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1

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

2

Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geology of the central part of Ethiopia exhibits a variety of rock types that can potentially be developed for construction stone production, of which the most wide spread and important one is the Termaber basalt. Even though some preliminary work is done on these rocks towards construction material application, it remains largely that this resource is untouched and needs further scientific characterization for the use in large scale industrial application. Basaltic rocks have been widely used in many parts of the world as concrete aggregate and dimension stone for various civil structures. The present research study was carried out for Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (around Debre Birhan). The main objective of the present research study was to assess the general suitability of the Termaber basalt to be used as coarse aggregate for concrete mix and/or to utilize it as cut stone at industrial level. Only choice made with full knowledge of the basic characteristics of the material, of its performance and durability against the foreseen solicitations will ensure the necessary quality of the stone work and thereby a possibility to reach its intended service life. In order to meet out the objective of the present study, data from both field and laboratory were collected and analyzed. The field data included geological investigations based on different methods and sample collection while the laboratory work included, uniaxial compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic elasticity modulus, bulk density, water absorption, specific gravity, open porosity, aggregate impact value, petrographic examination and XRF, aggregate crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion value, sodium sulfate soundness, X-ray diffraction and alkali silica reactivity tests. The field and laboratory data were compiled and compared together to reveal the engineering performance of the rock mass in terms of cut stone and coarse aggregates. The basaltic rock shows a variety of textural and mineralogical characteristics which could affect their physical and mechanical properties as well as their use as construction material. The compressive strength of the basaltic rock ranges from 130 MPa to 350 MPa, ultrasonic pulse velocity from 4000 m/s to 7000 m/s, open porosity from 0.33% to 3.08%, bulk density from 2.6 g/cm3 to 3.1 g/cm3, dynamic elasticity modulus from 64 GPa to 129 GPa, etc. The petrographic examination also indicated some deleterious constituents within the middle basaltic flow layers however; there are distinct flow layers which could be used as dimension stone and coarse aggregate for concrete and asphalt mix. The field investigation as well as the laboratory tests conducted indicated the high potential of the Termaber basalt formation to be used as construction material with further refining works. The study presented in this paper was carried out on basalts that are widespread in the central highland of Ethiopia and that comprise the major source of local crushed rock aggregates and building stone.

Engidasew, Tesfaye Asresahagne; Barbieri, Giulio

2014-11-01

3

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES IN KRAFT PULP MILL AND CRUSHED STONE INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of fine particulate emissions from selected kraft pulp mill and stone crushing facilities is addressed. The principal devices considered are electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. Guidelines are provided for industrial personnel responsible for se...

4

SUBGRADE AGGREGATE, SPECIAL (Tollway) Effective: October 29, 2012  

E-print Network

be crushed stone, crushed blast furnace slag, crushed gravel, crushed reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) particles, or crushed concrete. Virgin steel slag aggregates and other expansive materials as determined of objectionable deleterious material with a gradation as follows. 1. Crushed Stone, Crushed Blast Furnace Slag

5

Crystal aggregation in kidney stones; a polymer aggregation problem?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones most frequently form as aggregates of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with organic layers between them, and the organic layers contain principally proteins. The pathway leading to the formation of these crystal aggregates in affected people has not been identified, but stone forming patients are thought to have a defect in the structure or distribution of urinary proteins, which normally protect against stone formation. We have developed two polyelectrolyte models that will induce COM crystal aggregation in vitro, and both are consistent with possible urinary protein compositions. The first model was based on mixing polyanionic and polycationic proteins, in portions such that the combined protein charge is near zero. The second model was based on reducing the charge density on partially charged polyanionic proteins, specifically Tamm-Horsfall protein, the second most abundant protein in urine. Both models demonstrated polymer phase separation at solution conditions where COM crystal aggregation was observed. Correlation with data from other bulk crystallization measurements suggest that the anionic side chains form critical binding interactions with COM surfaces that are necessary along with the phase separation process to induce COM crystal aggregation.

Wesson, J.; Beshensky, A.; Viswanathan, P.; Zachowicz, W.; Kleinman, J.

2008-03-01

6

Effect of crushed ceramic and basaltic pumice as fine aggregates on concrete mortars properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the suitability of ceramic industrial wastes and huge amounts of basaltic pumice as a possible substitute for conventional crushed fine aggregates. Experiments were carried out to determine abrasion resistance, chloride penetration depths and the compressive strengths of concrete with crushed ceramic waste and basaltic pumice fine aggregates and to compare them with those of conventional concretes. Test

Hanifi Binici

2007-01-01

7

Influences of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes used for crushed stone production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the influence of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes. These sedimentary rocks make about 27 % of crushed stone market in the Czech Republic. Mainly in Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), greywackes represent almost exclusive high quality aggregate. The behaviour of greywackes varies, however, from quarry to quarry. In this study, we have selected the most important deposits that cover major lithological variation of local greywackes. Studied greywackes were analysed for their petrographic parameters quantitatively (using image analysis of thin sections). The pore space characteristics were determined by using fluorescent dye - epoxy resin impregnated specimens. The studied rocks are composed of subangular and angular quartz grains, lithoclasts (stable rocks: quartzites, and unstable rocks: phylites, metaphylites, siltstones, slates, greywackes, and less frequently acid eruptive rocks), feldspars (orthoclas, microcline, plagioclase), and detrital micas. Detrital and authigenic chlorite has been found as well. The matrix which represents the largest volume of rock-forming components contains a mixture of sericite, chlorite, clay minerals, cements, and clasts in aleuropelitic size. Based on the microscopic examination, all studied rock types were classified as greywacke with fine- to medium-grained massive rock fabric. Only specimen from B?lkovice has shown partly layered structure. Alteration of feldspars and unstable rock fragments represents common feature. Diagenetic features included pressure dissolution of quartz clasts and formation of siliceous and/or calcite cements. Based on the experimental study of technological performance of studied greywackes and its correlation to petrographic features, the average size of clasts and volume of matrix make the driving factors affecting the LA values. The LA values decrease with the increasing of volume of matrix (R = 0.61) and with decreasing average grain size (R = 0.44). The degree of sorting influences LA values as well; more graded greywackes tend to show higher LA values. Regarding PSV, its values increase with increasing volume of quartz clasts.

Prikryl, Richard; Cermak, Martin; Krutilova, Katerina

2014-05-01

8

Crushed cement concrete substitution for construction aggregates; a materials flow analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analysis of the substitution of crushed cement concrete for natural construction aggregates is performed by using a materials flow diagram that tracks all material flows into and out of the cement concrete portion of the products made with cement concrete: highways, roads, and buildings. Crushed cement concrete is only one of the materials flowing into these products, and the amount of crushed cement concrete substituted influences the amount of other materials in the flow. Factors such as availability and transportation costs, as well as physical properties, that can affect stability and finishability, influence whether crushed cement concrete or construction aggregates should be used or predominate for a particular end use.

Kelly, Thomas

1998-01-01

9

A study on the internal aggregate packing of stone mastic asphalt (SMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate quantification of aggregate properties is essential for a better understanding of their effect on an asphalt mixture. This is even more relevant for stone mastic asphalt (SMA) for which stone-to-stone contact forms the cornerstone of SMA load-carrying capacity, especially against rutting. A quantitative method based on volumetric properties such as voids in mineral aggregates and voids in coarse aggregate

Qiu Yunfeng; Lum Kit Meng

10

Gist of medicinal plants of Pakistan having ethnobotanical evidences to crush renal calculi (kidney stones).  

PubMed

Human civilization is facing the problem of kidney stones since ancient ages. Although mortality rate is not so high, yet it affects the victim's quality of life. The patient suffers from intense pain and many other symptoms modifying his life style and affecting his socioeconomic status. Many drugs and invasive methods have also been developed for the treatment, but these are highly costly and unaffordable for poor people and the rate of reoccurrence is also high. The use of medicinal plants is both affordable and effective in this respect. In this article, 35 medicinal plants of Pakistan origin and their crucial information have been enumerated in alphabetical order of plant's scientific name, family, place (distribution), part used, local name, habit, major constituents and references. It can also be seen that all parts are used for the treatment of kidney stones. Leaves represent 28% contribution, whole plants and seeds 12%, fruits and roots 11% contribution in this respect. Flowers contribute 8% in the treatment of kidney stone while branches, bark, bushes, buds, milk and shoots contribute only 3% in the removal of kidney stones. Habits of plants were also taken under consideration. It was noticed that herbs are the most useful life form in this regard which contributed 63% for the removal of kidney stone. Shrubs contributed 20%, trees 11% while bushes and weeds contributed 3% for the removal of kidney stones. PMID:24779189

Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Durr-e-Sabih; Ikram, Raja Muhammad; Hussain, Muhammad Sikandar; Khan, Muhammad Tajammal; Ahamad, Ghafoor; Karim, Sabiha; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

2014-01-01

11

Characterization of aggregate resistance to degradation in stone matrix asphalt mixtures  

E-print Network

of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2005 Major Subject: Civil Engineering CHARACTERIZATION OF AGGREGATE RESISTANCE TO DEGRADATION IN STONE MATRIX ASPHALT MIXTURES A Thesis by DENNIS GATCHALIAN Submitted... Head of Department, David Rosowsky December 2005 Major Subject: Civil Engineering iii ABSTRACT Characterization of Aggregate Resistance to Degradation in Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures. (December 2005) Dennis...

Gatchalian, Dennis

2006-04-12

12

The Properties of Mortar Mixtures Blended with Natural, Crushed, and Recycled Fine Aggregates for Building Construction Materials  

SciTech Connect

In this research, the possible applicability of fine aggregates blended with natural, crushed, and recycled fine aggregate are discussed. The fresh and hardened properties of mortar using blended fine aggregates are monitored depending on various blending ratio of fine aggregates. Newly developed ternary diagram was also utilized for better interpretation of the data. It was found that air content increased and unit weight decreased as recycled fine aggregate content increased. With moisture type processing of recycled fine aggregate, the mortar flow was not negatively affected by increase in the recycled fine aggregate content. The ternary diagram is found to be an effective graphical presentation tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of mortar using blended fine aggregate.

Yu, Myoung-Youl; Lee, Jae-Yong; Chung, Chul-Woo

2012-01-12

13

Mineral resource of the month: aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the two major types of natural aggregates, are among the most abundant and accessible natural resources on the planet. The earliest civilizations used aggregates for various purposes, mainly construction. Today aggregates provide the basic raw materials for the foundation of modern society.

Willett, Jason C.

2012-01-01

14

The assessment of particulate matter emitted from stone-crushing industry by correlating rock textures with particles generated after comminution and dispersed in air environment.  

PubMed

The generation and emission of particulate matter from abrasion industry are subjects of the pollution monitoring by multidisciplinary study involving earth sciences and engineering disciplines. This work investigates the correlation between textural properties of in situ rock with class size distribution and morphology of particles generated after rock comminution and particles emitted in the air. A special comminution-dust sampling architecture was realised. The combined use of scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser was considered in performing digital image analysis on both crushed products and airborne particles collected onto membrane filters. The results show that the size and morphology of crushed particles are linked to the petrographic rock properties. In particular, particles with fibrous morphology are prominent in rocks showing foliated textures where elongated minerals occurred, with implication for asbestos-bearing rocks. For what concerns the airborne particles, the results show that their aerodynamic diameters are independent of the crusher operating conditions. External parameters probably intervene in the distribution of the airborne particles emission, including the dynamic air fluxes, or environmental conditions. By applying mathematical models, the morphology and size range of airborne particles following the comminution processes can be predicted, and results has implication for pollutants contamination due to particulate matters emitted by crush stone industry. PMID:23292201

Belardi, Girolamo; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Plescia, Paolo; Passeri, Luciano

2013-07-01

15

Mineral of the month: aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

Tepordei, Valentin V.

2005-01-01

16

Comparison of properties of steel slag and crushed limestone aggregate concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. This by-product that mainly consists of calcium carbonate is broken down to smaller sizes to be used as aggregates in asphalt and concrete. They are particularly useful in areas where good-quality aggregate is scarce. This research study was conducted to evaluate the

M Maslehuddin; Alfarabi M Sharif; M Shameem; M Ibrahim; M. S Barry

2003-01-01

17

Formulation of production blasting criteria for the construction of a lime plant at a major crushed stone operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blast-monitoring program conducted at Chemical Lime Company's new lime calcining facility near St Genevieve, Missouri, USA is discussed. The purpose was to develop blasting criteria for the construction and operation of the lime plant within the quarry operated by Tower Rock Stone. Further, it was imperative to accommodate production requirements into the blasting criteria. The major concern was the

Paul Worsey; Scott G. Giltner; Terry Drechsler; Ron Ecklecamp; Ronnie Inman

1998-01-01

18

Crushing Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners design a crushing test and discover that identifying and controlling the variables may be difficult. Although the crushing test will not give conclusive results, it is a good opportunity to discuss variables and why they are sometimes difficult to control. This crushing test is also a good example of how a particular test does not always give enough information to answer a question. This is a follow-up to the activity called "Curious Crystals," in which learners investigate crystals and their properties to identify an unknown crystal.

James H. Kessler

2007-01-01

19

A brief review of the construction aggregates market  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and/or construction sand and gravel. Aggregates have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of purposes - construction being the major use. As construction aggregates, crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the basic raw materials used to build the foundation for modern society. The widespread use of construction aggregates is the result of their general availability throughout the country and around the world along with their relatively low cost. Although construction aggregates have a low unit value, their widespread use makes them major contributors to, and indicators of, the economic well-being of the nation.

Willett, Jason Christopher

2012-01-01

20

Crush Grinding  

SciTech Connect

Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

T. Q. Nguyen

2005-04-01

21

Some Geological Considerations and Durability Analysis on the Use of Crushed Pyroclastics from Abakaliki (Southeastern Nigeria) as Concrete Aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of pyroclastic rocks fromAbakaliki area (Nigeria) were subjected to geological and geochemical tests to determine the suitability and durability of the rocks as concrete aggregate. Petrographic analysis shows fine-grained texture and predominance of plagioclase (21–60 %) and shaley-muddy lithic fragment, while geochemical analysis classifies the rocks as alkaline. Analysis indicates that the pyroclastics would likely perform marginally well as

C. O. Okogbue

2013-01-01

22

[Crush syndrome].  

PubMed

Crush injuries and crush syndrome are common after natural (e.g. earthquake, land-slide, tornadoes, tsunami) or man-made catastrophes (e.g. wars, terrorist attacks), in fact the history of this disease is well reported both in earthquake rescue reviews and in military literature. However, there are instances due to conventional causes, such as building collapses, road traffic accident, accident at work or altered level of consciousness after stroke or drug overdose. These situations of ''big or small'' catastrophes can occur at any time and anywhere, for this reason every clinician should be prepared to address issues of crush syndrome quickly and aggressively. The treatment has to manage and to predict clinical conditions before they present themselves. In particular, acute renal failure is one of the few life-threatening complications that can be reversed. This article reviews the various evidences and summarizes the treatment strategies available. Fundamental targets in crush syndrome management are early aggressive hydration, urine alkalinization and, when possible, forced diuresis. Since electrolyte imbalance may be fatal due to arrhythmias secondary to hyperkalemia (especially associated with hypocalcemia), it's necessary to correct these abnormalities using insulin-glucose solution and/or potassium binders, and if nevertheless serum potassium levels remain high this serious disease will necessitate dialysis, which is often a vital procedure. PMID:17641588

Scapellato, S; Maria, S; Castorina, G; Sciuto, G

2007-08-01

23

Crush syndrome.  

PubMed

The assessment, management, and treatment of the entrapped victim are critical skills needed to ensure a successful outcome. Individuals have been trapped in the "rubble" for even short periods of time only to succumb to predictable consequences of muscle compression injury. The clinician should be prepared to address issues of crush syndrome (including compartment syndrome) proactively and aggressively. The history of this disease is clear and well documented both in the military literature and in the earthquake rescue reviews. The key to management is managing and predicting clinical conditions before they present themselves. The potential exists in the urban environment (with the potential of building collapses) to have patients with crush syndrome that far exceed local medical capabilities should be part of modern disaster planning. This article reviews the various body systems and presents management and assessment strategies for the clinician. PMID:15640677

Gonzalez, Dario

2005-01-01

24

The Nation's top 25 construction aggregates producers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U.S. production of construction aggregates in 2011 was 2.17 billion short tons, valued at $17.2 billion, free on board (f.o.b.) at plant. Construction aggregates production decreased by 37 percent, and the associated value decreased by 25 percent, compared with the record highs reported in 2006. In 2011, construction aggregates production increased for the first time since 2006, owing to a very slight increase in the production of both construction sand and gravel and crushed stone. The average unit value, which is the f.o.b. at plant price of a ton of material, increased slightly, but is still less than the average unit value of two years prior.

Willett, Jason Christopher

2013-01-01

25

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

26

Crush Test Abuse Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this system is to simulate an internal short on battery cells by causing deformation (a crushing force) in a cell without penetration. This is performed by activating a hydraulic cylinder on one side of a blast wall with a hydraulic pump located on the other. The operator can control the rate of the crush by monitoring a local pressure gauge connected to the hydraulic cylinder or a load cell digital display located at the hydraulic pump control area. The internal short simulated would be considered a worst-case scenario of a manufacturer fs defect. This is a catastrophic failure of a cell and could be a very destructive event. Fully charged cells are to have an internal short simulated at the center of the length of the cell (away from terminals). The crush can be performed with a .- to 1-in. (.0.6- to 2.5-cm) rod placed crossways to the cell axis, causing deformation of the cell without penetration. The OCV (open-circuit voltage) and temperature of the cells, as well as the pressure and crushing force, are recorded during the operation. Occurrence of an internal short accompanied by any visible physical changes such as venting, fires, or explosions is reported. Typical analytical data examined after the test would be plots of voltage, temperature, and pressure or force versus time. The rate of crushing force can be increased or decreased based on how fast the operator pumps the hydraulic pump. The size of cylinder used to compress the battery cell can be easily changed by adding larger or smaller fittings onto the end of the hydraulic cylinder based on the battery/cell size being tested. The cell is crushed remotely and videotaped, allowing the operator to closely monitor the situation from a safe distance.

Collins, Jacob; Jeevarajan, Judith; Salinas, Mike

2011-01-01

27

Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.  

PubMed

Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks. PMID:19398196

Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

2009-08-01

28

Kidney stones  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... dissolved in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is the size ... painful. Often, people may not know they have kidney stones until they feel the painful symptoms resulting from ...

29

[Calyceal stones].  

PubMed

The natural course of untreated, asymptomatic calyceal calculi has not yet been clearly defined regarding disease progression and risk of surgical interventions. The decision for an active treatment of calyceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the German (DGU) and European (EAU) Associations of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of calyceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate removal of stones is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone location and stone composition and can show remarkable differences. Minimally invasive procedures, such as percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of calyceal stones which have low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centres of excellence. PMID:23860670

Netsch, C; Gross, A J

2013-08-01

30

Bladder stones  

MedlinePLUS

Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

31

Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although state-of-the-art CT provides accurate sub millimeter details of the size and location of renal stones, current routine\\u000a clinical image analysis does not differentiate stone composition. This is particularly important in the case of uric acid\\u000a (UA) stones (?10% of cases), since urinary alkalinization can be prescribed to dissolve UA stones. Therefore, simple and reliable\\u000a differentiation of UA vs. non-UA

Andrew N. Primak; Terri J. Vrtiska; Mingliang Qu; Cynthia H. McCollough

32

Renal Stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

2002-01-01

33

Stone chewing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Picking stones up into the mouth and chewing them has been commonly reported in pigs and also in dogs. It has variously been described as play behavior, redirected foraging behavior or a stereotypic behavior. In pigs, stone chewing is often observed in sows housed on paddocks, and most frequently o...

34

Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... when you urinate Your doctor will diagnose a kidney stone with urine, blood, and imaging tests. If you have a stone that won't pass on its own, you may need treatment. It can be done with shock waves; with ...

35

Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for living space has encroached on the sites of production; in other words, the act of production has engendered condemnation. Many other environmental problems that are associated with dust and noise and blasting from quarry and pit operations have been reduced through the efficient use of technology. Recycling concrete in buildings, bridges, and roads and asphaltic pavements will ultimately reduce the demand for virgin natural aggregate. The impact created by the large holes in the ground required for the mining of natural aggregate can be greatly reduced by planning their reclamation before mining begins. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

2002-01-01

36

COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway Rolands Cepuritis, Norcem/NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF Aggregate production is a mining operation where no purification of the "ore" is necessary. Still it is extremely rare that an aggregate production plant is operating on the basis of zero-waste concept. This is since historically the fine crushed aggregate (particles with a size of less than 2, 4 or sometimes 8 mm) has been regarded as a by-product or waste of the more valuable coarse aggregate production. The reason is that the crushed coarse aggregates can easily replace coarse rounded natural stones in almost any concrete composition; while, the situation with the sand is different. The production of coarse aggregate normally yields fine fractions with rough surface texture, flaky or elongated particles an inadequate gradation. When such a material replaces smooth and rounded natural sand grains in a concrete mix, the result is usually poor and much more water and cement has to be used to achieve adequate concrete flow. The consequences are huge stockpiles of the crushed fine fractions that can't be sold (mass balance problems) for the aggregate producers, sustainability problems for the whole industry and environmental issues for society due to dumping and storing of the fine co-generated material. There have been attempts of utilising the material in concrete before; however, they have mostly ended up in failure. There have been attempts to adjust the crushed sand to the properties of the natural sand, which would still give a lot of waste, especially if the grading would have to be adjusted and the high amounts of fines abundantly present in the crushed sand would have to be removed. Another fundamental reason for failure has been that historically such attempts have mainly ended up in a research carried out by people (both industrial and academic) with aggregate background (= parties willing to find market for their crusher fines) providing only conclusions already well known by the engineers involved in concrete production. Due to the pressing situation with the left resources of the natural sand and gravel in Scandinavia, a new and different development approach has been recently attempted with the Concrete Innovation Center (COIN) in Norway. The centre is a research based innovation project that has brought together and served as a source of funding to facilitate the crucial interaction between the professionals from the different involved industries (quarrying machinery supplier, aggregate producers, concrete producers and concrete contractors) and the academic people from universities and research institutions, in order come up with a better crushed sand solution for the future. The concept under development has been a zero-waste technology for aggregate production, where instead of reducing the amount of the crushed fines their properties are rather engineered to crucially increase the overall performance of the sand in concrete. The project also involves collaboration with a state-of-the-art aggregate production plant where the new technology has already been implemented. The production process there is based on the new engineered sand concepts successfully supplying 100% all of the produced fractions to concrete and asphalt producers.

Cepuritis, Rolands; Willy Danielsen, Svein

2014-05-01

37

Recycled crushed glass in road work applications.  

PubMed

A comprehensive suite of geotechnical laboratory tests was undertaken on samples of recycled crushed glass produced in Victoria, Australia. Three types of recycled glass sources were tested being coarse, medium and fine sized glass. Laboratory testing results indicated that medium and fine sized recycled glass sources exhibit geotechnical behavior similar to natural aggregates. Coarse recycled glass was however found to be unsuitable for geotechnical engineering applications. Shear strength tests indicate that the fine and medium glass encompass shear strength parameters similar to that of natural sand and gravel mixtures comprising of angular particles. Environmental assessment tests indicated that the material meets the requirements of environmental protection authorities for fill material. The results were used to discuss potential usages of recycled glass as a construction material in geotechnical engineering applications particularly road works. PMID:21803560

Disfani, M M; Arulrajah, A; Bo, M W; Hankour, R

2011-11-01

38

Social Signals--Mike's Crush  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review discusses the unique audiovisual-based curriculum "Mike's Crush", by Nancy Nowell, and briefly describes the autism spectrum and its associated challenges. The review explores the curriculum's noteworthy approach to teaching social skills and recommends it as helpful material for all educators, especially for those working with…

Mitelman, Stephanie; Kohorn, Olivia Von

2012-01-01

39

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by...

2012-04-01

40

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by...

2014-04-01

41

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by...

2011-04-01

42

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by...

2010-04-01

43

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs...Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by...

2013-04-01

44

Constitutive behaviour of crushed ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ice-structure interaction, a zone of highly damaged ice is created near the structure surface. The crushed material of\\u000a this zone has large ductility and is subjected to complex load and deformation histories. In this paper, various aspects of\\u000a constitutive modelling of this material are discussed. The changes in microstructures such as cracks and grain boundaries\\u000a are modelled by a

S. K. Singh; I. J. Jordaan

1999-01-01

45

Kidney Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program discusses kidney stones including how they are formed, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and prevention. It also reviews the anatomy and function of the kidneys. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

46

Hyaluronan and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

Asselman, Marino

2008-09-01

47

Measuring stone weathering in cities: Surface reduction on marble monuments  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to establish whether measurements of stone weathering recorded by different observers could be aggregated into a simple data base for evaluating pollution effects on calcareous building stone. Apparent differences in recorded weathering rates on marble tombstones were here found to be partly a result of lettering size measured, measuring devices used, and individual observers.

Dragovich, D. (Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia))

1987-01-01

48

Urinary infection stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection stones make up approximately 15% of urinary stone diseases and are thus an important group. These stones are composed of struvite and\\/or carbonate apatite. The basic precondition for the formation of infection stones is a urease positive urinary tract infection. Urease is necessary to split urea to ammonia and CO2. As a result, ammonia ions can form and at

K.-H. Bichler; E. Eipper; K. Naber; V. Braun; R. Zimmermann; S. Lahme

2002-01-01

49

Epidemiology of urinary stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stones are more common in men than in women. Stone formation in renal systems in one of the oldest and the most common form of crystal deposition. Population that consume diets rich in animal protein have a higher risk of stones than those with a more vegetarian diet. The risk of forming a stone is increased further by a high

G. Madhurambal; N. Prabha; S. Ponsadi Lakshmi; R. Valarmathi

2012-01-01

50

Kidney Stones (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... can build up and become stones. Kidney stones range in size from a fraction of an inch to several ... stone, an imaging test can show its exact size and location, which will help doctors decide on ... own and don't need much treatment, but large stones may require surgery or another procedure to ...

51

Mining Mineral Aggregates in Urban Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study can be used in a geographic research methods course to show how nearest-neighbor analysis and regression analysis can be used to study various aspects of land use. An analysis of the sand, gravel, and crushed stone industry in three urban areas of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Florida illustrates the locational problems faced by…

Thomson, Robert D.

52

Modeling Composite Laminate Crushing for Crash Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crash modeling of composite structures remains limited in application and has not been effectively demonstrated as a predictive tool. While the global response of composite structures may be well modeled, when composite structures act as energy-absorbing members through direct laminate crushing the modeling accuracy is greatly reduced. The most efficient composite energy absorbing structures, in terms of energy absorbed per unit mass, are those that absorb energy through a complex progressive crushing response in which fiber and matrix fractures on a small scale dominate the behavior. Such failure modes simultaneously include delamination of plies, failure of the matrix to produce fiber bundles, and subsequent failure of fiber bundles either in bending or in shear. In addition, the response may include the significant action of friction, both internally (between delaminated plies or fiber bundles) or externally (between the laminate and the crushing surface). A figure shows the crushing damage observed in a fiberglass composite tube specimen, illustrating the complexity of the response. To achieve a finite element model of such complex behavior is an extremely challenging problem. A practical crushing model based on detailed modeling of the physical mechanisms of crushing behavior is not expected in the foreseeable future. The present research describes attempts to model composite crushing behavior using a novel hybrid modeling procedure. Experimental testing is done is support of the modeling efforts, and a test specimen is developed to provide data for validating laminate crushing models.

Fleming, David C.; Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

53

Dynamic Crush Characterization of Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the space shuttle return-to-flight preparations following the Columbia accident, finite element models were needed that could predict the threshold of critical damage to the orbiter's wing leading edge from ice debris impacts. Hence, an experimental program was initiated to provide crushing data from impacted ice for use in dynamic finite element material models. A high-speed drop tower was configured to capture force time histories of ice cylinders for impacts up to approximately 100 ft/s. At low velocity, the force-time history depended heavily on the internal crystalline structure of the ice. However, for velocities of 100 ft/s and above, the ice fractured on impact, behaved more like a fluid, and the subsequent force-time history curves were much less dependent on the internal crystalline structure.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Kellas, Sotiris

2006-01-01

54

Percutaneous Stone Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter the method of percutaneous stone removal is reviewed in its entirety. The indications for percutaneous stone\\u000a removal in the age of shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy are carefully reviewed: staghorn stones, obstruction and stones\\u000a (e.g., ureteropelvic junction obstruction and calyceal diverticula), renal anomalies (e.g., horseshoe kidney), stones with\\u000a difficult lower pole anatomy, and calculi that are extremely hard

Louis Eichel; Ralph V. Clayman

55

Mythopoetics of Stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mythopoetics of stone, rocks and mountains is archaic, universal and ambivalent.\\u000a \\u000a The mythopoetical meaning of stones depends on a person’s way of life and on his\\/her relations with the environment. Stones\\u000a are enemies to the tiller, and soil provides him with food. Stone is lifeless and also dangerous to life – stone is both a\\u000a weapon and means of

Kaia Lehari

56

Miscellaneous Stone Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-induced calculi and other rare stone types, such as ammonium acid urate or protein matrix stones, represent only about\\u000a 2% of all renal calculi. However, the chance to easily reverse stone formation risk by discontinuing the offending drug makes\\u000a identification of these entities important for clinicians. Additionally, study of these rare stone types contributes to understanding\\u000a the biochemistry of stone

James B. Cutrell; Robert F. Reilly

57

Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation: Opportunities for the stone and cement industries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accelerated weathering of limestone appears to provide a low-tech, inexpensive, high-capacity, environmentally friendly CO2 mitigation method that could be applied to about 200 fossil fuel fired power plants and about eight cement plants located in coastal areas in the conterminous U.S. This approach could also help solve the problem of disposal of limestone waste fines in the crushed stone industry. Research and implementation of this technology will require new collaborative efforts among the crushed stone and cement industries, electric utilities, and the science and engineering communities.

