an applicable screening test for diabetic patients, for early detection and management of onychomycosis. PMID:26734120

  20. ACCELERATION OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths {<=}50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are {approx}150-460 km s{sup -1}, horizontally localized within {approx}2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are {approx}20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached {approx}100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as {approx}100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be {approx}0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of {approx}10{sup 6} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  1. Nitric oxide alters metabolism in isolated alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Miles, P R; Bowman, L; Huffman, L

    1996-07-01

    Alveolar type II cells may be exposed to nitric oxide (.NO) from external sources, and these cells can also generate .NO. Therefore we studied the effects of altering .NO levels on various type II cell metabolic processes. Incubation of cells with the .NO generator, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 1 mM), leads to reductions of 60-70% in the synthesis of disaturated phosphatidylcholines (DSPC) and cell ATP levels. Cellular oxygen consumption, an indirect measure of cell ATP synthesis, is also reduced by SNAP. There is no direct effect of SNAP on lung mitochondrial ATP synthesis, suggesting that .NO does not directly inhibit this process. On the other hand, incubation of cells with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for .NO synthesis, results in increases in DSPC synthesis, cell ATP content, and cellular oxygen consumption. The L-NAME effects are reversed by addition of L-arginine, the substrate for NOS. Production of .NO by type II cells is inhibited by L-NAME, a better inhibitor of constitutive NOS (cNOS) than inducible NOS (iNOS), and is reduced in the absence of external calcium. Aminoguanidine, a specific inhibitor of iNOS, has no effect on cell ATP content or on .NO production. These results indicate that alveolar type II cell lipid and energy metabolism can be affected by .NO and suggest that there may be cNOS activity in these cells. PMID:8760128

  2. Gaia16alo is a Type II SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Mattila, S.; Harrison, D.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Blagorodnova, N.

    2016-05-01

    Gaia16alo (aka PS16cct) was observed using the robotic Liverpool Telescope + SPRAT (R~350; 400-800 nm) on the night of 2016 May 6. The spectrum was compared to a set of templates using SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), and we find a best match to a range of Type II SNe at z=0.03.

  3. Acceleration of Type II Spicules in the Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    A 2.5 D, time dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions, and that maximum vertical flow speeds can be comparable to slow solar wind speeds ˜ 200-400 km/sec. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules, and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths ≤ 50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. The maximum vertical flow speeds are ˜ 150-460 km-sec-1, and horizontally localized within ˜ 2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules on sub-resolution, horizontal spatial scales. Vertical flow speeds with Mach numbers > ˜ 5 extend over horizontal regions with diameters ˜ 25-50 km. Horizontal speeds are ˜ 20 times smaller than maximum vertical speeds. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during the acceleration process is 2-3 × 1022 ergs, which is ˜ 5 times smaller than nanoflare energies. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as ˜ 100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation, and can be ˜ 0.1 - 3.7 times the heating flux of ˜ 106 ergs-cm-2-s-1 associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. The maximum heating rate and vertical flow speed are respectively reached ˜ 23 s and 100 s after acceleration begins, indicating that most heating occurs well before terminal velocity is reached. About 84-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  4. Shock waves and nucleosynthesis in type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aufderheide, M. B.; Baron, E.; Thielemann, F.-K.

    1991-01-01

    In the study of nucleosynthesis in type II SN, shock waves are initiated artificially, since collapse calculations do not, as yet, give self-consistent shock waves strong enough to produce the SN explosion. The two initiation methods currently used by light-curve modelers are studied, with a focus on the peak temperatures and the nucleosynthetic yields in each method. The various parameters involved in artificially initiating a shock wave and the effects of varying these parameters are discussed.

  5. Systematic identification of type I and type II interferon-induced antiviral factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, David Jesse; Aliyari, Roghiyh; Lu, Sun; Cheng, Genhong

    2012-03-13

    Type I and type II interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that establish the cellular antiviral state through the induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We sought to understand the basis of the antiviral activity induced by type I and II IFNs in relation to the functions of their ISGs. Based on gene expression studies, we systematically identified antiviral ISGs by performing blinded, functional screens on 288 type I and type II ISGs. We assessed and validated the antiviral activity of these ISGs against an RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), and a DNA virus, murine gammaherpes virus (MHV-68). Overall, we identified 34 ISGs that elicited an antiviral effect on the replication of either one or both viruses. Fourteen ISGs have uncharacterized antiviral functions. We further defined ISGs that affect critical life-cycle processes in expression of VSV protein and MHV-68 immediate-early genes. Two previously undescribed antiviral ISGs, TAP1 and BMP2, were further validated. TAP1-deficient fibroblasts were more susceptible to VSV infection but less so to MHV-68 infection. On the other hand, exogenous BMP2 inhibits MHV-68 lytic growth but did not affect VSV growth. These results delineate common and distinct sets of type I and type II IFN-induced genes as well as identify unique ISGs that have either broad or specific antiviral effects on these viruses. PMID:22371602

  6. Coronas Mass Ejections, Shocks, and Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most energetic phenomena in the interplanetary medium. Type II radio bursts are the earliest indicators of particle acceleration by CME-driven shocks. There is one-to-one correspondence between large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and long wavelength type II bursts because the same CME-driven shock is supposed to accelerate electrons and ions. However, there are some significant deviations: some CMEs lacking type II bursts (radio-quiet or RQ CMEs) are associated with small SEP events while some radioloud (RL) CMEs are not associated with SEP events, suggesting subtle differences in the acceleration of electrons and protons. Not all CME-driven shocks are radio loud: more than one third of the interplanetary shocks during solar cycle 23 were radio quiet. Some RQ shocks were associated with energetic storm particle (ESP) events, which are detected when the shocks arrive at the observing spacecraft. This paper attempts to explain these contradictory results in terms of the properties of CMEs, shocks, and the ambient medium.

  7. Type-II superlattice infrared detector technology at Fraunhofer IAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Daumer, Volker; Hugger, Tsvetelina; Kohn, Norbert; Luppold, Wolfgang; Müller, Raphael; Niemasz, Jasmin; Schmidt, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Stadelmann, Tim; Wauro, Matthias; Wörl, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    For more than two decades, Antimony-based type-II superlattice photodetectors for the infrared spectral range between 3-15 μm are under development at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF). Today, Fraunhofer IAF is Germany's only national foundry for InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice detectors and we cover a wide range of aspects from basic materials research to small series production in this field. We develop single-element photodetectors for sensing systems as well as two-dimensional detector arrays for high-performance imaging and threat warning systems in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength region of the thermal infrared. We continuously enhance our production capabilities by extending our in-line process control facilities. As a recent example, we present a semiautomatic wafer probe station that has developed into an important tool for electrooptical characterization. A large amount of the basic materials research focuses on the reduction of the dark current by the development of bandgap engineered device designs on the basis of heterojunction concepts. Recently, we have successfully demonstrated Europe's first LWIR InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice imager with 640x512 pixels with 15 μm pitch. The demonstrator camera already delivers a good image quality and achieves a thermal resolution better than 30 mK.

  8. Subcellular dynamics of type II PKA in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Haining; Sia, Gek-Ming; Sato, Takashi R.; Gray, Noah W.; Mao, Tianyi; Khuchua, Zaza; Huganir, Richard L.; Svoboda, Karel

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein kinase A (PKA) plays multiple roles in neurons. The localization and specificity of PKA are largely controlled by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). However, the dynamics of PKA in neurons, and the roles of specific AKAPs, are poorly understood. We imaged the distribution of type II PKA in hippocampal and cortical layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in vitro and in vivo. PKA was concentrated in dendritic shafts compared to the soma, axons and dendritic spines. This spatial distribution was imposed by the microtubule-binding protein MAP2, indicating that MAP2 is the dominant AKAP in neurons. Following cAMP elevation, catalytic subunits dissociated from the MAP2-tethered regulatory subunits and rapidly moved to become enriched in nearby spines. The spatial gradient of type II PKA between dendritic shafts and spines was critical for the regulation of synaptic strength and long-term potentiation. The localization and activity-dependent translocation of type II PKA are therefore important determinants of PKA function. PMID:19447092

  9. Defects and noise in Type-II superlattice infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Martin; Wörl, Andreas; Daumer, Volker; Rehm, Robert; Kirste, Lutz; Rutz, Frank; Schmitz, Johannes

    2013-06-01

    To examine defects in InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices we investigated GaSb substrates and epitaxial InAs/GaSb layers by synchrotron white beam X-ray topography to characterize the distribution of threading dislocations. Those measurements are compared with wet chemical etch pit density measurements on GaSb substrates and InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices epitaxial layer structures. The technique uses a wet chemical etch process to decorate threading dislocations and an automated optical analyzing system for mapping the defect distribution. Dark current and noise measurements on processed InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice single element photo diodes reveal a generation-recombination limited dark current behavior without contributions by surface leakage currents for midwavelength infrared detectors. In the white noise part of the noise spectrum, the extracted diode noise closely matches the theoretically expected shot noise behavior. For diodes with an increased dark current in comparison to the dark current of generation-recombination limited material, the standard shot-noise model fails to describe the noise experimentally observed in the white part of the spectrum. Instead, we find that McIntyre's noise model for avalanche multiplication processes fits the data quite well. We suggest that within high electric field domains localized around crystallographic defects, electrons initiate avalanche multiplication processes leading to increased dark current and excess noise.

  10. Perinatal lethal type II osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Imene Dahmane; Hamida, Emira Ben; Rebeh, Rania Ben; Chaouachi, Sihem; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type II which is a perinatal lethal form. First trimester ultrasound didn't identified abnormalities. Second trimester ultrasound showed incurved limbs, narrow chest, with hypomineralization and multiple fractures of ribs and long bones. Parents refused pregnancy termination; they felt that the diagnosis was late. At birth, the newborn presented immediate respiratory distress. Postnatal examination and bone radiography confirmed the diagnosis of OI type IIA. Death occurred on day 25 of life related to respiratory failure. PMID:26401205

  11. Transforming growth factor receptor type II (ec-TβR II) behaves as a halophile.

    PubMed

    Saini, Komal; Khan, M Ashhar I; Chakrapani, Sumit; Deep, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    The members of transforming growth factor β family (TGF-β) are multifunctional proteins but their main role is to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Polypeptides of TGF-β family function by binding to two related, functionally distinct transmembrane receptor kinases, first to the type II (TβR II) followed by type I receptor (TβR I). The paper describes, in details, the stability of wt-ec-TβR II under different conditions. The stability of wt-ec-TβR II was observed at different pH and salt concentration using fluorescence spectroscopy. Stability of ec-TβR II decreases with decrease in pH. Interestingly, the addition of salt increases the stability of the TβRII at pH 5.0 as observed for halophiles. Computational analysis using DELPHI suggests that this is probably due to the decrease in repulsion between negatively charged residues at surface on the addition of salt. This is further confirmed by the change in the stability of receptor on mutation of some of the residues (D32A) at surface. PMID:25316422

  12. A study of low-energy type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisakov, Sergey M.; Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Waldman, Roni; Livne, Eli

    2015-08-01

    All stars with an initial mass greater than 8Msun, but not massive enough to encounter the pair-production instability, eventually form a degenerate core and collapse to form a compact object, either a neutron star or a black hole.At the lower mass end, these massive stars die as red-supergiant stars and give rise to Type II supernovae (SNe). The diversity of observed properties of SNe II suggests a range of progenitor mass, radii, but also explosion energy.We have performed a large grid simulations designed to cover this range of progenitor and explosion properties. Using MESA STAR, we compute a set of massive star models (12-30Msun) from the main sequence until core collapse. We then generate explosions with V1D to produce ejecta with a range of explosion energies and yields. Finally, all ejecta are evolved with CMFGEN to generate multi-band light curves and spectra.In this poster, we focus our attention on the properties of low-energy explosions that give rise to low-luminosity Type II Plateau (II-P) SNe. In particular, we present a detailed study of SN 2008bk, but also include other notorious low-energy SNe II-P like 2005cs, emphasising their non-standard properties by comparing to models that match well events like SN 1999em. Such low-energy explosions, characterised by low ejecta expansion rates, are more suitable for reliable spectral line identifications.Based on our models, we discuss the distinct signatures of low-energy explosions in lower and higher mass models. One important goal is to identify whether there is a progenitor-mass bias leading to such events.

  13. Quantitative spectroscopy of photospheric-phase type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, L.; Hillier, D. J.

    2005-07-01

    We present first results on the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the photospheric-phase of type II supernovae (SN). The analyses are based on the model atmosphere code, CMFGEN, of Hillier & Miller (1998) which solves the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations in expanding outflows under the constraint of radiative equilibrium. A key asset of CMFGEN is its thorough treatment of line-blanketing due to metal species. From its applicability to hot star environments, the main modifications to the source code were to allow a linear velocity law, a power-law density distribution, an adaptive grid to handle the steep H recombination/ionization front occurring in some SN models, and a routine to compute the gray temperature structure in the presence of large velocities. In this first paper we demonstrate the ability of CMFGEN to reproduce, with a high level of accuracy, the UV and optical observations of a sample of well observed type II SN, i.e. SN1987A and SN1999em, at representative stages of their photospheric evolution. Two principal stages of SN are modeled that where hydrogen is fully ionized, and that in which H is only partially ionized. For models with an effective temperature below ~8000 K, hydrogen recombines and gives rise to a steep ionization front. The effect of varying the location of the outer grid radius on the spectral energy distribution (SED) is investigated. We find that going to 5-6 times the optically-thick base radius is optimal, since above that, the model becomes prohibitively large, while below this, significant differences appear because of the reduced line-blanketing (which persists even far above the photosphere) and the truncation of line-formation regions. To constrain the metallicity and the reddening of SN, the UV spectral region of early-time spectra is essential. We find that the density of the photosphere and effect of line blanketing decline as the spatial scale of the SN increases. The density distribution is

  14. Increased incidence of neonatal respiratory distress in infants with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II, Hunter syndrome).

    PubMed

    Dodsworth, Charlotte; Burton, Barbara K

    2014-02-01

    Records were reviewed on all patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) seen at a single institution from 1999 to 2013 to identify those with a history of neonatal intensive care. Eleven of 34 patients were in a neonatal intensive care unit and all had respiratory distress with 8 diagnoses of respiratory distress syndrome and 3 of transient tachypnea of the newborn. None of the infants were premature; four were delivered by cesarean section. These findings suggest that respiratory distress is more commonly observed in neonates with MPS II than in the general population. This may reflect airway disease already present in this disorder at the time of birth. PMID:24238892

  15. Observations of On-Disk Type I and II Spicules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Na; Denker, C.; Verma, M.; Shimizu, T.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.

    2011-05-01

    A coordinated observing campaign was carried out during 2010 November 16-30 using German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) and Hinode to investigate properties of small-scale spicules on the solar disk. The high-spectral resolution Echelle spectrograph at the VTT on Tenerife acquired spectra of the chromospheric halpha (656.28 nm) and photospheric Fe I (656.92 nm) lines in a region centered on a small pore. Hinode mission provides high-cadence vector magnetograms, G-band and Ca II H images, EIS and XRT observations of the same region. We present statistical properties of spicules (type I and II), such as spectral characteristics, velocities, spatial distribution and temporal evolution, paying particular attention to type II spicules or chromospheric jets. We investigate the photospheric magnetic structure, flow field and their evolution attempting to find the origin of chromospheric jets. The vertical extent of identified chromospheric jets in the transition region and corona will be studied using EIS and XRT observations in conjunction with SDO observations.

  16. Vacuum stability and naturalness in type-II seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Okada, Nobuchika; Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2016-06-01

    We study the vacuum stability and perturbativity conditions in the minimal type-II seesaw model. These conditions give characteristic constraints to the model parameters. In the model, there is a SU(2)_L triplet scalar field, which could cause a large Higgs mass correction. From the naturalness point of view, heavy Higgs masses should be lower than 350 GeV, which may be testable by the LHC Run-II results. Due to the effects of the triplet scalar field, the branching ratios of the Higgs decay (h→ γ γ , Zγ ) deviate from the standard model, and a large parameter region is excluded by the recent ATLAS and CMS combined analysis of h→ γ γ . Our result of the signal strength for h→ γ γ is R_{γ γ } lesssim 1.1, but its deviation is too small to observe at the LHC experiment.

  17. Distinct type I and type II toxin-antitoxin modules control Salmonella lifestyle inside eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Moreno-Córdoba, Inmaculada; Figueroa, Virginia; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; García-del Portillo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules contribute to the generation of non-growing cells in response to stress. These modules abound in bacterial pathogens although the bases for this profusion remain largely unknown. Using the intracellular bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model, here we show that a selected group of TA modules impact bacterial fitness inside eukaryotic cells. We characterized in this pathogen twenty-seven TA modules, including type I and type II TA modules encoding antisense RNA and proteinaceous antitoxins, respectively. Proteomic and gene expression analyses revealed that the pathogen produces numerous toxins of TA modules inside eukaryotic cells. Among these, the toxins HokST, LdrAST, and TisBST, encoded by type I TA modules and T4ST and VapC2ST, encoded by type II TA modules, promote bacterial survival inside fibroblasts. In contrast, only VapC2ST shows that positive effect in bacterial fitness when the pathogen infects epithelial cells. These results illustrate how S. Typhimurium uses distinct type I and type II TA modules to regulate its intracellular lifestyle in varied host cell types. This function specialization might explain why the number of TA modules increased in intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:25792384

  18. Geochemistry of the alginite and amorphous organic matter from type II-S kerogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stankiewicz, B.A.; Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Salmon, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Maceral fractions of the Type II-S kerogens from the Monterey Formation (Miocene. California. U.S.A.) and Duwi Formation (Campanian/Maastrichtian, Egypt) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. The Monterey Fm. kerogen sample was comprised chiefly of light red-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM), the flash pyrolyzate of which was characterized by a predominance of alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes and alkylpyrroles. In contrast, the pyrolyzates of its alginite concentrate showed a highly aliphatic character, typical of this maceral, with the series of n-alkenes and n-alkanes (C6- C26) predominating. The pyrolyzate of the dominant light brown-fluorescing AOM of the Duwi Fm. kerogen had a relatively high concentration of alkylbenzenes and alkylthiophenes, while its elginite concentrate showed a more aliphatic character upon pyrolysis. There was a marked enrichment of thiophenic sulfur in the light-colored AOM of both samples (and also pyrrolic nitrogen in the case of the Monterey) relative to the alginite. The results support a bacterially-mediated, degradative origin for Type II-S amorphous organic matter, with algal remains as the primary source of the kerogen.

  19. Oral magnesium supplementation in type II diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Solati, Mehrdad; Ouspid, Elham; Hosseini, Saeedeh; Soltani, Nepton; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Dehghani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation. It plays an important role in insulin homeostasis and glucose metabolism through multiple enzymatic reactions. With increasing data on magnesium deficiency in diabetic patients and epidemiological studies demonstrating magnesium deficiency as a risk factor for diabetes, it is logical to search for its possible beneficial effects on diabetes control and prevention. We aimed to determine whether oral magnesium supplementation improves metabolic control, lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: Fifty four patients with type II diabetes were included in a randomized double blind placebocontrolled clinical trial.Patients received either placebo or 300 mg elemental magnesium (as magnesium sulfate -MgSo4-) daily, for 3 months. Metabolic control, lipid profile, blood pressure, magnesium status, hepatic enzymes, hemoglobin concentration, and anthropometric indices were determined in the beginning and at the end of the study. Results: Daily administration of 300 mg elemental magnesium for 3 months, significantly improved fasting blood glucose (183.9±15.43 to 125.8±6.52 vs. 196.5±28.12 to 136.5±7.94, p< 0.0001), 2-hour post prandial glucose (239.1±74.75 to 189.1±60mg/dl vs. 246.4±97.37 to 247.8±86.74mg/dl, p< 0.01), lipid profile, blood pressure and hepatic enzymes. Conclusion: Oral magnesium supplementation with proper dosage has beneficial effects on blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes. PMID:25405132

  20. Cognitive Dysfunction Is Worse among Pediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder Type I than Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…

  1. Type II reaction without erythema nodosum leprosum masquerading as lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rahul; Dogra, Sunil; Kaur, Inderjeet; Yadav, Savita; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Budania, Anil

    2012-12-01

    Lepromatous leprosy is a multisystem disease that can involve many organ systems, with lymph nodes a common extra-cutaneous site to be affected. Rarely, multibacillary leprosy can be confused with other diseases like lymphomas and connective tissue diseases. Herein we report a patient of lepromatous leprosy with Type II lepra reaction involving lymph nodes who presented with generalised lymphadenopathy, acquired ichthyosis and constitutional symptoms but no cutaneous lesions to suggest erythema nodosum leprosum, and who was initially misdiagnosed as a case of Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:23614256

  2. Paradoxical hypertension and salt wasting in Type II Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie Kwai-Yu; To, Ka Fai; Tong, Joanna H M; Law, Chi Wai

    2012-06-01

    Ante/neonatal Bartter syndrome (BS) is a rare hereditary disorder. It is characterized by renal salt wasting, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, high renin and aldosterone but normal blood pressure. We report a low birth weight newborn baby who presented with repeated apnoea shortly after birth as well as hyponatraemia, hypochloraemia, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis. Her biochemical features mimicked pseudohypoaldosteronism but with initial hypertension, which had not been described in BS. Her subsequent genetic study confirmed two novel heterozygous mutations in the Exon 5 of KCNJ1 compatible with Type II BS. PMID:26069767

  3. Anaphase chromatid motion: involvement of type II DNA topoisomerases.

    PubMed Central

    Duplantier, B; Jannink, G; Sikorav, J L

    1995-01-01

    Sister chromatids are topologically intertwined at the onset of anaphase: their segregation during anaphase is known to require strand-passing activity by type II DNA topoisomerase. We propose that the removal of the intertwinings involves at the same time the traction of the mitotic spindle and the activity of topoisomerases. This implies that the velocity of the chromatids is compatible with the kinetic constraints imposed by the enzymatic reaction. We show that the greatest observed velocities (about 0.1 microns s-1) are close to the theoretical upper bound compatible with both the diffusion rate (calculated here within a probabilistic model) and the measured reaction rate of the enzyme. PMID:8534830

  4. Predictive data modeling of human type II diabetes related statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Kristina L.; Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Albritton, Nathaniel G.

    2009-04-01

    During the course of routine Type II treatment of one of the authors, it was decided to derive predictive analytical Data Models of the daily sampled vital statistics: namely weight, blood pressure, and blood sugar, to determine if the covariance among the observed variables could yield a descriptive equation based model, or better still, a predictive analytical model that could forecast the expected future trend of the variables and possibly eliminate the number of finger stickings required to montior blood sugar levels. The personal history and analysis with resulting models are presented.

  5. Interaction of ultrasound with vortices in type-II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sonin, E.B.

    1996-04-01

    The theory of ultrasound in the mixed state of type-II superconductors is suggested which takes into account the Magnus force on vortices, the anti-Magnus force on ions, and diamagnetism of the mixed state. The acoustic Faraday effect (rotation of polarization of the transverse ultrasonic wave propagating along vortices) is linear in the Magnus force in any regime of the flux flow for wavelengths now used in the ultrasound experiments. Therefore, in contrast to previous predictions, the Faraday effect should be looked for only in clean superconductors with a strong Magnus force. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Type II superstring field theory: geometric approach and operadic description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčo, Branislav; Münster, Korbinian

    2013-04-01

    We outline the construction of type II superstring field theory leading to a geometric and algebraic BV master equation, analogous to Zwiebach's construction for the bosonic string. The construction uses the small Hilbert space. Elementary vertices of the non-polynomial action are described with the help of a properly formulated minimal area problem. They give rise to an infinite tower of superstring field products defining a {N} = 1 generalization of a loop homotopy Lie algebra, the genus zero part generalizing a homotopy Lie algebra. Finally, we give an operadic interpretation of the construction.

  7. d-Brane Instantons in Type II Orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Cvetič, Mirjam; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo

    2009-11-01

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of d-brane instantons in [Formula: see text] supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract d-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function, and higher fermionic F-terms, and we briefly discuss the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy d-brane instantons for the construction of semirealistic models of particle physics or supersymmetry breaking in compact and noncompact geometries.

  8. Levitation of a magnet over a flat type II superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, F.; Gyorgy, E.M.; Johnson D.W. Jr.; O'Bryan, H.M.; Sherwood, R.C.

    1988-01-15

    Levitation of a magnet over a type II superconductor where the field at the superconductor exceeds H/sub c//sub 1/ is described and shown. The penetration and pinning of the flux lines in the superconductor cause the position of the magnet to be stable over a flat disk; a complete Meissner effect would make this position unstable. Furthermore, the observed dependence of the height of levitation on such variables as the thickness of the superconducting disk and the size of the magnet are consistent with a model described in this paper based on the energy cost of flux penetration through vortices and inconsistent with a Meissner effect model.

  9. Progress in MBE grown type-II superlattice photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the status of GaSb/InAs type-II superlattice diodes grown and fabricated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed for infrared absorption in the 8-12(mu)m range. Recent devices have produced detectivities as high as 8x10 to the tenth power Jones with a differential resistance-area product greater than 6 Ohmcm(sup 2) at 80K with a long wavelength cutoff of approximately 12(mu)m. The measured quantum efficiency of these front-side illuminated devices is close to 30% in the 10-11(mu)m range without antireflection coatings.

  10. [Achondrogenesis type II-hypochondrogenesis: radiological features.Case report].

    PubMed

    Delgado Carrasco, J; Casanova Morcillo, A; Zabalza Alvillos, M; Ayala Garcés, A

    2001-12-01

    We present a case of lethal dysplasia in the neonatal period. The abnormality was suspected after ultrasonography of a pregnant woman presenting weak fetal movements revealed shortening of the extremities, voluminous cranium and polyhydramnios. Clinical and radiological findings showed platyspondylic dwarfism with short extremities, narrow thorax and hydropic appearance. The infant died on the third day of life from progressive respiratory distress. In the absence of histological, chondro-osseus and molecular studies, detailed clinical and radiological studies, as well as the lethal evolution during the neonatal period, guided the diagnosis of hypochondrogenesis. This entity, together with achondrogenesis II (and other dysplasias), forms part of the same spectrum of collagen type II abnormalities produced by a defect in the gene (COL2A1) that codifies collagen II, located in chromosome 12 I(12q13.1-13.2). When a heterozygote is produced, transmission is dominant autosomal. The phenotype shows wide variation and severity depends on the mechanism and location of the mutation. The definitive diagnosis is given by cytomolecular studies, while individualization of the different entities is based on histological data from the cartilage; clinical findings and skeletal radiology serve as a guide. PMID:11730591

  11. The Afterglows of Swift-era Gamma-Ray Bursts. II. Type I GRB versus Type II GRB Optical Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Zhang, B.; Covino, S.; Butler, N. R.; Malesani, D.; Nakar, E.; Wilson, A. C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Chincarini, G.; Cobb, B. E.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Della Valle, M.; Ferrero, P.; Fugazza, D.; Gorosabel, J.; Israel, G. L.; Mannucci, F.; Piranomonte, S.; Schulze, S.; Stella, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Wiersema, K.

    2011-06-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been separated into two classes, originally along the lines of duration and spectral properties, called "short/hard" and "long/soft." The latter have been conclusively linked to the explosive deaths of massive stars, while the former are thought to result from the merger or collapse of compact objects. In recent years, indications have been accumulating that the short/hard versus long/soft division does not map directly onto what would be expected from the two classes of progenitors, leading to a new classification scheme called Type I and Type II which is based on multiple observational criteria. We use a large sample of GRB afterglow and prompt-emission data (adding further GRB afterglow observations in this work) to compare the optical afterglows (or the lack thereof) of Type I GRBs with those of Type II GRBs. In comparison to the afterglows of Type II GRBs, we find that those of Type I GRBs have a lower average luminosity and show an intrinsic spread of luminosities at least as wide. From late and deep upper limits on the optical transients, we establish limits on the maximum optical luminosity of any associated supernova (SN), confirming older works and adding new results. We use deep upper limits on Type I GRB optical afterglows to constrain the parameter space of possible mini-SN emission associated with a compact-object merger. Using the prompt-emission data, we search for correlations between the parameters of the prompt emission and the late optical afterglow luminosities. We find tentative correlations between the bolometric isotropic energy release and the optical afterglow luminosity at a fixed time after the trigger (positive), and between the host offset and the luminosity (negative), but no significant correlation between the isotropic energy release and the duration of the GRBs. We also discuss three anomalous GRBs, GRB 060505, GRB 060614, and GRB 060121, in light of their optical afterglow luminosities. Based in part

  12. Type II Hermite-Pade approximation to the exponential function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuijlaars, A. B. J.; Stahl, H.; van Assche, W.; Wielonsky, F.

    2007-10-01

    We obtain strong and uniform asymptotics in every domain of the complex plane for the scaled polynomials a(3nz), b(3nz), and c(3nz) where a, b, and c are the type II Hermite-Pade approximants to the exponential function of respective degrees 2n+2, 2n and 2n, defined by and as z-->0. Our analysis relies on a characterization of these polynomials in terms of a 3x3 matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem which, as a consequence of the famous Mahler relations, corresponds by a simple transformation to a similar Riemann-Hilbert problem for type I Hermite-Pade approximants. Due to this relation, the study that was performed in previous work, based on the Deift-Zhou steepest descent method for Riemann-Hilbert problems, can be reused to establish our present results.

  13. All AdS7 solutions of type II supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apruzzi, Fabio; Fazzi, Marco; Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    In M-theory, the only AdS7 supersymmetric solutions are AdS7 × S 4 and its orbifolds. In this paper, we find and classify new supersymmetric solutions of the type AdS7 × M 3 in type II supergravity. While in IIB none exist, in IIA with Romans mass (which does not lift to M-theory) there are many new ones. We use a pure spinor approach reminiscent of generalized complex geometry. Without the need for any Ansatz, the system determines uniquely the form of the metric and fluxes, up to solving a system of ODEs. Namely, the metric on M 3 is that of an S 2 fibered over an interval; this is consistent with the Sp(1) R-symmetry of the holographically dual (1,0) theory. By including D8 brane sources, one can numerically obtain regular solutions, where topologically M 3 ≅ S 3.

  14. Imaging of the symptomatic type II accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Mosel, Leigh D; Kat, Evelyn; Voyvodic, Frank

    2004-06-01

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type II accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema. PMID:15230772

  15. Feeding problems and malnutrition in spinal muscular atrophy type II.

    PubMed

    Messina, Sonia; Pane, Marika; De Rose, Paola; Vasta, Isabella; Sorleti, Domenica; Aloysius, Annie; Sciarra, Federico; Mangiola, Fortunato; Kinali, Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a survey using a dedicated questionnaire to assess feeding difficulties and weight gain in a population of 122 Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) type II patients, aged between 1 and 47 years. All the answers were entered in a database and were analysed subdividing the cohort into age groups (1-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-19, 20-29, and 30-50 years). Six out of our 122 patients (5%), all younger than 11 years, had weights more than 2SD above the median for age matched controls, whilst 45 (37%) had weights less than 2SD below the median. Chewing difficulties were reported in 34 of the 122 patients (28%) and limitation in the ability to open the mouth in 36 (30%) and both were increasingly more frequent with age. Swallowing difficulties were reported in 30 patients (25%). The results of our survey suggest that a number of patients with SMA type II have limited jaw opening, and chewing and swallowing difficulties. Our findings raise a few issues concerning standards of care that should be implemented in the monitoring and management of feeding difficulties and weight gain. PMID:18420410

  16. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayoya, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.

  17. Progress with type-II superlattice IR detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhiger, David R.; Kvaas, Robert E.; Harris, Sean F.; Bornfreund, Richard E.; Thai, Yen N.; Hill, Cory J.; Li, Jian V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Mumolo, Jason M.

    2007-04-01

    We report progress in the development of long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) built on type-II strained layer InAs/GaSb superlattice materials. Work at Raytheon Vision Systems and Jet Propulsion Laboratory has led to successful devices with cutoff wavelengths in the 10 to 12 μm range. Pixels have been formed by wet etching and surface passivation by plasma-deposited silicon dioxide. We present test results on arrays hybridized with indium bump bonding to silicon readout integrated circuits, as well as analyses of current-voltage characteristics of individual diodes. In particular, we find that, at temperatures below about 70 K the leakage current is dominated by generation-recombination effects near zero bias and by trap-assisted tunneling in reverse bias. Although other authors have demonstrated imaging for SWIR and MWIR type-II superlattice devices, to our knowledge no one has done so prior to 2006 in the LWIR range. We have obtained both still and video imaging with 256×256 arrays with 30-μm pixels operating at 78 K, having high operability and a cutoff wavelength of 10.5 μm.

  18. Vitamin D - Dependent Rickets, Type II Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Hoxha, Rina; Grajçevci-Uka, Violeta; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work the report of one case with vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II. Methods: Diagnosis has been established based on anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory findings and radiological examination. Results: A female child (age 25 months) has been hospitalized due to bone deformity, bone pain, alopecia and walking difficulties. The laboratory findings have revealed that the calcium values was low (1.20 mmol/L), phosphates in the reference value (1.30 mmol/L) the alkaline phosphatase value was quite high (852 IU/L), high value of parathyroid hormone (9.21 pmol/L), normal value of 25- hydroxyvitamin D, whereas the values of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was high (185 μmol/L). Radiographic changes were evident and typical in the distal metaphysis of radius and ulna as well as in the bones of lower limbs (distal metaphysis of femur and proximal metaphysis of tibia and fibula). After treatment with calcium and calcitriol, the above mentioned clinical manifestations, laboratory test values and the radiographic changes in bones withdrew. Conclusions: Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type II is a rare genetic recessive disease, and its treatment includes a constant use of calcium and calcitriol. PMID:24757409

  19. Relationships between type I and type II chondrules: Implications on chondrule formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Johan; Libourel, Guy; Soulié, Camille

    2015-07-01

    In unequilibrated chondrites, the ferromagnesian silicates in chondrules exhibit wide ranges of mg# = Mg/(Mg + Fe), allowing to sub-divide porphyritic chondrules into either type I (mg# > 0.9) or type II (mg# < 0.9). Although both chondrule types formed under oxidizing conditions relative to the canonical solar nebula, it is generally inferred that type II chondrules formed in more oxidizing conditions than type I. In order to check whether this redox difference was established during chondrule formation, or reflects differences in their precursors, we have undertaken a set of experiments aimed at heating type I olivine-rich (A) chondrule proxy, i.e. forsterite + Fe metal + Ca-Mg-Si-Al glass mixtures, under oxidizing conditions. We show that high temperature (isothermal) oxidation of type IA-like assemblages is a very efficient and rapid process (e.g. few tens of minutes) to form textures similar to type IIA chondrules. Due to the rapid dissolution of Fe metal blebs, a FeO increase in the melt and in combination with the dissolution of magnesian olivine allows the melt to reach ferroan olivine saturation. Crystallization of ferroan olivine occurs either as new crystal in the mesostasis or as overgrowths on the remaining unresorbed forsterite grains (relicts). Interruption of this process at any time before its completion by rapid cooling allows to reproduce the whole range of textures and chemical diversity observed in type A chondrules, i.e. from type I to type II. Several implications on chondrule formation processes can be inferred from the presented experiments. Type I chondrules or fragments of type I chondrules are very likely the main precursor material involved in the formation of most type II chondrules. Formation of porphyritic olivine type II chondrules is very likely the result of processes generating crystal growth by chemical disequilibrium at high temperature rather than processes generating crystallization only by cooling rates. This questions the

  20. Neutrinos from type II supernovae - The first 100 milliseconds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myra, Eric S.; Burrows, Adam

    1990-01-01

    The collapse of a 1.17 solar mass iron core is numerically followed through infall to 100 ms past core bounce, and the emergent neutrino spectra during each phase are highlighted. It is found that, even with fairly optimistic conditions for producing a strong, sustained core-bounce shock wave, the prompt shock stalls within 9 ms of core bounce at a radius of less than 250 km. It appears that a radical change in the character of the progenitor core or in our understanding of the relevant physics of stellar collapse is needed before the direct mechanism for type II supernovae can become viable. Expanding the number of neutrino types from one to six magnifies the debilitating effect of neutrino loss on shock propagation. At shock breakout, prompt bursts of all neutrino types are observed. The luminosities of the nonelectron types show a sudden turn-on in luminosity while that of the electron neutrinos steadily increases throughout infall as a result of accelerating electron capture.

  1. Metallicity from Type II supernovae from the (i)PTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddia, F.; Moquist, P.; Sollerman, J.; Rubin, A.; Leloudas, G.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Cao, Y.; Filippenko, A. V.; Graham, M. L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Pan, Y.-C.; Silverman, J. M.; Xu, D.; Yaron, O.

    2016-03-01

    Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) have recently been proposed as metallicity (Z) probes. The spectral models of Dessart et al. (2014, MNRAS, 440, 1856) showed that the pseudo-equivalent width of Fe ii λ5018 (pEW5018) during the plateau phase depends on the primordial Z, but there was a paucity of SNe IIP exhibiting pEW5018 that were compatible with Z < 0.4 Z⊙. This lack might be due to some physical property of the SN II population or to the fact that those SNe have been discovered in luminous, metal-rich targeted galaxies. Here we use SN II observations from the untargeted (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF] survey, aiming to investigate the pEW5018 distribution of this SN population and, in particular, to look for the presence of SNe II at lower Z. We perform pEW5018 measurements on the spectra of a sample of 39 (i)PTF SNe II, selected to have well-constrained explosion epochs and light-curve properties. Based on the comparison with the pEW5018 spectral models, we subgrouped our SNe into four Z bins from Z ≈ 0.1 Z⊙ up to Z ≈ 2 Z⊙. We also independently investigated the Z of the hosts by using their absolute magnitudes and colors and, in a few cases, using strong-line diagnostics from spectra. We searched for possible correlations between SN observables, such as their peak magnitudes and the Z inferred from pEW5018. We found 11 events with pEW5018 that were small enough to indicate Z ≈ 0.1 Z⊙. The trend of pEW5018 with Z matches the Z estimates obtained from the host-galaxy photometry, although the significance of the correlation is weak. We also found that SNe with brighter peak magnitudes have smaller pEW5018 and occur at lower Z. The data are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/L7

  2. Magnetoexcitons in type-II semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuster, Gonzalo; Barticevic, Zdenka; Pacheco, Monica; Oliveira, Luiz E.

    2004-03-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of excitons in type-II semiconductor quantum dots (QD). In these systems the confinement of electrons inside the QD and the hole outside the QD produces a ring-like structure [1-2]. Recently, Ribeiro et al [3], in a magnetophotoluminescence study of type-II InP/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots, observed Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations characteristic of the ring topology for neutral excitons. Using a simple model they have derived the groundstate hole energy as a function of the magnetic field, and obtained values for the ring parameters which are in good agreement with the measured values. However, some of the features observed experimentally, in the photoluminescence intensity, can not be well explained under that approach. In this work we present a more realistic model which considers the finite width of the ring and the electron-hole interaction included via a perturbative approach. The calculations are performed within the oneparticle formalism using the effective mass approximation. The confinement potential for electrons is modelled as the superposition of a quantum well potential along the axial direction, and a parabolic lateral confinement potential. The energies for the hole in the ring plane are calculated using the method of reference [4]. Theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results of reference [3] provided that excitonic effects are properly taken into account. References 1. A.O. Govorov et al., Physica E 13 , 297 (2002). 2. K. L. Janssens et al. Phys. Rev B64, 155324 (2001), and Phys. Rev. B66, 075314 (2002). 3. E. Ribeiro, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, and W.Carvalho Jr., and A.O. Govorov, condmat/0304092 (2003). 4. Z. Barticevic, G. Fuster, and M. Pacheco,Phys. Rev. B 65, 193307 (2002).

  3. Discovery and Observations of the Unusually Luminous Type-Defying II-P/II-L Supernova ASASSN-13co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Pejcha, O.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Grupe, D.; Morrell, N.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Davis, A. B.; Pojmański, G.; Skowron, D. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of ASASSN-13co, an unusually luminous Type II supernova and the first core-collapse supernova discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN). First detection of the supernova was on UT 2013 August 29 and the data presented span roughly 3.5 months after discovery. We use the recently developed model by Pejcha and Prieto to model the multi-band light curves of ASASSN-13co and derive the bolometric luminosity curve. We compare ASASSN-13co to other Type II supernovae to show that it was unusually luminous for a Type II supernova and that it exhibited an atypical light curve shape that does not cleanly match that of either a standard Type II-L or Type II-P supernova.

