Sample records for crushed stone aggregate

  1. Elastic Modeling and Vibration Analysis of Crushed Stone Aggregate in Ballasted Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakawa, Fumihiro; Aikawa, Akira

    This paper describes a finite element vibration analysis of crushed stone aggregate used in the ballasted track to examine the frequency characteristic up to the high frequency area of about 1 kHz. In the modeling, we tightened the crushed stones expressed as a polyhedron model using the three dimensional discrete element method, and built a finite element model from the numerical arrangement and contact data of the crushed stone. Inputting a train load to this model, we simulate the behavior and the stress distribution of crushed stone aggregate under a train passing. Numerical results were compared with measurement results to confirm the reproducibility of this model. Finally, we also clarify characteristics of the vibration and the wave propagation of crushed stone aggregate by the vibration analysis using this model.

  2. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

  3. Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2015-04-01

    Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection Elena Kuznetsova, NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF With natural (fluvial, glaciofluvial) sand/gravel resources being rapidly depleted in many countries, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards using more alternative materials for construction purpose. In Norway the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the most important way to get around the problem with increased resource scarcity. Today Norway is one the European countries with the highest percentage of crushed/manufactured aggregates. A crushed product will reveal a different particle size distribution, a sharper, more angular particle shape, and not least - a significantly different mineral composition. The latter may often be characterised by more polymineral composition, and it will also much more depend on the local bedrock. When handled with care and knowledge, these differences can give the user a lot of new opportunities relating to materials design. Norwegian road construction practice has changed significantly during the last 40 years due to the replacement of gravel by crushed rock materials in the granular layers of the pavements. The use of non-processed rock materials from blasting was allowed in the subbase layer until 2012. This was a reason for a lot of problems with frost heaving due to inhomogeneity of this material, and in practice it was difficult to control the size of large stones. Since 2012 there is a requirement that rock materials for use in the subbase layer shall be crushed (Handbook N200, 2014). During the spring 2014 The Norwegian Public Roads Administration introduced a new handbook with requirements for roads construction in Norway, including new specifications for the frost protection layer. When pavements are constructed over moist and/or frost susceptible soils in cold and humid environments, the frost protection layer also becomes a very important part of the road system. According to new specification; the size of large stones for this layer should be maximum 0.5 m (longest edge) or ½ layer thickness. And minimum 30% of stones should be less than 90 mm. Fines content (<0.063 mm) should be maximum 15% of the material less than 22.4 mm. Analysing these new requirements, several questions are arising. First of all how this materials size will affect heat exchange in the layer, secondly - if the allowable fines content will make the materials frost susceptible. For calculations of frost protection layer thickness the knowledge of thermal conductivity of the aggregate layers is required. Handbook for geotechnical investigations of the soils provides this data for natural gravel which is limited by 0.7 - 1.3 W/mK. But when it comes to the crushed rocks, it can be significantly increased due to the higher conductivity of minerals (especially if they contain high amount of quartz), as well as due to higher effective conductivity. In rock-fill materials, i.e. materials with large particles and low degree of saturation, convection and radiation are the predominant heat transfer mechanisms. Convection and radiation can increase the effective conductivity by factor 2-10. Lebeau and Konrad (2007) showed that convection heat transfer could lead to the formation of undesirable permafrost conditions in toe drains of embankment dams located in Northern Quebec, i.e. in areas where there are no naturally occurring permafrost soils. In a frost design method the required parameter values of crushed rock aggregates are thermal conductivity, density and water content. The heat transfer during the freezing of natural soils is assumed proportional to thermal conductivity of the material. In a coarse-grained material with abundant pore space, convective heat transfer and radiation may be a considerable factor, sometimes even more significant than conduction. Specifications used by pavement engineers in most countries are solely based on grain size distribution and allowable fines content. The presence of fines in these layers can

  4. Geo-Engineering Evaluation of Rock Masses for Crushed Rock and Cut Stones in Khartoum State, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheirelseed, E. E.; Ming, T. H.; Abdalla, S. B.

    The purpose of this study is to find artificial coarse aggregates and cut stones around Khartoum. To meat the objectives of the study, data from both field and laboratory are collected. The field data includes geological investigations based on different methods and samples collection, whereas the laboratory tests consists of specific gravity, water absorption, impact value, crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion, soundness tests. The field and laboratory results were weighed and compiled together to reveal the engineering performance of the different rock masses in term of cut stone and crushed aggregates. The results show that most of the examined rock masses are suitable for crushing, building and dressed stones. For decorative slabs only foliated granite and syenite masses can be used.

