Science.gov

Sample records for crude oil blends

  1. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  2. Neural networks for the optimization of crude oil blending.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen; Morales, América

    2005-10-01

    Crude oil blending is an important unit in petroleum refining industry. Many blend automation systems use real-time optimizer (RTO), which apply current process information to update the model and predict the optimal operating policy. The key unites of the conventional RTO are on-line analyzers. Sometimes oil fields cannot apply these analyzers. In this paper, we propose an off-line optimization technique to overcome the main drawback of RTO. We use the history data to approximate the output of the on-line analyzers, then the desired optimal inlet flow rates are calculated by the optimization technique. After this off-line optimization, the inlet flow rates are used for on-line control, for example PID control, which forces the flow rate to follow the desired inlet flow rates. Neural networks are applied to model the blending process from the history data. The new optimization is carried out via the neural model. The contributions of this paper are: (1) Stable learning for the discrete-time multilayer neural network is proposed. (2) Sensitivity analysis of the neural optimization is given. (3) Real data of a oil field is used to show effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:16278942

  3. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  4. Least square neural network model of the crude oil blending process.

    PubMed

    Rubio, José de Jesús

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the recursive least square algorithm is designed for the big data learning of a feedforward neural network. The proposed method as the combination of the recursive least square and feedforward neural network obtains four advantages over the alone algorithms: it requires less number of regressors, it is fast, it has the learning ability, and it is more compact. Stability, convergence, boundedness of parameters, and local minimum avoidance of the proposed technique are guaranteed. The introduced strategy is applied for the modeling of the crude oil blending process. PMID:26992706

  5. Efficient dispersion of crude oil by blends of food-grade surfactants: Toward greener oil-spill treatments.

    PubMed

    Riehm, David A; Neilsen, John E; Bothun, Geoffrey D; John, Vijay T; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; McCormick, Alon V

    2015-12-15

    Effectiveness of oil spill dispersants containing lecithin/Tween 80 (L/T) blends in ethanol was measured as a function of L:T ratio, surfactant:solvent ratio, solvent composition, and dispersant:oil ratio (DOR) using baffled flask dispersion effectiveness tests. Optimal L:T ratios are between 60:40 and 80:20 (w/w); at higher L:T ratios, effectiveness is limited by high interfacial tension, while at lower L:T ratios, insufficient lecithin is present to form a well-packed monolayer at an oil-water interface. These optimal L:T ratios retain high effectiveness at low DOR: 80:20 (w/w) L:T dispersant is 89% effective at 1:25 DOR (v/v) and 77% effective at 1:100 DOR (v/v). Increasing surfactant:solvent ratio increases dispersant effectiveness even when DOR is proportionally reduced to keep total surfactant concentration dosed into the oil constant. Replacing some of the ethanol with octane or octanol also increases dispersant effectiveness, suggesting that ethanol's hydrophilicity lowers dispersant-oil miscibility, and that more hydrophobic solvents would increase effectiveness. PMID:26589641

  6. Crude oil desalting process

    SciTech Connect

    Naeger, D.P.; Perugini, J.J.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for removing chlorides from crude oil during processing in a petroleum refinery desalter wash water operation. It comprises adding to the wash water or the crude oil upstream of the desalter a sufficient amount for the purpose of a composition comprising an organic amine with a pKb of from 2 to 6 and in which 1 to 18 carbon atoms are present per nitrogen atom and potassium hydroxide, the composition being mixed with the crude oil in the desalter to remove the chlorides from the crude oil at the desalter.

  7. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  8. Crude oil desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  9. Enhanced oil recovery using oxidized crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Wauguier, J.P.; Boulet, R.; Cuiec, L.; Sillion, B.; Vacher, Ch.

    1984-09-25

    Enhanced recovery of oil from oil fields is effected by making use of an inexpensive surface-active agent formed by oxidizing a portion of crude oil with an aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite at a temperature of 20/sup 0/-180/sup 0/ C. The oxidized crude can be injected in the field in admixture with non-oxidized crude or with water as a micro-emulsion.

  10. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  11. Steam distillation of crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, J.H.; Hsueh, L.

    1983-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to generate crude oil steam distillation data for the prediction of phase behavior in steamflood simulation and to correlate the steam distillation yields for a variety of crude oils. Thirteen steam distillation tests were run on 10 crude oils ranging in gravity from 9.4 to 37/sup 0/API (1.004 to 0.840 g/cm/sup 3/). In each test the crude was steam distilled sequentially at about 220, 300, 400, and 500/sup 0/F (104, 149, 204, and 260/sup 0/C). The cumulative steam distillation yields at 400/sup 0/F (204/sup 0/C) ranged from about 20 to 55 vol%. Experimental results showed that crude oil steam distillation yields at steamflood conditions are significant, even for heavy oils. The effects of differences in steam volume throughput and steam temperature were taken into account when comparing yields for different crudes or repeat runs on the same crude. Steam distillation yields show a high correlation with crude oil API gravity and wax content.

  12. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  13. Water-in-Oil Microstructures Formed by Marine Oil Dispersants in a Model Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Riehm, David A; Rokke, David J; McCormick, Alon V

    2016-04-26

    DOSS (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate), Tween 80, and Span 80, surfactants commonly used in marine crude oil spill dispersants, have been mixed into a model oil at a total surfactant concentration of 2 wt %, typical for dispersant-treated oil slicks. These surfactant-oil blends also contained 0.5-1.5 wt % synthetic seawater to enable formation of water-in-oil (W/O) microstructures. Trends in dynamic oil-seawater interfacial tension (IFT) as a function of surfactant blend composition are similar to those observed in prior work for crude oil treated with similar blends of these surfactants. In particular, Span 80-rich surfactant blends exhibit much slower initial dynamic IFT decline than DOSS-rich surfactant blends in both model oil and crude oil, and surfactant blends containing 50 wt % Tween 80 and a DOSS:Span 80 ratio near 1:1 produce ultralow IFT in the model oil (<10(-4) mN/m) just as similar surfactant blends do in crude oil. At all DOSS:Span 80 ratios, surfactant blends containing 50 wt % Tween 80 form clear solutions with seawater in the model oil. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that these solutions contain spherical W/O microstructures, the size and dispersity of which vary with surfactant blend composition and surfactant:seawater molar ratio. Span 80-rich microstructures exhibit high polydispersity index (PDI > 0.2) and large diameters (≥100 nm), whereas DOSS-rich microstructures exhibit smaller diameters (20-40 nm) and low polydispersity index (PDI < 0.1), indicating a narrow microstructure size distribution. The smaller diameters of DOSS-rich microstructures, as well as the fact that DOSS molecules, being oil-soluble, can diffuse to a bulk oil-water interface as monomers much faster than any of these microstructures, may explain why DOSS-rich blends adsorb to the oil-water interface more quickly than Span 80-rich blends, a phenomenon which has been linked in prior work to the higher effectiveness

  14. Low pour crude oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Motz, K.L.; Latham, R.A.; Statz, R.J.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes and improvement in the process of transporting waxy crude oils through a pipeline. It comprises: incorporating into the crude oil an effective pour point depressant amount of an additive comprising a polymer selected from the group consisting of copolymers of ethylene and acrylonitrile, and terpolymers of ethylene, acrylonitrile and a third monomer selected from the group consisting of vinyl acetate, carbon monoxide, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, alkyl vinyl ethers, vinyl chloride, vinyl fluoride, acrylic acid, and methacrylic acid, wherein the amount of third monomer in the terpolymer ranges from about 0.1 to about 10.0 percent by weight.

  15. Crude oil preheat exchanger fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G. )

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanism of fouling in crude oil preheat exchangers. The mechanism is based on experimental work performed by simulating fouling using a thermal fouling test unit. Based on experimental results, the authors concluded that organic fouling is caused by asphaltene/oil incompatible, which lead to asphaltene separation, adhesion to the metal and finally carbonization into infusable coke on the hot metal surface. Based on results obtained from the mechanism studies, they developed an instrumental fouling analyzer to measure asphaltene/oil incompatibility and translate it into digital index representing thermal fouling. Exxon fouling analyzer is currently used successfully at seven refineries. This paper also describes fouling mitigation by the use of antifoulants. The correct selection and proper use of antifoulants are key factors in successful and economical treatment of high fouling crude oils.

  16. Future global crude oil supply

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1988-03-01

    Inexpensive crude oil fuels the world's economies and armies. In 1986, for the first time, the global production of crude oil and natural liquids exceeded new reserves added. Proved oil reserves at the end of 1985 stood 707.6 billion bbl (BBO), but declined to 703.1 BBO by the end of 1986. The 1986 reserve decrease, 4.5 BBO, was 20.4% of total global production of 22.0 BBO. This handwriting on the wall is very bad news. The world's recoverable crude oil and natural gas liquids discovered through 1985 totaled 1258 BBO, including cumulative production of 551 BBO and 707 BBO of reserves. At current production rates, half of all discovered oil will have been burned up by 1989. Timing of the end of our oil age can be extrapolated from a modified Hubbert curve, with future production resembling a mirror image of past production. The watershed beginning of the inevitable decline in global crude oil supplies can be expected in the late 1990s, although the date may be over 30 years later in some super-oily Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Clearly the day of reckoning will be postponed by any new oil discoveries. These will probably be distributed much as are the present global reserves (e.g., 68% OPEC; 11% USSR and China; 21% rest of world). Of this 56% will be in the Persian Gulf area. Giant fields (more than 0.5 BBO reserves) contain 75% of the world's reserves. Discoveries of oil in the globe's 320 known giant fields peaked at 125 BBO during the period 1961-1965, after which giant field discoveries plunged to only 10 BBO during 1981-1985. Henceforth, they should expect to find few giant whales (but many minnows) in the non-OPEC world's fished-out basins. Every new field will help as global crude oil supplies dwindle. Therefore, it is essential that all large prospects outside the Persian Gulf be tested promptly, so the oil-importing nations will known what size of non-OPEC reserves are available.

  17. Crude oil of fuel oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Tack, R.D.; Lewtas, K.

    1989-11-21

    This patent describes a crude oil composition or a fuel oil composition. It comprises: a major proportion by weight of a crude oil or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel and a minor proportion by weight of a polymer containing more than one amide group. The amide being an amide of a secondary mono amine and wherein the amide group of the polymer contains a hydrogen- and carbon- containing group of at least 14 carbon atoms, provided that if the polymer is derived from the polymerization of an aliphatic olefin and maleic anhydride. The polymer must have both an amide group and an ester group each of which contains a hydrogen- and carbon-containing group of at least 14 carbon atoms.

  18. A system for optimizing the scheduling and blending of crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, G.A.G.; Haverly, C.A.

    1995-09-01

    Operational scheduling within the downstream oil industry covers a wide range of tasks and decision making activities which have traditionally been undertaken with little or no assistance from specialized decision support tools. HSI has recently addressed this software gap and has developed scheduling decision support systems aimed specifically at the needs of the operational scheduler. In this paper the authors discuss the potential application of this software to crude oil scheduling covering pipeline delivery, terminal operations and optimized blending for feed to topping units. In addition HSI`s new scheduling software can be configured for use in refinery process unit scheduling, product blending and product distribution giving comprehensive cover to all aspects of downstream oil scheduling activities. The main scheduling system has been designed as a modular one so that the appropriate level of system complexity can be installed for any given application and to allow for stagewise implementation. The modules include a short term optimization module using Linear and/or Mixed Integer Programming techniques, a rule based Expert System decision generation module, a comprehensive event based operations simulation module and full graphic and text reporting modules. It is designed for network applications so that a number of schedulers can use the same system for individual tasks sharing data and other elements of the system to produce a fully integrated operating schedule. Substantial financial benefits should come from the improved ability of the schedulers to recover from the wide range of operational disturbances that routinely affect operations, the ability to perform What If studies to improve operating schedules and a faster response to commercial opportunities that regularly arise. Estimates are that a fully functioning operations scheduling system designed specifically for the job should pay for itself in no more than one year.

  19. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  20. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  1. First crude oil from Chukotka

    SciTech Connect

    Arenbrister, L.P.; Demidenko, K.A.; Zhmykhova, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of the crude taken from Neogene deposits at a depth of 1486-1443 m are analyzed. The oil is distinguished by low contents of sulfur and resinous-asphaltenic substances, a high content of wax, and a high yield of light cuts distilling below 350 degrees C. The naptha cuts have high contents of naphthenes, and the diesel fuel cuts have high cetane numbers, low sulfur contents, and high contents of straight chain paraffins. The vacuum gasoil has a low density, a low viscosity, a low carbon residue and low contents of sulfur and nitrogen. This gasoil is a good feedstock for catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. The Verkhne-Echin crude is classified as light, low-sulfur, lowresin and high-wax. It can be used to produce jet fuels and summer-grade diesel fuels with low sulfur contents, as well as high-V.I. lube base stocks and liquid and solid paraffins.

  2. Detailed assays conducted on Vietnamese crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Du, P.Q. )

    1990-07-16

    More oil property data, in the form of recent crude oil assays, have been made available for two Vietnamese crude oils, Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung (Big Bear). Crude oil data presented earlier gave limited properties of the crudes,which are from the Miocene formations. Further analyses have been conducted on Bach Ho crude from the Oligocene formations. Production from Oligocene is far more representative of the oils produced from the Bach Ho field and marketed worldwide. Currently, Bach Ho is the only producing field. Dai Hung is expected to be in production during the next few years. Bach Ho is currently producing at the rate of 20,000 b/d. That figure is projected to grow to 100,000 b/d by 1992 and to 120,000 b/d by 1995. Detailed assays of both crude oils are presented.

  3. Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiura, Keiji; Ishihara, Masami; Shimauchi, Toshitsugu; Harayama, Shigeaki

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of four different crude oil samples, namely, Arabian light, Dubai, Maya, and Shengli, by acinetobacter sp. T4 and by a microbial consortium called SM8 was examined. SM8 exhibited higher activity than Acinetobacter for the biodegradation of all four crude oil samples. The degree of biodegradation of crude oil components differed according to the crude oil, the saturated fraction being more susceptible to biodegradation than the aromatic fraction in all the crude oil samples. The extent of biodegradation by acinetobacter and SM8 was found to be in the order of Arabian light > Dubai > Maya = Shengli; the crude oil samples with higher APl gravity being more susceptible to biodegradation. Saturated compounds of smaller molecular weight were preferentially degraded by both cultures. Acinetobacter could not degrade polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples such as (alkyl)naphthalenes, (alky)phenanthrenes, (alkyl)fluorenes, and (alkyl)dibenzothiophenes. However, this strain was capable of degrading more than 10% of the molecules in the aromatic fraction of Arabian light crude oil. An NMR analysis demonstrated that the alkyl side chain of some aromatic molecules was degraded by this organism. In contrast, SM8 degraded the polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples, the extent of degradation being in the order of Maya > Shengli > Arabian light > Dubai. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... as set forth in appendix C to 15 CFR part 30. (j) License Exception for exports of TAPS Crude Oil. (1... code “SS-SPR” or the equivalent code as set forth in appendix C to 15 CFR part 30. (i) License... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section...