Langer, William H.; San, Juan A.; Rau, Greg H.; Caldeira, Ken

2009-01-01

58

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED LIMESTONE, STATE OF THE ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed limestone industry. Crushed limestone plants emit particulates from drilling, blasting, transport on unpaved roads, crushing, screening, conveying, and stockpiling. The emission factor for total particulate f...

59

Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the benefits to be gained by using a composite highway base course material consisting of recycled crushed concrete aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and a modest amount of reinforcing fibers. The primary objectives of this research were to (a) quantify the improvement that is obtained by adding fibers to a lean concrete composite (made from recycled aggregate and low quantities of Portland cement and/or fly ash), (b) evaluate the mechanical behavior of such a composite base course material under both static and repeated loads, and (c) utilize the laboratory-determined properties with a mechanistic design method to assess the potential advantages. The split tensile strength of a stabilized recycled aggregate base course material was found to be exponentially related to the compacted dry density of the mix. A lean mix containing 4% cement and 4% fly ash (by weight) develops sufficient unconfined compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths to be used as a high quality stabilized base course. The addition of 4% (by weight) of hooked-end steel fibers significantly enhances the post-peak load-deformation response of the composite in both indirect tension and static flexure. The flexural fatigue behavior of the 4% cement-4% fly ash mix is comparable to all commonly used stabilized materials, including regular concrete; the inclusion of 4% hooked-end fibers to this mix significantly improves its resistance to fatigue failure. The resilient moduli of stabilized recycled aggregate in flexure are comparable to the values obtained for traditional soil-cement mixes. In general, the fibers are effective in retarding the rate of fatigue damage accumulation, which is quantified in terms of a damage index defined by an energy-based approach. The thickness design curves for a stabilized recycled aggregate base course, as developed by using an elastic layer approach, is shown to be in close agreement with a theoretical model (based on Westergaard's assumptions for rigid pavements), which has been found to explain reasonably well the field behavior of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced concrete slabs on grade. Finally, a preliminary cost analysis demonstrated that the use of stabilized recycled aggregate instead of a standard crushed stone base course can result in a meaningful economic savings.

Sobhan, Khaled

60

Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.  

SciTech Connect

Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

2014-03-01

61

Crush injuries of the hand.  

PubMed

A retrospective review of 58 patients presenting with crush injuries of the hand within the 6 year period April 1984 to March 1990 was undertaken. The male-female ratio was 3:1, with a mean age of 25.13 +/- 15.1 years. The peak incidence was in the 3rd decade of life. Machines (55.17%) were the commonest cause with the pepper grinder featuring most prominently. The dorsum (60.3%), little (55.1%) and ring (53.5%) fingers of the right hand were the most commonly involved. Most of the injuries were multiple. Management was mainly conservative and entailed initial limited debridement, thorough washing with soap and water under adequate anaesthesia, bulky boxing glove dressing, elevation, antibiotics and early hand physiotherapy with late reconstruction. Results were excellent in 13 (22.41%), good in 19 (32.76%) poor in 23 (39.66%) and unknown in 3 (5.17%) who were lost to follow-up. Our poor result is perhaps the warning signal that we should abandon our extreme conservative stance and be more aggressive in our attitude to these injuries. PMID:7839916

Okeke, L I; Dogo, D; Ladipo, J K; Ajao, O G

1993-09-01

62

Experimental testing of hot mix asphalt mixture made of recycled aggregates.  

PubMed

The migration of population towards big cities generates rapid construction activities. These activities not only put pressure on natural resources but also produce construction, renovation and demolition waste. There is an urgent need to find out ways to handle this waste owing to growing environmental concerns. This can reduce pressure on natural resources as well. This paper presents the results of experimental studies which were carried out on hot mix asphalt mixture samples. These samples were manufactured by adding recycled aggregates (RA) with natural crushed stone aggregates (CSA). Three levels of addition of RA were considered in the presented studies. RA were obtained from both the concrete waste of construction, renovation and demolition activities and reclaimed asphalt pavement. Separate samples were manufactured with the coarse and fine aggregate fractions of both types of RA. Samples made with CSA were used as control specimens. The samples were prepared and tested using the Marshall method. The performance of the samples was investigated in terms of density-void and stability/flow analysis and was compared with the performance criteria as given by National Highway Authority for wearing course material in Pakistan. Based on this data optimum asphalt contents were determined. All the samples made by adding up to 50% RA conform to the specification requirements of wearing course material as given by National Highway Authority in terms of optimum asphalt contents, voids in mineral aggregates and stability/flow. A statistical analysis of variation of these samples confirmed that addition is also possible statistically. PMID:20483876

Rafi, Muhammad Masood; Qadir, Adnan; Siddiqui, Salman Hameed

2011-12-01

63

Kidney Stones in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... of Topics and Titles : Kidney Stones in Children Kidney Stones in Children On this page: What is ...

64

Kidney Stones in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... of Topics and Titles : Kidney Stones in Adults Kidney Stones in Adults On this page: What is ...

65

Static contact crushing of composite laminated shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crush behavior of carbon-epoxy composite laminated shells with three different curvatures is investigated. The FEM package ABAQUS and the user-defined material subroutine (UMAT) based on the concept of progressive stiffness degradation were employed to simulate crushing until the specimens totally collapsed. The 2-D delamination propagation proposed by Davies et al. is considered to be an additional failure mechanism for

C. H. Huang; Y. J. Lee

2004-01-01

66

Effects Of Rapid Crushing On Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental study described in NASA technical memorandum performed to determine whether crash energy-absorption capabilities of graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy composite materials are functions of speed of crushing. Additional objective to develop understanding of mechanisms of crushing. Technology applied to enhancement of safety and crashworthiness of automobiles, design of energy-absorbing devices in machinery, and problems involving explosions and impacts.

Farley, Gary L.

1990-01-01

67

History of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief summary provides an overview of the creation, abandonment, and reclamation of stone walls in New England. Topics include the creation of matter and elements; the formation and erosion of rock to make stones; the harvesting and stacking of stones by humans to form the walls; and subsequent abandonment and reclamation by our modern culture.

68

NIST Stone Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from The National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory, presents information about a wall constructed in 1948 of stone from thousands of quarries. The wall was built to test how well these stones perform when subjected to weathering. The site presents the existing data and pictures for each particular stone in the wall.

Jaime Razand

69

Renal Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Renal stone disease may be seen as a clinical symptom of an underlying pathological process predisposing to crystallization within the renal tract. Renal stones may be comprised of calcium salts, uric acid, cystine and various other insoluble complexes. Nephrolithiasis may be the manifestation of rare single gene disorders or part of more common idiopathic renal stone-forming diseases. Methods and

John A. Sayer

2011-01-01

70

Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

Blum, Mark E.

1997-01-01

71

Kidney Stones in Primary Hyperoxaluria: New Lessons Learnt  

PubMed Central

To investigate potential differences in stone composition with regard to the type of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH), and in relation to the patient’s medical therapy (treatment naïve patients versus those on preventive medication) we examined twelve kidney stones from ten PH I and six stones from four PH III patients. Unfortunately, no PH II stones were available for analysis. The study on this set of stones indicates a more diverse composition of PH stones than previously reported and a potential dynamic response of morphology and composition of calculi to treatment with crystallization inhibitors (citrate, magnesium) in PH I. Stones formed by PH I patients under treatment are more compact and consist predominantly of calcium-oxalate monohydrate (COM, whewellite), while calcium-oxalate dihydrate (COD, weddellite) is only rarely present. In contrast, the single stone available from a treatment naïve PH I patient as well as stones from PH III patients prior to and under treatment with alkali citrate contained a wide size range of aggregated COD crystals. No significant effects of the treatment were noted in PH III stones. In disagreement with findings from previous studies, stones from patients with primary hyperoxaluria did not exclusively consist of COM. Progressive replacement of COD by small COM crystals could be caused by prolonged stone growth and residence times in the urinary tract, eventually resulting in complete replacement of calcium-oxalate dihydrate by the monohydrate form. The noted difference to the naïve PH I stone may reflect a reduced growth rate in response to treatment. This pilot study highlights the importance of detailed stone diagnostics and could be of therapeutic relevance in calcium-oxalates urolithiasis, provided that the effects of treatment can be reproduced in subsequent larger studies. PMID:23940605

Jacob, Dorrit E.; Grohe, Bernd; Geßner, Michaela; Beck, Bodo B.; Hoppe, Bernd

2013-01-01

72

Helium in the Archaean komatiites revisited: significantly high 3He\\/4He ratios revealed by fractional crushing gas extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to provide constraints on 3He\\/4He ratios in the Archaean mantle source, we have analysed helium isotopic compositions in 2.7Ga old Archaean komatiites from the Abitibi green stone belt, Ontario, Canada. Two spinifex-textured komatiites yielded significantly high 3He\\/4He ratios of about 30Ra (where Ra denotes the atmospheric 3He\\/4He ratio) in fractions released by sequential crushing. These results are the

T. Matsumoto; A. Seta; J. Matsuda; Y. Chen; S. Arai

2001-01-01

73

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

74

Calcium oxalate monohydrate aggregation induced by aggregation of desialylated Tamm-Horsfall protein  

PubMed Central

Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is thought to protect against calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formation by inhibiting COM aggregation. Several studies reported that stone formers produce THP with reduced levels of glycosylation, particularly sialic acid levels, which leads to reduced negative charge. In this study, normal THP was treated with neuraminidase to remove sialic acid residues, confirmed by an isoelectric point shift to higher pH. COM aggregation assays revealed that desialylated THP (ds-THP) promoted COM aggregation, while normal THP inhibited aggregation. The appearance of protein aggregates in solutions at ds-THP concentrations ?1 µg/mL in 150 mM NaCl correlated with COM aggregation promotion, implying that ds-THP aggregation induced COM aggregation. The aggregation-promoting effect of the ds-THP was independent of pH above its isoelectric point, but was substantially reduced at low ionic strength, where protein aggregation was much reduced. COM aggregation promotion was maximized at a ds-THP to COM mass ratio of ~0.025, which can be explained by a model wherein partial COM surface coverage by ds-THP aggregates promotes crystal aggregation by bridging opposing COM surfaces, whereas higher surface coverage leads to repulsion between adsorbed ds-THP aggregates. Thus, desialylation of THP apparently abrogates a normal defensive action of THP by inducing protein aggregation, and subsequently COM aggregation, a condition that favors kidney stone formation. PMID:21229239

Viswanathan, Pragasam; Rimer, Jeffrey D.; Kolbach, Ann M.; Kleinman, Jack G.

2011-01-01

75

Pathogenesis of Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All stones share similar presenting symptoms, and urine supersaturation with respect to the mineral phase of the stone is essential for stone formation. However, recent studies using papillary biopsies of stone formers provide a view of the histology of renal crystal deposition which suggests that the early sequence of events leading to stone formation may differ depending on the type of stone and on the urine chemistry leading to supersaturation. Three general patterns of crystal deposition are seen: interstitial apatite plaque in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, which is the site of stone attachment; tubule deposition of apatite, seen in all calcium phosphate stone formers; and mixtures of apatite and another crystal phase, such as cystine or calcium oxalate, seen in patients with cystinuria or enteric hyperoxaluria. The presence of apatite crystal in either the interstitial or tubule compartment (and sometimes both) of the renal medulla in stone formers is the rule, and has implications for the initial steps of stone formation and the potential for renal injury.

Worcester, Elaine M.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.

2008-09-01

76

Analysis of colloids released from bentonite and crushed rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic colloids are present in natural groundwater but colloids can also be produced from degraded Engineered Barrier System (EBS) materials. The potential relevance of colloids for radionuclide transport is highly dependent on the release and stability of colloids in different chemical environments and their interaction with radionuclides. In this work, release and stability of inorganic colloids were determined from bentonite and crushed rock which will be used in the tunnel back-fill. In the batch dispersion experiments, MX-80 bentonite powder or crushed rock samples of mica gneiss, unaltered and two altered tonalites were added to Milli-Q water, saline OLSO, and low salinity Allard reference water with adjusted pH values 7-9. After 4 months, pH, particle size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, elemental composition, and colloid concentration were analyzed. The release and stability of colloids depended significantly on groundwater salinity, pH, and the degree of alteration of the rock. In saline OLSO, zeta potential values near zero, wide particle size range, and low colloid concentrations indicated particle aggregation and instable colloidal dispersion. In low salinity Allard and Milli-Q water, high or moderate negative zeta potential values, smaller particle sizes, and higher colloid concentrations than in OLSO indicated the existence of stable colloids.

Lahtinen, M.; Hölttä, P.; Riekkola, M.-L.; Yohannes, G.

77

Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

2013-12-20

78

Mutual Information for the Detection of Crush  

PubMed Central

Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organizers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that both the prediction and prevention of such conditions offer a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but often computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally “cheap” but subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of the onset of crush. PMID:22229055

Harding, Peter; Gwynne, Steve; Amos, Martyn

2011-01-01

79

An early warning method for crush  

E-print Network

Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organisers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that the prediction and mitigation of such conditions offers a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally "cheap" but subjective and time-consuming. In this paper we propose an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of crush.

Harding, Peter J; Amos, Martyn

2010-01-01

80

Epidemiology of Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology has improved our understanding and management of stone. These types of studies have quantified changes in patterns and burden of disease, while identification of risk factors has changed clinical practice and provided insight into pathophysiologic processes related to stone formation. Because nephrolithiasis is a complex disease, an understanding of the epidemiology, particularly the interactions among different factors, may help lead to approaches that reduce the risk of stone formation. PMID:17678980

Curhan, Gary C.

2009-01-01

81

Influence of the nature of aggregates on the behaviour of concrete subjected to elevated temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is carried out on concretes composed of three different types of aggregates: semi crushed silico-calcareous, crushed calcareous and rolled siliceous. For each aggregate type, two water\\/cement ratios (W\\/C), 0.6 and 0.3 are studied. Aggregates and concrete specimens were subjected to 300, 600 and 750°C heating–cooling cycles. We analyse the evolution of thermal, physical and mechanical properties of

Zhi Xing; Anne-Lise Beaucour; Ronan Hebert; Albert Noumowe; Béatrice Ledesert

2011-01-01

82

Managing caliceal stones  

PubMed Central

The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence. PMID:24497690

Gross, Andreas J.; Knipper, Sophie; Netsch, Christopher

2014-01-01

83

Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords: Hallandia gneiss, natural stones, historic stones, urban planning and building

Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

2013-04-01

84

Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete  

E-print Network

1 Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete National Concrete Consortium March 2012 Colin Lobo Initiatives Potable water: 10% reduction by 2020 20% reduction by 2030Recycled content: 200% increase b & Solids Management WWW. NRMCA.ORG Recycling Water Challenge: Recycle Water Specification Clauses Mixing

85

Technology meets aggregate  

SciTech Connect

New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

Wilson, C.; Swan, C. [INNERT Co. (United States)

2007-07-01

86

VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST WALL OF THE CRYSTALLIZER WING. FENESTRA WINDOWS IN CRUSHING MILL WALL. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

87

Old Stone Field Marker  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a stone field marker that marked boundaries for land ownership. In the early days of Land Office Recordings, this is one type of monument used. Trees, Posts, Iron Pipes and as shown stones were used to mark off land during the Land Rush days. Later, when mapping was being done, Brass Caps wi...

88

Kidney Stones in Children and Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... Stones in Children and Teens Health Issues Listen Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Article Body ?Kidney stones ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney stones ...

89

Experimental model of calcium-containing renal stone formation in a rabbit.  

PubMed

An experimental method of calcium-containing renal stone formation was devised using a rabbit on normal diet. The stone formation was induced unilaterally, massively, and rapidly in an extremely high incidence by temporary obstruction of the upper urinary tract, but not by permanent obstruction. The contralateral kidney was used as a control. The initial stone formation was not solid but muddy and seemed to occur through massive crystal aggregation, resulting in concretion within a few weeks. We strongly suspect that the mechanism of this stone formation is crystal aggregation induced by temporary obstruction of the kidney. This animal model should contribute to the investigation of the process of crystal aggregation which is considered to be the most important factor in idiopathic calcium stone formation in man. PMID:500323

Itatani, H; Yoshioka, T; Namiki, M; Koide, T; Takemoto, M; Sonoda, T

1979-11-01

90

Investigating on possible use of Diyarbakir basalt waste in Stone Mastic Asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) improved for road construction which has been utilized in Europe and America for 40years is a rather new process in Turkey. SMA basically consists of 93–94% aggregate and mineral fillers, 6–7% bitumen and additives. Road and construction industry consume stone in large amounts. Stone used are obtained from nearby quarries and carried to the location where

Askeri Karaku?

2011-01-01

91

Say it with stone: constructing with stones on Easter Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

By considering the stones of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) on a landscape scale, their sources, properties and elemental use in architecture during the statue production period and beyond – from modest ovens to immense statues, a case is made that stone and stones were an essential connective substance of Rapa Nui society. It is posited that stone connected understandings of the land

Sue Hamilton; Mike Seager Thomas; Ruth Whitehouse

2011-01-01

92

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

93

"Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Café in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

2014-05-01

94

Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus  

SciTech Connect

Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

Casteel, K.

2009-04-15

95

Crushed-salt constitutive model update  

SciTech Connect

Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-01-01

96

CRUSH TESTING OF 9977 GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGINGS  

SciTech Connect

The 9977 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP) was designed in response to the adoption of the crush test requirement in the US regulations for packages for radioactive materials (10 CFR 71). This presentation on crush testing of the 9977 GPFP Reviews origins of Crush Test Requirements and implementation of crush test requirements in 10 CFR 71. SANDIA testing performed to support the rule making is reviewed. The differences in practice, on the part of the US Department of Energy from those required by the NRC for commercial purposes, are explained. The design features incorporated into the 9977 GPFP to enable it to withstand the crush test and the crush tests performed on the 9977 are described. Lessons learned from crush testing of GPFP packagings are given.

Smith, A.

2010-07-28

97

Infection-Related Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection and stones can be associated in two ways. Stone disease can occur due to infection by an organism that expresses\\u000a the urea-splitting enzyme urease (infection stones). Nephrolithiasis can also be complicated by urinary tract infection that\\u000a in turn was caused by obstruction of the urinary tract by a stone and\\/or colonization of a pre-existing stone, in both cases\\u000a by

Amy E. Krambeck; John C. Lieske

98

Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles, links to books and other publications, and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

99

Stone fragmentation by ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of kidney stone in the kidney causes discomfort to patients. Hence, removal of such stones is important which\\u000a is commonly done these days, non-destructively, with lithotripters without surgery. Commercially, lithotripters like extra-corporeal\\u000a shock wave lithotripters (ESWL) made by Siemens etc are in routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment\\u000a of the patients also takes comparatively

S. K. Shrivastava; Kailash

2004-01-01

100

Crush testing, characterizing, and modeling the crashworthiness of composite laminates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in the field of crashworthiness of composite materials is presented. A new crush test method was produced to characterize the crush behavior of composite laminates. In addition, a model of the crush behavior and a method for rank ordering the energy absorption capability of various laminates were developed. The new crush test method was used for evaluating the crush behavior of flat carbon/epoxy composite specimens at quasi-static and dynamic rates. The University of Utah crush test fixture was designed to support the flat specimen against catastrophic buckling. A gap, where the specimen is unsupported, allowed unhindered crushing of the specimen. In addition, the specimen's failure modes could be clearly observed during crush testing. Extensive crush testing was conducted wherein the crush force and displacement data were collected to calculate the energy absorption, and high speed video was captured during dynamic testing. Crush tests were also performed over a range of fixture gap heights. The basic failure modes were buckling, crack growth, and fracture. Gap height variations resulted in poorly, properly, and overly constrained specimens. In addition, guidelines for designing a composite laminate for crashworthiness were developed. Modeling of the crush behavior consisted of the delamination and fracture of a single ply or group of like plies during crushing. Delamination crack extension was modeled using the mode I energy release rate, G lc, where an elastica approach was used to obtain the strain energy. Variations in Glc were briefly explored with double cantilever beam tests wherein crack extension occurred along a multidirectional ply interface. The model correctly predicted the failure modes for most of the test cases, and offered insight into how the input parameters affect the model. The ranking method related coefficients of the laminate and sublaminate stiffness matrices, the ply locations within the laminate, and the laminate thickness. The ranking method correctly ordered the laminates tested in this study with respect to their energy absorption.

Garner, David Michael, Jr.

101

Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators  

PubMed Central

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

2013-01-01

102

Effect of braid architecture on progressive crush of composite tubes  

SciTech Connect

Braided tubes offer the potential of tailored crush for automotive applications. The effect of hybridization through the use of combinations of glass, carbon and aramid yam is shown through the testing of cylindrical braided tubes. Crush response as a function of braid geometry is discussed and failure locii are described. The inclusion of triaxial geometry and hybridization is shown to enhance crush performance through the attainment of combined energy absorbing mechanisms.

Karbhari, V.M. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States); Falzon, P.J.; Herzburg, I. [Cooperative Research Centre for Aerospace Structures Ltd., Victoria (Australia)

1996-12-31

103

34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. NOTICE RAIL TIES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

104

Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

2009-01-01

105

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

106

Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Titles : Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention On this page: How does diet ...

107

Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History  

PubMed Central

Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that had been collected following behavioural observation, in order to (i) quantify the wear patterns in terms of the types and distribution of use-damage on the stones, and (ii) develop a Use-Action Index (UAI) to differentiate axe hammers from pound hammers by wear patterns alone. We used the intensity of crushing damage on differing surface zones of the stones, as well as stone weight, to produce a UAI that had 92% concordance when compared to how the stones had been used by macaques, as observed independently prior to collection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that quantitative archaeological use-wear techniques can accurately reconstruct the behavioural histories of non-human primate stone tools. PMID:23977365

Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

2013-01-01

108

Stone Burden in an Average Swedish Population of Stone Formers Requiring Active Stone Removal: How Can the Stone Size Be Estimated in the Clinical Routine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To get information on the distribution of stone burdens in an average and representative group of Swedish stone forming patients requiring active removal of stones from the kidneys or ureters and to compare different methods for assessing the stone burden.Methods: A computerised device was used to measure the total stone surface area (Ameasured) of 599 stone situations in kidneys

Hans-Göran Tiselius; Annika Andersson

2003-01-01

109

Having and Being an Other-Sex Crush during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined other-sex crush experiences (both having and being perceived as an other-sex crush) among 544 young adolescents (mean age = 12.74 years). Results indicated that 56% had at least one current other-sex crush, with little overlap between crushes, friends, and boyfriends/girlfriends. Significant associations between other-sex crush

Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Gyoerkoe, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

110

Kidney stones during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Kidney stones affect 10% of people at some point in their lives and, for some unfortunate women, this happens during pregnancy. Pregnancy is a complex state and both physiological and mechanical changes alter risk factors for kidney stone formation. When a pregnant woman develops acute nephrolithiasis, the situation is more complicated than in nonpregnant women. Imaging limitations and treatment restrictions mean that special diagnostic and management algorithms are needed upon presentation. Ultrasonography remains the gold-standard first-line diagnostic imaging modality for kidney stones during pregnancy but several second-line alternatives exist. Acute renal colic during pregnancy is associated with risks to both mother and fetus. As such, these patients need to be handled with special attention. First-line management is generally conservative (trial of passage and pain management) and is associated with a high rate of stone passage. Presentation of obstructive nephrolithiasis with associated infection represents a unique and serious clinical situation requiring immediate drainage. If infection is not present and conservative management fails, ureteroscopy can be offered if clinically appropriate, but, in some circumstances, temporary drainage with ureteral stent or nephrostomy tube might be indicated. Shockwave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are contraindicated during pregnancy. PMID:24515090

Semins, Michelle J; Matlaga, Brian R

2014-03-01

111

Bioavailability of Buprenorphine from Crushed and Whole Buprenorphine (Subutex) Tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Buprenorphine (Subutex) is the most abused opioid in Finland. In order to curb the abuse potential of this drug, many treatment centers and prisons crush Subutex tablets before administering them to patients. To date, there are no published studies comparing the efficacy and bioavailability of crushed and whole Subutex tablets. Methods: A total of 16 opioid-dependent patients stabilized on

Kaarlo Simojoki; Pirjo Lillsunde; Nicholas Lintzeris; Hannu Alho

2010-01-01

112

A NEW APPROACH TO CRUSHING 3-MANIFOLD TRIANGULATIONS  

E-print Network

a prominent role in state-of-the-art algorithms for unknot recognition and testing for essential surfaces. Although the crushing operation will always reduce the size of a triangulation, it might alter its topology surface theory, a common algorithmic toolkit for 3-manifold topologists. In essence, the crushing process

Burton, Benjamin

113

The Big Crush: An Introduction to Materials Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lots of engineering thinking can be involved in crushing things. As an example, engineers spend a great deal of time designing crush-proof packaging for delicate equipment and packing materials for items that must be stored or shipped. This article presents an activity wherein students can begin to appreciate the technology behind the engineering.…

Roman, Harry T.

2011-01-01

114

IMPROVEMENT EFFECT OF PLAYGROUND SURFACE BY WASTE CRUSHED SHELL MIXING  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If sandy soil with appropriate gradation is compacted, hard and dense ground will be generated. Even if the soil material is hard enough against shock load, the permeability of the soil decreases significantly. This paper examines the improvement effect of playground surface by waste crushed shell mixing technique. The following conclusions are obtained from the present study: 1. The maximum dry density of the sandy soil increases gradually by mixing the crushed shell. However, if the crushed shell is put into the soil too much, the density decreases conversely. 2. Although the density of the soil sample becomes high by mixing the crushed shell, the coefficient of permeability increases. 3. The soil particles once attached to the shell is not washed away easily. 4. The crushed shell doesn't change the quality of groundwater so much. 5. This repair method is applicable to improvement of playground surface.

Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Oda, Kenichi; Higuchi, Emiko; Takano, Morihiro; Tasaki, Hiroshi

115

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has focused its future on exploration class missions including the goal of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. With these objectives, humans will experience an extended exposure to the harsh environment of microgravity and the associated negative effects on all the physiological systems of the body. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes to the urinary chemical composition during and after space flight. These changes are associated with an increased risk of renal stone formation. The development of a renal stone would have health consequences for the crewmember and negatively impact the success of the mission. As of January 2007, 15 known symptomatic medical events consistent with urinary calculi have been experienced by 13 U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts. Previous results from both MIR and Shuttle missions have demonstrated an increased risk for renal stone formation. These data have shown decreased urine volume, urinary pH and citrate levels and increased urinary calcium. Citrate, an important urinary inhibitor of calcium-containing renal stones binds with calcium in the urine, thereby reducing the amount of calcium available to form calcium oxalate stones. Urinary citrate also prevents calcium oxalate crystals from aggregating into larger crystals and into renal stones. In addition, citrate makes the urine less acidic which inhibits the development of uric acid stones. Potassium citrate supplementation has been successfully used to treat patients who have formed renal stones. The evaluation of potassium citrate as a countermeasure has been performed during the ISS Expeditions 3-6, 8, 11-13 and is currently in progress during the ISS Expedition 14 mission. Together with the assessment of stone risk and the evaluation of a countermeasure, this investigation provides an educational opportunity to all crewmembers. Individual urinary biochemical profiles are generated and the risk of stone formation is estimated. Increasing fluid intake is recommended to all crewmembers. These results can be used to lower the risk for stone formation through lifestyle, diet changes or therapeutic administration to minimize the risk for stone development. With human presence in microgravity a continuing presence and exploration class missions being planned, maintaining the health and welfare of all crewmembers is critical to the exploration of space.

Whitson, P. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Pietrzke, R. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M. A.; Hudson, E. K.

2007-01-01

116

Complicated bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

2013-01-01

117

Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This children's book tells the story of a grandfather and his grandson who, as they examine and repair the stone walls that surround their family farm, learn about geology, history, and cultural anthropology. It is used as reading and reference material for many of the lessons in the curriculum. This item must be purchased; information on obtaining it is provided. A link to the book's publisher is also provided.

Robert Thorson

118

Sticks and Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will play Sticks and Stones, a game based on the Apache game "Throw Sticks," which was played at multi-nation celebrations. Students will collect data, investigate the likelihood of various moves, and use basic ideas of expected value to determine the average number of turns needed to win a game. Students work with tree diagrams to see the probabilities in a new way. All teaching steps and game rules are illustrated.

Samuel E. Zordak

2000-01-01

119

Intensive care of the crush victim. Part 1.  

PubMed

The victims of disasters, accidents and many forms of trauma are often trapped or wedged under and within rubble which can lead to crush injury. Prolonged immobility can also cause crush injury if the weight of a person's body compresses muscle and soft tissue for an extended period of time. Extensive muscular tissue pathology can result from the crush injury itself and once the pressure, or compressive force, is removed a predictable sequence of events can cause widespread haemodynamic and metabolic disturbances--the crush syndrome. Part one includes the mechanism of crush injury and the pathophysiology underlying the clinical manifestations of the crush syndrome. The aims of assessment and management are discussed as well as a brief review of the literature related to management of the local crush site and the potential problem of compartment syndrome. Part two involves a case study of a person who was trapped for 10-12 hours following a motor vehicle accident. This patient was transported to 2 country centres and then transferred to a major teaching hospital in Sydney. Discussions will centre on the classic nature of the case, and the findings and management strategies will be correlated with the literature. The implications for nursing practice are explored and include the need for astute assessment and monitoring based on a thorough understanding of the sequelae of crush. Interventions are aimed at minimising discomfort and reducing complications both at the local crush site and generalised systemic level. Close monitoring and interpretation of the patient's response to interventions is essential for the continuation of definitive care. PMID:1912644

Burr, G

1991-06-01

120

Pyrophosphate Transport and Stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1960's, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) has been known to inhibit apatite precipitation. Recent findings suggest that PPi plays a central role in the control of normal bone mineralization. Knockout mice have established the functional importance of PPi transmembrane transport, via the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. The molecular nature and transport function of ANKH are reviewed. PPi is present in urine and ANKH is expressed in the cortical collecting duct where PPi transport to both the tubular lumen and renal interstitium may occur. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cortical collecting duct cells grown on semi-permeable supports appears to upregulate apical ANKH expression, which we postulate may be a mechanism of stone inhibition during urinary concentration and supersaturation of calcium salts. Hypopyrophosphaturia may be a forgotten metabolic risk factor for stone formation and polymorphisms of the ANKH gene may underlie this defect. The physiological importance and clinical significance of PPi generation and transport in preventing idiopathic renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis now needs to be established.