  4. Evidence based guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is subject to discussion. The purpose of this study was to develop multidisciplinary guidelines for treatment of CRPS-I. Method A multidisciplinary task force graded literature evaluating treatment effects for CRPS-I according to their strength of evidence, published between 1980 to June 2005. Treatment recommendations based on the literature findings were formulated and formally approved by all Dutch professional associations involved in CRPS-I treatment. Results For pain treatment, the WHO analgesic ladder is advised with the exception of strong opioids. For neuropathic pain, anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants may be considered. For inflammatory symptoms, free-radical scavengers (dimethylsulphoxide or acetylcysteine) are advised. To promote peripheral blood flow, vasodilatory medication may be considered. Percutaneous sympathetic blockades may be used to increase blood flow in case vasodilatory medication has insufficient effect. To decrease functional limitations, standardised physiotherapy and occupational therapy are advised. To prevent the occurrence of CRPS-I after wrist fractures, vitamin C is recommended. Adequate perioperative analgesia, limitation of operating time, limited use of tourniquet, and use of regional anaesthetic techniques are recommended for secondary prevention of CRPS-I. Conclusions Based on the literature identified and the extent of evidence found for therapeutic interventions for CRPS-I, we conclude that further research is needed into each of the therapeutic modalities discussed in the guidelines. PMID:20356382

  5. Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was recently shown that niacin supplementation counteracts the obesity-induced muscle fiber transition from oxidative type I to glycolytic type II and increases the number of type I fibers in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. These effects were likely mediated by the induction of key regulators of fiber transition, PPARδ (encoded by PPARD), PGC-1α (encoded by PPARGC1A) and PGC-1β (encoded by PPARGC1B), leading to type II to type I fiber transition and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether niacin administration also influences fiber distribution and the metabolic phenotype of different muscles [M. longissimus dorsi (LD), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (ST)] in sheep as a model for ruminants. For this purpose, 16 male, 11 wk old Rhoen sheep were randomly allocated to two groups of 8 sheep each administered either no (control group) or 1 g niacin per day (niacin group) for 4 wk. Results After 4 wk, the percentage number of type I fibers in LD, SM and ST muscles was greater in the niacin group, whereas the percentage number of type II fibers was less in niacin group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, and PPARD and the relative mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid uptake (CPT1B, SLC25A20), tricarboxylic acid cycle (SDHA), mitochondrial respiratory chain (COX5A, COX6A1), and angiogenesis (VEGFA) in LD, SM and ST muscles were greater (P < 0.05) or tended to be greater (P < 0.15) in the niacin group than in the control group. Conclusions The study shows that niacin supplementation induces muscle fiber transition from type II to type I, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are

  6. Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; Erdman, R A; Castellano, F; Maltese, W A

    1998-08-01

    Rab GTPases are post-translationally modified by addition of geranylgeranyl moieties to carboxyl-terminal cysteine residues. For Rab proteins ending with xxCC xCxC and CCxx motifs this modification is catalysed by geranylgeranyltransferase type II (GGTaseII), and is entirely dependent on the Rab substrate being bound to Rab escort protein (REP). Several Rab proteins contain carboxyl-terminal CaaL prenylation motifs typical of members of the Rho family, which are modified in a REP-independent manner by geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTaseI). The present studies show that one such Rab protein (Rab8), which ends with a CVLL motif, is uniquely able to serve as a substrate for either REP/GGTaseII or GGTaseI in cell-free assays. The modification of Rab8 by GGTaseI did not require REP, indicating that a REP-induced conformational change is not essential for exposure of the Rab carboxyl-terminal cysteine prenylation site. To determine whether one enzyme plays a predominant role in Rab8 prenylation in vivo, the incorporation of [3H]mevalonate into Rab8 was measured in human embryonal kidney 293 cells under conditions where the activity of GGTaseI, but not GGTaseII, was blocked by the peptidomimetic inhibitor GGTI-298. The GGTaseI inhibitor did not prevent prenylation of either overexpressed Myc-tagged Rab8 or endogenous Rab8, whereas prenylation of a known GGTaseI substrate with the same carboxyl-terminal motif, Cdc42Hs, was completely blocked. To rule out the possibility that the apparent prenylation of Rab8 by GGTaseII occurs only when GGTaseI activity is eliminated, metabolic labelling studies were carried out in the absence of the GGTaseI inhibitor, using a REP-binding-deficient Rab8 construct (Y78D) that cannot serve as a substrate for GGTaseII, but is indistinguishable from wild-type Rab8 as a substrate for GGTaseI. Prenylation of the Y78D mutant was reduced by 60-70% in intact cells, consistent with the conclusion that the majority of Rab8 is prenylated by the

  7. Prenylation of Rab8 GTPase by type I and type II geranylgeranyl transferases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A L; Erdman, R A; Castellano, F; Maltese, W A

    1998-01-01

    Rab GTPases are post-translationally modified by addition of geranylgeranyl moieties to carboxyl-terminal cysteine residues. For Rab proteins ending with xxCC xCxC and CCxx motifs this modification is catalysed by geranylgeranyltransferase type II (GGTaseII), and is entirely dependent on the Rab substrate being bound to Rab escort protein (REP). Several Rab proteins contain carboxyl-terminal CaaL prenylation motifs typical of members of the Rho family, which are modified in a REP-independent manner by geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTaseI). The present studies show that one such Rab protein (Rab8), which ends with a CVLL motif, is uniquely able to serve as a substrate for either REP/GGTaseII or GGTaseI in cell-free assays. The modification of Rab8 by GGTaseI did not require REP, indicating that a REP-induced conformational change is not essential for exposure of the Rab carboxyl-terminal cysteine prenylation site. To determine whether one enzyme plays a predominant role in Rab8 prenylation in vivo, the incorporation of [3H]mevalonate into Rab8 was measured in human embryonal kidney 293 cells under conditions where the activity of GGTaseI, but not GGTaseII, was blocked by the peptidomimetic inhibitor GGTI-298. The GGTaseI inhibitor did not prevent prenylation of either overexpressed Myc-tagged Rab8 or endogenous Rab8, whereas prenylation of a known GGTaseI substrate with the same carboxyl-terminal motif, Cdc42Hs, was completely blocked. To rule out the possibility that the apparent prenylation of Rab8 by GGTaseII occurs only when GGTaseI activity is eliminated, metabolic labelling studies were carried out in the absence of the GGTaseI inhibitor, using a REP-binding-deficient Rab8 construct (Y78D) that cannot serve as a substrate for GGTaseII, but is indistinguishable from wild-type Rab8 as a substrate for GGTaseI. Prenylation of the Y78D mutant was reduced by 60-70% in intact cells, consistent with the conclusion that the majority of Rab8 is prenylated by the

  8. Regulation of surfactant secretion in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Alexandra V; Kutuzov, Mikhail A; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A

    2007-08-01

    Molecular mechanisms of surfactant delivery to the air/liquid interface in the lung, which is crucial to lower the surface tension, have been studied for more than two decades. Lung surfactant is synthesized in the alveolar type II cells. Its delivery to the cell surface is preceded by surfactant component synthesis, packaging into specialized organelles termed lamellar bodies, delivery to the apical plasma membrane and fusion. Secreted surfactant undergoes reuptake, intracellular processing, and finally resecretion of recycled material. This review focuses on the mechanisms of delivery of surfactant components to and their secretion from lamellar bodies. Lamellar bodies-independent secretion is also considered. Signal transduction pathways involved in regulation of these processes are discussed as well as disorders associated with their malfunction. PMID:17496061

  9. D-brane Instantons in Type II String Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Cvetic, Mirjam; Kachru, Shamit; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2009-06-19

    We review recent progress in determining the effects of D-brane instantons in N=1 supersymmetric compactifications of Type II string theory to four dimensions. We describe the abstract D-brane instanton calculus for holomorphic couplings such as the superpotential, the gauge kinetic function and higher fermionic F-terms. This includes a discussion of multi-instanton effects and the implications of background fluxes for the instanton sector. Our presentation also highlights, but is not restricted to the computation of D-brane instanton effects in quiver gauge theories on D-branes at singularities. We then summarize the concrete consequences of stringy D-brane instantons for the construction of semi-realistic models of particle physics or SUSY-breaking in compact and non-compact geometries.

  10. Electrodynamics of type-II superconductor with periodic pinning array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, R. F.; Berco, D.; Shapiro, I. Ya.; Shapiro, B.; Rosenstein, B.

    2011-01-01

    Static and dynamic distribution of the superconducting condensate order parameters and current density is studied by numerical simulation of the 2D time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. The vortex flux lattice in layered type-II superconductors under magnetic field above the lower critical field is described by the order parameters. Moreover, the pinning effect has been considered in this work. The Abrikosov lattice which is hexagonal in the static case is deformed due to the size of pinning centers. The dynamical order parameters distribution shows that the vortex transport (flux flow) is conducted via diffusive motion of the so-called interstitial vortices. The trajectories for interstitial vortices with different sizes of pinning centers are shown.

  11. Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Hartfiel, L M; Schneider, S H

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between sweet taste function and dietary intake was studied in 21 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 16 age-, weight-, and sex-matched controls. Subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of a series of beverage samples sweetened with sucrose: 1.5-24%, fructose: 1-18%, or aspartame: 0.25-4%. They also kept 7-day food records. No group differences were found in sweet taste perception, pleasantness ratings, daily energy intakes, or macronutrient composition of the diets. However, subjects with diabetes consumed less sucrose but 3.5 times more alternative sweeteners than did controls. Peak pleasantness ratings for the beverage samples were positively correlated with dietary sweetness content in the subjects with diabetes but not the controls. These findings suggest that in diabetes, hedonic ratings for a sweetened beverage were related to dietary sweetness intake rather than changes in sweet taste perception. PMID:8804636

  12. Quantum spin Hall effect in inverted type-II semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoxing; Hughes, Taylor L; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2008-06-13

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically nontrivial state of quantum matter which preserves time-reversal symmetry; it has an energy gap in the bulk, but topologically robust gapless states at the edge. Recently, this novel effect has been predicted and observed in HgTe quantum wells and in this Letter we predict a similar effect arising in Type-II semiconductor quantum wells made from InAs/GaSb/AlSb. The quantum well exhibits an "inverted" phase similar to HgTe/CdTe quantum wells, which is a QSH state when the Fermi level lies inside the gap. Due to the asymmetric structure of this quantum well, the effects of inversion symmetry breaking are essential. Remarkably, the topological quantum phase transition between the conventional insulating state and the quantum spin Hall state can be continuously tuned by the gate voltage, enabling quantitative investigation of this novel phase transition. PMID:18643529

  13. Type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Blanca Estela; Furuya, María Elena Yuriko; Martínez-Muñiz, Irma; Vargas, Mario H; Flores-Salgado, Rosalinda

    2013-01-01

    A seven-month-old girl, born prematurely (birth weight 1000 g) from a twin pregnancy, was admitted to hospital due to recurrent pneumonia and atelectasis. She experienced cough and respiratory distress during feeding. The right hemithorax was smaller than the left, with diminished breath sounds and dullness. Chest x-rays revealed decreased lung volume and multiple radiolucent images in the right lung, as well as overdistention of the left lung. An esophagogram revealed three bronchial branches arising from the lower one-third of the esophagus, corresponding to the right lung and ending in a cul-de-sac. A diagnosis of esophageal lung was established. On bronchography, the right lung was absent and the trachea only continued into the left main bronchus. Echocardiography and angiotomography revealed agenesis of the pulmonary artery right branch. The surgical finding was an esophageal right lung, which was removed; the histopathological diagnosis was type II congenital pulmonary airway malformation in an esophageal lung. PMID:23762890

  14. Magnetic-Field-Induced Relativistic Properties in Type-I and Type-II Weyl Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Tchoumakov, Serguei; Civelli, Marcello; Goerbig, Mark O

    2016-08-19

    We investigate Weyl semimetals with tilted conical bands in a magnetic field. Even when the cones are overtilted (type-II Weyl semimetal), Landau-level quantization can be possible as long as the magnetic field is oriented close to the tilt direction. Most saliently, the tilt can be described within the relativistic framework of Lorentz transformations that give rise to a rich spectrum, displaying new transitions beyond the usual dipolar ones in the optical conductivity. We identify particular features in the latter that allow one to distinguish between semimetals of different types. PMID:27588870

  15. Bilateral internal auditory canal gangliogliomas mimicking neurofibromatosis Type II

    PubMed Central

    Hooten, Kristopher G.; Oliveria, Seth F.; Sadrameli, Saeed S.; Gandhi, Shashank; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Lewis, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gangliogliomas are rare low grade, typically well-differentiated, tumors that are composed of mature ganglion cells and neoplastic glial cells. These tumors can appear at virtually any location along the neuroaxis but classically occur in the temporal lobe of young patients. In a small number of cases, gangliogliomas have presented as masses in the brainstem or involving cranial nerves. With the exception of vestibular schwannomas, bilateral tumors in the region of the internal auditory canal (IAC) or cerebellopontine angle (CPA) are exceedingly rare. Case Description: We report a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral nonenhancing IAC/CPA tumors. Based on this finding, a presumptive diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type II was made, which was initially managed conservatively with close observation. He returned for follow-up with worsening vertigo and tinnitus, thus prompting the decision to proceed with surgical resection of the symptomatic mass. Intriguingly, pathological study demonstrated a WHO Grade I ganglioglioma. Description: We report a case of a 58-year-old male who presented with hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral nonenhancing IAC/CPA tumors. Based on this finding, a presumptive diagnosis of neurofibromatosis Type II was made, which was initially managed conservatively with close observation. He returned for follow-up with worsening vertigo and tinnitus, thus prompting the decision to proceed with surgical resection of the symptomatic mass. Intriguingly, pathological study demonstrated a WHO Grade I ganglioglioma. Conclusion: This is the first reported case of bilateral IAC/CPA gangliogliomas. When evaluating bilateral IAC/CPA lesions with unusual imaging characteristics, ganglioglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:27127704

  16. Type II dehydroquinase: molecular replacement with many copies

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kirsty Anne; Robinson, David Alexander; Lapthorn, Adrian Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The type II dehydroquinase enzyme is a symmetrical dodecameric protein which crystallizes in either high-symmetry cubic space groups or low-symmetry crystal systems with multiple copies in the asymmetric unit. Both systems have provided challenging examples for molecular replacement; for example, a triclinic crystal form has 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell. Three difficult examples are discussed and two are used as test cases to compare the performance of four commonly used molecular-replacement packages. Type II dehydroquinase is a small (150-amino-acid) protein which in solution packs together to form a dodecamer with 23 cubic symmetry. In crystals of this protein the symmetry of the biological unit can be coincident with the crystallographic symmetry, giving rise to cubic crystal forms with a single monomer in the asymmetric unit. In crystals where this is not the case, multiple copies of the monomer are present, giving rise to significant and often confusing noncrystallographic symmetry in low-symmetry crystal systems. These different crystal forms pose a variety of challenges for solution by molecular replacement. Three examples of structure solutions, including a highly unusual triclinic crystal form with 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell, are described. Four commonly used molecular-replacement packages are assessed against two of these examples, one of high symmetry and the other of low symmetry; this study highlights how program performance can vary significantly depending on the given problem. In addition, the final refined structure of the 16-dodecamer triclinic crystal form is analysed and shown not to be a superlattice structure, but rather an F-centred cubic crystal with frustrated crystallographic symmetry.

  17. Neutrino masses and leptogenesis in type I and type II seesaw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Das, Mrinal Kumar

    2014-07-01

    The baryon to photon ratio in the present Universe is very accurately measured to be (6.065±0.090)×10-10. We study the possible origin of this baryon asymmetry in the neutrino sector through the generic mechanism of baryogenesis through leptogenesis. We consider both the type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses within the framework of left-right symmetric models (LRSM). Using the latest best-fit global neutrino oscillation data of mass squared differences, mixing angles and Dirac CP phase, we compute the predictions for baryon to photon ratio keeping the Majorana CP phases as free parameters for two different choices of lightest neutrino mass eigenvalue for both normal and inverted hierarchical patterns of neutrino masses. We do our calculation with and without lepton flavor effects being taken into account. We choose different diagonal Dirac neutrino mass matrix for different flavor effects in such a way that the lightest right-handed neutrino mass is in the appropriate range. We also study the predictions for baryon asymmetry when the neutrino masses arise from a combination of both type I and type II seesaw (with dominating type I term) and discriminate between several combinations of Dirac and Majorana CP phases by demanding successful predictions for baryon asymmetry.

  18. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Du Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo Ningguang; Liu Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an {alpha}-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G{sup 1111} and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G{sup 1111} in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G{sup 1111}, a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G{sup 1111} had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level.

  19. Molecular determinants on the insect sodium channel for the specific action of type II pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Luo, Ningguang; Liu, Zhiqi; Lee, Jung-Eun; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong, Ke

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as type I or type II based on their distinct symptomology and effects on sodium channel gating. Structurally, type II pyrethroids possess an alpha-cyano group at the phenylbenzyl alcohol position, which is lacking in type I pyrethroids. Both type I and type II pyrethroids inhibit deactivation consequently prolonging the opening of sodium channels. However, type II pyrethroids inhibit the deactivation of sodium channels to a greater extent than type I pyrethroids inducing much slower decaying of tail currents upon repolarization. The molecular basis of a type II-specific action, however, is not known. Here we report the identification of a residue G(1111) and two positively charged lysines immediately downstream of G(1111) in the intracellular linker connecting domains II and III of the cockroach sodium channel that are specifically involved in the action of type II pyrethroids, but not in the action of type I pyrethroids. Deletion of G(1111), a consequence of alternative splicing, reduced the sodium channel sensitivity to type II pyrethroids, but had no effect on channel sensitivity to type I pyrethroids. Interestingly, charge neutralization or charge reversal of two positively charged lysines (Ks) downstream of G(1111) had a similar effect. These results provide the molecular insight into the type II-specific interaction of pyrethroids with the sodium channel at the molecular level. PMID:19022275

  20. Relative potencies of Type I and Type II pyrethroids for inhibition of spontaneous firing in neuronal networks.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids insecticides commonly used in pest control disrupt the normal function of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We have previously demonstrated that permethrin (a Type I pyrethroid) and deltamethrin (a Type II pyrethroid) inhibit sodium channel-dependent spontaneous netw...

  1. Replication of parainfluenza (Sendai) virus in isolated rat pulmonary type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, W. L.; Northrop, P. J.; McAllister, P. K.

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to determine whether alveolar type II epithelial cells isolated from rat lung and maintained in tissue culture would support productive replication of parainfluenza type 1 (Sendai) virus and to determine whether isolated type II cells from neonatal (5-day-old) rats that are more susceptible to viral-induced alveolar dysplasia supported viral replication to a greater extent than those from weanling (25-day-old) rats. Isolated and cultured type II cells from neonatal and weanling rats that were inoculated with Sendai virus supported productive replication as indicated by ultrastructural identification of budding virions and viral nucleocapsids in type II cells and by demonstration of rising titers of infectious virus from inoculated type II cell cultures. Alveolar macrophages from neonatal and weanling rats also supported viral replication, although infectious viral titers in macrophage cultures were lower than those from type II cell cultures. Only minor differences were detected between viral titers from neonatal and weanling type II epithelial cell cultures. Higher densities of viral nucleocapsids were observed in neonatal type II cells than in those from weanling rats. The results indicate that isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells support productive replication of parainfluenza virus and that type II cells are probably more efficient in supporting productive viral replication than are alveolar macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2541612

  2. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive. PMID:17915006

  3. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive. PMID:17915006

  4. AB124. Mucolipidosis type II: clinical features and laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Vu, Dung Chi; Bui, Thao Phuong; Nguyen, Khanh Ngoc; Hwu, Wuh-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background I-cell disease (Mucolipidosis II) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphotransferase, an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups onto oligosaccharide units of lysosomal enzyme precursors. Due to the absence of transferase activity, the common phosphomannose recognition marker of acid hydrolases is not generated, and the enzymes are not targeted to the lysosomes I. As a consequence the enzymes are secreted into the extracellular space, and high activities can be found in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid and urine of the patients, whereas inside the cells (fibroblasts) the enzyme levels are considerably reduced. Mucolipidosis is also known as I-cell disease because of the coarse granular cytoplasmic inclusions seen in cultured skin fibroblasts which are large lysosomes containing heterogeneous material. Objective To describe clinical features and enzyme activity of patients with mucolipidosis type II. Methods Clinical features, laboratory and plasma lysosom enzyme activity by four MU-Fluorometric assay was study. Results and conclusions Sixteen cases (seven girls and nine boys) onset at 5.93±4.28 years of age the onset age of 2.3±3.1 years (median 1.25) with the feature of joint stiffness and bone deformation. 100% cases admitted with the feature of joint stiffness, chest deformation and kyphoscoliosis, 93.3% coarse facial features. No patients had hepatosplenomegaly on ultrasound, 5/15 patients had heart valves disease. Enzyme assay showed α-Hexosaminidase of 1,885.98±338.7 nmoL/mg plasma/17 h, α-Iduronate sulfatase of 4,534.78±1,062.97 nmoL/mg plasma/4 h. Mucolipidosis has seriously affected the life of the patients.

  5. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejections in case of type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Beena; Prasad, Lalan; Chandra, Harish; Garia, Suman

    2016-08-01

    We have statistically studied 220 events from 1996 to 2008 (i.e. solar cycle 23). Two set of flare-CME is examined one with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II and other without DH type II radio burst. Out of 220 events 135 (flare-halo CME) are accompanied with DH type II radio burst and 85 are without DH type II radio burst. Statistical analysis is performed to examine the distribution of solar flare-halo CME around the solar disk and to investigate the relationship between solar flare and halo CME parameters in case of with and without DH type II radio burst. In our analysis we have observed that: (i) 10-20° latitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the southern region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, whereas in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the northern region. (ii) 0-10° longitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II radio burst and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the western region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, while in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the eastern region. (iii) Mean speed of halo CMEs (1382 km/s) with DH type II radio burst is more than the mean speed of halo CMEs (775 km/s) without DH type II radio burst. (iv) Maximum number of M-class flares is found in both the cases. (v) Average speed of halo CMEs in each class accompanied with DH type II radio burst is higher than the average speed of halo CMEs in each class without DH type II radio burst. (vi) Average speed of halo CMEs, associated with X-class flares, is greater than the other class of solar flares in both the cases.

  6. Outcomes After Arthroscopic Repair of Type-II SLAP Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeier, Stephen F.; Voos, James E.; Williams, Riley J.; Altchek, David W.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Allen, Answorth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To our knowledge, there has been no prospective study on the results of arthroscopic repair of superior labrum-biceps anchor complex (SLAP) tears with use of modern techniques. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the minimum two-year results for patients with type-II SLAP tears that were treated with arthroscopic suture anchor fixation. Methods: Forty-seven patients with symptomatic type-II SLAP tears were evaluated preoperatively and at least two years postoperatively with use of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and L'Insalata outcomes instruments and physical examination. The study group included thirty-nine male and eight female patients with a mean age of thirty-six years; thirty-four of the forty-seven patients were athletes. Patients with rotator cuff tears requiring repair or concomitant shoulder instability were excluded. Results: At an average of 2.7 years, the median ASES and L'Insalata scores were 97 and 93, respectively, compared with baseline scores of 62 and 65 (p < 0.05). The median patient-reported satisfaction rating was 9 (of 10); forty-one patients (87%) rated the outcome as good or excellent. The median patient-reported satisfaction rating was significantly higher for patients with a discrete traumatic etiology than for those with an atraumatic etiology (9 compared with 7); however, there was no significant difference between these groups in terms of the ASES or L'Insalata outcome scores. Overall, twenty-five (74%) of the thirty-four athletes were able to return to their preinjury level of competition, whereas eleven (92%) of the twelve athletes who reported a discrete traumatic event were able to return to their previous level of competition. There were five complications, including four cases of refractory postoperative stiffness. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that favorable outcomes can be anticipated in the majority of patients after arthroscopic SLAP lesion repair. While only three

  7. Implementing type I & type II error spending for two-sided group sequential designs.

    PubMed

    Rudser, Kyle D; Emerson, Scott S

    2008-05-01

    Group sequential designs have become the mainstay for addressing efficacy and ethical issues when monitoring clinical trials. Several different procedures of defining stopping rules have been developed for the formulation of a sequential design, one of these being direct specification of type I and type II error spending. There are also different methods that have been proposed to fit a two-sided design for a given error spending function. Two methods that differ on when type II error begins to be spent are the flexible implementation of the unified family by Kittelson and Emerson and the method of Chang, Hwang, and Shih. Trial designs formulated by the latter are unable to mimic the boundaries of the unified family, which includes the two-sided symmetric designs of Emerson and Fleming, the two-sided designs of Pampallona and Tsiatis, and the double triangular designs of Whitehead and Stratton. Design operating characteristics of these two methods are compared over a wide range of commonly used size, power and error spending function combinations. PMID:17933592

  8. Unified Model of Type I and Type II Turbulence in the Equitorial E-Layer Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W., Jr.; Hassan, E.; Smolyakov, A.; Litt, S.; Hatch, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    A new unified two-fluid model for the E-layer for the Type I and Type II plasma instabilities is developed and simulated for the nonlinear dynamics of the electron density, the electric fields, and ion fluid acceleration. Profiles and parameters are taken from the IRI data for the equitorial region ionosphere. Large, spectral simulations for the turbulence and the coherent structures are carried out. The fields are recorded for each sub-second time step in both physical space and wavenubmer space. The growth rate has two peaks in horizontal wavenumber and the nonlinear cascades go both to small scales [~10cm] and large scales [~10-50m]. Horizontal and vertical wavenumber spectra are shown as well as the isotropized energy spectrum of k-n. The S4 scintillation index computed from the density fluctuations and the PDFs for intermittency from the density fluctuations are computed. The PDFs and the net electron density fluxes are computed. Examples are run where the upward density gradient (Type II) is the dominant instability mechanism.

  9. EEG classification of adolescents with type I and type II of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Ali; Sheikhani, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nasrabadi, Ali Moti; Vand, Safa Rafiei; Zarafshan, Hadi; Moeini, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder and has two common types: type I and type II. Early diagnosis of the subtypes is very challenging particularly in adolescence. In this study, 38 adolescents are participated including 18 patients with BD I and 20 patients with BD II. The electroencephalogram signal is recorded by 19 electrodes in open eyes at resting state. After preprocessing, the state of the art methods from various domains are implemented to provide a good feature set for classifying the two groups. In order to improve the classification accuracy, four different feature selection methods named mutual information maximization (MIM), conditional mutual information maximization (CMIM), fast correlation based filter (FCBF), and double input symmetrical relevance (DISR) are applied to select the most informative features. Multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with a hidden layer containing five neurons is used for classification with and without applying the feature selection methods. The accuracy of 82.68, 86.33, 89.67, 84.61, and 91.83 % were observed using entire extracted features and selected features using MIM, CMIM, FCBF, and DISR methods by MLP, respectively. Therefore, the proposed method can be used in clinical setting for more validation. PMID:26472650

  10. Comparison of Large Subunits of Type II DNA-dependent RNA Polymerases from Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Kidd, G H; Link, G; Bogorad, L

    1979-10-01

    Two-dimensional tryptic mapping of (125)I-labeled polypeptides has been employed to compare the large subunits of type II DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from maize, parsley (Petroselinum sativum), and wheat. Maps of the 220 kilodalton (kd) and 140 kd subunits from wheat RNA polymerase II differ from those of the corresponding subunits from parsley enzyme II. The 180 kd subunits from maize and parsley type II enzymes also yield dissimilar tryptic maps. Thus, despite similarities in molecular mass, the large subunits of wheat, parsley, and maize type II RNA polymerases are unique to each individual plant species. PMID:16661032

  11. Type I and Type II Interferons Inhibit the Translation of Murine Norovirus Proteins▿

    PubMed Central

    Changotra, Harish; Jia, Yali; Moore, Tara N.; Liu, Guangliang; Kahan, Shannon M.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Karst, Stephanie M.

    2009-01-01

    Human noroviruses are responsible for more than 95% of nonbacterial epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Both onset and resolution of disease symptoms are rapid, suggesting that components of the innate immune response are critical in norovirus control. While the study of the human noroviruses has been hampered by the lack of small animal and tissue culture systems, our recent discovery of a murine norovirus (MNV) and its in vitro propagation have allowed us to begin addressing norovirus replication strategies and immune responses to norovirus infection. We have previously demonstrated that interferon responses are critical to control MNV-1 infection in vivo and to directly inhibit viral replication in vitro. We now extend these studies to define the molecular basis for interferon-mediated inhibition. Viral replication intermediates were not detected in permissive cells pretreated with type I interferon after either infection or transfection of virion-associated RNA, demonstrating a very early block to virion production that is after virus entry and uncoating. A similar absence of viral replication intermediates was observed in infected primary macrophages and dendritic cells pretreated with type I IFN. This was not due to degradation of incoming genomes in interferon-pretreated cells since similar levels of genomes were present in untreated and pretreated cells through 6 h of infection, and these genomes retained their integrity. Surprisingly, this block to the translation of viral proteins was not dependent on the well-characterized interferon-induced antiviral molecule PKR. Similar results were observed in cells pretreated with type II interferon, except that the inhibition of viral translation was dependent on PKR. Thus, both type I and type II interferon signaling inhibit norovirus translation in permissive myeloid cells, but they display distinct dependence on PKR for this inhibition. PMID:19297466

  12. Kinematics of ICMEs/Shocks: Blast Wave Reconstruction Using Type-II Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; De-la-Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    We present a physical methodology for reconstructing the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using Type-II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this blast-wave reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with Type-II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the Type-II frequency drifts and calculates shock onset speed, shock travel time, and shock speed at 1 AU. The BWR results agreed well with the Type-II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, in-situ measurements, and interplanetary scintillation observations. Perturbations in the Type-II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing Type-II emissions in real-time and to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1 AU.

  13. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    PubMed Central

    Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today. PMID:11686863

  14. Type II Supernovae: Model Light Curves and Standard Candle Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude—from 0.5 to 4.0 × 1051 ergs, with a typical value of ~0.9 × 1051 ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to ~20% using only photometric data.

  15. Polyglandular endocrinopathy type II (Schmidt's syndrome) in a Dobermann pinscher.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, J A; Stone, J; Rick, M; Dunning, M D

    2016-09-01

    A three-year-old, female neutered, Dobermann pinscher was presented for investigation of lethargy, episodic collapse, ataxia and myxoedema. Primary hypothyroidism and primary cortisol-deficient hypoadrenocorticism were diagnosed based on history, physical examination and compatible hormonal analysis. Increased serum concentrations of thyroglobulin autoantibodies and 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies indicated an immune-mediated aetiology. The case was complicated by lymphadenopathy with hand-mirror lymphocytes, classically identified in lymphoma. A polymerase chain reaction test for antigen receptor rearrangement indicated polyclonality and therefore reactive lymphadenopathy. The dog's clinical signs resolved following introduction of levothyroxine and prednisolone. Prioritising the problem-based approach in this case facilitated the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in addition to hypothyroidism due to the persistence of clinical signs despite thyroxine replacement. Importantly, atypical adrenal gland dysfunction was not misinterpreted as inadequate therapeutic response to thyroxine supplementation. The observation that polyglandular endocrinopathy type II can occur in dogs suggests that in dogs with a suboptimal response to treatment for hypothyroidism or hypoadrenocorticism comorbid endocrinopathies should be investigated. PMID:27487017

  16. Health perceptions among urban American Indians with type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sachin; Davila, Javier; Patel, Sonam; Norman, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1940s, American Indians (AIs) have increasingly urbanized, moving off of reservations in large part due to federal policies of tribal termination and relocation. Though previous AI research has largely focused on reservation-associated challenges, many of these same challenges persist among urban AI populations. One mutual concern is the growing prevalence and incidence of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While behavioral, genetic, and socioeconomic determinants of T2DM have been explored, much less is known about the influence of cultural and psychosocial factors. Recent studies suggest that the way AIs perceive diabetes may affect their health trajectory and explain their poor prognosis. Through the use of the Illness Perception Questionnaire, we explored this hypothesis in a pilot study of urban AI with T2DM living in Los Angeles County. We found that the majority of participants have a neutral perception about their diabetes: They view their condition to be long lasting yet treatable and indicate reasonable understanding of its symptoms and progression. We also identified "personal control," the level of perceived control one has over his or her disease, as a strong correlate of overall illness perception and, thus, a potentially useful psychological metric. PMID:25111842

  17. TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: MODEL LIGHT CURVES AND STANDARD CANDLE RELATIONSHIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude-from 0.5 to 4.0 x 10{sup 51} ergs, with a typical value of approx0.9 x 10{sup 51} ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to approx20% using only photometric data.

  18. THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD FOR TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares E, Felipe; Hamuy, Mario; Pignata, Giuliano; Maza, Jose; Bersten, Melina; Phillips, Mark M.; Morrel, Nidia I.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Matheson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we study the 'standardized candle method' using a sample of 37 nearby (redshift z < 0.06) Type II plateau supernovae having BVRI photometry and optical spectroscopy. An analytic procedure is implemented to fit light curves, color curves, and velocity curves. We find that the V-I color toward the end of the plateau can be used to estimate the host-galaxy reddening with a precision of {sigma}(A{sub V}) = 0.2 mag. The correlation between plateau luminosity and expansion velocity previously reported in the literature is recovered. Using this relation and assuming a standard reddening law (R{sub V} = 3.1), we obtain Hubble diagrams (HDs) in the BVI bands with dispersions of {approx}0.4 mag. Allowing R{sub V} to vary and minimizing the spread in the HDs, we obtain a dispersion range of 0.25-0.30 mag, which implies that these objects can deliver relative distances with precisions of 12%-14%. The resulting best-fit value of R{sub V} is 1.4 {+-} 0.1.

  19. Balneotherapy and platelet glutathione metabolism in type II diabetic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshinori; Yabunaka, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Ichiro; Noro, Hiroshi; Agishi, Yuko

    1996-09-01

    Effects of balneotherapy on platelet glutathione metabolism were investigated in 12 type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Levels of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) on admission were well correlated with those of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; r=0.692, P<0.02). After 4 weeks of balneotherapy, the mean level of GSH showed no changes; however, in well-controlled patients (FPG <150 mg/dl), the level increased ( P<0.01) and in poorly controlled patients (FPG >150 mg/dl), the value decreased ( P<0.05). There was a negative correlation between glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and the levels of FPG ( r=-0.430, P<0.05). After balneotherapy, the activity increased in 5 patients, decreased in 3 patients and showed no changes (alteration within ±3%) in all the other patients. From these findings in diabetic patients we concluded: (1) platelet GSH synthesis appeared to be induced in response to oxidative stress; (2) lowered GPX activities indicated that the antioxidative defense system was impaired; and (3) platelet glutathione metabolism was partially improved by 4 weeks balneotherapy, an effect thought to be dependent on the control status of plasma glucose levels. It is suggested that balneotherapy is beneficial for patients whose platelet antioxidative defense system is damaged, such as those with diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease.

  20. Separation and artificial maturation of macerals from type II kerogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kruge, M.A.; Bensley, D.F.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    Immature Type II kerogen (HI=660 mg/g) from the Lower Toarcian of the Paris Basin was separated into an alginite concentrate (HI=952 mg/g) and an amorphous organic matter (AOM) concentrate (HI=573 mg/g) by density centrifugation. The flash pyrolyzate of the alginite was characterized by high relative concentrations of several series of n-alkanones and n-alkenones, in addition to n-alkanes, n-alk-1-enes and n-alkadienes. In sharp contrast, the AOM produced predominantly alkylbenzenes, alkylthiophenes, n-alkanes and n-alk-1-enes upon pyrolysis. Micro-FTIR spectroscopy indicated that the alginite was enriched in aliphatic C-H (particularly CH{sub 2}) and depleted in aromatic C=C, relative to the AOM, consistent with the pyrolysis results. Aliquots of the concentrates were heated separately in gold tubes (24 h, 70 MPa) at fixed temperatures ranging between 250 and 375{degrees}C. Yields of liquid products as a function of temperature were initially greater for the AOM, reaching a maximum at 325{degrees}C. In contrast, the alginite yielded little liquid product at low temperatures, attaining its maximum at 350{degrees}C, at which temperature its yield greatly surpassed that of the AOM. This kerogen is a heterogeneous assemblage of fossil organic matter, exhibiting different degrees of preservation and petroleum potential.

  1. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-02-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  2. Altered Erythrocyte Glycolytic Enzyme Activities in Type-II Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mali, Aniket V; Bhise, Sunita S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Katyare, Surendra S

    2016-07-01

    The activity of enzymes of glycolysis has been studied in erythrocytes from type-II diabetic patients in comparison with control. RBC lysate was the source of enzymes. In the diabetics the hexokinase (HK) activity increased 50 % while activities of phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and aldolase (ALD) decreased by 37, 75 and 64 % respectively but were still several folds higher than that of HK. Hence, it is possible that in the diabetic erythrocytes the process of glycolysis could proceed in an unimpaired or in fact may be augmented due to increased levels of G6P. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was comparatively high in both the groups; the diabetic group showed 85 % increase. In control group the HK, PFK and ALD activities showed strong positive correlation with blood sugar level while PGI activity did not show any correlation. In the diabetic group only PFK activity showed positive correlation. The LDH activity only in the control group showed positive correlation with marginal increase with increasing concentrations of glucose. PMID:27382204

  3. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  4. Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Inverted Type II Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chaoxing; Hughes, Taylor L.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) state is a topologically non-trivial state of quantum matter which preserves time-reversal symmetry; it has an energy gap in the bulk, but topologically robust gapless states at the edge. Recently, this novel effect has been predicted and observed in HgTe quantum wells. In this work we predict a similar effect arising in Type-II semiconductor quantum wells made from InAs/GaSb/AlSb. Because of a rare band alignment the quantum well band structure exhibits an 'inverted' phase similar to CdTe/HgTe quantum wells, which is a QSH state when the Fermi level lies inside the gap. Due to the asymmetric structure of this quantum well, the effects of inversion symmetry breaking and inter-layer charge transfer are essential. By standard self-consistent calculations, we show that the QSH state persists when these corrections are included, and a quantum phase transition between the normal insulator and the QSH phase can be electrically tuned by the gate voltage.

  5. Cinnamomin: a multifunctional type II ribosome-inactivating protein.

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Jun; Liu, Wang-Yi

    2003-07-01

    Plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a group of toxic proteins that can irreversibly inactivate ribosomes by specifically removing the conserved adenine base from the "Sarcin/Ricin domain" of the 28S RNA in ribosome. Cinnamomin is a novel type II RIP isolated in our laboratory from the mature seeds of camphor tree. Besides site-specific deadenylation of the A4324 in the Sarcin/Ricin domain of rat ribosome, this protein could also release the adenine base from DNA molecules at multiple sites and from AMP, ADP, dAMP and adenosine. Furthermore, cinnamomin displays cytotoxicity to carcinoma cells and insect larvae by modifying their ribosomal RNA. These functions possessed by cinnamomin shed a new light on the possible application of cinnamomin in the field of immunotoxin design and transgenic reagents. In this review, we introduce the major recent results on cinnamomin obtained in our laboratory, including purification of this protein, characterization of its enzymatic mechanism, structure and function, gene pattern, physiological role and its biological implications in cytotoxicity. PMID:12672471

  6. General critical states in type-II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badía-Majós, A.; López, C.; Ruiz, H. S.

    2009-10-01

    The magnetic flux dynamics of type-II superconductors within the critical state regime is posed in a generalized framework by using a variational theory supported by well-established physical principles. The equivalence between the variational statement and more conventional treatments based on the solution of the differential Maxwell equations together with appropriate conductivity laws is shown. Advantages of the variational method are emphasized, focusing on its numerical performance that allows us to explore a number of physical scenarios. In particular, we present the extension of the so-called double critical state model to three-dimensional (3D) configurations in which only flux transport ( T states), cutting ( C states), or both mechanisms ( CT states) occur. The theory is applied to several problems. First, we show the features of the transition from T to CT states. Second, we give a generalized expression for the flux cutting threshold in 3D and show its relevance in the slab geometry. In addition, several models that allow us to treat flux depinning and cutting mechanisms are compared. Finally, the longitudinal transport problem (current is applied parallel to the external magnetic field) is analyzed both under T and CT conditions. The complex interaction between shielding and transport is solved.

  7. Type II Radio Bursts as an Indicator of CME Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, C. A.; St Cyr, O. C.; Henning, C.; Xie, H.; Gilbert, H. R.; Orlove, M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Odstrcil, D.