  5. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754... License Exception permitting the export of certain oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserves, paragraph (i... processed through a crude oil distillation tower. Included are reconstituted crude petroleum, and...

  6. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754... License Exception permitting the export of certain oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserves, paragraph (i... processed through a crude oil distillation tower. Included are reconstituted crude petroleum, and...

  7. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754... License Exception permitting the export of certain oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserves, paragraph (i... processed through a crude oil distillation tower. Included are reconstituted crude petroleum, and...

  8. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754... License Exception permitting the export of certain oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserves, paragraph (i... processed through a crude oil distillation tower. Included are reconstituted crude petroleum, and...

  9. Diamantane and 4-methyldiamantane in naphthalane and Russian crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Musayev, I.A.; Bagrii, Ye.I.; Kurashova, E.Kh.; Sanin, P.I.; Zaikin, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Diamantane, 4-methyldiamantane, cyclopentano-adamantane and cyclohexanoadamantane were identified in naphthalane and Russian crude oils. The contents of these hydrocarbons identified in Russian crude oil exceeds considerably their content in naphthalane crude oil.

  10. Surfactants treatment of crude oil contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay; Copur, Mehmet

    2004-08-15

    This study reports experimental measurements investigating the ability of a biological (rhamnolipid) and a synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) surfactant to remove the North Sea Ekofisk crude oil from various soils with different particle size fractions under varying washing conditions. The washing parameters and ranges tested were as follows: temperature (5 to 50 degrees C), time (5 to 20 min), shaking speed (80 to 200 strokes/min), volume (5 to 20 cm3), and surfactant concentration (0.004 to 5 mass%). The contaminated soils were prepared in the laboratory by mixing crude oil and soils using a rotating cylindrical mixer. Two contamination cases were considered: (1) weathered contamination was simulated by keeping freshly contaminated soils in a fan assisted oven at 50 degrees C for 14 days, mimicking the weathering effect in a natural hot environment, and (2) nonweathered contamination which was not subjected to the oven treatment. The surfactants were found to have considerable potential in removing crude oil from different contaminated soils and the results were comparable with those reported in literature for petroleum hydrocarbons. The removal of crude oil with either rhamnolipid or SDS was within the repeatability range of +/-6%. The most influential parameters on oil removal were surfactant concentration and washing temperature. The soil cation exchange capacity and pH also influenced the removal of crude oil from the individual soils. However, due to the binding of crude oil to soil during weathering, low crude oil removal was achieved with the weathered contaminated soil samples. PMID:15271574

  11. Multifractal Hurst analysis of crude oil prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Cisneros, Myriam; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Soriano, Angel

    2002-10-01

    Daily records of international crude oil prices are studied using multifractal analysis methods. Rescaled range Hurst analysis provides evidence that the crude oil market is a persistent process with long-run memory effects. On the other hand, height-height correlation analysis reveals evidence of multifractal structures in the sense that the crude oil dynamics displays mixing of (rough) Hurst exponents. The existence of two characteristic time scales in the order of weeks and quarters is discovered and the corresponding prices dynamics are extracted using moving-average-based filtering. These results seem to demonstrate that the crude oil market is consistent with the random-walk assumption only at time scales of the order of days to weeks. A plausible oil price formation mechanism is discussed in terms of the market dynamics at three different time scales.

  12. Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity assay of natural and synthetic crude oils including a Fischer-Retorted Estonian shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Nickols, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    DMSO extracts of a variety of natural and synthetic crude oils were tested for genotoxic activity in the Ames/Salmonella bioassay. Both mutagenic and cytotoxic potentials are cited. Natural crude oils and their refined products and upgraded synfuels are less mutagenic than parent crude shale oils which in turn are less mutagenic than the coal derived distillate blend sample, SRC II. However, this order is not true for cytotoxicity induced by these oil samples; therefore, caution must be exercised in the assessment of their mutagenic potential without consideration of other influential factors including cytotoxicity.

  13. CRUDE OIL BIOREMEDIATION: THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a state-of-the-art extended abstract presentation summary of the outputs from the oil spill program over the last 11 years. It summarizes the results of 3 field studies involving intentional releases of crude oil: the Delaware study in 1994 (sandy beach), the St. Lawrence...

  14. Cloud-point determination for crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Kruka, V.R.; Cadena, E.R.; Long, T.E.

    1995-08-01

    The cloud point represents the temperature at which wax or paraffin begins to precipitate from a hydrocarbon solution. Conventional American Soc. for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures for cloud-point determination are not applicable to dark crude oils and also do not account for potential subcooling of the wax. A review of possible methods and testing with several crude oils indicate that a reliable method consists of determining the temperature at which wax deposits begin to form on a cooled surface exposed to warm, flowing oil. A concurrent thermal analysis of the waxy hydrocarbon can indicate the presence of possible multiple wax-precipitation temperature regions in the solution.

  15. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Health Journal Articles on Oil Dispersants and Invertebrates, Seawater, Plants and Environment PubMed - Biomedical journal literature ... of Health Journal Articles on Oil Spills and Invertebrates, Seawater, Plants and Environment PubMed - Biomedical journal literature ...

  16. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design... vessel having a COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) carries more than one grade of crude oil, the COW system must be capable of washing the cargo tanks with the grades of...

  17. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design... vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2) carries more than one grade of crude oil, the COW system must be capable of washing the cargo tanks with the grades of...

  18. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design... vessel having a COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) carries more than one grade of crude oil, the COW system must be capable of washing the cargo tanks with the grades of...

  19. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  20. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  1. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  2. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  3. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  4. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5–nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12–nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12–nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

  5. Crude oil from Tengiz field

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.; Varshaver, V.P.; Khabibulina, R.K.; Kochuleva, L.R.

    1988-03-01

    Analyses were performed on samples taken from exploratory wells. Physicochemical characteristics of the oil were determined as light, low-pour, and high-wax, with low percentages of resins, asphaltenes, and sulfur; the oil contained practically no vanadium or nickel. The kerosine cuts were high in acidity and sulfur content, and diesel fuel cuts met all requirements for L-0.5-61 diesel fuel. The potential contents and properties of distillate and residual lube base stocks are shown and yields of oil base stocks with 96 and 90 V.I. are presented. The residues had high solid points, low viscosities, and high levels of carbon residue, ash, and sulfur content.

  6. U.S. Crude Oil Production to 2025: Updated Projection of Crude Types

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report updates and extends a May 2014 EIA report, U.S. crude oil production forecast – analysis of crude types. It provides a projection of domestic crude oil production by crude type through 2025, supplementing the overall production projection provided in the AEO2015. Projections of production by crude type matter for several reasons. First, U.S. crude streams vary widely in quality. Second, the economics surrounding various options for the domestic use of additional domestic oil production are directly dependent on crude quality characteristics. Third, actual or potential export values also vary significantly with quality characteristics.

  7. DISPERSIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL IN FRESH WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever consider...

  8. Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

  9. A MODEL FOR DIFFUSION CONTROLLED BIOAVAILABILITY OF CRUDE OIL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of several different structural classes of compounds including alkanes, aromatics, heterocyclic polar compounds, and asphaltenes. The rate and extent of microbial degradation of crude oil depends on the interaction between the physical and biochemi...

  10. Crude oil from the Samgori field

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Manovyan, A.K.; Shigapova, A.K.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.; Varshaver, V.P.

    1984-04-01

    This article analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of petroleum from the Georgian SSR. The crude oil is light in color, light in distillation range, low-viscosity, and medium-wax, with low contents of resin-asphaltene compounds, sulfur, and metals. This petroleum is characterized by its high content of naphtha cuts with low sulfur contents, low octane numbers (owing to the high contents of paraffin hydrocarbons), and low contents of aromatics. It is determined that the best flow plan for processing the crude is either a fuel scheme or a fuel/lube scheme, depending on the specific product demands.

  11. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  12. Heavy crude oils/particle stabilized emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kralova, Iva; Sjöblom, Johan; Øye, Gisle; Simon, Sébastien; Grimes, Brian A; Paso, Kristofer

    2011-12-12

    Fluid characterization is a key technology for success in process design for crude oil mixtures in the future offshore. In the present article modern methods have been developed and optimized for crude oil applications. The focus is on destabilization processes in w/o emulsions, such as creaming/sedimentation and flocculation/coalescence. In our work, the separation technology was based on improvement of current devices to promote coalescence of the emulsified systems. Stabilizing properties based on particles was given special attention. A variety of particles like silica nanoparticles (AEROSIL®), asphalthenes, wax (paraffin) were used. The behavior of these particles and corresponding emulsion systems was determined by use of modern analytical equipment, such as SARA fractionation, NIR, electro-coalescers (determine critical electric field), Langmuir technique, pedant drop technique, TG-QCM, AFM. PMID:22047991

  13. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  14. Electronic overfill protection for crude oil transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, D.R.; Miles, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    There are many considerations involved in the transfer of crude oil, but the most catastrophic consequences may come as the result of a spill during loading or unloading. The safety and well-being of personnel in the vicinity is of the utmost concern. Should one be fortunate enough that an explosion or fire is not the results of a spill, the one must contend with the dilemma of containment. Preserving environmental integrity is a subject that is high on everyone`s list. The phrase ``reportable spill`` can send chills up and down anyone`s back. The repercussions continue: Ground water contamination; Soil remediation; Regulatory fines and penalties; Litigation. And this is all topped off by the ``black eye`` that the company receives with the perception of the public. For these reasons, and more, the carriers of crude oil are choosing self imposed compliances to reduce the frequency of spills. Electronic Overfill Protection has been modified to meet the specific needs and requirements of the crude oil industry. Here, the authors will examine how this type of system evolved, how it functions, and where it may lead.

  15. Toxicity of oil dispersant, crude oil and dispersed crude oil to a marine amphipod and gastropod

    SciTech Connect

    Gulec, I.; Holdway, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    The importance of appropriate oil spill remedial action was emphasized during the recent Iron Barron oil spill off of the Tamar river in North Tasmania. One important potential oil spill response is dispersion, but little information exists on the toxicity of dispersants and dispersed oil to Australian marine species. This research was undertaken to assess the acute toxicity of Corexit 9527 (a widely used dispersant), water accommodated fractions of Bass Strait crude oil and dispersed Bass Strait crude oil, to the saltwater amphipod, Allorchestes compressa under semi-static conditions. Acute 96 h LC50`s were determined for each toxicant as well as for the reference toxicants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate. Sublethal bioassays were undertaken for the same 3 toxicants utilizing the marines and snail Polinices conicus as the test species. No-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) were determined using ANOVA while EC50`s and EC0`s were calculated using regression analysis. Mean acute 96 h LC50 (S.E.) values for A. compressa exposed to SDS and zinc sulfate were 3.6 mg/l (0.28) and 41.6 mg/l (9.01) respectively. EC50 (S.E.) concentrations for P. conicus exposed to SDS and zinc sulfate for 30 minutes were 44.7 mg/l and 246 mg/l respectively using burying behavior as an endpoint. These sublethal EC50`s were reduced to 20.7 mg/l for SDS and 23.5 mg/l for zinc sulfate following 24 hours of exposure.

  16. Chemical effects on crude oil pipeline pressure problems

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, M.E.

    1984-05-01

    In the surface transportation of crude oils, high flowline pressures are encountered for a number of reasons. Basically these are a function of the rheological and depositional properties of the crude oil under the temperature-profile and shear-rate conditions developed in the system. These problems can be categorized into these areas: paraffin deposition, asphaltene deposition, thixotropic crude oil, turbulent flow transmission, and low-gravity asphaltic-based crude oils. Various laboratory and field tests are used to identify the key features of these problem crudes for identification and chemical treatment purposes.

  17. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. PMID:26586632

  18. Crude oil degradation as an explanation of the depth rule

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies of crude oil degradation by water washing and bacterial attack have documented the operation of these processes in many different petroleum basins of the world. Crude oil degradation substantially alters the chemical and physical makeup of a crude oil, changing a light paraffinic low-S "mature" crude to a heavy naphthenic or asphalt base, "immature appearing" high-S crude. Rough calculations carried out in the present study using experimentally determined solubility data of petroleum in water give insight into the possible magnitude of water washing and suggest that the process may be able to remove large amounts of petroleum in small divisions of geologic time. Plots of crude oil gravity vs. depth fail to show the expected correlation of increasing API gravity (decreasing specific gravity) with depth below 2.44 km (8000 ft.). Previous studies which have been carried out to document in-reservoir maturation have used crude oil gravity data shallower than 2.44 km (8000 ft.). The changes in crude oil composition as a function of depth which have been attributed to in-reservoir maturation over these shallower depths, are better explained by crude oil degradation. This study concludes that changes in crude oil composition that result from in-reservoir maturation are not evident from existing crude oil gravity data over the depth and temperature range previously supposed, and that the significant changes in crude oil gravity which are present over the shallow depth range are due to crude oil degradation. Thus the existence of significant quantities of petroleum should not necessarily be ruled out below an arbitrarily determined depth or temperature limit when the primary evidence for this is the change in crude oil gravity at shallow depths. ?? 1980.

  19. Base number and wetting properties of crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, S.T.; Doe, P.H. )

    1993-08-01

    Oil acid and base numbers influence wetting through their effect on electrostatic interactions with the mineral surface. An improved nonaqueous potentiometric titration has been developed that correctly quantifies weak bases in crude oils. In crude-oil/silica systems, wetting behavior correlates with base/acid ratio and is consistent with wetting theories based on disjoining pressure.

  20. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1997-02-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

  1. Origin of crude oil in eastern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of rock and crude oil samples suggests that three source rocks have given rise to most crude oil in reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coast. Carbonate source rocks of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are characterized by algal-derived kerogen preserved in an anoxic and hypersaline environment, resulting in crude oils with distinct compositions. Migration commenced during the Cretaceous, explaining the emplacement of Smackover-derived crude oil in Jurassic and in some Cretaceous reservoirs. Upper Cretaceous clastic and carbonate source rocks are also present. Much crude oil in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs has been derived from organic-rich marine shales of the Tuscaloosa Formation. These shales are characterized by algal and higher plant kerogen, resulting in distinct crude oil compositions. Migration commenced during the Tertiary, but was mostly focused to Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Tertiary shales, including those of the Wilcox Formation, are quite organic-rich and include downdip marine facies characterized by both algal and higher plant kerogen. Crude oils in lower Tertiary reservoirs are dissimilar to crude oils from deeper and older source rocks. Migration from lower Tertiary shales commenced during the late Tertiary and charged Tertiary reservoirs. Although most crude oil in the eastern Gulf Coast has been emplaced by short-range migration, often with a strong vertical component, some long-range lateral migration (>100 km) has occurred along Tertiary sands.