  5. Geo-Engineering Evaluation of Rock Masses for Crushed Rock and Cut Stones in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Kheirelseed; T. H. Ming; S. B. Abdalla

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find artificial coarse aggregates and cut stones around Khartoum. To meat the objectives of the study, data from both field and laboratory are collected. The field data includes geological investigations based on different methods and samples collection, whereas the laboratory tests consists of specific gravity, water absorption, impact value, crushing value, Los Angeles

  6. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES IN KRAFT PULP MILL AND CRUSHED STONE INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of fine particulate emissions from selected kraft pulp mill and stone crushing facilities is addressed. The principal devices considered are electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. Guidelines are provided for industrial personnel responsible for se...

  7. Wet packing of crushed rock fine aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. S. Fung; A. K. H. Kwan; H. H. C. Wong

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the performance of concrete is dependent on the packing density of the aggregate. All existing methods\\u000a of measuring the packing density of aggregate are carried out under dry condition. However, these dry packing methods are\\u000a sensitive to the amount of compaction applied and do not account for the effect of water in the concrete mix.

  8. Aggregate production: Fines generation during rock crushing M.S. Guimaraes a

    E-print Network

    Palomino, Angelica M.

    Aggregate production: Fines generation during rock crushing M.S. Guimaraes a , J.R. Valdes b , A; accepted 16 August 2006 Available online 25 September 2006 Abstract The energy required to crush rocks the role of mineralogy and fracture mode in fines production during the crushing of single aggregates

  9. Modeling of fugitive dust emission and control measures in stone crushing industry.

    PubMed

    Sivacoumar, R; Mohan Raj, S; Chinnadurai, S Jeremiah; Jayabalou, R

    2009-05-01

    Stone crushing in India is a small scale industry, where most of the operations are performed manually. A cluster of 72 stone crushing units located at Trisoolam in Chennai is a source of high levels of dust generation in the vicinity of the crushers and in the communities surrounding them. An ambient air quality monitoring network was designed and operated over 3 months (June-August, 2006) at 17 sites across the Trisoolam area. Wind speed and direction were monitored continuously every 1 hour to determine the upwind and downwind directions for the air quality monitoring program. The TSPM concentration at the source varied 1268-4108 microg/m(3) with a mean of 2759 microg/m(3), whereas in ambient air varied 65-417 microg/m(3) with a mean of 190 microg/m(3). The percentage of particulate fractions PM(2.5), PM(10), PM(15), and PM(30) was 14.3, 36.6, 45 and 73.5% of the total dust respectively. The settleable particulate matter was found to be 45% and the maximum percent of particles is in the range of 3-5 microm (8 %). Both ambient dust concentration and occupational exposure level exceeded Indian National Standards at most of the locations. Mathematical models viz., FDM, ISCST3 and AERMOD were employed for prediction of dust emission from stone crushers on the surrounding areas. The impact zone for measured concentration varied 211-1350 m with a mean of 784 m. The impact zone for predicted concentrations of FDM, ISCST3 and AERMOD varied 153-2650 m, 143-1056 m, 135-1225 m with a mean of 1335 m, 501 m and 679 m respectively. The control measures adopted at these stone crushing units are not sufficient enough to bring down the concentration within the stipulated limits. There is a scope for further improvement of control measures at these stone crushing units. PMID:19436856

  10. Effect of crushed ceramic and basaltic pumice as fine aggregates on concrete mortars properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanifi Binici

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the suitability of ceramic industrial wastes and huge amounts of basaltic pumice as a possible substitute for conventional crushed fine aggregates. Experiments were carried out to determine abrasion resistance, chloride penetration depths and the compressive strengths of concrete with crushed ceramic waste and basaltic pumice fine aggregates and to compare them with those of conventional concretes. Test

  11. Stormwater runoff quality and quantity from asphalt, paver, and crushed stone driveways in Connecticut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer K. Gilbert; John C. Clausen

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the quality and quantity of stormwater runoff from replicated asphalt, permeable paver, and crushed-stone driveways. Rainfall was measured on-site and runoff was recorded using tipping buckets. Flow-weighted composite runoff samples were analyzed weekly for total suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, ammonia–nitrogen, total phosphorus (TP), zinc, lead, and copper. Infiltration rate was determined on each driveway annually.