Sayer, John A.; Carr, Georgina; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Simmons, Nicholas L.

2008-09-01

121

Kidney stones during pregnancy: an investigation into stone composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney stones can be a source of considerable morbidity for pregnant women. Although there is a body of literature confirming\\u000a that different stone compositions predominate for different age and sex cohorts, there have been no similar reports characterizing\\u000a the nature of stone disease during pregnancy. We performed a multi-institutional study to define the composition of renal\\u000a calculi diagnosed during pregnancy.

Ashley E. Ross; Shelly Handa; James E. Lingeman; Brian R. Matlaga

2008-01-01

122

Analysis of Crushing Response of Composite Crashworthy Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes quasi-static and dynamic tests to characterise the energy absorption properties of polymer composite crash energy absorbing segment elements under axial loads. Detailed computer tomography scans of failed specimens are used to identify local compression crush failure mechanisms at the crush front. The varied crushing morphology between the compression strain rates identified in this paper is observed to be due to the differences in the response modes and mechanical properties of the strain dependent epoxy matrix. The importance of understanding the role of strain rate effects in composite crash energy absorbing structures is highlighted in this paper.

David, Matthew; Johnson, Alastair F.; Voggenreiter, H.

2013-10-01

123

Intensive care of the crush victim. Part II.  

PubMed

In Part I of this paper, "Intensive care of the Crush victim" (1) Gayle Burr presented the mechanism of crush injury and the pathophysiology underlying the clinical manifestations of the crush syndrome, its assessment and management. Part II outlines the case study of John who was trapped for 10-12 hours following a motor vehicle accident. A chronological overview of the events in this case will be described. The medical management and nursing implications of each of his presenting complications will be discussed. PMID:1912650

Monypenny, F

1991-09-01

124

Diet: from food to stone.  

PubMed

Dietary factors have been shown to influence urine composition and modulate the risk of kidney stone disease. With the rising prevalence of stone disease in many industrialized nations, dietary modification as therapy to improve lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained appeal, as it is both relatively inexpensive and safe. While some dietary measures, such as a high fluid intake, have been shown in long-term randomized clinical trials to have durable effectiveness, other dietary factors have been subjected to only short-term clinical or metabolic studies and their efficacy has been inferred. Herein, we review the current literature regarding the role of diet in stone formation, focusing on both the effect on urinary stone risk factors and the effect on stone recurrence. PMID:24938177

Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Pearle, Margaret S

2015-02-01

125

Thermostable cast stone from slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial production of refractory cast stone products in the USSR has been set up at the Pervoural'sk Mining Equipment Repair Plant (600 tonnes\\/year) and at the stone casting facility of the Scientific-Research and Planning institute of Industrial Construction (Krivoi Rog, 300 tonnes\\/year). The refractory cast stone produced in the Soviet Union meets only a small part of demand. Investigation and

I. I. Bykov; Zh. D. Bogatyreva; V. A. Bogno; L. F. Lekarenko

1990-01-01

126

Urinary Stones of Unusual Etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of urinary stones are composed of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, struvite, uric acid, or cystine. Enumerable\\u000a studies analyzing over 45,000 total calculi have shown urinary stones to be composed of“other” constituents only 0.5-3.5%\\u000a of the time. Although uncommon, these stones can be challenging to both diagnose and to treat. In many cases, accurate diagnosis\\u000a is necessary for

Patrick S. Lowry; Stephen Y. Nakada

127

Prediction and Mitigation of Crush Conditions in Emergency Evacuations  

E-print Network

Several simulation environments exist for the simulation of large-scale evacuations of buildings, ships, or other enclosed spaces. These offer sophisticated tools for the study of human behaviour, the recreation of environmental factors such as fire or smoke, and the inclusion of architectural or structural features, such as elevators, pillars and exits. Although such simulation environments can provide insights into crowd behaviour, they lack the ability to examine potentially dangerous forces building up within a crowd. These are commonly referred to as crush conditions, and are a common cause of death in emergency evacuations. In this paper, we describe a methodology for the prediction and mitigation of crush conditions. The paper is organised as follows. We first establish the need for such a model, defining the main factors that lead to crush conditions, and describing several exemplar case studies. We then examine current methods for studying crush, and describe their limitations. From this, we develop ...

Harding, Peter J; Gwynne, Steve

2008-01-01

128

Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

129

53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ACCESS STAIR TO FEED LEVEL; DUST COLLECTOR ON LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

130

SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

131

Double crush syndrome in the lower extremity: a case report.  

PubMed

Upton and McComas first described double crush syndrome in 1973. The theory behind double crush syndrome postulated that a proximal lesion in a nerve would make that same nerve more vulnerable to additional distal lesions. Many of the studies investigating the possibility of the double crush syndrome involve lesions in the upper extremity with very few articles written specifically about double crush syndrome in the lower extremity. We present the case of a 33-year-old massage therapist who uses her feet to provide therapy to clients who presented to our clinic with symptoms consistent with tarsal tunnel syndrome. Her failure to progress in a satisfactory manner after a variety of therapies made us search for additional etiologies for her foot pain. In cases where tarsal tunnel persists after surgical therapy, the treating physician should search for more proximal lesions along the course of the nerve. PMID:22826333

Borgia, Anthony V; Hruska, Jerome K; Braun, Karina

2012-01-01

132

Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

2013-04-01

133

45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR BIN FEED, LOWER CENTER, WITH STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR ELEVATOR SPLIT DISCHARGE (OXIDIZED/UNOXIDIZED) IN CENTER. CRUDE ORE BINS AND MACHINE SHOP BEYOND. NOTE TOP OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN IS BELOW TOP OF CRUDE ORE BINS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

134

Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts, electron microscopy revealed intra- and extra-cellular needle-like crystal deposits, which were stainable with von Kossa stain and resemble calcospherules found in pathological calcification. Thus bacteria-mediated apatite formation takes place in aqueous environments, in humans and in geological sediments.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

1998-07-01

135

Crushing tablets or opening capsules: many uncertainties, some established dangers.  

PubMed

For patients who have difficulty swallowing, a common solution is to crush tablets or open capsules. What are the consequences of this practice? We reviewed the main evidence available using the standard Prescrire methodology. The clinical consequences for the patient of crushing tablets or opening capsules can be serious: alteration of the drug's absorption can result in sometimes fatal overdose, or conversely underdosing, rendering the treatment ineffective. When it disrupts a drug's sustained-release properties, the active ingredient is no longer released and absorbed gradually, resulting in overdose. When a gastro-resistant layer is destroyed by crushing, underdosing is likely. The active ingredient released may degrade on contact with light, moisture or the food with which it is mixed for administration. The person who crushes the tablets or opens the capsules is exposed to drug particles, which may be carcinogenic, teratogenic or fetotoxic. They are sometimes allergenic. In practice, there are many drugs that should never be crushed or opened. Before crushing a tablet or opening a capsule, it is better to consider and research the impact it will have on the drug's effects. It is sometimes preferable to use a different dosage form, or a different active ingredient. PMID:25325120

2014-09-01

136

From crystalluria to kidney stones, some physicochemical aspects of calcium nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Nephrolithiasis seems to be the result of crystal formation, aggregation and retention in the kidney during crystalluria. These processes have to occur within the short urinary transit time through the kidney being in the order of few minutes. Recently much work was done on rather qualitative aspects of nephrolithiasis like genetics, metabolism and morphology. In this review we try to provide some quantitative information on urinary supersaturation with respect to stone minerals, especially Ca oxalate (CaOx), on the formation and aggregation of CaOx crystals and on crystal retention in the kidney. The paper is centered on idiopathic Ca nephrolithiasis being the most frequent stone disease with only partially known pathogenesis. New aspects of the role of urinary macromolecules in stone formation and of the mechanism of crystal aggregation are provided. PMID:25374820

Baumann, Johannes M; Affolter, Beat

2014-01-01

137

Recumbent Stone Circles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

138

Scottish Short Stone Rows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

139

Ureteric stone in the presence of existing backache: lessons to learn.  

PubMed

Incidence of urolithiasis is on the rise due to climatic changes especially global warming.The pain due to presence of ureteric stone is a well known identity but many times it may be asymptomatic or even masked by concurrent presence of backache. In the present article, we describe the case of a 43-year-old male who came to the clinic for treatment of backache persisting for more than two years. The patient complained of backache two years back for which he was treated with analgesics and physiotherapy which relieved his pain. No X-ray was taken earlier because the attending clinician thought the backache to be musculo-skeletal in origin. Recently, one day a sudden episode of backache in the midst of night compelled him to seek medical treatment. However, this time a X-ray was performed and it showed the presence of calculi in the right upper pelvis of ureter which measured 1.9 cm vertically. An ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was treated with two episodes of shock wave therapy which failed to crush the stone. A Double-J stent was inserted under general anaesthesia. The stone was crushed using a ureteroscope guided laser. The present case report describes how backache in professionals cannot be lightly attended. Even the characteristic groin to loin pain may be absent. All cases of backache should be properly investigated with an X-ray to rule out renal or ureteric calculi. PMID:22362229

Zulkifli, M Z; Ho, C C K; Goh, E H; Praveen, S; Das, S

2012-01-01

140

Piedra Pajarilla: A candidate for nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource from Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piedra Pajarilla is a tourmaline bearing leucogranite outcropping at Martinamor, near Salamanca, Spain. It is part of the Hercynian granitic chain in the Spanish Central System. The stone received the local name "Piedra Pajarilla", meaning "Little Bird Stone" due to the shape of the many tourmaline aggregates that are the main visual feature of the rock. This local name has been extrapolated to every granitic stone used in the area, even if they differ significantly in mineralogy, and as recently tested in physical and mechanical properties as well. Here we present the nomination of Piedra Pajarilla as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used since Roman times in Salamanca (Spain) and since the Middle Ages in the construction of major historic buildings, including both the Old and New Cathedrals, and many additional churches, castles and walls in the Salamanca area. Salamancás historic city core has been granted UNESCO World Heritage status in 1988, and all associated buildings, monuments and pedestrian streets are constructed from original materials. One of utilised materials, Piedra Pajarilla, was quarried for centuries from the immediate area. It was also the preferred building stone of many internationally renowned architects of Spanish origin during the 18th and 19th centuries especially involved in reconstruction following the Lisbon earthquake. Although the associated quarries are no longer active, the Piedra Pajarilla quarry sites remain relatively undisturbed and accessible. A renewal of quarrying is consequently feasible if additional stone supplies are required for heritage restoration. Thus there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries in anticipation of such work. The importance of Salamanca as emblematic heritage makes the historic stone quarries worthwhile to preserve as well. At the same time, Piedra Pajarilla can be considered as the first of several natural stones that can contribute to the denomination of a "Global Heritage Stone Province", as a suite of associated stone resources have been utilised in the historical buildings of Salamanca.

Pereira, Dolores; Gimeno, Ana; del Barrio, Santiago

2013-04-01

141

Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

142

Size dependent crush analysis of lithium orthosilicate pebbles  

E-print Network

Crushing strength of the breeder materials (lithium orthosilicate, $\\rm{Li_4SiO_4}$ or OSi) in the form of pebbles to be used for EU solid breeder concept is investigated. The pebbles are fabricated using a melt-spray method and hence a size variation in the pebbles produced is expected. The knowledge of the mechanical integrity (crush strength) of the pebbles is important for a successful design of breeder blanket. In this paper, we present the experimental results of the crush (failure) loads for spherical OSi pebbles of different diameters ranging from $250~\\mu$m to $800~\\mu$m. The ultimate failure load for each size shows a Weibull distribution. Furthermore, the mean crush load increases with increase in pebble diameter. It is also observed that the level of opacity of the pebble influences the crush load significantly. The experimental data presented in this paper and the associated analysis could possibly help us to develop a framework for simulating a crushable polydisperse pebble assembly using discrete element method.

Ratna Kumar Annabattula; Matthias Kolb; Yixiang Gan; Rolf Rolli; Marc Kamlah

2014-08-03

143

Rolling Stone Radio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rolling Stone Radio is a fun and interesting site that may represent the future of Internet radio. The site provides a number of streaming audio channels that can be listened to via RealNetworks' RealPlayer G2 combined with a customized, radio-like interface to the site. Each channel features a particular genre of music, and the interface displays the artist and song title during play. The sound quality ranges from acceptable to excellent, and the sound controls and channel selectors are easy-to-use. While the site borders on the exploitative in its advertising and ability to purchase music by clicking through the interface, it does combine some of the best ideas on the Internet into a seamless entertainment package. All downloadable components of this site are free but run only on Win95/98/NT.

144

Choledochocele-containing stones.  

PubMed

The case of a 68-yr-old woman with a rare type of Alonso-Lej's type III choledochal cyst (choledochocele) is described. This patient was admitted to the hospital because of right upper quadrant pain. Endoscopy revealed a bulge of the papilla of Vater resembling a submucosal tumor. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography demonstrated cystic dilation of the terminal portion of the common bile duct. In addition, small stones were located in the gallbladder, the common bile duct, and the cystic lesion. Cholecystectomy, resection of the cystic lesion, and papilloplasty were performed. Histologically, the interior wall of the cyst was lined with biliary mucosa and demonstrated no evidence of malignancy. We reviewed 63 reported cases of choledochocele in Japan and 65 reported cases in the English literature. The clinical features of choledochoceles were similar in both groups, and they were associated with a minimal risk of malignant degeneration. These findings may have important implications for treatment. PMID:8633554

Tajiri, H

1996-05-01

145

Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Urinary Tract Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

B Baacckkggrroouunndd.. Urinary tract stones are common urological disorders. However, there have been few studies of the stone composition in Central Taiwan. Infrared spectroscopy is a simple procedure used to analyze urinary stones. We conducted this study to evaluate the composition of urinary tract stones using infrared spectroscopy. M Meetthhooddss.. Most of the samples (89.8%) were obtained during endourological procedures

Chien-Hsing Lu; Hsueh-Fu Lu; Wen-Chi Chen; Tracy Lee; Hsi-Chin Wu

146

Crushing virtual cigarettes reduces tobacco addiction and treatment discontinuation.  

PubMed

Pilot studies revealed promising results regarding crushing virtual cigarettes to reduce tobacco addiction. In this study, 91 regular smokers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions that differ only by the action performed in the virtual environment: crushing virtual cigarettes or grasping virtual balls. All participants also received minimal psychosocial support from nurses during each of 12 visits to the clinic. An affordable virtual reality system was used (eMagin HMD) with a virtual environment created by modifying a 3D game. Results revealed that crushing virtual cigarettes during 4 weekly sessions led to a statistically significant reduction in nicotine addiction (assessed with the Fagerström test), abstinence rate (confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide), and drop-out rate from the 12-week psychosocial minimal-support treatment program. Increased retention in the program is discussed as a potential explanation for treatment success, and hypotheses are raised about self-efficacy, motivation, and learning. PMID:19817561

Girard, Benoit; Turcotte, Vincent; Bouchard, Stéphane; Girard, Bruno

2009-10-01

147

A dynamic ball compression test for understanding rock crushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During crushing, rock particles are subjected to complicated loading. It is desired to establish the relation between the loading and the fragmentation parameters for better understanding rock crushing mechanism. In this work, a split Hopkinson pressure bar system in combination with high speed cameras is utilized in the dynamic ball compression test, in which the spherical rock sample is adopted to avoid the shape effect. Using elasticity theory, the loading rate and the dynamic indirect tensile strength are first calculated. With the aid of the moment-trap technique and high speed cameras, the surface energy is determined for each sample. The relations between the loading rate and the fragmentation parameters, i.e., the number of fragments and the surface energy are established. The application of this method to a granitic rock shows that it is flexible and can be applied to the crushing study of generic brittle solids.

Huang, S.; Liu, H.; Xia, K.

2014-12-01

148

A dynamic ball compression test for understanding rock crushing.  

PubMed

During crushing, rock particles are subjected to complicated loading. It is desired to establish the relation between the loading and the fragmentation parameters for better understanding rock crushing mechanism. In this work, a split Hopkinson pressure bar system in combination with high speed cameras is utilized in the dynamic ball compression test, in which the spherical rock sample is adopted to avoid the shape effect. Using elasticity theory, the loading rate and the dynamic indirect tensile strength are first calculated. With the aid of the moment-trap technique and high speed cameras, the surface energy is determined for each sample. The relations between the loading rate and the fragmentation parameters, i.e., the number of fragments and the surface energy are established. The application of this method to a granitic rock shows that it is flexible and can be applied to the crushing study of generic brittle solids. PMID:25554304

Huang, S; Liu, H; Xia, K

2014-12-01

149

Effects of crushed ice and wetted ice on hamstring flexibility.  

PubMed

Flexibility, which is the ability to move freely through a full range of motion (ROM), is desired to enhance the performance and decrease the likelihood of muscle injury. There are different techniques used to increase ROM and cryotherapy techniques to facilitation flexibility gains. However, the combination of stretching and type of cryotherapy agents are still confounding. The purpose was to determine which type of cryotherapy, crushed or wetted ice, would produce the greatest gains in hamstring ROM when followed by proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent 3 treatment conditions: crushed ice bag (crushed ice), wetted ice bag (wetted ice), and no ice bag (no ice). Subject's hamstring ROM was measured at baseline, then again after a 20-minute cryotherapy treatment session. Subjects were then stretched using a slow-reversal-hold-relax PNF technique followed by a final ROM measurement. A repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant differences between cryotherapy and measurement conditions. Post hoc testing indicated that no ice (75.49 ± 12.19° C) was significantly different from wetted ice (81.73 ± 10.34° C) and crushed ice (81.62 ± 13.19° C) at the end of the treatment session, and that no ice (85.27 ± 13.83° C) was significantly different than wetted ice (89.44 ± 11.31° C) and crushed ice (89.16 ± 13.78° C) after the stretching session. However, there were no differences between wetted ice and crushed ice. Results indicate that strength and conditioning specialists can increase ROM with both forms of ice in combination with PNF stretching more so than when using no ice at all. PMID:24378663

Larsen, Chelsea C; Troiano, Jean M; Ramirez, Rebecca J; Miller, Michael G; Holcomb, William R

2015-02-01

150

Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

Evan, Andrew P.

2007-04-01

151

Lunar stone saw  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

1988-01-01

152

167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

153

52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

154

1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

155

Static crushing of square aluminium extrusions with aluminium foam filler  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was carried out to study the behaviour of square aluminium extrusions filled with aluminium foam under quasi-static loading conditions. Based on the experimental work, simple relations between dimensionless numbers governing the influence of the foam on the characteristics of the crush problem were identified. Furthermore, a simplified set of equations applicable for design of foam-filled components was

A. G. Hanssen; M. Langseth; O. S. Hopperstad

1999-01-01

156

Detoxification of castor meal through reactive seed crushing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Non-edible oil crops, such as castor or jatropha, contain several toxic components. Post-harvest treatments should be used to reduce the risks associated with the possible dispersion of toxic compounds in the environment. A new processing technology named Reactive Seed Crushing was developed, which ...

157

The real structure of crushing products of crystalline ?-rhombohedral boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was established, that depending on the methods of crushing to powder of crystalline ?-rhombohedral boron different phases can be produced: ?-rhombohedral boron and B6O suboxide after pounding, ?-tetragonal modification of boron and ?-rhombohedral boron with unregular strauture both in volume and in the superficial layers of particles after grinding. All these phases are present in powders produced by combined

D. L. Gabunia; T. Sh. Badzagua; M. K. Tsomaya; D. T. Lezhava; D. N. Avlokhashvili; N. T. Maisuradze; R. N. Dekanosidze

1991-01-01

158

47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FEED IS AT CENTER, WITH DRIVE GEAR. THE 16 INCH FINES FEED IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IS SLIGHTLY RIGHT OF CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

159

33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR IN CENTER. TEAM SUPERVISOR ROBERT W. GRZYWACZ ON LOWER LEVEL (LOCATION OF STEARNS-ROGER DRYER). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

160

Crushing national debts, economic revolutions, and extraordinary popular delusions  

E-print Network

Crushing national debts, economic revolutions, and extraordinary popular delusions Andrew Odlyzko. Surprisingly, what followed was an explosive acceleration of the Industrial Revolution that saw the UK sprint that the Industrial Revolution started at some specific time has been dis- credited. Instead, it is known

Odlyzko, Andrew M.

161

4. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers to extract latex from the sap during experiments to find native North American plant which would yield sufficiently high percentage of latex to produce natural rubber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

162

Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

163

49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 ...Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is...

2011-10-01

164

49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 ...Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is...

2012-10-01

165

49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 ...Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is...

2014-10-01

166

49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 ...Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is...

2010-10-01

167

49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 ...Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is...

2013-10-01

168

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED SANDSTONE, QUARTZ, AND QUARTZITE, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed sandstone, quartz, and quartzite industry. Particulates are emitted from drilling, blasting, loading and unloading trucks, transport on unpaved roads, washing, crushing, screening, conveying, and stockpiling....

169

Flexible ureteroscopic renal stone extraction during laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We describe laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy. We describe its efficacy through a laparoscopic port and a ureterotomy site in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2012, we performed laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy in 11 patients who had upper ureteral and renal stones. The retroperitoneal approaches were used in all patients using 3–4 trocars. Results: All procedures were performed successfully without significant complications. Mean operative time was 78.5 minutes (range: 52–114 minutes). The mean size of ureteral stone was 19.91 mm (range: 15–25 mm). In addition, 25 renal stones (mean size 7.48 mm, range: 2–12 mm) were removed from 11 patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.5 days (range: 2–6 days). Conclusions: Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy can be considered one of treatment modalities for patients with large upper ureteral stones accompanied by renal stones who are indicated in laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. PMID:25295127

You, Jae Hyung; Kim, Young Gon; Kim, Myung Ki

2014-01-01

170

Renal metabolic changes relating to calculogenesis in an experimental model of calcium containing renal stone formation in rabbits.  

PubMed

In histochemical studies it was shown that sulfated acid glycosaminoglycans (AGAGS) were produced and secreted into the tubular lumen in renal papilla, but not in the renal cortex of muddy stone forming kidney. There was no secretion of sulfated AGAGS in renal papilla histochemically during hydronephrosis before stone formation. On autoradiographic study with the use of 45Ca and 35S for labeling of sulfated AGAGS, we found that 45Ca accumulated in renal papilla of muddy stone forming kidney, but not in the other. 35S apparently accumulated into muddy stones. Measurement of calcium content of the renal papilla and cortex proved the results of autoradiographic studies, and measurement of uronic acid in the urine showed increased secretion of AGAGS in the urine from muddy stone forming kidney. From these results it was proposed that the sulfate AGAGS secreted in the urine could bind calcium crystals to each other amd make crystals aggregate massively. PMID:7275553

Itatani, H; Itoh, H; Yoshioka, T; Namiki, M; Koide, T; Okuyama, A; Sonoda, T

1981-09-01

171

INELASTIC WEB CRUSHING CAPACITY OF HIGH-STRENGTH-CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALLS  

E-print Network

that the use of HSC can enhance the ductility of structural walls by increasing web crushing shear capacity during design. However, in structural walls with well-confined boundary elements, web crushing shearINELASTIC WEB CRUSHING CAPACITY OF HIGH-STRENGTH-CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALLS R. Burgueño1 , X. Liu2

Hines, Eric

172

A case of crush syndrome induced by the kneeling seiza position.  

PubMed

Crush syndrome results in a characteristic syndrome of rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuric acute renal failure. The most commonly described crush injury is that which affects victims of natural disasters such as earthquakes. Here, we report a rare case of crush syndrome that was induced by the kneeling seiza position. PMID:25504202

Tsuji, Tomoatsu; Inoue, Shigeaki; Yamagiwa, Takeshi; Morita, Seiji; Inokuchi, Sadaki

2014-01-01

173

Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

2008-01-01

174

Investigation of the impact of stone bunds on water erosion in northern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil degradation in northern Ethiopia results from intensive land-use, massive deforestation in the past and missing conservation measures. Every year huge amounts of fertile soil are flushed away irreversibly into the rivers. In order to prevent soil erosion, conservation methods are necessary, because otherwise erosion may cause severe problems in the future, especially in the cases of nutrition supply and agricultural land-use. In this study, the effectiveness of stone bonds as a soil conservation method was evaluated. The assessments took part during the raining season from June to September 2013 in the Gumara - Maksegnit watershed in the Amhara region in northern Ethiopia. On farmland two erosion plots were constructed at a representative hillslope. The plots were 20m long, 3m wide and bordered with metal sheets. In order to compare the effectiveness of stone bunds on soil erosion, one plot was constructed with a stone bund on his toe slope the other plot was constructed without a stone bund. The investigated slope was selected that all characteristics like slope, crop cover, stone cover, soil aggregate size, etc... could be considered as similar. To evaluate the impact of stone bunds on soil erosion, the lateral and the longitudinal runoff from the plot with the stone bund were collected separately. Surface runoff and eroded sediment were collected at the downward end of the plot using a trough leading to a divider sampling 10% of the total runoff. The sample was then collected in a pond (1,8m long, 1m wide and 0,5m deep). During the investigated period soil loss from the untreated plot amounted to 23.0 t.ha-1, whereas only 13.5 t.ha-1 were measured spilling over the stone bunds. This corresponds to a decrease by 41%. Beside the erosion monitoring, stone and crop cover were analyzed regularly as well as surface roughness and soil texture.

Rieder, Jakob; Strohmeier, Stefan; Demelash, Nigus; Ziadat, Feras; Klik, Andreas

2014-05-01

175

Aggregate production: Fines generation during rock crushing M.S. Guimaraes a  

E-print Network

., San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA c Departmnet of Civil and Environmental Eng., Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA d Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia

Palomino, Angelica M.

176

"Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

Geist, Janet Marie

2000-01-01

177

Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

Some say that passing a kidney stone is like delivering a baby made of razor blades. The good news is that, although they can be excruciatingly painful, kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage, and you may ...

178

Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Titles : Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know On this ...

179

Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones Researchers find eight or ... Friday, March 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Drinking Water Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Kidney Stones FRIDAY, March ...

180

Kitkahahki Chipped Stone Technologies: A Comparative Study  

E-print Network

................................................................................................. 5 3. SITE BACKGROUNDS AND HISTORY OF INVESTIGATIONS ..................................................... 10 Pawnee Indian Village Site (14RP1) Background .....................................................................10 History... ...............................................................................................................25 5. CHIPPED STONE ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ....................................................................30 14RP1 Chipped Stone ................................................................................................................30...

Asher, Brendon Patrick

2009-06-11

181

[Rare cases of bladder stones].  

PubMed

We present here two special cases of urolithiasis. The first one shows a giant bladder lithiasis resulting in severe renal insufficiency in a 63-year-old patient, who had previously had nicturia (2-3 times), occasional episodes of urinary frequency and burning micturition, in the absence of renal colic, hematuria or interrupted urination. The second case referes to an 85-year-old man suffering from prostatic enlargement and bladder stones, hospitalized to undergo intervention of trans-vesical prostatic adenomectomy, during which two star-shaped stones were found without obvious symptoms. PMID:24474546

Sampalmieri, Gregorio; Moretti, Antonello; Sampalmieri, Matteo

2014-01-01

182

Further characterization of photothermal breakdown products of uric acid stones following holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously we found that Ho:YAG laser (2120 nm) lithotripsy of uric acid stones produced cyanide, a known thermal breakdown product of uric acid. We now report that alloxan, another thermal breakdown product, is also likely produced. Uric acid stones (approximately 98% pure) of human origin were placed in distilled water and subjected to one of the following experimental treatments: unexposed control, exposed to Ho:YAG laser, Nd:YAG laser, or mechanically crushed. Samples were then processed for HPLC analysis with UV detection. Peaks were identified by comparison to authentic standards. All samples contained uric acid, with retention time (RT) about 6 min. All of the laser-exposed samples contained a peak that eluted at 2.5 min, identical to the RT of authentic alloxan. Ho:YAG laser irradiation, however, produced a larger presumed alloxan peak than did the Nd:YAG laser. The peak at 2.5 min, as well as unidentified later-eluting peaks, were present in the laser-exposed, but not the unexposed or mechanically crushed, samples. These results confirm the thermal nature of lithotripsy performed with long-pulse IR lasers.

Glickman, Randolph D.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Kumar, Neeru; Corbin, Nicole S.; Lesani, Omid; Teichman, Joel M. H.

2000-06-01

183

Stone Pages: A Guide to European Megaliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the Stone Pages is a frequently updated site, available in English or Italian, that contains unique reports on megalithic and other archaeological stone sites in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Wales, and Ireland. Regular and high resolution photos, site maps, and evaluations are provided for court and passage tombs, cairns-crannogs, dolmens, and standing stones and stone circles. QTVR panoramic views of several sites are also available.

184

Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies  

SciTech Connect

Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes /sup 85/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 141/Ce, /sup 152/Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 233/U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios.

Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

1980-01-01

185

CRUSH: Comprehensive Reduction Utility for SHARC-2 (and more...)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CRUSH is an astronomical data reduction/imaging tool for certain imaging cameras, especially at the millimeter, sub-millimeter, and far-infrared wavelengths. It supports the SHARC-2, LABOCA, SABOCA, ASZCA, p-ArTeMiS, PolKa, GISMO, MAKO and SCUBA-2 instruments. The code is written entirely in Java, allowing it to run on virtually any platform. It is normally run from the command-line with several arguments.

Kovacs, Attila

2013-08-01

186

In-plane crushing of a polycarbonate honeycomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in-plane compressive response and crushing of a polycarbonate honeycomb with circular close-packed cells is studied through combined experimental and analytical efforts. Under displacement controlled quasi-static loading the response is characterized by a relatively sharp rise to a load maximum followed by a drop down to an extended load plateau which is then terminated by a sharp rise in load.

Scott D. Papka; Stelios Kyriakides

1998-01-01

187

The real structure of crushing products of crystalline ?-rhombohedral boron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was established, that depending on the methods of crushing to powder of crystalline ?-rhombohedral boron different phases can be produced: ?-rhombohedral boron and B6O suboxide after pounding, ?-tetragonal modification of boron and ?-rhombohedral boron with unregular strauture both in volume and in the superficial layers of particles after grinding. All these phases are present in powders produced by combined process (pounding and grinding); their ratio depends on the duration of the process.

Gabunia, D. L.; Badzagua, T. Sh.; Tsomaya, M. K.; Lezhava, D. T.; Avlokhashvili, D. N.; Maisuradze, N. T.; Dekanosidze, R. N.

1991-07-01

188

Absorption Of Crushing Energy In Square Composite Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes investigation of crash-energy-absorbing capabilities of square-cross-section tubes of two matrix/fiber composite materials. Both graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy tubes crushed in progressive and stable manner. Ratio between width of cross section and thickness of wall determined to affect energy-absorption significantly. As ratio decreases, energy-absorption capability increases non-linearly. Useful in building energy-absorbing composite structures.

Farley, Gary L.

1992-01-01

189

The financial effects of kidney stone prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial effects of kidney stone prevention. Prevention of nephrolithiasis (NL) is now medically feasible and widely recommended. However, diagnosis and treatment of remediable causes of stones requires testing and drugs that impose a cost; this cost is balanced by the presumed reductions in stone related events and medical encounters. In order to assess the balance between these, we have

Joan H Parks; Fredric L Coe

1996-01-01

190

Diet and the Prevention of Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nephrolithiasis is a frequent, painful, costly, and increasingly prevalent condition. Although substantial strides have been made in the past two decades in the urologic approach to treatment and removal of existing stones, important new information on stone prevention has also appeared. Dietary factors have long been suspected to play a role in stone formation and recent studies provide data that

Reza Abdi; Joseph V. Bonventre; Barry M. Brenner; Charles B. Carpenter; Anil Chandraker; Gary C. Curhan; Bradley M. Denker

191

Electrical stimulation impairs early functional recovery and accentuates skeletal muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.  

PubMed

Neuromuscular recovery after peripheral nerve lesion depends on the regeneration of severed axons that re-establish their functional connection with the denervated muscle. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on the neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injury in rats. Electrical stimulation was carried out on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Six ES sessions were administered every other day starting from day 3 postinjury until the end of the experiment (day 14). The sciatic functional index was calculated. Muscle excitability, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) expression, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) were accessed from TA muscle. Regenerated sciatic nerves were analyzed by light and confocal microscopy. Both treated (crush+ES) and untreated (crush) groups had their muscle weight and CSA decreased compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). Electrical stimulation accentuated muscle fiber atrophy more in the crush+ES than in the crush group (P < 0.05). N-CAM expression increased in both crush and crush+ES groups compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). Regenerated nerves revealed no difference between the crush and crush+ES groups. Nevertheless, functional recovery at day 14 post-injury was significantly lower in crush+ES group compared with the crush group. In addition, the crush+ES group had chronaxie values significantly higher on days 7 and 13 compared with the crush group, which indicates a decrease in muscle excitability in the crush+ES animals. The results of this study do not support a benefit of the tested protocol of ES during the period of motor nerve recovery following injury. PMID:20405500

Gigo-Benato, Davilene; Russo, Thiago Luiz; Geuna, Stefano; Domingues, Natalia Rezende Santa Rosa; Salvini, Tania Fátima; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

2010-05-01

192

Acute hand compartment syndromes after closed crush: a reappraisal.  

PubMed

Severe crush to the hand is associated with a poor prognosis. The authors investigated the hypothesis that compartment syndrome complicates such injuries. From 1996 to 2000, the authors retrospectively identified 11 patients who, after sustaining a closed crush injury, developed acute hand compartment syndrome. Diagnosis was made on clinical grounds in two patients (the intracompartmental pressure was not measured) and after clinical examination plus measurement of intracompartmental pressure in nine patients. In all cases, the muscle burst out once the fascia was released from the affected compartment. Clinical clues to elicit the diagnoses were massive hand swelling and tenseness to palpation. Classic symptoms, such as excruciating pain, were absent or their intensity was attributed to the trauma event (in six patients). Classic signs such as intrinsic muscle minus position and pain on stretching were absent in six and three patients, respectively. In addition, the latter stretch test could not be properly judged in five more patients because of interference by the associated injuries. None of the patients developed contracture or sequela that could be attributed to compartment syndrome. On the basis of this experience, it was concluded that crush injury does not in itself carry a poor functional prognosis, provided that attention is paid to the often-concomitant compartment syndrome. Elevated subfascial pressure may be present despite the absence of classic signs and symptoms. PMID:12360060

Del Piñal, Francisco; Herrero, Francisco; Jado, Emilia; García-Bernal, Francisco J; Cerezal, Luis

2002-10-01

193

Current concepts for oil decontamination of crush injuries: a review  

PubMed Central

This anecdotal, non-systematic review serves to explore the principles and methods of effective oil decontamination from cutaneous wounds, particularly crush injuries. The current expansion of the petroleum industry is necessary to meet increasing world demands for oil. Most stages of oil refining and applications involve significant injury risks, particularly for crush injuries that become contaminated with petroleum compounds. A literature review regarding a standard of care for effective cutaneous oil decontamination is lacking. Based on case reports, animal models, and in vitro studies identified in our expert opinion review, standard water and soap cleansing may not be an appropriate approach. Instead, the principle of ‘like dissolves like’ guides the use of lipophilic, petroleum-derived solvents to attract and subsequently dissolve the petroleum contaminant from the skin injury. Limitations include paucity of and dated literature sources regarding the topic as well as no models specifically addressing crush injuries. Our literature review found that oil decontamination of cutaneous injuries may be best accomplished with oil-based cleansers. Certainly, this topic has significant importance for the potentially carcinogenic petroleum compounds that pervade virtually every aspect of modern human life. PMID:24855490

2014-01-01

194

The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability of composite material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy-absorption capability as a function of crushing speed was determined for Thornel 300/Fiberite 934 (Gr/E) and Kevlar-49/Fiberite 934 (K/E) composite material. Circular cross section tube specimens were crushed at quasi-static, 6 m/sec, and 12 m/sec speeds. Ply orientations of the tube specimens were (0/+ or - theta) sub 2 and (+ or - theta) sub 3 where theta=15, 45, and 75 degress. Based on the results of these tests the energy-absortion capability of Gr/E and K/E was determined to be a function of crushing speed. The crushing modes based on exterior appearance of the crushed tubes were unchanged for either material. However, the interlaminar crushing behavior changed with crushing speed.

Farley, Gary L.

1987-01-01

195

GROWTH HABITS IN STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit tree architecture is an increasingly important aspect of fruit production. Pomologists and fruit growers are looking to tree architecture as a way to address various production issues and increase profitability. Stone fruits, particularly peaches, have perhaps the widest range of described g...

196

Petra: Lost City of Stone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Petra: Lost City of Stone exhibit, looks at this once flourishing city in the heart of the ancient Near East. Although the exhibit is now closed, the web site contains a wealth of information about Petra.

197

The Matariki Stone of Rapanui  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it

T. A. Hockey

2005-01-01

198

Developing disease resistant stone fruits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

199

Hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates under organic and conventional soil management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variation in hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates is an important factor affecting water storage and infiltration because the large inter-aggregate pores are dewatered first and the transport of water and solutes is influenced by the properties of the individual aggregates and contacts between them. A high mechanical stability of soil aggregates is fundamental for the maintenance of proper tilth and provides stable traction for farm implements, but limit root growth inside aggregates. The aggregate properties are largely influenced by soil management practices. Our objective was to compare the effects of organic and conventional soil management on hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates. Experimental fields subjected to long-term organic (14 years) and conventional managements were located on loamy soil at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - National Research Institute in Pulawy, Poland. Soil samples were collected from two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). After air-drying, two size fractions of soil aggregates (15-20 and 30-35 mm) were manually selected and kept in the dried state in a dessicator in order to provide the same boundary conditions. Following properties of the aggregates were determined: porosity (%) using standard wax method, cumulative infiltration Q (mm3 s-1) and sorptivity S (mm s -1/2) of water and ethanol using a tube with a sponge inserted at the tip, wettability (by comparison of sorptivity of water and ethanol) using repellency index R, crushing strength q (MPa) using strength testing device (Zwick/Roell) and calculated by Dexter's formula. All properties were determined in 15 replicates for each treatment, aggregates size and depth. Organic management decreased porosity of soil aggregates and ethanol infiltration. All aggregates revealed rather limited wettability (high repellency index). In most cases the aggregate wettability was lower under conventional than organic soil management. Crushing strength was higher for aggregates from organic managed field, especially for 30-35 mm aggregates.

Wójciga, A.; Ku?, J.; Turski, M.; Lipiec, J.

2009-04-01

200

Stone City foraminifera in eastern Burleson County, Texas  

E-print Network

STONE CITY FORAMINIFERA IN EASTERN BURLESON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis Jack Noreno Bslderas, Jr. August, 1953 Approved as %p style and cont nt by / rman o mm ee e o t e ep r en o eo ogy STONE CITY FORAMINIFERA IN EA STERN BUR LESON COUNTY... of the Stone City formation . . . . . . . ~ ~ Stone City cuesta along Farm Road 1362 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 16 5 e Headward erosion in unconsolidated Stone City beds Stone City Bluff, Burleson County, Texas 18 20 6. Stone City Bluff...

Balderas, Jack Moreno

1953-01-01

201

Hot Mix Asphalt Using Light Weight Aggregate Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot mix asphalt concrete is produced by properly blending asphalt, coarse and fine aggregates in addition to filler at temperatures ranging from 80 to 165°C. This research is directed to study the effect of replacing the conventional aggregates by the recycled Light Weight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC) on the properties of the produced asphalt mix. The research studied the optimum asphalt content and the effect of some parameters on the properties of the recycled LWAC. The research included studying thirty-six Marshal Specimens lie in four main groups. Each group was made from crushed LWAC in addition to a comparison group used the pumice instead of the crushed LWAC. The LWAC mixes contained (0, 10, 15 and 20%) of silica powder content. The density, stability, flow, percentages of the air Voids in the Compacted Mixture (VTM), compacted mineral aggregate (VMA) and the Voids Filled by Asphalt (VFA) were investigated for all the studied specimens. The main conclusions drawn from the current research implies that the optimum percent of asphalt was 7.5% for the different percentages of silica powder ratios. The presence of voids in the light weight aggregates and the porosity of the obtained concrete affected largely the behavior of the obtained mix.

Awwad, Mohammad T.

202

The effect of recycled concrete aggregate properties on the bond strength between RCA concrete and steel reinforcement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that replacing natural coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) has on concrete bond strength with reinforcing steel. Two sources of RCA were used along with one natural aggregate source. Numerous aggregate properties were measured for all aggregate sources. Two types of concrete mixture proportions were developed replacing 100% of the natural aggregate with RCA. The first type maintained the same water-cement ratios while the second type was designed to achieve the same compressive strengths. Beam-end specimens were tested to determine the relative bond strength of RCA and natural aggregate concrete. On average, natural aggregate concrete specimens had bond strengths that were 9 to 19% higher than the equivalent RCA specimens. Bond strength and the aggregate crushing value seemed to correlate well for all concrete types.

Butler, L., E-mail: L3Butler@uwaterloo.ca; West, J.S.; Tighe, S.L.

2011-10-15

203

Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

2008-09-01

204

Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

2007-04-01

205

Double crush syndrome due to plating of humeral shaft fracture  

PubMed Central

Median nerve injury is rarely associated with the humeral shaft fracture. A Sixty two year old woman with a displaced humeral shaft fracture, developed a symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome after plating with a screw protruding medially. 16 months later, the implants were removed and the symptoms gradually improved without carpal tunnel release surgery. A double crush syndrome resulted due to the proximal compression by the medially protruding screw and the distal compression by carpal tunnel. The proximal decompression produced by removal of the screw led to relief of the symptoms. PMID:24741148

Huang, Yi-Gang; Chang, Shi-Min

2014-01-01

206

Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words “Focused ultrasound” and “kidney stone”. All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease. PMID:25624572

Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S.

2015-01-01

207

Preventing stone retropulsion during intracorporeal lithotripsy.  

PubMed

Several studies of ureteroscopic treatment for ureteral stones have reported that most stone clearance failures can be attributed to stone fragment retropulsion. Stone retropulsion can result in increased operative time and cost-resulting from the need to change from the semi-rigid ureteroscope to a flexible instrument to chase migrated calculi-and additional procedures to treat residual migrated fragments are often required. The degree of migration depends mainly on the energy source used for lithotripsy; pneumatic and electrohydraulic lithotripters are associated with a greater degree of retropulsion than lasers. Different stone-trapping strategies and devices have been developed to minimize stone migration. Novel devices include the Lithovac(®) suction device, the Passport(™) balloon, the Stone Cone(™), the PercSys Accordion(®), the NTrap(®), and stone baskets such as the LithoCatch(™), the Parachute(™), and the Escape(®). Some authors have also reported on the use of lubricating jelly and BackStop(®) gel (a reverse thermosensitive polymeric plug); these devices are instilled proximal to the stone prior to the application of kinetic energy in order to prevent retrograde stone migration. PMID:23165399

Elashry, Osama M; Tawfik, Ahmad M

2012-12-01

208

The Matariki Stone of Rapanui  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

Hockey, T. A.

2005-12-01

209

Geology of Stone Mountain, Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual field trip to Stone Mountain Georgia includes both a narrative and photographs of such features as flow banding, tourmaline pods, and several types of xenoliths. Intrusive granite and diabase dikes are shown at both the east quarry and old route 78 locations where products of weathering such as saprolite, kaolinite, halloysite, and gibbsite reside. Photographs of an area of the east quarry taken six years apart show the progress of exfoliation. The site also has a list of references.

Pamela Gore

210

Greco-Roman Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

2008-09-01

211

Recycling of stone cutting sludge in formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles.  

PubMed

This study examines the possibility for enhancing the use of stone cutting sludge waste in the production of building bricks and terrazzo tiles, which would reduce both the environmental impact and the production costs. Stone cutting wastes in the form of sludge is currently generated at several factories in Jordan. At the Samara factory, incorporation of the sludge in the batch formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles was examined. The physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sludge were analyzed to identify the major components. Results indicated that the sludge generated from stone cutting could be used in producing concrete bricks. Mixtures of aggregates with added amounts of sludge were used successfully to produce non-load bearing bricks. Sludge was also used to produce terrazzo tiles and the results indicate that the transverse strength, water absorption and tile measurements, for all the taken samples, comply with Jordanian standards. The transverse strength decreased while water absorption increased as the sludge ratio increased. PMID:19837706

Al-Zboon, Kamel; Tahat, Montasser; Abu-Hamatteh, Ziad S H; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad S

2010-06-01

212

Impact of nonconductive powder on electrostatic separation for recycling crushed waste printed circuit board.  

PubMed

The electrostatic separation is an effective and environmentally friendly method for recycling metals and nonmetals from crushed printed circuit board (PCB) wastes. However, it still confronts some problems brought by nonconductive powder (NP). Firstly, the NP is fine and liable to aggregate. This leads to an increase of middling products and loss of metals. Secondly, the stability of separation process is influenced by NP. Finally, some NPs accumulate on the surface of the corona and electrostatic electrodes during the process. These problems lead to an inefficient separation. In the present research, the impacts of NP on electrostatic separation are investigated. The experimental results show that: the separation is notably influenced when the NP content is more than 10%. With the increase of NP content, the middling products sharply increase from 1.4 g to 4.3g (increase 207.1%), while the conductive products decrease from 24.0 g to 19.1g (decrease 20.4%), and the separation process become more instable. PMID:18977592

Wu, Jiang; Qin, Yufei; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Zhenming

2009-05-30

213

Effect of Inherent Anisotropy on Shear Strength Following Crushing of Natural Aqaba Subgrade Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherent anisotropy affects the overall shear strength of sand deposits. Soil inherent anisotropy was evaluated for pre-crushed Aqaba subgrade sand by deposition of soil grains onto an inclined surface. Crushing of Aqaba sand was induced by one-dimensional compression. Sand characteristic properties (mineralogical properties, grain size and crushing resistance strength) were determined by standard laboratory testing. Particle breakage factors and inter-particle

Taleb Al-Rousan; Omar Al-Hattamleh; Reyad Al-Dwairi

2011-01-01

214

Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances  

PubMed Central

Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators’ experience, patients’ preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed. PMID:19468497

Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

2008-01-01

215

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

216

77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...Stone National Wildlife Refuge, 44843 County Road 19, Odessa, MN 56276. In-Person Drop Off: You may drop off...

2012-05-09

217

Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly, so every visitor has a unique sound adventure. The experience is intensely engaging, playful and yet a little unsettling and provides a truly unique way to explore our scientific data and present geoscience research to the public. Crush-2 has featured in an exhibition on Sonic Interaction Design at the Norwegian Museum of Science, Technology and Medicine, Oslo, Norway (27 May - 21 August 2011) and forms part of a solo exhibition by Barrett at Galleri ROM, Oslo in fall 2011. Visitor feedback from the Museum exhibition suggests that users were initially attracted to the exhibit by its interactive 'hands-on' nature and dramatic sounds, but as they 'explored' the soundspace, became curious to ask questions about the underlying science. The concept of using sound rather than visual gives an unusual and therefore highly memorable experience. This science-art collaboration provides a novel and highly enjoyable way to present our work to the public - that is particularly attractive to youngsters. Visitors to this poster presentation will be able to explore the Crush-2 soundscape using a laptop and headphone interactive mode.

Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

2011-12-01

218

Calcium oxalate stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium oxalate stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundOver 54 generations, we have successfully bred a strain of rats that maximizes urinary calcium excretion. The rats now consistently excrete 8 to 10 times as much calcium as controls, uniformly form poorly crystalline calcium phosphate kidney stones, and are termed genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats. These rats were used to test

David A. Bushinsky; John R. Asplin; Marc D. Grynpas; Andrew P. Evan; Walter R. Parker; Kristen M. Alexander; Fredric L. Coe

2002-01-01

219

Modern management of common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

Buxbaum, James

2013-04-01

220

The Swelling of Clays Within Stone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clays within the stone used to construct historical sites such as Angor Wat and Aztec ruins are susceptible to swelling when exposed to water which can cause damage to the structures. The effects of surfactants in ameliorating this problem on stone samples from these sites were explored. Swelling was reduced significantly in Aztec stone (~ 60-90%) and somewhat reduced (~ 20-55%) in Angor Wat stone. Conclusions included: carbon chains with amine ends reduced swelling; mixtures worked better when applied twice; sequences worked better than mixtures; treatment worked better when the smaller molecule was applied first.

Wylykanowitz, Angela

2005-08-05

221

Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global stone heritage.

Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

2013-04-01

222

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2014-04-01

223

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2011-04-01

224

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2013-04-01

225

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2012-04-01

226

Kinetics of Swelling in Clay-Bearing Stones  

E-print Network

Kinetics of Swelling in Clay- Bearing Stones Jane O'Sullivan Department of Civil and Environmental Layers Can see how porous the stone actually is When clay gets wet it can cause the stone to soften #12

Petta, Jason

227

A Lion of a Stone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm.

This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

2004-01-01

228

Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.  

PubMed

To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7 % from 1990, 43.3 % from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8 % in 1990 to 39.1 % in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50 % uric acid (7.6-10.2 %, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0 %, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the  % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7 %, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8 %, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the  % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5 %, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6 %, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7 %, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

2015-04-01

229

Acute Repair of Crushed Guinea Pig Spinal Cord by Polyethylene Glycol  

E-print Network

Acute Repair of Crushed Guinea Pig Spinal Cord by Polyethylene Glycol RIYI SHI AND RICHARD B of crushed guinea pig spinal cord by polyethylene glycol. J. Neurophysiol. 81: 2406­2414, 1999. We have studied the responses of adult guinea pig spinal cord white matter to a standardized compression within

Shi, Riyi

230

Management of crush victims in mass disasters: highlights from recently published recommendations.  

PubMed

Crush syndrome is the second most common cause of death after earthquakes (the first most common is direct trauma). Many logistic problems with the treatment of patients with crush syndrome are due to chaotic disaster circumstances; consequently, medical and logistic recommendations on the treatment of crush victims are needed. In a joint initiative of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology and European Renal Best Practice, a work group of nephrologists, intensivists, surgeons, and logisticians with disaster experience or experts in guideline preparation collaborated to provide comprehensive information and recommendations on the management of crush casualties considering their occurrence with "epidemic" dimensions after mass disasters. The result is the monograph "Recommendations for the Management of Crush Victims in Mass Disasters", which may help provide effective health care to disaster victims with renal problems. This article discusses medical and logistic principles of the treatment of crush victims, both at the disaster field and on admission to hospitals, and guidance is described. The importance of early fluid administration even before extrication of the victims and avoidance of potassium-containing solutions during the treatment of crush victims is underlined. Also, the logistic problems in treating crush casualties are emphasized. The most important aspects of the recently published recommendations are highlighted. PMID:23024157

Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

2013-02-01

231

Coriander spice oil: effects of fruit crushing and distillation time on yield and composition.  

PubMed

Crushing intensity and distillation time were evaluated for their effects on the oil yield and composition of steam-distilled essential oil from fruits of Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum L. A comparison of oils produced by laboratory- and pilot-scale stills showed that the two still types gave comparable yields and oil composition. The laboratory still was then used to compare oil yields and compositions from fruits crushed at three different intensities, at intervals during a distillation period of 60 min. Both crushing intensity and distillation time had significant (P< 0.05) effects on the yield and composition of the oil. The maximum oil yield was less from the light-crushed fruits, but the rate of oil recovery was significantly P < 0.05) higher. From the light-crushed fruits, 95% of the maximum yield was extracted in 22.5 min compared with 32 and 39 min for the standard and heavy-crushed fruits, respectively. The effect of crushing intensity on oil composition was most pronounced on the low-boiling-point a-pinene and on the higher-boiling-point geranyl acetate. Crushing had little effect on linalool content, but distillation time could be manipulated to alter the linalool content of the oil. PMID:11305249

Smallfield, B M; van Klink, J W; Perry, N B; Dodds, K G

2001-01-01

232

The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail  

E-print Network

-occurs with a specialized snail crushing fish. Aquatic snails are excellent model systems to study anti- predator mechanismThe Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail Johel, Baja California Sur, Me´xico Abstract Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium

Johnson, Steven G.

233

Functional Recovery After Facial and Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To systematically record rat facial nerve re- covery following crush injury to the main trunk with re- spect to ocular and vibrissial function and to compare the rates of facial and sciatic nerve recovery from crush injury in the same animals. This serves as a means of vali- dating the functional parameters of facial nerve recov- ery against the

Tessa A. Hadlock; James Heaton; Mack Cheney; Susan E. Mackinnon

2005-01-01

234

Experimental and Modeling Studies of Crush, Puncture, and Perforation Scenarios in the Steven Impact Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steven test and associated modeling has greatly increased the fundamental knowledge of practical predictions of impact safety hazards for confined and unconfined explosive charges. Building on a database of initial work, experimental and modeling studies of crush, puncture, and perforation scenarios were investigated using the Steven impact test. The descriptions of crush, puncture, and perforation arose from safety scenarios

Kevin S. Vandersall; Steven K. Chidester; Jerry W. Forbes; Frank Garcia; Daniel W. Greenwood; Lori L. Switzer; Craig M. Tarver

2002-01-01

235

The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability of composite tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy-absorption capability as a function of crushing speed was determined for Thornel 300-Fiberite 934 (Gr-E) and Kevlar-49-Fiberite 934 (K-E) composite material. Circular cross section tube specimens were crushed at speeds ranging from 0.01 to 12 m/sec. Ply orientations of the tube specimens were (0/ +/- theta)2 and (+/- theta)2 where theta = 15, 45, and 75 deg. Based upon the results of these tests, the energy-absorption capability of Gr-E and K-E was determined to be a function of crushing speed. The magnitude of the effects of crushing speed on energy-absorption capability was determined to be a function of the mechanisms that control the crushing process. The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability is related to whether the mechanical response of the crushing mechanism that controls the crushing process is a function of strain rate. Energy-absorption capability of Gr-E and K-E tubes ranged between 0 and 35 percent and 20 and 45 percent, respectively, depending upon ply orientation.

Farley, Gary L.

1991-01-01

236

Influence of variables on the consolidation and unconfined compressive strength of crushed salt: Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight hydrostatic compression creep tests were performed on crushed salt specimens fabricated from Avery Island dome salt. Following the creep test, each specimen was tested in unconfined compression. The experiments were performed to assess the influence of the following four variables on the consolidation and unconfined strength of crushed salt: grain size distribution, temperature, time, and moisture content. The experiment

T. W. Pfeifle; P. E. Senseny; K. D. Mellegard

1987-01-01

237

Remote control continuous mining machine crushing accident data study  

SciTech Connect

A committee was formed to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents as part of US MSHA's efforts to reduce and eliminate these types of accidents. The committee was tasked with collecting, reviewing, and evaluating remote control accident data to identify significant factors that could possibly contribute to remote control accidents. The report identifies that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another (place changing). Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. 10 figs., 5 tabs., 7 apps.

NONE

2006-05-11

238

Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

Not Available

1987-01-01

239

Using burnt stone slurry in mortar mixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of stone slurry waste resulting from quarries forms a serious environmental problem in many countries around the globe. The use of Jordanian burnt stone slurry (BSS) waste in concrete mixtures had been investigated throughout this study. The properties that were studied include setting time, workability, compressive and flexural strength, alkali-silica reaction, and micro-structure of mortar. The BSS was

Nabil M. Al-Akhras; Ayman Ababneh; Wail A. Alaraji

2010-01-01

240

Thermally stimulated depolarization of kidney stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of TSD (thermally stimulated depolarization) measurements of surgically removed kidney stones are reported. The measurements confirm the existence of the electret state in kidney stones, the TSD spectrum depending on the composition. The best electret-forming temperature (near body temperature) is lower than the temperature range studied; the choice of the latter was imposed by experimental conditions

I. M. Talwar; Y. Yagyik; N. Lal

1989-01-01

241

Primary “Brown Pigment” Bile Duct Stones  

PubMed Central

Bile duct stones from 42 patients were morphologically and chemically analysed. The calculi from 27 patients had important primary bile duct stone (PBDS) features, consisting of a general ovoid shape and fragile structure, with alternating light and dark brown pigmented layers on cross-section. Chemically these stones contained low levels of cholesterol, with high levels of bilirubin and calcium. Subsequent infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that calcium bilirubinate and calcium palmitate were the only calcium salts present. Calcium palmitate was prominent in the light brown layers. A morphological and chemical comparison with gallbladder stones showed that bile duct “stasis stones” were similar in morphological and chemical composition to the brown pigment gallbladder calculi. However, they were distinct from most gallbladder stones, indicating that primary bile duct calculi have an aetiology that is different to 90% of gallbladder calculi. Primary bile duct calculi were observed to occur with or without the presence of a gallbladder, and more interestingly, in the bile duct of two patients with cholesterol gallbladder stones. Bile duct bile of patients with primary choledocholithiasis were always moderately to profusely infected and with abundant calcium bilirubinate precipitation. Moreover, this study has shown that PBDS chemical analyses profiles were consistent and correlated well with their defined morphology. Consequently, PBDS may be accurately identified at the time of operation by morphology. An important aetiological factor would appear to be infection, which would seem to promote bile duct bile stasis and eventual stone growth. PMID:1931789

Sali, Avni; Little, Peter; Nayman, Jack; Elzarka, Ayman

1991-01-01

242

Genetics of hypercalciuric stone forming diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a lifetime incidence of up to 12% in man and 6% in woman, nephrolithiasis is a major health problem worldwide. Approximately, 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium and hypercalciuria is found in up to 40% of stone-formers. Although the mechanisms resulting in precipitation and growth of calcium crystals in the urinary tract are multiple and not fully

O Devuyst; Y Pirson

2007-01-01

243

Nutrition and renal stone disease in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

Zerwekh, Joseph E.

2002-01-01

244

Gallstone Ileus following Endoscopic Stone Extraction  

PubMed Central

An 85-year-old woman was an outpatient treated at Tokyo Rosai Hospital for cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B. She had previously been diagnosed as having common bile duct stones, for which she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, as stone removal was unsuccessful, a plastic stent was placed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In October 2012, the stent was replaced endoscopically because she developed cholangitis due to stent occlusion. Seven days later, we performed ERCP to treat recurring cholangitis. During the procedure, the stone was successfully removed by a balloon catheter when cleaning the common bile duct. The next day, the patient developed abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and nausea and was diagnosed as having gallstone ileus based on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography findings of an incarcerated stone in the terminal ileum. Although colonoscopy was performed after inserting an ileus tube, no stone was visible. Subsequent CT imaging verified the disappearance of the incarcerated stone from the ileum, suggesting that the stone had been evacuated naturally via the transanal route. Although it is extremely rare for gallstone ileus to develop as a complication of ERCP, physicians should be aware of gallstone ileus and follow patients carefully, especially after removing huge stones. PMID:25328725

Wakui, Noritaka; Asai, Yasutsugu; Dan, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Yuki; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takahumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Nisinakagawa, Shuta; Kojima, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

245

Uropontin in urinary calcium stone formation.  