  2. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E.

    1997-12-31

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  3. Ecuador plans expanded crude-oil line

    SciTech Connect

    Boschat, J.; Sabathier, J. )

    1995-01-23

    Ecuador plans to increase throughput of the 309 mile, 20 and 26-in. Trans Ecuadorian pipeline that moves crude oil from the Oriente in the Amazon basin to the Pacific coast for refining in local refineries and export. Increasing crude-oil production is driving the expansion. In investment, it is the largest pipeline project in the country in more than 20 years. In August 1992, Petro-ecuador, the Ecuadorian state company in charge of petroleum, hired the French petroleum consulting firm Beicip-Franlab to carry out the basic engineering and preparation of the technical tender documents for increasing the pipeline's throughput. The revamped Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, together with the Triunfo Nuevo-Condijua pipeline, will form the new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. This means that they will be integrated into a single system controlled and monitored from a main dispatching center in Guajalo near Quito which is now Petroecuador's maintenance center for the existing pipeline. As there is no supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system now on the Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, scada will be built along with a new telecommunication network covering the entire new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. Also, to comply with the most modern requirements in terms of environmental protection, especially in a country subject to seismic activity, a leak-detection system will be implemented on all lines.

  4. Characterization of crude oils by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mutelet, F; Ekulu, G; Rogalski, M

    2002-09-01

    It was shown that the flocculation onset of asphaltenes in crude oils could be predicted on the basis of the inverse gas chromatography characterization of the crude oil properties. Hildebrand's solubility parameters of four crude oils were calculated from inverse chromatography data and compared with values obtained from the onset of asphaltene flocculation measurements. A good agreement was observed with three crude oils of different origin. A relation between Hildebrand's solubility parameter and linear solvation energy relationship descriptors was established and it was demonstrated that the solubility parameter of a crude oil is determined mainly with dispersion interactions and the hydrogen bond basicity. A large basicity lowers the oil solubility parameter, and increases its stability in respect to flocculation. PMID:12385392

  5. Developmental Toxicity of Louisiana Crude Oiled Sediment to Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum products cause a characteristic suite of developmental defects in a variety of fish species. We exposed zebrafish embryos to sediment mixed with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude oil. Oiled sedi...

  6. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  7. MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL PROCESSED IN THE UNITED STATES (2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mean and range of concentrations of mercury in crude oil processed in the U.S. were investigated using two analytical methods. The sample ensemble consisted of 329 samples from 170 separate crude oil streams that are processed by U.S. refineries. Samples were retrieved imme...

  8. Crude oil accountability at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is responsible for purchasing and storing crude oil to mitigate the impact of future disruptions of crude oil imports. The audit objective was to determine whether the SPR Project Management office's (SPRPMO) policies, procedures, and practices provided reasonable assurance of the adequacy and correctness of the data and documentation pertaining to the SPR's crude oil receipts, transfers, and sales for Fiscal Years (FY) 1989, 1990, and 1991. Our audit disclosed that SPRPMO'S: (1) Accounting records for crude oil inventories did not provide for capitalizing all significant and identifiable costs, and (2) crude oil transactions were not supported by adequate documentation. These conditions occurred because: (a) SPRPMO had not complied with US Department of Energy (DOE) accounting guidance, (b) its supervisory personnel were not adequately reviewing the work of subordinates, and (c) its managers were unaware that procedures on documenting adjustments to delivery reports did not comply with the General Accounting Office's internal control standards. As a result, while all costs were recorded in the general ledger, the category for capitalized cost of crude oil inventories was understated by at least $131.7 million. We recommend that SPRPMO adjust its accounting records to more accurately reflect the actual cost of crude oil inventories, and strengthen documentary controls. SPRPMO's management generally concurred with the findings and associated recommendations. However, they were of the opinion that existing DOE accounting guidance did not adequately recognize the unique issues relating to crude oil inventories.

  9. Crude oil accountability at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-04

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is responsible for purchasing and storing crude oil to mitigate the impact of future disruptions of crude oil imports. The audit objective was to determine whether the SPR Project Management office`s (SPRPMO) policies, procedures, and practices provided reasonable assurance of the adequacy and correctness of the data and documentation pertaining to the SPR`s crude oil receipts, transfers, and sales for Fiscal Years (FY) 1989, 1990, and 1991. Our audit disclosed that SPRPMO`S: (1) Accounting records for crude oil inventories did not provide for capitalizing all significant and identifiable costs, and (2) crude oil transactions were not supported by adequate documentation. These conditions occurred because: (a) SPRPMO had not complied with US Department of Energy (DOE) accounting guidance, (b) its supervisory personnel were not adequately reviewing the work of subordinates, and (c) its managers were unaware that procedures on documenting adjustments to delivery reports did not comply with the General Accounting Office`s internal control standards. As a result, while all costs were recorded in the general ledger, the category for capitalized cost of crude oil inventories was understated by at least $131.7 million. We recommend that SPRPMO adjust its accounting records to more accurately reflect the actual cost of crude oil inventories, and strengthen documentary controls. SPRPMO`s management generally concurred with the findings and associated recommendations. However, they were of the opinion that existing DOE accounting guidance did not adequately recognize the unique issues relating to crude oil inventories.

  10. MICROBIOLOGICALLY-MEDIATED MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF CRUDE OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crude oil was incubated with raw and sterile river water samples and assayed for mutagenic activity by the Ames test to determine the ability of naturally-occurring freshwater microorganisms to form mutagenic biodegradation products from crude oil. River water samples supplemente...

  11. Crude oil to ethylene in one step

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, R.O.

    1983-02-01

    Reports that the most important feature of the partial combustion cracking (PCC) process is its ability to convert heavy petroleum fractions to light olefins with minimum residue. Presents diagram of the PCC process; graph of feedstock cost vs. return on investment (ROI); and tables with average ethylene yields, cracking yields, and PCC vs. LPG and naphtha cracking. Finds that the 10% difference in capital between the PCC and the naphtha feed case is due mainly to the cost of the acid gas and sulfur handling sections required for the PCC, but not for a naphtha cracker. The very favorable ROI and ethylene costs are due to the relative difference in feedstock pricing. Sensitivity of ROI to changes in feedstock was also studied for the PCC cases. The ratio of cost of high-sulfur fuel oil (HSFO) to average crude price is used to indicate the substantial effect of feedstock price on the attractiveness of the project. Concludes that with HSFO at 85 to 100% of crude value, the PCC represents an excellent investment for future ethylene needs.

  12. Ground water contamination by crude oil near Bemidji, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Essaid, H.I.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Lahvis, M.H.; Bekins, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water contamination by crude oil, and other petroleum-based liquids, is a widespread problem. An average of 83 crude-oil spills occurred per year during 1994-96 in the United States, each spilling about 50,000 barrels of crude oil (U.S. Office of Pipeline Safety, electronic commun., 1997). An understanding of the fate of organic contaminants (such as oil and gasoline) in the subsurface is needed to design innovative and cost-effective remedial solutions at contaminated sites.

  13. Process for determining the polarity of a crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    de Andrade Bruning, I.M.R.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a process for determining the relative polarity of a crude oil or fraction thereof. It comprises: contacting a known test substance with a stationary phase of the crude oil or fraction in a gas chromatography column, and measuring the interaction between the test substance and the oil; contacting the known test substance with a stationary phase of a non-polar second substance in a gas chromatography column and measuring the interaction between the test substance and the non-polar second substance; and determining the polarity of the crude oil relative to the non-polar second substance from the measurements obtained.

  14. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  15. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  16. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2) or... crude oil that can be used for crude oil washing....

  17. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2) or... crude oil that can be used for crude oil washing....

  18. Crude oil impairs cardiac excitation-contraction coupling in fish.

    PubMed

    Brette, Fabien; Machado, Ben; Cros, Caroline; Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Block, Barbara A

    2014-02-14

    Crude oil is known to disrupt cardiac function in fish embryos. Large oil spills, such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster that occurred in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, could severely affect fish at impacted spawning sites. The physiological mechanisms underlying such potential cardiotoxic effects remain unclear. Here, we show that crude oil samples collected from the DWH spill prolonged the action potential of isolated cardiomyocytes from juvenile bluefin and yellowfin tunas, through the blocking of the delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)). Crude oil exposure also decreased calcium current (I(Ca)) and calcium cycling, which disrupted excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. Our findings demonstrate a cardiotoxic mechanism by which crude oil affects the regulation of cellular excitability, with implications for life-threatening arrhythmias in vertebrates. PMID:24531969

  19. Elastohydrodynamic study of vegetable oil-polyalphaolefin blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two polyalphaolefins (PAOs), of higher and lower viscosity than vegetable oils, were used to make binary blends of varying compositions with soybean and canola oils. The pure oils and the blends were used in viscosity and film thickness investigations. The effect of composition and temperature on ...

  20. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  1. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana

    2016-03-01

    As the world's oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  2. Waxy crude oil handling in Nigeria; Practices, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Ajienka, J.A.; Ikoku, C.U. )

    1990-01-01

    With case studies, the practices, problems, and prospects of handling waxy crude oils in Nigeria are discussed. Using a rotational viscometer, the temperature dependence of rheological properties and thixotropy of these crudes were determined. Suggestions are given on how to improve handling practices. These suggestions include adequate screening and ranking of wax inhibitors, taking into account pour-point depression, viscosity, and yield value.

  3. High-sulfur crude oils of Ulyanovsk Oblast

    SciTech Connect

    Lazareva, I.S.; Aksenova, L.V.

    1986-11-01

    The authors summarize the physicochemical characteristics of crude oils taken from various horizons in the Birlinsk, Pravdinsk, and bezymyannoe fields in Ulyanovsk Oblast. These crudes are heavy, medium-wax, high-sulfur, high-resin. Paraffinic hydrocarbons are shown to predominate in the narrow naphtha cuts.

  4. Bicyclic sesquiterpenoids and diterpenoids in Australian crude oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Philp, R.; Gilbert, Trevor D.; Friedrich, Jane

    1981-07-01

    Bicyclanes previously reported only in heavily biodegraded Texas Gulf Coast crudes have been found to be ubiquitous in Australian crude oils of non-marine origin from four different basins. The compounds are present in oils, thought to be derived from the same or similar sources, that have undergone varying degrees of biodegradation. They are also found to be present in oils of different geological age. In addition a series of tricyclic diterpenoid hydrocarbons was common to four oils from the Gippsland Basin. Four of these compounds had the molecular formula C 20H 34 and mass spectral fragmentation patterns suggested they were mono-unsaturated diterpenoids. The presence of unsaturated diterpenoids in crude oils appears to be a unique observation. It is proposed that the diterpenoids may be the source of the bicyclanes also observed in these oils.

  5. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling and analytical procedures used to determine total mercury content in crude oils were examined. Three analytical methods were compared with respect to accuracy, precision and detection limit. The combustion method and a commercial extraction method were found adequate to...

  6. Method for preventing the formation of sludge in crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Lane, J.L. Jr.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a method of increasing the permeability of a subterranean calcatreous formation containing a sludging crude oil while preventing the precipittion in the formation of slude, ferric compounds and calcium compounds.

  7. Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot price using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) petroleum inventory levels.

  8. Effect of blend ratio of PP/kapok blend nonwoven fabrics on oil sorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Do-Hyung; Shin, Min-Seung; Jung, Young-Jin; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Han-Do

    2013-01-01

    More research and development on novel oil sorbent materials is needed to protect the environmental pollution. New nonwoven fabrics (pads) of polypropylene (PP)/kapok blends (blend ratio: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 10/90) were prepared by needle punching process at a fixed (optimized) condition (punch density: 50 punches/cm2 and depth: 4mm). This study focused on the effect of blend ratio of PP/kapok nonwoven fabrics on oil sorption capacities to find the best blend ratio having the highest synergy effect. The PP/kapok blend (50/50) sample has the lowest bulk density and showed the best oil absorption capacity. The oil sorption capacity of PP/kapok blend (50/50) nonwoven fabric for kerosene/soybean oil [21.09/27.01 (g oil/g sorbent)] was 1.5-2 times higher than those of commercial PP pad oil sorbents. The highest synergy effect of PP/kapok blend (50/50) was ascribed to the lowest bulk density of PP/kapok blend (50/50), which might be due to the highest morphologically incompatibility between PP fibre and kapok. These results suggest that the PP/kapok blend (50/50) having the highest synergy effect has a high potential as a new high-performance oil sorbent material. PMID:24617076

  9. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work.

  10. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  11. Microbial degradation of crude oil and some model hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Fu-Hsian; Noben, N.N.; Brand, Danny; Hult, Marc F.

    1988-01-01

    Research on microbial degradation of crude oil in the shallow subsurface at a spill site near Bemidji, Minn. (fig. C-l), began in 1983 (Hull, 1984; Chang and Ehrlich, 1984). The rate and extent of crude oil and model hydrocarbon biodegradation by the indigenous microbial community was measured in the laboratory at several concentrations of inorganic nutrients, conditions of oxygen availability, incubation temperatures, and incubation time.

  12. Development of rice bran oil blends for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Monika; Grover, Kiran; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2015-04-15

    Six rice bran oil (RBO) blends were prepared in two ratios i.e., 80:20 and 70:30 and analysed for physicochemical properties, and antioxidants and fatty acid composition. Among all the RBO blends, rice bran oil+groundnut oil (70:30) had the highest smoke point (204 °C) and rice bran oil+olive oil (70:30) was the most stable blend in terms of chemical parameters. The highest value of total antioxidants was observed in rice bran oil+sunflower oil (70:30) (2568.7 mg/kg). Fatty acid composition (SFA:MUFA:PUFA) (1:1.5:2) of rice bran oil+palm oil (80:20), and products prepared using this RBO blend, were close to the recommended intake. Boiling with sautéing was a better cooking method in terms of maintaining fatty acid ratios. PMID:25466088

  13. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil. PMID:27236165

  14. Effects of Removing Restrictions on U.S. Crude Oil Exports

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines the implications of removing current restrictions on U.S. crude oil exports for the price of domestic and global marker crude oil streams, gasoline prices, domestic crude oil production, domestic refining activity, and trade in crude oil and petroleum products.

  15. Transfer of crude oil from contaminated water to bird eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.

    1980-08-01

    Pairs of breeding mallard ducks were exposed to oiled water for 2 days during the first week of incubation. Hatching success of ducks exposed to 100 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil per square meter of water surface was significantly less than that of controls. Hatching success of ducks exposed to 5 ml of crude oil per square meter of water surface was less than that of controls but the difference was not significant. The presence of oil on the eggs of ducks exposed to oiled water was confirmed by chemical analysis. Thermocouple probes were used to monitor the egg and nest temperatures of some of the ducks in each of the three groups. Incubation temperatures of oiled females were not significantly different from those of the controls. The incubation behavior of females exposed to oiled water and the first-week survival of their ducklings was not affected by the oil.