    2011-12-01

    We examined a subset of nine low-frequency radio events with type II radio bursts that drifted below 2 megahertz and were detected by the WAVES investigation on the WIND spacecraft. For each event, we identified the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) and derived the electron density using a model of solar wind plasma frequency (fp ≈ 9 * ne1/2, where fp is plasma frequency in kHz and ne is electron density in cm-3) . We also used the pb_inverter program in SolarSoft developed by Howard and Hayes to examine the electron density structure. Expanding on the Van De Hulst process of inverting polarized brightness measurements, the program inverts total brightness measurements from SOHO LASCO images to extract electron density information. From the electron density inferred from radio spectra, we derived the location of the CME using five standard electron density to height models (Leblanc, 1996; Saito, 1977; Bougeret, 1984; Alvarez, 1973; and Fainberg, 1971). Using images from the LASCO instrument on SOHO and the SECCHI instrument on STEREO, we extracted locations of the leading edge of the CME and compared the heights and velocities to those found using the frequency data. For the lowest frequency events, we also compared our results to the outputs of ENLIL, a time-dependent, three-dimensional, MHD model of the heliosphere hosted by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  8. Inert dark matter in type-II seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan-Hung; Nomura, Takaaki

    2014-09-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) as a dark matter (DM) candidate is further inspired by recent AMS-02 data, which confirm the excess of positron fraction observed earlier by PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments. Additionally, the excess of positron+electron flux is still significant in the measurement of Fermi-LAT. For solving the problems of massive neutrinos and observed excess of cosmic-ray, we study the model with an inert Higgs doublet (IHD) in the framework of type-II seesaw model by imposing a Z 2 symmetry on the IHD, where the lightest particle of IHD is the DM candidate and the neutrino masses originate from the Yukawa couplings of Higgs triplet and leptons. We calculate the cosmic-ray production in our model by using three kinds of neutrino mass spectra, which are classified by normal ordering, inverted ordering and quasi-degeneracy. We find that when the constraints of DM relic density and comic-ray antiproton spectrum are taken into account, the observed excess of positron/electron flux could be explained well in normal ordered neutrino mass spectrum. Moreover, excess of comic-ray neutrinos is implied in our model. We find that our results on < σv> are satisfied with and close to the upper limit of IceCube analysis. More data from comic-ray neutrinos could test our model.

  9. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (αENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, αENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  10. Current developments for type-II superlattice imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz, Frank; Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Kirste, Lutz; Masur, Michael; Wörl, Andreas; Schmitz, Johannes; Wauro, Matthias; Niemasz, Jasmin; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2011-06-01

    InAs/GaSb-based type-II superlattice photodiodes have considerably gained interest as high-performance infrared detectors. Beside the excellent properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices, like the relatively high effective electron mass suppressing tunneling currents, the low Auger recombination rate, and a high quantum efficiency, the bandgap can be widely adjusted within the infrared spectral range from 3 - 30 μm depending on the layer thickness rather than on composition. Superlattice growth and process technology have shown tremendous progress during the last years. Fully integrated superlattice cameras have been demonstrated by several groups worldwide. Within very few years, the InAs/GaSb superlattice technology has proven its suitability for high-performance infrared imaging detector arrays. At Fraunhofer IAF and AIM, the efforts have been focused on developing a mature fabrication technology for bispectral InAs/GaSb superlattice focal plane arrays for a simultaneous, co-located detection at 3-4 μm and 4-5 μm in the mid-wavelength infrared atmospheric transmission window. A very low number of pixel outages and cluster defects is mandatory for dual-color detector arrays. Sources for pixel outages are manifold and might be caused by dislocations in the substrate, the epitaxial growth process or by imperfections during the focal plane array fabrication process. Process refinements, intense root cause analysis and specific test methodologies employed at various stages during the process have proven to be the key for yield enhancements.

  11. Higgs potential in the type II seesaw model

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, A.; Benbrik, R.; Chabab, M.; Rahili, L.; Ramadan, J.; Moultaka, G.; Peyranere, M. C.

    2011-11-01

    The standard model Higgs sector, extended by one weak gauge triplet of scalar fields with a very small vacuum expectation value, is a very promising setting to account for neutrino masses through the so-called type II seesaw mechanism. In this paper we consider the general renormalizable doublet/triplet Higgs potential of this model. We perform a detailed study of its main dynamical features that depend on five dimensionless couplings and two mass parameters after spontaneous symmetry breaking, and highlight the implications for the Higgs phenomenology. In particular, we determine (i) the complete set of tree-level unitarity constraints on the couplings of the potential and (ii) the exact tree-level boundedness from below constraints on these couplings, valid for all directions. When combined, these constraints delineate precisely the theoretically allowed parameter space domain within our perturbative approximation. Among the seven physical Higgs states of this model, the mass of the lighter (heavier) CP{sub even} state h{sup 0} (H{sup 0}) will always satisfy a theoretical upper (lower) bound that is reached for a critical value {mu}{sub c} of {mu} (the mass parameter controlling triple couplings among the doublet/triplet Higgses). Saturating the unitarity bounds, we find an upper bound m{sub h}{sup 0} or approx. {mu}{sub c} and {mu} < or approx. {mu}{sub c}. In the first regime the Higgs sector is typically very heavy, and only h{sup 0} that becomes SM-like could be accessible to the LHC. In contrast, in the second regime, somewhat overlooked in the literature, most of the Higgs sector is light. In particular, the heaviest state H{sup 0} becomes SM-like, the lighter states being the CP{sub odd} Higgs, the (doubly) charged Higgses, and a decoupled h{sup 0}, possibly

  12. Higgs potential in the type II seesaw model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arhrib, A.; Benbrik, R.; Chabab, M.; Moultaka, G.; Peyranère, M. C.; Rahili, L.; Ramadan, J.

    2011-11-01

    The standard model Higgs sector, extended by one weak gauge triplet of scalar fields with a very small vacuum expectation value, is a very promising setting to account for neutrino masses through the so-called type II seesaw mechanism. In this paper we consider the general renormalizable doublet/triplet Higgs potential of this model. We perform a detailed study of its main dynamical features that depend on five dimensionless couplings and two mass parameters after spontaneous symmetry breaking, and highlight the implications for the Higgs phenomenology. In particular, we determine (i) the complete set of tree-level unitarity constraints on the couplings of the potential and (ii) the exact tree-level boundedness from below constraints on these couplings, valid for all directions. When combined, these constraints delineate precisely the theoretically allowed parameter space domain within our perturbative approximation. Among the seven physical Higgs states of this model, the mass of the lighter (heavier) CPeven state h0 (H0) will always satisfy a theoretical upper (lower) bound that is reached for a critical value μc of μ (the mass parameter controlling triple couplings among the doublet/triplet Higgses). Saturating the unitarity bounds, we find an upper bound mh0

  13. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies in childhood kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, Anna; Tangeraas, Trine; Heidecke, Harald; Dragun, Duska; Dechend, Ralf; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (AT1 RAb) have emerged as non-HLA Ab present in patients with acute AMR and risk of graft loss. Furthermore, AT1 RAb have been shown to increase angiotensin II sensitivity which may play a role in the development of CVD and hypertension. Data on AT1 RAb in stable transplant recipients are lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of AT1 RAb in a cohort of stable patients after kidney transplantation (tx) in childhood. A cross-sectional study of 30 children (median age 14, range 3-19 yr, median time since tx five yr) and 28 adults who were transplanted in childhood (median age 26, range 20-40 yr, median time since tx 18 yr) transplanted between 1993-2006 and 1983-2002, respectively, was performed. Healthy controls were 51 healthy children (5-8 yr) and 199 healthy donors (median age 56.5 yr, range 42-83 yr). Plasma AT1 RAb were analyzed by immunoassay. Median total AT1 RAb IgG concentration was significantly higher in the pediatric-tx group as compared to the adult-tx group (40.0 and 10.95 U/mL, p < 0.0001). For both groups, the tx group showed higher levels: the pediatric-tx group vs. control group (40.0 vs. 13.3 U/mL, p = 0.0006) and the adult-tx group vs. adult control group (10.95 vs. 6.5 U/mL, p < 0.0001). Age was the strongest indicator of high levels of AT1 RAb IgG (p = 0.0003). AT1 RAb total IgG levels are significantly higher in a stable pediatric-tx cohort as compared to adult-tx patients and healthy controls of comparable age groups. The relevance of our findings in relation to age, time since tx, previous or future rejection, and CVD risk merits future studies. PMID:27251358

  14. Prevalence and temporal pattern of hospital readmissions for patients with type I and type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yuanjun; Li, Changping; Cui, Zhuang; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Repeated hospitalisation for patients is common and costly, yet partly preventable. However, we know little about readmissions for patients with diabetes in China. The current study aims to assess the frequency and temporal pattern of and risk factors for all-cause readmission among hospitalised patients with diabetes in Tianjin, China. Method This retrospective, cohort analysis used the Tianjin Basic Medical Insurance Register System data of 2011. The patterns of and the reasons for all-cause readmissions for patients with diabetes were described. The differences of readmission-free survival (RFS) between newly and previously diagnosed patients were compared. Time-dependent Cox models were established to identify the risk factors for readmission at different time intervals after discharge. Results Readmission rates were approximately 30%, with the most common diagnoses of cerebral infarction (for type I) or diabetes (for type II) for patients with diabetes. The majority of patients were readmitted to the hospital after more than 90 days, followed by 8–30 days (all p=0.002). Approximately 37.2% and 42.8% of readmitted patients with type I and type II diabetes were diagnosed previously, and the RFS rates for previously diagnosed patients were significantly lower than for newly diagnosed patients at any time interval after discharge. Prior history of diabetes (all p<0.05), length of stay (all p<0.01) and reimbursement ratio (90% vs >92%, all p<0.0002) were consistently associated with the RFS for patients readmitted to the hospital at <7, 8–30, 31–60 and 61–90 days. Conclusions Hospital readmissions among patients with diabetes were affected by the diagnosis status. Patient characteristics and the quality of healthcare might regulate short-interval and long-interval hospital readmission, respectively, after discharge. PMID:26525716

  15. Matrix composition of cartilaginous anlagen in achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino).

    PubMed

    Dertinger, Susanne; Söeder, Stephan; Bösch, Hubert; Aigner, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias represent in vivo models of genetic defects. Achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), caused by a genetic defect in the major cartilage matrix protein, collagen type II, is a rare and severe skeletal dysplasia. It comprises a severe derangement of the fetal growth plate cartilage with subsequent ossification defects. In this study, we analyzed the matrix composition and cell differentiation pattern in 3 relatives with achondrogenesis type II. Most strikingly we found a strongly reduced collagen type II and moderately reduced aggrecan proteoglycan content in the dysplastic cartilage matrix. Type II collagen is, at least to some extent, replaced by collagens type I III, and VI. Ultrastructural analysis of the dysplastic cartilage matrix demonstrated a distended rER (rough endoplasmic reticulum), which is typical for this condition and most likely related to improper processing and retention of genetically altered type II collagen. Immunostaining for type IIA and X collagens suggest a severe delay in chondrocyte maturation. Thus, the genetic defect in the present cases leads most likely to a severe retention of collagen type II in the rER and, therefore, a strongly reduced collagen deposition and replacement by other interstitial collagens. However, the latter are less efficient in binding aggrecan proteoglycans in the dysplastic cartilage matrix. Additionally, a delay in chondrocyte maturation appears to be important in achondrogenesis type II. PMID:15574381

  16. Novel Type II Fatty Acid Biosynthesis (FAS II) Inhibitors as Multistage Antimalarial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Florian C.; Glinca, Serghei; Sattler, Julia M.; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Afanador, Gustavo A.; Prigge, Sean T.; Lanzer, Michael; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Klebe, Gerhard; Schlitzer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a potentially fatal disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and poses a major medical risk in large parts of the world. The development of new, affordable antimalarial drugs is of vital importance as there are increasing reports of resistance to the currently available therapeutics. In addition, most of the current drugs used for chemoprophylaxis merely act on parasites already replicating in the blood. At this point, a patient might already be suffering from the symptoms associated with the disease and could additionally be infectious to an Anopheles mosquito. These insects act as a vector, subsequently spreading the disease to other humans. In order to cure not only malaria but prevent transmission as well, a drug must target both the blood- and pre-erythrocytic liver stages of the parasite. P. falciparum (Pf) enoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) is a key enzyme of plasmodial type II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS II). It has been shown to be essential for liver-stage development of Plasmodium berghei and is therefore qualified as a target for true causal chemoprophylaxis. Using virtual screening based on two crystal structures of PfENR, we identified a structurally novel class of FAS inhibitors. Subsequent chemical optimization yielded two compounds that are effective against multiple stages of the malaria parasite. These two most promising derivatives were found to inhibit blood-stage parasite growth with IC50 values of 1.7 and 3.0 µm and lead to a more prominent developmental attenuation of liver-stage parasites than the gold-standard drug, primaquine. PMID:23341167

  17. Investigation of resistive losses in type II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benapfl, Brendan W.

    For low-TC materials, the superconducting transition temperature (TC) is depressed by the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, one of the remarkable features of cuprate high-TC materials is that the superconducting transition is broadened by the application of a magnetic field. Tinkham presented a model for the field-dependent resistive transition of high-T C materials, arising from "phase slippage at a complicated network of channels." Coffey & Clem did not include this field-broadening effect in their sophisticated model for the field and temperature dependence of the surface resistance in type-II superconductors. From the model by Lee & Stroud, treating Josephson Junction-coupled superconducting segments, it is concluded that doped, layered superconductors are certain to have a field-broadened superconducting transition. This effect can be identified by measurements of the resistivity as a function of temperature, magnetic field strength, angle of field with respect to the crystal axis as well as with respect to an induced current density. The iron pnictide materials such as Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (BaK122) have chemical layers with different compositions, differentiating them from elemental type-II superconductors such as niobium, and also from cuprates, by the absence of copper. Experimental data on BaK122 indicate a field-broadened transition in conjunction with a field-depressed superconducting transition temperature. In this work, techniques associated with Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were used to measure the temperature and field-induced changes in the surface resistance of single-crystal BaK122 samples. In addition, polycrystalline foils of niobium and a NbTi (70/30) alloy were measured using the same techniques to provide comparison. Measurements were taken as a function of applied magnetic field, temperature, rf field intensity, and angle of the applied field with respect to the rf-induced current. BaK122 sample field-dependent surface

  18. Isolation and characterization of simian T-cell leukemia virus type II from New World monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y M; Jang, Y J; Kanki, P J; Yu, Q C; Wang, J J; Montali, R J; Samuel, K P; Papas, T S

    1994-01-01

    Since the description of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and its simian counterpart, simian T-cell leukemia virus type I (STLV-I), the possible existence of other related simian retroviruses has been raised. Here, we report a new retrovirus, STLV-II, which we have identified in spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps), a New World primate species. Initially, a recombinant HTLV-II envelope protein (RP-IIB) was used to identify anti-STLV-II antibodies in New World monkeys by Western blot (immunoblot) assays. Subsequently, the virus was characterized by Southern blot hybridization, which showed that STLV-II and HTLV-II have a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology but have different restriction enzyme patterns. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the pX-II region of STLV-II provirus revealed 3% variation with the corresponding region of HTLV-II. Electron micrographic studies revealed HTLV-like, type C retrovirus particles outside the cell membranes of STLV-II-infected cells. This study describes the first link between HTLV-II and a simian reservoir in the New World. Further molecular studies of STLV-II infection in different species of New World monkeys, especially from the wild, may provide valuable information about the origin and intragroup relationships of South American monkeys. Spider monkeys infected with STLV-II may serve as an important animal model for HTLV-II infection in humans. Images PMID:7507178

  19. ANALYTIC APPROXIMATION OF CARBON CONDENSATION ISSUES IN TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Donald D.

    2013-01-01

    I present analytic approximations for some issues related to condensation of graphite, TiC, and silicon carbide in oxygen-rich cores of supernovae of Type II. Increased understanding, which mathematical analysis can support, renders researchers more receptive to condensation in O-rich supernova gases. Taking SN 1987A as typical, my first analysis shows why the abundance of CO molecules reaches an early maximum in which free carbon remains more abundant than CO. This analysis clarifies why O-rich gas cannot oxidize C if {sup 56}Co radioactivity is as strong as in SN 1987A. My next analysis shows that the CO abundance could be regarded as being in chemical equilibrium if the CO molecule is given an effective binding energy rather than its laboratory dissociation energy. The effective binding energy makes the thermal dissociation rate of CO equal to its radioactive dissociation rate. This preserves possible relevance for the concept of chemical equilibrium. My next analysis shows that the observed abundances of CO and SiO molecules in SN 1987A rule out frequent suggestions that equilibrium condensation of SUNOCONs has occurred following atomic mixing of the He-burning shell with more central zones in such a way as to reproduce roughly the observed spectrum of isotopes in SUNOCONs while preserving C/O > 1. He atoms admixed along with the excess carbon would destroy CO and SiO molecules, leaving their observed abundances unexplained. The final analysis argues that a chemical quasiequilibrium among grains (but not gas) may exist approximately during condensation, so that its computational use is partially justified as a guide to which mineral phases would be stable against reactions with gas. I illustrate this point with quasiequilibrium calculations by Ebel and Grossman that have shown that graphite is stable even when O/C >1 if prominent molecules are justifiably excluded from the calculation of chemical equilibrium.

  20. Screening of three Usher syndrome type II candidate genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemker, B.K.; Swaroop, A.; Kimberling, W.J.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome type II (US2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in blindness due to retinitis pigmentosa and congenital hearing loss. The disease affects approximately 1 in 20,000 individuals in the general population and is responsible for over 50% of all cases of deafness with blindness. The underlying US2 defect is unknown. The US2 gene has been localized to the 1q41 region of chromosome 1 by linkage studies. Three genes previously localized to 1q were analyzed to assess their candidacy as the US2 gene. These were evaluated by PCR assays using DNA from a YAC contig spanning the US2 region on chromosome 1. The first gene evaluated was the human choroideremia-like gene (hCHML), which had been mapped to chromosome 1q. The sequence on 1q is a homologue of the human choroideremia gene on chromosome X. Choroideremia is a degenerative disorder causing ocular pathology similar to that observed in US2 patients. Therefore, hCHML is a candidate for the US2 gene. Two cDNAs (A and B) from an enriched human retinal pigment epithelium library have been mapped to 1q41 by in situ hybridization. Both cDNAs are considered good candidates. The hCHML and cDNA A were ruled out as candidates for the US2 gene based on negative results from PCR assays performed on YACs spanning the US2 region. cDNA B could not be ruled out as a candidate for the US2 gene by these assays. Answers to many clinical questions regarding US2 will only be resolved after the gene is identified and characterized. Eventually, understanding the function and expression of the US2 gene will provide a basis for the development of therapy.

  1. Non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Rodger, W

    1991-01-01

    Non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia with resistance to ketosis. The onset is usually after age 40 years. Patients are variably symptomatic and frequently obese, hyperlipidemic and hypertensive. Clinical, pathological and biochemical evidence suggests that the disease is caused by a combined defect of insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Goals in the treatment of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension should be appropriate to the patient's age, the status of diabetic complications and the safety of the regimen. Nonpharmacologic management includes meal planning to achieve a suitable weight, such that carbohydrates supply 50% to 60% of the daily energy intake, with limitation of saturated fats, cholesterol and salt when indicated, and physical activity appropriate to the patient's age and cardiovascular status. Follow-up should include regular visits with the physician, access to diabetes education, self-monitoring of the blood or urine glucose level and laboratory-based measurement of the plasma levels of glucose and glycated hemoglobin. If unacceptably high plasma glucose levels (e.g., 8 mmol/L or more before meals) persist the use of orally given hypoglycemic agents (a sulfonylurea agent or metformin or both) is indicated. Temporary insulin therapy may be needed during intercurrent illness, surgery or pregnancy. Long-term insulin therapy is recommended in patients with continuing symptoms or hyperglycemia despite treatment with diet modification and orally given hypoglycemic agents. The risk of pancreatitis may be reduced by treating severe hypertriglyceridemia (fasting serum level greater than 10 mmol/L) and atherosclerotic disease through dietary and, if necessary, pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia. Antihypertensive agents are available that have fewer adverse metabolic effects than thiazides and beta-adrenergic receptor blockers. New drugs are being developed that

  2. The Three-Dimensional Structural Basis of Type II Hyperprolinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Dhiraj; Singh, Ranjan K.; Moxley, Michael A.; Henzl, Michael T.; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2012-08-31

    Type II hyperprolinemia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in {Delta}{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH; also known as ALDH4A1), the aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of glutamate semialdehyde to glutamate. Here, we report the first structure of human P5CDH (HsP5CDH) and investigate the impact of the hyperprolinemia-associated mutation of Ser352 to Leu on the structure and catalytic properties of the enzyme. The 2. 5-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure of HsP5CDH was determined using experimental phasing. Structures of the mutant enzymes S352A (2.4 {angstrom}) and S352L (2.85 {angstrom}) were determined to elucidate the structural consequences of altering Ser352. Structures of the 93% identical mouse P5CDH complexed with sulfate ion (1.3 {angstrom} resolution), glutamate (1.5 {angstrom}), and NAD{sup +} (1.5 {angstrom}) were determined to obtain high-resolution views of the active site. Together, the structures show that Ser352 occupies a hydrophilic pocket and is connected via water-mediated hydrogen bonds to catalytic Cys348. Mutation of Ser352 to Leu is shown to abolish catalytic activity and eliminate NAD{sup +} binding. Analysis of the S352A mutant shows that these functional defects are caused by the introduction of the nonpolar Leu352 side chain rather than the removal of the Ser352 hydroxyl. The S352L structure shows that the mutation induces a dramatic 8-{angstrom} rearrangement of the catalytic loop. Because of this conformational change, Ser349 is not positioned to interact with the aldehyde substrate, conserved Glu447 is no longer poised to bind NAD{sup +}, and Cys348 faces the wrong direction for nucleophilic attack. These structural alterations render the enzyme inactive.

  3. OPTICAL AND INFRARED ANALYSIS OF TYPE II SN 2006bc

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Joseph S.; Sugerman, B. E. K.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Andrews, J. E.; Clem, J. E-mail: ben.sugerman@goucher.edu E-mail: jandrews@phys.lsu.edu; and others

    2012-07-10

    We present nebular phase optical imaging and spectroscopy and near/mid-IR imaging of the Type II SN 2006bc. Observations reveal the central wavelength of the symmetric H{alpha} line profile to be redshifted with respect to the host galaxy H{alpha} emission by day 325. Such a phenomenon has been argued to result from an asymmetric explosion in the iron-peak elements resulting in a larger mass of {sup 56}Ni and higher excitation of hydrogen on the far side of the supernova (SN) explosion. We also observe a gradual blueshifting of this H{alpha} peak which is indicative of dust formation in the ejecta. Although showing a normal peak brightness, V {approx} -17.2, for a core-collapse SN, 2006bc fades by {approx}6 mag during the first 400 days suggesting either a relatively low {sup 56}Ni yield, an increase in extinction due to new dust, or both. A short-duration flattening of the light curve is observed from day 416 to day 541 suggesting an optical light echo. Based on the narrow time window of this echo, we discuss implications on the location and geometry of the reflecting interstellar medium. With our radiative transfer models, we find an upper limit of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} of dust around SN 2006bc. In the event that all of this dust were formed during the SN explosion, this quantity of dust is still several orders of magnitude lower than that needed to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the early universe.

  4. Temperature factor for magnetic instability conditions of type - II superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, V.

    2014-10-01

    The macroscopic development of interrelated electrodynamics and thermal states taking place both before and after instability onset in type-II superconductors are studied using the critical state and the flux creep concepts. The physical mechanisms of the non-isothermal formation of the critical state are discussed solving the set of unsteady thermo-electrodynamics equations taking into consideration the unknown moving penetration boundary of the magnetic flux. To make it, the numerical method, which allows to study diffusion phenomena with unknown moving phase-two boundary, is developed. The corresponding non-isothermal flux jump criteria are written. It is proved for the first time that, first, the diffusion phenomena in superconductors have the fission-chain-reaction nature, second, the stability conditions, losses in superconductor and its stable overheating before instability onset are mutually dependent. The results are compared with those following from the existing magnetic instability theory, which does not take into consideration the stable temperature increase of superconductor before the instability onset. It is shown that errors of isothermal approximation are significant for modes closed to adiabatic ones. Therefore, the well-known adiabatic flux jump criterion limits the range of possible stable superconducting states since a correct determination of their stability states must take into account the thermal prehistory of the stable magnetic flux penetration. As a result, the calculation errors in the isothermal approximation will rise when the sweep rate of an external magnetic field or the size of the superconductor’s cross-sectional area increase. The basic conclusions formulated in the framework of the critical state model are verified comparing the experimental results and the numerical analysis of the stability conditions and the temperature dynamics of the helicoid-type superconducting current-carrying element having real voltage

  5. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Shirasaki, T.; Munakata, M.; Hirata, A.; Akaike, N.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8395299

  6. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY AND THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Holtzman, Jon; Konishi, Kohki; Yasuda, Naoki; Schneider, D. P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Cinabro, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W.; Bassett, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J.; Goobar, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe-0.027 < z < 0.144-cover a range hitherto sparsely sampled in the literature; in particular, our SNe II-P sample contains nearly as many SNe in the Hubble flow (z > 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed.

  7. Estimation of Failure Frequency for Type I and II High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2001-05-15

    The failure frequency of Type I and Type II High Level Waste tanks was calculated. The degradation mechanism that could lead to large break failure and the credits taken for steps taken to prevent large break failure were considered.

  8. Dissection of the interferon gamma-MHC class II signal transduction pathway reveals that type I and type II interferon systems share common signalling component(s).

    PubMed Central

    Loh, J E; Chang, C H; Fodor, W L; Flavell, R A

    1992-01-01

    We have used a herpes virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) based metabolic selection system to isolate mutants defective in the interferon gamma mediated induction of the MHC class II promoter. All the mutations act in trans and result in no detectable induction of MHC and invariant chain (Ii) gene expression. Scatchard analysis indicates that the mutants have a normal number of surface IFN gamma receptors with the same affinity constant. The mutants fall into two broad categories. One class of mutants is still able to induce MHC class I, IRF-1, 9-27, 1-8 and GBP genes by IFN gamma. A second class of mutants is defective for the IFN gamma induction of all the genes tested; surprisingly, the IFN alpha/beta induction of MHC class I, 9-27, ISG54 and ISG15 genes is also defective in these mutants, although different members of this class can be discriminated by the response of the GBP and IRF-1 genes to type I interferons. These data demonstrate that the signalling pathways of both type I and type II interferon systems share common signal transduction component(s). These mutants will be useful for the study of IFN gamma regulation of class II genes and Ii chain, and to elucidate molecular components of type I and type II interferon signal transduction. Images PMID:1314162

  9. Low luminosity Type II supernovae - II. Pointing towards moderate mass precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiro, S.; Pastorello, A.; Pumo, M. L.; Zampieri, L.; Turatto, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Valenti, S.; Agnoletto, I.; Altavilla, G.; Aoki, T.; Brocato, E.; Corsini, E. M.; Di Cianno, A.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Hamuy, M.; Enya, K.; Fiaschi, M.; Folatelli, G.; Desidera, S.; Harutyunyan, A.; Howell, D. A.; Kawka, A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Leibundgut, B.; Minezaki, T.; Navasardyan, H.; Nomoto, K.; Mattila, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Pignata, G.; Raimondo, G.; Salvo, M.; Schmidt, B. P.; Sollerman, J.; Spyromilio, J.; Taubenberger, S.; Valentini, G.; Vennes, S.; Yoshii, Y.

    2014-04-01

    We present new data for five underluminous Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe IIP), namely SN 1999gn, SN 2002gd, SN 2003Z, SN 2004eg and SN 2006ov. This new sample of low-luminosity SNe IIP (LL SNe IIP) is analysed together with similar objects studied in the past. All of them show a flat light-curve plateau lasting about 100 d, an underluminous late-time exponential tail, intrinsic colours that are unusually red, and spectra showing prominent and narrow P Cygni lines. A velocity of the ejected material below 103 km s-1 is inferred from measurements at the end of the plateau. The 56Ni masses ejected in the explosion are very small (≤10-2 M⊙). We investigate the correlations among 56Ni mass, expansion velocity of the ejecta and absolute magnitude in the middle of the plateau, confirming the main findings of Hamuy, according to which events showing brighter plateau and larger expansion velocities are expected to produce more 56Ni. We propose that these faint objects represent the LL tail of a continuous distribution in parameters space of SNe IIP. The physical properties of the progenitors at the explosion are estimated through the hydrodynamical modelling of the observables for two representative events of this class, namely SN 2005cs and SN 2008in. We find that the majority of LL SNe IIP, and quite possibly all, originate in the core collapse of intermediate-mass stars, in the mass range 10-15 M⊙.

  10. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Veith, G D; Broderius, S J

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed. PMID:2269227

  11. Rules for distinguishing toxicants that cause type I and type II narcosis syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, G.D.; Broderius, S.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Narcosis is a nonspecific reversible state of arrested activity of protoplasmic structures caused by a wide variety of organic chemicals. The vast majority of industrial organic chemicals can be characterized by a baseline structure-toxicity relationship as developed for diverse aquatic organisms, using only the n-octanol/water partition coefficient as a descriptor. There are, however, many apparent narcotic chemicals that are more toxic than baseline narcosis predicts. Some of these chemicals have been distinguished as polar narcotics. Joint toxic theory and isobole diagrams were used to show that chemicals strictly additive with phenol were generally more toxic than predicted by narcosis I models and characterized by a different mode of action called narcosis II syndrome. This type of toxicity is exemplified by certain amides, amines, phenols, and nitrogen heterocycles. Evidence is provided that suggests that narcosis II syndrome may result from the presence of a strong hydrogen bonding group on the molecule, and narcosis I syndrome results from hydrophobic bonding of the chemical to enzymes and/or membranes. This shift in toxic action is apparently indistinguishable for narcotic chemicals with log P greater than about 2.7. General rules for selecting the appropriate models are proposed.

  12. 14 CFR 21.83 - Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional type certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional type certificates. 21.83 Section 21.83 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Type Certificates § 21.83 Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional...

  13. 77 FR 60124 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II Active Pharmaceutical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Initial Completeness Assessments for Type II API DMFs Under GDUFA.'' Under the Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012 (GDUFA), holders of certain drug master files, namely, Type II active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) drug master files (DMFs) that are referenced......

  14. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  15. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  16. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  17. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  18. 33 CFR 159.126a - Suspended solids test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suspended solids in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136. The arithmetic mean of the total suspended solids in 38... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspended solids test: Type II... Suspended solids test: Type II devices. During the sewage processing test (§ 159.121) 40 effluent...

  19. Interband cascade light emitting devices based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Lin, C.H.; Murry, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors discuss physical processes in the newly developed type-II interband cascade light emitting devices, and review their recent progress in the demonstration of the first type-II interband cascade lasers and the observation of interband cascade electroluminescence up to room temperature in a broad mid-infrared wavelength region (extended to 9 {mu}m).

  20. 46 CFR 171.072 - Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision. 171... permeability for Type II subdivision. When doing calcualtions to show compliance with § 171.070, the following uniform average permeabilities must be assumed: (a) 85 percent in the machinery space. (b) 60 percent...

  1. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  2. Complex Regional Pain Type 1.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Michael Joseph; Barnett, Peter Leslie John

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is increasingly recognized in the pediatric population. Owing to the nature of presentation with pain, many of these children present to the emergency setting at different stages of the syndrome with or without numerous prior interactions with health professionals. Complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS1) is a clinical syndrome characterized by amplified musculoskeletal limb pain that is out of proportion to the history and physical findings, or pain due to non-noxious stimuli (allodynia/hyperalgesia), and accompanied by one or more signs of autonomic dysfunction. Differential diagnosis may include significant trauma (eg, fractures), inflammatory conditions, malignancies, and systemic illness. The diagnosis is clinical. The treatment goals for CRPS1 are restoration of function and relief of pain. Education, physical, and occupational therapy with psychotherapy and defined goals of achievement with reward are the mainstay of treatment for this population. Most children with CRPS1 will have a favorable outcome. PMID:26928099

  3. Treatment of Type II Endoleaks After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Transcaval Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mansueto, Giancarlo Cenzi, Daniela; D'Onofrio, Mirko; Petrella, Enrico; Gumbs, Andrew A.; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of the note is to describe a new technique for type II endoleak treatment, using an alternative approach through femoral venous access. Three patients who developed type II endoleak after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm were treated with direct transcaval puncture and embolization inside the aneurysm sac. The detailed technique is described. All patients were treated without any complications and discharged 48 hours after the treatment. At 1 month follow-up the computed tomograph scan did not show a recurrence of a type II endoleak. The management of patients with type II endoleak is a controversial issue and different techniques have been proposed. We suggest an alternative technique for type II endoleak treatment. The feasibility and the advantages of this approach can offer new possibilities for the diagnosis as well as for the treatment of this complication.

  4. The discrimination of type I and type II collagen and the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Chen, Te-Hsuen; Ho, Yi-Yun; Huang, Chi-Hsiu; Chang, Shwu-Jen; Huang, Yi-You; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-12-01

    Using excitation polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, we measured SHG intensity as a function of the excitation polarization angle for type I and type II collagens. We determined the second order susceptibility (χ((2))) tensor ratios of type I and II collagens at each pixel, and displayed the results as images. We found that the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used to distinguish the two types of collagen. In particular, we obtained χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.40 ± 0.04 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.53 ± 0.10 for type I collagen from rat tail tendon, and χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.14 ± 0.09 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.29 ± 0.11 for type II collagen from rat trachea cartilage. We also applied this methodology on the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue which produces type I and II collagen simultaneously. By displaying the χ((2)) tensor ratios in the image format, the variation in the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used as a contrast mechanism for distinguishing type I and II collagens. PMID:20875682

  5. Notch maintains Drosophila type II neuroblasts by suppressing expression of the Fez transcription factor Earmuff.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaosu; Xie, Yonggang; Zhu, Sijun

    2016-07-15

    Notch signaling is crucial for maintaining neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and heterogeneity; however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In Drosophila, loss of Notch prematurely terminates the self-renewal of larval type II neuroblasts (NBs, the Drosophila NSCs) and transforms type II NBs into type I NBs. Here, we demonstrate that Notch maintains type II NBs by suppressing the activation of earmuff (erm) by Pointed P1 (PntP1). We show that loss of Notch or components of its canonical pathway leads to PntP1-dependent ectopic Erm expression in type II NBs. Knockdown of Erm significantly rescues the loss-of-Notch phenotypes, and misexpression of Erm phenocopies the loss of Notch. Ectopically expressed Erm promotes the transformation of type II NBs into type I NBs by inhibiting PntP1 function and expression in type II NBs. Our work not only elucidates a key mechanism of Notch-mediated maintenance of type II NB self-renewal and identity, but also reveals a novel function of Erm. PMID:27151950

  6. On the source conditions for herringbone structure in type II solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; White, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation is made of the correlation of the occurrence of the herringbone phenomenon in type II solar radio bursts with various flare properties. It is shown that herringbone is strongly correlated with the intensity of the type II burst: whereas about 21 percent of all type II bursts show herringbone, about 60 percent of the most intense bursts contain herringbone. This fact can explain most of the correlations between herringbone and other properties such as intense type III bursts, type IV emission, and high type II starting frequencies. It is also shown that when this is taken into account, there is no need to postulate two classes of type II burst in order to explain why there appears to be a difference in herringbone occurrence between the set of type II bursts associated with the leading edges of coronal mass ejections, and those not so associated. It is argued that the data are consistent with the idea that all coronal type II bursts are due to blast waves from flares.

  7. The Relation between Type II Radio Bursts and Large-scale Coronal Propagating Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Nariaki

    2014-06-01

    Both type II radio bursts and chromospheric Moreton-Ramsey waves are believed to signify shock waves that propagate in the solar corona. Large-scale coronal propagating fronts (LCPFs), which are also called EIT waves, EUV waves or coronal bright fronts in the literature, were initially thought to be coronal counterparts of Moreton-Ramsey waves, and thus they were expected to be correlated with type II bursts. At present, the prevailing view seems to be that both type II bursts and LCPFs are more closely linked with CMEs than with flares. Here we revisit the relation between type II bursts and LCPFs, by examining radio dynamic spectra (180-25 MHz) as obtained by USAF/RSTN and analyzing EUV and white-light data from SDO and STEREO. In the sample of about 140 type II bursts and LCPFs between April 2010 and January 2013, we find the correlation of 50-60 %. Type II bursts could be associated with eruptions without significant lateral expansion, and fast LCPFs could show no presence in the metric radio spectral range. Using data from STEREO COR-1 that observed the CME as a limb event, in 42 cases we directly measure the height of the CME at the onset of the type II burst. As expected, the height tends to be lower when the type II burst starts at a higher frequency. It is found that those type II bursts that start at higher altitudes and lower frequencies tend to have weaker EUV fronts. This may indicate multiple ways of how LCPFs and type II bursts are related with CMEs.

  8. Enhanced performance of quantum dot solar cells based on type II quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Luo, Shuai; Lv, Zun-Ren; Yang, Tao

    2014-10-07

    The characteristics of quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) based on type II QDs are investigated theoretically. Based on a drift-diffusion model, we obtained a much higher open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) as well as conversion efficiency in a type II QDSC, compared to type I QDSCs. The improved V{sub oc} and efficiency are mainly attributed to the much longer Auger recombination lifetime in type II QDs. Moreover, the influence of the carrier lifetime on devices' performance is discussed and clarified. In addition, an explicit criterion to determine the role of quantum dots in solar cells is put forward.

  9. Ultracold fermions in real or fictitious magnetic fields: BCS-BEC evolution and type-I-type-II transition

    SciTech Connect

    Iskin, M.; Sa de Melo, C. A. R.

    2011-04-15

    We study ultracold neutral fermion superfluids in the presence of fictitious magnetic fields, as well as charged fermion superfluids in the presence of real magnetic fields. Charged fermion superfluids undergo a phase transition from type-I to type-II superfluidity, where the magnetic properties of the superfluid change from being a perfect diamagnet without vortices to a partial diamagnet with the emergence of the Abrikosov vortex lattice. The transition from type-I to type-II superfluidity is tuned by changing the scattering parameter (interaction) for fixed density. We also find that neutral fermion superfluids such as {sup 6}Li and {sup 40}K are extreme type-II superfluids and are more robust to the penetration of a fictitious magnetic field in the BCS-BEC crossover region near unitarity, where the critical fictitious magnetic field reaches a maximum as a function of the scattering parameter (interaction).

  10. Type I Interferon Suppresses Type II Interferon–Triggered Human Anti-Mycobacterial Responses

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Rosane M. B.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Montoya, Dennis; Schenk, Mirjam; Lee, Delphine J.; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra; Chun, Rene; Iyer, Shankar S.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Rea, Thomas H.; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.; Popper, Stephen J.; Relman, David A.; Stenger, Steffen; Bloom, Barry R.; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β) are important for protection against many viral infections, whereas type II interferon (IFN-γ) is essential for host defense against some bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Study of IFN responses in human leprosy revealed an inverse correlation between IFN-β and IFN-γ gene expression programs. IFN-γ and its downstream vitamin D–dependent antimicrobial genes were preferentially expressed in self-healing tuberculoid lesions and mediated antimicrobial activity against the pathogen Mycobacterium leprae in vitro. In contrast, IFN-β and its downstream genes, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), were induced in monocytes by M. leprae in vitro and preferentially expressed in disseminated and progressive lepromatous lesions. The IFN-γ–induced macrophage vitamin D–dependent antimicrobial peptide response was inhibited by IFN-β and by IL-10, suggesting that the differential production of IFNs contributes to protection versus pathogenesis in some human bacterial infections. PMID:23449998

  11. Interfacial strain effect on type-I and type-II core/shell quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheshlaghi, Negar; Pisheh, Hadi Sedaghat; Karim, M. Rezaul; Malkoc, Derya; Ünlü, Hilmi

    2016-09-01

    A comparative experimental and theoretical study on the calculation of capped core diameter in ZnSe/ZnS, CdSe/Cd(Zn)S type-I and ZnSe/CdS type-II core/shell nanocrystals is presented. The lattice mismatch induced interface strain between core and shell was calculated from continuum elastic theory and applied in effective mass approximation method to obtain the corresponding capped core diameter. The calculated results were compared with diameter of bare cores (CdSe and ZnSe) from transmission electron microscopy images to obtain the amount of the stretched or squeezed core after deposition of tensile or compressive shells. The result of the study showed that the core is squeezed in ZnSe/ZnS and CdSe/Cd(Zn)S after compressive shell and stretched in ZnSe/CdS after tensile shell deposition. The stretched and squeezed amount of the capped core found to be in proportion with lattice mismatch amount in the core/shell structure.

  12. Uterine type II estrogen-binding sites are not of eosinophil origin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    A recent report suggested that nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus are of eosinophil origin and may represent (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to eosinophil peroxidase. To further evaluate this hypothesis the authors examined the response of nuclear type II sites to estrogen under conditions where eosinophils are not present. Results of the experiments show that physiological levels of estradiol-17..beta.. (10 nM for 72 h) will stimulate nuclear type II sites in highly purified cultures of rat uterine stromal and myometrial cells. The magnitude of the response of type II sites to estradiol in these stromal (4-fold) and myometrial (80-fold) cell cultures was essentially identical to that observed in the uterine cell types following in vivo estrogen treatment. Since these highly purified cultures of uterine cells were prepared from the uterus of a 21-day ovariectomized rat which is devoid of eosinophils, it was concluded that estradiol stimulation of nuclear type II sites is a direct intracellular response to estrogen which occurs independent of eosinophil accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that type II sites in the rat uterus are not peroxidase. Stimulation of cytosol and nuclear type II sites by estrogen in the rat uterus is a direct intracellular response to the hormone unrelated to eosinophil accumulation and/or peroxidase activity.