PubMed

Normal urine is frequently supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate. Thus, urinary inhibitors of crystallization appear to have an important role in preventing urinary stone formation. Uropontin was isolated by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and has the same N-terminal sequence as osteopontin derived from bone. This urinary form of osteopontin is a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth at concentrations (approximately 0.1 microM) that normally prevail in human urine. Interaction with calcium oxalate monohydrate in vivo was shown by analysis of EDTA extracts of calcium stones. Uropontin is an abundant component of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones and present in only trace quantities in calcium oxalate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite stones. However, the precise role of uropontin in the pathogenesis of urinary stone formation is not known and is the subject of ongoing investigations. PMID:7783701

Hoyer, J R

1994-01-01

246

Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts' gain.

Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

247

An Evaluation of Ethyl Silicate-Based Grouts for Weathered Silicate Stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Culturally significant monuments made of weathered siliceous stone often display sub-surface condition issues such as cracks and voids. These issues require grouts that are ideally compatible with the composition and properties of the substrate. Based on the successful application of ethyl silicates as consolidants in recent literature, this study examines possible formulation pathways for the development of a grout incorporating ethyl silicate. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTL) as a catalyst, silicone oil (PDMS), various grades of ground quartz, sepiolite, and hollow glass spheres were used in differing concentrations to create samples. These were visually and physically assessed on workability, separation, shrinkage, cracking, strength, and flexibility. Quantitative analysis was performed on selected formulations using UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy in coordination with a weight loss experiment to investigate kinetics, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Successful formulations tended to include oligomeric TEOS, crushed quartz of mixed grades, sepiolite powder, and PDMS, and show promise for future investigations.

Dolph, Brittany Helen

248

Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation opportunities for the stone and cement industries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large amounts of limestone fines coproduced during the processing of crushed limestone may be useful in the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is proposed as a low-tech method to capture and sequester CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants and other point-sources such as cement manufacturing. AWL reactants are readily available, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Waste CO 2 is hydrated with water to produce carbonic acid, which then reacts with and is neutralized by limestone fines, thus converting CO2 gas to dissolved calcium bicarbonate. AWL waste products can be disposed of in the ocean. Feasibility requires access to an inexpensive source of limestone and to seawater, thus limiting AWL facilities within about 10 km of the coastline. The majority of U.S. coastal power generating facilities are within economical transport distance of limestone resources. AWL presents opportunities for collaborative efforts among the crushed stone industry, electrical utilities, cement manufactures, and research scientists.

Langer, W.H.; Juan, C.A.S.; Rau, G.H.; Caldeira, K.

2009-01-01

249

Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

Angulo, E. D. (inventor)

1984-01-01

250

Molecular Logic: Browsing Stepping Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Concord Consortium with support from the National Science Foundation, the goal of the Molecular Logic website is "to develop students' understanding of molecules, their interactions and the consequences of these interactions." The researchers and specialists in charge of the site have selected ten physical-chemical principles that underlie many biological processes. They call them "Molecular Stepping Stones", and the site includes entry-level model-based activities for each of these steps. Some of the steps have multiple parts, and visitors will note that each section includes an interactive activity and notes for teachers. Some of the subjects covered here include molecular folding, chemical reactions, and the structure and function in proteins.

251

Written in Stone Earthquake Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This group of brief animations shows destructive phenomena related to earthquakes and provides some advice on mitigating their effects. The collection includes an animation of Rayleigh waves, showing the reverse elliptical motion that makes them especially damaging; a demonstration of the difference in wave propagation and amplitude between hard rock and unconsolidated sediment; and an animation showing the relationship between earthquake magnitude and fault movement on the San Andreas Fault. For homeowners, there are animations depicting an unsecured cripple wall and chimney failure, with suggestions for strengthening these components. There are also animations of fault movement that occurred during specific earthquakes, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1992 Landers earthquake, and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The animations were developed for the educational video "Written in Stone," a project funded by and developed for the California Seismic Safety Commission.

Jeff Sale, EdCenter Staff Scientist

252

Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

2013-11-11

253

How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

2010-01-01

254

The crush behavior of fiber composite rods with a toughened matrix  

SciTech Connect

The crush behavior (specific energy absorption and crush load stability) of unidirectional fiber composite rods having tougher matrices than vinyl ester were investigated and compared with the crush behavior of similar specimens having a vinyl ester matrix. The matrices were a cyclic polyester and two rubber-toughened vinyl esters. The specific energy absorption with the cyclic polyester matrix, 180 MJ/m{sup 3}, was slightly lower than that with the vinyl ester matrix, 230 MJ/m{sup 3}. On the other hand, the crush stability was markedly better. The average deviation of the crush load about the mean was as small as 3.5% with the cyclic polyester matrix, in contrast to about 12% with the vinyl ester matrix. The higher ductility of the cyclic polyester and the good fiber-matrix bond strength together resulted in less fracturing of the matrix and more uniform kink-band formation across the composite cross section than occurred with the vinyl ester matrix. There was also a reduction in the tendency for fibers at the periphery of the rod to splay outward rather than being crushed. Of the two rubber-toughened vinyl ester matrices, a 30% reduction was found in the average deviation of the crush load about the mean with the matrix toughened with a core-shell material, although no improvement was found with the CTBN rubber-modified vinyl ester resin.

Peterson, R.C.; Garard, R.J.; Lokhandwala, K.K.; Roberston, R.E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1997-12-31

255

The biomagnetic signature of a crushed axon. A comparison of theory and experiment.  

PubMed Central

The response of a crayfish medial giant axon to a nerve crush is examined with a biomagnetic current probe. The experimental data is interpreted with a theoretical model that incorporates both radial and axial ionic transport and membrane kinetics similar to those in the Hodgkin/Huxley model. Our experiments show that the effects of the crush are manifested statically as an elevation of the resting potential and dynamically as a reduction in the amplitude of the action current and potential, and are observable up to 10 mm from the crush. In addition, the normally biphasic action current becomes monophasic near the crush. The model reflects these observations accurately, and based on the experimental data, it predicts that the crush seals with a time constant of 45 s. The injury current density entering the axon through the crush is calculated to be initially on the order of 0.1 mA/mm2 and may last until the crush seals or until the concentration gradients between the intra- and extracellular spaces equilibrate. PMID:8494985

van Egeraat, J M; Stasaski, R; Barach, J P; Friedman, R N; Wikswo, J P

1993-01-01

256

Preconditioning crush increases the survival rate of motor neurons after spinal root avulsion  

PubMed Central

In a previous study, heat shock protein 27 was persistently upregulated in ventral motor neurons following nerve root avulsion or crush. Here, we examined whether the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 would increase the survival rate of motor neurons. Rats were divided into two groups: an avulsion-only group (avulsion of the L4 lumbar nerve root only) and a crush-avulsion group (the L4 lumbar nerve root was crushed 1 week prior to the avulsion). Immunofluorescent staining revealed that the survival rate of motor neurons was significantly greater in the crush-avulsion group than in the avulsion-only group, and this difference remained for at least 5 weeks after avulsion. The higher neuronal survival rate may be explained by the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 expression in motor neurons in the crush-avulsion group. Furthermore, preconditioning crush greatly attenuated the expression of nitric oxide synthase in the motor neurons. Our findings indicate that the neuroprotective action of preconditioning crush is mediated through the upregulation of heat shock protein 27 expression and the attenuation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase upregulation following avulsion. PMID:25206852

Li, Lin; Zuo, Yizhi; He, Jianwen

2014-01-01

257

Segmented Aluminum Honeycomb Characteristics in T-Direction, Dynamic Crush Environments  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen segmented aluminum honeycomb samples (5 in. diameter and 1.5 in. height) have been crushed in an experimental configuration that uses a drop table impact machine. The 38.0 pcf bulk density samples are a unique segmented geometry that allows the samples to be crushed while maintaining a constant cross-sectional area. A crush weight of 175 lb was used to determine the rate sensitivity of the honeycomb's highest strength orientation, T-direction, in a dynamic environment of {approx}50 fps impact velocity. Experiments were conducted for two honeycomb manufacturers and at two temperatures, ambient and +165 F. Independent measurements of the crush force were made with a custom load cell and a force derived from acceleration measurements on the drop table using the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique with a Calibrated Force (SWAT-CAL). Normalized stress-strain curves for all thirteen experiments are included and have excellent repeatability. These data are strictly valid for material characteristics in the T orientation because the cross-sectional area of the honeycomb did not change during the crush. The dynamic crush data have a consistent increase in crush strength of {approximately}7--19% as compared to quasi-static data and suggest that dynamic performance may be inferred from static tests. An uncertainty analysis estimates the error in these data is {+-} 11%.

BATEMAN,VESTA I.; BROWN,FREDERICK A.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.; SWANSON,LLOYD H.

2000-08-23

258

Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad.

Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

1998-04-01

259

Famous building stones of our Nation's capital  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

U.S. Geological Survey

2012-01-01

260

Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene  

PubMed Central

Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition. PMID:24963438

Ramdass, Michael J.

2014-01-01

261

Which efficiency index for urinary stones treatment?  

PubMed

Clinical results in urinary stones management are often reported using the stone-free (SF) rate, which is simple, reproducible and useful to compare techniques or centers. But this index does not take into account costs or patients' quality of life. In a way, SF "pursuit", which cannot be considered as a universal therapeutic goal could increase costs and decrease patients' comfort. We retrospectively reviewed files of stone management to describe costs according to several items and we emphasize the need for a true efficiency index. PMID:19513704

Raynal, Gauthier; Petit, Jacques; Saint, Fabien

2009-08-01

262

ESWL in situ or ureteroscopy for ureteric stones?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As documented by follow-up data on ureteric stones in 1259 ureteric units treated, ESWL in situ on advanced lithotriptors with stone location by ultrasonography and fluoroscopy was successful without any retrograde ureteric manipulation in 98% of stones in the upper, 71% in the iliac, and 84% in the distal ureter; 85% of the units were stone-free within 3 months: ancillary

J. Hofbauer; C. Tuerk; K. Höbarth; R. Hasun; M. Marberger

1993-01-01

263

Urinary sodium to potassium ratio and urinary stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary sodium to potassium ratio and urinary stone disease. The relation was investigated of urinary sodium to potassium ratio in first morning voided urine (spot urine) to urinary stone disease in 3,625 men and women aged 25 to 74 years participating in the baseline examination of the Gubbio Population Study. History of urinary stone disease (excretion of stone, and\\/or radiographic

Massimo Cirillo; Martino Laurenzi; Walter Panarelli; Jeremiah Stamler

1994-01-01

264

Mineral Composition of Renal Stones from the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urolithiasis is a very frequent finding in the Sudan, but stone analysis is not routinely performed in this country. It would, however, give important evidence for the metabolic basis of stone formation. We therefore set out to analyze urinary stones in 80 Sudanese patients (45 male, 35 female), 12 of whom where children. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy was used for stone

A. A. Balla; A. M. Salah; A. H. H. Khattab; A. Kambal; D. Bongartz; B. Hoppe; A. Hesse

1998-01-01

265

Quasi-Uniform High Speed Foam Crush Testing Using a Guided Drop Mass Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple method for measuring the dynamic crush response of foam materials at various loading rates is described. The method utilizes a drop mass impact configuration with mass and impact velocity selected such that the crush speed remains approximately uniform during the entire sample crushing event. Instrumentation, data acquisition, and data processing techniques are presented, and limitations of the test method are discussed. The objective of the test method is to produce input data for dynamic finite element modeling involving crash and energy absorption characteristics of foam materials.

Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor); Kellas, Sotiris

2004-01-01

266

A mixture of crushing and segregation: The complexity of grainsize in natural granular flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interplay between grain crushing and segregation controls the dynamics of dense granular flows that underpin many natural hazards. We address this issue for the first time by developing a simple lattice model with three interacting rules—for grain crushing, mixing, and segregation. In earthquake faults, particles are trapped, they crush and mix, but do not segregate. In this case the model produces power law distributions, consistent with previous models. When segregation by kinetic sieving is added to the model, we predict depth-dependent lognormal distributions as previously observed, but not explained, in pyroclastic flows, debris flows, rock avalanches, and dry snow avalanches.

Marks, Benjy; Einav, Itai

2015-01-01

267

In vivo evaluation of demyelination and remyelination in a nerve crush injury model  

PubMed Central

Nerves of the peripheral nervous system have, to some extent, the ability to regenerate after injury, particularly in instances of crush or contusion injuries. After a controlled crush injury of the rat sciatic nerve, demyelination and remyelination are followed with functional assessments and imaged both ex vivo and in vivo over the course of 4 weeks with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. A new procedure compatible with live animal imaging is developed for performing histomorphometry of myelinated axons. This allows quantification of demyelination proximal and remyelination distal to the crush site ex vivo and in vivo respectively. PMID:22091449

Bélanger, E.; Henry, F. P.; Vallée, R.; Randolph, M. A.; Kochevar, I. E.; Winograd, J. M.; Lin, C. P.; Côté, D.

2011-01-01

268

Endoscopic management of bile duct stones: residual bile duct stones after surgery, cholangitis, and "difficult stones".  

PubMed

Endoscopic treatment has become, according to the latest recommendations, the standard treatment for common bile duct stones (CBDS), although in certain situations, surgical clearance of the common duct at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still considered a possible alternative. The purpose of this article is not to compare endoscopic with surgical treatment of CBDS, but to describe the various techniques of endoscopic treatment, detailing their preferential indications and the various treatment options that must sometimes be considered when faced with "difficult calculi" of the CBD. The different techniques of lithotripsy and the role of biliary drainage with plastic or metallic stents will be detailed as well as papillary balloon dilatation and particularly the technique of sphincterotomy with macrodilatation of the sphincter of Oddi (SMSO), a recently described approach that has changed the strategy for endoscopic management of CBDS. Finally, the overall strategy for endoscopic management of CBDS, with description of different techniques, will be exposed. PMID:23817008

Karsenti, D

2013-06-01

269

New Lithostar treatment technique for difficult upper ureteral stones.  

PubMed

In situ treatment of ureteral stones with the Siemens Lithostar is highly successful. In a rare patient, however, despite various positioning maneuvers, an upper ureteral or lower pole renal stone overlies vertebral bone when the shock head is raised. Unless the patient chooses to delay treatments until the stone has moved distally, such patients would ordinarily be forced to undergo percutaneous stone manipulation or ureteroscopy. We describe a technique to facilitate in situ Lithostar treatment of these uncommon but vexing upper ureteral stones using the contralateral shock head with stone side-posterior oblique positioning. Nine of ten patients were stone free at 3 months without further treatment. PMID:7550264

Carey, P O; Jenkins, J

1995-06-01

270

Relation between Geographic Variability in Kidney Stones Prevalence and Risk Factors for Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether geographic variability in rates of kidney stones in the United States was attributable to differences in personal and environmental exposures, the authors examined cross-sectional data that included information on self-reported, physician-diagnosed kidney stones collected from 1,167,009 men and women, aged a30 years, recruited nationally in 1982. Information on risk factors for stones including age, race, education, body

J. Michael Soucie; Ralph J. Coates; William Mcclellan; Michael Thun

271

Calcium phosphate supersaturation regulates stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate supersaturation regulates stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundHypercalciuria is the most common metabolic abnormality observed in patients with nephrolithiasis. Hypercalciuria raises urine supersaturation with respect to the solid phases of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, leading to an enhanced probability for nucleation and growth of crystals into clinically significant stones. However, there is little direct proof that

David A Bushinsky; Walter R Parker; John R Asplin

2000-01-01

272

Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.5±1.4 mm compared with 9.9±2.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (p<0.05). On multivariate logistic analysis, stone size and time to ESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure. PMID:25598937

Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

2015-01-01

273

Superior palatability of crushed lercanidipine compared with amlodipine among children  

PubMed Central

AIMS To compare the taste of equivalent doses of pulverized amlodipine and lercanidipine, two calcium channel blockers, among children with kidney disease. METHODS Each child received a test dose of 1 mg of amlodipine besylate and 2 mg of lercanidipine in a single-blinded fashion. Children indicated their preference by pointing to the appropriate face on a visual analogue scale (VAS) that depicts five degrees of pleasure. RESULTS The VAS palatability score assigned to lercanidipine was higher than that assigned to amlodipine both in nine children 4–7 years of age (P < 0.005) and in 10 children 8–11 years of age (P < 0.005). The preference for lercanidipine was statistically significant in both girls (P < 0.02) and boys (P < 0.001) and in both children initially presented amlodipine (P < 0.005) and children initially presented lercanidipine (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS There is a lack of appropriate formulations for children prescribed drugs originally designed for adults, such as calcium channel blockers. Parents therefore crush available tablets and administer the medication mixed with solid food or a palatable drink. From the perspective of the child, the taste of pulverized lercanidipine is superior to that of pulverized amlodipine. PMID:20233185

Milani, Gregorio; Ragazzi, Monica; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Ramelli, Gian P; Rizzi, Mattia; Bianchetti, Mario G; Fossali, Emilio F

2010-01-01

274

A case of recurrent renal aluminum hydroxide stone.  

PubMed

Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

2014-01-01

275

A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone  

PubMed Central

Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

2014-01-01

276

Clinical implications of abundant calcium phosphatein routinely analyzed kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical implications of abundant calcium phosphate in routinely analyzed kidney stones.BackgroundTo better portray the clinical phenotype of kidney stone patients with high calcium phosphate (CaP) stone abundance, we present here clinical and laboratory findings of large numbers of stone formers (SF) with stone CaP ranging from 0% to 100%. Our purpose was to inform clinicians and highlight areas that seem

JOAN H PARKS; ELAINE M WORCESTER; FREDRIC L COE; ANDREW P EVAN; JAMES E LINGEMAN

2004-01-01

277

Kidney and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management  

MedlinePLUS

... and culture, also to examine for infection. A simple X-ray of the abdomen is sometimes enough ... tests give your urologist information about the size, location and number of stones that are causing the ...

278

Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built numerous churches which today can be found in Brazil but also along the South American and African coasts. Currently the global market of Modern Dimension Stones Industry allows Portuguese Marbles to be present in buildings, architectural pieces and works of arts all over the World. Despite almost continuous mining activity in the region it's notice that there was no depletion of raw material, in fact almost every varieties of marble have enough reserves to sustain the mining activity is several hundreds of years. The Alentejo whitewashed houses are a hallmark of the unique landscape that can only have been developed by the availability of marbles to produce quicklime. In cities and villages, the built heritage based on the marble is very rich and is always present, meanwhile the surrounding countryside is marked by intense mining activity living side by side with rural industries, namely wheatfields, groves, orchards and vineyards; therefore the region has unique characteristics allowing the development of integrated industrial tourism routes. The Portuguese Marbles are a key factor for local sustainable development and it's leading the region to new opportunities of industrial, scientific and technological culture, pointing to a successful future.

Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

2013-04-01

279

Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

2014-03-01

280

[The property changes of urine crystallites of calcium oxalate stone formers before and after taking medicine].  

PubMed

The property changes of urine crystallites of six cases of calcium oxalate stone formers before and after taking medicine were comparatively studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the urinary pH increases after taking medicine (before taking 5.87 +/- 0.51, after taking 6.23 +/- 0.74.) Before taking medicine the main components of urine crystallites were uric acid, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and biphosphate. The types and quantities of urine crystallites after taking medicine were less than that of before. The average size of urine crystallite before taking medicine was (579 +/- 326) nm, and it reduced to (404 +/- 338) nm after taking medicine. After taking medicine the zeta potential was also decreased to (-7.29 +/- 4.16) mV from (-4.28 +/- 2.55) mV. The decrease in zeta potential is beneficial to preventing urinary crystallites deposition. The edges and corners of urine crystallite were sharp with significant aggregation before taking medicine, while they became blunt and less aggregation after taking medicine. The analysis of the property changes of urine crystallites of calcium oxalate stone patients before and after taking medicine by using modern equipments has important clinical significance to the clinical prevention and treatment of urinary stones. PMID:22007430

Li, Jun-Jun; Hou, Shan-Hua; Xia, Zhi-Yue; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2011-08-01

281

Investigations on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Recycled Aggregate Self Compacting Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years, construction and demolition waste management issues have attracted the attention from researchers around the world. In the present study, the potential usage of recycled aggregate obtained from crushed demolition waste for making self compacting concrete (SCC) was researched. The barriers in promoting the use of recycled material in new construction are also discussed. In addition, the results of an experimental study involving the use of recycled concrete aggregate as coarse aggregates for producing self-compacting concrete to study their flow and strength characteristics are also presented. Five series of mixture were prepared with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % coarse recycled aggregate adopting Nan Su's mix proportioning method. The fresh concrete properties were evaluated through the slump flow, J-ring and V-funnel tests. Compressive and tensile strengths were also determined. The results obtained showed that SCC could be successfully developed by incorporating recycled aggregates.

Revathi, P.; Selvi, R. S.; Velin, S. S.

2013-09-01

282

The evolving epidemiology of stone disease  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving – not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends. PMID:24497682

Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

2014-01-01

283

Impact of dietary habits on stone incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle are suggested to contribute markedly to the rise in the prevalence and incidence of\\u000a urolithiasis during the past decades. Insufficient fluid intake and diets rich in animal protein are considered to be important\\u000a determinants of stone formation. Overweight and associated dietary pattern additionally contribute to the increasing incidence\\u000a and prevalence of stone disease. Reduction

Roswitha Siener

2006-01-01

284

Microorganisms and Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms may have a role in the pathogenesis and prevention of kidney stones. The subjects of this review include nanobacteria, Oxalobacter formigenes, and lactic acid bacteria. Not reviewed here is the well-described role of infections of the urinary tract with Proteus species and other urease-producing organisms associated with struvite stone formation. Nanobacteria have been proposed to be very small (0.08–0.5

David S. Goldfarb

2004-01-01

285

Catalysts for Stone Age innovations  

PubMed Central

Fossil and genetic evidence suggests the emergence of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) in sub-Saharan Africa some time between 200 and 100 thousand years (ka) ago. But the first traces of symbolic behavior—a trait unique to our species—are not found until many tens of millennia later, and include items such as engraved ochres and eggshells, tools made from bone, and personal ornaments made of shell beads. These behavioral indicators appear in concert with two innovative phases of Middle Stone Age technology, known as the Still Bay (SB) and Howieson's Poort (HP) industries, across a range of climatic and ecological zones in southern Africa. The SB and HP have recently been dated to about 72-71 ka and 65-60 ka, respectively, at sufficiently high resolution to investigate the possible causes and effects. A remarkable feature of these two industries is the spatial synchroneity of their start and end dates at archaeological sites spread across a region of two million square kilometers. What were the catalysts for the SB and HP, and what were the consequences? Both industries flourished at a time when tropical Africa had just entered a period of wetter and more stable conditions, and populations of hunter-gatherers were expanding rapidly throughout sub-Saharan Africa before contracting into geographically and genetically isolated communities. The SB and HP also immediately preceded the likely exit time of modern humans from Africa into southern Asia and across to Australia, which marked the beginning of the worldwide dispersal of our species. In this paper, we argue that environmental factors alone are insufficient to explain these two bursts of technological and behavioral innovation. Instead, we propose that the formation of social networks across southern Africa during periods of population expansion, and the disintegration of these networks during periods of population contraction, can explain the abrupt appearance and disappearance of the SB and HP, as well as the hiatus between them. But it will take improved chronologies for the key demographic events to determine if the emergence of innovative technology and symbolic behavior provided the stimulus for the expansion of hunter-gatherer populations (and their subsequent global dispersal), or if these Middle Stone Age innovations came into existence only after populations had expanded and geographically extensive social networks had developed. PMID:19513276

Roberts, Richard G

2009-01-01

286

49 CFR 393.132 - What are the rules for securing flattened or crushed vehicles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to the transportation of vehicles such as automobiles...secure flattened or crushed vehicles is prohibited except that...may be used to connect wire rope or chain to anchor points on the commercial motor vehicle. However, the...

2010-10-01

287

49 CFR 571.216a - Standard No. 216a; Roof crush resistance; Upgraded standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 216a; Roof crush resistance; Upgraded standard. 571.216a Section 571.216a Transportation...TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...

2014-10-01

288

Experimental Setup The samples used were crushed almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts. We  

E-print Network

Experimental Setup The samples used were crushed almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts. We chose conditioning circuitry, and a data acquisition device. For acquiring and processing the data for future research exploring chemical array signal processing applications, such as specific

Nehorai, Arye

289

Kidney stones are common after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Obesity, a risk factor for kidney stones and chronic kidney disease (CKD), is effectively treated with bariatric surgery. However, it is unclear whether surgery alters stone or CKD risk. To determine this we studied 762 Olmsted County, Minnesota residents who underwent bariatric surgery and matched them with equally obese control individuals who did not undergo surgery. The majority of bariatric patients underwent standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; 78%), with the remainder having more malabsorptive procedures (very long limb RYGB or biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch; 14%) or restrictive procedures (laparoscopic banding or sleeve gastrectomy; 7%). The mean age was 45 years with 80% being female. The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 46.7?kg/m(2) for both cohorts. Rates of kidney stones were similar between surgery patients and controls at baseline, but new stone formation significantly increased in surgery patients (11.0%) compared with controls (4.3%) during 6.0 years of follow-up. After malabsorptive and standard surgery, the comorbidity-adjusted hazard ratio of incident stones was significantly increased to 4.15 and 2.13, respectively, but was not significantly changed for restrictive surgery. The risk of CKD significantly increased after the malabsorptive procedures (adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96). Thus, while RYGB and malabsorptive procedures are more effective for weight loss, both are associated with increased risk of stones, while malabsorptive procedures also increase CKD risk. PMID:25354237

Lieske, John C; Mehta, Ramila A; Milliner, Dawn S; Rule, Andrew D; Bergstralh, Eric J; Sarr, Michael G

2015-04-01

290

The mechanisms of stone fragmentation in ESWL.  

PubMed

Currently, several mechanisms of kidney stone fragmentation in extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) are under discussion. As a new mechanism, the circumferential quasistatic compression or "squeezing" by evanescent waves in the stone has been introduced. In fragmentation experiments with self-focussing electromagnetic shock-wave generators with focal diameters comparable to or larger than the stone diameter, we observed first cleavage surfaces either parallel or perpendicular to the wave propagation direction. This is in agreement with the expectation of the "squeezing" mechanism. Because, for positive pulse pressures below 35 MPa and stones with radii of 15 mm or smaller, cleavage into only two fragments was observed, we developed a quantitative model of binary fragmentation by "quasistatic squeezing." This model predicts the ratio of the number of pulses for the fragmentation to 2-mm size and of the number of pulses required for the first cleavage into two parts. This "fragmentation-ratio" depends linearly alone on the stone radius and on the final size of the fragments. The experimental results for spherical artificial stones of 5 mm, 12 mm and 15 mm diameter at a pulse pressure of 11 MPa are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Thus, binary fragmentation by quasistatic squeezing in ESWL as a new efficient fragmentation mechanism is also quantitatively verified. PMID:11397533

Eisenmenger, W

2001-05-01

291

Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

Moran, Michael E.

2007-04-01

292

Changes in Expression of Aquaporin-4 and Aquaporin-9 in Optic Nerve after Crushing in Rats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of AQP4 and AQP9 in the optic nerve after it is crushed. The left optic nerves of rats were either crushed (crushed group) or sham operated (sham group), and they were excised before, and at 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days later. Four optic nerves were pooled for each time point in both groups. The expression of AQP4 and AQP9 was determined by western blot analyses. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the spatial expression of AQP4, AQP9, and GFAP in the optic nerve. Optic nerve edema was determined by measuring the water content in the optic nerve. The barrier function of the optic nerve vessels was determined by the extravasated Evans blue dye on days 7 and 14. The results showed that the expression of AQP4 was increased on day 1 but the level was significantly lower than that in the sham group on days 4 and 7 (P<0.05). In contrast, the expression of AQP9 gradually increased, and the level was significantly higher than that in the sham group on days 7 and 14 (P<0.05, Tukey-Kramer). The down-regulation of AQP4 was associated with crush-induced optic nerve edema, and the water content of the nerve was significantly increased by 4.3% in the crushed optic nerve from that of the untouched fellow nerve on day 7. The expression of AQP4 and GFAP was reduced at the crushed site where AQP4-negative and AQP9-positive astrocytes were present. The barrier function was impaired at the crushed site on days 7 and 14, restrictedly where AQP4-negative and AQP9-positive astrocytes were present. The presence of AQP9-positive astrocytes at the crushed site may counteract the metabolic damage but this change did not fully compensate for the barrier function defect. PMID:25479407

Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Oku, Hidehiro; Horie, Taeko; Morishita, Seita; Tonari, Masahiro; Oku, Kazuma; Okubo, Akiko; Kida, Teruyo; Mimura, Masashi; Fukumoto, Masanori; Kojima, Shota; Takai, Shinji; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

2014-01-01

293

Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask`s top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer`s testing of the foam and to determine the foam`s stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask.

Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

1998-03-01

294

Adoption of quad bike crush prevention devices on Australian dairy farms.  