  16. Transfer of crude oil from contaminated water to bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    Paris of breeding mallard ducks were exposed to oiled water for 2 days during the first week of incubation. Hatching success of ducks exposed to 100 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil per square meter of water surface was significantly less than that of controls. Hatching success of ducks exposed to 5 ml of crude oil per square meter of water surface was less than that of controls but the difference was not significant. The presence of oil on the eggs of ducks exposed to oiled water was confirmed by chemical analysis. Thermocouple probes were used to monitor the egg and nest temperatures of some of the ducks in each of the three groups. Incubation temperatures of oiled females were not significantly different from those of the controls. The incubation behavior of females exposed to oiled water and the first-week survival of their ducklings was not affected by the oil.

  17. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    On 24 March 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In the months following the spill, over 1,000 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil spill-affected areas are known to have died. The purpose of the study is to identify and describe histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters and to discuss possible pathogeneses of the lesions. Materials available included tissues from oil-contaminated and uncontaminated otters that died in rehabilitation centers following the oil spill and tissues from otters that were found dead in the oil spill-affected area with external oil present. Tissues from apparently normal sea otters from an area not contaminated by crude oil, were also examined.

  18. An improved method for crude oil storage tank cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, C.T.; Goss, M.L. ); Lloyd, H.E. )

    1989-01-01

    Crude oil storage tank sludge must be handled and disposed of in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Also, tank cleaning is an expensive, time consuming and labor intensive maintenance job. An improved process has been developed for crude oil storage tank sludge removal consisting of chemicals, heat, and application technology. The process minimizes waste by recovery of valuable hydrocarbons suitable for processing through the crude unit. In addition, the process reduces maintenance costs and minimizes tank downtime. A summary of this technology is presented and applications reviewed.

  19. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered. PMID:26854134

  20. Variability in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide Expression during Crude Oil Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R. Sean; Frontera-Suau, Roberto; Morris, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial utilization of crude oil components, such as the n-alkanes, requires complex cell surface adaptation to allow adherence to oil. To better understand microbial cell surface adaptation to growth on crude oil, the cell surface characteristics of two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, U1 and U3, both isolated from the same crude oil-degrading microbial community enriched on Bonny Light crude oil (BLC), were compared. Analysis of growth rates demonstrated an increased lag time for U1 cells compared to U3 cells. Amendment with EDTA inhibited U1 and U3 growth and degradation of the n-alkane component of BLC, suggesting a link between cell surface structure and crude oil degradation. U1 cells demonstrated a smooth-to-rough colony morphology transition when grown on BLC, while U3 cells exhibited rough colony morphology at the outset. Combining high-resolution atomic force microscopy of the cell surface and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracted lipopolysaccharides (LPS), we demonstrate that isolates grown on BLC have reduced O-antigen expression compared with that of glucose-grown cells. The loss of O-antigen resulted in shorter LPS molecules, increased cell surface hydrophobicity, and increased n-alkane degradation. PMID:12324360

  1. Convergence and Divergence of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagus, George M.

    This research investigates the possibility that WTI crude oil and Henry Hub natural gas prices share a stable link. Economic theory suggests that the two commodities are linked by both supply and demand given that the commodities can be coproduced and many consumers have the ability to switch between the fuels. In general, it would appear that the two commodities support this theory with natural gas prices tracking crude oil prices fairly well until late 2008. However, since the end of 2008 the two price series have diverged and appear to move independently of each other. Reduced fuel switching capabilities in U.S. industry and electric power generation coupled with increased technology and production from shale formations have potentially changed the driving force behind natural gas prices. However, a severe recession has impacted world economies over the same time period making the cause of the disparity between crude oil and natural gas prices unclear. Therefore, this research analyzed the possible long-term link between the two commodities over two timeframes. Using an error correction model that includes exogenous factors affecting the short-run dynamics of natural gas prices over the period January 1999 through September 2008, I find evidence of a long-run cointegrating relationship between natural gas and crude oil prices. Additionally, crude oil prices are found to be weakly exogenous to the system, suggesting causality runs from crude oil to natural gas prices. Extending this series through February 2012 yields much weaker evidence of a cointegrating relationship and provides evidence for the decoupling crude oil and natural gas prices.

  2. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN SOURCE ON CRUDE OIL BIODEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of NH4Cl and KNO3 on biodegradation of light Arabian crude oil by an oil-degrading enrichment culture were studied in respirometers. In poorly buffered sea salts medium, the pH decreased dramatically in cultures that contained NH4Cl, b...

  3. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    U.S. crude oil proved reserves increased in 2014 for the sixth year in a row with a net addition of 3.4 billion barrels of proved oil reserves (a 9% increase), according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2014, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). U.S. natural gas proved reserves increased 10% in 2014, raising the U.S. total to a record 388.8 trillion cubic feet.

  4. Assessment of crude oil biodegradation in arctic seashore sediments: effects of temperature, salinity, and crude oil concentration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Schiewer, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The expected increase in offshore oil exploration and production in the Arctic may lead to crude oil spills along arctic shorelines. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of bioremediation to treat such spills, oil spill bioremediation in arctic sediments was simulated in laboratory microcosms containing beach sediments from Barrow (Alaska), spiked with North Slope Crude, and incubated at varying temperatures and salinities. Biodegradation was measured via respiration rates (CO2 production); volatilization was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) analysis of hydrocarbons sorbed to activated carbon, and hydrocarbons remaining in the sediment were quantified by GC/flame ionization detector (FID). Higher temperature leads to increased biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, while the release of volatile organic compounds was similar at both temperatures. Increased salinity had a small positive impact on crude oil removal. At higher crude oil dosages, volatilization increased, however CO2 production did not. While only a small percentage of crude oil was completely biodegraded, a larger percentage was volatilized within 6-9 weeks. PMID:27072034

  5. Crude Dubai oil toxicity on some fresh-water invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ramusino, M.C.; Zanzottera, D.

    1986-01-01

    Six hundred and sixty-three tons of crude oil were accidentally spilled by a bursting pipeline into the Po River in April, 1980. Toxicity tests were carried out to determine if behavioral changes occurred in fish exposed to the oil. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of the oil on a common invertebrate species in the Po River, so as to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the possible damage caused to the river ecosystem.

  6. Prospects for heavy crude oil development ( US, Canada and worldwide).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of utilizing heavy crude oil and natural bitumens centre on their high viscosity which makes them difficult to produce, store, transport and refine. These factors are reflected in costs. World reserves are substantial, however, perhaps as much as 7 trillion barrels estimated to represent 0.9 trillion barrels of recoverable oil. Data required to determine the cost of finding natural bitumen and heavy oil are roughly the same as for other mineral commodities. Similarly for recovery costs.-from Author

  7. Crude oil from the El'Darovo field

    SciTech Connect

    Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Fadeev, V.S.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.

    1985-11-01

    The crudes from the El'darovo field are analyzed. They are light, low-sulfur, low-viscosity, and low pour, with a wax content of 1.2-2.8% by weight and low contents of asphaltenes and nitrogen. The oils from the Lower Cretaceous deposits differ from those from the Upper Creataceous deposits in that they are lower in density, viscosity, and carbon residue, with low contents of resins and asphaltenes, sulfur and nitrogen, and high yields of light fractions. The hydrocarbon composition of the IBP-62 degrees C cut was determined chromatographically in a column packed with CaA zeolite. The properties of the crudes are typical for crudes produced in this region. It is recommended that these crudes should be processed in mixtures with crudes from other fields in the Checheno-Ingush ASSR.

  8. CrUde oils from the Lyuksk area of Udmurtia

    SciTech Connect

    Lazareva, N.S.; Aksenova, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    This article presents results from an investigation of the crude oils of the Vostochno-Postol'sk field (Vereisk, Yasnopolyansk, and Turneisk horizons) and the Timeevsk field (Kyn horizon), located in the Lyuksk area. The Vostochno-Postol'sk crudes are heavy, high-sulfur, medium-wax, and high-resin. A study of the hydrocarbon group composition of narrow naphtha cuts from the crudes taken from different horizons of the Lyuksk area has shown that the cuts contain considerable amounts (22-30%) of naphthenic hydrocarbons, of which 37-41% consist of 6 membered dihydrogenated naphthenes.

  9. Mercury in crude oil processed in the United States (2004).

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, S Mark; Liang, Lian; Cussen, Deborah; Kirchgessner, David A

    2007-07-01

    The mean and range of concentrations of mercury in crude oil processed by U.S. refineries in 2004 were determined using two analytical methods. One hundred seventy separate crude oil streams were sampled repetitively to obtain 328 individual samples. Samples were retrieved immediately upstream of refinery tank farms. Losses of mercury during production, separation, and transportation were not examined. The arithmetic mean and median of 170 oil streams were 7.3 and 1.5 microg/kg in total mercury, respectively. The total mercury concentration of oil processed in the United States in year 2004, including all species and both dissolved and suspended forms, expressed as a volume-weighted mean was calculated to be 3.5 +/- 0.6 microg/kg. The range of measured concentrations extended from below the analytical detection limit (0.5 microg/kg) to approximately 600 microg/kg. Good agreement was found with other recent and independent studies of mercury in crude oil refined in North America. The total amount of mercury in crude oil processed in the U.S annually is less than five percent of the amount contained in U.S. coal produced annually. PMID:17695889

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Huff, G.S.; Gharfeh, S.G.

    1986-12-01

    Recently, the authors reported a method for the determination of saturates, aromatics, and resins in deasphaltened crude oil residues by high-performance liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The present work describes a filtration technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues using disposable Millex filters. This technique reduces the filtration, washing, and equilibration time needed for asphaltene determination. Six crude oil residues that varied widely in asphaltene content were used to evaluate the precision of this technique. The values obtained by Millex filters were compared to the values obtained by a conventional method using filter papers. Agreement between the two methods was very good. Several methods have been reported for the separation and determination of asphaltenes. Speight et al. made a survey of the different asphaltene procedures and conducted the experimental work to determine the optimum conditions for asphaltene separation and determination. The operating parameters recommended by Speight were used in this work.

  12. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    SciTech Connect

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  13. Natural resource injury assessment of a crude oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Fischel, M.; Mancini, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    In January 1994, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake in southern California ruptured a pipeline releasing approximately 4,200 barrels of blended San Joaquin Valley crude oil. A smaller volume entered the Santa Clara River and flowed 25 km downstream to an emergency containment dam. Ruptured water mains and chlorinated discharges from a damaged sewage treatment plant also affected water quality in the river. Quantitative injury assessment studies were initiated within days of the spill and included water/sediment chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community analyses and aquatic toxicity tests. Water quality values for TPH, BTEX, and chlorine ranged from nondetectable to 78 mg/l (TPH), nondetectable to 5.4 {micro}g/l (total BTEX constituents) and nondetectable to 600 {micro}g/l (residual chlorine) within 72 hours of the spill. Ammonia concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 12.1 mg/l within 10 days of the spill. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments ranged from nondetectable to 3,900 mg/kg within 8 to 12 weeks post-spill. Both the density and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates were reduced immediately after the spill but were not significantly different from reference areas four months later. River water collected from numerous locations within 72 hrs of the earthquake was transferred to the laboratory for static renewal acute toxicity tests using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). TPH concentrations in test containers ranged from nondetectable to 23 mg/l, BTEX constituents were nondetectable, and chlorine, measured at 600 {micro}g/l in one sample, was titrated with sodium thiosulfate prior to testing. No acute toxicity was observed in either species.

  14. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  15. Refining and separation of crude tall-oil components

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-10-01

    Methods for crude tall-oil refining and fractionation evolving research studies of long-chain fatty and resinic acids separation are reviewed. Although several techniques have been applied since the 1940s with industrial aims, only distillation under high vacuum is economically practicable for crude tall-oil fractionation. Techniques such as adsorption and dissociation extraction seem to be the most industrially promising for implementation in the future for the separation of long-chain fatty and resinic acids fractions with a high purity level at low cost.

  16. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  17. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  18. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  20. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  1. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.210 Ports and terminals loading crude oil. The reception facility for a crude oil loading port or terminal must have the capacity for receiving— (a) Oil... the oceangoing tankers loading crude oil at the port or terminal that do not have clean ballast...

  2. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  3. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  4. 33 CFR 157.150 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.150 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording...

  5. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  6. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.210 Ports and terminals loading crude oil. The reception facility for a crude oil loading port or terminal must have the capacity for receiving— (a) Oil... the oceangoing tankers loading crude oil at the port or terminal that do not have clean ballast...

  7. 33 CFR 157.150 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.150 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording...

  8. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  9. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  10. Water based demulsifier formulation and process for its use in dewatering and desalting crude hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, P. Jr.; Lacy, S.M.

    1988-04-12

    A process for separating emulsified water from water-in-crude oil emulsion produced from underground reservoirs is described which comprises: (a) dispersing from 1 volume ppm to 50 volume ppm of a water soluble demulsifier into the crude oil containing water emulsified therein the parts being based on the volume of the oil; (b) permitting the water to separate from the crude oil; and (c) removing the water from the crude oil.

  11. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  12. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  13. Discriminating crude oil grades using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussein, A.; Marzouk, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of crude oil using laser-based analytical techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become of great interest to various specialists in different fields such as geology, petro-chemistry and environmental science. In this work, a detailed study is presented wherein the implementation of an efficient and simple LIBS technique to identify the elemental constituents of crude oil and to distinguish between different grades of petroleum crude oil is discussed. Laser-induced plasma (LIP) technique has been used in this work for direct measurements of atomic, ionic and molecular species in dry crude oil samples with API gravities ranging between 18 and 36. The technique was implemented using the first harmonic of a pulsed Nd-YAG laser source. Atomic and molecular emission bands were observed, consisting of characteristic spectral lines of atoms and diatomic molecular bands, namely from C, H, Si, Na, Ca, Mg, AL, Fe, Ti, Mo, C2 and CN. The intensities of high-resolution spectral lines for some atoms and molecules of elements such as Ca, Na, Fe, Mo, C2 and CN were evaluated at different wavelengths along the obtained spectra. The molecular bands and the elemental spectral lines were used to assess the possibility of adopting the LIBS technique in differentiating between crude oil samples with different American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity values. The results indicate the presence of a distinct correlation between the API gravity values of the various oil samples and the spectral line intensities of the elements and some molecular radical constituents. In addition, the possibility of identifying the API gravity values of unknown oil samples is also indicated.

  14. Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) as a bioindicator of crude oil exposure.