  13. Large basolateral processes on type II hair cells are novel processing units in mammalian vestibular organs.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Rémy; Pickett, Sarah B; Nguyen, Tot Bui; Stone, Jennifer S

    2014-10-01

    Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head movements and drive central motor reflexes that control gaze, body movements, and body orientation. In mammals, type I and II vestibular hair cells are defined by their shape, contacts with vestibular afferent nerves, and membrane conductance. Here we describe unique morphological features of type II vestibular hair cells in mature rodents (mice and gerbils) and bats. These features are cytoplasmic processes that extend laterally from the hair cell base and project under type I hair cells. Closer analysis of adult mouse utricles demonstrated that the basolateral processes of type II hair cells vary in shape, size, and branching, with the longest processes extending three to four hair cell widths. The hair cell basolateral processes synapse upon vestibular afferent nerves and receive inputs from vestibular efferent nerves. Furthermore, some basolateral processes make physical contacts with the processes of other type II hair cells, forming some sort of network among type II hair cells. Basolateral processes are rare in perinatal mice and do not attain their mature form until 3-6 weeks of age. These observations demonstrate that basolateral processes are significant signaling regions of type II vestibular hair cells and suggest that type II hair cells may directly communicate with each other, which has not been described in vertebrates. PMID:24825750

  14. Effects of serum immunoglobulins from patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) on depolarisation-induced calcium transients in isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Joanne M; Dharmalingam, Backialakshmi; Marsh, Stephen J; Thompson, Victoria; Goebel, Andreas; Brown, David A

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is thought to have an auto-immune component. One such target recently proposed from the effects of auto-immune IgGs on Ca(2+) transients in cardiac myocytes and cell lines is the α1-adrenoceptor. We have tested whether such IgGs exerted comparable effects on nociceptive sensory neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia. Depolarisation-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients were generated by applying 30 mM KCl for 2 min and monitored by Fura-2 fluorescence imaging. No IgGs tested (including 3 from CRPS patients) had any significant effect on these [Ca(2+)]i transients. However, IgG from one CRPS patient consistently and significantly reduced the K(+)-induced response of cells that had been pre-incubated for 24h with a mixture of inflammatory mediators (1 μM histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin and PGE2). Since this pre-incubation also appeared to induce a comparable inhibitory response to the α1-agonist phenylephrine, this is compatible with the α1-adrenoceptor as a target for CRPS auto-immunity. A mechanism whereby this might enhance pain is suggested. PMID:26708558

  15. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  16. Achondrogenesis: a review with special consideration of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino).

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Liu, C T; Yang, S S

    1981-01-01

    We describe two dwarfed infants with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen, and short limbs. Both died neonatally. Radiographic and morphologic characteristics identified the Langer-Saldino form of achondrogenesis (type II). Review of type II achondrogenesis documented distinctive clinical and anthropometric manifestations (fewer stillbirths, longer survival time and gestation period, larger size of the baby, longer limbs, and characteristic craniofacial features) as compared with type I achondrogenesis (Parenti-Fraccaro). PMID:7036745

  17. In vivo pharmacological evaluation of two novel type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tracey, W R; Nakane, M; Basha, F; Carter, G

    1995-05-01

    Selective type II (inducible) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors have several potential therapeutic applications, including treatment of sepsis, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. The ability of two novel, selective inhibitors of type II NOS, S-ethylisothiourea (EIT) and 2-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-thiazine (AMT), to inhibit type II NOS function in vivo was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats. Type II NOS activity was assessed by measuring changes in plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations ([NOx]). Both EIT and AMT elicited a dose-dependent and > 95% inhibition of the LPS-induced increase in plasma [NOx]. The ED50 values for EIT and AMT were 0.4 and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the administration of LPS and either NOS inhibitor resulted in a dose-dependent increase in animal mortality; neither compound was lethal when administered alone. Pretreatment with L-arginine (but not D-arginine) prevented the mortality, while not affecting the type II NOS-dependent NO production, suggesting the toxicity may be due to inhibition of one of the other NOS isoforms (endothelial or neuronal). Thus, although EIT and AMT are potent inhibitors of type II NOS function in vivo, type II NOS inhibitors of even greater selectivity may need to be developed for therapeutic applications. PMID:7585335

  18. Type II pneumocytes in mixed cell culture of human lung: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, L; Bull, T B; Fox, B; Guz, A; Richards, R J; Tetley, T D

    1990-01-01

    Alveolar Type II epithelial cells dedifferentiate rapidly in vitro. Studies with animal tissue suggest that cell-cell and extracellular matrix-cell interactions are important in the retention of Type II cell morphology in vitro. Thus, in this study with human tissue, alveolar Type II cells, alveolar macrophages, and spindle cells were prepared from the same sample of lung (obtained following lobectomy for cancer, n = 3), cocultured on glass cover slips or tissue culture plastic, and studied by light microscopy with scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy for 8 days. The primary cell isolates contained approximately 45% Type II cells; the remainder were macrophages or unidentifiable cells. Clusters, made up of a single layer of cuboidal Type II cells around a central core of connective tissue (largely collagen and some elastic tissue), formed above a monolayer of spindle cells. The Type II cells were morphologically similar to those seen in vivo. The cells were still cuboidal at 8 days but had lost their lamellar bodies, which were released into the medium via the apical surface. The clusters increased in size with time (area, microns 2: day 1, 29(5-143) x 10(2); day 8, 63(10-311) x 10(2); mean(range); p less than 0.02) without changing in number per culture, suggesting Type II cell proliferation. This may have been due to factors produced by the other cells and adherence to the extracellular matrix (ECM); (free collagen fibers, present in the original preparation, spindle cells, and/or Type II cells could be responsible for presence of ECM). We propose this as a useful model for the study of human Type II epithelial cells in vitro. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 1. c FIGURE 1. d FIGURE 1. e FIGURE 1. f FIGURE 2. a FIGURE 2. b FIGURE 2. c FIGURE 2. d FIGURE 2. e FIGURE 2. f FIGURE 2. g FIGURE 3. PMID:2384069

  19. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or continuous unilateral distal experimental pain stimulation in healthy subjects does not bias visual attention towards one hemifield.

    PubMed

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Grafenstein, Jessica; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In natural life pain automatically draws attention towards the painful body part suggesting that it interacts with different attentional mechanisms such as visual attention. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients who typically report on chronic distally located pain of one extremity may suffer from so-called neglect-like symptoms, which have also been linked to attentional mechanisms. The purpose of the study was to further evaluate how continuous pain conditions influence visual attention. Saccade latencies were recorded in two experiments using a common visual attention paradigm whereby orientating saccades to cued or uncued lateral visual targets had to be performed. In the first experiment saccade latencies of healthy subjects were measured under two conditions: one in which continuous experimental pain stimulation was applied to the index finger to imitate a continuous pain situation, and one without pain stimulation. In the second experiment saccade latencies of patients suffering from CRPS were compared to controls. The results showed that neither the continuous experimental pain stimulation during the experiment nor the chronic pain in CRPS led to an unilateral increase of saccade latencies or to a unilateral increase of the cue effect on latency. The results show that unilateral, continuously applied pain stimuli or chronic pain have no or only very limited influence on visual attention. Differently from patients with visual neglect, patients with CRPS did not show strong side asymmetries of saccade latencies or of cue effects on saccade latencies. Thus, neglect-like clinical symptoms of CRPS patients do not involve the allocation of visual attention. PMID:26238407

  20. Cytogenetic evidence that DNA topoisomerase II is not involved in radiation induced chromsome-type aberrations.

    PubMed

    Mosesso, P; Pepe, G; Ottavianelli, A; Schinoppi, A; Cinelli, S

    2015-11-01

    ICRF-187 (Cardioxane™, Chiron) is a catalytic inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II), proposed to act by blocking Topo II-mediated DNA cleavage without stabilizing DNA-Topo II-"cleavable complexes". In this study ICRF-187 was used to evaluate the potential involvement of DNA topoisomerase II in the formation of the radiation-induced chromosome-type aberrations in the G0 phase of the cell cycle in human lymphocytes from three healthy male donors. This is based on many evidences that DNA topoisomerases are involved in DNA recombination, mainly of illegitimate type (non-homologous) both in vitro and in vivo. The results obtained clearly indicated that ICRF-187 did not induce per se any chromosomal damage. When challenged with the non-catalytic Topo II poison VP-16 (etoposide), which acts by stabilizing the "cleavable complex" generating "protein concealed" DSB's and thus chromosomal aberrations, it completely abolished the significant induction of chromosome-type aberrations and formation of dicentric chromosomes. This indicates that ICRF-187 acts effectively as catalytic inhibitor of Topo II. On the other hand, when X-ray treatments were challenged with ICRF-187 using experimental conditions as for VP-16 treatments, no modification of the incidence of chromosome-type aberrations and dicentric chromosomes was observed. On this basis, we conclude that Topo II is not involved in the formation of X-ray-induced chromosome-type aberrations and dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes in the G0 phase of the cell cycle. PMID:26520368

  1. Quantum cascade light emitting diodes based on type-II quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.H.; Yang, R.Q.; Zhang, D.; Murry, S.J.; Pei, S.S.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1997-01-21

    The authors have demonstrated room-temperature CW operation of type-II quantum cascade (QC) light emitting diodes at 4.2 {micro}m using InAs/InGaSb/InAlSb type-II quantum wells. The type-II QC configuration utilizes sequential multiple photon emissions in a staircase of coupled type-II quantum wells. The device was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a p-type GaSb substrate and was compared of 20 periods of active regions separated by digitally graded quantum well injection regions. The maximum average output power is about 250 {micro}W at 80 K, and 140 {micro}W at 300 K at a repetition rate of 1 kHz with a duty cycle of 50%.

  2. Shock-associated kilometric radio emission and solar metric type II bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.

    1989-01-01

    New criteria are used here to select and study the properties of shock-associated (SA) kilometric bursts. Nearly half of all intense metric type II bursts were temporally associated with 1980 kHz emission which was not attributable to metric type III bursts. A quarter of all intense type II bursts are not associated with any significant 1980 kHz emission and another quarter are accompanied by 1980 kHz emission presumed due to type II bursts. The SA bursts are generally not well correlated with microwave flux-density profiles but compare more closely with the most intense and structured parts of the profiles of metric type II bursts. These results imply that the SA emission is due primarily to energetic electrons accelerated at the associated shock.

  3. Type II solar radio bursts, interplanetary shocks, and energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Stone, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Using the ISEE-3 radio astronomy experiment data 37 interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been identified in the period September 1978 to December 1981. These events and the associated phenomena are listed. The events are preceded by intense, soft X ray events with long decay times (LDEs) and type II and/or type IV bursts at meter wavelengths. The meter wavelength type II bursts are usually intense and exhibit herringbone structure. The extension of the herringbone structure into the kilometer wavelength range results in the occurrence of a shock accelerated (SA) event. The majority of the interplanetary type II bursts are associated with energetic particle events. These results support other studies awhich indicate that energetic solar particles detected at 1 A.U. are generated by shock acceleration. From a preliminary analysis of the available data there appears to be a high correlation with white light coronal transients.

  4. Halo Coronal Mass Ejections and Their Relation to DH Type-II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Bendict Lawrance, M.

    2015-10-01

    A set of 88 halo CMEs observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/ Large Angle Solar Coronagraph (SOHO/LASCO) during the period 2005 to 2010 is considered to study the relationship of these halo CMEs with Type-II radio bursts in the deca-hectametric (DH) wavelength range observed by Wind/(Plasma and Radio Waves: WAVES). Among the 88 events, 39 halo CMEs are found to be associated with DH Type-II radio bursts and their characteristics are analyzed with the following results: i) The heights of the CME leading edge at the time of the starting frequencies of many of the selected DH Type-II events (74 %) are in the range (2 - 10 R_{⊙}) where the shocks are formed. ii) The mean speed of DH-associated halo CMEs (1610 km s-1) is nearly twice the mean speed (853 km s-1) of halo CMEs without DH Type-II radio bursts, implying that the peak of the Alfvén speed profile in the outer corona where DH Type-II radio bursts start might be around 800 km s-1. iii) The shock speed of DH Type-II radio bursts calculated using the heights of shock signatures of the corresponding CME events is found to be slightly higher than the CME speed. iv) The CME speed plays a major role in the determination of the ending frequency of DH Type-II radio bursts but not the starting frequency. v) The relationship between the characteristics of DH Type-II radio bursts and CMEs is explained in the context of the universal drift-rate spectrum.

  5. Origin of the autoreactive anti-type II collagen response. II. Specificities, antibody isotypes and usage of V gene families of anti-type II collagen B cells.

    PubMed

    Holmdahl, R; Bailey, C; Enander, I; Mayer, R; Klareskog, L; Moran, T; Bona, C

    1989-03-15

    Autoantibodies play an important role in the pathogenesis of type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice. We have earlier reported a high frequency of cells producing anti-CII autoantibodies and a low frequency of cells producing multispecific antibodies, in regional lymph nodes 9 to 11 days after primary immunization with CII. It is shown here that anti-CII antibodies produced during primary immune response are IgG-antibodies mainly of IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG2b subclasses while IgM antibodies dominate primary responses elicited by OVA and denatured CII as analyzed with a large panel of hybridomas. Anti-CII antibodies generated during the primary response recognize at least five different epitopes on the CII molecule. The specificities of these antibodies for various epitopes result from combinational association of products encoded by genes derived from various VH and VK families and/or by the occurrence of somatic mutations. It is suggested that the primary anti-CII autoantibody response involves activation of memory B cells and is in this aspect different from the origin of "natural" autoantibodies. PMID:2493500

  6. Diversity in ABC transporters: Type I, II and III importers

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Austin J.; Park, Aekyung

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters are multi-subunit membrane pumps that transport substrates across membranes. While significant in the transport process, transporter architecture exhibits a range of diversity that we are only beginning to recognize. This divergence may provide insight into the mechanisms of substrate transport and homeostasis. Until recently, ABC importers have been classified into two types, but with the emergence of energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters there are potentially three types of ABC importers. In this review, we summarize an expansive body of research on the three types of importers with an emphasis on the basics that underlie ABC importers, such as structure, subunit composition and mechanism. PMID:25155087

  7. Helicobacter pylori hopQ alleles (type I and II) in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    LEYLABADLO, HAMED EBRAHIMZADEH; YEKANI, MINA; GHOTASLOU, REZA

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) outer membrane protein (HopQ) of is one of the proteins involved in bacterial adherence to gastric mucosa and has been suggested to have a role in the virulence of H. pylori. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between H. pylori virulence types I and II hopQ genotypes and patients with different gastrointestinal diseases. A polymerase chain reaction-based assay was used to determine the presence of type I and type II hopQ genes in 88 H. pylori strains isolated from H. pylori-infected patients. Of the total 88 H. pylori isolates, type I and type II hopQ alleles were detected in 52 (59.1%) and 36 (40.9%), respectively. A significant association was found between type I hopQ gene and gastric cancer [odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3–4.1] and gastric ulcers (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4–4.3). A significant association was also identified between the type II hopQ gene and gastric cancer (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1–3.0). The association between hopQ type I and hopQ type II genotypes and clinical status suggest that these genes may be helpful in the universal prediction of specific disease risks. PMID:27123254

  8. Organization of the human keratin type II gene cluster at 12q13

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, S.J.; LeBlanc-Straceski, J.; Krauter, K.

    1994-12-01

    Keratin proteins constitute intermediate filaments and are the major differentiation products of mammalian epithelial cells. The epithelial keratins are classified into two groups, type I and type II, and one member of each group is expressed in a given epithelial cell differentiation stage. Mutations in type I and type II keratin genes have now been implicated in three different human genetic disorders, epidermolysis bullosa simplex, epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, and epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma. Members of the type I keratins are mapped to human chromosome 17, and the type II keratin genes are mapped to chromosome 12. To understand the organization of the type II keratin genes on chromosome 12, we isolated several yeast artificial chromosomes carrying these keratin genes and examined them in detail. We show that eight already known type II keratin genes are located in a cluster at 12q13, and their relative organization reflects their evolutionary relationship. We also determined that a type I keratin gene, KRT8, is located next to its partner, KRT18, in this cluster. Careful examination of the cluster also revealed that there may be a number of additional keratin genes at this locus that have not been described previously. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Effective dynamics in Bianchi type II loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison

    2012-05-01

    We numerically investigate the solutions to the effective equations of the Bianchi II model within the “improved” loop quantum cosmology dynamics. The matter source is a massless scalar field. We perform a systematic study of the space of solutions, and focus on the behavior of several geometrical observables. We show that the big bang singularity is replaced by a bounce and the pointlike singularities do not saturate the energy density bound. There are up to three directional bounces in the scale factors, one global bounce in the expansion, the shear presents up to four local maxima and can be zero at the bounce. This allows for solutions with density larger than the maximal density for the isotropic and Bianchi I cases. The asymptotic behavior is shown to behave like that of a Bianchi I model, and the effective solutions connect anisotropic solutions even when the shear is zero at the bounce. All known facts of Bianchi I are reproduced. In the “vacuum limit,” solutions are such that almost all the dynamics is due to the anisotropies. Since Bianchi II plays an important role in the Bianchi IX model and the Belinskii, Khalatnikov, Lifshitz conjecture, our results can provide an intuitive understanding of the behavior in the vicinity of general spacelike singularities, when loop-geometric corrections are present.

  10. Tissue-specific expression of the human type II collagen gene in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lovell-Badge, R H; Bygrave, A; Bradley, A; Robertson, E; Tilly, R; Cheah, K S

    1987-01-01

    Type II collagen is crucial to the development of form in vertebrates as it is the major protein of cartilage. To study the factors regulating its expression we introduced a cosmid containing the human type II collagen gene, including 4.5 kilobases of 5' and 2.2 kilobases of 3' flanking DNA, into embryonic stem cells in vitro. The transformed cells contribute to all tissues in chimeric mice allowing the expression of the exogenous gene to be studied in vivo. Human type II collagen mRNA is restricted to tissues showing transcription from the endogenous gene and human type II collagen is found in extracellular matrix surrounding chondrocytes in cartilage. The results indicate that the cis-acting requirements for correct temporal and spatial regulation of the gene are contained within the introduced DNA. Images PMID:3033664

  11. Enhanced proliferation of primary rat type II pneumocytes by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope protein

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Chassidy; Jahid, Sohail; Voelker, Dennis R.; Fan Hung

    2011-04-10

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is the causative agent of a contagious lung cancer in sheep. The envelope protein (Env) is the oncogene, as it can transform cell lines in culture and induce tumors in animals, although the mechanisms for transformation are not yet clear because a system to perform transformation assays in differentiated type II pneumocytes does not exist. In this study we report culture of primary rat type II pneumocytes in conditions that favor prolonged expression of markers for type II pneumocytes. Env-expressing cultures formed more colonies that were larger in size and were viable for longer periods of time compared to vector control samples. The cells that remained in culture longer were confirmed to be derived from type II pneumocytes because they expressed surfactant protein C, cytokeratin, displayed alkaline phosphatase activity and were positive for Nile red. This system will be useful to study JSRV Env in the targets of transformation.

  12. Chromosomal localization and structure of the human type II IMP dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glesne, D.; Huberman, E. |; Collart, F.; Varkony, T.; Drabkin, H.

    1994-05-01

    We determined the chromosomal localization and structure of the gene encoding human type II inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, EC 1.1.1.205), an enzyme associated with cellular proliferation, malignant transformation, and differentiation. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for type II IMPDH, we screened a panel of human-Chinese hamster cell somatic hybrids and a separate deletion panel of chromosome 3 hybrids and localized the gene to 3p21.1{yields}p24.2. Two overlapping yeast artificial chromosome clones containing the full gene for type II IMPDH were isolated and a physical map of 117 kb of human genomic DNA in this region of chromosome 3 was constructed. The gene for type II IMPDH was localized and oriented on this map and found to span no more than 12.5 kb.

  13. 46 CFR 171.073 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Subdivision and Damage Stability § 171.073 Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision. (a) A...

  14. Quantitative prediction of type II solar radio emission from the Sun to 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are frequently associated with shocks and type II solar radio bursts. Despite involving fundamental plasma physics and being the archetype for collective radio emission from shocks, type II bursts have resisted detailed explanation for over 60 years. Between 29 November and 1 December 2013 the two widely separated spacecraft STEREO A and B observed a long lasting, intermittent, type II radio burst from ≈4 MHz to 30 kHz (harmonic), including an intensification when the CME-driven shock reached STEREO A. We demonstrate the first accurate and quantitative simulation of a type II burst from the high corona (near 11 solar radii) to 1 AU for this event with a combination of a data-driven three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation for the CME and plasma background and an analytic quantitative kinetic model for the radio emission.

  15. Vinyl fluoride as an isoelectronic replacement for an enolate anion: inhibition of type II dehydroquinases.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Martyn; Coggins, John R; Abell, Chris

    2002-09-01

    A vinyl fluoride analogue of the intermediate in the reaction catalysed by type II dehydroquinase enzymes has been synthesized over seven steps from (-)-quinic acid and shown to be a potent enzyme inhibitor. PMID:12271658

  16. Opsonic effect of jacalin and human immunoglobulin A on type II group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, N R; Concepcion, N F; Anthony, B F

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the effect of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the IgA-binding lectin jacalin on the phagocytosis of type II group B streptococci (GBS). Strains possessing the trypsin-sensitive and trypsin-resistant components of the c protein (II/c) and type II GBS lacking the c protein (II) were examined by radiolabeled bacterial uptake, bactericidal assays, and electron microscopy. Type II/c GBS resisted phagocytosis by monocytes (4.9% +/- 0.8% uptake, mean +/- SE, n = 25) compared with type II GBS (8.5% +/- 1.4% uptake, n = 14, P = 0.03). Phagocytic killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes was also less for the type II/c strain 78-471 than for the type II strain 79-176 (68% +/- 5% versus 86% +/- 4% reduction in CFU at 45 min, P = 0.03). IgA binding did not explain the resistance of type II/c GBS to phagocytosis. The uptake of type II/c GBS was not significantly different after opsonization in cord sera lacking endogenous IgA (5.93% +/- 1.4%) than in the same cord sera after addition of exogenous IgA (5.48% +/- 1.4%, P = 0.69, n = 9). Attempts to remove serum IgA with the IgA-binding lectin jacalin resulted in the binding of IgA-jacalin complexes to II/c GBS. This combination of nonspecific IgA and jacalin increased uptake of II/c GBS from 4.9% +/- 0.8% to 11.8% +/- 1.9% (P = 0.002). Jacalin also combined with specific, immune, monoclonal IgA bound to the surface of Haemophilus influenzae and promoted the uptake of these bacteria. Jacalin and IgA mediated phagocytosis of II/c GBS via receptors that were not dependent on divalent cations and that were not modulated by plating monocytes on antigen-antibody complexes. Images PMID:2228238

  17. Flux tubes and the type-I/type-II transition in a superconductor coupled to a superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark G.; Good, Gerald

    2008-07-01

    We analyze magnetic-flux tubes at zero temperature in a superconductor that is coupled to a superfluid via both density and gradient ('entrainment') interactions. The example we have in mind is high-density nuclear matter, which is a proton superconductor and a neutron superfluid, but our treatment is general and simple, modeling the interactions as a Ginzburg-Landau effective theory with four-fermion couplings, including only s-wave pairing. We numerically solve the field equations for flux tubes with an arbitrary number of flux quanta and compare their energies. This allows us to map the type-I/type-II transition in the superconductor, which occurs at the conventional {kappa}{identical_to}{lambda}/{xi}=1/{radical}(2) if the condensates are uncoupled. We find that a density coupling between the condensates raises the critical {kappa} and, for a sufficiently high neutron density, resolves the type-I/type-II transition line into an infinite number of bands corresponding to 'type-II(n)' phases, in which n, the number of quanta in the favored flux tube, steps from 1 to infinity. For lower neutron density, the coupling creates spinodal regions around the type-I/type-II boundary, in which metastable flux configurations are possible. We find that a gradient coupling between the condensates lowers the critical {kappa} and creates spinodal regions. These exotic phenomena may not occur in nuclear matter, which is thought to be deep in the type-II region but might be observed in condensed-matter systems.

  18. The Connections Between the UV and Optical Fe ii Emission Lines in Type 1 AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačević-Dojčinović, Jelena; Popović, Luka Č.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the spectral properties of the UV (λλ2650-3050 Å) and optical (λλ4000-5500 Å) Fe ii emission features in a sample of 293 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore different correlations between their emission line properties, as well as the correlations with other emission lines from the spectral range. We find several interesting correlations and outline the most interesting results as follows. (i) There is a kinematical connection between the UV and optical Fe ii lines, indicating that the UV and optical Fe ii lines originate from the outer part of the broad line region, the so-called intermediate line region. (ii) The unexplained anticorrelations of the optical Fe ii equivalent width (EW Fe iiopt) versus EW [O iii] 5007 Å and EW Fe iiopt versus FWHM Hβ have not been detected for the UV Fe ii lines. (iii) The significant averaged redshift in the UV Fe ii lines, which is not present in optical Fe ii, indicates an inflow in the UV Fe ii emitting clouds, and probably their asymmetric distribution. (iv) Also, we confirm the anticorrelation between the intensity ratio of the optical and UV Fe ii lines and the FWHM of Hβ, and we find the anticorrelations of this ratio with the widths of Mg ii 2800 Å, optical Fe ii, and UV Fe ii. This indicates a very important role for the column density and microturbulence in the emitting gas. We discuss the starburst activity in high-density regions of young AGNs as a possible explanation of the detected optical Fe ii correlations and intensity line ratios of the UV and optical Fe ii lines.

  19. CHZ868, a Type II JAK2 Inhibitor, Reverses Type I JAK Inhibitor Persistence and Demonstrates Efficacy in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sara C.; Keller, Matthew D.; Chiu, Sophia; Koppikar, Priya; Guryanova, Olga A.; Rapaport, Franck; Xu, Ke; Manova, Katia; Pankov, Dmitry; O’Reilly, Richard J.; Kleppe, Maria; McKenney, Anna Sophia; Shih, Alan H.; Shank, Kaitlyn; Ahn, Jihae; Papalexi, Eftymia; Spitzer, Barbara; Socci, Nick; Viale, Agnes; Mandon, Emeline; Ebel, Nicolas; Andraos, Rita; Rubert, Joëlle; Dammassa, Ernesta; Romanet, Vincent; Dölemeyer, Arno; Zender, Michael; Heinlein, Melanie; Rampal, Rajit; Weinberg, Rona Singer; Hoffman, Ron; Sellers, William R.; Hofmann, Francesco; Murakami, Masato; Baffert, Fabienne; Gaul, Christoph; Radimerski, Thomas; Levine, Ross L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Although clinically tested JAK inhibitors reduce splenomegaly and systemic symptoms, molecular responses are not observed in most myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. We previously demonstrated that MPN cells become persistent to type I JAK inhibitors that bind the active conformation of JAK2. We investigated if CHZ868, a type II JAK inhibitor, would demonstrate activity in JAK inhibitor persistent cells, murine MPN models, and MPN patient samples. JAK2- and MPL-mutant cell lines were sensitive to CHZ868, including type I JAK inhibitor persistent cells. CHZ868 showed significant activity in murine MPN models and induced reductions in mutant allele burden not observed with type I JAK inhibitors. These data demonstrate that type II JAK inhibition is a viable therapeutic approach for MPN patients. PMID:26175413

  20. Type II bursts observed from the corona to ~0.2 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Cane, H.; Erickson, W. C.; Dulk, G. A.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    We report on radio observations of type II bursts with the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft and simultaneously with the Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer (BIRS) in Tasmania, Australia. WAVES observed at frequencies below 13.8 MHz, and BIRS observed from 37 MHz down to the ionospheric cutoff frequency in Tasmania, about 7 MHz. Thus there is continuous coverage of the type II bursts from decametric to kilometric wavelengths, with an overlap. Two type II bursts have been observed, 12 May 1997 and 4 Nov 1997. On 12 May 1997 the type II descended from >~37 MHz to about 9 MHz (perhaps weakly to 0.1 MHz), and fundamental-harmonic structure was observed. The preceeding type III burst descended to 30 kHz, the plasma frequency at the Wind spacecraft. On 4 Nov 1997 the type II descended from >~37 MHz to below 0.1 MHz; thus the type-II shock wave was observed from the mid corona to about 0.2 AU. The preceeding type III burst descended to 30 kHz, the plasma frequency at Wind. Fast electrons were observed by the 3D plasma experiment on Wind, and Langmuir waves associated with the electron beam were recorded by WAVES. We derive the speeds of the type III electrons and the type II shock waves as they traversed the corona and into the solar wind, and relate the radio observations to observations of CMEs observed by SOHO and shock waves observed in-situ at Wind or at the Earth.

  1. Type II fixed on boards flare continuum in the corona and solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Y.; Dulk, G. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2000-08-01

    A solar radio type II/type IV event with exceptionally low frequency flare continuum radiation was observed on May 2, 1998 with the Wind spacecraft. This flare continuum, associated with the type II burst (FCII), descended to 7.5 MHz (2.5-3 solar radii), the lowest frequency ever observed for this type of emission. It lasted for >2 hours at 13.8 MHz. Simultaneous observations were made with ground-based radiospectrographs, and with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) and Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) telescopes. The radio event consists of a group of intense type III bursts observed from 1000 MHz down to 0.03 MHz, the plasma frequency at 1 AU. The type II burst was recorded from 45 MHz down to 0.4 MHz, and an interplanetary shock was observed at 1 AU on May 4 at 0500 UT. The type II shock commenced within a few minutes of the flash phase of the flare and of the liftoff time of a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by EIT and LASCO. The derived speeds of the type II shock, the CME in the plane of the sky, and the shock from the Sun to 1 AU are all ~1000 km s-1. After estimating the liftoff time and radial speed of the CME front, we find that the type II shock and flare continuum were in the wake of the CME. This event shows evidence of acceleration of electrons in the corona out to 3RS for >~2 hours. Theoretical implications on the generation of the flare continuum radiation and its relation to the observed brightness temperature are considered. The source model of type II-flare continuum of Robinson [1985], in which electrons are accelerated by the shock wave traversing CME expanding loops, is discussed in view of these observations.

  2. Oxygen-evolving photosystem II preparation from wild type and photosystem II mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilovsky, D.L.; Boussac, A.G.P.; van Mieghem, F.J.E.; Ducruet, J.M.R.C.; Setif, P.R.; Rutherford, A.W. ); Jiujiang Yu; Vermaas, W.F.J. )

    1992-02-25

    The authors present here a simple and rapid method which allows relatively large quantities of oxygen-evolving photosystem II- (PS-II-) enriched particles to be obtained from wild-type and mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. This method is based on that of Burnap et al. but is modified so that the whole preparation, from cells to PS-II particles, is achieved in 10 h and involves only one purification step. The purified preparation exhibits a 5-6-fold increase of O{sub 2}-evolution activity on a chlorophyll basis over the thylakoids. The ratio of PS-I to PS-II is about 0.14:1 in the preparation. The secondary quinone electron acceptor, Q{sub B}, is present in this preparation as demonstrated by thermoluminescence studies. These PS-II particles are well-suited to spectroscopic studies as demonstrated by the range of EPR signals arising from components of PS-II that are easily detectable. Among the EPR signals presented are those from a formal S{sub 3}-state, attributed to an oxidized amino acid interacting magnetically with the Mn complex in Ca{sup 2+}-deficient PS-II particles, and from S{sub 2} modified by the replacement of Ca{sup 2+} by Sr{sup 2+}. Neither of these signals has been previously reported in cyanobacteria. Their detection under these conditions indicates a similar lesion caused by Ca{sup 2+} depletion in both plants and cyanobacteria. The protocol has been applied to mutants which have site-specific changes in PS-II. Data are presented on mutants have changes on the electron donor (Y160F) and electron acceptor (G215W) side of the D{sub 2} polypeptide.

  3. The Relation Between Large-Scale Coronal Propagating Fronts and Type II Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; Liu, Wei; Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale, wave-like disturbances in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and type II radio bursts are often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Both phenomena may signify shock waves driven by CMEs. Taking EUV full-disk images at an unprecedented cadence, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed the so-called EIT waves or large-scale coronal propagating fronts (LCPFs) from their early evolution, which coincides with the period when most metric type II bursts occur. This article discusses the relation of LCPFs as captured by AIA with metric type II bursts. We show examples of type II bursts without a clear LCPF and fast LCPFs without a type II burst. Part of the disconnect between the two phenomena may be due to the difficulty in identifying them objectively. Furthermore, it is possible that the individual LCPFs and type II bursts may reflect different physical processes and external factors. In particular, the type II bursts that start at low frequencies and high altitudes tend to accompany an extended arc-shaped feature, which probably represents the 3D structure of the CME and the shock wave around it, and not just its near-surface track, which has usually been identified with EIT waves. This feature expands and propagates toward and beyond the limb. These events may be characterized by stretching of field lines in the radial direction and may be distinct from other LCPFs, which may be explained in terms of sudden lateral expansion of the coronal volume. Neither LCPFs nor type II bursts by themselves serve as necessary conditions for coronal shock waves, but these phenomena may provide useful information on the early evolution of the shock waves in 3D when both are clearly identified in eruptive events.

  4. MACHO observations of Type II cepheids and RV Tauri Stars in the LMC

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Pollard, K.A.; Alisman, R.A.

    1996-07-01

    We report the of the existence of RV Tauri stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). This class of variable star has hitherto been unidentified in the Magellanic Clouds. In light and color curve behavior the RV Tauri stars appear to be an extension of the Type II Cepheids to longer periods. A single period-luminosity-color relationship is seen to describe both the Type II Cepheids and the RV Tauri stars in the LMC.

  5. The management of type II superior labral anterior to posterior injuries.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Frank; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Chalmers, Peter; Gupta, Anil; Verma, Nikhil; Romeo, Anthony A

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic repair of type II superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears is currently the standard of care, with most patients obtaining good to excellent surgical results. However, overhead athletes and older patients have inferior outcomes. Recent clinical studies and biomechanical data suggest that a biceps tenodesis is a suitable alternative in select patients. This article reviews the literature to identify the biomechanical and clinical indications for performing a biceps tenodesis for type II SLAP lesions. PMID:24267213

  6. Impaired Theory of Mind and psychosocial functioning among pediatric patients with Type I versus Type II bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Schenkel, Lindsay S; Chamberlain, Todd F; Towne, Terra L

    2014-03-30

    Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) have been documented among pediatric patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, fewer studies have directly examined differences between type I and type II patients and whether or not ToM deficits are related to psychosocial difficulties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare type I versus type II pediatric bipolar patients and matched Healthy Controls (HC) on ToM and interpersonal functioning tasks. All participants completed the Revised Mind in the Eyes Task (MET), the Cognitive and Emotional Perspective Taking Task (CEPTT), and the Index of Peer Relations (IPR). Type I BD patients reported greater peer difficulties on the IPR compared to HC, and also performed more poorly on the MET and the cognitive condition of the CEPTT, but did not differ significantly on the emotional condition. There were no significant group differences between type II BD patients and HC. More impaired ToM performance was associated with poorer interpersonal functioning. Type I BD patients show deficits in the ability to understand another's mental state, irrespective of emotional valence. Deficits in understanding others' mental states could be an important treatment target for type I pediatric patients with BD. PMID:24461271

  7. ON-DISK COUNTERPARTS OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE Ca II 854.2 nm AND Halpha LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppe van der Voort, L.; Leenaarts, J.; Carlsson, M.; Vissers, G.; De Pontieu, B. E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.n E-mail: jorritl@astro.uio.n

    2009-11-01

    Recently, a second type of spicules was discovered at the solar limb with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Japanese Hinode spacecraft. These previously unrecognized type II spicules are thin chromospheric jets that are shorter lived (10-60 s) and that show much higher apparent upward velocities (of order 50-100 km s{sup -1}) than the classical spicules. Since they have been implicated in providing hot plasma to coronal loops, their formation, evolution, and properties are important ingredients for a better understanding of the mass and energy balance of the low solar atmosphere. Here, we report on the discovery of the disk counterparts of type II spicules using spectral imaging data in the Ca II 854.2 nm and Halpha lines with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter at the Swedish Solar Telescope in La Palma. We find rapid blueward excursions in the line profiles of both chromospheric lines that correspond to thin, jet-like features that show apparent velocities of order 50 km s{sup -1}. These blueward excursions seem to form a separate absorbing component with Doppler shifts of order 20 and 50 km s{sup -1} for the Ca II 854.2 nm and Halpha line, respectively. We show that the appearance, lifetimes, longitudinal and transverse velocities, and occurrence rate of these rapid blue excursions on the disk are very similar to those of the type II spicules at the limb. A detailed study of the spectral line profiles in these events suggests that plasma is accelerated along the jet, and plasma is being heated throughout the short lifetime of the event.

  8. L-type calcium channel β subunit modulates angiotensin II responses in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Moreno, Cristian; Itfinca, Mircea; Altier, Christophe; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andres; Zamponi, Gerald W; Varela, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are not completely understood. Moreover, the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has not yet been explored. In this work we study the role of Ca(v)β subunits and the intracellular signaling responsible for L-type calcium current modulation by Angiotensin II. In cardiomyocytes, Angiotensin II exposure induces rapid inhibition of L-type current with a magnitude that is correlated with the rate of current inactivation. Semi-quantitative PCR of cardiomyocytes at different days of culture reveals changes in the Ca(v)β subunits expression pattern that are correlated with the rate of current inactivation and with Angiotensin II effect. Over-expression of individual b subunits in heterologous systems reveals that the magnitude of Angiotensin II inhibition is dependent on the Ca(v)β subunit isoform, with Ca(v)β(1b) containing channels being more strongly regulated. Ca(v)β(2a) containing channels were insensitive to modulation and this effect was partially due to the N-terminal palmitoylation sites of this subunit. Moreover, PLC or diacylglycerol lipase inhibition prevents the Angiotensin II effect on L-type calcium channels, while PKC inhibition with chelerythrine does not, suggesting a role of arachidonic acid in this process. Finally, we show that in intact cardiomyocytes the magnitude of calcium transients on spontaneous beating cells is modulated by Angiotensin II in a Ca(v)β subunit-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that Ca(v)β subunits alter the magnitude of inhibition of L-type current by Angiotensin II. PMID:21525790

  9. Self-consistent calculations of optical properties of type I and type II quantum heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvayev, Vladimir A.

    In this Thesis the self-consistent computational methods are applied to the study of the optical properties of semiconductor nanostructures with one- and two-dimensional quantum confinements. At first, the self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations is applied to the cylindrical core-shell structure with type II band alignment without direct Coulomb interaction between carriers. The electron and hole states and confining potential are obtained from a numerical solution of this system. The photoluminescence kinetics is theoretically analyzed, with the nanostructure size dispersion taken into account. The results are applied to the radiative recombination in the system of ZnTe/ZnSe stacked quantum dots. A good agreement with both continuous wave and time-resolved experimental observations is found. It is shown that size distribution results in the photoluminescence decay that has essentially non-exponential behavior even at the tail of the decay where the carrier lifetime is almost the same due to slowly changing overlap of the electron and hole wavefunctions. Also, a model situation applicable to colloidal core-shell nanowires is investigated and discussed. With respect to the excitons in type I quantum wells, a new computationally efficient and flexible approach of calculating the characteristics of excitons, based on a self-consistent variational treatment of the electron-hole Coulomb interaction, is developed. In this approach, a system of self-consistent equations describing the motion of an electron-hole pair is derived. The motion in the growth direction of the quantum well is separated from the in-plane motion, but each of them occurs in modified potentials found self-consistently. This approach is applied to a shallow quantum well with the delta-potential profile, for which analytical expressions for the exciton binding energy and the ground state eigenfunctions are obtained, and to the quantum well with the square potential profile with several

  10. Differential effect of cholesterol on type I and II feline coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Satomi, Yui; Oyama, Yuu; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of domestic and wild felidae that is caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoV has been classified into types I and II. Since type I FCoV infection is dominant in the field, it is necessary to develop antiviral agents and vaccines against type I FCoV infection. However, few studies have been conducted on type I FCoV. Here, we compare the effects of cholesterol on types I and II FCoV infections. When cells were treated methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and inoculated with type I FCoV, the infection rate decreased significantly, and the addition of exogenous cholesterol to MβCD-treated cells resulted in the recovery of the infectivity of type I FCoV. Furthermore, exogenous cholesterol increased the infectivity of type I FCoV. In contrast, the addition of MβCD and exogenous cholesterol had little effect on the efficiency of type II FCoV infection. These results strongly suggest that the dependence of infection by types I and II FCoV on cholesterol differs. PMID:26514843

  11. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  12. Resonance Thirring solitons in type II second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trillo, Stefano

    1996-11-01

    It is shown that second-harmonic generation in a grating allows one to cancel the group-velocity difference between two polarization components at fundamental by means of nonlinearly induced phase shifts. This occurs when a new type of cascading soliton propagates on resonance.