PubMed

Quad bikes (all-terrain vehicles) are the leading cause of nonintentional farm injury deaths in Australia. Approximately 50% result from rollovers of the vehicle, with death frequently due to crush injury/asphyxiation. Crush protection devices fitted to quads have been demonstrated to enhance safety. This exploratory study aimed to assess feedback from a small group of dairy farmers (N?=?11) that had crush protection devices fitted to their quads. A mixed-methods design was adopted consisting of pre- and post-intervention surveys in addition to focus groups/interviews for this exploratory study. Results indicate that the crush protection device was viewed positively by the majority of participants, with virtually no impact on the reported performance of the quad in terms of braking, steering, suspension, and getting on/off. The most problematic issue was some contact with overhead objects, although the majority reported no issues at all. Some issues were also identified with attaching trailers, carrying loads, and noise from rattling. The participants reported that the likely potential benefits of a crush protection device clearly outweighed these issues. Some 4 to 6 months following the study, 10 of the 11 farmers continued to have the crush protection device fitted to their quad. The major barrier to adoption was the manufacturers' resistance and negative public statements regarding the effectiveness of crush protection devices. Participants suggested that there are steps that can be taken to increase the uptake of crush protection devices by dairy farmers. Further lag in promoting these potentially life-saving devices will only add to the death and injury burden associated with quad bikes. PMID:24417528

Lower, Tony; Trotter, Mark

2014-01-01

295

Effects of crushed conspecifics on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon Fabricius post larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the hypothesis tested was that Penaeus monodon post-larvae (PL) experience lower growth when exposed to crushed conspecifics, which was achieved by exposing individual P. monodon PL with abundant food for 4 weeks to a gradient from 0 to 100 crushed conspecific PL L1. Both dry weight (48.5±7.2 mg) and body size (28.0±1.3 mm) of animals exposed

Bui Tui Nga; M. F. L. L. W. Lürling; E. T. H. M. Peeters; Rudil Roijackers; Marten Scheffer; Truong Trong Nghia

2006-01-01

296

Reproducible Mouse Sciatic Nerve Crush and Subsequent Assessment of Regeneration by Whole Mount Muscle Analysis  

PubMed Central

Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is widely studied both for its relevance to human disease and to understand the robust regenerative response mounted by PNS neurons thereby possibly illuminating the failures of CNS regeneration1. Sciatic nerve crush (axonotmesis) is one of the most common models of peripheral nerve injury in rodents2. Crushing interrupts all axons but Schwann cell basal laminae are preserved so that regeneration is optimal3,4. This allows the investigator to study precisely the ability of a growing axon to interact with both the Schwann cell and basal laminae4. Rats have generally been the preferred animal models for experimental nerve crush. They are widely available and their lesioned sciatic nerve provides a reasonable approximation of human nerve lesions5,4. Though smaller in size than rat nerve, the mouse nerve has many similar qualities. Most importantly though, mouse models are increasingly valuable because of the wide availability of transgenic lines now allows for a detailed dissection of the individual molecules critical for nerve regeneration6, 7. Prior investigators have used multiple methods to produce a nerve crush or injury including simple angled forceps, chilled forceps, hemostatic forceps, vascular clamps, and investigator-designed clamps8,9,10,11,12. Investigators have also used various methods of marking the injury site including suture, carbon particles and fluorescent beads13,14,1. We describe our method to obtain a reproducibly complete sciatic nerve crush with accurate and persistent marking of the crush-site using a fine hemostatic forceps and subsequent carbon crush-site marking. As part of our description of the sciatic nerve crush procedure we have also included a relatively simple method of muscle whole mount we use to subsequently quantify regeneration. PMID:22395197

Bauder, Andrew R.; Ferguson, Toby A.

2012-01-01

297

Analyzing the Effect of Distance from Skin to Stone by Computed Tomography Scan on the Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Stone-Free Rate of Renal Stones  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether the distance from skin to stone, as measured by computed tomography (CT) scans, could affect the stone-free rate achieved via extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in renal stone patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records 573 patients who had undergone ESWL at our institution between January 2006 and January 2010 for urinary stones sized from about 5 mm to 20 mm and who had no evidence of stone movement. We excluded patients with ureteral catheters and percutaneous nephrostomy patients; ultimately, only 43 patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We classified the success group as those patients whose stones had disappeared on a CT scan or simple X-ray within 6 weeks after ESWL and the failure group as those patients in whom residual stone fragments remained on a CT scan or simple X-ray after 6 weeks. We analyzed the differences between the two groups in age, sex, size of stone, skin-to-stone distance (SSD), stone location, density (Hounsfield unit: HU), voltage (kV), and the number of shocks delivered. Results The success group included 33 patients and the failure group included 10. In the univariate and multivariate analysis, age, sex, size of stone, stone location, HU, kV and the number of shocks delivered did not differ significantly between the two groups. Only SSD was a factor influencing success: the success group clearly had a shorter SSD (78.25±12.15 mm) than did the failure group (92.03±14.51 mm). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed SSD to be the only significant independent predictor of the ESWL stone-free rate. Conclusions SSD can be readily measured by CT scan; the ESWL stone-free rate was inversely proportional to SSD in renal stone patients. SSD may therefore be a useful clinical predictive factor of the success of ESWL on renal stones. PMID:22323973

Park, Byung-Hun; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jin-Bum

2012-01-01

298

Recycled rubber, aggregate, and filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Transportation research record  

SciTech Connect

;Contents(Partial): Evaluation Systems for Crumb Rubber Modified Binders and Mixtures; Hot Mix Asphalt Rubber Applications in Virginia; Evaluation of Pyrolized Carbon Black from Scrap Tires as Additive in Hot Mix Asphalt; Use of Scrap Tire Chips in Asphaltic Membrane; Effects of Mineral Fillers on Properties of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures; and Quantitative Analysis of Aggregate Based on Hough Transform.

NONE

1996-12-31

299

Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate.  

PubMed

The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K3cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K3cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K3cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls>patients after taking K3cit>patients before taking K3cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. PMID:23910312

Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

2013-10-01

300

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

301

A Composite Kidney Stone Phantom with Mechanical Properties Controllable Across the Range of Properties of Human Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

A novel composite kidney stone phantom has been developed. This stone phantom is producible with mechanical properties mimicking the range of tensile fracture strength and acoustic properties of human kidney stones and is an inorganic/organic composite material, as are natural kidney stones. Diametral compression testing was used to measure tensile fracture strength, which determines the acoustic comminution behavior of kidney stones. Ultrasound transmission tests were made to characterize the acoustic properties of these stone phantoms. Both the tensile fracture strength (controllable from 1 to ~ 5 MPa) and acoustic properties (CL = 2700 to 4400m/s and CT = 1600 – 2300 m/s) of these composite phantom stones match those of a wide variety of human kidney stones. These artificial stone phantoms should have wide utility in lithotripsy research. PMID:19878912

Simmons, W. N.; Cocks, F. H.; Zhong, P.; Preminger, Glenn

2013-01-01

302

Natural Aggregate: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show provides an introduction to the production and uses of natural aggregate. Topics include some definitions, uses, and demand for aggregate. There is also information on its occurrence, mining, and production.

Bill Langer

303

Progressive renal papillary calcification and ureteral stone formation in mice deficient for Tamm-Horsfall protein  

PubMed Central

Mammalian urine contains a range of macromolecule proteins that play critical roles in renal stone formation, among which Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is by far the most abundant. While THP is a potent inhibitor of crystal aggregation in vitro and its ablation in vivo predisposes one of the two existing mouse models to spontaneous intrarenal calcium crystallization, key controversies remain regarding the role of THP in nephrolithiasis. By carrying out a long-range follow-up of more than 250 THP-null mice and their wild-type controls, we demonstrate here that renal calcification is a highly consistent phenotype of the THP-null mice that is age and partially gene dosage dependent, but is gender and genetic background independent. Renal calcification in THP-null mice is progressive, and by 15 mo over 85% of all the THP-null mice develop spontaneous intrarenal crystals. The crystals consist primarily of calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite, are located more frequently in the interstitial space of the renal papillae than intratubularly, particularly in older animals, and lack accompanying inflammatory cell infiltration. The interstitial deposits of hydroxyapatite observed in THP-null mice bear strong resemblances to the renal crystals found in human kidneys bearing idiopathic calcium oxalate stones. Compared with 24-h urine from the wild-type mice, that of THP-null mice is supersaturated with brushite (calcium phosphate), a stone precursor, and has reduced urinary excretion of citrate, a stone inhibitor. While less frequent than renal calcinosis, renal pelvic and ureteral stones and hydronephrosis occur in the aged THP-null mice. These results provide direct in vivo evidence indicating that normal THP plays an important role in defending the urinary system against calcification and suggest that reduced expression and/or decreased function of THP could contribute to nephrolithiasis. PMID:20591941

Liu, Yan; Mo, Lan; Goldfarb, David S.; Evan, Andrew P.; Liang, Fengxia; Khan, Saeed R.; Lieske, John C.

2010-01-01

304

Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats  

PubMed Central

Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI) plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size) even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy. PMID:24778886

Shu, Liang; Su, Jingjing; Jing, Lingyan; Huang, Ying; Di, Yu; Peng, Lichao; Liu, Jianren

2014-01-01

305

Recovering industrial sludge-derived slag as fine aggregate.  

PubMed

This study presents the result of using melting to recover both industrial sludge slag (the main constituent of which is calcium fluoride) and water works sludge slag as fine aggregate in cement. The main characteristics of both slag and cement mortars were measured to evaluate the feasibility of using slag as aggregate. In this study, the slag replacement ratios were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% (w/w), and the curing periods were 7, 28, and 90 days. Slag quality was determined according to the standards of fine aggregates in the ASTM specifications, and cement mortars with various slag replacement ratios were evaluated based on their compressive strength, and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The crushed slag produced in this study met the ASTM standards for fine aggregate, including gravity, unit weight, absorption, and grading, and the TCLP leached concentrations are far below existing limits, establishing the safety and suitability of slag as fine aggregate. The TCLP leached concentrations of slag and cement mortar were not significantly related to the replacement ratio, and declined with increasing curing period, revealing that the hydration strongly influenced metal leaching. The compressive strength test results of the cement mortars demonstrated that the optimal replacement ratio for maximizing compressive strength was 40%. This study also discussed the effects of replacement ratio and curing periods on cement mortars. PMID:15663310

Huang, Yi-Chin; Li, Kung-Cheh; Chiang, Hui-Hsien

2005-01-01

306

Kidney Stones: A Fetal Origins Hypothesis†  

PubMed Central

Kidney stones are common with a multifactorial aetiology involving dietary, environmental and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early life events, including low birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation and there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesise that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the aetiology of nephrolithiasis. PMID:23703881

Howles, Sarah A.; Edwards, Mark H.; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V.

2013-01-01

307

Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. PMID:22466339

Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

2012-01-01

308

Mathematical model describing erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Implications for blood viscosity changes in traumatic shock and crush syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory test, which is widespread in clinical practice, for assessing the inflammatory or acute response. This work addresses the theoretical and experimental investigation of sedimentation a single and multiple particles in homogeneous and heterogeneous (multiphase) medium, as it relates to their internal structure (aggregation of solid or deformed particles). Methods The equation system has been solved numerically. To choose finite analogs of derivatives we used the schemes of directional differences. Results (1) Our model takes into account the influence of the vessel wall on group aggregation of particles in tubes as well as the effects of rotation of particles, the constraint coefficient, and viscosity of a mixture as a function of the volume fraction. (2) This model can describe ESR as a function of the velocity of adhesion of erythrocytes; (3) Determination of the ESR is best conducted at certain time intervals, i.e. in a series of periods not exceeding 5 minutes each; (4) Differential diagnosis of various diseases by means of ESR should be performed using the aforementioned timed measurement of ESR; (5) An increase in blood viscosity during trauma results from an increase in rouleaux formation and the time-course method of ESR will be useful in patients with trauma, in particular, with traumatic shock and crush syndrome. Conclusion The mathematical model created in this study used the most fundamental differential equations that have ever been derived to estimate ESR. It may further our understanding of its complex mechanism. PMID:15807888

Ismailov, Rovshan M; Shevchuk, Nikolai A; Khusanov, Higmat

2005-01-01

309

Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

310

9. Raven's roost overlook detail of the rusticated stone retaining ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Raven's roost overlook detail of the rusticated stone retaining wall/railing and stone curbing. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

311

What I Need to Know about Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Statistics Research Resources About Us Español National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse Publications Tools and ... Kidney Stones What I need to know about Kidney Stones On this page: What is a kidney ...

312

8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

313

Lowering the Chance of Getting Another Calcium Kidney Stone  

MedlinePLUS

... 8, 2013 Lowering the Chance of Getting Another Calcium Kidney Stone Formats View PDF (PDF) 421 kB ... you urinate Who is at risk for getting calcium stones? Several factors can increase your chance of ...

314

Laboratory Characterization of Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Dynamically Compacted Crushed Salt  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located at a depth of about 655 meters. The WIPP underground facility is located in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation. Access to the facility is provided through vertical shafts, which will be sealed after decommissioning to limit the release of hazardous waste from the repository and to limit flow into the facility. Because limited data are available to characterize the properties of dynamically compacted crushed salt, Sandia National Laboratories authorized RE/SPEC to perform additional tests on specimens of dynamically compacted crushed salt. These included shear consolidation creep, permeability, and constant strain-rate triaxial compression tests. A limited number of samples obtained from the large compacted mass were available for use in the testing program. Thus, additional tests were performed on samples that were prepared on a smaller scale device in the RE/SPEC laboratory using a dynamic-compaction procedure based on the full-scale construction technique. The laboratory results were expected to (1) illuminate the phenomenology of crushed-salt deformation behavior and (2) add test results to a small preexisting database for purposes of estimating parameters in a crushed-salt constitutive model. The candidate constitutive model for dynamically compacted crushed salt was refined in parallel with this laboratory testing.

Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

1999-02-01

315

Building stones of our Nation's Capital  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The buildings of our Nation's Capital serve as an unusual geologic display, for the city has been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building is a unique museum that not only displays the important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed, but also serves as an historic witness to the city's growth and to the development of its architecture. This booklet describes the source and appearance of the stones used in Washington, D.C.; it includes a map and a walking guide to assist the visitor in examining them.

Withington, Charles F.

1975-01-01

316

Building Stones of Our Nation's Capital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The buildings of our Nation's Capital have been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building shows important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed. This United States Geological Survey (USGS) booklet describes the source and appearance of many of the stones found in Washington, D.C.'s monuments, memorials, statues, and buildings. The geologic setting of D.C. and acid rain effects on the Capital region are also discussed.

317

Nanobacteria: An infectious cause for kidney stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanobacteria: An infectious cause for kidney stone formation.BackgroundNanobacteria are cytotoxic, sterile-filterable, gram-negative, atypical bacteria detected in bovine and human blood. Nanobacteria produce carbonate apatite on their cell walls. Data on Randall's plaques suggest that apatite may initiate kidney stone formation. We assessed nanobacteria in 72 consecutively collected kidney stones from Finnish patients.MethodsNanobacteria and kidney stone units were compared using scanning

Neva Çiftçioglu; Mikael Björklund; Kai Kuorikoski; Kim Bergström; E. Olavi Kajander

1999-01-01

318

The Analysis of Stone Tool Procurement, Production, and Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers who analyze stone tools and their production debris have made significant progress in understanding the relationship\\u000a between stone tools and human organizational strategies. Stone tools are understood to be morphologically dynamic throughout\\u000a their use-lives; the ever-changing morphology of stone tools is intimately associated with the needs of tool users. It also\\u000a has become apparent to researchers that interpretations of

William Andrefsky Jr

2009-01-01

319

Treatment of Renal Stones by Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Despite the extensive experience with minimal invasive stone therapy, there are still different views on the ideal management of renal stones.Materials and Methods: Analysis of the literature includes more than 14,000 patients. We have compared these data with long–term results of two major stone centers in Germany. The results have been compared concerning the anatomical kidney situation, stone size,

Jens J. Rassweiler; Christian Renner; Christian Chaussy; Stefan Thüroff

2001-01-01

320

78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant...U.S. Mail: Big Stone NWR, 44843 County Road 19, Odessa, MN 56276. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alice Hanley,...

2013-01-17

321

Properties of Dimension (Facing) Stone from Estonian Dolostone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the hydrophobization of dimension (facing) stone from Estonian dolostone was investigated. Due to the diversity of the structure and properties of the stone from one source and the differences of dolostone mined from different areas of Estonia - Kaarma, Selgase and Orgita, certain properties of stone were investigated by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

M. Pyldme; U. Kallavus; J. Schvede; R. Traksmaa

322

A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared

Mathew D. Sorensen; Joel M. H. Teichman; Michael R. Bailey

2008-01-01

323

An Update and Practical Guide to Renal Stone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone disease covers kidney and lower urinary tract stones caused by a variety of conditions, including metabolic and inherited disorders, and anatomical defects with or without chronic urinary infection. Most cases are idiopathic, in which there is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition, but where environmental and lifestyle factors play an important role. Indeed, it is becoming apparent that renal stone

Nikhil Johri; Bruce Cooper; William Robertson; Simon Choong; David Rickards; Robert Unwin

2010-01-01

324

Treatment of Renal Stones by Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an extensive review of the literature and our own clinical experience, this article attempts to present clear guidelines for the management of various kidney stones that will be acceptable to clinical urologists and their patients. Regarding our own patients, we compared different studies and discussed the results concerning the anatomical kidney situation, stone size, stone localization and observation

Ch. Renner; J. Rassweiler

1999-01-01

325

Renal stone epidemiology: A 25-year study in Rochester, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone epidemiology: A 25-year study in Rochester, Minnesota. There are no adequate studies of the incidence of urolithiasis in the United States, in spite of earlier claims that a “stone belt” exists in the southeastern section of the country. This report is the first description of the incidence and recurrence rates for symptomatic noninfected renal stones in a well-defined

Christopher M Johnson; David M Wilson; William M O'Fallon; Reza S Malek; Leonard T Kurland

1979-01-01

326

29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN, SHOWING THE MAKER'S MARK. STONE FROM THE GARFIELD COMPANY WERE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF BOTH THE BEEHIVE AND RECTANGULAR OVENS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

327

Gall stones in sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of gall stones was studied prospectively by abdominal ultrasound examination in 131 patients with sickle cell disease aged 10-65 years. Of 95 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, 55 (58%) had gall stones or had had a cholecystectomy. Gall stones were present in four out of 24 (17%) patients with haemoglobin S + C disease and two out

L R Bond; S R Hatty; M E Horn; M Dick; H B Meire; A J Bellingham

1987-01-01

328

Some engineering properties of natural building cut stones of Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural building cut (NBC) stones are being used in Cyprus for ages to build masonry structures because of being abundant, relatively easy to cut and shape and good performance in many applications. Almost all of the historical buildings in Cyprus are made of these NBC stones. Although these stones are low cost construction materials, they are not widely used in

Özgür Eren; Mustafa Bahali

2005-01-01

329

Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to…

Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

2013-01-01

330

Production of consistent crush lesions of murine skeletal muscle in vivo using an electromechanical device  

PubMed Central

The crush model of injury in skeletal muscle is widely used in the investigation of tissue degeneration and regeneration. Previously, such trauma has been induced by using forceps to crush the muscle, commonly applying sufficient pressure to bring the mid-arms of the forceps together. This report introduces a reliable electromechanical device designed to generate reproducible focal lesions in skeletal muscle of mice. The tibialis anterior was crushed in 17 young adult mice. Two days after injury, the muscles were examined microscopically. By morphometric analysis, it was determined that the volumes of the lesions produced were similar (mean 0.499 mm3±0.098, range 0.278?0.601 mm3), and that the full extent of the damaged muscle was easily distinguished and readily quantifiable. This will allow a more precise comparison in future investigations into regenerative differences between age groups, satellite cell activation and the inflammatory response. PMID:9147227

RUSHTON, J. L.; DAVIES, I.; HORAN, M. A.; MAHON, M.; WILLIAMS, R.

1997-01-01

331

Modeling and rendering of weathered stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes ap- pearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric ef- fects such as erosion and mineral dissolution. This paper presents an approach for the modeling and

Julie Dorsey; Alan Edelman; Henrik Wann Jensen; Justin Legakis; Hans Køhling Pedersen

1999-01-01

332

STONE BAKED PIZZAS 10" GOURMET SANDWICHES  

E-print Network

STONE BAKED PIZZAS 10" BIG PLATES GOURMET SANDWICHES ALL OUR PIZZA BASES ARE HOMEMADE AND TOPPED and kidney beans Spicy Chicken £4.00 Tender pieces of chicken breast in a spicy arrabiata sauce. Five Bean Chilli (v) £4.00 Chick peas, kidney beans, borlotti beans, cannellini beans, butter beans, peppers

Oakley, Jeremy

333

Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

Angulo, E. D.

1983-01-01

334

A Logical Approach to Renal Stone Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of experience with over 350 percutaneous stone extractions, a logical approach assuring a high success rate and minimizing complications is described. The importance of the position of the kidney in the body, the caliceal anatomy, the renal arterial anatomy, and the instrumentation used on puncture site selection are discussed. Strategies for removal of caliceal, pelvic, ureteral, and

Carol C. Coleman; Robert Millers; Paul Lange; Ralph Clayman; Pratap Reddy; David W. Hunter; John C. Hulbert; Erich SalomonoWitz; Gunnar Lund; Kurt Arnplatz

335

Building Stones of the U.S.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By examining the NIST Stone wall via the Internet, students will determine the weathering rate of various rocks in the mid-Atlantic region. They will then pick a rock to use in building their "dream house" and justify their choice. Students should have a background in types of rocks.

Keith McKain

336

Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.  

PubMed

Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone. PMID:22614098

Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

2012-08-01

337

FIRCROFT COLLEGE STEPPING STONES PRE COURSE QUESTIONNAIRE  

E-print Network

misuse Advocacy Mental Health Coaching Counselling Dimensions of Abuse Gang Culture #12;FIRCROFT COLLEGE Drug and alcohol misuse Mental Health Counselling #12;FIRCROFT COLLEGE STEPPING STONES PRE COURSE but the new system will contain many thousands of new bodies. Public health ­ tackling problems

Davies, Christopher

338

Mineralogical signatures of stone formation mechanisms.  

PubMed

The mechanisms involved in biomineralization are modulated through interactions with organic matrix. In the case of stone formation, the role of the organic macromolecules in the complex urinary environment is not clear, but the presence of mineralogical 'signatures' suggests that some aspects of stone formation may result from a non-classical crystallization process that is induced by acidic proteins. An amorphous precursor has been detected in many biologically controlled mineralization reactions, which is thought to be regulated by non-specific interactions between soluble acidic proteins and mineral ions. Using in vitro model systems, we find that a liquid-phase amorphous mineral precursor induced by acidic polypeptides can lead to crystal textures that resemble those found in Randall's plaque and kidney stones. This polymer-induced liquid-precursor process leads to agglomerates of coalesced mineral spherules, dense-packed spherulites with concentric laminations, mineral coatings and 'cements', and collagen-associated mineralization. Through the use of in vitro model systems, the mechanisms involved in the formation of these crystallographic features may be resolved, enhancing our understanding of the potential role(s) that proteins play in stone formation. PMID:20625894

Gower, Laurie B; Amos, Fairland F; Khan, Saeed R

2010-08-01

339

Interviewing Disaffected Students with "Talking Stones"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Talking Stones" is an interview technique that is designed to support self advocacy, particularly for groups of disaffected school students whose views may be difficult to elicit. It has been developed and refined to incorporate a view of learners as active agents in their own learning and is compatible with reflective practice and a social…

Wearmouth, Janice

2007-01-01

340

Progress report Rolling stones and tree rings  

E-print Network

Progress report Rolling stones and tree rings: A state of research on dendrogeomorphic Abstract This progress report focuses on the contribution of tree-ring series to rockfall research since the early 2000s and several approaches have been developed to extract rockfall signals from tree-ring

Stoffel, Markus

341

Presence of lipids in urine, crystals and stones: Implications for the formation of kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presence of lipids in urine, crystals and stones: Implications for the formation of kidney stones.BackgroundCell membranes and their lipids play critical roles in calcification. Specific membrane phospholipids promote the formation of calcium phosphate and become a part of the organic matrix of growing calcification. We propose that membrane lipids also promote the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate

Saeed R Khan; Patricia A Glenton; Renal Backov; Daniel R Talham

2002-01-01

342

Characterization of the jet perforation crushed zone by SEM and image analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a method to measure porosity and permeability alteration of the crushed zone with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. A new phenomenon, shock metamorphism, was used to evaluate shock-wave penetration. Berea sandstone samples were prepared with a modification of the API recommended practice for test-sample preparation. Samples were perforated with low- and medium-penetration shaped charges. Analysis of the low-charge shot sample indicated an average porosity reduction of 25% and an average permeability reduction of 55% in the crushed zone. The sample shot with the medium-penetration shaped charge shoved planar-element shock metamorphism.

Asadi, M.; Preston, P.W. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States))

1994-06-01

343

Risk Factors for Stone Recurrence after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have demonstrated more than 30% of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients will experience a stone recurrence over a 20 year period. The goal of our study was to identify risk factors for stone recurrence after PCNL. Chart review identified 754 patients treated with PCNL for urolithiasis from March of 1983 to July 1984 at our institution. Of this cohort, 87 patients continued to receive medical care at our clinic and had been evaluated within the last 5 years. Of the 87 patients, 80 had recent radiographic imaging. Average follow-up was 19.2 years and 32 (40.0%) experienced at least 1 stone recurrence. There was no difference in preoperative BMI (p = 0.453) or change in BMI (p = 0.964) between patients that did and did not have a stone recurrence. Renal stone location (p = 0.605) and stone size (p = 0.238) were not predictive of recurrence. Patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were less likely to recur (38.7% vs. 41.6%, p = 0.004) and those with calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) were more likely to recur (31.1% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.006) compared to other compositions. Diabetes mellitus was not associated with recurrent stones (p = 0.810). Those patients with residual stones or fragments <3 mm were more likely to recur and to recur earlier than patients rendered entirely stone free at time of PCNL (p = 0.015). Stone recurrences were associated with the late development of renal insufficiency (25% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.002). In conclusion, stone composition, as well as the presence of residual fragments was associated with recurrent symptomatic stone events after PCNL. Recurrent stone events were significantly associated with the risk of developing renal insufficiency, further stressing the need for complete stone clearance at time of PCNL.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Rangel, Laureano J.; LeRoy, Andrew J.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

2008-09-01

344

Stone scattering during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: role of renal anatomical characteristics.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the upper calyx-lower calyx infundibular (ULI) angle influences intrarenal stone migration during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with a solitary renal pelvis stone and significant hydronephrosis. 50 adult patients with a solitary renal pelvis stone larger than 20 mm were considered for PCNL with a pneumatic lithotriptor for stone fragmentation. Inclusion criteria were moderate to severe hydronephrosis and upper calyx infundibular width >10 mm, and access point was the lower calyx in all cases. The ULI angle as well as stone fragment migration from the renal pelvis toward the upper calyx was noted during the operation. To determine the "critical" angle above which the probability of stone migration would be increased significantly, receiver operating characteristic curve was used. Mean stone size was 33.8 ± 13.2 mm. In 23 patients (46 %) the stone migrated toward the upper calyx during stone fragmentation. Mean ULI angle was significantly wider in patients whose stone migrated (120.2 ± 20.5 versus 102.2 ± 21.4, P = 0.004, 99 % CI = 6.04-29.9). A ULI angle of 117.5° was the critical angle, above which the rate of stone migration rose significantly (P < 0.008). One-session stone-free rate was significantly higher in patients without stone migration (P = 0.03). In patients with a solitary renal pelvis stone and significant hydronephrosis, a wider ULI angle was associated with a greater likelihood of stone scattering which could potentially affect the outcome of PCNL with pneumatic lithotriptor. A cut-off angle of 117.5° was the critical angle, above which access via a calyx other than the lower calyx (example: middle or upper calyx) seems advisable. PMID:25026926

Aminsharifi, Alireza; Eslahi, Ali; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Mehrabi, Sasan

2014-10-01

345

Stone Comminution Correlates with the Average Peak Pressure Incident on a Stone during Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

PubMed Central

To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+(avg)) incident on the stone (D = 10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1,000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P+(avg) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P+(avg)) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. PMID:22935690

Smith, N.; Zhong, P.

2012-01-01

346

[Study on nano- and microcrystallites in the urines of calcium oxalate stone formers].  

PubMed

The crystallites in urine are related closely with the formation of urolithiasis. In the present paper the composition, morphology and Zeta potential of crystallites of twenty calcium oxalate stone formers were comparatively studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that calcium oxalate calculi usually coexisted with a little of uric acid, calcium phosphate, and magnesium ammonium phosphate. By contrast, the compositions of urine crystallites of the patients with calcium oxalate calculi were mainly uric acid, phosphate, calcium oxalate and so on. Most of them had sharp angularity with a particle size distribution ranging from tens of nanometers to tens of microns; and obvious aggregation was observed. The negative value of Zeta potential of urine crystallites in the twenty stone formers (average value -5.92 mV) was less than that in the twenty normal subjects (-12.9 mV). However, there was no obvious difference in the urine pH between stone formers (average pH 6.03) and normal subjects (average pH 5.92). The study on the relationship between urine crystallites and urinary calculi components will be helpful for finding out the causes of urolithiasis and providing an important basis for the scientific prevention methods and reasonable treatments in clinic. PMID:20827998

Huang, Zhi-jie; Li, Jun-jun; He, Jie-yu; Ouyang, Jian-ming

2010-07-01

347

Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The disadvantage, besides being more labour intensive than mineral mortars based on ZnCl, is that no specific recipes are yet developed for Lede stone and the result is thus dependent on the knowledge of the restorer. Both of the repair mortars have the problem that Lede stone changes its colour due to ageing while the mortar itself remains colour stable. This means that if the mortar colour was adapted for a resemblance at the moment of application, the colour difference between stone and mortar will increase in time. In this study, the compatibility of the different stone repair mortars with the Lede stone are tested. Further, a study was made whether the mortar recipes can be adapted for a better compatibility. In addition, the effect of glauconite addition in the mortar is studied to resolve the possibility of ageing of the mortar similar to the stone.