    PubMed

    Delunardo, Frederico Augusto Cariello; de Carvalho, Luciano Rodrigues; da Silva, Bruno Ferreira; Galão, Michel; Val, Adalberto Luís; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana R

    2015-07-01

    This study explored the suitability of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933) for assessing biomarkers of genotoxic effects and its use as a sentinel organism to detect the effects of acute exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. Fish were exposed to three concentrations of crude oil (10, 20 and 30 g/kg) for 96 h, and the activity of phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was measured. In addition, we performed genotoxicity assays, such as comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and nuclear abnormalities (NA) induction, on the erythrocytes of the fish species. Our results revealed that the inhibition of hepatic GST activity in H. reidi was dependent on increasing crude oil concentrations. In contrast, an increase in the damage index (DI) and MN frequency were observed with increased crude oil concentrations. These results indicate that the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test were suitable and useful in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of crude oil, which could improve determinations of the impact of oil spills on fish populations. In addition, H. reidi is a promising "sentinel organism" to detect the genotoxic impact of petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:25828890

  15. Comparison of Diluted Bitumen (Dilbit) and Conventional Crude Oil Toxicity to Developing Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Philibert, Danielle A; Philibert, Clara P; Lewis, Carlie; Tierney, Keith B

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate pipeline transport of bitumen, it is diluted with natural gas condensate, and the resulting mixture, "dilbit", differs greatly in chemical composition to conventional crude oil. Despite the risk of accidental dilbit release, the effects of dilbit on aquatic animals are largely unknown. In this study, we compared the toxicity of water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of dilbit and two conventional crude oils, medium sour composite and mixed sweet blend, to developing zebrafish. Mortality and pericardial edema was lowest in dilbit WAF-exposed embryonic zebrafish but yolk sac edema was similar in all exposures. Shelter-seeking behavior was decreased by dilbit and conventional crude WAF exposures, and continuous swimming behavior was affected by all tested WAF exposures. Regardless of WAF type, monoaromatic hydrocarbon content (largely made up of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX)) was a more accurate predictor of lethality and pericardial edema than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. Our results suggest that the toxicity of dilbit to a model fish is less than or similar to that of conventional crudes. PMID:27176092

  16. Infrared contrast of crude-oil-covered water surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wei-Chuan; Andrews, A Ballard

    2008-12-15

    Infrared oil spill detection utilizes either temperature or emissivity contrast of native and oil-covered water surfaces. In particular, the thickness dependent radiance contrast due to thin film interference has been studied. Together with detection boundaries derived from the radiative transfer equation, we can explain historically observed daytime contrast reversal and our observations during nighttime, better contrast from thin oil slicks than from thick films, which to our knowledge has not been mentioned in the literature. These findings have important implications to long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) instrument design and data interpretation for crude oil spill detection. PMID:19079527

  17. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents. PMID:27162385

  18. Effects of ingested crude and dispersed crude oil on thermoregulation in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, B.M.

    1989-02-01

    Thermoregulatory effects of ingested doses of Statfjord A crude oil and of this oil mixed with the dispersant Finasol OSR-5 were studied in adult domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to ambient temperatures of +16 degrees C and -17 degrees C. The data show that ingestion of both the crude and the oil-dispersant mixture resulted in an increased body temperature during exposure to the low ambient temperature (-17 degrees C). Neither contaminant had any effect on body temperature during exposure to +16 degrees C. Ingestion of the contaminants had no effect on metabolic heat production at either ambient temperature. The breast skin temperature of the ducks in both contaminated groups was significantly decreased when the ducks were exposed to the low ambient temperature. This indicates that the increase in body temperature observed in the contaminated ducks at the low ambient temperature is due to an increase in peripheral vasoconstriction.

  19. Inflationary effect of crude oil prices in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berument, Hakan; Taşçı, Hakan

    2002-12-01

    It is generally acknowledged that changes in oil prices affect economic welfare in ways that are not entirely reflected in transactions in the oil market. In this article, by using the 1990 input-output table, the inflationary effects of crude oil prices are investigated for Turkey. Under fixed nominal wages, profits, interest and rent earnings, the effect of increasing prices of oil on inflation is limited. However, when wages and the other three factors of income (profit, interest and rent) are adjusted to the general price level that includes the oil price increases, the inflationary effect of oil prices becomes significant. Hence, indexation could have very severe effects on an economy when oil prices increase and, in some cases, could even lead to hyperinflation.

  20. Hypolipidemic effect of oryzanol concentrate and low temperature extracted crude rice bran oil in experimental male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Preeti; Kumar, P K Prasanth; Ramesh, H P; Lokesh, B R; Krishna, A G Gopala

    2014-07-01

    Blends of refined groundnut oil (GNO) and oryzanol concentrate having 3, 5, and 10% oryzanol in the blend, and a rice bran oil (RBO) which had retained all the nutrients such as oryzanol, tocopherols and tocotrienols and the unsaponifiable matter components of crude oil (GWF RBO) were prepared. Weanling rats were fed with diet containing the oil blends/rice bran oil at 10% level for 60 days and then dissected. The lipid profiles in serum, liver were investigated and the cholesterol levels were marginally reduced (7-16% in serum, 10-14.5% in liver) in rats fed oryzanol containing diet. RBO, GWF RBO containing diets showed a reduction of serum cholesterol by 14%, 15% respectively when compared to those fed with GNO. Serum and liver lipid analysis also showed significant change in TG concentration in rats fed blended oils containing oryzanol compared to the rats given GNO. Histology of liver and kidneys did not show changes. These studies indicated that oryzanol has an effect in lowering serum and liver cholesterol and shows antiatherogenic properties when incorporated into groundnut oil. PMID:24966420

  1. Legislative history of the crude oil windfall profit tax

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, T.

    1980-08-01

    This paper looks at the history of the crude oil windfall profits tax program from the completion of the administration proposal to the passage of the final conference bill. The administration's proposal, House action, Senate action, and the final bill are described.

  2. NYMEX crude oil futures market: An analysis of its performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chassard, C.; Halliwell, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book includes a description of the mechanics of crude oil futures trading and analysis of the growth and structure of NYMEX deals. Futures markets are expected to fulfill two functions: price risk transfer and price discovery. This shows NYMEX is effective for hedging short-term price risks but of little help for price discovery.

  3. Crude Oil Metabolites in Groundwater at Two Spill Sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Steenson, Ross; Thorn, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  4. Tolerance of nitrobacter to toxicity of some Nigerian crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Odokuma, L.O. )

    1994-03-01

    Crude oil spillage in aquatic systems affects thousands of aquatic species including bacteria. Some of the crude oil components are rapidly evaporated or biologically degraded. Other components continue to remain for several months and perhaps several years. Some of these components may be toxic to microorganisms, while some may stimulate microbial activity especially at low concentrations. The use of bacteria as bioassay organisms is now gaining wide acceptance. It offers a number of advantages such as ease of handling, economy of space, short life cycles and low cost. Their uses in bioassays are based on cell lysis, mutagenic properties and the inhibition of physiological processes such as respiration. Recently, a number of workers have proposed the use of Nitrobacter as a test organism. The organism has a number of advantages in toxicity testing: obligate autotrophy, its sensitivity to various toxicants and its predominance in wastewater environments are some of them . Of recent, the inhibition of bacterial enzyme biosynthesis have been suggested in bacterial assays. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of six Nigerian crude oils on the cell reproduction rate (LC, lethal concentration), cellular respiration (EC, effective concentration) and biosynthesis of enzyme responsible for nitrite oxidation (IC, inhibition concentration) in Nitrobacter. In addition, the goal was to identify which of these was the most sensitive to crude oil and which may thus be used for detecting the toxicity of these chemicals. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  6. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  7. [Prediction of the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by NIR crude oil rapid assay].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Bin; Hu, Yu-Zhong; Li, Wen-Le; Zhang, Wei-Song; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Zhi

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, based on the fast evaluation technique of near infrared, a method to predict the yield of atmos- pheric and vacuum line was developed, combined with H/CAMS software. Firstly, the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for rapidly determining the true boiling point of crude oil was developed. With commercially available crude oil spectroscopy da- tabase and experiments test from Guangxi Petrochemical Company, calibration model was established and a topological method was used as the calibration. The model can be employed to predict the true boiling point of crude oil. Secondly, the true boiling point based on NIR rapid assay was converted to the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by H/CAMS software. The predicted yield and the actual yield of distillation product for naphtha, diesel, wax and residual oil were compared in a 7-month period. The result showed that the NIR rapid crude assay can predict the side-cut product yield accurately. The near infrared analytic method for predicting yield has the advantages of fast analysis, reliable results, and being easy to online operate, and it can provide elementary data for refinery planning optimization and crude oil blending. PMID:25739195

  8. 75 FR 11841 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... petroleum (crude oil) and is used by licensing officers to determine the exporter's compliance with the...

  9. Induced biochemical interactions in crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1996-08-01

    In the evolution of oil from sedimentary to reservoir conditions, the hydrogen to carbon ratios decrease while the oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur to carbon ratios increase. During this process, the oils become heavier and richer in asphaltenes. In terms of chemical composition, the oils become enriched in resins, asphaltenes, and polar compounds containing the heteroatoms and metals. Over the geological periods of time, the chemical and physical changes have been brought about by chemical, biological (biochemical) and physical (temperature and pressure) means as well as by the catalytic effects of the sedimentary matrices, migration, flooding, and other physical processes. Therefore, different types of oils are the end products of a given set of such interactions which were brought about by multiple and simultaneous physicochemical processes involving electron transfer, free radical, and chemical reactions. A biocatalyst introduced into a reaction mixture of the type produced by such reactions will seek available chemical reaction sites and react at the most favorable ones. The rates and the chemical pathways by which the biocatalytic reactions will proceed will depend on the oil type and the biocatalyst(s). Some of the possible reaction pathways that may occur in such complex mixtures are discussed.

  10. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  11. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. PMID:24128586

  12. Crude oil prices as determined by OPEC and market fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    MacAvoy, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the causes of oil price increases during the last decade and of the consequences for price levels in the 1980s, this study includes both market fundamentals and the OPEC cartel in identifying major and minor determinants of price changes in the world crude-oil market. MacAvoy poses a scenario without OPEC, and argues that world-market supply-and-demand conditions would have resulted in the same yearly average price increases. He argues that pressuring OPEC to prevent or mitigate future price increases will not work. Instead, policymakers must view crude oil prices from a wider political and economic perspective. Only then can they successfully anticipate abrupt price changes that are inherent to the market itself. 30 references, 9 figures, 52 tables.

  13. Characterization and Demulsification of Water-in-crude Oil Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, Abdurahman H.; Abu Hassan, Mohd A.; Mohd Yunus, Rosli

    Many advances have been made in the field of emulsions in recent years. Emulsion behavior is largely controlled by the properties of the adsorbed layers that stabilized the oil-water surfaces. The effect of chemical demulsifiers in demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions were assessed experimentally. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via graduated beakers. Four groups of demulsifier with different functional groups were used in this work namely amines, polyhydric alcohol, sulphonate and polymer. The effect of alcohol addition on demulsification performance also studied. The results obtained in this study have exposed the capability of chemical demulsifiers in destabilization of water-in-crude oil emulsions. Further works are nevertheless required to provide deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved to facilitate the development of an optimum system applicable to the industry.

  14. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2016-02-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  15. United States Producing and Nonproducing Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reserves From 1985 Through 2004

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the regional and temporal trends in producing and nonproducing crude oil and natural gas reserves using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) categorization of reserves. The report first focuses on EIA's collection and reporting of crude oil and natural gas reserves data, followed by a discussion of the natural gas reserve trends, and then the crude oil reserve trends.

  16. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil..., other than crude oil, will be denied, unless the President makes a finding required by the...

  17. Degumming of crude palm oil by membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Ong, K K; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Baharin, B S; Hassan, M A

    1999-01-01

    The application of membrane separation in palm oil refining process has potential for energy and cost savings. The conventional refining of crude palm oil results in loss of oil and a contaminated effluent. Degumming of crude palm oil by membrane technology is conducted in this study. The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of membrane filtration for the removal of phospholipids in the degumming of crude palm oil, including analyses of phosphorus content, carotene content free fatty acids (as palmitic acid), colour and volatile matter. A PCI membrane module was used which was equipped with polyethersulfone membranes having a molecular weight cut off of 9,000 (type ES209). In this study, phosphorus content was the most important parameter monitored. The membrane effectively removed phospholipids resulting in a permeate with a phosphorus content of less than 0.3 ppm The percentage removal of phosphorus was 96.4% and was considered as a good removal. Lovibond colour was reduced from 27R 50Y to 20R 30Y. The percentage removal of carotene was 15.8%. The removal of colour was considered good but the removal of carotene was considered insignificant by the membrane. Free fatty acids and volatile matter were not removed. Typical of membrane operations, the permeate flux decreased with time and must be improved in order to be adopted on an industrial scale. Membrane technology was found to have good potential in crude palm oil degumming. However, an appropriate method has to be developed to clean the membranes for reuse. PMID:10595436

  18. Crude oil from the var'egansk field. [Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Driatskaya, Z.V.; Kaminskii, E.K.; Krylova, S.M.; Mkhchiyan, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    This article presents results from an investigation of a representative sample of the crude oil of the BV group (BV/sub 6/, BV/sub 7/, BV/sub 8/, and BV/sub 9/), taken at a central gathering point in the Tyumen Oblast. It indicates that Var'egansk crude is low-sulfur, medium-resin, and medium-wax. The Var'egansk field is a single-bed field, and its deposits are confined to the Jurassic and Cretaceous systems (Valanginian and Hauterivian-Barremian stages).

  19. Surface weathering and dispersibility of MC252 crude oil.

    PubMed

    Daling, Per S; Leirvik, Frode; Almås, Inger Kjersti; Brandvik, Per Johan; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Lewis, Alun; Reed, Mark

    2014-10-15

    Results from a comprehensive oil weathering and dispersant effectiveness study of the MC252 crude oil have been used to predict changes in oil properties due to weathering on the sea surface and to estimate the effective "time window" for dispersant application under various sea conditions. MC252 oil is a light paraffinic crude oil, for which approximately 55 wt.% will evaporate within 3-5 days when drifting on the sea. An unstable and low-viscosity water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion are formed during the first few days at the sea surface. This allows a high degree of natural dispersion when exposed to breaking wave conditions. Under calm sea conditions, a more stable and light-brown/orange colored water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion may start to form after several days, and viscosities of 10,000-15,000 mPa s can be achieved after 1-2 weeks. The "time window" for effective use of dispersants was estimated to be more than 1 week weathering at sea. PMID:25152185

  20. Marine biodegradation of crude oil in temperate and Arctic water samples.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Johnsen, Anders R; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-12-30

    Despite increased interest in marine oil exploration in the Arctic, little is known about the fate of Arctic offshore oil pollution. Therefore, in the present study, we examine the oil degradation potential for an Arctic site (Disko Bay, Greenland) and discuss this in relation to a temperate site (North Sea, Denmark). Biodegradation was assessed following exposure to Oseberg Blend crude oil (100 mg L(-1)) in microcosms. Changes in oil hydrocarbon fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl-substituted PAHs, dibenzothiophenes, n-alkanes and alkyltoluenes were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the Disko Bay sample, the degradation order was n-alkanes>alkyltoluenes (para->meta->ortho-isomers)>PAHs and dibenzothiophenes, whereas, the degradation order in the North Sea samples was PAHs and dibenzothiophenes>alkyltoluenes>n-alkanes. These differences in degradation patterns significantly affect the environmental risk of oil spills and emphasise the need to consider the specific environmental conditions when conducting risk assessments of Arctic oil pollution. PMID:26159801

  1. Microbial influenced corrosion in cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, R.T.; McFarland, B.L.; Hodgman, R.Z.