  13. Synthesis of C1 inhibitor in fibroblasts from patients with type I and type II hereditary angioneurotic edema.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, J; Katz, Y; Rosen, F S; Davis, A E; Strunk, R C

    1991-01-01

    Patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) have serum levels of functionally active inhibitor of the first component of complement (C1 INH) between 5 and 30% of normal, instead of the 50% expected from the single normal allele. Increases in rates of catabolism have been documented in patients with HANE and certainly account for some of decrease in C1 INH level. A possible role for a decrease in synthesis of C1 INH in producing serum levels of C1 INH below the expected 50% of normal has not been well studied. We studied the synthesis of C1 INH in skin fibroblast lines, which produce easily detectable amounts of C1 INH. In type I HANE cells, C1 INH synthesis was 19.6 +/- 4.0% (mean +/- SD) of normal, much less than the 50% predicted. In type II HANE cells, the total amount of C1 INH synthesis (functional and dysfunctional) was 98.9 +/- 17% of normal; the functional protein comprised 43% of the total. Thus, type II HANE cells synthesized functional C1 INH at a much greater rate than for the type I cells. In both type I and II HANE cells, amounts of steady-state C1 INH mRNA levels paralleled rates of C1 INH synthesis, indicating that control of C1 INH synthesis occurred at pretranslational levels. Both type I and type II fibroblasts synthesized normal amounts of C1r and C1s. These data suggest that the lower than expected amounts of functionally active C1 INH in type I HANE may be due, in part, to a decrease in rate of synthesis of the protein, and that the expressions of the normal C1 INH allele in HANE is influenced by the type of abnormal allele present. Images PMID:1902490

  14. Topological odd-parity superconductivity at type-II two-dimensional van Hove singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Yang, Fan

    2015-07-01

    We study unconventional superconductivity induced by weak repulsive interactions in 2D electronic systems at van Hove singularity (VHS) where density of states is logarithmically divergent. We define two types of VHS. For systems at type-I VHS, weak repulsive interactions generically induce unconventional singlet pairing. However, and more interestingly, for type-II VHS renormalization group analysis shows that weak repulsive interactions favor triplet pairing (e.g., p wave) when the Fermi surface is not sufficiently nested. For type-II VHS systems respecting tetragonal symmetry, topological superconductivity (either chiral p +i p pairing or time-reversal invariant Z2p +i p pairing) occurs generally. We shall also discuss relevance of our study to materials including recently discovered superconductors LaO1 -xFxBiS2 , which can be tuned to type-II VHS by doping.

  15. Topological Odd-Parity Superconductivity Close to Type-II 2D Van Hove Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Hong; Yang, Fan

    2014-03-01

    We study unconventional superconductivity induced by weak repulsive interactions in 2D electronic systems at Van Hove singularity (VHS) where electronic density of states is logarithmically divergent. We define two types of VH saddle points. For type-I VH systems, weak repulsive interactions generically induce unconventional singlet pairing. However and more interestingly, for type-II VH systems renormalization group treatment shows that weak repulsive interactions favor triplet pairing (e.g. p-wave) when the Fermi surface has no good nesting. When such type-II VH systems respecting tetragonal or hexagonal point group symmetry, topological superconductivity (chiral p +ip or time reversal invariant Z2 p +ip pairing) will generally occur. We shall also discuss implications of this study to recently discovered BiS2-based superconductors and other superconducting materials that host type-II VH singularities in their Fermi surfaces.

  16. Metabolic abnormalities of the heart in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Nelson; Okonko, Darlington O

    2015-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus escalates the risk of heart failure partly via its ability to induce a cardiomyopathic state that is independent of coronary artery disease and hypertension. Although the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy has yet to be fully elucidated, aberrations in cardiac substrate metabolism and energetics are thought to be key drivers. These aberrations include excessive fatty acid utilisation and storage, suppressed glucose oxidation and impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. An appreciation of how these abnormalities arise and synergise to promote adverse cardiac remodelling is critical to their effective amelioration. This review focuses on disturbances in myocardial fuel (fatty acids and glucose) flux and energetics in type 2 diabetes, how these disturbances relate to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the potential therapeutic agents that could be used to correct them. PMID:25941161

  17. Angiotensin II-induced angiotensin II type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2009-02-01

    Upon activation, the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1Rs) rapidly undergoes endocytosis. After a series of intracellular processes, the internalized AT1Rs recycle back to the plasma membrane or are trafficked to proteasomes or lysosomes for degradation. We recently reported that AT1Rs degrades in proteasomes upon stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor (D5R) in human renal proximal tubule and HEK-293 cells. This is in contrast to the degradation of AT1R in lysosomes upon binding Ang II. However, the dynamic regulation of the AT1Rs in lysosomes is not well understood. Here we investigated the AT1Rs lysosomal degradation using FRET-FLIM in HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing the human AT1R tagged with EGFP as the donor fluorophore. Compared to its basal state, the lifetime of AT1Rs decreased after a 5-minute treatment with Ang II treatment and colocalized with Rab5 but not Rab7 and LAMP1. With longer Ang II treatment (30 min), the AT1Rs lifetime decreased and co-localized with Rab5, as well as Rab7 and LAMP1. The FLIM data are corroborated with morphological and biochemical co-immunoprecipitation studies. These data demonstrate that Ang II induces the internalization of AT1Rs into early sorting endosomes prior to trafficking to late endosomes and subsequent degradation in lysosomes.

  18. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Hardik; Patel, Sejal; Patel, Ghanshyam; Paranjape, Archana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg) treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ‘analysis of variance’ test followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with significant level of P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property. PMID:24948860

  19. Type I/type II band alignment transition in strained PbSe /PbEuSeTe multiquantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simma, M.; Fromherz, T.; Bauer, G.; Springholz, G.

    2009-11-01

    Investigation of the optical transitions in tensily strained PbSe /PbEuSeTe multiquantum wells by differential transmission spectroscopy reveals a type I/type II band alignment transition due to strain-induced lowering of the band edge energies of the quantum wells. From the measured shifts of the optical transitions the optical deformation potentials of PbSe are obtained. This is crucial for realistic modeling of the electronic properties of strained PbSe heterostructures.

  20. Dominant mutations in the type II collagen gene, COL2A1, produce spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type.

    PubMed

    Tiller, G E; Polumbo, P A; Weis, M A; Bogaert, R; Lachman, R S; Cohn, D H; Rimoin, D L; Eyre, D R

    1995-09-01

    The chondrodysplasias are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormal growth or development of cartilage. Current classification is based on mode of inheritance as well as clinical, histologic, and/or radiographic features. A clinical spectrum of chondrodysplasia phenotypes, ranging from mild to perinatal lethal, is due to defects in the gene for type II collagen, COL2A1. This spectrum includes Stickler syndrome, Kniest dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC), achondrogenesis type II, and hypochondrogenesis. Individuals affected with these disorders exhibit abnormalities of the growth plate, nucleus pulposus, and vitreous humor, which are tissues that contain type II collagen. The Strudwick type of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) is characterized by disproportionate short stature, pectus carinatum, and scoliosis, as well as dappled metaphyses (which are not seen in SEDC). The phenotype was first described by Murdoch and Walker in 1969, and a series of 14 patients was later reported by Anderson et al. The observation of two affected sibs born to unaffected parents led to the classification of SEMD Strudwick as an autosomal recessive disorder. We now describe the biochemical characterization of defects in alpha 1(II) collagen in three unrelated individuals with SEMD Strudwick, each of which is due to heterozygosity for a unique mutation in COL2A1. Our data support the hypothesis that some cases, if not all cases, of this distinctive chondrodysplasia result from dominant mutations in COL2A1, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of phenotypes associated with this gene. PMID:7550321

  1. Simultaneous type I and type II Čerenkov-phase matched second-harmonic generation in disordered nonlinear photonic structures.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Mousa; Paßlick, Markus; Imbrock, Jörg; Denz, Cornelia

    2015-11-01

    We observe simultaneous type I and II Čerenkov-phase matched second-harmonic generation in a disordered nonlinear photonic crystal. The mean width of the disordered ferroelectric domains and the laser beam width are adjusted to be on the same length scale. We analyze the polarization properties, emission angles and intensities of each process. PMID:26561107

  2. Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis domesticus) Reveals Predominance of Type II Infections in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Maksimov, Pavlo; Zerweck, Johannes; Dubey, Jitender P.; Pantchev, Nikola; Frey, Caroline F.; Maksimov, Aline; Reimer, Ulf; Schutkowski, Mike; Hosseininejad, Morteza; Ziller, Mario; Conraths, Franz J.; Schares, Gereon

    2013-01-01

    Background Cats are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii and play an essential role in the epidemiology of this parasite. The study aims at clarifying whether cats are able to develop specific antibodies against different clonal types of T. gondii and to determine by serotyping the T. gondii clonal types prevailing in cats as intermediate hosts in Germany. Methodology To establish a peptide-microarray serotyping test, we identified 24 suitable peptides using serological T. gondii positive (n=21) and negative cat sera (n=52). To determine the clonal type-specific antibody response of cats in Germany, 86 field sera from T. gondii seropositive naturally infected cats were tested. In addition, we analyzed the antibody response in cats experimentally infected with non-canonical T. gondii types (n=7). Findings Positive cat reference sera reacted predominantly with peptides harbouring amino acid sequences specific for the clonal T. gondii type the cats were infected with. When the array was applied to field sera from Germany, 98.8% (85/86) of naturally-infected cats recognized similar peptide patterns as T. gondii type II reference sera and showed the strongest reaction intensities with clonal type II-specific peptides. In addition, naturally infected cats recognized type II-specific peptides significantly more frequently than peptides of other type-specificities. Cats infected with non-canonical types showed the strongest reactivity with peptides presenting amino-acid sequences specific for both, type I and type III. Conclusions Cats are able to mount a clonal type-specific antibody response against T. gondii. Serotyping revealed for most seropositive field sera patterns resembling those observed after clonal type II-T. gondii infection. This finding is in accord with our previous results on the occurrence of T. gondii clonal types in oocysts shed by cats in Germany. PMID:24244652

  3. Repression of host RNA polymerase II transcription by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, C A; Dahmus, M E; Rice, S A

    1997-01-01

    Lytic infection of mammalian cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) results in rapid repression of host gene expression and selective activation of the viral genome. This transformation in gene expression is thought to involve repression of host transcription and diversion of the host RNA polymerase (RNAP II) transcription machinery to the viral genome. However, the extent of virus-induced host transcription repression and the mechanisms responsible for these major shifts in transcription specificities have not been examined. To determine how HSV-1 accomplishes repression of host RNAP II transcription, we assayed transcription patterns on several cellular genes in cells infected with mutant and wild-type HSV-1. Our results suggest that HSV-1 represses RNAP II transcription on most cellular genes. However, each cellular gene we examined responds differently to the transcription repressive effects of virus infection, both quantitatively and with respect to the involvement of viral gene products. Virus-induced shutoff of host RNAP II transcription requires expression of multiple immediate-early genes. In contrast, expression of delayed-early and late genes and viral DNA replication appear to contribute little to repression of host cell RNAP II transcription. Modification of RNAP II to the intermediately phosphorylated (II(I)) form appears unlinked to virus-induced repression of host cell transcription. However, full repression of host transcription is correlated with depletion of the hyperphosphorylated (IIO) form of RNAP II. PMID:9032335

  4. Prediction of Type II Radio Bursts Associated with Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver; Schmidt, Joachim

    Type II radio bursts are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else by blast waves. Recently we coupled the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our kinetic ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. Initialising the simulation code with event specific coronal and CME data, the combined code can be used to predict the dynamic spectrum of type II emission for a specific radio event. We demonstrate very good agreement with Wind spacecraft observations for three type II bursts, one on 15 February 2011 and two on 7 March 2012 (associated with successive CMEs from different sides of the same active region). The intensities, frequencies, and times of fundamental and harmonic type II emission are predicted very well from the high corona to 1 AU (frequencies ~ 20 MHz - 30 kHz). The islands of increased emission correspond to different regions of the shock interacting with coronal structures, with streamers typically corresponding to reduced emission. The results provide strong evidence that both the type II theory and the BATS-R-US (driven with event-specific data) are accurate. They also provide strong evidence that the observation and detailed theoretical modelling of type II bursts can in principle provide warnings with lead-times of over a day for large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. The MHD code can also predict whether the CME will hit Earth's magnetopause and the magnetic field direction at the magnetopause as the shock, sheath, and CME, vital quantities for predicting space weather at Earth.

  5. Ulysses observations of wave activity at interplanetary shocks and implications for type II radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel-Frey, D. |; Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R.J.; Stone, R.G.; Phillips, J.L. |

    1997-02-01

    We present the first quantitative investigation of interplanetary type II radio emission in which in situ waves measured at interplanetary shocks are used to compute radio wave intensities for comparison with type II observations. This study is based on in situ measurements of 42 in-ecliptic forward shocks as well as 10 intervals of type II emission observed by the Ulysses spacecraft between 1 AU and 5 AU. The analysis involves comparisons of statistical properties of type II bursts and in situ waves. Most of the 42 shocks are associated with the occurrence of electrostatic waves near the time of shock passage at Ulysses. These waves, which are identified as electron plasma waves and ion acoustic-like waves, are typically most intense several minutes before shock passage. This suggests that wave-wave interactions might be of importance in electromagnetic wave generation and that type II source regions are located immediately upstream of the shocks. We use the in situ wave measurements to compute type II brightness temperatures, assuming that emission at the fundamental of the electron plasma frequency is generated by the merging of electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves or the decay of electron plasma waves into ion acoustic and transverse waves. Second harmonic emission is assumed to be produced by the merging of electron plasma waves. The latter mechanism requires that a portion of the electron plasma wave distribution is backscattered, presumably by density inhomogeneities in regions of observed ion acoustic wave activity. The computed type II brightness temperatures are found to be consistent with observed values for both fundamental and second harmonic emission, assuming that strong ({approx_equal}10{sup {minus}4}V/m) electron plasma waves and ion acoustic waves are coincident and that the electron plasma waves have phase velocities less than about 10 times the electron thermal velocity. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. In Situ D-periodic Molecular Structure of Type II Collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Antipova, Olga; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2010-05-06

    Collagens are essential components of extracellular matrices in multicellular animals. Fibrillar type II collagen is the most prominent component of articular cartilage and other cartilage-like tissues such as notochord. Its in situ macromolecular and packing structures have not been fully characterized, but an understanding of these attributes may help reveal mechanisms of tissue assembly and degradation (as in osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis). In some tissues such as lamprey notochord, the collagen fibrillar organization is naturally crystalline and may be studied by x-ray diffraction. We used diffraction data from native and derivative notochord tissue samples to solve the axial, D-periodic structure of type II collagen via multiple isomorphous replacement. The electron density maps and heavy atom data revealed the conformation of the nonhelical telopeptides and the overall D-periodic structure of collagen type II in native tissues, data that were further supported by structure prediction and transmission electron microscopy. These results help to explain the observed differences in collagen type I and type II fibrillar architecture and indicate the collagen type II cross-link organization, which is crucial for fibrillogenesis. Transmission electron microscopy data show the close relationship between lamprey and mammalian collagen fibrils, even though the respective larger scale tissue architecture differs.

  7. Cervical cancer: is herpes simplex virus type II a cofactor?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    In many ways, cervical cancer behaves as a sexually transmitted disease. The major risk factors are multiple sexual partners and early onset of sexual activity. Although high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) play an important role in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer, other sexually transmitted infectious agents may be cofactors. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted primarily by sexual contact and therefore has been implicated as a risk factor. Several independent studies suggest that HSV-2 infections correlate with a higher than normal incidence of cervical cancer. In contrast, other epidemiological studies have concluded that infection with HSV-2 is not a major risk factor. Two separate transforming domains have been identified within the HSV-2 genome, but continued viral gene expression apparently is not necessary for neoplastic transformation. HSV infections lead to unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis, chromosomal amplifications, and mutations. These observations suggest that HSV-2 is not a typical DNA tumor virus. It is hypothesized that persistent or abortive infections induce permanent genetic alterations that interfere with differentiation of cervical epithelium and subsequently induce abnormal proliferation. Thus, HSV-2 may be a cofactor in some but not all cases of cervical cancer. PMID:8665469

  8. 33 CFR 159.89 - Power interruption: Type I and II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.89 Power interruption: Type I and II devices. A discharge device must be designed so that a momentary loss of power... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power interruption: Type I and...

  9. An Assistive Technology Toolkit: Type II Applications for Students with Mild Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puckett, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes possibilities for technology use among students with mild disabilities. It considers characteristics of assistive technology from the standpoint of strategies associated with universal design for learning and Type I and Type II software applications. After a brief description of assistive technology definitions, legislation,…

  10. Francisella tularensis replicates within alveolar type II epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo following inhalation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joshua D; Craven, Robin R; Fuller, James R; Pickles, Raymond J; Kawula, Thomas H

    2007-02-01

    Francisella tularensis replicates in macrophages and dendritic cells, but interactions with other cell types have not been well described. F. tularensis LVS invaded and replicated within alveolar epithelial cell lines. Following intranasal inoculation of C57BL/6 mice, Francisella localized to the alveolus and replicated within alveolar type II epithelial cells. PMID:17088343

  11. Type II halogen···halogen contacts are halogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Cl/Br/I alternative substitutions in a series of dihalophenols indicate that type I and type II halogen···halogen contacts have different chemical nature. Only the latter ones qualify as true halogen bonds, according to the recent IUPAC definition. PMID:25075314

  12. THE PREVALENCE OF NARROW OPTICAL Fe II EMISSION LINES IN TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Xiaobo; Wang Jianguo; Wang Tinggui; Wang Huiyuan; Zhou Hongyan; Ho, Luis C.; Fan Xiaohui

    2010-10-01

    From detailed spectral analysis of a large sample of low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we demonstrate-statistically for the first time-that narrow optical Fe II emission lines, both permitted and forbidden, are prevalent in type 1 AGNs. Remarkably, these optical lines are completely absent in type 2 AGNs, across a wide luminosity range, from Seyfert 2 galaxies to type 2 quasars. We suggest that the narrow Fe II-emitting gas is confined to a disk-like geometry in the innermost regions of the narrow-line region on physical scales smaller than the obscuring torus.

  13. A novel type II relay-assisted retransmission scheme for uplink of LTE-advanced system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Anxin; Nagata, Satoshi; Harada, Atsushi; Suda, Hirohito

    2013-12-01

    Relay, which enables coverage extension and throughput enhancement, is a very promising technique for future wireless communication systems. Among different types of relay, type II relay is one kind of inband relays and is hotly discussed in LTE-Advanced system for throughput enhancement. In order to support type II relay, many challenges must be overcome. In this article, we focus on relay-assisted uplink data retransmission and propose a novel joint design of reference signal and data precoding for type II relay. The proposed method not only solves the problem of channel estimation mismatch for control information, but also achieves cooperative diversity gain for data transmission. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method over existing schemes.

  14. Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II associated with G6PD Seattle in a Sicilian child.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, S; Romano, V; Miraglia del Giudice, E; Perrotta, S; Iolascon, A; Schiliro, G

    1995-01-01

    A 2-year-old Sicilian boy was investigated because of chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA) associated with hepatosplenomegaly. Appropriate studies revealed deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase type Seattle (G6PD Seattle). In addition, bone marrow morphology, serological studies and analysis of red cell membrane proteins revealed congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) type II (or HEMPAS). Because G6PD Seattle on its own does not cause CNSHA, we believe that the clinical manifestations in this patient are essentially due to the CDA type II abnormality. However, the coexistence of these two different red cell abnormalities may affect the clinical picture specifically by making CDA type II more hemolytic than it would have been otherwise. PMID:7725848

  15. Rad: A member of the Ras family overexpressed in muscle of type II diabetic humans

    SciTech Connect

    Reynet, C.; Kahn, C.R. )

    1993-11-26

    To identify the gene or genes associated with insulin resistance in Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, subtraction libraries were prepared from skeletal muscle of normal and diabetic humans and screened with subtracted probes. Only one clone out of 4000 was selectively overexpressed in Type II diabetic muscle as compared to muscle of non-diabetic or Type I diabetic individuals. This clone encoded a new 290 kilodalton member of the Ras-guanosine triphosphatase superfamily and was termed Rad (Ras associated with diabetes). Messenger ribonucleic acid of Rad was expressed primarily in skeletal and cardiac muscle and was increased an average of 8.6-fold in the muscle of Type II diabetics as compared to normal individuals.

  16. Selective type II fibre muscular atrophy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip.

    PubMed

    Sĭrca, A; Susec-Michieli, M

    1980-01-01

    The size and the distribution of type I and tye II fibres was determined in the gluteus maximus (21 cases), gluteus medius (56 cases) and tensor faciae latae (27 cases) muscles of patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. The patients were of both sexes, aged between 37 and 64 years (younger group) and between 65 and 78 years (older group). Autopsy material of the two comparable age groups and of a group of "normal" adults (aged 22-44 years) served as controls. It was shown statistically that the diameter of both types of fibres and the relative number of type II fibres diminished with progressing age. In patients with osteoarthritis the degree of the selective atrophy of type II fibres was significantly higher than in the control groups. The atrophy is interpreted as a consequence of diminished muscular activity. No neurogenic lesions were detected either in the muscles of the patients or in those of the control groups. PMID:6444440

  17. Efficacy of an adeno-associated virus 8-pseudotyped vector in glycogen storage disease type II.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baodong; Zhang, Haoyue; Franco, Luis M; Young, Sarah P; Schneider, Ayn; Bird, Andrew; Amalfitano, Andrea; Chen, Y-T; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2005-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD-II; Pompe disease) causes death in infancy from cardiorespiratory failure. The underlying deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA; acid maltase) can be corrected by liver-targeted gene therapy in GSD-II, if secretion of GAA is accompanied by receptor-mediated uptake in cardiac and skeletal muscle. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding human (h) GAA was pseudotyped as AAV8 (AAV2/8) and injected intravenously into immunodeficient GSD-II mice. High levels of hGAA were maintained in plasma for 24 weeks following AAV2/8 vector administration. A marked increase in vector copy number in the liver was demonstrated for the AAV2/8 vector compared to the analogous AAV2/2 vector. GAA deficiency in the heart and skeletal muscle was corrected with the AAV2/8 vector in male GSD-II mice, consistent with receptor-mediated uptake of hGAA. Male GSD-II mice demonstrated complete correction of glycogen storage in heart and diaphragm with the AAV2/8 vector, while female GSD-II mice had correction only in the heart. A biomarker for GSD-II was reduced in both sexes following AAV2/8 vector administration. Therefore, GAA production with an AAV2/8 vector in a depot organ, the liver, generated evidence for efficacious gene therapy in a mouse model for GSD-II. PMID:15585406

  18. Preventive effect of taurine on experimental type II diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been verified that taurine has some preventive effects on diabetes and its complications when used alone or together with other drugs, but there are few reports about taurine on the prevention of diabetic nephropathy, the mechanisms of which are still unknown. Methods Taurine was administered to type Ⅱ diabetic rats induced by high fat high sugar diet combined with STZ injection. The preventive effect of taurine on diabetic nephropathy was investigated by detecting blood glucose, lipid metabolism, kidney function and glomerular basement membrane metabolism. Results Taurine could lower blood glucose, TG, TC, BUN, Scr, NAG, U-PRO, the expression of laminin B1( LBN1) mRNA, and increase HDL-C of diabetic rats. Conclusions The results indicated that taurine could prevent the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy by decreasing blood glucose, improving lipid metabolism, glomerular basement membrane metabolism, and kidney function. PMID:20804623

  19. Treatment of chronic regional pain syndrome type 1 with palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine cream: modulation of nonneuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can be intractable to treat and patients sometimes suffer for many years. Therefore, new treatment strategies are needed to alleviate symptoms in CRPS patients. This case report describes a patient suffering from intractable CRPS type 1 for 13 years. Due to her swollen painful feet and left knee she is wheelchair-bound. The combination of palmitoylethanolamide and ketamine 10% cream reduced her pain by more than 50% after 1 month of treatment, and a marked reduction in swelling and skin discoloration was noticed. Furthermore, she could walk independently again and she experienced no side effects. Thus, palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine could be a combination therapy option for treating CRPS patients. PMID:23658493

  20. Treatment of chronic regional pain syndrome type 1 with palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine cream: modulation of nonneuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Keppel Hesselink, Jan M; Kopsky, David J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS) can be intractable to treat and patients sometimes suffer for many years. Therefore, new treatment strategies are needed to alleviate symptoms in CRPS patients. This case report describes a patient suffering from intractable CRPS type 1 for 13 years. Due to her swollen painful feet and left knee she is wheelchair-bound. The combination of palmitoylethanolamide and ketamine 10% cream reduced her pain by more than 50% after 1 month of treatment, and a marked reduction in swelling and skin discoloration was noticed. Furthermore, she could walk independently again and she experienced no side effects. Thus, palmitoylethanolamide and topical ketamine could be a combination therapy option for treating CRPS patients. PMID:23658493

  1. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S P; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2015-06-21

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  2. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  3. New quantitative total protein S-assay system for diagnosing protein S type II deficiency: clinical application of the screening system for protein S type II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Tomohide; Jin, Xiuri; Tsuda, Hiroko; Ieko, Masahiro; Morishita, Eriko; Adachi, Tomoko; Hamasaki, Naotaka

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence is rising rapidly in Japan with lifestyle westernization and aging. Deficiency of protein S, an important blood coagulation regulator, is a risk factor for VTE. Protein S deficiency prevalence in Asians is approximately 10 times that in Caucasians and that of protein S type II deficiency, associated with the protein S Tokushima mutation (K155E), is quite high in Japan. However, currently available methods for measuring protein S are not precise enough for detection of this deficiency. We developed a novel assay system for precise simultaneous determinations of total protein S activity and total protein S antigen level, using a general-purpose automated analyzer, allowing protein S-specific activity (ratio of total protein S activity to total protein S antigen level) to be calculated. Mean specific activity was 0.99 for samples from healthy individuals but 0.69 or less (mean-3SD) in protein S type II-deficient and warfarin-treated samples, but was 1.0 in an estrogen-treated sample with significantly decreased protein S antigen. Protein S gene analyses in healthy individuals with specific activity 0.69 or less revealed the K155E mutation in all three. These results show our new assay system to be an effective screening tool for protein S type II deficiency. This system can also be used in an automated analyzer, facilitating numerous sample measurements, and is, thus, applicable to regular medical checkups and diagnosing VTE. Such applications would potentially contribute to early detection of protein S type II deficiency, and, thereby, to thrombosis prevention. PMID:22157257

  4. Human T-lymphotropic virus type II infection in Vietnamese thalassemic patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, M T; Nguyen, B T; Binh, T V; Be, T V; Chiang, T Y; Tseng, L H; Yang, Y C; Lin, K H; Chen, Y C

    1997-01-01

    Anti-human T-lymphotropic virus type I/II (HTLV-I/II) antibodies were screened by particle agglutination test in a total of 66 patients with thalassemia major who received multiple transfusion from paid donors at the Blood Transfusion Hematology Center of Ho Chi Minh City in South Vietnam. HTLV-II infection was confirmed in 6 patients (9.1%) by Western blot analysis and/or polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that long terminal repeat sequences of HTLV-II proviruses from 5 thalassemic patients in Vietnam belonged to the same phylogenetic subgroup of HTLV-IIb as those from intravenous drug abusers in North America and Europe. These data shed light on the route of introducing HTLV-II into Vietnam. PMID:9267453

  5. Treatment of choroidal neovascularisation secondary to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II with intravitreal ranibizumab

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Donal; Silvestri, Giuliana; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2014-01-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II (MPGN II) is characterised by electron-dense deposits of complement components in the glomerular basement membrane and retinal pigment epithelium. Approximately, 10% of affected individuals develop serious ocular complications similar to age-related macular degeneration such as choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), which has been managed with photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy; however, these treatments can impact visual acuity. We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with MPGN II presenting with decreased visual acuity and paracentral scotoma in her left eye due to an extrafoveal choroidal neovascular membrane (growth of new vessels under the retina). The patient was successfully treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis) with restoration of visual function. This case highlights the successful management of CNV secondary to MPGN II with the antivascular endothelial growth factor agent ranibizumab and emphasises the importance of early referral of patients with MPGN II who are reporting of visual ‘distortion’. PMID:24895384

  6. Type Ia supernova rate studies from the SDSS-II Supernova Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dilday, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    The author presents new measurements of the type Ia SN rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey was carried out during the Fall months (Sept.-Nov.) of 2005-2007 and discovered ~ 500 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia with densely sampled (once every ~ 4 days), multi-color light curves. Additionally, the SDSS-II Supernova Survey has discovered several hundred SNe Ia candidates with well-measured light curves, but without spectroscopic confirmation of type. This total, achieved in 9 months of observing, represents ~ 15-20% of the total SNe Ia discovered worldwide since 1885. The author describes some technical details of the SN Survey observations and SN search algorithms that contributed to the extremely high-yield of discovered SNe and that are important as context for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey SN Ia rate measurements.

  7. Type Ia and II Supernovae Contributions to Metal Enrichment in the Intracluster Medium Observed with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kosuke; Tokoi, Kazuyo; Matsushita, Kyoko; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Ishida, Manabu; Ohashi, Takaya

    2007-09-01

    We studied the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in two clusters of galaxies (AWM 7 and Abell 1060) and two groups (HCG 62 and NGC 507) with the X-ray observatory Suzaku. Based on spatially resolved energy spectra, we measured for the first time precise cumulative ICM metal masses within 0.1 and ~0.3r180. Comparing our results with supernova nucleosynthesis models, the number ratio of Type II (SNe II) to Type Ia (SNe Ia) is estimated to be ~3.5, assuming the metal mass in the ICM is represented by the sum of products synthesized in SNe Ia and SNe II. Normalized by the K-band luminosities of present galaxies, and including the metals in stars, the integrated number of past SN II explosions is estimated to be close to or somewhat higher than the star formation rate determined from Hubble Deep Field observations.

  8. Reduction of Melatonin Level in Patients with Type II Diabetes and Periodontal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Ahmadi Motemayel, Fatemeh; Jazaeri, Mina; Feradmal, Javad; Zarabadi, Mahdiyeh; Hoseyni, Mostafa; Torkzaban, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Melatonin is a circulating hormone that is mainly released from the pineal gland. It possesses antioxidant, free-radical scavenging, and immune-enhancing properties. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various diseases, including diabetes and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the possible links between salivary melatonin levels and type II diabetes and periodontal diseases. Materials and methods. A total of 30 type II diabetic patients, 30 patients with periodontal diseases, 30 type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease and 30 age- and BMI-matched controls were studied. The periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Salivary melatonin levels were determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. The mean of salivary melatonin level was significantly lower in patients with either periodontitis or diabetes compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Salivary melatonin concentration decreased in type II diabetic patients and periodontitis patients, and then decreased reaching the lowest levels in type II diabetic patients with periodontal disease. Conclusion. Based on the results of this study, it can probably be concluded that salivary level of melatonin has an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontal diseases. It is also worth noting that this factor could probably be used as a pivotal biological marker in the diagnosis and possible treatment of these diseases, although further research is required to validate this hypothesis. PMID:25346835

  9. Type II spectral bumps and Diagnostics on the Properties of the Radio Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S.; CHEN, Y.; Kong, X.; Li, G.; Song, H.; Feng, X.; Liu, Y.; Guo, F.

    2012-12-01

    It is now widely accepted that type II radio bursts are due to energetic electrons accelerated at coronal shocks. Radio observations, however, have poor or no spatial resolution to pinpoint the exact acceleration locations of these electrons. In this presentation we propose a novel method to infer the source properties of type II radio bursts by combining radio and white light observations. The key assumption is to relate specific morphological features (e.g., spectral bumps) of the dynamic spectra of type II radio bursts to imaging features (e.g., CME and its driven shock entering into a streamer) along the CME propagation. To verify the above proposal, we investigate two type IIs with spectral bump features and examine their association with CME-streamer interactions. The features are interpreted as a natural result of the shock-radio-emitting region entering the dense streamer structure. It is inferred that the type II radio bursts are excited at the flanks of the CME-driven shock (where the large scale shock geometry is of quasi-perpendicular), and the radio emission is spatially confined to a very localized region.

  10. Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen Frequencies in Patients with Type II Congenital Smell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Stateman, William A.; Henkin, Robert I.; Knöppel, Alexandra; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether there are genetic factors associated with Type II congenital smell loss. STUDY DESIGN The expression frequencies of 16 erythrocyte antigens among patients with Type II congenital smell loss were determined and compared to those of a large control group. METHODS Blood samples were obtained from 99 patients with Type II congenital smell loss. Presence of the erythrocyte surface antigens A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, Fyb, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, and Jkb was analyzed by blood group serology. Comparisons of expression frequencies of these antigens were made between the patients and a large control group. RESULTS Patients tested for the Duffy b antigen (Fyb haplotype) exhibited a statistically significant 11% decrease in expression frequency compared to the controls. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in the expression frequencies for all other erythrocyte antigens (A, B, M, N, S, s, Fya, D, C, c, E, e, K, Jka, or Jkb). CONCLUSIONS These findings describe the presence of a previously unrevealed genetic tendency among patients with Type II congenital smell loss related to erythrocyte surface antigen expression. The deviation in expression rate of Duffy b suggests a target gene and chromosome region in which future research into this form of congenital smell loss may reveal a more specific genetic basis for Type II congenital smell loss. PMID:25456515

  11. Type II ligands as chemical auxiliaries to favor enzymatic transformations by P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Amélie; Fabra, Camilo; Huang, Yue; Auclair, Karine

    2012-11-26

    The remarkable ability of P450 enzymes to oxidize inactivated C-H bonds and the high substrate promiscuity of many P450 isoforms have inspired us and others to investigate their use as biocatalysts. Our lab has pioneered a chemical-auxiliary approach to control the promiscuity of P450 3A4 and provide product predictability. The recent realization that type II ligands are sometimes also P450 substrates has prompted the design of a new generation of chemical auxiliaries with type II binding properties. This approach takes advantage of the high affinity of type II ligands for the active site of these enzymes. Although type II ligands typically block P450 activity, we report here that type II ligation can be harnessed to achieve just the opposite, that is, to favor biocatalysis and afford predictable oxidation of small hydrocarbon substrates with P450 2E1. Moreover, the observed predictability was rationalized by molecular docking. We hope that this approach might find future use with other P450 isoforms and yield complimentary products. PMID:23129539

  12. DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SOURCE PROPERTIES OF A TYPE II RADIO BURST WITH SPECTRAL BUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Song, H. Q.; Feng, X. S.; Guo, Fan

    2013-04-10

    In recent studies, we proposed that source properties of type II radio bursts can be inferred through a causal relationship between the special shape of the type II dynamic spectrum (e.g., bump or break) and simultaneous extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white light imaging observations (e.g., CME-shock crossing streamer structures). As a further extension of these studies, in this paper we examine the coronal mass ejection (CME) event on 2007 December 31 associated with a multiple type II radio burst. We identify the presence of two spectral bump features on the observed dynamic spectrum. By combining observational analyses of the radio spectral observations and the EUV-white light imaging data, we conclude that the two spectral bumps result from a CME-shock propagating across dense streamers on the southern and northern sides of the CME. It is inferred that the corresponding two type II emissions originate separately from the two CME-shock flanks where the shock geometries are likely quasi-perpendicular or oblique. Since the emission lanes are bumped as a whole within a relatively short time, it suggests that the type II radio bursts with bumps of this study are emitted from spatially confined sources (with a projected lateral dimension smaller than 0.05-0.1 R{sub Sun} at a fundamental frequency level of 20-30 MHz).

  13. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

  14. Diabetes mellitus Type II and cognitive capacity in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Degen, Christina; Toro, Pablo; Schönknecht, Peter; Sattler, Christine; Schröder, Johannes

    2016-06-30

    While diabetes mellitus (DM) Type II has repeatedly been linked to Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), longitudinal research is scarce and disease duration has not always been taken into account. In a birth cohort born between 1930 and 1932 we investigated the influence of DM Type II and disease duration on neuropsychological functioning (memory/learning, attention, verbal fluency, visuospatial thinking and abstract thinking) across 14 years. Subjects who developed MCI or AD performed significantly poorer on all neuropsychological tests applied. While significant main effects DM Type II did not arise, its presence led to a significant deterioration of performance in the digit symbol test and visuospatial thinking over time. Additionally, in visuospatial thinking this change was more pronounced for individuals suffering from MCI/AD. We found that, as a concomitant disease DM Type II does not affect memory functioning, which is typically compromised in MCI and early AD. Rather, it may lead to deficits in cognitive flexibility and visuospatial thinking. DM Type II can be considered a frequent comorbid condition which can aggravate the course of MCI and AD. In this respect it may serve as a model for other comorbid conditions in AD. PMID:27082868

  15. Participation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase in the synthesis of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in rat alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Arduini, A; Zibellini, G; Ferrari, L; Magnanimi, L; Dottori, S; Lohninger, A; Carminati, P

    2001-02-01

    We have investigated the role of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.21) in pulmonar type II pneumocyte, a lung cell responsible for the synthesis of surface active lipids. Adult type II pneumocytes were isolated from rat lung and purified by differential adherence. When these lung cells were incubated with radioactive palmitate, the percentage of radioactivity recovered into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a major surface active lipid, was almost 60% with respect to total phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecular species. Cellular lysates from type II pneumocytes contained detectable amount of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity (1 nmol/min/mg). Most of the CPT activity found in these cells could be inhibited by incubating them for 60 min with 5 microM tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA), a specific and irreversible CPT inhibitor of the malonyl-CoA sensitive CPT isoform (CPT I). TDGA treatment of adult type II pneumocytes caused a significant reduction in the incorporation of radioactive palmitate into PC, though this effect did not seem to be specific for DPPC. TDGA affected the incorporation of radioactive palmitate at the sn2 rather than the sn1 position of the glycerol backbone of PC. The incorporation of radioactive palmitate into DPPC was also observed when these lung cells were incubated with palmitate-labeled palmitoyl-L-carnitine. Our data suggest that type II pneumocyte CPT may play an important role in remodelling PC fatty acid composition and hence DPPC synthesis. PMID:11330841

  16. The Brm-HDAC3-Erm repressor complex suppresses dedifferentiation in Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages

    PubMed Central

    Koe, Chwee Tat; Li, Song; Rossi, Fabrizio; Wong, Jack Jing Lin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhizhuo; Chen, Keng; Aw, Sherry Shiying; Richardson, Helena E; Robson, Paul; Sung, Wing-Kin; Yu, Fengwei; Gonzalez, Cayetano; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    The control of self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells is a crucial issue in stem cell and cancer biology. Drosophila type II neuroblast lineages are prone to developing impaired neuroblast homeostasis if the limited self-renewing potential of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) is unrestrained. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling Brahma (Brm) complex functions cooperatively with another chromatin remodeling factor, Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) to suppress the formation of ectopic type II neuroblasts. We show that multiple components of the Brm complex and HDAC3 physically associate with Earmuff (Erm), a type II-specific transcription factor that prevents dedifferentiation of INPs into neuroblasts. Consistently, the predicted Erm-binding motif is present in most of known binding loci of Brm. Furthermore, brm and hdac3 genetically interact with erm to prevent type II neuroblast overgrowth. Thus, the Brm-HDAC3-Erm repressor complex suppresses dedifferentiation of INPs back into type II neuroblasts. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01906.001 PMID:24618901

  17. Excitation of type II anterior caudate neurons by stimulation of dopamine D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Piercey, M F; Hyslop, D K; Hoffmann, W E

    1997-07-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both direct- and indirect-acting dopamine (DA) receptor agonists excite type II neurons in the anterior caudate (CN) by stimulation of DA receptors belonging to the D2 receptor subfamily (D2, D3, D4 receptor subtypes). In the present study, pramipexole, a D3-preferring DA agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease, excited type II anterior CN neurons. As with other direct-acting agonists, excitation of the CN neurons occurred only at doses above those that silenced DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC). Although more potent than pramipexole in inhibiting SNPC cells, PNU-91356A, a D2-preferring agonist, did not excite type II CN cells. The D3-preferring antagonist (+)-AJ76 was weaker than haloperidol, a D2-preferring antagonist, in reversing the effects of amphetamine on firing rates in dopaminergic neurons in both the SNPC and the CN. However, in relationship to its potency in the SNPC, (+)-AJ76 was more potent than haloperidol in the CN. PNU-101387, a selective D4 antagonist, did not alter amphetamine-induced stimulation of type II CN neurons. We conclude that DA agonists may excite type II anterior CN neurons via D3 receptor activation. The stimulation of these neurons may contribute to the anti-parkinsonian effects of pramipexole. PMID:9262154

  18. Clinical Presentation of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (Hunter's Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Chinawa, JM; Adimora, GN; Obu, HA; Tagbo, B; Ujunwa, F; Onubogu, I

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) with a typical presentation of mental retardation and absence of corneal clouding. The purpose of presenting this case report is to highlight the distinctive manifestation of MPS (Hunter's disease) and to provide a concise report of Hunter's disease for medical practitioners with the hope that such information will help identify boys earlier in the course of their disease. This report is of a 7-year-old boy who presented to the children outpatient through a referral with a history of inability to grasp objects, inability to express self, and coarse skin, which started 5 years ago. On examination, he was short statured, with a big head, protruding abdomen, coarse skin, swollen wrist joints, and clubbed fingers. There was mild mental retardation. Investigations revealed mucopolysaccharides in urine ad radiographic findings were in keeping with diagnosis. Based on the clinical features and radiological findings, one can diagnose a case of MPS. However, careful and critical approach is necessary to exactly diagnose the type of MPS as enzymatic studies are not available in most centers. PMID:23209998

  19. Excitonic transitions in highly efficient (GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb) type-II quantum-well structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gies, S.; Kruska, C.; Berger, C.; Hens, P.; Fuchs, C.; Rosemann, N. W.; Veletas, J.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Heimbrodt, W.; Ruiz Perez, A.; Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.