  12. Feasible use of recycled concrete aggregates and crushed clay brick as unbound road sub-base

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi Sun Poon; Dixon Chan

    2006-01-01

    A study was recently conducted at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University to investigate the possibility of using recycled concrete aggregates and crushed clay brick as aggregates in unbound subbase materials. The results showed that the use of 100% recycled concrete aggregates increased the optimum moisture content and decreased the maximum dry density of the subbase materials compared to those of

  13. Concrete with crushed, graded and washed recycled construction demolition waste as a coarse aggregate replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Richardson; Pierre Allain; Maxime Veuille

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – A current trend is to use waste and by-products in concrete to replace binders and aggregates. This trend reduces the impact on the environment and the use of finite natural resources. This paper aims to investigate whether concrete which includes crushed, graded and washed recycled construction demolition waste, used as a coarse aggregate, can be manufactured to a

  14. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

  15. Concrete with recycled concrete aggregate and crushed clay bricks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Yang; Qiang Du; Yiwang Bao

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, a variety of recycling methods for construction and demolition wastes (CDW) have been developed. For instance, as one of the major components in CDW, concrete rubble has been used to replace natural aggregate after being treated. This is known as recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). The property and use of RCA for structural or non-structural concrete

  16. Paving blocks made with recycled concrete aggregate and crushed clay brick

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi Sun Poon; Dixon Chan

    2006-01-01

    Clay brick generated from construction sites is usually delivered to landfills for disposal. With the limited landfill space in Hong Kong, there is an immediate need to explore the possible use of crushed clay brick as a new civil engineering material. In Hong Kong, government specifications promote the use of paving blocks made with 70–100% recycled concrete aggregate in order

  17. Cement treated recycled crushed concrete and masonry aggregates for pavements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. X. Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This research is focusing on the characterization of the mechanical and deformation properties of cement treated mixtures made of recycled concrete and masonry aggregates (CTMiGr) in relation to their mixture variables. An extensive laboratory investigation was carried out, in which the mechanical properties of CTMiGr and the deformation characteristics relevant to shrinkage crack susceptibility were evaluated. \\u000aThe main aim of

  18. To be published in NRMCA Concrete Technology Forum: Focus on Sustainable Development, 2008 Internal Curing with Crushed Returned Concrete Aggregates for High

    E-print Network

    Bentz, Dale P.

    returned concrete aggregate; internal curing; lightweight aggregate; recycling; sustainability to landfills. It is the authors' contention that recycling crushed returned concrete aggregate (CCA because it is free of any contamination. Thus, CCA is distinguished from other recycled concrete

  19. A study on the internal aggregate packing of stone mastic asphalt (SMA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiu Yunfeng; Lum Kit Meng

    Accurate quantification of aggregate properties is essential for a better understanding of their effect on an asphalt mixture. This is even more relevant for stone mastic asphalt (SMA) for which stone-to-stone contact forms the cornerstone of SMA load-carrying capacity, especially against rutting. A quantitative method based on volumetric properties such as voids in mineral aggregates and voids in coarse aggregate

  20. THE EFFECTS OF STONE FRUIT EXTRACT ON THE PROCESS OF PLATELET AGGREGATION IN VITRO 

    E-print Network

    Deleeuw, Peter 1990-

    2011-07-25

    that the extract inhibits the aggregation caused by ADP. This would also lead one to believe that there are compounds in stone fruits that could lower the chances of cardiovascular disease by limiting aggregation and subsequently inflammation in arterial walls....

  1. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF STONE FRUIT EXTRACT ON THE PROCESS OF PLATELET AGGREGATION IN VITRO

    E-print Network

    Deleeuw, Peter 1990-

    2011-07-25

    of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by PETER M. DELEEUW THE EFFECTS OF STONE FRUIT EXTRACT ON THE PROCESS OF PLATELET AGGREGATION IN VITRO Approved by: Research Advisor Luis... as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by PETER M. DELEEUW iii ABSTRACT The Effects of Stone Fruit Extract on the Process of Platelet Aggregation in Vitro. (July 2011) Peter M. deLeeuw Department of Biomedical Sciences Texas A...

  3. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

  4. [Stones crushing lives: victims and their widows in the marble industry in Itaoca (ES)].