    1997-09-01

    Excessive pitting corrosion in the uncoated bottom platings of cargo oil tanks was detected in newbuilt crude oil tankers only 2 to 5 years old, and was diagnosed as microbial influenced corrosion (MIC). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) concentrations reached as high as 100,000 to 10,000,000 per milliliter in the settled water at the bottom of the cargo oil tanks. Biocide treatment to control MIC was studied in the laboratory using microbial consortia isolated from cargo oil tank bottoms. Biocide treatment to control MIC was attempted experimentally, but was found to be impractical onboard tankers. A MIC mitigation strategy, employing an enhanced pitting inspection and repair program combined with the coating of the bottom platings, was developed and implemented for existing crude oil tankers. Considerations for improvement of future newbuild crude oil tankers are also presented.

  2. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  3. Microbial Degradation of Alkyl Carbazoles in Norman Wells Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, Phillip M.; Westlake, Donald W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Norman Wells crude oil was fractionated by sequential alumina and silicic acid column chromatography methods. The resulting nitrogen-rich fraction was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and showed 26 alkyl (C1 to C5) carbazoles to be the predominant compounds. An oil-degrading mixed bacterial culture was enriched on carbazole to enhance its ability to degrade nitrogen heterocycles. This culture was used to inoculate a series of flasks of mineral medium and Norman Wells crude oil. Residual oil was recovered from these cultures after incubation at 25°C for various times. The nitrogen-rich fraction was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography, using a nitrogen-specific detector. Most of the C1-, C2-, and C3- carbazoles and one of the C4-isomers were degraded within 8 days. No further degradation occurred when incubation was extended to 28 days. The general order of susceptibility of the isomers to biodegradation was C1 > C2 > C3 > C4. The carbazole-enriched culture was still able to degrade n-alkanes, isoprenoids, aromatic hydrocarbons, and sulfur heterocycles in the crude soil. PMID:16346524

  4. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period. PMID:24956464

  5. Induced biochemical interactions in immature and biodegraded heavy crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Shelenkova, L.; Zhou, W.M.

    1998-11-01

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  6. INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN IMMATURE AND BIODEGRADED HEAVY CRUDE OILS

    SciTech Connect

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; SHELENKOVA,L.; ZHOU,W.M.

    1998-10-27

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  7. Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar coastal fields, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bockmeulen, H.; Barker, C.; Dickey, P.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain mostly heavy oil with a gravity less than 22/sup 0/ API. Thirty crude oils from the BCF were collected along two parallel and generally southwest-northeast trends. These oils were characterized by their API gravity, percent saturates, aromatics, NSO and asphalitic compounds, gas chromatograms for whole oils, C/sub 4/-C/sub 7/ fractions, and aromatics. Also, 24 associated waters were sampled and analyzed for Ca/sup + +/, Mg/sup + +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup - -/, SO/sub 4//sup - -/, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The geological and geochemical significances of these analyses are discussed with particular emphasis on the genesis of the petroleum.

  8. Geochemical investigation of Australian and New Zealand crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Philp, R.P.; Gilbert, T.D.

    1985-02-01

    Australian and New Zealand oils are derived predominantly from terrestrial source material. Relatively sparse information exists in the geochemical literature on the distribution of biomarkers in terrestrially derived crude oils. A detailed geochemical investigation of oils from a number of basins in this region has revealed interesting and unusual distribution of biomarkers. The compound classes that were analyzed included sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, and steranes. From the information obtained, it has been possible to correlate the oils from several basins, in particular the Gippsland, Surate, and Carnarvon, into a number of source-related families. Evidence was also obtained that indicated a contribution from coal-like source material for many of the New Zealand oils.

  9. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  10. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  11. Hydrous pyrolysis of crude oil in gold-plated reactors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curiale, J.A.; Lundegard, P.D.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Crude oils from Iraq and California have been pyrolyzed under hydrous conditions at 200 and 300??C for time periods up to 210 days, in gold-plated reactors. Elemental (vanadium, nickel), stable isotopic (carbon), and molecular (n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steranes, terpanes and aromatic steroid hydrocarbons) analyses were made on the original and pyrolyzed oils. Various conventional crude oil maturity parameters, including 20S/(20S + 20R)-24-ethylcholestane ratios and the side-chain-length distribution of aliphatic and aromatic steroidal hydrocarbons, were measured in an effort to assess the modification of molecular maturity parameters in clay-free settings, similar to those encountered in "clean" reservoirs. Concentrations of vanadium and nickel in the Iraq oil decrease significantly and the V/(V + Ni) ratio decreases slightly, with increasing pyrolysis time/temperature. Whole oil carbon isotope ratios remain fairly constant during pyrolysis, as do hopane/sterane ratios and carbon number distribution of 5??(H),14??(H),17??(H),20R steranes. These latter three parameters are considered maturity-invariant. The ratios of short side-chain components to long side-chain components of the regular steranes [C21/(C21 + C29R)] and the triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons [C21/(C21 + C28)] vary systematically with increasing pyrolysis time, indicating that these parameters may be useful as molecular maturity parameters for crude oils in clay-free reservoir rocks. In addition, decreases in bisnorhopane/hopane ratio with increasing pyrolysis time, in a clay-free and kerogen-free environment, suggest that the distribution of these compounds is controlled by either differential thermal stabilities or preferential release from a higher-molecular weight portion of the oil. ?? 1992.

  12. Progression of methanogenic degradation of crude oil in the subsurface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Delin, G.N.; Warren, E.; Essaid, H.I.

    2005-01-01

    Our results show that subsurface crude-oil degradation rates at a long-term research site were strongly influenced by small-scale variations in hydrologic conditions. The site is a shallow glacial outwash aquifer located near Bemidji in northern Minnesota that became contaminated when oil spilled from a broken pipeline in August 1979. In the study area, separate-phase oil forms a subsurface oil body extending from land surface to about 1 m (3.3 ft) below the 6-8-m (20-26 ft)-deep water table. Oil saturation in the sediments ranges from 10-20% in the vadose zone to 30-70% near the water table. At depths below 2 m (6.6 ft), degradation of the separate-phase crude oil occurs under methanogenic conditions. The sequence of methanogenic alkane degradation depletes the longer chain n-alkanes before the shorter chain n-alkanes, which is opposite to the better known aerobic sequence. The rates of degradation vary significantly with location in the subsurface. Oil-coated soils within 1.5 m (5 ft) of land surface have experienced little degradation where soil water saturation is less than 20%. Oil located 2-8 m (6.6-26 ft) below land surface in areas of higher recharge has been substantially degraded. The best explanation for the association between recharge and enhanced degradation seems to be increased downward transport of microbial growth nutrients to the oil body. This is supported by observations of greater microbial numbers at higher elevations in the oil body and significant decreases with depth in nutrient concentrations, especially phosphorus. Our results suggest that environmental effects may cause widely diverging degradation rates in the same spill, calling into question dating methods based on degradation state. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  13. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  14. Combustion performance of pyrolysis oil/ethanol blends in a residential-scale oil-fired boiler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 40 kWth oil-fired commercial boiler was fueled with blends of biomass pyrolysis oil (py-oil) and ethanol to determine the feasibility of using these blends as a replacement for fuel oil in home heating applications. An optimal set of test parameters was determined for the combustion of these blend...

  15. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, T P; Harris, R K; Moeller, R B; Pletcher, J M; Haebler, R J; Ballachey, B E

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body--heavily contaminated; oil covering 30-60% of the body--moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur--lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters (three males, two females) found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters (four males, two females) collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with stress

  16. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    SciTech Connect

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  17. Chemical Demulsification of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurahman; Nour, H.; Mohd Yunus, Rosli; Jemaat, Zulkifly

    Demulsification (emulsion breaking) is necessary in many practical applications such as the petroleum industry, painting and waste-water treatment in environmental technology. Chemical demulsification is the most widely applied method of treating water-in-crude oil emulsions and involves the use of chemical additives to accelerate the emulsion breaking process. The effect of chemical demulsification operations on the stability and properties of water-in-crude oil emulsions was assessed experimentally. In this regard, Amine Demulsifier, Polyhydric Alcohol, Acid and Polymeric demulsifiers were used. Using samples of w/o, the data presented for several commercial-type demulsifiers show a strong connection (correlation) between good performance (fast coalescence) and the demulsifiers. The relative rates of water separation were characterized via beaker tests. The amine group demulsifiers promoted best coalescence of droplets. In contrast, polymeric demulsifier group is the least in water separation.

  18. The Biodiversity Changes in the Microbial Population of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    Crude oil spills resulting from excavation, transportation and downstream processes can cause intensive damage to living organisms and result in changes in the microbial population of that environment. In this study, we used a pyrosequencing analysis to investigate changes in the microbial population of soils contaminated with crude oil. Crude oil contamination in soil resulted in the creation of a more homogenous population of microorganisms dominated by members of the Actinomycetales, Clostridiales and Bacillales (all belonging to Gram-positive bacteria) as well as Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales (all belonging to Gram-negative bacteria). These changes in the biodiversity decreased the ratios of chemoheterotrophic bacteria at higher concentrations of crude oil contamination, with these being replaced by photoheterotrophic bacteria, mainly Rhodospirillales. Several of the dominant microbial orders in the crude oil contaminated soils are able to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons and therefore are potentially useful for remediation of crude oil in contaminated sites. PMID:26858133

  19. Crude oil emulsions containing a compatible fluorochemical surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Karydas, A.; Rodgers, J.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a crude oil in water emulsion, which is stable to both breakdown and phase inversion up to at least about 50{degrees} C., the emulsion containing an effective, compatible, emulsion stabilizing amount of a fluorochemical surfactant of the formula (R{sub {ital f}}){sub {ital n}}A{sub {ital m}}Q wherein R{sub {ital f}} is an inert, stable, oleophobic and hydrophobic fluoroaliphatic group having up to about 20 carbon atoms; n is an integer from 1 to 3; A is a direct bond or an organic linking group and is covalently bonded to both R{sub {ital f}} and Q; Q is an anionic, nonionic or amphoteric group; and m is an integer from 1 to 3; wherein the amount of weight of the fluorochemical surfactant present in the emulsion being between about 0.001 and 1% by weight of the emulsion, in the presence of absence of up to about 2% by weight of a crude oil emulsion promoting hydrocarbon surfactant, with the proviso that at least about 0.005% by weight total fluorochemical and hydrocarbon surfactant is present, based upon the weight of emulsion, and wherein the emulsion contains bout 15 to about 90 percent by weight water, based upon the weight of emulsion, such that the viscosity of the emulsion is less than about 50% of the viscosity of the crude oil, and wherein the emulsion spontaneously breaks down into an aqueous and crude oil phase at a temperature between about 55{degrees} and 75{degrees} C.

  20. Modeling of crude oil biodegradation using two phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Peyda, Mazyar; Ab Karim Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Moeini, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, crude oil biodegradation has been optimized in a solid-liquid two phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) by applying a response surface methodology based d-optimal design. Three key factors including phase ratio, substrate concentration in solid organic phase, and sodium chloride concentration in aqueous phase were taken as independent variables, while the efficiency of the biodegradation of absorbed crude oil on polymer beads was considered to be the dependent variable. Commercial thermoplastic polyurethane (Desmopan®) was used as the solid phase in the TPPB. The designed experiments were carried out batch wise using a mixed acclimatized bacterial consortium. Optimum combinations of key factors with a statistically significant cubic model were used to maximize biodegradation in the TPPB. The validity of the model was successfully verified by the good agreement between the model-predicted and experimental results. When applying the optimum parameters, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed a significant reduction in n-alkanes and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This consequently highlights the practical applicability of TPPB in crude oil biodegradation. PMID:24692323

  1. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    SciTech Connect

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil.

  2. Chemical interesterification of blends with palm stearin and patawa oil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pedro D; Rodrigues, Antonio M C; Bezerra, Carolina V; Silva, Luiza H M

    2017-01-15

    The present study sought to develop lipid bases from blends between patawa oil and palm stearin. These blends were analyzed before and after the chemical interesterification process for their fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition, free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide index, thermal properties, melting point, consistency, and solid fat content (SFC). Blends with unsaturated fatty acid contents between 60 and 70% were obtained, with a good ratio between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, which indicates a healthy content of fatty acids. Variations in the triacylglycerol contents and melting and crystallization thermograms evidenced the reaction. The blend with 50% stearin and 50% patawa oil showed the best results after the chemical interesterification reaction regarding the possible application in fatty products for its appropriate melting point, SFC similar to that of soft table margarines, plastic and spreadable consistency at refrigeration temperature, thus combining physical and nutritional properties desirable for the food industry. PMID:27542488

  3. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio. PMID:27066330

  4. Impact of Small Raindrops on Crude Oil Slicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morra, David; Almashan, Nourah; Murphy, David; Katz, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    The impact of millimeter size water droplets falling near terminal velocity (e.g. rainfall) on a pool is known to produce air bubbles at the bottom of the splash cavity. These bubbles produce noise and contribute to marine aerosol production. Layers of crude oil resulting from oil spills alter air-sea interfacial properties. Our high speed observations examine the effect of oil layer thickness on the entrainment of air and oil as small raindrops impact the surface. They reveal that layers in the 10-400 μm range suppress bubble entrainment, likely due to the reduction of air-liquid surface tension (from 72 to 28 mN/m). For ``low energy'' impacts (droplets <2 mm and speed <2.5 m/s) and <200 μm layers, rupture of the film in less than 1 ms causes rapid retraction of the oil layer across the subsurface cavity and formation of oil droplets on the cavity side. Subsequently, as the cavity collapses, a vortex ring develops at the bottom of this cavity and forces these droplets downward. Impact on thicker oil layers results initially in accumulation of the drop fluid at the cavity base. When the drop subsequently penetrates the layer, it creates multiphase vesicles, i.e. drops of freshwater coated by a thin oil film, which migrate down into the bulk seawater. Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  5. Anaerobic biodegradability of water separated from extracted crude oil.