    2015-11-02

    The excitonic transitions of the type-II (GaIn)As/Ga(AsSb) gain medium of a “W”-laser structure are characterized experimentally by modulation spectroscopy and analyzed using microscopic quantum theory. On the basis of the very good agreement between the measured and calculated photoreflectivity, the type-I or type-II character of the observable excitonic transitions is identified. Whereas the energetically lowest three transitions exhibit type-II character, the subsequent energetically higher transitions possess type-I character with much stronger dipole moments. Despite the type-II character, the quantum-well structure exhibits a bright luminescence.

  20. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  1. WebCT and Its Growth as a Type II Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Irene; Willis, Jerry; Mahoney, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Maddux, Johnson, and Willis mentioned in 1992 some "yet to be developed types" that "have the potential to be Type II software if they are used in such a way that the user is given the ability to learn in new and better ways." The authors of this paper will frame the discussion of learning management systems (LMS) around the concept of Type I and…

  2. Osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II with normal intellect but delayed central nervous system myelination.

    PubMed

    Halder, A; Pahi, J; Sharma, A K; Bhatia, V L; Phadke, R V; Gujral, R; Agarwal, S S

    1998-10-30

    We describe a 7-year-boy with severe prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, skeletal changes, normal intellect, and unusual facial appearance. The skeletal changes are suggestive of osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (OPD II). He is the first patient of this kind from the Indian subcontinent and the 18th to be reported, based on a literature search (MEDLINE; 1982 to April 1997). He also represents the first case of OPD-II with normal intellect but delayed central nervous system myelination. PMID:9800906

  3. Molecular cloning, expression, and evolution analysis of type II CHI gene from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Jiangshan; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Guan, Hongshan; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Xia, Han; Wang, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) plays critical roles in plant secondary metabolism, which is important for the interaction between plants and the environment. CHI genes are widely studied in various higher plants. However, little information about CHI genes is available in peanut. Based on conservation of CHI gene family, we cloned the peanut type II CHI gene (AhCHI II) cDNA and genome sequence. The amino acid sequence of peanut CHI II was highly homologous to type II CHI from other plant species. qRT-PCR results showed that peanut CHI II is mainly expressed in roots; however, peanut CHI I is mainly expressed in tissues with high content of anthocyanin. Gene duplication and gene cluster analysis indicated that CHI II was derived from CHI I 65 million years ago approximately. Our gene structure analysis results are not in agreement with the previous hypothesis that CHI II was derived from CHI I by the insertion of an intron into the first exon. Moreover, no positive selection pressure was found in CHIs, while, 32.1 % of sites were under neutral selection, which may lead to mutation accumulation and fixation during great changes of environment. PMID:25608978

  4. THE MASSIVE PROGENITOR OF THE TYPE II-LINEAR SUPERNOVA 2009kr

    SciTech Connect

    Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Li Weidong; Miller, Adam A.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Steele, Thea N.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Griffith, Christopher V.; Kleiser, Io K. W.; Boden, Andrew F.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Vinko, Jozsef; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Foley, Ryan J.

    2010-05-10

    We present early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations of supernova (SN) 2009kr in NGC 1832. We find that its properties to date support its classification as Type II-linear (SN II-L), a relatively rare subclass of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We have also identified a candidate for the SN progenitor star through comparison of pre-explosion, archival images taken with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope with SN images obtained using adaptive optics plus NIRC2 on the 10 m Keck-II telescope. Although the host galaxy's substantial distance ({approx}26 Mpc) results in large uncertainties in the relative astrometry, we find that if this candidate is indeed the progenitor, it is a highly luminous (M {sup 0} {sub V} = -7.8 mag) yellow supergiant with initial mass {approx}18-24 M {sub sun}. This would be the first time that an SN II-L progenitor has been directly identified. Its mass may be a bridge between the upper initial mass limit for the more common Type II-plateau SNe and the inferred initial mass estimate for one Type II-narrow SN.

  5. Understanding the source: The nitrogen isotope composition of Type II mantle diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, Sami; Howell, Dan; Jones, Adrian; Milledge, Judith; Verchovsky, Sasha

    2010-05-01

    Diamonds can be broadly subdivided into 2 groups based on their nitrogen content; type I with > 10ppm nitrogen and type II with < 10ppm (1). Roughly 98 % of upper mantle diamonds are classified as type I, interestingly nearly all lower mantle diamonds are of type II (2). This study aims to identify the processes involved or source of type II diamonds from several localities by measuring their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions simultaneously for the first time. Samples have been categorised as type II using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis. The carbon and nitrogen isotopes as well as additional nitrogen content data have been acquired using a custom made a hi-sensitivity gas sourced mass spectrometer built and housed at the Open University, UK. There are two ways in which we can model the petrogenesis of type II diamonds. 1- During diamond growth nitrogen can be incorporated into diamond as a compatible element in a closed system and therefore the N/C ratio in the source can be depleted by Rayleigh fractionation as the first diamonds to crystallise will partition nitrogen atoms into their lattice as a 1:1 substitution for carbon atoms (type I diamonds). However nitrogen may behave as an incompatible element in diamond (and be a compatible element in the metasomatic fluid), this coupled with an open system would lead to the removal of nitrogen by the metasomatic fluids, thus causing the source to progressively become depleted in nitrogen. Continued diamond crystallization in either system will produce diamonds with ever decreasing nitrogen concentrations with time, possibly to the point of them being almost nitrogen free. 2- It is conceivable that type I & II diamonds found in the same deposit and sharing a common paragenesis (eclogitic or peridotitic) may have formed from different metasomatic fluids in separate diamond forming events. The latter has been proposed for samples from the Cullinan mine (South Africa) based on their carbon

  6. Chest compressions in an infant with osteogenesis imperfecta type II: No new rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Sewell, R D; Steinberg, M A

    2000-11-01

    The case report of a newborn female with osteogenesis imperfecta type II who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with manual chest compressions for several minutes is presented. Chest radiographs taken before and after the chest compressions were administered were reviewed by several radiologists from 3 different hospitals and demonstrated no new radiographically visible rib fractures. Collagen analysis, the patient's clinical appearance, and clinical course, as well as a consultant's opinion aided in confirmation of the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type II. A review of 4 previous studies concerning rib fractures and CPR is included. This unique case supports previous articles that have concluded that rib fractures rarely, if ever, result from CPR in pediatrics, even in children with a lethal underlying bone disease, such as osteogenesis imperfecta type II. cardiopulmonary resuscitation, chest compressions, osteogenesis imperfecta, rib fractures, bone disease. PMID:11061808

  7. A Copernicus survey of Mg II emission in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, E. J.; Oegerle, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of Mg II emission in late-type stars is examined using scan data obtained with the Copernicus satellite. The luminosity in the Mg II k emission line was found to be closely related to stellar absolute magnitude, leading to the suggestion that such correlation may be very useful for future UV observations. The stellar surface flux in the k line was observed to be roughly constant or to decrease slowly with later spectral type, a finding which is then used to show that the pressure at the top of the chromosphere decreases with later spectral type, in agreement with the conclusions by McClintock et al. (1975). An asymmetry in the Mg II k line was noticed to be present in the available data for the stars later than K2-K5.

  8. Solar gamma-ray-line flares, type II radio bursts, and coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; Forrest, D. J.; Koomen, M. J.; Howard, R. A.; Wright, C. S.

    1991-10-01

    A Big Flare Syndrome (BFS) test is used to substantiate earlier reports of a statistically significant association between nuclear gamma-ray-line (GRL) flares and metric type II bursts from coronal shocks. The type II onset characteristically follows the onset of gamma-ray emission with a median delay of two minutes. It is found that 70-90 percent of GRL flares for which coronagraph data were available were associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Gradual and impulsive GRL flares were equally well associated with CMEs. The CMEs were typically fast, with a median speed greater than 800 km/s. possible `non-BFS' explanations for the GRL-type II association are discussed.

  9. Solar gamma-ray-line flares, type II radio bursts, and coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; Forrest, D. J.; Koomen, M. J.; Howard, R. A.; Wright, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    A Big Flare Syndrome (BFS) test is used to substantiate earlier reports of a statistically significant association between nuclear gamma-ray-line (GRL) flares and metric type II bursts from coronal shocks. The type II onset characteristically follows the onset of gamma-ray emission with a median delay of two minutes. It is found that 70-90 percent of GRL flares for which coronagraph data were available were associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Gradual and impulsive GRL flares were equally well associated with CMEs. The CMEs were typically fast, with a median speed greater than 800 km/s. possible `non-BFS' explanations for the GRL-type II association are discussed.

  10. Prediction of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Loci in Klebsiella pneumoniae Genome Sequences.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi-Qing; Bi, De-Xi; Wei, Dong-Qing; Ou, Hong-Yu

    2016-06-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an increasingly important bacterial pathogen to human. This Gram-negative bacterium species has become a serious concern due to its dramatic increase in the levels of multiple antibiotic resistances, particularly to carbapenems. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) system has recently been reported to be involved in the formation of drug-tolerant persister cells. The type II TA system is composed of a stable toxin protein and a relatively unstable antitoxin protein that is able to inhibit the toxin. Here, we examine the type II TA locus distribution and compare the TA diversity throughout ten completely sequenced K. pneumoniae genomes by using bioinformatics approaches. Two hundred and twelve putative type II TA loci were identified in 30 replicons of these K. pneumoniae strains. The amino acid sequence similarity-based grouping shows that these loci distribute differently not only among different K. pneumoniae strains isolated from diverse sources, but also between their chromosomes and plasmids. PMID:26662948

  11. Effects of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate on type II pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tátrai, E; Kováciková, Z; Karácsony, G; Hudák, A; Adamis, Z; Ungváry, G

    2001-02-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DDTC) are chemicals widely used in the form of pesticides, therapeutic and chelating agents, and scavengers. Since DDTC interfere with SH, Cu, and Zn enzymes due to chelating properties, it was of interest to clarify, in primary culture of type II alveolar pneumocytes, the effect of this compound upon enzymes of glutathione cycle, Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, and the membrane structure of cells. DDTC significantly inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase and the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione reductase, and alkaline phosphatase, whereas an increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase was found. The membranes of pneumocytes type II were injured. Data show that DDTC adversely affected type II pneumocyte function and structure. PMID:11212946

  12. Polarization anisotropy of the emission from type-II quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenovský, P.; Hemzal, D.; Steindl, P.; Zíková, M.; Křápek, V.; Humlíček, J.

    2015-12-01

    We study the polarization response of the emission from type-II GaAsSb capped InAs quantum dots. The theoretical prediction based on the calculations of the overlap integrals of the single-particle states obtained in the k ⃗.p ⃗ framework is given. This is verified experimentally by polarization resolved photoluminescence measurements on samples with the type-II confinement. We show that the polarization anisotropy might be utilized to find the vertical position of the hole wave function and its orientation with respect to crystallographic axes of the sample. A proposition for usage in the information technology as a room temperature photonic gate operating at the communication wavelengths as well as a simple model to estimate the energy of fine-structure splitting for type-II GaAsSb capped InAs QDs are given.

  13. TEMPORAL SPECTRAL SHIFT AND POLARIZATION OF A BAND-SPLITTING SOLAR TYPE II RADIO BURST

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Guohui; Chen, Yao; Lv, Maoshui; Kong, Xiangliang; Feng, Shiwei; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-10-01

    In many type II solar radio bursts, the fundamental and/or the harmonic branches of the bursts can split into two almost parallel bands with similar spectral shapes and frequency drifts. However, the mechanisms accounting for this intriguing phenomenon remain elusive. In this study, we report a special band-splitting type II event in which spectral features appear systematically earlier on the upper band (with higher frequencies) than on the lower band (with lower frequencies) by several seconds. Furthermore, the emissions carried by the splitting band are moderately polarized with the left-hand polarized signals stronger than the right-hand ones. The polarization degree varies in a range of –0.3 to –0.6. These novel observational findings provide important constraints on the underlying physical mechanisms of band-splitting of type II radio bursts.

  14. TYPE II CEPHEID CANDIDATES. IV. OBJECTS FROM THE NORTHERN SKY VARIABILITY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Edward G.

    2013-09-15

    We have obtained VR photometry of 447 Cepheid variable star candidates with declinations north of -14 Degree-Sign 30', most of which were identified using the Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS) data archive. Periods and other photometric properties were derived from the combination of our data with the NSVS data. Atmospheric parameters were determined for 81 of these stars from low-resolution spectra. The identification of type II Cepheids based on the data presented in all four papers in this series is discussed. On the basis of spectra, 30 type II Cepheids were identified while 53 variables were identified as cool, main sequence stars and 283 as red giants following the definitions in Paper III. An additional 30 type II Cepheids were identified on the basis of light curves. The present classifications are compared with those from the Machine-learned All Sky Automated Survey Classification Catalog for 174 stars in common.

  15. Electronic properties of electron and hole in type-II semiconductor nano-heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, K. Suseel; Souparnika, C.; Salini, K.; Mathew, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    In this project, we record the orbitals of electron and hole in type-II (CdTe/CdSe/CdTe/CdSe) semiconductor nanocrystal using effective mass approximation. In type-II the band edges of both valance and conduction band are higher than that of shell. So the electron and hole get confined in different layers of the hetero-structure. The energy eigen values and eigen functions are calculated by solving Schrodinger equation using finite difference matrix method. Based on this we investigate the effect of shell thickness and well width on energy and probability distribution of ground state (1s) and few excited states (1p,1d,etc). Our results predict that, type-II quantum dots have significant importance in photovoltaic applications.

  16. Fixation of unstable type II clavicle fractures with distal clavicle plate and suture button.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter S; Sears, Benjamin W; Lazarus, Mark R; Frieman, Barbara G

    2014-11-01

    This article reports on a technique to treat unstable type II distal clavicle fractures using fracture-specific plates and coracoclavicular augmentation with a suture button. Six patients with clinically unstable type II distal clavicle fractures underwent treatment using the above technique. All fractures demonstrated radiographic union at 9.6 (8.4-11.6) weeks with a mean follow-up of 15.6 (12.4-22.3) months. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Penn Shoulder Score, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores were 97.97 (98.33-100), 96.4 (91-99), and 95 (90-100), respectively. One patient required implant removal. Fracture-specific plating with suture-button augmentation for type II distal clavicle fractures provides reliable rates of union without absolute requirement for implant removal. PMID:24667803

  17. Full genome analysis of a novel type II feline coronavirus NTU156.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Nan; Chang, Ruey-Yi; Su, Bi-Ling; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Infections by type II feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) have been shown to be significantly correlated with fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Despite nearly six decades having passed since its first emergence, different studies have shown that type II FCoV represents only a small portion of the total FCoV seropositivity in cats; hence, there is very limited knowledge of the evolution of type II FCoV. To elucidate the correlation between viral emergence and FIP, a local isolate (NTU156) that was derived from a FIP cat was analyzed along with other worldwide strains. Containing an in-frame deletion of 442 nucleotides in open reading frame 3c, the complete genome size of NTU156 (28,897 nucleotides) appears to be the smallest among the known type II feline coronaviruses. Bootscan analysis revealed that NTU156 evolved from two crossover events between type I FCoV and canine coronavirus, with recombination sites located in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and M genes. With an exchange of nearly one-third of the genome with other members of alphacoronaviruses, the new emerging virus could gain new antigenicity, posing a threat to cats that either have been infected with a type I virus before or never have been infected with FCoV. PMID:23239278

  18. Between types I and II: Intertype flux exotic states in thin superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Camacho, W. Y.; da Silva, R. M.; Vagov, A.; Shanenko, A. A.; Aguiar, J. Albino

    2016-08-01

    The Bogomolnyi point separates superconductivity types I and II while itself hiding infinitely degenerate magnetic flux configurations, including very exotic states (referred to here as flux "monsters"). When the degeneracy is removed, the Bogomolnyi point unfolds into a finite, intertype domain in the phase diagram between types I and II. One can expect that in this case the flux monsters can escape their "prison" at the Bogomolnyi point, occupying the intertype domain and shaping its internal structure. Our calculations reveal that such exotic flux distributions are indeed stable in the intertype regime of thin superconductors made of a type-I material, where the Bogomolnyi degeneracy is removed by stray magnetic fields. They can be classified into three typical patterns that are qualitatively different from those in types I and II: superconducting islands separated by vortex chains; stripes/worms/labyrinths patterns; and mixtures of giant vortices and vortex clusters. Our findings shed light on the problem of the interchange between types I and II, raising important questions on the completeness of the textbook classification of the superconductivity types.

  19. Recurrence of achondrogenesis type II within the same family: evidence for germline mosaicism.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Laurence; Le Merrer, Martine; Douvier, Serges; Laurent, Nicole; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Rousseau, Thierry; Vereecke, Inge; Sagot, Paul; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Coucke, Paul; Mortier, Geert

    2004-04-30

    Achondrogenesis type II is a lethal skeletal dysplasia caused by new dominant mutations within the type II collagen gene (COL2A1). Here we report on two pregnancies of a healthy, nonconsanguineous young couple. In the first pregnancy, severe micromelia and generalized edema were noted on ultrasound at 21 weeks' gestation. Clinical, radiological, and histological evaluation of the fetus after termination of the pregnancy showed typical findings of achondrogenesis type II. In the second pregnancy, fetal hygroma was noted at 11 weeks' gestation. Similar clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings were observed in the second fetus, suggesting the recurrence of achondrogenesis II within this family. Molecular analysis of genomic DNA extracted from amniotic cells of the second fetus revealed heterozygosity for a 1340G > A missense mutation (G316D) in the COL2A1 gene. This mutation was not found in the parents. Although, we could not evaluate the presence of this mutation in the first fetus, we strongly believe that our data are in favor of germline mosaicism as the most likely explanation for the recurrence of type II achondrogenesis in both sibs. PMID:15054848

  20. Evaluation of Coronal Shock Wave Velocities from the II Type Radio Bursts Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanin, V. V.; Isaeva, E. A.; Kravetz, R. O.

    The work presents the results of research of connection between the coronal shock waves and the parameters of type II (mII) meter-decameter bursts in 25-180 MHz band for 66 solar proton events. The velocities of coronal shock waves for this two cases where determined. In the first case the velocities of the shock waves was evaluated according to the Newkirck model and in the second case - directly from the type II radio burst parameters. The calculated values of shock waves velocity was compared with the same velocity values that is published on NGDC site. The comparative analysis showed that precision of coronal shock waves velocity estimation which gets directly from type II radio bursts parameters was higher than the same one which used the Newkirck model. Research showed that there is exist the sufficiently strong connection between the shock wave velocity and the delay of type II burst intensity maximum on the second harmonica. Correlation coefficient between the studied parameters was equal to ≍ 0.65.

  1. Newton’s second law, radiation reaction and type II Einstein-Maxwell fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2011-12-01

    Considering perturbations of the Reissner-Nordström metric while keeping the perturbations in the class of type II Einstein-Maxwell metrics, we perform a spherical harmonic expansion of all the variables up to the quadrupole term. This leads to rather surprising results. Referring to the source of the metric as a type II particle (analogous to referring to a Schwarzschild-Reissner-Nordström or Kerr-Newman particle), we see immediately that the Bondi momentum of the particle takes the classical form of mass times velocity plus an electromagnetic radiation reaction term, while the Bondi mass loss equation becomes the classical gravitational and electromagnetic (electric and magnetic) dipole and quadrupole radiation. The Bondi momentum loss equation turns into Newton’s second law of motion containing the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac radiation reaction force plus a momentum recoil (rocket) force, while the reality condition on the Bondi mass aspect yields the conservation of angular momentum. Two things must be pointed out: (1) these results, (equations of motion, etc) take place, not in the spacetime of the type II metric but in an auxiliary space referred to as {H}-space, whose physical meaning is rather obscure and (2) this analysis of the type II field equations is a very special case of a similar analysis of the general asymptotically flat Einstein-Maxwell equations. Although the final results are similar (though not the same), the analysis uses different equations (specifically, the type II field equations) and is vastly simpler than the general case. Without a great deal of the technical structures needed in the general case, one can see rather easily where the basic results reside in the type II field equations.

  2. Coronal electron density distributions estimated from CMEs, DH type II radio bursts, and polarized brightness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Ok; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Jin-Yi; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Kim, R.-S.

    2016-04-01

    We determine coronal electron density distributions (CEDDs) by analyzing decahectometric (DH) type II observations under two assumptions. DH type II bursts are generated by either (1) shocks at the leading edges of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) or (2) CME shock-streamer interactions. Among 399 Wind/WAVES type II bursts (from 1997 to 2012) associated with SOHO/LASCO (Large Angle Spectroscopic COronagraph) CMEs, we select 11 limb events whose fundamental and second harmonic emission lanes are well identified. We determine the lowest frequencies of fundamental emission lanes and the heights of leading edges of their associated CMEs. We also determine the heights of CME shock-streamer interaction regions. The CEDDs are estimated by minimizing the root-mean-square error between the heights from the CME leading edges (or CME shock-streamer interaction regions) and DH type II bursts. We also estimate CEDDs of seven events using polarized brightness (pB) measurements. We find the following results. Under the first assumption, the average of estimated CEDDs from 3 to 20 Rs is about 5-fold Saito's model (NSaito(r)). Under the second assumption, the average of estimated CEDDs from 3 to 10 Rs is 1.5-fold NSaito(r). While the CEDDs obtained from pB measurements are significantly smaller than those based on the first assumption and CME flank regions without streamers, they are well consistent with those on the second assumption. Our results show that not only about 1-fold NSaito(r) is a proper CEDD for analyzing DH type II bursts but also CME shock-streamer interactions could be a plausible origin for generating DH type II bursts.

  3. Period-luminosity relations for type II Cepheids and their application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Feast, Michael W.; Menzies, John W.

    2009-08-01

    JHKs magnitudes corrected to mean intensity are estimated for Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) type II Cepheids in the OGLE-III survey the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE). Period-luminosity (PL) relations are derived in JHKs as well as in a reddening-free VI parameter. Within the uncertainties, the BL Her stars (P < 4 d) and the W Vir stars (P = 4 to 20 d) are colinear in these PL relations. The slopes of the infrared relations agree with those found previously for type II Cepheids in globular clusters within the uncertainties. Using the pulsation parallaxes of V553 Cen and SW Tau, the data lead to an LMC modulus uncorrected for any metallicity effects of 18.46 +/- 0.10 mag. The type II Cepheids in the second-parameter globular cluster, NGC 6441, show a PL(VI) relation of the same slope as that in the LMC, and this leads to a cluster distance modulus of 15.46 +/- 0.11 mag, confirming the hypothesis that the RR Lyrae variables in this cluster are overluminous for their metallicity. It is suggested that the Galactic variable κ Pavonis is a member of the peculiar W Vir class found by the OGLE-III group in the LMC. Low-resolution spectra of OGLE-III type II Cepheids with P > 20 d (RV Tau stars) show that a high proportion have TiO bands; only one has been found showing C2. The LMC RV Tau stars, as a group, are not colinear with the shorter period type II Cepheids in the infrared PL relations in marked contrast to such stars in globular clusters. Other differences between LMC, globular cluster and Galactic field type II Cepheids are noted in period distribution and infrared colours.

  4. Genetic heterogeneity in human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type II.

    PubMed Central

    Dube, D K; Sherman, M P; Saksena, N K; Bryz-Gornia, V; Mendelson, J; Love, J; Arnold, C B; Spicer, T; Dube, S; Glaser, J B

    1993-01-01

    DNA from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 17 different individuals infected with human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type II (HTLV-II) was successfully amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the primer pair SK110/SK111. This primer pair is conserved among the pol genes of all primate T-cell lymphoma viruses (PTLV) and flanks a 140-bp fragment of DNA which, when used in comparative analyses, reflects the relative degree of diversity among PTLV genomes. Cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic comparisons of these amplified 140-bp pol fragments indicated that there are at least two distinct genetic substrains of HTLV-II in the Western Hemisphere. These data were confirmed for selected isolates by performing PCR, cloning, and sequencing with to 10 additional primer pair-probe sets specific for different regions throughout the PTLV genome. HTLV-II isolates from Seminole, Guaymi, and Tobas Indians belong in the new substrain of HTLV-II, while the prototype MoT isolate defines the original substrain. There was greater diversity among HTLV-II New World strains than among HTLV-I New World strains. In fact, the heterogeneity among HTLV-II strains from the Western Hemisphere was similar to that observed in HTLV-I and simian T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type I isolates from around the world, including Japan, Africa, and Papua New Guinea. Given these geographic and anthropological considerations and assuming similar mutation rates and selective forces among the PTLV, these data suggest either that HTLV-II has existed for a long time in the indigenous Amerindian population or that HTLV-II isolates introduced into the New World were more heterogeneous than the HTLV-I strains introduced into the New World. PMID:8437209

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Pantothenol against Staphylococci Possessing a Prokaryotic Type II Pantothenate Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Chohnan, Shigeru; Murase, Misa; Kurikawa, Kota; Higashi, Kodai; Ogata, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    Pantothenol is a provitamin of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) that is widely used in healthcare and cosmetic products. This analog of pantothenate has been shown to markedly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of the prokaryotic type II pantothenate kinase of Staphylococcus aureus, which catalyzes the first step of the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway. Since type II enzymes are found exclusively in staphylococci, pantothenol suppresses the growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus, which inhabit the skin of humans. Therefore, the addition of this provitamin to ointment and skincare products may be highly effective in preventing infections by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24759689

  6. Combined Laparoscopic and Percutaneous Treatment of a Type II Endoleak Following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Karkos, Christos D. Hayes, Paul D.; Lloyd, David M.; Fishwick, Guy; White, Steve A.; Quadar, Salman; Sayers, Robert D.

    2005-06-15

    We describe a novel approach in treating a persistent type II endoleak related to the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) and the lower lumbar arteries. The endoleak failed to thrombose following percutaneous IMA coil embolization. We proceeded to one-stage laparoscopic IMA division and intra-sac thrombin injection under direct laparoscopic vision and fluroscopy. A CT scan at 1 and 7 months post-intervention showed no evidence of endoleak and the growth of the aneurysm was arrested. This combined laparoscopic and percutaneous approach may be a useful treatment option in the management of persistent complex type II endoleak. Its durability, however has yet to be defined.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VI light curves of SMC type II Cepheids (Soszynski+, 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soszynski, I.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.

    2010-11-01

    The eighth part of the OGLE-III Catalog of Variable Stars (OIII-CVS) contains type II Cepheids in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The sample consists of 43 objects, including 17 BL Her, 17 W Vir and 9 RV Tau stars (first examples ever found in the SMC). Seven stars have been classified as peculiar W Vir stars - a recently identified subclass of type II Cepheids. These stars have distinctive light curves, are brighter and bluer than the ordinary W Vir variables. We confirm that a large fraction of the peculiar W Vir stars are members of binary systems. (3 data files).

  8. Erythrocyte membrane analysis for type II diabetes detection using Raman spectroscopy in high-wavenumber region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinyong; Zeng, Yongyi; Lin, Juqiang; Wang, Jing; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2014-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy was employed to detect lipid variation occurring in type II diabetic erythrocyte membrane (EM) without using exogenous reagents. In high-wavenumber (HW) region, significant Raman spectral differences between diabetic and normal EM are observed at 2850, 2873, 2885, 2935, and 2965 cm-1, which are mainly related to lipid in EM. Based on principal component analysis, the diagnostic accuracy of HW region for diabetes detection is 98.8%, which is much higher than that of low-wavenumber region (82.9%). The results suggest that EM HW Raman region has great promise for the reagent-free and non-invasive detection of type II diabetes.

  9. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T.

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are bidirectional and lead to difficulty in understanding the interrelated mechanisms. Type II DM cannot be understood in isolation with psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression, neuro-endocrine and immunological factors. There is no review which tries to understand these mechanisms exclusively. The present literature review aims to understand interrelated Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine and Immunological mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Published literature concerning mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II DM emphasizing psycho-neuro-endocrine or immunological relations was retrieved from Pubmed using key words yoga, Type II diabetes mellitus, psychological, neural, endocrine, immune and mechanism of action. Those studies which explained the psycho-neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of action of yoga were included and rest were excluded. Although primary aim of this study is to explain these mechanisms in Type II DM, some studies in non-diabetic population which had a similar pathway of stress mechanism was included because many insightful studies were available in that area. Search was conducted using terms yoga OR yogic AND diabetes OR diabetic IN title OR abstract for English articles. Of the 89 articles, we excluded non-English articles (22), editorials (20) and letters to editor (10). 37 studies were considered for this review. The postulated mechanism of action of yoga is through parasympathetic activation and the associated anti

  10. Type II Hydride Transferases from Different Microorganisms Yield Nitrite and Diarylamines from Polynitroaromatic Compounds▿ †

    PubMed Central

    van Dillewijn, Pieter; Wittich, Rolf-Michael; Caballero, Antonio; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2008-01-01

    Homogenous preparations of XenB of Pseudomonas putida, pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase of Enterobacter cloacae, and N-ethylmaleimide reductase of Escherichia coli, all type II hydride transferases of the Old Yellow Enzyme family of flavoproteins, are shown to reduce the polynitroaromatic compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The reduction of this compound yields hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes and Meisenheimer dihydride complexes, which, upon condensation, yield stoichiometric amounts of nitrite and diarylamines, implying that type II hydride transferases are responsible for TNT denitration, a process with important environmental implications for TNT remediation. PMID:18791007

  11. Structure-Based Design of Type II Inhibitors Applied to Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher N; Adelinet, Christophe; Berdini, Valerio; Beke, Lijs; Bonnet, Pascal; Brehmer, Dirk; Calo, Frederick; Coyle, Joseph E; Day, Phillip J; Frederickson, Martyn; Freyne, Eddy J E; Gilissen, Ron A H J; Hamlett, Christopher C F; Howard, Steven; Meerpoel, Lieven; Mevellec, Laurence; McMenamin, Rachel; Pasquier, Elisabeth; Patel, Sahil; Rees, David C; Linders, Joannes T M

    2015-01-01

    A novel Type II kinase inhibitor chemotype has been identified for maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) using structure-based ligand design. The strategy involved structural characterization of an induced DFG-out pocket by protein-ligand X-ray crystallography and incorporation of a slender linkage capable of bypassing a large gate-keeper residue, thus enabling design of molecules accessing both hinge and induced pocket regions. Optimization of an initial hit led to the identification of a low-nanomolar, cell-penetrant Type II inhibitor suitable for use as a chemical probe for MELK. PMID:25589926

  12. Relation Between Type II Bursts and CMEs Inferred from STEREO Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Thompson, W.; Davila, J.; Kaiser, M.; Yashiro, S.; Maelekae, P.; Michalek, G.; Bougret, J.-L.; Howard, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    The inner coronagraph (COR1) of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission has made it possible to observe CMEs in the spatial domain overlapping with that of the metric type II radio bursts. The type II bursts were associated with generally weak flares (mostly B and C class soft X-ray flares), but the CMEs were quite energetic. Using CME data for a set of type II bursts during the declining phase of solar cycle 23, we determine the CME height when the type II bursts start, thus giving an estimate of the heliocentric distance at which CME-driven shocks form. This distance has been determined to be approx. 1.5Rs (solar radii), which coincides with the distance at which the Alfven speed profile has a minimum value.We also use type II radio observations from STEREO/WAVES and Wind/WAVES observations to show that CMEs with moderate speed drive either weak shocks or no shock at all when they attain a height where the Alfven speed peaks (approx. 3Rs - 4Rs). Thus the shocks seem to be most efficient in accelerating electrons in the heliocentric distance range of 1.5Rs to 4Rs. By combining the radial variation of the CME speed in the inner corona (CME speed increase) and interplanetary medium (speed decrease) we were able to correctly account for the deviations from the universal drift-rate spectrum of type II bursts, thus confirming the close physical connection between type II bursts and CMEs. The average height (approx 1.5Rs) of STEREO CMEs at the time of type II bursts is smaller than that (2.2Rs) obtained for SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) CMEs. We suggest that this may indicate, at least partly, the density reduction in the corona between the maximum and declining phases, so a given plasma level occurs closer to the Sun in the latter phase. In two cases, there was a diffuse shock-like feature ahead of the main body of the CME, indicating a standoff distance of 1Rs - 2Rs by the time the CME left the LASCO field of view.

  13. Relation Between Type II Bursts and CMEs Inferred from STEREO Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Thompson, W.; Davila, J.; Kaiser, M. L.; Yashiro, S.; Maekelae, P.; Michalek, G.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Hoawrd, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    The inner coronagraph (COR1) of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission has made it possible to observe coronal mass ejections (CMEs) a in the spatial domain overlapping with that of the metric type II radio bursts. The type II bursts were associated with generally weak flares (mostly B and C class soft X-ray flares), but the CMEs were quite energetic. Using CME data for a set of type II bursts during the declining phase of solar cycle 23, we determine the CME height when the type II bursts start, thus giving an estimate of the heliocentric distance at which CME-driven shocks form. This distance has been determined to be approximately 1.5Rs (solar radii), which coincides with the distance at which the Alfv?n speed profile has a minimum value. We also use type II radio observations from STEREO/WAVES and Wind/WAVES observations to show that CMEs with moderate speed drive either weak shocks or no shock at all when they attain a height where the Alfv?n speed peaks (?3Rs ? 4Rs). Thus the shocks seem to be most efficient in accelerating electrons in the heliocentric distance range of 1.5Rs to 4Rs. By combining the radial variation of the CME speed in the inner corona (CME speed increase) and interplanetary medium (speed decrease) we were able to correctly account for the deviations from the universal drift-rate spectrum of type II bursts, thus confirming the close physical connection between type II bursts and CMEs. The average height (approximately 1.5 Rs) of STEREO CMEs at the time of type II bursts is smaller than that (2.2 Rs) obtained for SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) CMEs. We suggest that this may indicate, at least partly, the density reduction in the corona between the maximum and declining phases, so a given plasma level occurs closer to the Sun in the latter phase. In two cases, there was a diffuse shock-like feature ahead of the main body of the CME, indicating a standoff distance of 1Rs - 2Rs by the time the CME left the LASCO

  14. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are bidirectional and lead to difficulty in understanding the interrelated mechanisms. Type II DM cannot be understood in isolation with psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression, neuro-endocrine and immunological factors. There is no review which tries to understand these mechanisms exclusively. The present literature review aims to understand interrelated Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine and Immunological mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Published literature concerning mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II DM emphasizing psycho-neuro-endocrine or immunological relations was retrieved from Pubmed using key words yoga, Type II diabetes mellitus, psychological, neural, endocrine, immune and mechanism of action. Those studies which explained the psycho-neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of action of yoga were included and rest were excluded. Although primary aim of this study is to explain these mechanisms in Type II DM, some studies in non-diabetic population which had a similar pathway of stress mechanism was included because many insightful studies were available in that area. Search was conducted using terms yoga OR yogic AND diabetes OR diabetic IN title OR abstract for English articles. Of the 89 articles, we excluded non-English articles (22), editorials (20) and letters to editor (10). 37 studies were considered for this review. The postulated mechanism of action of yoga is through parasympathetic activation and the associated anti

  15. Antimicrobial activity of pantothenol against staphylococci possessing a prokaryotic type II pantothenate kinase.

    PubMed

    Chohnan, Shigeru; Murase, Misa; Kurikawa, Kota; Higashi, Kodai; Ogata, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    Pantothenol is a provitamin of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) that is widely used in healthcare and cosmetic products. This analog of pantothenate has been shown to markedly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of the prokaryotic type II pantothenate kinase of Staphylococcus aureus, which catalyzes the first step of the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway. Since type II enzymes are found exclusively in staphylococci, pantothenol suppresses the growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus, which inhabit the skin of humans. Therefore, the addition of this provitamin to ointment and skincare products may be highly effective in preventing infections by opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24759689

  16. Structure-Based Design of Type II Inhibitors Applied to Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel Type II kinase inhibitor chemotype has been identified for maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) using structure-based ligand design. The strategy involved structural characterization of an induced DFG-out pocket by protein–ligand X-ray crystallography and incorporation of a slender linkage capable of bypassing a large gate-keeper residue, thus enabling design of molecules accessing both hinge and induced pocket regions. Optimization of an initial hit led to the identification of a low-nanomolar, cell-penetrant Type II inhibitor suitable for use as a chemical probe for MELK. PMID:25589926

  17. Substrate and Inhibitor Specificity of the Type II p21-Activated Kinase, PAK6

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jia; Ha, Byung Hak; Lou, Hua Jane; Morse, Elizabeth M.; Zhang, Rong; Calderwood, David A.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Boggon, Titus J.

    2013-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are important effectors of Rho-family small GTPases. The PAK family consists of two groups, type I and type II, which have different modes of regulation and signaling. PAK6, a type II PAK, influences behavior and locomotor function in mice and has an ascribed role in androgen receptor signaling. Here we show that PAK6 has a peptide substrate specificity very similar to the other type II PAKs, PAK4 and PAK5 (PAK7). We find that PAK6 catalytic activity is inhibited by a peptide corresponding to its N-terminal pseudosubstrate. Introduction of a melanoma-associated mutation, P52L, into this peptide reduces pseudosubstrate autoinhibition of PAK6, and increases phosphorylation of its substrate PACSIN1 (Syndapin I) in cells. Finally we determine two co-crystal structures of PAK6 catalytic domain in complex with ATP-competitive inhibitors. We determined the 1.4 Å co-crystal structure of PAK6 with the type II PAK inhibitor PF-3758309, and the 1.95 Å co-crystal structure of PAK6 with sunitinib. These findings provide new insights into the structure-function relationships of PAK6 and may facilitate development of PAK6 targeted therapies. PMID:24204982

  18. Sequence specific inhibition of human type II phospholipase A2 enzyme activity by phosphorothioate oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, C F; Chiang, M Y; Wilson-Lingardo, L; Wyatt, J R

    1994-01-01

    Phosphorothioate oligonucleotides were identified which directly inhibited human type II phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme activity in a sequence specific manner. The minimum pharmacophore common to all oligonucleotides which inhibited PLA2 enzyme activity consisted of two sets of three or more consecutive guanosine residues in a row. These oligonucleotides appear to form G quartets resulting in the formation of oligonucleotide aggregates. Additionally, a phosphorothioate backbone was required to be effective inhibitors of type II PLA2. The activity of one oligodeoxynucleotide, IP 3196 (5'-GGGTGGGTATAGAAGGGCTCC-3') has been characterized in more detail. IP 3196 inhibited PLA2 enzyme activity when the substrate was presented in the form of a phospholipid bilayer but not when presented in the form of a mixed micelle with anionic detergents. Human type II PLA2 was 50-fold more sensitive to inhibition by IP 3196 than venom and pancreatic type I enzymes. These data demonstrate that phosphorothioate oligonucleotides can specifically inhibit human type II PLA2 enzyme activity in a sequence specific manner. PMID:8065936

  19. Mutation analysis of type II Gaucher disease in five Taiwanese children: identification of two novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Tsai, F J; Lee, C C; Wu, M C; Lin, S P; Lin, C Y; Tsai, C H; Kodama, H; Wu, J Y

    2001-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD), one of the most prevalent lysosomal storage diseases, is caused by deficiency of lysosomal acid beta-glucosidase (GBA). It is divided into three types according to the presence and progression of neurologic symptoms. Of those, type II is relatively rare and most severe; patients usually die before the age of two years. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing of GBA gene in five Taiwanese type II GD patients, we identified two novel mutations: G355D and three-nucleotide insertion in exon 7 of GBA. The latter resulted in an in-frame insertion of a methionine residue between Leu241 and Ser242. L444P, the second most common GD allele among non-Jewish Caucasian population, was found in all five type II GD patients (50%). Overall, 9 out of 10 GD alleles were identified in this study. Direct sequencing of all PCR products led to high detection rate of GD alleles and identification of the RecNci 1 alleles. In the future, high throughput sequencing will make it possible identifying more rare mutations in type II GD patients. PMID:11550412

  20. Dentin phosphoprotein gene locus is not associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, M.; Zeichner-David, M.; Davis, A.; Slavkin, H. ); Murray, J. ); Crall, M. )

    1992-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is an autosomal dominant inherited dental disease which affects dentin production and mineralization. Genetic linkage studies have been performed on several multigeneration informative kindreds. These studies determined linkage between DGI types II and III and group-specific component (vitamin D-binding protein). This gene locus has been localized to the long arm of human chromosome 4 in the region 4q11-q21. Although this disease has been mapped to chromosome 4, the defective gene product is yet to be determined. Biochemical studies have suggested abnormal levels of dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) associated with DGI type II. This highly acidic protein is the major noncollagenous component of dentin, being solely expressed by the ectomesenchymal derived odontoblast cells of the tooth. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether DPP is associated with DGI types II and III, by using molecular biology techniques. The results indicated that DPP is not localized to any region of human chromosome 4, thus suggesting that the DPP gene is not directly associated with DGI type II or DGI type III. The data do not exclude the possibility that other proteins associated with DPP posttranslational modifications might be responsible for this genetic disease.