    PubMed

    Moulin, Maria das Graças Barbosa; Minayo-Gomez, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This text based on an ethnographic survey presents the social impact on the families of victims of fatal work accidents in the ornamental stone industry in Itaoca, district of Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The following elements are analyzed: family culture; living with fatal accidents; experiences of family grief; the way the companies and the union deal with worker rights; material, symbolic, and emotional resources used by the families to face hardship caused by accidents. Authoritarian management appealing to masculinity and improvisation are factors that favor work accidents. The need to earn their living, the fact of valuing work as an attribute of honorableness and lack of options render the workers subject to domination. Most of the widows are highly religious and receive emotional, symbolic and material support from their families, the community and the union. There is a notable lack of concern and support for the families on the part of managers and public institutions. Advances in the organization of the union and improvement of the working conditions forced by the demands of export buyers have occurred recently. PMID:18813637

  5. Time Evolution of Properties of SCC Mixtures Produced Using Crushed Limestone Aggregate and High Content of Limestone Filler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Violeta Bokan Bosiljkov; David Duh; Vlatko Bosiljkov; Roko Zarnic

    \\u000a The paper deals with time-dependent increase of compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity\\u000a as well as with compressive stress-strain curves of self-compacting concrete (SCC) made with crushed limestone aggregate and\\u000a high content of limestone filler. The characteristics under consideration were tested at the ages of 1, 3, 7, 28, 180, 360\\u000a and 720 days. Time evolution of

  6. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in the Stone and Asphalt Industry 

    E-print Network

    Moray, S.; Throop, N.; Seryak, J.; Schmidt, C.; Fisher, C.; D'Antonio, M.

    2006-01-01

    President of Engineering Energy & Resource Solutions, Inc. Haverhill, MA Abstract The highly energy-intensive stone mining and crushing industry, grouped with other mining industries, has been one of the focal sectors of the US Department of Energy...’s Industries of the Future (DOE-IOF) initiative. In addition to being highly energy intensive, stone crushing currently produces 42% of the total material consumed by weight in the US, which is mainly used as highway aggregates. Based on GDP...

  7. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  8. The performance of lateritic stones as concrete aggregates and road chippings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Madu

    1980-01-01

    Laterites and Lateritic Stones abound in the tropical and semi-tropical areas of the world, more than the igneous and other\\u000a standard rocks which are used as concrete aggregates and road chippings. The paper studies the properties relevant to the\\u000a use of lateritic aggregate as road chippings and concrete aggregates, and compares the results to those obtained by the use\\u000a of

  9. Utilization of steel slag as aggregates for stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaopeng Wu; Yongjie Xue; Qunshan Ye; Yongchun Chen

    2007-01-01

    Steel slag is a byproduct making up a portion of 15–20% of iron output in an integrated steel mill. Most of them are deposited in slag storing yards and thus results in many serious environment problems in China. This paper aims to explore the feasibility of utilizing steel slag as aggregates in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures, and properties of

  10. Influence of coating recycled aggregate surface with pozzolanic powder on properties of recycled aggregate concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiusu Li; Hanning Xiao; Yong Zhou

    2009-01-01

    A two-stage crushing process was utilized to produce recycled aggregate (RA). The slump of concrete mixes prepared by technique of stone enveloped with pozzolanic powder (SEPP) was compared with those using normal mixing approach (NMA) or stone enveloped with portland cement (SEPC) approach. After 7 and 28 days curing, the compressive and flexural strengths were tested. The slump and strength

  11. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  12. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  13. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  14. Properties of lightweight concrete made with crushed natural pozzolana as coarse aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Mouli; Hamid Khelafi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory?based study examinig the use of natural pozzolana as an aggregate component in lightweight concrete (LWC). A range of conditioning variables, including cement and moisture content, storage period up to one year, was investigated.In order to explore these effects, a series of five concrete mixes using the same Portland cement was prepared. Three mixes (LWC1, LWC2,

  15. Properties of alkali-activated systems with stone powder sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Se Jin Choi; Ssang Sun Jun; Jae Eun Oh; Paulo J. M. Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of stone powder sludge on the microstructure and strength development of alkali-activated\\u000a fly ash and blast furnace slag mixes. Stone powder sludge produced from a crushed aggregate factory was used to replace fly\\u000a ash and granulated blast furnace slag at replacement ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% by mass. The unit weight and compressive