    PubMed

    Rincón, N; Chacín, E; Marín, J; Torrijos, M; Moletta, R; Fernández, N

    2003-08-01

    A study of the anaerobic biodegradability of the three categories of water separated from extracted crude oil (Venezuelan oilfields)--light, medium or heavy crude--was carried out at laboratory scale using UASB reactors working at mesophilic conditions. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in a low loaded UASB reactor fed with water separated from extracted light crude was high, with an average 87% purification efficiency. The remaining COD was made up of the nonbiodegradable and the very slowly biodegradable fractions of the organic matter in the water. During a second period, the hydraulic retention time was reduced in stages, thus increasing the loading rate. In the experimental conditions used, COD concentration at the outlet remained below the Venezuelan standard limit for discharge into the environment (350 mg COD l(-1)) when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was above 10 hours and the OLR under 3 g COD l(-1) d(-1). For HRT less than 10 hours, or organic loading rate (OLR) greater than 3 g COD l(-1) d(-1), COD at the outlet of the reactor rose as a consequence both of increased volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations (indicating an overloading of the methanogenic population) and, also, of the increase in the non-VFA COD (indicating a decrease in the acidification efficiency). On the other hand, results with UASB reactors operated at a low loading rate and fed with water separated from extracted medium and heavy crude oil showed that purification efficiency was low, with only 20% and 37% COD removal respectively. Continuing the operation of the UASB reactor fed with water separated from medium oil over a prolonged period did not bring any improvement, indicating that no adaptation of the sludge occurred. PMID:14509387

  6. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  7. Quality evaluation of noble mixed oil blended with palm and canola oil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyesook; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-01-01

    Noble blended oils (canola: palm oil = 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 and 7:3) were prepared and their frying qualities were evaluated. Frying qualities such as fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value, viscosity, smoke point, color, antioxidant activity, and sensory evaluation were measured to elucidate the optimum blend ratio of canola and palm oil. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid of the blended oils was higher than that of palm oil after frying 50 times. The blended oil (3:7, Ca: Pa) had a relatively high oxidative stability and its peroxide values were 44.2-70.7 meq/kg after frying. The 3:7 (Ca: Pa) blended oil had excellent flavor, taste, and texture compared to those of the other frying oils as a result of a sensory evaluation of raw and fried potatoes. The results suggest that the 3:7 (Ca: Pa) blended oil is a good alternative oil for frying potatoes. PMID:24976612

  8. Stabilization Mechanisms of Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nour, Abdurahman H.; Suliman, A.; Hadow, Mahmmoud M.

    During the lifting and production of crude oil, water/oil emulsions are created. They are stabilized by asphaltenes and resins which are colloidally dispersed in the crude oil. Asphaltenes consist mainly of polar heterocompounds. It is known that they decrease the interfacial tension between oil and water and form stable interfacial films. Both effects favour the formation and stabilization of emulsions. Resins are complex high-molecular-weight compounds that are not soluble in ethylacetate, but are soluble in n-heptane. Their interfacial activity is less than that of asphaltenes. The role of resins in stabilizing emulsions has also been debated in literature. This study reports the results of experimental investigation of various factors affecting the stability of emulsions which are considered to be undesirable for a number of reasons, including both up-stream and down-stream operation in the petroleum industry. It was found that, the (R/A) ratio affects the emulsion and dispersion stabilities. High resin/asphaltene ratios decrease the emulsion stability.

  9. Limitations on the oil/steam ratio for truly viscous crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Doscher, T.M.; Ghassemi, F.

    1984-07-01

    Scaled physical model studies have yielded results that suggest very viscous crude oils with a viscosity somewhat greater than that of San Joaquin Valley crudes cannot be economically recovered by an unassisted steamdrive.

  10. Limitations on the oil-steam ratio for truly viscous crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Doscher, T.M.; Ghassemi, F.

    1983-03-01

    Scaled physical model studies have yielded results which suggest that very viscous crude oils having a viscosity somewhat greater than that of San Joaquin Valley crudes cannot be economically recovered by an unassisted steam drive.

  11. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  12. Qualitative identification of group composition in crude oil from different oil fields using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Cheng J.; Miao, Xin Y.; Li, Yi Z.; Bao, Ri M.; Zhao, Kun

    2015-11-01

    Optical properties of the group components in crude oil were studied using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) under nitrogen environment at ambient temperature. The group composition of crude oil from different oil fields were analyzed on the basis of terahertz spectra. Both time delay and amplitude of terahertz wave were modulated in accordance with group composition. The features of terahertz spectra which contain information from different parts of the crude oil group composition can be qualitatively analyzed to detect the group components of the crude oil.

  13. Isolation of oryzanol from crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Zullaikah, Siti; Melwita, Elda; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2009-01-01

    The isolation of oryzanol from crude rice bran oil (RBO) was achieved by a two-step crystallization process. In the first crystallization, oryzanol was concentrated in the liquid phase along with free fatty acid (FFA), monoacylglycerol (MG), squalene, tocols, and phytosterols, whereas the solid phase contained mainly triacylglycerol (TG) and steryl esters. Oryzanol-rich product obtained from the first crystallization was subjected to the second crystallization where the oryzanol-rich product was kept at room temperature (20.5+/-1.5 degrees C) for 24h. Hexane was added as anti-solvent to the oryzanol-rich product and kept at 5+/-1 degrees C for another 48h. Parameters that affect the isolation of oryzanol from crude RBO were systematically investigated. Under optimal operation conditions, oryzanol with purity and recovery of 93-95% and 59%, respectively, was obtained from RBO with an initial FFA content of ca. 5%. PMID:18644715

  14. Process Considerations in the Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1998-10-20

    Biodesulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional hydrodesulfurization due to the mild operating conditions and reaction specificity afforded by the biocatalyst. The enzymatic pathway existing in Rhodococcus has been demonstrated to oxidatively desulfhrize the organic sulfbr occurring in dibenzothiophene while leaving the hydrocarbon intact. In order for biodesulfiization to realize commercial success, a variety of process considerations must be addressed including reaction rate, emulsion formation and breakage, biocatalyst recovery, and both gas and liquid mass transport. This study compares batch stirred to electro-spray bioreactors in the biodesulfurization of both model organics and actual crudes in terms of their operating costs, ability to make and break emulsions, ability to effect efficient reaction rates and enhance mass transport. Further, sulfim speciation in crude oil is assessed and compared to the sulfur specificity of currently available biocatalyst.

  15. Quantifying Light, Medium, and Heavy Crude Oil Distribution in Homogeneous Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, J.; Tick, G. R.

    2008-12-01

    Crude oil recovery is highly dependent upon the physical heterogeneity of media and resulting distribution of the oil-phase within the pore spaces. Factors such as capillary force, the geometry of the pore spaces, and interfacial tension between the oil blobs and water-wet porous media will ultimately control the recovery process. Pore scale studies were conducted to study the distribution and the morphology of various fractions of crude oil in increasingly heterogeneous porous media. In addition, experiments were also carried out to characterize the temporal changes in distribution and morphology of the oil phase after a series of surfactant flooding events. Specifically, columns were packed with three different porous media with increasing heterogeneity and distributed with three different fractions (light, medium, and heavy) of crude oil. The columns were imaged using synchrotron X-ray microtomography before and after a series of surfactant floods to quantify the resulting crude oil distributions over time. Preliminary results show that the light crude oil was more heterogeneously distributed than the medium fraction crude oil within the same porous media type both before and throughout the series of surfactant floods. It was also observed that approximately 95% of the medium fraction crude oil blob-size distribution was smaller (<0.0008 cu mm) than that of the light crude oil, encompassing a significant number of blob singlets. The lighter crude oil fraction has the median blob diameter approximately 20 times greater than that of the medium crude oil fraction. These results further reveal that that oil extraction and recovery is highly dependent upon the oil fraction, the presence of small- sized blob singlets, and the resulting distributions present within porous media before and during surfactant flooding. This research will not only be helpful in understanding the factors controlling crude oil mobilization at the pore scale but also test the utility of

  16. Production of crude oils in Pakistan: Outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, S.

    1995-12-31

    Pakistan`s sedimentary basins cover an area of 827,000 km{sub 2} that stretches from the Karakurum Mountains in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south. The first exploration well in the region was drilled near Kundal in 1866, just seven years after the Drake well in Pennsylvania. To date, 384 exploration wells have been drilled in Pakistan resulting in 45 oil and 55 gas discoveries, thus generating a highly favourable success ratio of 1:4. The drilling density in Pakistan is one well/1000 square kilometers. Pakistan has proven oil reserves of around 500 million barrels of oil, whereas proven gas reserves are about 31 trillion cubic feet. However, Pakistan`s resource potential is estimated to be 40 billion barrels of oil and 200 TCF of gas. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (i) habitat and production of crude oil in Pakistan, (ii) Pakistan`s current energy needs and future outlook, and (iii) steps being taken by the Government of Pakistan to promote exploration for oil and gas.

  17. Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John W.; D'Aria, Dana M.; Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Unambiguous detection of oil slicks by remote sensing techniques has proven an elusive goal. This article presents new thermal infrared spectra of oil slicks made from five different crude oil samples with a wide range of API gravities and compositions. After a brief outgassing phase, all oil slick spectra are quite similar and little affected by thickness, extended exposure to air or sunlight, and even by emulsification with seawater (mousse formation). Thus, oil slicks provide a remarkably unvarying spectral signature as remote sensing targets in the thermal infrared compared to other regions of the spectrum. This spectral signature in the 8-14 micron atmospheric window is flat, with an average reflectance of 4 percent. Seawater, on the other hand, has a spectrum that varies in reflectance with wavelength in the 8-14 micron window from 0.90 to 3.65 percent. In addition, we show that sea foam displays a reflectance spectrum quite similar to that of seawater in the 8-14 micron region. This results in a relatively uniform spectral background, against which oil slicks can be detected, based on their different spectral signature.

  18. Wax crystallization and aggregation in a model crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignati, Emanuele; Piazza, Roberto; Visintin, Ruben F. G.; Lapasin, Romano; D'Antona, Paolo; Lockhart, Thomas P.

    2005-11-01

    The high-molecular-weight paraffinic ('wax') fraction separates from crude oils at low temperatures, a process that can lead to a sol-gel transition when the mass of wax solids exceeds 1-2%. Attractive interactions between the micron-size wax solids suspended in the non-polar medium have been suggested to be responsible for gel formation. The present study reports an optically transparent model oil system, based on a mixture of linear and branched paraffins. Rheological measurements and optical microscopy show that the model system reproduces essential features of crude oil gels. Small-angle light scattering studies conducted at temperatures intermediate between the cloud point (58 °C) and sol-gel transition (39 °C) show that phase separation and wax solid aggregation are rapid processes, leading to the formation of dynamically arrested structures well above the sol-gel transition determined rheologically. Analysis of gravity settling effects has provided a rough estimate for the yield stress of the wax particle network formed (greater than 0.7 Pa at 45 °C and 0.07 Pa at 55 °C). Clusters formed by the aggregated wax solids possess a fractal dimension of about 1.8, consistent with diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation.

  19. Effects of a chemical dispersant and crude oil on breeding ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Gay, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of chemically dispersed crude oil on mallard reproduction. Incubating female mallards were exposed to a water source treated with either Prudhoe Bay crude oil, Corexit 9527, or a combination of oil and dispersant during the first 10 da of development. Used thermocouple probes to monitor incubation temperature. Measured hatching success, incubation temperature, and survival of ducklings to 1 wk of age.

  20. 33 CFR 157.150 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank... used to pass the inspections under § 157.140: (1) Pressure and flow of the crude oil pumped to the COW machines. (2) Revolutions, number of cycles, and length of cycles of each COW machine. (3) Pressure...

  1. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  2. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2)...

  3. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2)...

  4. 33 CFR 157.150 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank... used to pass the inspections under § 157.140: (1) Pressure and flow of the crude oil pumped to the COW machines. (2) Revolutions, number of cycles, and length of cycles of each COW machine. (3) Pressure...

  5. 33 CFR 157.150 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank... used to pass the inspections under § 157.140: (1) Pressure and flow of the crude oil pumped to the COW machines. (2) Revolutions, number of cycles, and length of cycles of each COW machine. (3) Pressure...

  6. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  7. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2)...

  8. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  9. Dispersion of T1 and T2 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in crude oils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joseph J; Hürlimann, Martin; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Freed, Denise; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2014-09-15

    Crude oils, which are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, can be characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion and relaxation methods to yield physical properties and chemical compositions. In particular, the field dependence, or dispersion, of T1 relaxation can be used to investigate the presence and dynamics of asphaltenes, the large molecules primarily responsible for the high viscosity in heavy crudes. However, the T2 relaxation dispersion of crude oils, which provides additional insight when measured alongside T1, has yet to be investigated systematically. Here we present the field dependence of T1-T2 correlations of several crude oils with disparate densities. While asphaltene and resin-containing crude oils exhibit significant T1 dispersion, minimal T2 dispersion is seen in all oils. This contrasting behavior between T1 and T2 cannot result from random molecular motions, and thus, we attribute our dispersion results to highly correlated molecular dynamics in asphaltene-containing crude oils. PMID:24919743

  10. Synergistic effect of crude oil plus dispersant on bacterial community in a louisiana salt marsh sediment.

    PubMed

    Al-Jawasim, Mohammed; Yu, Kewei; Park, Joong-Wook

    2015-09-01

    A combined effect of crude oil plus dispersant (Corexit 9500A) significantly altered indigenous bacterial communities in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment after 30 days of incubation; the crude oil and/or Corexit 9500A treatments triggered shifts in bacterial communities and the shifted bacterial structure by crude oil plus Corexit 9500A was considerably different from those by either crude oil or Corexit 9500A. However, the synergistic effect of crude oil plus Corexit 9500A was not observed after 7 days of incubation; the bacterial community was slightly shifted by Corexit 9500A and the crude oil did not trigger any bacterial community shift after 7 days of incubation. DNA sequencing data indicated that Chromobacterium species was enriched in the Corexit 9500A microcosms after 7 days of incubation, while Pseudomonas, Advenella, Acidocella and Dyella spp. were enriched after 30 days of incubation. Parvibaculum was a dominant species in the crude oil microcosms after 30 days of incubation. Rhodanobacter, Dyella and Frateuria spp. were dominant in crude oil plus Corexit 9500A microcosms after 30 days of incubation. Our data show that the effect of crude oil plus Corexit 9500A on bacterial community is synergistic, and thus the dispersant effect should be considered with the spilled oil to correctly evaluate the environmental impact. PMID:26316543

  11. Preventing oil adhesion to pipe walls in heavy crude transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, M.; Guevara, E.; Joseph, D.