  1. p53 suppresses type II endometrial carcinomas in mice and governs endometrial tumour aggressiveness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Peter J; Ikenberg, Kristian; Fuchs, Thomas J; Rechsteiner, Markus; Georgiev, Strahil; Fankhauser, Niklaus; Noske, Aurelia; Roessle, Matthias; Caduff, Rosmarie; Dellas, Athanassios; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Krek, Wilhelm; Frew, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Type II endometrial carcinomas are a highly aggressive group of tumour subtypes that are frequently associated with inactivation of the TP53 tumour suppressor gene. We show that mice with endometrium-specific deletion of Trp53 initially exhibited histological changes that are identical to known precursor lesions of type II endometrial carcinomas in humans and later developed carcinomas representing all type II subtypes. The mTORC1 signalling pathway was frequently activated in these precursor lesions and tumours, suggesting a genetic cooperation between this pathway and Trp53 deficiency in tumour initiation. Consistent with this idea, analyses of 521 human endometrial carcinomas identified frequent mTORC1 pathway activation in type I as well as type II endometrial carcinoma subtypes. mTORC1 pathway activation and p53 expression or mutation status each independently predicted poor patient survival. We suggest that molecular alterations in p53 and the mTORC1 pathway play different roles in the initiation of the different endometrial cancer subtypes, but that combined p53 inactivation and mTORC1 pathway activation are unifying pathogenic features among histologically diverse subtypes of late stage aggressive endometrial tumours. PMID:22678923

  2. Intersection of RNA Processing and the Type II Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Yeast Mitochondria▿

    PubMed Central

    Schonauer, Melissa S.; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Dieckmann, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinct metabolic pathways can intersect in ways that allow hierarchical or reciprocal regulation. In a screen of respiration-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains for defects in mitochondrial RNA processing, we found that lack of any enzyme in the mitochondrial fatty acid type II biosynthetic pathway (FAS II) led to inefficient 5′ processing of mitochondrial precursor tRNAs by RNase P. In particular, the precursor containing both RNase P RNA (RPM1) and tRNAPro accumulated dramatically. Subsequent Pet127-driven 5′ processing of RPM1 was blocked. The FAS II pathway defects resulted in the loss of lipoic acid attachment to subunits of three key mitochondrial enzymes, which suggests that the octanoic acid produced by the pathway is the sole precursor for lipoic acid synthesis and attachment. The protein component of yeast mitochondrial RNase P, Rpm2, is not modified by lipoic acid in the wild-type strain, and it is imported in FAS II mutant strains. Thus, a product of the FAS II pathway is required for RNase P RNA maturation, which positively affects RNase P activity. In addition, a product is required for lipoic acid production, which is needed for the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which feeds acetyl-coenzyme A into the FAS II pathway. These two positive feedback cycles may provide switch-like control of mitochondrial gene expression in response to the metabolic state of the cell. PMID:18779316

  3. Spatial modelling of type II diabetes outcomes: a systematic review of approaches used

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jannah; White, Nicole; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2015-01-01

    With the rising incidence of type II diabetes mellitus (DM II) worldwide, methods to identify high-risk geographical areas have become increasingly important. In this comprehensive review following Cochrane Collaboration guidelines, we outline spatial methods, outcomes and covariates used in all spatial studies involving outcomes of DM II. A total of 1894 potentially relevant citations were identified. Studies were included if spatial methods were used to explore outcomes of DM II or type I and 2 diabetes combined. Descriptive tables were used to summarize information from included studies. Ten spatial studies conducted in the USA, UK and Europe met selection criteria. Three studies used Bayesian generalized linear mixed modelling (GLMM), three used classic generalized linear modelling, one used classic GLMM, two used geographic information systems mapping tools and one compared case:provider ratios across regions. Spatial studies have been effective in identifying high-risk areas and spatial factors associated with DM II outcomes in the USA, UK and Europe, and would be useful in other parts of the world for allocation of additional services to detect and manage DM II early. PMID:26543572

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UBVRIz light curves of 51 Type II supernovae (Galbany+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; Phillips, M. M.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Maza, J.; de Jaeger, T.; Moraga, T.; Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Krisciunas, K.; Morrell, N. I.; Thomas-Osip, J.; Krzeminski, W.; Gonzalez, L.; Antezana, R.; Wishnjewski, M.; McCarthy, P.; Anderson, J. P.; Gutierrez, C. P.; Stritzinger, M.; Folatelli, G.; Anguita, C.; Galaz, G.; Green, E. M.; Impey, C.; Kim, Y.-C.; Kirhakos, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Mulchaey, J. S.; Phillips, A. C.; Pizzella, A.; Prosser, C. F.; Schmidt, B. P.; Schommer, R. A.; Sherry, W.; Strolger, L.-G.; Wells, L. A.; Williger, G. M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a sample of multi-band, visual-wavelength light curves of 51 type II supernovae (SNe II) observed from 1986 to 2003 in the course of four different surveys: the Cerro Tololo Supernova Survey, the Calan Tololo Supernova Program (C&T), the Supernova Optical and Infrared Survey (SOIRS), and the Carnegie Type II Supernovae Survey (CATS). Near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of this set of SNe II will be published in two companion papers. A list of the SNe II used in this study is presented in Table1. The first object in our list is SN 1986L and it is the only SN observed with photoelectric techniques (by M.M.P and S.K., using the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 0.9m equipped with a photometer and B and V filters). The remaining SNe were observed using a variety of telescopes equipped with CCD detectors and UBV(RI)KCz filters (see Table5). The magnitudes for the photometric sequences of the 51 SNe II are listed in Table4. In every case, these sequences were derived from observations of Landolt standards (see Appendix D in Hamuy et al. 2001ApJ...558..615H for the definition of the z band and Stritzinger et al. 2002AJ....124.2100S for the description of the z-band standards). Table5 lists the resulting UBVRIz magnitudes for the 51 SNe. (3 data files).

  5. Title: Development of Single photon Quantum Optical Experiments using Type-I and Type-II Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laugharn, Andrew; Maleki, Seyfollah

    We constructed a quantum optical apparatus to control and detect single photons. We generated these photons via Type-I and Type-II spontaneous parametric down conversion by pumping a GaN laser (405nm) incident on a BBO crystal. We detected the two down converted photons (810nm), denoted signal and idler, in coincidence so as to measure and control single photons. We implemented a coincidence counting unite onto an Altera DE2 board and used LabView for data acquisition. We used these photon pairs to demonstrate quantum entanglement and indistinguishability using multiple optical experiments.

  6. Type-I and type-II Wannier-Stark effect in InGaAs/InGaAs superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwedler, R.; Brüggemann, F.; Kohl, A.; Wolter, K.; Leo, K.; Kurz, H.

    1993-08-01

    The formation of minibands is demonstrated in photocurrent experiments on shallow In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.40Ga0.60 As superlattices grown by low-pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. Field-dependent variations of the spectral shape are attributed to Wanner-Stark localization. Both type-I transitions between electrons and heavy holes and type-II transitions involving light holes confined in the In0.40Ga0.60 As layers are observed and distinguished by their characteristic field dependence.

  7. Angiotensin II centrally induces frequent detrusor contractility of the bladder by acting on brain angiotensin II type 1 receptors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Bunya; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Higashi, Youichirou; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Saito, Motoaki; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II plays an important role in the brain as a neurotransmitter and is involved in psychological stress reactions, for example through activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ang II on the micturition reflex, which is potentially affected by the sympatho-adrenomedullary system, and brain Ang II receptors in urethane-anesthetized (1.0 g/kg, intraperitoneally) male rats. Central administration of Ang II (0.01, 0.02, and 0.07 nmol per rat, intracerebroventricularly, icv) but not vehicle rapidly and dose-dependently decreased the urinary bladder intercontraction interval, without altering the bladder detrusor pressure. Central administration of antagonists of Ang II type 1 but not type 2 receptors inhibited the Ang II-induced shortening of intercontraction intervals. Administration of the highest dose of Ang II (0.07 nmol per rat, icv) but not lower doses (0.01 and 0.02 nmol per rat, icv) elevated the plasma concentration of adrenaline. Bilateral adrenalectomy reduced Ang II-induced elevation in adrenaline, but had no effect on the Ang II-induced shortening of the intercontraction interval. These data suggest that central administration of Ang II increases urinary frequency by acting on brain Ang II type 1 receptors, independent of activation of the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. PMID:26908391

  8. Hyperoxia stimulates the transdifferentiation of type II alveolar epithelial cells in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ana; Fu, Jianhua; Yang, Haiping; Zhu, Yuting; Pan, Yuqing; Xu, Shuyan; Xue, Xindong

    2015-05-01

    Supplemental oxygen treatment in preterm infants may cause bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which is characterized by alveolar simplification and vascular disorganization. Despite type II alveolar epithelial cell (AEC II) damage being reported previously, we found no decrease in the AEC II-specific marker, surfactant protein C (SP-C), in the BPD model in our previous study. We thus speculated that AEC II injury is not a unique mechanism of BPD-related pulmonary epithelial repair dysfunction and that abnormal transdifferentiation can exist. Newborn rats were randomly assigned to model (85% oxygen inhalation) and control groups (room air inhalation). Expressions of AEC I (aquaporin 5, T1α) and AEC II markers (SP-C, SP-B) were detected at three levels: 1) in intact lung tissue, 2) in AEC II isolated from rats in the two groups, and 3) in AEC II isolated from newborn rats, which were further cultured under either hyperoxic or normoxic conditions. In the model group, increased AEC I was observed at both the tissue and cell level, and markedly increased transdifferentiation was observed by immunofluorescent double staining. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological changes in alveolar epithelium such as damaged AECs, a fused air-blood barrier structure, and opened tight junctions in the model group. These findings indicate that transdifferentiation of AECs is not suppressed but rather is increased under hyperoxic treatment by compensation; however, such repair during injury cannot offset pulmonary epithelial air exchange and barrier dysfunction caused by structural damage to AECs. PMID:25681436

  9. Central nervous system disorders and possible brain type carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Y; Tomoda, A; Miike, T; Matsukura, M; Miyatake, M; Narazaki, O

    1994-01-01

    We describe two male infants with central nervous system disorders, i.e. infantile spasms in one and athetotic quadriplegia in the other, and with recurrent attacks of high plasma creatine kinase levels induced by viral infections. Although carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) activity in biopsied muscle was normal in both cases, that of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) was decreased to 37% and 25% of the control value, respectively. Meanwhile, to determine whether or not and how CPT exists in the central nervous system (CNS), we studied animal brain tissues. CPT activity was demonstrated in almost all regions, especially in the brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Although CPT deficiency can be classified into hepatic (CPT I) and muscular (CPT II) presentations, these data suggest that another symptomatology of CPT II deficiency with CNS involvement (brain type?) might exist. PMID:8048703

  10. Induction of tolerance against the arthritogenic antigen with type-II collagen peptide-linked soluble MHC class II molecules.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon-Kyung; Jung, Sundo; Park, Se-Ho

    2016-06-01

    In murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), self-reactive T cells can recognize peptide antigens derived from type-II collagen (CII). Activation of T cells is an important mediator of autoimmune diseases. Thus, T cells have become a focal point of study to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of recombinant MHC class II molecules in the regulation of antigen-specific T cells by using a self peptide derived from CII (CII260-274; IAGFKGEQGPKGEPG) linked to mouse I-A(q) in a murine CIA model. We found that recombinant I-A(q)/CII260-274 molecules could be recognized by CII-specific T cells and inhibit the same T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by in vivo injection of recombinant I-A(q)/CII260-274 molecules. Thus, treatment with recombinant soluble MHC class II molecules in complex with an immunodominant self-peptide might offer a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammation in autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 331-336]. PMID:26779996

  11. TaIrTe4: A ternary type-II Weyl semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepernik, K.; Kasinathan, D.; Efremov, D. V.; Khim, Seunghyun; Borisenko, Sergey; Büchner, Bernd; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-05-01

    In metallic condensed matter systems two different types of Weyl fermions can in principle emerge, with either a vanishing (type-I) or with a finite (type-II) density of states at the Weyl node energy. So far only WTe2 and MoTe2 were predicted to be type-II Weyl semimetals. Here we identify TaIrTe4 as a third member of this family of topological semimetals. TaIrTe4 has the attractive feature that it hosts only four well-separated Weyl points, the minimum imposed by symmetry. Moreover, the resulting topological surface states—Fermi arcs connecting Weyl nodes of opposite chirality—extend to about 1/3 of the surface Brillouin zone. This large momentum-space separation is very favorable for detecting the Fermi arcs spectroscopically and in transport experiments.

  12. Type-II phase resetting curve is optimal for stochastic synchrony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouzeid, Aushra; Ermentrout, Bard

    2009-07-01

    The phase-resetting curve (PRC) describes the response of a neural oscillator to small perturbations in membrane potential. Its usefulness for predicting the dynamics of weakly coupled deterministic networks has been well characterized. However, the inputs to real neurons may often be more accurately described as barrages of synaptic noise. Effective connectivity between cells may thus arise in the form of correlations between the noisy input streams. We use constrained optimization and perturbation methods to prove that the PRC shape determines susceptibility to synchrony among otherwise uncoupled noise-driven neural oscillators. PRCs can be placed into two general categories: type-I PRCs are non-negative, while type-II PRCs have a large negative region. Here we show that oscillators with type-II PRCs receiving common noisy input synchronize more readily than those with type-I PRCs.

  13. Type II spiral ganglion afferent neurons drive medial olivocochlear reflex suppression of the cochlear amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Froud, Kristina E.; Wong, Ann Chi Yan; Cederholm, Jennie M. E.; Klugmann, Matthias; Sandow, Shaun L.; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Ryan, Allen F.; Housley, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic adjustment of hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity is mediated by the medial olivocochlear efferent reflex, which suppresses the gain of the ‘cochlear amplifier' in each ear. Such efferent feedback is important for promoting discrimination of sounds in background noise, sound localization and protecting the cochleae from acoustic overstimulation. However, the sensory driver for the olivocochlear reflex is unknown. Here, we resolve this longstanding question using a mouse model null for the gene encoding the type III intermediate filament peripherin (Prph). Prph(−/−) mice lacked type II spiral ganglion neuron innervation of the outer hair cells, whereas innervation of the inner hair cells by type I spiral ganglion neurons was normal. Compared with Prph(+/+) controls, both contralateral and ipsilateral olivocochlear efferent-mediated suppression of the cochlear amplifier were absent in Prph(−/−) mice, demonstrating that outer hair cells and their type II afferents constitute the sensory drive for the olivocochlear efferent reflex. PMID:25965946

  14. Effects of Type II diabetes on capillary hemodynamics in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Danielle J; McDonough, Paul; Behnke, Brad J; Kano, Yutaka; Hageman, K Sue; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2006-11-01

    Microcirculatory red blood cell (RBC) hemodynamics are impaired within skeletal muscle of Type I diabetic rats (Kindig CA, Sexton WL, Fedde MR, and Poole DC. Respir Physiol 111: 163-175, 1998). Whether muscle microcirculatory dysfunction occurs in Type II diabetes, the more prevalent form of the disease, is unknown. We hypothesized that Type II diabetes would reduce the proportion of capillaries supporting continuous RBC flow and RBC hemodynamics within the spinotrapezius muscle of the Goto-Kakizaki Type II diabetic rat (GK). With the use of intravital microscopy, muscle capillary diameter (d(c)), capillary lineal density, capillary tube hematocrit (Hct(cap)), RBC flux (F(RBC)), and velocity (V(RBC)) were measured in healthy male Wistar (control: n = 5, blood glucose, 105 +/- 5 mg/dl) and male GK (n = 7, blood glucose, 263 +/- 34 mg/dl) rats under resting conditions. Mean arterial pressure did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Sarcomere length was set to a physiological length ( approximately 2.7 mum) to ensure that muscle stretching did not alter capillary hemodynamics; d(c) was not different between control and GK rats (P > 0.05), but the percentage of RBC-perfused capillaries (control: 93 +/- 3; GK: 66 +/- 5 %), Hct(cap), V(RBC), F(RBC), and O(2) delivery per unit of muscle were all decreased in GK rats (P < 0.05). This study indicates that Type II diabetes reduces both convective O(2) delivery and diffusive O(2) transport properties within muscle microcirculation. If these microcirculatory deficits are present during exercise, it may provide a basis for the reduced O(2) exchange characteristic of Type II diabetic patients. PMID:16844923

  15. Plasma exchange in the treatment of thyroid storm secondary to type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Zainudin, Sueziani Binte; Kaushik, Manish; Khor, Li Yan; Chng, Chiaw Ling

    2016-01-01

    Summary Type II amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm. Due to the rarity of the condition, little is known about the role of plasma exchange in the treatment of severe AIT. A 56-year-old male presented with thyroid storm 2months following cessation of amiodarone. Despite conventional treatment, his condition deteriorated. He underwent two cycles of plasma exchange, which successfully controlled the severe hyperthyroidism. The thyroid hormone levels continued to fall up to 10h following plasma exchange. He subsequently underwent emergency total thyroidectomy and the histology of thyroid gland confirmed type II AIT. Management of thyroid storm secondary to type II AIT can be challenging as patients may not respond to conventional treatments, and thyroid storm may be more harmful in AIT patients owing to the underlying cardiac disease. If used appropriately, plasma exchange can effectively reduce circulating hormones, to allow stabilisation of patients in preparation for emergency thyroidectomy. Learning points Type II AIT is an uncommon cause of thyroid storm and may not respond well to conventional thyroid storm treatment. Prompt diagnosis and therapy are important, as patients may deteriorate rapidly. Plasma exchange can be used as an effective bridging therapy to emergency thyroidectomy. This case shows that in type II AIT, each cycle of plasma exchange can potentially lower free triiodothyronine levels for 10h. Important factors to consider when planning plasma exchange as a treatment for thyroid storm include timing of each session, type of exchange fluid to be used and timing of surgery. PMID:27398220

  16. Blood lactate threshold and type II fibre predominance in patients with exertional heatstroke.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Y D; Lee, W H; Chang, M K; Shieh, S D; Tsao, W L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Severe damage to skeletal muscle is usually seen in patients with exertional heatstroke. Thirty seven young military recruits with exertional heatstroke in Taiwan from 1992 to 1995 were studied to evaluate changes in muscle pathology and blood lactate with exercise. METHODS: A biopsy sample of the vastus lateralis was taken from recruits within 10 days of the initial presentation. Results were compared with those from 15 controls matched for age and sex. During the recovery period, 90-150 days after exertional heatstroke, 29 patients participated in a constant work load test on the treadmill to assess their blood lactate threshold, and a second biopsy sample was taken. Each biopsy was examined histologically for pathology, distribution of fibre types, and fibre diameter. RESULTS: Twenty four of the 37 patients with exertional heatstroke developed rhabdomyolysis and 18 of these had type II fibre predominance in their muscle biopsy. The patients with type II fibre predominance had a higher tendency to develop rhabdomyolysis (chi 2 = 6.84, P < 0.01). The time required to reach a blood lactate threshold during a constant treadmill work load after recovery was significantly shorter in the patients with exertional heatstroke who had type II fibre predominance (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between the highest value of blood lactate and the percentage of type II fibres in all tested subjects (r = 0.82, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Patients with type II fibre predominance are more susceptible to exertional heatstroke and tend to have a higher blood lactate concentration and a shorter time to reach blood lactate threshold under a treadmill load test. Images PMID:9048720

  17. ANESTHESIA MANAGEMENT IN AN INFANT WITH GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II (POMPE DISEASE).

    PubMed

    Al Atassi, Abdulaleem; Al Zughaibi, Nezar; Naeim, Anas; Al Basha, Abdulatif; Dimitriou, Vassilios

    2015-10-01

    Pompe or Glycogen Storage Disease type II (GSD-II) is a genetic disorder affecting both cardiac and skeletal muscle. Historically, patients with the infantile form usually die within the first year of life due to cardiac and respiratory failure. Recently a promising enzyme replacement therapy has resulted in improved clinical outcomes and a resurgence of elective anesthesia for these patients. Understanding the unique cardiac physiology in patients with GSD-II is essential to providing safe general anesthesia. Additional care in maximizing coronary perfusion pressure and minimizing arrhythmia risk must be given. For these reasons, it is recommended that anesthesia for infantile Pompe patients should specifically avoid propofol or high concentrations of sevoflurane and, instead, use an agent such as ketamine as the cornerstone for induction in order to better support coronary perfusion pressure and to avoid decreasing diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with vasodilatory agents. We present the anesthetic technique in a case of infantile type Pompe disease. PMID:26860026

  18. Bright but slow - Type II supernovae from OGLE-IV - implications for magnitude-limited surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poznanski, D.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Blagorodnova, N.

    2015-05-01

    We study a sample of 11 Type II supernovae (SNe) discovered by the OGLE-IV survey. All objects have well-sampled I-band light curves, and at least one spectrum. We find that two or three of the 11 SNe have a declining light curve, and spectra consistent with other SNe II-L, while the rest have plateaus that can be as short as 70 d, unlike the 100 d typically found in nearby galaxies. The OGLE SNe are also brighter, and show that magnitude-limited surveys find SNe that are different than usually found in nearby galaxies. We discuss this sample in the context of understanding Type II SNe as a class and their suggested use as standard candles.

  19. Growth and Characteristics of Type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattice-Based Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khoshakhlagh, A.; Soibel, A.; Ting, D. Z.; Hoglund, L.; Nguyen, J.; Keo, S. A.; Liao, A.; Gunapala, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report on growth and device performance of infrared photodetectors based on type II InAs/Ga(In)Sb strain layer superlattices (SLs) using the complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design. The unipolar barriers on either side of the absorber in the CBIRD design in combination with the type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice material system are expected to outperform traditional III-V LWIR imaging technologies and offer significant advantages over the conventional II-VI material based FPAs. The innovative design of CBIRDS, low defect density material growth, and robust fabrication processes have resulted in the development of high performance long wave infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays at JPL.

  20. Novel type-II material system for laser applications in the near-infrared regime

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C. Möller, C.; Hens, P.; Fuchs, C.; Stolz, W.; Koch, S. W.; Ruiz Perez, A.

    2015-04-15

    The design and experimental realization of a type-II “W”-multiple quantum well heterostructure for emission in the λ > 1.2 μm range is presented. The experimental photoluminescence spectra for different excitation intensities are analyzed using microscopic quantum theory. On the basis of the good theory–experiment agreement, the gain properties of the system are computed using the semiconductor Bloch equations. Gain values comparable to those of type-I systems are obtained.

  1. Pulmonary Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells and Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    During the past ten years, functions of alveolar type II cells have been well characterized with isolated cells in vitro. Some of the functions were well known from studies in vivo, but others such as transepithelial sodium transport were unsuspected. A better understanding of this important pulmonary cell type improves our knowledge of the pathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome and may in time lead to new therapeutic strategies. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:3909639

  2. The influence of hormone therapies on type I and II endometrial cancer: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Lina S; Kjaer, Susanne K; Keiding, Niels; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2016-03-15

    The influence of hormone therapy (HT) on risk for endometrial cancer is still casting which type of HT the clinicians recommend. It is unrevealed if HT has a differential influence on Type I versus Type II endometrial tumors, and little is known about the influence of, e.g., different routes of administration and about the influence of tibolone. We followed all Danish women aged 50-79 years without previous cancer or hysterectomy (n = 914,595) during 1995-2009. From the National Prescription Register, we computed HT exposures as time-dependent covariates. Incident endometrial cancers (n = 6,202) were identified from the National Cancer Registry: 4,972 Type I tumors and 500 Type II tumors. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cls) were estimated by Poisson regression. Compared with women never on HT, the RR of endometrial cancer was increased with conjugated estrogen: 4.27 (1.92-9.52), nonconjugated estrogen: 2.00 (1.87-2.13), long cycle combined therapy: 2.89 (2.27-3.67), cyclic combined therapy: 2.06 (1.88-2.27), tibolone 3.56 (2.94-4.32), transdermal estrogen: 2.77 (2.12-3.62) and vaginal estrogen: 1.96 (1.77-2.17), but not with continuous combined therapy: 1.02 (0.87-1.20). In contrast, the risk of Type II tumors appeared decreased with continuous combined therapy: 0.45 (0.20-1.01), and estrogen therapy implied a nonsignificantly altered risk of 1.43 (0.85-2.41). Our findings support that continuous combined therapy is risk free for Type I tumors, while all other hormone therapies increase risk. In contrast, Type II endometrial cancer was less convincingly associated with hormone use, and continuous combined therapy appeared to decrease the risk. PMID:26421912

  3. Lepton flavour violation in the supersymmetric type-II seesaw mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Joaquim, F. R.

    2008-11-23

    We summarize the predictions for the radiative decays l{sub j}{yields}l{sub i}{gamma} within the context of the supersymmetric type II seesaw mechanism considering universal boundary conditions for the soft SUSY breaking terms. The dependence on the low-energy neutrino parameters is discussed and the deviations from the analytical results for large tan{beta} analyzed.

  4. Two Higgs doublet model of type II facing flavor physics data

    SciTech Connect

    Deschamps, Olivier; Monteil, Stephane; Niess, Valentin; Descotes-Genon, Sebastien; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tisserand, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    We discuss tests of the charged Higgs sector of the two Higgs doublet model (2HDM) of type II in the light of recent flavor physics data. Particular attention is paid to recent measurement of purely leptonic decays of heavy-light mesons, which depart more or less significantly from the standard model (SM) predictions. We derive constraints on the parameters of the 2HDM type II from leptonic and semileptonic {Delta}F=1 decays as well as loop processes (b{yields}s{gamma}, BB mixing, or Z{yields}bb) sensitive to charged Higgs contributions. The outcome of this work is that while 2HDM type II can fit the individual observable through fine-tuning schemes, in a combined analysis it does not perform better than the standard model by favoring a decoupling solution. Assuming that 2HDM type II is realized in nature, constraints on its parameters (m{sub H}{sup +} and tan{beta}) are derived. A limit on the charged Higgs mass m{sub H}{sup +}>316 GeV at 95% CL is obtained irrespective of the value of tan{beta}. This limit is dominated by the b{yields}s{gamma} branching ratio measurement. All results have been obtained with the CKMfitter analysis package, featuring the frequentist statistical approach Rfit to handle theoretical uncertainties.

  5. Extended phenotypes in a boy and his mother with oto-palato-digital-syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Kaissi, Ali Al; Kraschl, Raimund; Kaulfersch, Wilhelm; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf

    2015-09-01

    We describe additional phenotypic features in a boy and his mother. Both manifested the phenotypic/genotypic correlation of oto-palato-digital syndrome type II. The mother's radiographs showed wormian bones of the skull, and paranasal bossing, her feet showed bilateral fusion of the cuboid with the lateral cuneiform bone with subsequent development of metatarsus varus associated with dysplastic distal phalanges. PMID:26401283

  6. Transarterial Embolization of Type II Endoleaks after EVAR: The Role of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Wille, Rene Wohlgemuth, Walter A. Heiss, Peter Wiggermann, Philipp Guentner, Oliver Schreyer, Andreas G. Hoffstetter, Patrick Stroszczynski, Christian; Zorger, Niels

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial endoleak embolization using the liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). Methods: Over a 7-year period eleven patients (6 women, 5 men; mean age 68 years, range 37-83 years) underwent transarterial embolization of a type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using the liquid embolic agent Onyx. Two patients (18 %) had a simple type II endoleak with only one artery in communication with the aneurysm sac, whereas 9 patients (82 %) had a complex type II endoleak with multiple communicating vessels. We retrospectively analyzed the technical and clinical success of transarterial type II endoleak embolization with Onyx. Complete embolization of the nidus was defined as technical success. Embolization was considered clinically successful when volume of the aneurysm sac was stable or decreased on follow-up CT scans. Result: Mean follow-up time was 26.0 (range 6-50) months. Clinical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients (73 %). Transarterial nidus embolization with Onyx was technically successful in 6 of 11 patients (55 %). In three cases the nidus was embolized without direct catheterization from a more distal access through the network of collateral vessels. Conclusion: Onyx is a favorable embolic agent for transarterial endoleak embolization. To achieve the best clinical results, complete occlusion of the nidus is mandatory.

  7. Atomistic simulations of the optical absorption of type-II CdSe/ZnTe superlattices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We perform accurate tight binding simulations to design type-II short-period CdSe/ZnTe superlattices suited for photovoltaic applications. Absorption calculations demonstrate a very good agreement with optical results with threshold strongly depending on the chemical species near interfaces. PMID:23031315

  8. Type II p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are regulated by an autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate.

    PubMed

    Ha, Byung Hak; Davis, Matthew J; Chen, Catherine; Lou, Hua Jane; Gao, Jia; Zhang, Rong; Krauthammer, Michael; Halaban, Ruth; Schlessinger, Joseph; Turk, Benjamin E; Boggon, Titus J

    2012-10-01

    The type II p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are key effectors of RHO-family GTPases involved in cell motility, survival, and proliferation. Using a structure-guided approach, we discovered that type II PAKs are regulated by an N-terminal autoinhibitory pseudosubstrate motif centered on a critical proline residue, and that this regulation occurs independently of activation loop phosphorylation. We determined six X-ray crystal structures of either full-length PAK4 or its catalytic domain, that demonstrate the molecular basis for pseudosubstrate binding to the active state with phosphorylated activation loop. We show that full-length PAK4 is constitutively autoinhibited, but mutation of the pseudosubstrate releases this inhibition and causes increased phosphorylation of the apoptotic regulation protein Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) antagonist causing cell death and cellular morphological changes. We also find that PAK6 is regulated by the pseudosubstrate region, indicating a common type II PAK autoregulatory mechanism. Finally, we find Src SH3, but not β-PIX SH3, can activate PAK4. We provide a unique understanding for type II PAK regulation. PMID:22988085

  9. Analysis of Metric Type II Burst and EUV Waves Generated by Shock Wave Driven by Cme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha-Silva, Rafael; Fernandes, Francisco; Selhorst, Caius

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between solar type II radio bursts produced by plasma oscillations and coronal shocks is well shown since the 1960s. However, the details of the association between the drivers of the shocks and the metric type II bursts remains a controversial issue. The flares and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the potential drivers of these shocks. In this work, we present the analysis of a metric type II burst observed on May 17, 2013, by spectrometers from e-CALLISTO network and EUV images from the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI), aboard the STEREO. The event was associated with an M3.2 X-ray flare and a halo CME. The EUV images show the EUV wave was produced by the expansion of the CME. The heights of the EUV wave fronts and the magnetic field intensity determined in the regions of the shock are consistent with those the heights of radio source obtained with the three-fold Newkirk density model, which suggests an oblique propagation of the shock. The finding of an accelerating shock with speed of 530-640 km/s and of 870-1220 km/s for the first and the second stages of the type II emission, respectively, is consistent with both the average speed of the associated EUV wave front, of 626 km/s, during the initial expansion of the CME, and with the linear speed of the CME, of 1345 km/s. These results will be presented and discussed.

  10. Simultaneous Radio and EUV Imaging of a Multi-lane Coronal Type II Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S. W.; Du, G. H.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Guo, F.

    2015-04-01

    A multi-lane solar type II radio burst was observed by several solar spectrographs on 16 February 2011. The event was also recorded by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) at several metric wavelengths, by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) onboard the Solar TErrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) in a number of EUV passbands. These multi-wavelength data provide a rare opportunity to reveal the emission source of the multiple type II lanes. Our study shows that all lanes are associated with a single EUV wave, presumably the radio-emitting shock. The EUV wave was driven by a coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with an M1.6 flare and a filament eruption. With the NRH data and the three-dimensional (3D) bow-shock reconstruction that we built using the multi-viewpoint data of the EUV wave, we are able to deduce the 3D coordinates of the radio sources. We conclude that all the three type II lanes originated from the western flank of the shock, with two of them from closely adjacent locations on the southern part, the other one from a distinct location on the northern part. This case study demonstrates how the type II origin can be pinpointed by combining analyses of different data sets.

  11. Authentic Instruction in Laptop Classrooms: Sample Lessons that Integrate Type II Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ann E.; Harmes, J. Christine

    2006-01-01

    Laptop computers and Type II applications can provide powerful tools for elementary classrooms, especially if they are combined with authentic instruction. This article provides information and lessons learned from a laptop initiative in an urban elementary school. The goal of the initiative was to develop lesson plans and document techniques that…

  12. Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effectiveness of Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Nevala, Terhi; Biancari, Fausto; Manninen, Hannu; Aho, Pekka-Sakari; Matsi, Pekka; Maekinen, Kimmo; Roth, Wolf-Dieter; Yloenen, Kari; Lepaentalo, Mauri; Peraelae, Jukka

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in treating type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Two hundred eighteen patients underwent EVAR with a Zenith stent-graft from January 2000 to December 2005. During a follow-up period of 4.5 {+-} 2.3 years, solely type II endoleak was detected in 47 patients (22%), and 14 of them underwent secondary interventions to correct this condition. Ten patients had transarterial embolization, and four patients had translumbar/transabdominal embolization. The embolization materials used were coils, thrombin, gelatin, Onyx (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer), and glue. Disappearance of the endoleak without enlargement of the aneurysm sac after the first secondary intervention was achieved in only five of these patients (5/13). One patient without surveillance imaging was excluded from analyses of clinical success. After additional interventions in four patients and the spontaneous disappearance of type II endoleak in two patients, overall clinical success was achieved in eight patients (8/12). One patient did not have surveillance imaging after the second secondary intervention. Clinical success after the first secondary intervention was achieved in two patients (2/9) in the transarterial embolization group and three patients (3/4) in the translumbar embolization group. The results of secondary interventions for type II endoleak are unsatisfactory. Although the small number of patients included in this study prevents reliable comparisons between groups, the results seem to favor direct translumbar embolization in comparison to transarterial embolization.

  13. Interaction between Sex and Social Support in the Control of Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Carma A.; Kaplan, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the role of social support in the control of Type II diabetes mellitus. Participants (N=37) in a behavioral program in diabetes care completed questionnaires and provided blood samples. For women, satisfaction with supportive relationships was associated with control of diabetes. The opposite was true for men. (BH)

  14. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  15. Autophagy regulates hyperoxia-induced intracellular accumulation of surfactant protein C in alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Shuang; Yuan, Li-Jie; Wu, Hong-Min; Jiang, Hong; Zhao, Shi-Meng; Luo, Gang; Xue, Xin-Dong

    2015-10-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) deficiency is a risk factor for hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn infants. However, the role of SP-C deficiency in the process is unclear. Here, using neonatal rat BPD model and MLE-12, mouse alveolar epithelial type II cell, we examined the changes of SP-C levels during hyperoxia. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and ELISA analysis showed SP-C accumulation in alveolar epithelial type II cells. Electron microscopy further demonstrated the accumulation of lamellar bodies and the co-localization of lamellar bodies with autophagosomes in the cytoplasm of alveolar epithelial type II cells. The inhibition of autophagy with 3-Methyladenine and knockdown of Atg7 abolished hyperoxia-induced SP-C accumulation in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK signaling with SP600125 suppressed hyperoxia-induced Atg7 expression and SP-C accumulation. These findings suggest that hyperoxia triggers autophagy via JNK signaling-mediated Atg7 expression, which promotes the accumulation of SP-C within alveolar epithelial type II cells. Our data provide a potential approach for hyperoxic lung injury therapy by targeted pharmacological inhibition of autophagic pathway. PMID:26122393

  16. Type II atresia ani associated with rectovaginal fistula in a male pseudohermaphrodite kitten

    PubMed Central

    Vallefuoco, Rosario; Alleaume, Charline; Jardel, Nicolas; Maenhoudt, Cindy; Cordonnier, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    A combination of gastrointestinal and urogenital congenital abnormalities was diagnosed and surgically treated in a kitten. Physical examination, exploratory laparotomy, castration, histological examination, and cytogenetic karyotyping were utilized to determine the true gender of the kitten. The kitten was confirmed to be a male (38 XY) pseudohermaphrodite with Type II atresia ani and rectovaginal fistula. PMID:24155431

  17. A search for the primary abnormality in adult-onset type II citrullinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Keiko; Shaheen, Nazma; Saheki, Takeyori ); Kumashiro, Ryukichi; Tanikawa, Kyuichi ); O'Brien, W.E.; Beaudet, A.L. )

    1993-11-01

    Deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) causes citrullinemia in human beings. Type II citrullinemia is found in most patients with adult-onset citrullinemia in Japan, and ASS deficiency is found specifically in the liver. Previous studies have shown that the decrease of hepatic ASS activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme protein with normal kinetic properties and that there were no apparent abnormalities in the amount, translational activity, and gross structure of hepatic ASS mRNA. In the present work, the authors show by sequencing analysis that there was no mutation in the ASS mRNA from two patients with type II citrullinemia. The authors also report RFLP analysis of a consanguineous family with type II citrullinemia, by using three DNA polymorphisms located within the ASS gene locus. In spite of having consanguineous parents, the patient was not a homozygous haplotype for the ASS gene. The RFLP analysis of 16 affected patients from consanguineous parents showed that 5 of 16 patients had the heterozygous pattern for one of the three DNA probes and that the frequency of the heterozygous haplotype was not different from the control frequency. These results suggest that the primary defect of type II citrullinemia is not within the ASS gene locus. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. A search for the primary abnormality in adult-onset type II citrullinemia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Shaheen, N; Kumashiro, R; Tanikawa, K; O'Brien, W E; Beaudet, A L; Saheki, T

    1993-11-01

    Deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) causes citrullinemia in human beings. Type II citrullinemia is found in most patients with adult-onset citrullinemia in Japan, and ASS deficiency is found specifically in the liver. Previous studies have shown that the decrease of hepatic ASS activity is caused by a decrease in enzyme protein with normal kinetic properties and that there were no apparent abnormalities in the amount, translational activity, and gross structure of hepatic ASS mRNA. In the present work, we show by sequencing analysis that there was no mutation in the ASS mRNA from two patients with type II citrullinemia. We also report RFLP analysis of a consanguineous family with type II citrullinemia, by using three DNA polymorphisms located within the ASS gene locus. In spite of having consanguineous parents, the patient was not a homozygous haplotype for the ASS gene. The RFLP analysis of 16 affected patients from consanguineous parents showed that 5 of 16 patients had the heterozygous pattern for one of the three DNA probes and that the frequency of the heterozygous haplotype was not different from the control frequency. These results suggest that the primary defect of type II citrullinemia is not within the ASS gene locus. PMID:8105687

  19. Behavior Change; Weight Loss, and Physiological Improvements in Type II Diabetic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated whether behavior modification would improve short- and long-term results of weight control programs for obese patients (N=53) with Type II diabetes. The behavior modification group lost more weight than the nutrition education or standard-care condition during the 16-week treatment, but at 16-month follow-up, weight loss differences…

  20. 46 CFR 171.072 - Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculation of permeability for Type II subdivision. 171.072 Section 171.072 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Subdivision and Damage Stability §...

  1. Soliton polarization rotation and switching in type II second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollame, Riccardo; Trillo, Stefano; Assanto, Gaetano

    1996-12-01

    We predict that solitary waves of dispersive type II second-harmonic generation may experience large uniform nonlinear polarization rotations. The nonlinear medium followed by a polarization analyzer permits undistorted all-optical switching of pulses controlled by the input polarization.