De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

2012-04-01

348

Diffusion Limited Aggregation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents the problem of growing aggregate structures one particle at a time through random processes. Such structures are seen throughout nature, through examples such as electrodeposition, dielectric breakdown, and snowflake Formation. The main algorithm for modeling these aggregate structures is diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). DLA models cover a wide range of phenomena and size sales, and variations range from lattice based models to models that allow free movement, models in multiple dimensions, and models that change how particles stick to the growing aggregate.

349

Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

2014-09-01

350

Nephrocalcinosis in animal models with and without stones  

PubMed Central

Nephrocalcinosis is the deposition of calcium salts in renal parenchyma and can be intratubular or interstitial. Animal model studies indicate that intratubular nephrocalcinosis is a result of increased urinary supersaturation. Urinary supersaturation with respect to calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP) are generally achieved at different locations in the renal tubules. As a result experimental induction of hyperoxaluria in animals with CaP deposits does not lead to growth of CaOx over CaP. Interstitial nephrocalcinosis has been seen in mice with lack of crystallization modulators Tamm–Horsfall protein and osteopontin. Sodium phosphate co-transporter or sodiumhydrogen exchanger regulator factor-1 null mice also produced interstitial nephrocalcinosis. Crystals plug the tubules by aggregating and attaching to the luminal cell surface. Structural features of the renal tubules also play a role in crystal retention. The crystals plugging the terminal collecting ducts when exposed to the metastable pelvic urine may promote the formation of stone. PMID:20658131

2010-01-01

351

On February 8, 2010, a 62year old truck driver was crushed and killed between a 53foot  

E-print Network

On February 8, 2010, a 62year old truck driver was crushed and killed between a 53foot, and yelled a warning, but the driver was pinned. The truck was pulled forward off of the victim." Truck driver crushed between semitrailer and loading dock Read the full investigation report here

Chapman, Michael S.

352

Laparoscopic Stone Surgery With the Aid of Flexible Nephroscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the outcome of laparoscopic pyelo- and ureterolithotomies with the aid of flexible nephroscopy. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 71 patients with complex renal stones or large and impacted proximal ureteral stones. Patients underwent laparoscopic pyelo- or ureterolithotomies with or without the removal of small residual stones by use of flexible nephroscopy between July 2005 and July 2010. Operative success was defined as no residual stones in the intravenous pyelogram at 12 weeks postoperatively. Perioperative results and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results The patients' mean age was 54.7±13.7 years, and 53 males (74.6%) and 18 females (25.4%) were included. The mean maximal stone size was 19.4±9.4 mm. A total of 47 cases were complex renal stones and 24 cases were impacted ureteral stones. Mean operative time was 139.0±63.7 minutes. Stones were completely removed in 61 cases (85.9%), and no further ancillary treatment was needed for clinically insignificant residual fragments in 7 cases (9.9%). For complex renal stones, the complete stone-free rate and clinically significant stone-free rate were 80.9% and 93.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of flexible nephroscopy for complex renal stones can reduce the risk of residual stones. A major complication occurred in one case, in which open conversion was performed. Conclusions Laparoscopic stone surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure with a high success rate, especially with the aid of flexible nephroscopy, and is not associated with procedure-specific complications. PMID:25045447

Jung, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Jeong, Hyeon; Son, Hwancheol; Woo, Seung Hyo; Kim, Dae Kyung; Min, Sun-Ho; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Hyeon-Hoe

2014-01-01

353

In vitro studies on the role of glycosaminoglycans in crystallization intensity during infectious urinary stones formation.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis cause urinary tract infections which are recurrent and can lead to formation of urinary calculi. Both bacterial and the host factors are involved in the development of urolithiasis. To determine the impact of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the formation of P. mirabilis-induced urinary stones, we investigated the in vitro crystallization, aggregation and adhesion of crystals in the presence of GAGs naturally appearing in urine. Crystallization experiments were performed in synthetic urine infected with P. mirabilis in the presence of: hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate A, B and C (ChSA, ChSB, ChSC). The intensity of crystallization and aggregation were established by counting particles and phase-contrast microscopy. To analyze the adhesion of crystals, we used normal urothelium and (45)Ca isotope-labeled crystals. In the presence of ChSC, both the size of the crystals formed and their number were higher compared with the control. GAGs increased crystals adhesion to the cells, but only for ChSA this effect was significant. Chondroitin sulfates, which accelerate the first stages of infection-induced stones formation, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24164670

Torzewska, Agnieszka; Ró?alski, Antoni

2014-06-01

354

Photmicrography of urinary deposits in stone clinic.  

PubMed

The importance of routine urine deposit study has not been projected satisfactorily in literature. This paper analyses the findings of urine microscopy of urinary stone patients who attended the stone clinic. A total number of 800 patients who attended the urinary stone clinic during the years 2005-2007 were selected for the study. Each patient had two samples of urine studied; early morning urine (EMU) and random. The patients were classified into different groups as proved stone patients (304), colic patients (289) and crystalluria patients (207). They were further classified as pre-treatment group and post-treatment group. The patients had chemotherapy depending on the biochemical abnormalities. The urine samples were centrifuged and the deposits examined under the low-power and high-power magnifications of the binocular microscope. The appropriate fields were photographed using a micro-photographic camera. 23% of the urinary samples studied contained deposits (36% of the EMU and 16% of the random samples). The most common deposits were red blood cells (RBC) (17%), pus cells (PC) (13%), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals (7%), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals (11%), uric acid crystals (2%), amorphous phosphates (1%), epithelial cells (13%) and sperms (7%). The unusual deposits included ammonium urate and cystine. Comparison of the results of deposits with those of 473 deposits from other laboratories showed that the present reports showed much more deposits than the outside ones. Deposits were more in the male patients (25%) compared to the females (19%). 83% of the patients with significant deposits had symptoms at the time of collection of sample, while 17% were not symptomatic. Among the patients with crystals, 53% had RBC associated and 49% had PC. RBCs were seen most in the COD crystal group. PC alone were seen in 2% and all were females. Percentage of urinary deposits was more in the pre-treatment group (32%) than in the post-treatment group (17%). Extent of crystalluria was more in the colic group (38%) compared to the crystalluria (22%) and stone (13%) groups. It is concluded from the study that accurate assessment of the urinary stone patient lies in a proper microscopic evaluation. It is mandatory that EMU should be examined as there is greater chance of identifying crystals and other deposits. Centrifuged deposits showed more deposits and these should be standards in urine examination. Regular urine deposit examination should be performed in all patients coming for follow-up. PMID:19834702

Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya

2009-12-01

355

Nimodipine Accelerates Functional Recovery of the Facial Nerve after Crush Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish whether nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker, accelerates or otherwise improves functional recovery of whisking after facial nerve crush injury in the rat. Methods Thirty rats underwent exposure of the left main trunk of the facial nerve followed by a standard crush injury, and subsequent quantitative facial movement testing. Animals were randomized into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15 each). Four days prior to facial nerve manipulation, experimental animals underwent subcutaneous implantation of a nimodipine-secreting pellet. All animals were tested pre-operatively and on post-crush days 2, 8–17, 20, 22, 24, and 31, using a validated, quantitative whisking kinematics apparatus. Whisks were analyzed for amplitude, velocity, and acceleration. Results Animals receiving nimodipine demonstrated significantly better whisking on days 9, 11–13, and 20 compared with control animals (p<.05). Overall, the nimodipine-treated animals showed earlier recovery as compared to the untreated animals. Conclusions We demonstrate that nimodipine improves recovery of whisking after facial nerve crush. This finding corroborates the semi-quantitative findings of others, and provides complete whisking kinematic data on its effects. Given the low side effect profile of nimodipine, there may be clinical implications in its administration in patients experiencing facial nerve injury. PMID:20083741

Lindsay, Robin W.; Heaton, James T.; Edwards, Colin; Smitson, Christoper; Hadlock, Tessa A.

2015-01-01

356

Cervical myeloradiculopathy with entrapment neuropathy: a study based on the double-crush concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to formulate a standardised approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with the double-crush syndrome, we reviewed 65 surgical cases (39 men and 26 women) with cervical myeloradiculopathy associated with entrapment neuropathy in the arm by examining the clinical features, results of nerve conduction velocity studies and distribution of the vertebral levels of compression. Fifty-three patients

H Baba; Y Maezawa; K Uchida; N Furusawa; M Wada; S Imura; N Kawahara; K Tomita

1998-01-01

357

EMISSIONS FROM THE CRUSHED GRANITE INDUSTRY: STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed granite industry. The potential environmental effect of this emission source was evaluated using source severity, defined as the ratio of the maximum time-averaged ground level concentration of a pollutant at...

358

Effects of roof crush loading scenario upon body in white using topology optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of variations in modelling of roof crush loading scenarios upon topology and mass of a body in white (BIW) for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). These variations incorporated the proposed changes to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 216 standard. The base model used for the investigation in this paper was based upon a

J. Christensen; C. Bastien; M. V. Blundell

2011-01-01

359

Effects of roof crush loading scenario upon body in white using topology optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of variations in modelling of roof crush loading scenarios upon topology and mass of a body in white (BIW) for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). These variations incorporated the proposed changes to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 216 standard. The base model used for the investigation in this paper was based upon a

J. Christensen; C. Bastien; M. V. Blundell

2012-01-01

360

Validation of the simplified super folding element theory applied for axial crushing of complex aluminium extrusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Simplified Super Folding Element theory (SSFE) has been applied to predict the mean axial crush force of a wide range of aluminium extrusions with rather complex cross sections. The results from the SSFE theory have been compared with finite element (FE) simulations and experimental tests. It was found that in most cases the SSFE theory was able to predict

A G Hanssen; A Artelius; M Langseth

2007-01-01

361

Using a Computer Animation To Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding of a Can-Crushing Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several student responses to viewing a can-crushing demonstration in which a soda can containing a small amount of water was heated on a hot-plate to boil the water, removed from the heat, and sealed by inverting over a container of cold water. Students were given a quiz, made predictions, and explained what happened on a molecular level.…

Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.; Fienhold, Jason

2000-01-01

362

Zoology 107 (2004) 335346 Motor pattern control for increasing crushing force in the striped burrfish  

E-print Network

ZOOLOGY Zoology 107 (2004) 335­346 Motor pattern control for increasing crushing force September 2004 Abstract The relationship between muscular force modulation and the underlying nervous system control signals has been difficult to quantify for in vivo animal systems. Our goal was to understand how

Wainwright, Peter C.

2004-01-01

363

Identification of Lotus rhizobia by direct DNA hybridization of crushed root nodules  

SciTech Connect

Hybridization of crushed Lotus pedunculatus root nodules with /sup 32/P-labeled total genomic DNA probes was used to identify Rhizobium loti and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus rhizobia). Probes always hybridized with homologous target DNA and frequency with DNAs of other strains from the same genus. Intergeneric hybridization did not occur. Results were comparable to those from colony hybridization.

Cooper, J.E.; Bjourson, A.J.; Thompson, J.K.

1987-07-01

364

Experiments and simulation of the static contact crush of composite laminated plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plate specimens were formed from carbon-epoxy prepregs. Thereafter a steel indentor was used to compress the specimens, with the reaction forces were recorded until the plates thoroughly collapsed. The FEM software, ABAQUS, was employed to simulate the crushing of the plates. This investigation creates a user-defined material subroutine to enhance the damage simulation which includes Hashing and Yeh failure criteria.

Chien-Hua Huang; Ya-Jung Lee

2003-01-01

365

The use of crushing equipments for soil management practice in chestnut orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chestnut orchards have an important role on the rural economy and landscape ecology of Northern Portugal. Previous studies have shown the need of new management practices in those agro-ecosystems in order to improve its productivity and sustainability and, one of the envisaged techniques is the use of new equipment that destroys the vegetation under canopy and crushes the organic residues

Fernando Santos; Afonso Martins; Olga Borges; Isabel Linhares

366

The effects of non-uniform environmental conditions on piglet crushing and maternal behavior of sows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crushing is one of the main causes of piglet death in swine farrowing systems. Studies have shown a wide variability of piglet mortality rate among distinct litters, which has been associated with maternal ability of sows. In an effort to understand factors that affect sow maternal ability, this stu...

367

A New Approach to Crushing 3-Manifold Triangulations Benjamin A. Burton  

E-print Network

manifolds, and it plays a prominent role in state-of-the-art algorithms for unknot recognition and testing, it might alter its topology, and so it requires a careful theoretical analysis for the settings in which. In essence, the crushing process modifies a triangulation to eliminate "unwanted" normal spheres and discs

Burton, Benjamin

368

Resistance to crushing from wave-borne debris in the barnacle Balanus glandula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barnacles of the same species (Balanus glandula) show differences both in shell morphology and in their ability to resist crushing from impact at two sites within 8 km of each other which differ in their natural exposure to wave-borne debris (Cattle Point and False Bay, San Juan Island, Washington, USA). In studies performed in 1987, barnacles with shells of a

N. D. Pentcheff

1991-01-01

369

The role of brick pebbles and dust in conglomerates based on hydrated lime and crushed bricks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoenicians were probably the first ones to use mortars based on hydrated lime and crushed or dust bricks, followed by all other people who were in contact with them. The Romans employed those mortars any time they needed a rendering exposed to severe environment or a floor at a very humid ground level, in foundations where the water table was

G. Baronio; L. Binda; N. Lombardini

1997-01-01

370

Precision of reinnervation of original postsynaptic sites in frog muscle after a nerve crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Regenerating neuromuscular junctions in the cutaneous pectoris muscle of the frog were examined by light and electron microscopy up to three months after crushing the motor nerve. The aim was to determine the precision of reinnervation of the original synaptic sites. More than 95% of the original postsynaptic membrane is recovered by nerve terminals and little, if any, synaptic

M. S. Letinsky; K. H. Fischbeck; U. J. McMahan

1976-01-01

371

The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail  

PubMed Central

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; García de León, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

2012-01-01

372

A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared to caliper measurements. A 10-MHz, 10-french ultrasound transducer probe was used to send an ultrasound pulse and receive ultrasound reflections from the stone using two methods. In Method 1 the instrument was aligned over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. The time between reflections from the proximal and the distal surface of the stone were used along with the sound speed to calculate the stone size. Although the sound speed varied between stones, it was unlikely to be known during surgery and thus was estimated at 3000 m/s for calculations. In Method 2 the instrument was aligned partially over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through water with a sound speed of 1481 m/s. Time was determined between the reflection from the proximal stone surface and the reflection from the tissue phantom on which the stone rested. Methods 1 and 2 were compared by linear regression to caliper measurements of the size of 19 human stones of 3 different stone types. Accuracy was measured by the difference of the mean ultrasound and mean caliper measurement and precision was measured as the standard deviation in the ultrasound measurements. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper-determined stone size and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2 = 0.71 (p<0.0001). In all but two stones accuracy and precision were less than 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.0001) and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. We conclude that the prototype device and either method measure stone size with good accuracy.

Sorensen, Mathew D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Bailey, Michael R.

2008-09-01

373

Stones River Battlefield Historic Landscape Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Battle of Stones River (or the Battle of Murfreesboro as it referred to in the South), was fought between December 31, 1862 and January 2, 1863 in middle Tennessee. At the conclusion of this skirmish, the Union Army had repelled two intense Confederate attacks and it was a bit of an uplift after the Union's defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg. This fine collection from Middle Tennessee State University's Walker Library "documents the history of people, land use, and nature in the Stones River Battlefield area." The collection contains over 500 documents, including photographs, deeds to various land parcels, and so on. Visitors can browse the collection by names, deeds, and photographs, or they can also perform their own search. For anyone interested in rural geography, Tennessee history, and related matters this site will warrant several visits.

374

PBS-Nova: America's Stone Age Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nova website asks the question: "Who were the first Americans, and where did they come from?" The site was designed to accompany a Nova program about America's Stone Age Explorers that aired on November 9, 2004. The site provides a transcript of the program; a brief article discussing the disappearance of many large mammals around 13,000 years ago; a photographic exhibit of 10 expertly-crafted stone Clovis tools from the Fenn Cache; a map that shows potential pre-Clovis sites in North America; and an interactive matching game that examines early human artifacts. The site also links to a brief, downloadable Teacher's Guide that includes a Program Overview, Classroom Activity, and Viewing Ideas.

375

Preparation of charcoal from cherry stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cherry stones (CS) are carbonised at 400-1000 °C for 0-4 h in N 2 and the charcoals obtained are characterised to gain information about their chemical composition and porous texture, with a view to their use in the preparation of activated carbon. Depending on the heating conditions, the products obtained may possess a low ash content and a high fixed carbon content and are essentially microporous and macroporous solids.

Durán-Valle, Carlos J.; Gómez-Corzo, Manuel; Gómez-Serrano, Vicente; Pastor-Villegas, José; Rojas-Cervantes, María L.

2006-06-01

376

Pricing the C's of Diamond Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, created by Singfat Chu of the National University of Singapore, describes a dataset containing information on 308 diamond stones, which is useful when studying concepts in multiple linear regression analysis. Some of the key concepts include: categorical variables, data transformation and standardized residuals. It shows how the same type of linear regression used in such fields as finance, marketing and human resources can be used for this type of study.

Chu, Singfat

377

Are stone analysis results different with repeated sampling?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We assessed differences in results of stone analyses on subsequent sampling. Methods: A retrospective review of patients with stone analyses at a tertiary stone centre between March 2006 and July 2012 was performed. All stones were analyzed at a centralized laboratory using infrared spectroscopy. Patients were grouped according to the first predominant stone type on record, as defined by the predominant stone component of at least 60%. Stone groups included calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaP), uric acid (UA), cystine, struvite, mixed CaOx-CaP and mixed CaOx-UA. All patients had a full metabolic stone workup. Results: Of the 303 patients with stone analyses, 118 (38.9%) patients had multiple stone analyses. The mean age was 53.4 ± 15.1 years, and 87 (73.7%) were males. Of the 118, the initial stone analysis showed 43 CaOx, 38 CaP, 21 UA, 4 CaOx-CaP, 2 CaOx-UA, 6 cystine, and 4 struvite. There was a different stone composition in 25 (21.2%) patients with a median time delay of 64.5 days. Different compositions were found in 7 CaOx (to 3 CaP, 2 CaOx-CaP, and 2 UA), 5 CaP (to 3 CaOx and 2 CaOx-CaP), 3 UA (to 3 CaOx), 4 CaOx-CaP (to 2CaOx, 1 UA and 1 CaP), 2 CaOx-UA (to 2 CaOx) and 4 struvite (to 3 CaP and 1 UA). Conclusions: Stone composition was different in 21.2% of patients on subsequent analyses. PMID:24940457

Lee, Terence T. N.; Elkoushy, Mohamed A.; Andonian, Sero

2014-01-01

378

Business models of information aggregators  

E-print Network

This thesis identifies the specific characteristics of information aggregators, and proposes nine business models appropriate for information aggregators. These nine models are: advertising, brokerage, subscription, ...

Hu, Jiangxia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

379

Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash  

DOEpatents

Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

Boyle, Michael J. (Aston, PA)

1994-01-01

380

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

2013-10-02

381

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28

382

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2013-09-17

383

Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

2009-08-01

384

Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

Coe, Fredric L.

2007-04-01

385

ligible role for these substances in the regu-lation of cystine stone formation.  

E-print Network

agent for the prevention of L-cystine kidney stones. This approach to stone prevention usesligible role for these substances in the regu- lation of cystine stone formation. Collectively perspective this is a sufficient condition for pre- venting stone formation. L-cystine stone formers typically

Wriggers, Willy

386

Aggregate and the environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

2004-01-01

387

[Evaluation of Stepping Stones Triple P: Interims analysis of the Stepping-Stones-SPC-Multicentric Study].  

PubMed

Stepping Stones Triple P is a behavioural parenting training for families with a handicapped child, which has already been successfully evaluated in its country of origin, Australia. Within a multicentric study of several Social Pediatric Centers (SPCs) and further clinics/institutions in Germany, it has been established as a group parenting training (3-7 families per training). Statistical analysis proved significant effects concerning dysfunctional parenting, parental stress and child behaviour problems as well as little side effects and a positive acceptance of stepping stones by the families. PMID:20084587

Hampel, Olaf Alexander; Schaadt, A K; Hasmann, S E; Petermann, F; Holl, R; Hasmann, R

2010-01-01

388

Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Lithotripsy of Kidney and Ureteric Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a routine therapy for the management of stone patients at our department. Till now ESWL has been performed on 1,000 patients. Although the indications for this noninvasive treatment have been expanded significantly, 90% of the patients have been stone free after treatment, 9.3% have small remaining stone particles, while only 0.7% have to be

E. Schmiedt; C. Chaussy

1984-01-01

389

Metabolic risk factors in children with kidney stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of metabolic risk factor in children with renal stone disease is the basis of medical treatment aimed at preventing\\u000a recurrent stone events and the growth of preexisting calculi. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the metabolic risk\\u000a factors and clinical and family histories of 90 children with kidney stone disease who had been referred to our institution\\u000a and

Francisco R. Spivacow; Armando L. Negri; Elisa E. del Valle; Irene Calviño; Erich Fradinger; José R. Zanchetta

2008-01-01

390

Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

Curhan, Gary C.

2007-04-01

391

Management of lower ureteric stones: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To discuss the current concepts in lower ureteric stone management. Material and methods Between October 2008 and November 2010, 190 patients of both sexes and of different age groups with lower ureteric stones, underwent in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) (48 cases), ureterorenoscopy (URS) (120 cases) and open stone surgery (OSS) (22 cases). The patients’ clinical and radiological findings, as well as stone characteristics, were reviewed and correlated with the stone–free status. Results In the ESWL group, the operative time was 43.13 +22.5 min; the average number of sessions/patients was 1.5 sessions; the average number of SW/patients was 4500 SW/patients; the average energy was 16.5 kV; the average stone burden was 7.8/mm; the overall stone–free rate was 75% (36/48); and the average radiation exposure time was 3.5 min. In the URS group, the operative time was 49.21 +16.09 min; the average stone burden was 10.81mm; the overall stone–free rate was 97.5% (117/120); the average hospital stay was 3.99 days; and the average radiation exposure time was 0.75 min. In the OSS group, the operative time was 112.38 +37.1 min; the overall stone–free rate was 100% (22/22); and the average hospital stay was 9.74 days. Conclusion In the management of patients with lower ureteral stones, URS, SWL and OSS were considered acceptable treatment options. This recommendation was based on the stone–free results, morbidity and retreatment rates for each therapy. PMID:24757544

Morsi, Gamal A.M.; Beshir, Mansour S.M.; Soliman, Sheri S.; Galal, Hussein A.; Ortiz–Vanderdys, Cervando

2013-01-01

392

Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash  

SciTech Connect

Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant availability and throughput capacity and to produce quality lightweight aggregate for use in commercial applications.

Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

2006-12-31

393

Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.  

PubMed

This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (?10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ?40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

2014-08-01

394

Measurements of the stress supported by the crush zone in open hole composite laminates loaded in compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the stress supported by the crush zone in open hole specimens loaded in compression were carried out on two composite laminates, AS4/PEEK and IM6/HST-7, containing circular holes of three different diameters. Compression tests were conducted in a specially designed high-axial-alignment material test system machine. Results indicated that the local stress supported in the crush zone is much less than the stress required to initiate the crush, providing the reason for the finding of Guynn et al. (1987) that the Dugdale model does not accurately predict the load-damage size relationship of open hole composite specimens loaded in compression.

Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.

1989-01-01

395

Advances in the endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Extraction of common bile duct stones by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography generally involves biliary sphincterotomy, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation or a combination of both. Endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation after sphincterotomy has increased the safety of large stone extraction. Cholangioscopically directed electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy using single-operator mother-daughter systems or direct peroral cholangioscopy using ultraslim endoscopes are increasingly utilized for the management of refractory stones. In this Review, we focus on advances in endoscopic approaches and techniques, with a special emphasis on management strategies for 'difficult' common bile duct stones. PMID:24860928

Trikudanathan, Guru; Arain, Mustafa A; Attam, Rajeev; Freeman, Martin L

2014-09-01

396

Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

397

Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

1997-01-01

398

Aggregation of retail stores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple model to understand the economic factors that induce aggregation of some businesses over small geographical regions. The model incorporates price competition with neighboring stores, transportation costs and the satisfaction probability of finding the desired product. We show that aggregation is more likely for stores selling expensive products and/or stores carrying only a fraction of the business variety. We illustrate our model with empirical data collected in the city of Lyon.

Jensen, Pablo; Boisson, Jean; Larralde, Hernán

2005-06-01

399

Aggregating Governance Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

October 1999With the right method, aggregate indicators can provide useful estimates of basic governance concepts as well as measures of the imprecision of these aggregate estimates and their components.In recent years the growing interest of academics and policymakers in governance has been reflected in the proliferation of cross-country indices measuring various aspects of governance.Kaufmann, Kraay, and Zoido-Lobat?n explain how a

Pablo Zoido-Lobaton; Daniel Kaufmann

1999-01-01

400

Search for crushed plerions: TeV to X-ray connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a mini-survey of unidentified TeV sources having young Vela-like pulsars with known X-ray PWNe as their neighbors. Although these pulsars show 10 -15 offsets from the center of the TeV brightness distribution, they are likely to be connected to the nearby TeV sources through a faint asymmetric X-ray nebulae formed as a result of the interaction between the SNR reverse shock and the pulsar wind. To test this, we propose to obtain deep X-ray images of several crushed PWN candidates to search for correlations between the X-ray and TeV emission. Confirming that the X-ray PWNe are preferentially extended toward the neighboring TeV sources will establish the viability of the crushed PWN model and reveal the nature of the currently unidentified TeV sources.

Kargaltsev, Oleg

2006-10-01

401

Elevated plasma nitrate in patients with crush syndrome caused by the Kobe earthquake.  

PubMed

We investigated the nitric oxide profile in the plasma of ten healthy controls and 29 patients hurt by the Kobe Earthquake. The levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) were measured simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection using the Griess reaction after the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Arginine consumed in food or diet-derived nitrite had no effect on the plasma nitrite and nitrate contents of the healthy volunteers. Plasma nitrate was elevated in the crush syndrome patients; whereas neither nitrite nor nitrate was increased in patients with normal renal function. This finding suggests increased nitric oxide synthesis, decreased excretion of nitric oxide in the crush syndrome or both. PMID:9526673

Adachi, J; Morita, S; Yasuda, H; Miwa, A; Ueno, Y; Asano, M; Tatsuno, Y

1998-01-30

402

Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

2013-04-01

403

Sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock borehole plugs  

SciTech Connect

This study includes a systematic investigation of the sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock plugs. American Colloid C/S granular bentonite and crushed Apache Leap tuff have been mixed to prepare samples for laboratory flow testing. Bentonite weight percent and crushed tuff gradation are the major variables studied. The sealing performance assessments include high injection pressure flow tests, polyaxial flow tests, high temperature flow tests, and piping tests. The results indicate that a composition to yield a permeability lower than 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm/s would have at least 25% bentonite by weight mixed with well-graded crushed rock. Hydraulic properties of the mixture plugs may be highly anisotropic if significant particle segregation occurs during sample installation and compaction. Temperature has no significant effect on the sealing performance within the test range from room temperature to 600{degree}C. Piping damage to the sealing performance is small if the maximum hydraulic gradient does not exceed 120 and 280 for samples with a bentonite content of 25 and 35%, respectively. The hydraulic gradients above which flow of bentonite may take place are deemed critical. Analytical work includes the introduction of bentonite occupancy percentage and water content at saturation as two major parameters for plug design. A permeability model is developed for the prediction of permeability in clays, especially in view of the difficulties in obtaining this property experimentally. A piping model is derived based on plastic flow theory. This piping model permits the estimation of critical hydraulic gradients at which flow of bentonite takes place. The model can also be used to define the maximum allowable pore diameter of a protective filter layer.

Ouyang, S.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering

1992-07-01

404

Electromyography and Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of A Rare Double-Crush Ulnar Nerve Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Akyuz M, Yalcin E, Selcuk B, Onder B, Özçakar L. Electromyography and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of a rare double-crush ulnar nerve injury.Reported here is a 46-year-old man who was seen for pain, numbness, and weakness in his left upper limb and hand. Electromyographic studies demonstrated denervation of ulnar-innervated muscle groups except for the flexor carpi ulnaris. A localized nerve

Mufit Akyuz; Elif Yalcin; Barin Selcuk; Burcu Onder; Levent Özçakar

2011-01-01

405

Regeneration and remyelination of Xenopus tadpole optic nerve fibres following transection or crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Optic nerves of stage 54–56Xenopus laevis tadpoles were either transected or crushed, and subsequent Wallerian degeneration, regeneration, and remyelination were examined. After 4 days, normal myelinated fibres were no longer present in the distal stump, and only a few unmyelinated fibres remained. After 10–13 days, the distal nerve consisted mainly of a core of reactive astrocytes with enlarged processes

P. J. Reier; H. F. de Webster

1974-01-01

406

The real structure of crushing products of crystalline beta-rhombohedral boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was established, that depending on the methods of crushing to powder of crystalline beta-rhombohedral boron different phases can be produced: beta-rhombohedral boron and B6O suboxide after pounding, alpha-tetragonal modification of boron and beta-rhombohedral boron with unregular strauture both in volume and in the superficial layers of particles after grinding. All these phases are present in powders produced by combined

D. L. Gabunia; T. Sh. Badzagua; M. K. Tsomaya; D. T. Lezhava; D. N. Avlokhashvili; N. T. Maisuradze; R. N. Dekanosidze

1991-01-01

407

Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m{sup 3} at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s to 6.6 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed.

Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Connolly, J.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-06-01

408

Static crush experiments and simulations of laminated composite plates and shells with constrained layered damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plate and shell specimens were formed from carbon–epoxy prepregs. Then, attaching 3M damping foil SJ-2552 to specimens formed constrained layered damped (CLD) components with sandwich-like structures. A steel indentor was used to compress the plate and shell specimens until they completely collapsed. The crushing strength of the CLD components is examined experimentally, and the finite element software ABAQUS is used

Guang-Min Luo; Ya-Jung Lee

2008-01-01

409

Carboxylic and Dicarboxylic Acids Extracted from Crushed Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids (glycolic, oxalic, malonic and succinic) have been extracted with tetrahydrofuran (THF) and H2O from large synthetic MgO crystals, crushed to a medium fine powder. The extracts were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR. The THF extracts were derivatized with tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) for GC-MS analysis. A single crystal separated from the extract was used for an x-ray

Friedemann Freund; Alka D. Gupta; Devendra Kumar

1999-01-01

410

"Azul Platino": another Spanish natural stone to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several granites are quarried in Extremadura, Spain, with very good aesthetic and physic and mechanical characteristics. "Azul Platino" has a striking bluish colour and its properties make this granite a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. This granite has been used for centuries, first in the architectonic heritage of the extraction surrounding area, but afterwards in many important projects in Spain, Europe and all around the world: La Guardia Airport (NYC, USA), Yokohama Bridge (Tokyo, Japan), European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium), Planetarium (Valencia, Spain), Tenerife Auditorium (Tenerife, Spain), Suntec City (Singapore), MTR Kowlonn Station (Hong Kong), O'Connel Street (Dublin, Ireland), .... One important characteristic of this natural stone is the low radon exhalation that all the varieties, including the more weathered ones, show. For being a granite, this is an important characteristic for its use, both in interior and exterior use. But "Azul Platino" accomplishes all requirements to be considered as a nominee for Global Heritage Stone Resource consideration. Together with other local natural stones, it could be part as well of a Global Heritage Stone Province nomination.

José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

2014-05-01

411

Determining Stone Tool Use: Chemical and Morphological Analyses of Residues on Experimentally Manufactured Stone Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on experimental and chemical investigation of bamboo and bone residues on used and unused modern stone tools. Flakes used were manufactured from a chert nodule and employed in three ways: splitting of bamboo, scraping and splintering of bone; others were left unused. Specimens were examined using light microscopy, SEM, and EDS elemental analysis. Tools used to process bamboo

A. H. Jahren; N. Toth; K. Schick; J. D. Clark; R. G. Amundson

1997-01-01

412

Recycling of construction debris as aggregate in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available substitutes for natural aggregate in many areas. This paper presents an overview of factors that affect recycled aggregate cost, availability, and engineering performance, and the results of a survey of business practices in the Mid-Atlantic region. For RAP, processing costs are less than those for virgin natural aggregate. Use of efficient asphalt pavement stripping technology, on-site reclamation, and linked two-way transport of asphalt debris and processed asphalt paving mix between asphalt mix plants and paving sites has led to extensive recycling of asphalt pavement in the Mid-Atlantic region of the US. Most of the sites that recycle asphalt pavement (RAP) are located in or near urban areas close to important transportation corridors. RPCC is a viable aggregate source in urban settings where unit costs for processed aggregate from RPCC and natural aggregate are comparable. Disposal fees charged at RPCC recycling sites help defray processing costs and the significantly lower tipping fees at recycling sites versus landfill disposal sites encourage recycling of construction debris as aggregate. Construction contractors and construction debris recycling centers, many of which have the ability to crush and process concrete debris at the job site, produce most RPCC. Production of RPCC aggregate from construction debris that is processed on site using portable equipment moved to the construction site eliminates transportation costs for aggregate and provides an economic incentive for RPCC use. Processing costs, quality and performance issues, and lack of large quantities where needed limit RPCC use. Most RPCC suppliers in the Mid-Atlantic area are located in counties with population densities greater than 400 people/km2 (1036 people/mile2) and that have high unit-value costs and limited local availability of natural aggregate. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Menzie, W.D.; Hyun, H.

2004-01-01

413

A survey of natural aggregate properties and characteristics important in remote sensing and airborne geophysics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural aggregate is vital to the construction industry. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is abundant, new sources are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transportation costs, and environmental concerns. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics detect surface and near-surface phenomena, and may be useful for detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources; however, before a methodology for applying these techniques can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits. The distribution of potential aggregate sources is closely tied to local geologic history. Conventional exploration for natural aggregate deposits has been largely a ground-based operation, although aerial photographs and topographic maps have been extensively used to target possible deposits. Today, the exploration process also considers factors such as the availability of the land, space and water supply for processing, political and environmental factors, and distance from the market; exploration and planning cannot be separated. There are many physical properties and characteristics by which to judge aggregate material for specific applications; most of these properties and characteristics pertain only to individual aggregate particles. The application of remote sensing and airborne geophysical measurements to detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources, however, is based on intrinsic bulk physical properties and extrinsic characteristics of the deposits that can be directly measured, mathematically derived from measurement, or interpreted with remote sensing and geophysical data. ?? 1995 Oxford UniversityPress.

Knepper, D.H., Jr.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.

1995-01-01

414

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505...Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior...

2013-07-01

415

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505...Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior...

2011-07-01

416

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2013-07-01 true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505...Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior...

2014-07-01

417

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-07-01 true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505...Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior...

2012-07-01

418

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505...Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior...

2010-07-01

419

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2013-01-01

420

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2010-01-01

421

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2014-01-01

422

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2011-01-01

423

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2012-01-01

424

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2010-01-01

425

Effects of Oil Palm Shell Coarse Aggregate Species on High Strength Lightweight Concrete  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of oil palm shell (OPS) coarse aggregates on the properties of high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). Original and crushed OPS coarse aggregates of different species and age categories were investigated in this study. The research focused on two OPS species (dura and tenera), in which the coarse aggregates were taken from oil palm trees of the following age categories (3–5, 6–9, and 10–15 years old). The results showed that the workability and dry density of the oil palm shell concrete (OPSC) increase with an increase in age category of OPS species. The compressive strength of specimen CD3 increases significantly compared to specimen CT3 by 21.8%. The maximum achievable 28-day and 90-day compressive strength is 54 and 56?MPa, respectively, which is within the range for 10–15-year-old crushed dura OPS. The water absorption was determined to be within the range for good concrete for the different species of OPSC. In addition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) results showed that the OPS HSLWC attain good condition at the age of 3 days. PMID:24982946

Yew, Ming Kun; Bin Mahmud, Hilmi; Ang, Bee Chin; Yew, Ming Chian

2014-01-01

426

Effects of oil palm shell coarse aggregate species on high strength lightweight concrete.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of oil palm shell (OPS) coarse aggregates on the properties of high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). Original and crushed OPS coarse aggregates of different species and age categories were investigated in this study. The research focused on two OPS species (dura and tenera), in which the coarse aggregates were taken from oil palm trees of the following age categories (3-5, 6-9, and 10-15 years old). The results showed that the workability and dry density of the oil palm shell concrete (OPSC) increase with an increase in age category of OPS species. The compressive strength of specimen CD3 increases significantly compared to specimen CT3 by 21.8%. The maximum achievable 28-day and 90-day compressive strength is 54 and 56?MPa, respectively, which is within the range for 10-15-year-old crushed dura OPS. The water absorption was determined to be within the range for good concrete for the different species of OPSC. In addition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) results showed that the OPS HSLWC attain good condition at the age of 3 days. PMID:24982946

Yew, Ming Kun; Bin Mahmud, Hilmi; Ang, Bee Chin; Yew, Ming Chian

2014-01-01

427

Renal effects of percutaneous stone removal  

SciTech Connect

Preoperative and postoperative renography with 99mTechnetium-diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid was performed on 33 patients who were free of renal scarring, infection, and obstruction and who underwent percutaneous renal stone removal. Although there was a transient decrease in renal function postoperatively in some patients, statistically significant reductions in renal function occurred only in 1 patient with an arteriovenous malformation that was embolized and in 1 patient who had a postoperative ureteropelvic junction stricture. The creation of more than one nephrostomy tract did not affect the results. In the absence of serious complications, percutaneous nephrostomy does not have a significant effect on renal function.

Eshghi, M.; Schiff, R.G.; Smith, A.D.

1989-02-01

428

Pollution-fueled `biodeterioration` threatens historic stone  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms appear to pose as great a threat to historic buildings, monuments, and statues as does acid precipitation, according to recent research findings. Air pollution from urban and industrial growth may be fueling these microbes and speeding the deterioration of venerated artworks and cultural treasures in many parts of the world - the Taj Mahal in India; the Acropolis and the Delos Sanctuary in Greece; stone Buddhas in Japan; cathedrals in Europe; and ancient temples in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Central America. This paper reports research being done in this field. 8 refs.

Young, P.

1996-05-01

429

Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

Dolley, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

430

Myelinated fiber regeneration after crush injury is retarded in sciatic nerves of aging mice.  

PubMed

To compare nerve regeneration in young adult and aging mice, the right sciatic nerves of 6- and 24-month-old mice were crushed at the sciatic notch. Two weeks later, both groups of mice were perfused with an aldehyde solution, and, after additional fixation, the sciatic nerves were processed so that the transverse sections of each nerve subsequently studied by light and electron microscopy included the entire posterior tibial fascicle 5 mm distal to the crush site. The same level was sectioned in unoperated contralateral nerves; these nerves served as controls. Electron micrographs and the Bioquant Image Analysis System IV were used to measure areas of posterior tibial fascicles and count the number of myelinated axons, the number of unmyelinated axons, and their frequency in Schwann cell units. In aging mice, the total number of regenerating myelinated axons was significantly reduced, but totals of regenerating unmyelinated axons in aging and young adults did not differ significantly. In aging mice, the frequency of Schwann cells that contained a single unmyelinated axon was greater, suggesting that before myelination began, Schwann cell ensheathment of axons also was slowed. After axotomy by a crush injury, the area of the posterior tibial fascicle was less than that in young adults and the distal disintegration of myelin sheath remnants also appeared to be retarded. The results indicate that responses of neurons, axons, and Schwann cells could be important in slowing the regeneration of myelinated fibers found in sciatic nerves from aging mice. PMID:1890237

Tanaka, K; Webster, H D

1991-06-01

431

Up-Regulation of NF45 Correlates with Schwann Cell Proliferation After Sciatic Nerve Crush.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor (NF)45 (also known as interleukin enhancer-binding factor (ILF)2), is a transcription factor that interacts with NF90 to regulate gene expression. It has long been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation. However, the role of NF45 in the process of peripheral nervous system regeneration after injury remains poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of NF45 in a rat sciatic nerve crush model. We detected the up-regulated expression of NF45 in Schwann cell after sciatic nerve crush. What's more, the expression of the cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) exhibited a similar tendency with that of NF45. In cell cultures, we observed increased expression of NF45 during the process of TNF-?-induced Schwann cell proliferation, whereas the protein level of p21 was down-regulated. Interference of NF45 led to enhanced expression of p21 and also impaired proliferation of Schwan cells. Taken together, our data implicated that NF45 was up-regulated in the sciatic nerve after crush, which was associated with proliferation of Schwann cell. PMID:25566957

Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Shiran; Xu, Hua; Yan, Shixian; Xu, Dawei; Zhang, Yi

2015-05-01

432

Carpal tunnel syndrome and the "double crush" hypothesis: a review and implications for chiropractic  

PubMed Central

Upton and McComas claimed that most patients with carpal tunnel syndrome not only have compressive lesions at the wrist, but also show evidence of damage to cervical nerve roots. This "double crush" hypothesis has gained some popularity among chiropractors because it seems to provide a rationale for adjusting the cervical spine in treating carpal tunnel syndrome. Here I examine use of the concept by chiropractors, summarize findings from the literature, and critique several studies aimed at supporting or refuting the hypothesis. Although the hypothesis also has been applied to nerve compressions other than those leading to carpal tunnel syndrome, this discussion mainly examines the original application – "double crush" involving both cervical spinal nerve roots and the carpal tunnel. I consider several categories: experiments to create double crush syndrome in animals, case reports, literature reviews, and alternatives to the original hypothesis. A significant percentage of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome also have neck pain or cervical nerve root compression, but the relationship has not been definitively explained. The original hypothesis remains controversial and is probably not valid, at least for sensory disturbances, in carpal tunnel syndrome. However, even if the original hypothesis is importantly flawed, evaluation of multiple sites still may be valuable. The chiropractic profession should develop theoretical models to relate cervical dysfunction to carpal tunnel syndrome, and might incorporate some alternatives to the original hypothesis. I intend this review as a starting point for practitioners, educators, and students wishing to advance chiropractic concepts in this area. PMID:18426564

Russell, Brent S

2008-01-01

433

Subthreshold continuous electrical stimulation facilitates functional recovery of facial nerve after crush injury in rabbit.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation (ES) with subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency impulses is a viable clinical method for improving functional recovery after facial nerve crush injury. In 10 rabbits, bilateral crush injuries were made on the facial nerve by compression for 30 s with mosquito forceps, causing complete facial paralysis. Subthreshold continuous direct current ES with 20-Hz square-wave pulses was applied to the proximal stump on one side for 4 weeks. Vibrissae movement returned significantly earlier on the ES side, with a less variable recovery time. Electrophysiologically, the stimulated side had a significantly shorter latency, longer duration, and faster conduction velocity. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the electrical stimulation also markedly decreased Wallerian degeneration. The average numbers of fluorescent, double-labeled nerve cells were significantly different between the ES and non-ES sides. This study shows that subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency ES immediately after a crush injury of the facial nerve results in earlier recovery of facial function and shorter overall recovery time. PMID:21254091

Kim, Jin; Han, Su Jin; Shin, Dong Hyun; Lee, Won-Sang; Choi, Jae Young

2011-02-01

434

The Christchurch Earthquake: Crush Injury, Neuropathic Pain, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

On February 22, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck Christchurch, New Zealand. The peak ground acceleration, a measure of the shaking or intensity of an earthquake, was one of the highest ever recorded worldwide. One hundred and eighty-five people lost their lives; many others were injured. Two cases both involving young women are presented; they sustained crush injuries to limbs after being trapped by falling debris and went on to develop severe neuropathic pain. This report examines the mechanisms of neuropathic pain in the setting of crush injury, the treatment modalities, and the association between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. These case reports highlight the fact that crush injury is relatively common during major earthquakes and that neuropathic pain is an important sequel of this. Post-traumatic stress disorder is common in earthquake survivors with a recognised association with chronic pain. Pain-related disability may increase as well. Issues such as chronic pain and physical disability should not be overlooked as attention focuses on disaster management and the treatment of life-threatening injuries. PMID:23956754

Shipton, Edward A.

2013-01-01

435

Influence of crushing and additive irradiation procedures on EPR dosimetry of tooth enamel  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the crushing and additive dose procedures used in EPR dosimetry of enamel was studied on the signals with g-factors of 2. 0045 and g, = 2.0018, g. = 1.9975. Eight fractions, ranging in size from <75 micrometers to 2 mm, were prepared from one tooth. Two cases were investigated: crushing of a non-irradiated sample and of a sample previously irradiated (6 Gy from `Co gamma ray source). In the non-irradiated study, the intensity of the native signal at 2.0045 in by circa 1.75 times as the grain size decreased from maximum to minimum. A small in radiation sensitivity (< 8%) was also observed with decreasing grain size. In the irradiated samples, crushing resulted in slight variations of reconstructed doses from expected values, but the worst possible case (grain sizes < 75 micron) showed that additional errors were less than 10%. The radiation sensitivity of enamel measured immediately after exposure is underestimated. It increases by about 15% in the first month. Based on the decomposition of the observed spectra, a new interpretation of transient signals 1108 is proposed which explains the above phenomena. Recommendations about how to use this interpretation in retrospective EPR dosimetry are given.

Shalom, S.V.; Chumak, V.V. [All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Applied Dosimetry

1996-01-01

436

Methodological aspects of spontaneous crystalluria studies in calcium stone formers.  

PubMed

Despite nearly a half-century of study, the clinical value of spontaneous crystalluria (Cx) examinations in calcium stone formers (CaSF) is still uncertain. The analytical complexity of urine particle study is largely responsible for this situation. As a result, there is no consensus regarding technical methods in Cx with several techniques for urine sampling and three different instruments currently used for particle study, namely, particle counting (PC), light microscopy (LM) and petrographic microscopy (PM). In this work, we first examined urine sampling and instrument methods regarding their appropriateness for Cx studies. Then we performed a comparative analysis of Cx studies in CaSF. Despite many technical and clinical discrepancies, several studies agree that the frequency of "all particles" and of the weddellite and whewellite calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystalline phases are increased in CaSF as compared to normal subjects (NS). Particle sizes and aggregation ratio are also often increased. Altogether, these results reinforce the need for an efficient method for Cx studies in these patients. Examining each technique leads us to conclude that most particle parameters can be studied by "direct LM" observation of freshly voided urine samples, i.e., urine samples without any separation steps. For clinical applications, several examinations should be performed, first to define the specific Cx characteristics in a patient, then for the study of treatment efficiency on Cx control, and finally, during the patient follow-up. Due to Cx variability in each patient, the frequency of Cx examinations during each phase needs to be determined in longterm comparative prospective studies of CaSF. PMID:7701297

Bader, C A; Chevalier, A; Hennequin, C; Jungers, P; Daudon, M

1994-01-01

437

Fibronectin Aggregation and Assembly  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of fibronectin (FN) assembly and the self-association sites are still unclear and contradictory, although the N-terminal 70-kDa region (I1–9) is commonly accepted as one of the assembly sites. We previously found that I1–9 binds to superfibronectin, which is an artificial FN aggregate induced by anastellin. In the present study, we found that I1–9 bound to the aggregate formed by anastellin and a small FN fragment, III1–2. An engineered disulfide bond in III2, which stabilizes folding, inhibited aggregation, but a disulfide bond in III1 did not. A gelatin precipitation assay showed that I1–9 did not interact with anastellin, III1, III2, III1–2, or several III1–2 mutants including III1–2KADA. (In contrast to previous studies, we found that the III1–2KADA mutant was identical in conformation to wild-type III1–2.) Because I1–9 only bound to the aggregate and the unfolding of III2 played a role in aggregation, we generated a III2 domain that was destabilized by deletion of the G strand. This mutant bound I1–9 as shown by the gelatin precipitation assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, and it inhibited FN matrix assembly when added to cell culture. Next, we introduced disulfide mutations into full-length FN. Three disulfide locks in III2, III3, and III11 were required to dramatically reduce anastellin-induced aggregation. When we tested the disulfide mutants in cell culture, only the disulfide bond in III2 reduced the FN matrix. These results suggest that the unfolding of III2 is one of the key factors for FN aggregation and assembly. PMID:21949131

Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P.

2011-01-01

438

The pathological features and circumstances of death of lethal crush\\/traumatic asphyxia in adults—A 25-year study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 25-year retrospective study of cases of crush\\/traumatic asphyxia autopsied at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia from 1980 to 2004 was undertaken. A total of 79 cases of crush asphyxia was found consisting of 63 males (80%) and 16 females (20%). The age range of the males was 19–86 years (mean=41.8 years) and of the females was 19–75 years (mean=38.6

Roger W. Byard; Regula Wick; Ellie Simpson; John D. Gilbert

2006-01-01

439

High carbonate level of apatite in kidney stones underlines infection, but is it predictive?  

PubMed Central

The presence of infectious microorganisms in urinary stones is commonly inferred from stone composition, especially by the presence of struvite in a stone. The presence of highly carbonated apatite has also been proposed as a marker of the presence of bacteria within a stone. We retrospectively studied 368 patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and who also had culture results for both stone and urine. Urine culture showed no association with stone mineral content, but stone culture was more often positive in struvite containing stones (73% positive) and majority apatite stones (65%) than in other stone types (54%, lower than the others, P<0.02). In 51 patients in which the carbonate content of apatite could be measured, carbonate in the apatite was weakly predictive of positive stone culture with an optimal cutoff value of 13.5% carbonate (sensitivity 0.61, specificity 0.80). In positive cultures of stones (all mineral types combined), organisms that characteristically produce urease were present in 71% of the cases, with no difference in this proportion among different types of stone. In summary, the type of mineral in the stone was predictive of positive stone culture, but this correlation is imperfect, as over half of non-struvite, non-apatite stones were found to harbor culturable organisms. We conclude that mineral type is an inadequate predictor of whether a stone contains infectious organisms, and that stone culture is more likely to provide information useful to the management of patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. PMID:23881525

Englert, Kate M.; McAteer, James A.; Lingeman, James E.; Williams, James C.

2013-01-01

440

[XRD, FTIR and thermoluminescence spectra of different types of urinary stones].  

PubMed

Using thermoluminescence spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the chemical compositions of four types of kidney stones were investigated. They are calcium oxalate, uric acid, calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi (struvite). Experimental results showed that in the 305 cases of stones, calculi oxalate stones were found to account for 63%, uric acid stones 22%, calcium phosphate stones 8%, struvite 5%, and the stones with other compositions 2%. There were significant differences in the thermoluminescence spectra among the 4 types of urinary stones, which can provide an important basis for the clinic diagnosis of urinary stone types. PMID:22007431

Yang, Jin; He, Jie-Yu; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2011-08-01

441

Fructose consumption and the risk of kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructose consumption has markedly increased over the past decades. This intake may increase the urinary excretion of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, and other factors associated with kidney stone risk. We prospectively examined the relationship between fructose intake and incident kidney stones in the Nurses’ Health Study I (NHS I) (93 730 older women), the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II)

E N Taylor; G C Curhan

2008-01-01

442

Kidney Stones Can Send Patients to Hospital More Than Once  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Kidney Stones Can Send Patients to Hospital More Than Once ... Related MedlinePlus Pages Emergency Medical Services Health Disparities Kidney Stones FRIDAY, March 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- One in ...

443

The impact of dietary oxalate on kidney stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of dietary oxalate in calcium oxalate kidney stone formation remains unclear. However, due to the risk for stone disease that is associated with a low calcium intake, dietary oxalate is believed to be an important contributing factor. In this review, we have examined the available evidence related to the ingestion of dietary oxalate, its intestinal absorption, and its

Ross P. Holmes; Dean G. Assimos

2004-01-01

444

Characteristics of nanobacteria and their possible role in stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney stone formation is a multifactorial disease in which the defence mechanisms and risk factors are imbalanced in favour of stone formation. We have proposed a novel infectious agent, mineral forming nanobacteria (NB), to be active nidi that attach to, invade and damage the urinary epithelium of collecting ducts and papilla forming the calcium phosphate center(s) found in most kidney

E. Olavi Kajander; Neva Ciftcioglu; Katja Aho; Enrique Garcia-Cuerpo

2003-01-01

445

Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

2007-02-01

446

Three dimensional analysis of a compression test on stone wool  

E-print Network

Three dimensional analysis of a compression test on stone wool Fran¸cois Hild,a Eric Maire,b St test on a sample made of stone wool is presented. The analysis combines different tools, namely, X of entangled materials such as mineral wools, there are very few results on the details of the microstructure

Boyer, Edmond

447

26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone facing on concrete box culvert. Stone facing appears on the headwall, tail wall, wingwalls, interior abutment wall and the pier. Looking northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

448

259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner Overlook. This is a common feature at all overlooks on the parkway. All stone on the parkway, except for the Linn Cove Viaduct was quarried from within fifty miles of where it was used. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

449

Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district.  

PubMed

Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium. PMID:25033236

Aslin Shamema, A; Thanigai Arul, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

2015-01-01

450

A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

2014-01-01

451

Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

2015-01-01

452

Monte-Carlo Tree Search in Crazy Stone Remi Coulom  

E-print Network

Monte-Carlo Tree Search in Crazy Stone R´emi Coulom Universit´e Charles de Gaulle, INRIA, CNRS Introduction 2 Crazy Stone's Algorithm Principles of Monte-Carlo Evaluation Tree Search Patterns 3 Playing global understanding The Monte-Carlo Approach random playouts dynamic evaluation with global

Coulom, Rémi - Groupe de Recherche sur l'Apprentissage Automatique, Université Charles de Gaulle

453

Biodiversity of photosynthetic micro-organisms dwelling on stone monuments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical survey of literature data for the biodeteriogens acting on stone monuments was combined with the results of our investigations performed by traditional and biomolecular (ARDRA) methods. It was showed that the photosynthetic micro-organisms dwelling on stone monuments have a rather ample biodiversity, and this was also confirmed by our data on axenic cyanobacterial strains isolated from Italian monuments.

Luisa Tomaselli; Gioia Lamenti; Marco Bosco; Piero Tiano

2000-01-01

454

Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone

F Pixley; D Wilson; K McPherson; J Mann

1985-01-01

455

DNA AND PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM WASHED EXPERIMENTAL STONE TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

DNA residues may preserve on ancient stone tools used to process animals. We studied 24 stone tools recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming. Nine tools that yielded DNA included five bifaces, two side scrapers, one end scraper, and one utilized flake. The...

456

Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication  

PubMed Central

Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

2014-01-01

457

Smartphone sensors for stone lithography authentication.  

PubMed

Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to "authenticate" non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

Spagnolo, Giuseppe Schirripa; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

2014-01-01

458

Primary Bile Duct Stones and Bacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

The results of this study suggest that infection with beta-glucuronidase active bacteria is the initial event in the nucleation of primary bile duct stones (PBDS). PBDS from five patients were morphologically fragile and “earthy” with alternating light and dark brown pigment layers with no evidence of a distinct central nucleus that may have been reminiscent of a different structure. Chemically, calcium bilirubinate and calcium palmitate were prominent throughout their structure. All bile duct biles had a positive culture and were always associated with at least one bacterial species which was beta-glucuronidase active. Moreover, fragments of PBDS nuclear areas had positive cultures that were comparable with those present in their individual bile duct bile. Microscopic examination of bile showed abundant precipitation of calcium bilirubinate granules in all samples. Thus, bile duct bile infection with beta-glucuronidase active bacteria (e.g. E. coli, C. perfringens) appears to be a key factor in PBDS pathogenesis, having a precursor role, rather than being a consequence. Bile stasis is likely to be a co-factor which must have a supportive role in subsequent stone growth. PMID:1467314

Sali, Avni

1992-01-01

459

Experimental model to study sedimentary kidney stones.  

PubMed

An experimental model to reproduce, to some extent, the conditions prevailing during the formation of the so-called sedimentary urinary stones, was developed. The results obtained demonstrated that in the absence of organic matter no calcium phosphate crystals were deposited in cavities with scarce liquid renovation. Nevertheless, in such case a regular hydroxyapatite layer was developed on the walls around the cavity. The presence of crystallization inhibitors cannot stop indefinitely the crystal development. Therefore, phytate manifested important inhibitory effects in concentrations normally found in urine (0.77-1.54 x 10(-6) mol/l), whereas citrate only manifested important inhibitory effects when found at high urinary concentrations (2.64 x 10(-3) mol/l). When mucin (a glycoprotein) was present in the urine, a clear deposit of calcified organic material was formed. The organic matter appeared mixed with the spherulites of hydroxyapatite, this demonstrating the capacity of the glycoprotein agglomerates to act as heterogeneous nucleants of calcium salts and their important role in the formation of sedimentary stones. The structural features of the obtained in vitro deposits were compared with the fine structure of human sedimentary phosphate calculi. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated a good correspondence between in vitro experiments and in vivo observations. PMID:9684348

Grases, F; Llobera, A

1998-01-01

460

Surgical management of bladder stones: literature review.  

PubMed

Bladder stones are rare and most cases occur in adult men with bladder outlet obstruction. Currently, there are few data on the best treatment of this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss some aspects of pathogenesis and treatment approaches for bladder lithiasis. A comprehensive search of the database of the "National Library of Medicine" /pubmed was conducted with the following key words and descriptors: "bladder" or "vesical" associated with "calculus", "stone" or "lithiasis", and "cistolithotripsy ". One hundred and seventy-one articles were identified. The articles were independently assessed by two reviewers with expertise in urolithiasis. They were included in the study when the results, complications and follow-up were clearly reported. In the end, 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several options for the treatment of bladder lithiasis are available, but no randomized trials comparing them. Different rates of calculus-free patients are described in each of them, as follows: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (75-100%), transurethral cistolithotripsy (63-100%), percutaneous cistolithotripsy (89-100%) and open surgery (100 %). The percutaneous approach has lower morbidity, with similar results to the transurethral treatment, while extracorporeal lithotripsy has the lowest rate of elimination of calculi and is reserved for patients at high surgical risk. PMID:23912371

Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Danilovic, Alexandre; Coelho, Rafael Ferreira; Srougi, Miguel

2013-01-01

461

Prolonged Sleep under Stone Age Conditions  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: We report on a unique experiment designed to investigate the impact of prehistoric living conditions on sleep-wake behavior. Methods: A group of five healthy adults were assessed during life in a Stone Age-like settlement over two months. Results: The most notable finding was that nocturnal time in bed and estimated sleep time, as measured by actigraphy, markedly increased during the experimental period compared to the periods prior to and following the experiment. These increases were primarily driven by a phase-advance shift of sleep onset. Subjective assessments of health and functioning did not reveal any relevant changes across the study. Conclusions: Our observations provide further evidence for the long-held belief that the absence of modern living conditions is associated with an earlier sleep phase and prolonged sleep duration. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. Citation: Piosczyk H, Landmann N, Holz J, Feige B, Riemann D, Nissen C, Voderholzer U. Prolonged sleep under Stone Age conditions. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):719-722. PMID:25024647

Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Chri