    1995-12-31

    During the transportation of heavy, extra heavy, and bitumen with water in carbon steel pipelines, the crude sticks to the internal pipe wall, reducing the flow area and as a consequence increasing the pressure drop in time. The situation may become worse if an unplanned shut down occurs, due to the phase separation by gravity. The problem. is resolved using a cement lined pipeline, with a cement composition that creates a permanent oleophobic and hydrophilic surface. These surfaces repel oil when they are hydrated in water, avoiding the occurrence of fouling at stationary and restart conditions.

  12. SCADA computer sytem controls major Saudi Aramco crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, J.; Al-Habib, R.

    1996-12-31

    A replacement Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) computer system which monitors and controls two 1,100 kilometer pipelines and eleven associated pump stations is described. The SCADA system was designed to meet two objectives: (1) decentralize the overall control system and provide a distributed control system capable of regulatory control at each pump and pressure reducing station, and (2) provide system wide monitoring and supervisory control function during normal operations at the crude oil terminal. The SCADA computer system hardware (host computers and consoles), software modules, and applications are overviewed. A data flow diagram and a hardware configuration diagram are provided. 3 figs.

  13. A Heuristic Approach for International Crude Oil Transportation Scheduling Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Sisi; Nishi, Tatsushi; Izuno, Tsukasa

    In this paper, we propose a heuristic algorithm to solve a practical ship scheduling problem for international crude oil transportation. The problem is considered as a vehicle routing problem with split deliveries. The objective of this paper is to find an optimal assignment of tankers, a sequence of visiting and loading volume simultaneously in order to minimize the total distance satisfying the capacity of tankers. A savings-based meta-heuristic algorithm with lot sizing parameters and volume assignment heuristic is developed. The proposed method is applied to solve a case study with real data. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm compared with that of human operators.

  14. Macondo crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental processes during zebrafish embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest marine oil spill in history, and total vertical exposure of oil to the water column suggests it could impact an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The most vulnerable organisms are those encountering these pollutants during their early life stages. Water-soluble components of crude oil and specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to cause defects in cardiovascular and craniofacial development in a variety of teleost species, but the developmental origins of these defects have yet to be determined. We have adopted zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model to test whether water accumulated fractions (WAF) of the Deepwater Horizon oil could impact specific embryonic developmental processes. While not a native species to the Gulf waters, the developmental biology of zebrafish has been well characterized and makes it a powerful model system to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind Macondo crude toxicity. Results WAF of Macondo crude oil sampled during the oil spill was used to treat zebrafish throughout embryonic and larval development. Our results indicate that the Macondo crude oil causes a variety of significant defects in zebrafish embryogenesis, but these defects have specific developmental origins. WAF treatments caused defects in craniofacial development and circulatory function similar to previous reports, but we extend these results to show they are likely derived from an earlier defect in neural crest cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that exposure to WAFs causes a variety of novel deformations in specific developmental processes, including programmed cell death, locomotor behavior, sensory and motor axon pathfinding, somitogenesis and muscle patterning. Interestingly, the severity of cell death and muscle phenotypes decreased over several months of repeated analysis, which was correlated with a rapid drop-off in the aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon components of the oil

  15. Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter sp. MWB30, Isolated from a Crude Oil-Contaminated Seashore

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Seon Hee; Moon, Yoon-Jung; Park, Sung-Joon; Kim, Seung Il; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. MWB30 strain, isolated from a crude oil-contaminated seashore in Tae-an, South Korea, which is able to degrade the crude oil and its derivatives. The draft genome sequence of 4,647,008 bp provides a resource for the identification of crude oil-degrading mechanisms in strain MWB30. PMID:25700396

  16. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model. PMID:26944428

  17. 78 FR 78353 - NuStar Crude Oil Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Petiton for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NuStar Crude Oil Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Petiton for Declaratory... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2013), NuStar Crude Oil Pipeline L.P. (NuStar) filed a...Star's South Texas Crude Oil Pipeline system to transport additional Eagle Ford shale crude....

  18. Crude oil tank-cleaning process recovers oil, reduces hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.B. ); Goss, M.L. ); Schoemann, P.; Tyler, S.S. )

    1993-12-13

    An improved crude oil tank-cleaning process can reduce hazardous waste generated from tank bottoms and allow the recovery of valuable hydrocarbons. The process uses chemicals, heat, water, and applications technology. Crude oil tank bottoms are typically high in hydrocarbons -- a valuable raw material if recovered and recycled back to the refining process. Nalco's patented program essentially separates sludge into its components: water, nonhazardous solids, and recovered hydrocarbons. The paper describes industry trends, sludge removal, mechanical cleaning, chemical cleaning, environment and safety, case history of a New Jersey refinery, testing, program design, the cleaning process, hydrocarbon recovery, and return on investment.

  19. Geospatial Hydrochemical and Microbiological Implications on the Occurrence of Crude Oil Biodegradation and Methanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Warwick, P.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Technologies that serve as a bridge between renewable energy and fossil fuels are needed to meet growing energy demands and to mitigate climate change. Many reservoirs contain difficult to produce residual and/or heavily biodegraded (i.e., geochemically altered) crude oil, which remains a relatively untapped resource. Production of this residual crude oil via unconventional methods, such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR), has offset some of the decline in conventional oil production. EOR is not efficient enough to recover all of the original oil in place, and some methods are not effective for very heavy crude oils. Stimulation of in-situ microorganisms to convert the residual crude oil to natural gas (i.e., microbial methane) is one promising strategy to "extract" residual and /or heavy crude oil. Although the hydrogeochemical conditions necessary for the occurrence of both crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis in various reservoirs have been studied, there are still gaps in research. Many hydrogeochemical factors have been researched individually (not as part of a multifactor or lithologically similar system) and little work has assessed the microbiological limitations of both processes. Our goal is to determine the hydrogeochemical and microbiological conditions required for maximum crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis across a lithologically similar unit. Produced water, oil, gas, and microbial biomass samples were collected from wells completed in the Paleocene—Eocene Wilcox Group in central Louisiana. Initial results indicate potential relationships between the amount of crude oil biodegradation, indicators of microbial methanogenesis, and aqueous geochemistry. For example, produced waters with the lowest salinity had the highest crude oil biodegradation, and wells exhibiting the most microbial methane generation produce waters with hydrogeochemical conditions most fit for methanogenesis to occur. In sampled wells displaying

  20. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Flame propagation over a layer of crude oil floating on water

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, M. ); Saito, K. ); Altenkirch, R.A. )

    1993-01-01

    The velocity of propagation of a flame over layers of three types of crude oil of various thicknesses on water was measured at different initial temperatures and times of exposure to the air. The rate of propagation was slower, and the width of the preheating zone was narrower the thinner the layer of crude oil. The pattern of propagation varied with the type of crude oil, its temperature, and the time of exposure, but, as the time of exposure increased, the effects of the type of crude oil and the temperature diminished, i.e., the diffusional flame is the controlling factor in this phenomenon.

  2. Quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huacai; Liu, Fuli; Wang, Zhilan; Jin, Shangzhong

    2008-03-01

    Calibration models of quantitative analysis of peanut oil content in ternary blended edible oil by near infrared spectroscopy were built using partial least square (PLS) regression. A total of 92 samples blended with three kinds of pure oil in different proportion (V/V) were prepared. Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples were collected over 4 000 cm -1-10 000 cm -1 spectral region with a FT-NIR spectrometer. A calibration model of prediction to the peanut oil content was established with PLS using the original spectra and validated with leave-one-out cross validation method. The correlation coefficient and the RMSEC of the model were 0.9926 and 2.91%, respectively. The result showed that near infrared spectroscopy could be an ideal tool for fast determination to the peanut oil content in blended edible oil.

  3. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir. PMID:24829563

  4. The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Heffelfinger, G.S.

    1991-06-01

    Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment. PMID:26581816

  6. Bacterial communities in a crude oil gathering and transferring system (China).

    PubMed

    Liu, Y J; Chen, Y P; Jin, P K; Wang, X C

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial communities in crude oil and oil field production water samples from an oil gathering and transferring system in Changqing Oil field in China were investigated by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis followed by gene cloning and sequencing. DGGE profiles showed that bacterial communities are far more rich in the water samples than that in the crude oil samples, and that bacteria related to Ochrobactrum sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. were detected in all crude oil and oil field water samples. Bacteria related to Burkholderia sp., Brevundimonas sp., and Propionibacterium sp. were detected in the crude oil samples but not in water samples. Bacteria related to Hippea sp., Acidovorax sp., Arcobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Thiomicrospira sp., Brevibacterium sp., Tissierella sp. and Peptostreptococcus sp. were detected in the water samples but not in crude oil samples. Using an archaea-specific primer set, methanogens related to Methanomicrobials and Methanosarcinales were found in water samples but not in crude oil samples. The comparability of the microbial communities in the water and crude oil phase during the period of oil gathering and transferring process was 83.3% and 88.2%, respectively, indicating a stable structure of the microbial communities. PMID:19351561

  7. Geochemical analysis of potash mine seep oils, collapsed breccia pipe oil shows and selected crude oils, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Snyder, R.P.; Baysinger, J.P.; Threlkeld, C.N.

    1982-01-01

    Oil shows, in the form of oil stains and bleeding oil, in core samples from two breccia pipes, Hills A and C, Eddy County, New Mexico, and seepage oils in a potash mine near Hill C breccia pipe are geochemically similar. The geochemical similarities strongly suggest that they belong to the same family of oils and were derived from similar sources. The oils are relatively high in sulfur (0.89 to 1.23 percent), rich in hydrocarbons (average 82 percent), relatively high in saturated hydrocarbon/aromatic hydrocarbon ratios (average 2.9), and based on analysis of seep oils alone, have a low API gravity (average 19.4?). The oils are for the most part severely biodegraded as attested by the loss of n-paraffin molecules. Geochemical comparison of seven crude oils collected in the vicinity of the breccia pipes indicates that the Yates oils are the likely source of the above family of oils. Six barrels of crude oil that were dumped into a potash exploration borehole near Hill C breccia pipe, to release stuck casing, are considered an unlikely source of the breccia pipe and mine seep oils. Volumetric and hydrodynamic constraints make it highly improbable that such a small volume of 'dumped' oil could migrate over distances ranging from about 600 feet to 2.5 miles to the sites of the oil shows.

  8. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  9. Toxicity of dispersant Corexit 9500A and crude oil to marine microzooplankton.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Hyatt, Cammie; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, nearly 7 million liters of chemical dispersants, mainly Corexit 9500A, were released in the Gulf of Mexico to treat the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. However, little is still known about the effects of Corexit 9500A and dispersed crude oil on microzooplankton despite the important roles of these planktonic organisms in marine ecosystems. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the acute toxicity of Corexit 9500A, and physically and chemically dispersed Louisiana light sweet crude oil to marine microzooplankton (oligotrich ciliates, tintinnids and heterotrophic dinoflagellates). Our results indicate that Corexit 9500A is highly toxic to microzooplankton, particularly to small ciliates, and that the combination of dispersant with crude oil significantly increases the toxicity of crude oil to microzooplankton. The negative impact of crude oil and dispersant on microzooplankton may disrupt the transfer of energy from lower to higher trophic levels and change the structure and dynamics of marine planktonic communities. PMID:24836881

  10. Application of rhamnolipid as a novel biodemulsifier for destabilizing waste crude oil.

    PubMed

    Long, Xuwei; Zhang, Guoliang; Shen, Chong; Sun, Guansong; Wang, Ruixu; Yin, Lujiang; Meng, Qin

    2013-03-01

    Waste crude oil emulsion was inevitably produced in the petroleum industrial process, causing harmful impact on the ecological and social environment. In this study, rhamnolipid was for the first time investigated for demulsification of waste crude oil. As found in this paper, rhamnolipid treatment could obtain over 90% of dewatering efficiency on refractory waste crude oil and such efficient demulsification was confirmed on model emulsions. As further demonstrated on the pilot scale (100 L), rhamnolipid treatment could recover over 98% of crude oil from the wastes. The recovered oil contained less than 0.3% of water and thus can directly re-enter into refinery process while the aqueous phase can be disposed into dischargeable water due to largely reduced soluble COD after subjected to 5 days of active sludge treatment. It seems that rhamnolipids as biodemulsifiers were of great prospects in the industrial demulsification of waste crude oil. PMID:23321664

  11. Effect of Light Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil on Growth and Germination of Festuca arundinacea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Shahriari, Malek-Hossein; Savaghebi-Firoozabadi, Gholamreza

    In this study the effect of different concentrations of light crude oil (up to 10%) on the growth and germination of Festuca arundinacea (Tall fescue) was studied. Present results showed that the germination number and dry biomass of the plant decreased by increasing light crude oil concentration in the soil. The biomass was higher in 1% crude oil sample while it was lower in 10% crude oil sample. The length of leaves reduced in higher crude oil concentration in comparison with the control. Total and oil-degrading colony count of soil showed that the microbial population in 7 and 10% samples was higher than the control and low concentrations of crude oil (1 and 3% samples). The crude oil reduction in the vegetated and the non-vegetated samples was higher in 1% sample. All vegetated samples had higher crude oil reduction than non-vegetated samples. The higher reduction was occurred at 1% sample, while the lower reduction was seen at 10% sample.

  12. BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

  13. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  14. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank...

  15. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  16. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank...

  17. Comparative Toxicity of Eight Oil Dispersants, Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Aquatic Test Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach utilized consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispers...

  18. Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.

  19. Studies on water-in-oil products from crude oils and petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben

    2012-02-01

    Water-in-oil mixtures such as emulsions, often form and complicate oil spill countermeasures. The formation of water-in-oil mixtures was studied using more than 300 crude oils and petroleum products. Water-in-oil types were characterized by resolution of water at 1 and 7 days, and some after 1 year. Rheology measurements were carried out at the same intervals. The objective of this laboratory study was to characterize the formed water-in-oil products and relate these properties to starting oil properties. Analysis of the starting oil properties of these water-in-oil types shows that the existence of each type relates to the starting oil viscosity and its asphaltene and resin contents. This confirms that water-in-oil emulsification is a result of physical stabilization by oil viscosity and chemical stabilization by asphaltenes and resins. This stabilization is illustrated using simple graphical techniques. Four water-in-oil types exist: stable, unstable, meso-stable and entrained. Each of these has distinct physical properties. PMID:22183525

  20. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  1. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  2. Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

    2012-02-21

    The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber. PMID:22296110

  3. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials.

    PubMed

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it's of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a "seed bank" of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments. PMID:26525361

  4. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments. PMID:26525361

  5. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  6. 78 FR 21929 - TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 26, 2013, TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP (TexStar) submitted to the Federal Energy...

  7. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  8. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  9. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...

  10. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil... hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. (b) The border of the square-on-point must be black or red on a white or...., manhole, loading head) where exposure to hydrogen sulfide vapors may occur. The label, tag, or sign...