  2. A Scaffoldin of the Bacteroides cellulosolvens Cellulosome That Contains 11 Type II Cohesins

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shi-You; Bayer, Edward A.; Steiner, David; Shoham, Yuval; Lamed, Raphael

    2000-01-01

    A cellulosomal scaffoldin gene, termed cipBc, was identified and sequenced from the mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobe Bacteroides cellulosolvens. The gene encodes a 2,292-residue polypeptide (excluding the signal sequence) with a calculated molecular weight of 242,437. CipBc contains an N-terminal signal peptide, 11 type II cohesin domains, an internal family III cellulose-binding domain (CBD), and a C-terminal dockerin domain. Its CBD belongs to family IIIb, like that of CipV from Acetivibrio cellulolyticus but unlike the family IIIa CBDs of other clostridial scaffoldins. In contrast to all other scaffoldins thus far described, CipBc lacks a hydrophilic domain or domain X of unknown function. The singularity of CipBc, however, lies in its numerous type II cohesin domains, all of which are very similar in sequence. One of the latter cohesin domains was expressed, and the expressed protein interacted selectively with cellulosomal enzymes, one of which was identified as a family 48 glycosyl hydrolase on the basis of partial sequence alignment. By definition, the dockerins, carried by the cellulosomal enzymes of this species, would be considered to be type II. This is the first example of authentic type II cohesins that are confirmed components of a cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit rather than a cell surface anchoring component. The results attest to the emerging diversity of cellulosomes and their component sequences in nature. PMID:10940036

  3. 46 CFR 171.073 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision. 171.073 Section 171.073 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Large Vessels § 171.073 Treatment of stepped and...

  4. INFLUENCE OF TYPE II DIABETES AND OBESITY ON THE DISPOSITION AND ELIMINATION OF TCDD IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    INFLUENCE OF TYPE II DIABETES AND OBESITY ON THE DISPOSTION AND ELIMINATION OF TCDD IN MICE. MJ DeVito', JJ Diliberto', DG Ross', C Emond2, VM Richardson', and LS Birnbaum', 'ETD, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711, USA, 2National Research Council.
    One possible explanation fo...

  5. DISPOSITION OF TCDD IN A MOUSE MODEL OF OBESITY AND TYPE II DIABETESE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent epidemiology studies have shown an association between type II diabetes and exposure to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). A possible explanation is that diabetics have a slower elimination of TCDD than non-diabetics. The objective of the present study was to ex...

  6. Minimally invasive management of intrahepatic type II gallbladder perforation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Alshammari, Dheidan; Tzedakis, Stylianos; Hargat, Julie; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic gallbladder perforation (GBP) is a rare medical entity, which creates a cholecystohepatic communication. We describe the case of a 70-year-old patient who presented with abdominal pain and a Niemeier type II GBP. This case report illustrates the minimally invasive management of a rare and life-threatening pathology. PMID:26904560

  7. Infrared spectra and interstellar reddening of anonymous type II OH/IR stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Hackwell, J. A.; Grasdalen, G. L.; Kleinmann, S. G.; Mason, S.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared positions and multicolor infrared photometry for a sample of type II OH/IR stars are reported. The infrared colors and 11.4-micron silicate optical depths of the confirmed sources in this group increase as a function of distance, suggesting that interstellar reddening must be taken into account in assessing their infrared energy distributions and physical characteristics.

  8. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION SITES: CONSTRAINING THE MASS AND METALLICITY OF THE PROGENITORS. II. TYPE II-P AND II-L SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi; Doi, Mamoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Aldering, Greg; Arimoto, Nobuo; Pereira, Rui

    2013-08-01

    Thirteen explosion sites of Type II-P and II-L supernovae (SNe) in nearby galaxies have been observed using integral field spectroscopy, enabling both spatial and spectral study of the explosion sites. We used the properties of the parent stellar population of the coeval SN progenitor star to derive its metallicity and initial mass. The spectrum of the parent stellar population yields estimates of metallicity via the strong-line method and age via a comparison with simple stellar population models. These metallicity and age parameters are adopted for the progenitor star. Age, or lifetime of the star, was used to derive the initial (zero-age main sequence) mass of the star using comparisons with stellar evolution models. With this technique, we were able to determine the metallicities and initial masses of the SN progenitors in our sample. Our results indicate that some Type II SN progenitors may have been stars with masses comparable to those of SN Ib/c progenitors.

  9. An unobscured type II quasar candidate: SDSS J012032.19-005501.9

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Yuan, W.; Komossa, S.; Zhou, H. Y.; Liu, W. J.; Ai, Y. L.; Boisvert, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    We report the finding of an unobscured type II active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidate, SDSS J012032.19-005501.9, at a relatively high redshift of 0.601, which shows a number of unusual properties. It varies significantly on timescales of years, typical of type I AGNs, and marginally on timescales of weeks. The color–magnitude relation and the structure function are also consistent with that of type I AGNs, which implies that its variability likely originates from the black hole accretion system. However, no broad emission line (BEL) is detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, and the upper limit of the equivalent width of the Hβ BEL is much less than that of type I AGNs. These properties suggest that SDSS J012032.19-005501.9 may be an unobscured quasar without intrinsically broad emission lines, namely, an unobscured type II AGN or “true” type II AGN. Furthermore, its continuum luminosity is at least one order of magnitude fainter than the average value over the past century from the [O iii] emission line. This indicates that SDSS J012032.19-005501.9 may be switching off. Additional possible scenarios to explain this intriguing source are also discussed. Future deep observations at multiwavelengths are needed to reveal the nature of this peculiar and intriguing AGN.

  10. Neutrinoless double beta decay in type I+II seesaw models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2015-11-01

    We study neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric extension of the standard model with type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses. Due to the enhanced gauge symmetry as well as extended scalar sector, there are several new physics sources of neutrinoless double beta decay in this model. Ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and heavy-light neutrino mixing, we first compute the contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay for type I and type II dominant seesaw separately and compare with the standard light neutrino contributions. We then repeat the exercise by considering the presence of both type I and type II seesaw, having non-negligible contributions to light neutrino masses and show the difference in results from individual seesaw cases. Assuming the new gauge bosons and scalars to be around a TeV, we constrain different parameters of the model including both heavy and light neutrino masses from the requirement of keeping the new physics contribution to neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude below the upper limit set by the GERDA experiment and also satisfying bounds from lepton flavor violation, cosmology and colliders.

  11. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  12. 12-Lipoxygenase Inhibition on Microalbuminuria in Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes Is Associated with Changes of Glomerular Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Related to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Zhao; Cheng, Yan-Li; Wang, Wan-Ning; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zang, Chong-Sen; Xu, Zhong-Gao

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) is involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). In the present study, we investigated whether 12-LO inhibition may ameliorate type-2 DN (T2DN) by interfering with insulin resistance (IR); (2) Methods: Rat glomerular mesangial cells, glomeruli and skeletal muscles were isolated and used in this study. Kidney histological changes were confirmed by periodic-acid Schiff staining; mRNA expression was detected by competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; and the protein level was determined by Western blot and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively; (3) Results: The inhibition of 12-LO attenuated microalbuminuria (MAU) increases in type-2 diabetic rats, but not in type-1 diabetic rats. Infusion of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE) significantly increased the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), but decreased the expression of AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP) in rat glomeruli, compared to the control. An in vitro study revealed that both 12(S)-HETE and insulin upregulated AT1R expression in rat mesangial cells. In the presence of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB202190, the 12(S)-HETE-induced ATRAP reduction was significantly abolished. Interestingly, 12-LO inhibition did not influence AT1R expression in type-1 diabetic rats, but significantly abolished the increased AT1R and Ang II expression in glomeruli of type-2 diabetic rats. Furthermore, the inhibition of 12-LO significantly corrected impaired insulin sensitivity and fast serum insulin level, as well as the p-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) reduction in skeletal muscle of type-2 diabetic rats; (4) Conclusion: The inhibition of 12-LO potentially ameliorated MAU by preventing IR through the downregulation of glomerular AT1R expression in T2DN. PMID:27164093

  13. Type II solar radio bursts predicted by 3-D MHD CME and kinetic radio emission simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2014-01-01

    Impending space weather events at Earth are often signaled by type II solar radio bursts. These bursts are generated upstream of shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that move away from the Sun. We combine elaborate three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic predictions of realistic CMEs near the Sun with a recent analytic kinetic radiation theory in order to simulate two type II bursts. Magnetograms of the Sun are used to reconstruct initial solar magnetic and active region fields for the modeling. STEREO spacecraft data are used to dimension the flux rope of the initial CME, launched into an empirical data-driven corona and solar wind. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for the two type II bursts observed by the Wind spacecraft on 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. Propagation of the simulated CME-driven shocks through coronal plasmas containing preexisting density and magnetic field structures that stem from the coronal setup and CME initiation closely reproduce the isolated islands of type II emission observed. These islands form because of a competition between the growth of the radio source due to spherical expansion and a fragmentation of the radio source due to increasingly radial fields in the nose region of the shock and interactions with streamers in the flank regions of the shock. Our study provides strong support for this theory for type II bursts and implies that the physical processes involved are understood. It also supports a near-term capability to predict and track these events for space weather predictions.

  14. A Study of the Type II-Plateau Supernova SN 2014cx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatland, Kelsi; Leonard, Douglas Christopher; Williams, George Grant; Smith, Paul S.; Bilinski, Christopher; Dessart, Luc; Gonzalez, Luis; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Huk, Leah; Milne, Peter; Smith, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    The type II-plateau (II-P) class of supernova is the most commonly observed type of core-collapse event, and yet the basic characteristics of this class are still being defined (e.g. Pejcha & Prieto 2015). Here we add to the growing sample of type II-P events with well-sampled data from observations of SN 2014cx. SN 2014cx was independently discovered on September 2, 2014 UT by Nakano et al. (2014; CBET 3963) and Holoien et al. (2014; ATEL 6436) in the nearby (d ~ 20.7 Mpc, Tully 1988) SBd galaxy NGC 337. It was classified as a young Type II supernova through spectra taken within a day of discovery at both optical (Nakano et al. 2014) and near-infrared (Morrell et al. 2014; ATEL 6442) wavelengths. Later (Andrews et al. 2015; ATEL 7084), it was photometrically determined to be specifically a type II-P supernova, indicating the core-collapse event of a progenitor that had a large hydrogen envelope (Pejcha & Prieto 2015). We initiated a photometric and spectropolarimetric campaign to follow SN 2014cx; over a five month period following the supernova's discovery, we obtained optical images using the 1-meter telescope at Mount Laguna Observatory as part of the MOunt LAguna SUpernova Survey (MOLASUS), and spectra as part of the SuperNova SpectroPOLarimetry project (SNSPOL). Here we present the initial analysis of the photometry and spectroscopy obtained as part of this campaign. We acknowledge support from NSF grants AST-1009571 and AST-1210311, under which part of this research was carried out.

  15. A Study of the Type II-Plateau Supernova SN 2014cx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatland, Kelsi; Leonard, Douglas C.; Williams, Grant; Smith, Paul S.; Bilinski, Christopher; Gonzalez, Luis; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Huk, Leah N.; Milne, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project

    2016-06-01

    The type II-plateau (II-P) class of supernova is the most commonly observed type of core-collapse event, and yet the basic characteristics of this class are still being defined (e.g. Pejcha & Prieto 2015). Here we add to the growing sample of type II-P events with well-sampled data from observations of SN 2014cx. SN 2014cx was independently discovered on September 2, 2014 UT by Nakano et al. (2014; CBET 3963) and Holoien et al. (2014; ATEL 6436) in the nearby (d ~ 20.7 Mpc, Tully 1988) SBd galaxy NGC 337. It was classified as a young Type II supernova through spectra taken within a day of discovery at both optical (Nakano et al. 2014) and near-infrared (Morrell et al. 2014; ATEL 6442) wavelengths. Later (Andrews et al. 2015; ATEL 7084), it was photometrically determined to be specifically a type II-P supernova, indicating the core-collapse event of a progenitor that had a large hydrogen envelope (Pejcha & Prieto 2015). We initiated a photometric and spectropolarimetric campaign to follow SN 2014cx; over a five month period following the supernova's discovery, we obtained optical images using the 1-meter telescope at Mount Laguna Observatory as part of the MOunt LAguna SUpernova Survey (MOLASUS), and spectra as part of the SuperNova SpectroPOLarimetry project (SNSPOL). Here we present the analysis of the photometry and spectroscopy obtained as part of this campaign. We acknowledge support from NSF grants AST-1009571 and AST-1210311, under which part of this research was carried out.

  16. Shock wave driven by CME evidenced by metric type II burst and EUV wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha-Silva, R. D.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Selhorst, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Solar type II radio bursts are produced by plasma oscillations in the solar corona as a result of shock waves. The relationship between type II bursts and coronal shocks is well evidenced by observations since the 1960s. However, the drivers of the shocks associated with type II events at metric wavelengths remain as a controversial issue among solar physicists. The flares and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are considered as potential drivers of these shocks. In this article, we present an analysis of a metric type II burst observed on May 17, 2013, using data provided by spectrometers from e-CALLISTO (extended-Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatories) and EUV images from the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI), aboard the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The event was associated with an M3.2 SXR flare and a halo CME. The EUV wave produced by the expansion of the CME was clear from the EUV images. The heights of the EUV wave fronts proved to be consistent with the heights of the radio source obtained with the 2-4 × Newkirk density model, which provided a clue to an oblique propagation of the type-II-emitting shock segment. The results for the magnetic field in the regions of the shock also revealed to be consistent with the heights of the radio source obtained using the 2-4 × Newkirk density model. Exponential fit on the intensity maxima of the harmonic emission provided a shock speed of ∼580-990 km s-1, consistent with the average speed of the associated EUV wave front of 626 km s-1.

  17. Analysis of type II diabetes mellitus adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle Marie; Young, Matthew T; Lin, Yen-Chih; Over, Patrick J; Rubin, J Peter; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2015-01-01

    To address the functionality of diabetic adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering applications, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus were cultured in bioreactor culture systems. The adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained as functional adipocytes. The bioreactor system utilizes a hollow fiber-based technology for three-dimensional perfusion of tissues in vitro, creating a model in which long-term culture of adipocytes is feasible, and providing a potential tool useful for drug discovery. Daily metabolic activity of the adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed within the medium recirculating throughout the bioreactor system. At experiment termination, tissues were extracted from bioreactors for immunohistological analyses in addition to gene and protein expression. Type II diabetic adipose-derived stem cells did not exhibit significantly different glucose consumption compared to adipose-derived stem cells from patients without type II diabetes (p > 0.05, N = 3). Expression of mature adipocyte genes was not significantly different between diabetic/non-diabetic groups (p > 0.05, N = 3). Protein expression of adipose tissue grown within all bioreactors was verified by Western blotting.The results from this small-scale study reveal adipose-derived stem cells from patients with type II diabetes when removed from diabetic environments behave metabolically similar to the same cells of non-diabetic patients when cultured in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor, suggesting that glucose transport across the adipocyte cell membrane, the hindrance of which being characteristic of type II diabetes, is dependent on environment. The presented observation describes a tissue-engineered tool for long-term cell culture and, following future adjustments to the culture environment and increased sample sizes, potentially for anti-diabetic drug testing. PMID:26090087

  18. Disrupted Nitric Oxide Metabolism from Type II Diabetes and Acute Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Ashley P.; Kipen, Howard; Laumbach, Robert; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Kelly-McNeill, Kathleen; Cepeda, Clarimel; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Amorosa, Louis; Lubitz, Sara; Schneider, Stephen; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type II diabetes is an established cause of vascular impairment. Particulate air pollution is known to exacerbate cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, particularly in susceptible populations. This study set out to determine the impact of exposure to traffic pollution, with and without particle filtration, on vascular endothelial function in Type II diabetes. Endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) has previously been linked to vascular health. Reactive hyperemia induces a significant increase in plasma nitrite, the proximal metabolite of NO, in healthy subjects, while diabetics have a lower and more variable level of response. Twenty type II diabetics and 20 controls (ages 46–70 years) were taken on a 1.5hr roadway traffic air pollution exposure as passengers. We analyzed plasma nitrite, as a measure of vascular function, using forearm ischemia to elicit a reactive hyperemic response before and after exposure to one ride with and one without filtration of the particle components of pollution. Control subjects displayed a significant increase in plasma nitrite levels during reactive hyperemia. This response was no longer present following exposure to traffic air pollution, but did not vary with whether or not the particle phase was filtered out. Diabetics did not display an increase in nitrite levels following reactive hyperemia. This response was not altered following pollution exposure. These data suggest that components of acute traffic pollution exposure diminish vascular reactivity in non-diabetic individuals. It also confirms that type II diabetics have a preexisting diminished ability to appropriately respond to a vascular challenge, and that traffic pollution exposure does not cause a further measureable acute change in plasma nitrite levels in Type II diabetics. PMID:26656561

  19. Evolution of chemical diversity by coordinated gene swaps in type II polyketide gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Hillenmeyer, Maureen E.; Vandova, Gergana A.; Berlew, Erin E.; Charkoudian, Louise K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural product biosynthetic pathways generate molecules of enormous structural complexity and exquisitely tuned biological activities. Studies of natural products have led to the discovery of many pharmaceutical agents, particularly antibiotics. Attempts to harness the catalytic prowess of biosynthetic enzyme systems, for both compound discovery and engineering, have been limited by a poor understanding of the evolution of the underlying gene clusters. We developed an approach to study the evolution of biosynthetic genes on a cluster-wide scale, integrating pairwise gene coevolution information with large-scale phylogenetic analysis. We used this method to infer the evolution of type II polyketide gene clusters, tracing the path of evolution from the single ancestor to those gene clusters surviving today. We identified 10 key gene types in these clusters, most of which were swapped in from existing cellular processes and subsequently specialized. The ancestral type II polyketide gene cluster likely comprised a core set of five genes, a roster that expanded and contracted throughout evolution. A key C24 ancestor diversified into major classes of longer and shorter chain length systems, from which a C20 ancestor gave rise to the majority of characterized type II polyketide antibiotics. Our findings reveal that (i) type II polyketide structure is predictable from its gene roster, (ii) only certain gene combinations are compatible, and (iii) gene swaps were likely a key to evolution of chemical diversity. The lessons learned about how natural selection drives polyketide chemical innovation can be applied to the rational design and guided discovery of chemicals with desired structures and properties. PMID:26499248

  20. Genetic polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha gene in Egyptian women with type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek M.K.; El-Rehany, Mahmoud A.; Rizk, Sherine M.; Ramzy, Maggie M.; el-Roby, Doaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen might play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. A number of polymorphisms have been reported in the estrogen receptor alpha gene including the XbaI and PvuII restriction enzyme polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to determine if ESRα gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlated with lipid profile. Ninety diabetic Egyptian patients were compared with forty healthy controls. ESRα genotyping of PvuII and XbaI was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our study showed that there is more significant difference in the frequency of C and G polymorphic allele between patients and control groups in PvuII and XbaI respectively. Also carriers of minor C and G alleles of PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms were associated with increased fasting blood glucose and disturbance in lipid profile as there is an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and Low density lipoprotein. So findings of present study suggest the possibility that PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in ERα are related to T2DM and with increased serum lipids among Egyptian population. PMID:26401488

  1. NO EVIDENCE FOR A SYSTEMATIC Fe II EMISSION LINE REDSHIFT IN TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Sulentic, Jack W.; Marziani, Paola; Zamfir, Sebastian; Meadows, Zachary A. E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it E-mail: Zachary.A.Meadows@uwsp.edu

    2012-06-10

    We test the recent claim by Hu et al. that Fe II emission in type 1 active galactic nuclei shows a systematic redshift relative to the local source rest frame and broad-line H{beta}. We compile high signal-to-noise median composites using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra from both the Hu et al. sample and our own sample of the 469 brightest DR5 spectra. Our composites are generated in bins of FWHM H{beta} and Fe II strength as defined in our 4D Eigenvector 1 formalism. We find no evidence for a systematic Fe II redshift and consistency with previous assumptions that Fe II shift and width (FWHM) follow H{beta} shift and FWHM in virtually all sources. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that Fe II emission (quasi-ubiquitous in type 1 sources) arises from a broad-line region with geometry and kinematics the same as that producing the Balmer lines.

  2. Establishment and Evaluation of a Stable Cattle Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Su, Feng; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanghui; Yu, Yuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Jin, Yaping; Hu, Guangdong; Hua, Song; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells are recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. Recent research has confirmed that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) also play important roles against mycobacterium infections. Thus, establishing a stable cattle AEC line for future endogenous immune research on bacterial invasion is necessary. In the present study, we first purified and immortalized type II AECs (AEC II cells) by transfecting them with a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse trancriptase gene. We then tested whether or not the immortalized cells retained the basic physiological properties of primary AECs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Finally, we tested the secretion capacity of immortalized AEC II cells upon stimulation by bacterial invasion. The cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line (HTERT-AEC II) that we established retained lung epithelial cell characteristics: the cells were positive for surfactants A and B, and they secreted tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial invasion. Thus, the cell line we established is a potential tool for research on the relationship between AECs and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24086682

  3. The Difference in Self-Esteem between Type I Diabetics and Type II Diabetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbrock, Linda Kay

    Diabetes Mellitus is a disease which can affect an individual both physically and emotionally. Type I diabetics, representing about 10% of the diabetic population, can be characterized as having little or no insulin supply in their pancreas. Usually under the age of 30, they are required to take one or more insulin injections daily and must follow…

  4. Middle ear mechanics of type IV and type V tympanoplasty: II. Clinical analysis and surgical implications.

    PubMed

    Merchant, S N; Rosowski, J J; Ravicz, M E

    1995-09-01

    Type IV and type V tympanoplasty operations are simple, robust, and well-established techniques to reconstruct middle ears that have been severely altered by chronic otitis media. In a previous paper, the authors developed a simple four-block physiologic model to describe hearing results after these procedures. This paper presents a comparison of model predictions to hearing results obtained from a detailed retrospective clinical review of 30 type IV and type V procedures. Audiograms predicted by the model and those observed clinically show good agreement over a wide frequency range (500-4000 Hz) and for many different clinical conditions. Thus, this model reliably predicts postsurgical hearing results. The application of quantitative analyses provided by this model permits the formation of a few simple surgical rules that may improve postoperative hearing results. (1) The footplate should be left as mobile as possible (e.g., by covering it with a very thin split-thickness skin graft, as opposed to a fascia graft, which will tend to stiffen it). If the footplate is ankylosed, it should be removed and replaced with a compliant tissue graft, such as fat. (2) The round window acoustic graft shield should be made as stiff as possible. If the shield material used is temporalis fascia, then one should consider using more than one layer, or reinforcing it with cartilage. (3) An attempt should be made to create an aerated cavum minor containing at least 0.03 cc of air. PMID:8588661

  5. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II: European recommendations for the diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of a rare disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a rare, life-limiting, X-linked recessive disease characterised by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. Consequent accumulation of glycosaminoglycans leads to pathological changes in multiple body systems. Age at onset, signs and symptoms, and disease progression are heterogeneous, and patients may present with many different manifestations to a wide range of specialists. Expertise in diagnosing and managing MPS II varies widely between countries, and substantial delays between disease onset and diagnosis can occur. In recent years, disease-specific treatments such as enzyme replacement therapy and stem cell transplantation have helped to address the underlying enzyme deficiency in patients with MPS II. However, the multisystem nature of this disorder and the irreversibility of some manifestations mean that most patients require substantial medical support from many different specialists, even if they are receiving treatment. This article presents an overview of how to recognise, diagnose, and care for patients with MPS II. Particular focus is given to the multidisciplinary nature of patient management, which requires input from paediatricians, specialist nurses, otorhinolaryngologists, orthopaedic surgeons, ophthalmologists, cardiologists, pneumologists, anaesthesiologists, neurologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, psychologists, social workers, homecare companies and patient societies. Take-home message Expertise in recognising and treating patients with MPS II varies widely between countries. This article presents pan-European recommendations for the diagnosis and management of this life-limiting disease. PMID:22059643

  6. The diversity of Type II supernova versus the similarity in their progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Graham, M. L.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Arcavi, I.; Bildsten, L.; Jerkstrand, A.; McCully, C.; Pastorello, A.; Piro, A. L.; Sand, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Terreran, G.; Baltay, C.; Benetti, S.; Brown, P.; Filippenko, A. V.; Fraser, M.; Rabinowitz, D.; Sullivan, M.; Yuan, F.

    2016-07-01

    High-quality collections of Type II supernova (SN) light curves are scarce because they evolve for hundreds of days, making follow-up observations time consuming and often extending over multiple observing seasons. In light of these difficulties, the diversity of SNe II is not fully understood. Here we present ultraviolet and optical photometry of 12 SNe II monitored by the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network during 2013 to 2014, and compare them with previously studied SNe having well-sampled light curves. We explore SN II diversity by searching for correlations between the slope of the linear light-curve decay after maximum light (historically used to divide SNe II into IIL and IIP) and other measured physical properties. While SNe IIL are found to be on average more luminous than SNe IIP, SNe IIL do not appear to synthesize more 56Ni than SNe IIP. Finally, optical nebular spectra obtained for several SNe in our sample are found to be consistent with models of red supergiant progenitors in the 12-16 M⊙ range. Consequently, SNe IIL appear not to account for the deficit of massive red supergiants as SN II progenitors.

  7. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy Corrects Neuropathic Phenotype in Murine Model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Taichi; Shimada, Yohta; Akiyama, Kazumasa; Higuchi, Takashi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Eto, Yoshikatsu; Ida, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Toya

    2015-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a neuropathic lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS), which leads to the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). We demonstrated that biochemical alterations in the brains of MPS II mice are not corrected by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or enzyme replacement therapy, although BMT has been shown to be effective for other neurodegenerative MPSs, such as Hurler syndrome. In this study, we demonstrated that lentiviral isogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy corrected neuronal manifestations by ameliorating lysosomal storage and autophagic dysfunction in the brains of MPS II mice. IDS-transduced HSCs increased enzyme activity both in various visceral organs and the CNS. Decreased levels of GAGs were observed in many organs, including cerebra, after transplantation of IDS-transduced HSCs. In addition, lentiviral HSC gene therapy normalized the secondary accumulation of autophagic substrates, such as p62 and ubiquitin-protein conjugates, in cerebra. Furthermore, in contrast to naive MPS II mice, there was no deterioration of neuronal function observed in transplant recipients. These results indicated that lentiviral HSC gene therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of CNS lesions in MPS II. PMID:25761450

  8. Biomarker generation from Type II-S kerogens in claystone and limestone during hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopmans, M.P.; Carson, F.C.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.; Lewan, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    A claystone and a limestone containing immature Type II-S kerogen were thermally matured in the presence and absence of water, to study the influence of water and clay minerals on the generation of biomarkers. In contrast to hydrous pyrolysis, anhydrous pyrolysis of the claystone did not generate biomarkers, which resulted in the loss of important information. Desulfurization of the polar fraction of the claystone showed that anhydrous pyrolysis is not capable of converting S-bound biomarkers to free biomarkers. For the limestone, the differences between hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis are less dramatic. Adsorption of the polar fraction of the claystone to smectite interlayers probably leads to cross-linking reactions, preventing the generation of free biomarkers. During hydrous pyrolysis, the smectite interlayers are occupied by water so that generation of biomarkers can take place. In addition, cross-linking reactions during anhydrous pyrolysis of the claystone may be enhanced because of the presence of S-S bonds in the organic matter of the claystone. These results show that water is important in closed system laboratory experiments designed to simulate natural maturation of sedimentary organic matter.A claystone and a limestone containing immature Type II-S kerogen were thermally matured in the presence and absence of water, to study the influence of water and clay minerals on the generation of biomarkers. In contrast to hydrous pyrolysis, anhydrous pyrolysis of the claystone did not generate biomarkers, which resulted in the loss of important information. Desulfurization of the polar fraction of the claystone showed that anhydrous pyrolysis is not capable of converting S-bound biomarkers to free biomarkers. For the limestone, the differences between hydrous and anhydrous pyrolysis are less dramatic. Adsorption of the polar fraction of the claystone to smectite interlayers probably leads to cross-linking reactions, preventing the generation of free biomarkers

  9. Molecular organization of the 5S rDNA gene type II in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Castro, Sergio I; Hleap, Jose S; Cárdenas, Heiber; Blouin, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The 5S rDNA gene is a non-coding RNA that can be found in 2 copies (type I and type II) in bony and cartilaginous fish. Previous studies have pointed out that type II gene is a paralog derived from type I. We analyzed the molecular organization of 5S rDNA type II in elasmobranchs. Although the structure of the 5S rDNA is supposed to be highly conserved, our results show that the secondary structure in this group possesses some variability and is different than the consensus secondary structure. One of these differences in Selachii is an internal loop at nucleotides 7 and 112. These mutations observed in the transcribed region suggest an independent origin of the gene among Batoids and Selachii. All promoters were highly conserved with the exception of BoxA, possibly due to its affinity to polymerase III. This latter enzyme recognizes a dT4 sequence as stop signal, however in Rajiformes this signal was doubled in length to dT8. This could be an adaptation toward a higher efficiency in the termination process. Our results suggest that there is no TATA box in elasmobranchs in the NTS region. We also provide some evidence suggesting that the complexity of the microsatellites present in the NTS region play an important role in the 5S rRNA gene since it is significantly correlated with the length of the NTS. PMID:26488198

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment reduced the lung injury of type II decompression sickness

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ming; Zhou, Luting; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, Peifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To detect the ultrastructural changes in rabbits with type II decompression sickness (DCS), and study the therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Methods: Twenty-seven male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided equally into the DCS group, HBO treatment group and control group. Experimental models of each group were prepared. Lung apex tissues were harvested to prepare paraffin- and EPON812-embedded tissues. Results: In the DCS group, macroscopic and histological examination revealed severe and rapid damage to lung tissue. Ultrastructural examination revealed exudation of red blood cells in the alveolar space. Type I alveolar epithelial cells exhibited retracted cell processes and swollen mitochondria, and type II cells showed highly swollen mitochondria and decrease in cytoplasmic lamellar bodies. Dilatation and congestion of capillary vessels were accompanied by swelling of endothelial cells and incomplete basement membrane. In the HBO treatment group, the findings were somewhat similar to those in the DCS group, but the extent of damage was lesser. Only a small amount of tiny bubbles could be seen in the blood vessels. Type I alveolar epithelia cells and endothelial cells of the capillaries illustrated slight shortening of cells, swollen cytoplasm and decreased cell processes. Type II alveolar epithelial cells showed slight swelling of the mitochondria, decreased vacuolar degeneration of lamellar bodies, and increase in the number of free ribosomes. Conclusions: Our microscopic and ultrastructural findings confirm that the lung is an important organ affected by DCS. We also confirmed that HBO can alleviate DCS-induced pulmonary damage. PMID:25973070

  11. Preserving the longevity of long-lived type II collagen and its implication for cartilage therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tiku, Moti L; Madhan, Balaraman

    2016-07-01

    Human life expectancy has been steadily increasing at a rapid rate, but this increasing life span also brings about increases in diseases, dementia, and disability. A global burden of disease 2010 study revealed that hip and knee osteoarthritis ranked the 11th highest in terms of years lived with disability. Wear and tear can greatly influence the quality of life during ageing. In particular, wear and tear of the articular cartilage have adverse effects on joints and result in osteoarthritis. The articular cartilage uses longevity of type II collagen as the foundation around which turnover of proteoglycans and the homeostatic activity of chondrocytes play central roles thereby maintaining the function of articular cartilage in the ageing. The longevity of type II collagen involves a complex interaction of the scaffolding needs of the cartilage and its biochemical, structural and mechanical characteristics. The covalent cross-linking of heterotypic polymers of collagens type II, type IX and type XI hold together cartilage, allowing it to withstand ageing stresses. Discerning the biological clues in the armamentarium for preserving cartilage appears to be collagen cross-linking. Therapeutic methods to crosslink in in-vivo are non-existent. However intra-articular injections of polyphenols in vivo stabilize the cartilage and make it resistant to degradation, opening a new therapeutic possibility for prevention and intervention of cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis of aging. PMID:27133944

  12. Enhanced susceptibility of mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes to type II group B streptococcal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, M S; Fuselier, P A

    1983-01-01

    Since diabetes mellitus predisposes adults to group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteremia, a murine model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and type II GBS bacteremia was developed to assess certain immune factors which might influence susceptibility to infection. In diabetic mice, the 50% lethal dose for two strains of type II GBS was significantly lower (greater than 1 log10 decrease in CFU per milliliter) than in control animals. This enhanced virulence of GBS for diabetic animals was associated with prolonged bacteremia, persistent sequestration of organisms in the splanchnic reticuloendothelial system, and a shift from splenic to hepatic clearance. Although immunization of control and diabetic animals resulted in high concentrations of type-specific serum antibody, it had no effect on late reticuloendothelial system sequestration in diabetics. In contrast, depletion of complement by treatment of mice with cobra venom factor blocked reticuloendothelial system clearance and resulted in fatal infection in both diabetic and control mice. These results indicate that neither type-specific antibody nor an intact complement system is adequate for effective clearance of type II GBS bacteremia in mice with experimentally induced diabetes. This clearance deficit could be the result of a defect in hepatocyte membrane receptors necessary for removal of this encapsulated microorganism. PMID:6339383

  13. Differentiated Type II Pneumocytes Can Be Reprogrammed by Ectopic Sox2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kapere Ochieng, Joshua; Schilders, Kim; Kool, Heleen; Buscop-van Kempen, Marjon; Boerema-De Munck, Anne; Grosveld, Frank; Wijnen, Rene; Tibboel, Dick; Rottier, Robbert J.

    2014-01-01

    The adult lung contains several distinct stem cells, although their properties and full potential are still being sorted out. We previously showed that ectopic Sox2 expression in the developing lung manipulated the fate of differentiating cells. Here, we addressed the question whether fully differentiated cells could be redirected towards another cell type. Therefore, we used transgenic mice to express an inducible Sox2 construct in type II pneumocytes, which are situated in the distal, respiratory areas of the lung. Within three days after the induction of the transgene, the type II cells start to proliferate and form clusters of cuboidal cells. Prolonged Sox2 expression resulted in the reversal of the type II cell towards a more embryonic, precursor-like cell, being positive for the stem cell markers Sca1 and Ssea1. Moreover, the cells started to co-express Spc and Cc10, characteristics of bronchioalveolar stem cells. We demonstrated that Sox2 directly regulates the expression of Sca1. Subsequently, these cells expressed Trp63, a marker for basal cells of the trachea. So, we show that the expression of one transcription factor in fully differentiated, distal lung cells changes their fate towards proximal cells through intermediate cell types. This may have implications for regenerative medicine, and repair of diseased and damaged lungs. PMID:25210856

  14. Structure and Evolutionary Origin of Ca2+-Dependent Herring Type II Antifreeze Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,Y.; Li, Z.; Lin, Q.; Kosinski, J.; Seetharaman, J.; Bujnicki, J.; Sivaraman, J.; Hew, C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to survive under extremely cold environments, many organisms produce antifreeze proteins (AFPs). AFPs inhibit the growth of ice crystals and protect organisms from freezing damage. Fish AFPs can be classified into five distinct types based on their structures. Here we report the structure of herring AFP (hAFP), a Ca2+-dependent fish type II AFP. It exhibits a fold similar to the C-type (Ca2+-dependent) lectins with unique ice-binding features. The 1.7 Angstroms crystal structure of hAFP with bound Ca2+ and site-directed mutagenesis reveal an ice-binding site consisting of Thr96, Thr98 and Ca2+-coordinating residues Asp94 and Glu99, which initiate hAFP adsorption onto the [10-10] prism plane of the ice lattice. The hAFP-ice interaction is further strengthened by the bound Ca2+ through the coordination with a water molecule of the ice lattice. This Ca2+-coordinated ice-binding mechanism is distinct from previously proposed mechanisms for other AFPs. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests that all type II AFPs evolved from the common ancestor and developed different ice-binding modes. We clarify the evolutionary relationship of type II AFPs to sugar-binding lectins.

  15. Microstructural characterization of quantum dots with type-II band alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarney, W. L.; Little, J. W.; Svensson, S. P.

    2006-06-01

    We are investigating the structural, electrical, and infrared (IR) optical properties of a new material system comprising undoped self-assembled quantum dots having a type-II band alignment with the surrounding matrix. This materials system is fundamentally different from those using conventional type-I quantum dots that must be doped and that rely on intersubband transitions for IR photoresponse. Type-II quantum dots operate in the photovoltaic mode with IR photoresponse arising from electron-hole pair production involving three-dimensionally confined states in the dots and quantum well states in the matrix material. In this paper, we discuss the structural characterization of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown InSb quantum dots embedded in an In 0.53Ga 0.47As matrix lattice-matched to an InP substrate.

  16. Lepton flavour violating slepton decays to test type-I and II seesaw at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Villanova del Moral, Albert

    2010-02-10

    Searches at the LHC of lepton flavour violation (LFV) in slepton decays can indirectly test both type-I and II seesaw mechanisms. Assuming universal flavour-blind boundary conditions, LFV in the neutrino sector is related to LFV in the slepton sector by means of the renormalization group equations. Ratios of LFV slepton decay rates result to be a very effective way to extract the imprint left by the neutrino sector. Some neutrino scenarios within the type-I seesaw mechanism are studied. Moreover, for both type-I and II seesaw mechanisms, a scan over the minimal super-gravity parameter space is performed to estimate how large LFV slepton decay rates can be, while respecting current low-energy constraints.

  17. Ultrafast dynamics of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komolibus, K.; Piwonski, T.; Gradkowski, K.; Reyner, C. J.; Liang, B.; Huyet, G.; Huffaker, D. L.; Houlihan, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, room temperature two-colour pump-probe spectroscopy is employed to study ultrafast carrier dynamics in type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots. Our results demonstrate a strong dependency of carrier capture/escape processes on applied reverse bias voltage, probing wavelength and number of injected carriers. The extracted timescales as a function of both forward and reverse bias may provide important information for the design of efficient solar cells and quantum dot memories based on this material. The first few picoseconds of the dynamics reveal a complex behaviour with an interesting feature, which does not appear in devices based on type-I materials, and hence is linked to the unique carrier capture/escape processes possible in type-II structures.

  18. Inhibition of topoisomerase II by ICRF-193 prevents efficient replication of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Hammarsten, O; Yao, X; Elias, P

    1996-01-01

    Cellular topoisomerase II is specifically inactivated by the drug ICRF-193. This compound turns topoisomerase II into a closed clamp that is unable to cleave DNA. We have investigated the effects of this inhibitor on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1. We show that ICRF-193 at low multiplicities of infection dramatically inhibits viral DNA synthesis and the production of infectious virus. The inhibition is less efficient at high multiplicities of infection. In addition, inhibition of viral DNA synthesis was observed only when ICRF-193 was present during the first 4 h of the infectious cycle. The transient replication of plasmids containing a herpes simplex virus type 1 origin of DNA replication, oriS, was affected by ICRF-193 in the same way. In contrast, neither cellular DNA synthesis nor replication of plasmids containing a simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication was inhibited. The observed effect on herpes simplex virus DNA replication was not caused by a decreased transcription of replication genes inasmuch as the levels of UL8, UL9, UL29, and UL30 rmRNAs were unaffected by the drug. These results suggest that topoisomerase II plays a vital role during the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA. We speculate that topoisomerase II is involved in the decatenation of newly synthesized daughter molecules. PMID:8676478

  19. Orthopedic manifestations in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) enrolled in the Hunter Outcome Survey

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bianca; de Camargo Pinto, Louise Lapagesse; Giugliani, Roberto; Wraith, James Edmond; Guffon, Nathalie; Eich, Elke; Beck, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II or Hunter syndrome) is a rare, inherited disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase. As a result of this deficiency, glycosaminoglycans accumulate in lysosomes in many tissues, leading to progressive multisystemic disease. The cardiopulmonary and neurological problems associated with MPS II have received considerable attention. Orthopedic manifestations are common but not as well characterized. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and severity of orthopedic manifestations of MPS II and to determine the relationship of these signs and symptoms with cardiovascular, pulmonary and central nervous system involvement. Orthopedic manifestations of MPS II were studied using cross-sectional data from the Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS). The HOS is a global, physician-led, multicenter observational database that collects information on the natural history of MPS II and the long-term safety and effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy. As of January 2009, the HOS contained baseline data on joint range of motion in 124 males with MPS II. In total, 79% of patients had skeletal manifestations (median onset, 3.5 years) and 25% had abnormal gait (median onset, 5.4 years). Joint range of motion was restricted for all joints assessed (elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle). Extension was the most severely affected movement: the exception to this was the shoulder. Surgery for orthopedic problems was rare. The presence of orthopedic manifestations was associated with the presence of central nervous system and pulmonary involvement, but not so clearly with cardiovascular involvement. Orthopedic interventions should be considered on an individual-patient basis. Although some orthopedic manifestations associated with MPS II may be managed routinely, a good knowledge of other concurrent organ system involvement is essential. A multidisciplinary approach is required. PMID:21808707

  20. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan suppresses proliferation and fibrosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mitsuyoshi; Fushida, Sachio; Harada, Shinichi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination has poor clinical prognosis because of the presence of rich stromal fibrosis and acquired drug resistance. Recently, Angiotensin II type I receptor blockers such as candesartan have attracted attention for their potential anti-fibrotic activity. We examined whether candesartan could attenuate tumor proliferation and fibrosis through the interaction between gastric cancer cell line (MKN45) cells and human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Candesartan significantly reduced TGF-β1 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like change, while tumor proliferation and stromal fibrosis were impaired. Targeting the Angiotensin II signaling pathway may therefore be an efficient strategy for treatment of tumor proliferation and fibrosis. PMID:25224569