  16. Aggregates for radiation-shielding concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Aggregates covered by the specification include (1) natural mineral aggregates that derive their specific utility for the purposes of the specification because they contain or consist predominantly of materials such as barite, magnetite, ilmenite, limonite, and serpentine, and (2) synthetic aggregates such as ferrophosphorus. Fine aggregate may consist of natural sand, manufactured sand, or a combination of both. Coarse aggregate may consist of crushed ore, stone, or synthetic products, or combinations. Steel punchings, iron shot, and aggregates containing boron are not included. The specification discusses composition and specific gravity, aggregate gradation, deleterious substances, abrasion resistance, and methods of sampling and testing. (JMT)

  17. A framework for a coarse aggregate classification system

    E-print Network

    Peapully, Srikrishna

    1994-01-01

    composition such as sand, shale, slag, gravel, or crushed stone, used with a cementing medium to form mortars or concrete, or alone as in base courses, rail road ballasts etc" (1). Aggregates consists of coarse and fine portions and as per ASTM C 125...:1975. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard C-136 specifies size limits for aggregates. Thus, the particle size distribution of aggregates can be determined by carrying out a sieve analysis which essentially separates aggregates when passed...

  18. Crush injury

    MedlinePLUS

    A crush injury occurs when force or pressure is put on a body part. This type of injury most ... squeezed between two heavy objects. Damage related to crush injuries include: Bleeding Bruising Compartment syndrome (increased pressure ...

  19. A framework for a coarse aggregate classification system 

    E-print Network

    Peapully, Srikrishna

    1994-01-01

    102 103 6. 5 Other Aggregate Properties and their Respective Test Procedures . . . 114 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specification D-8 defines aggregate as "a granular material of mineral... composition such as sand, shale, slag, gravel, or crushed stone, used with a cementing medium to form mortars or concrete, or alone as in base courses, rail road ballasts etc" (1). Aggregates consists of coarse and fine portions and as per ASTM C 125...

  20. A brief review of the construction aggregates market

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and/or construction sand and gravel. Aggregates have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of purposes - construction being the major use. As construction aggregates, crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the basic raw materials used to build the foundation for modern society. The widespread use of construction aggregates is the result of their general availability throughout the country and around the world along with their relatively low cost. Although construction aggregates have a low unit value, their widespread use makes them major contributors to, and indicators of, the economic well-being of the nation.

  1. Crushing Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James H. Kessler

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners design a crushing test and discover that identifying and controlling the variables may be difficult. Although the crushing test will not give conclusive results, it is a good opportunity to discuss variables and why they are sometimes difficult to control. This crushing test is also a good example of how a particular test does not always give enough information to answer a question. This is a follow-up to the activity called "Curious Crystals," in which learners investigate crystals and their properties to identify an unknown crystal.

  2. Crush Grinding

    SciTech Connect

    T. Q. Nguyen

    2005-04-01

    Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

  3. Characterization of aggregate resistance to degradation in stone matrix asphalt mixtures 

    E-print Network

    Gatchalian, Dennis

    2006-04-12

    . This study utilizes conventional techniques as well as advanced imaging techniques to evaluate aggregate characteristics and their resistance to degradation. Aggregates from different sources and types with various shape characteristics were used...

  4. A look at construction aggregates production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Construction aggregates are defined as the combination of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Aggregates are one of the most accessible natural resources on Earth and one of the fundamental building blocks of our society. They have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of applications that have increased in number and complexity with time and technological progress. Despite the relatively low but increasing unit value of its basic products, the construction aggregates industry is a major contributor to and an indicator of the economic well-being of the nation.

  5. Crush injury and crush syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moshe Michaelson

    1992-01-01

    Crush injury is caused by continuous prolonged pressure on the limbs. It is found in patients extricated after being trapped for at least 4 hours. The main injury is to the muscles of the limbs. Treatment should be conservative and fasciotomy should be avoided. If fasciotomy is performed, it should be followed by radical debridement of the injured muscle in

  6. Crush syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Dario

    2005-01-01

    The assessment, management, and treatment of the entrapped victim are critical skills needed to ensure a successful outcome. Individuals have been trapped in the "rubble" for even short periods of time only to succumb to predictable consequences of muscle compression injury. The clinician should be prepared to address issues of crush syndrome (including compartment syndrome) proactively and aggressively. The history of this disease is clear and well documented both in the military literature and in the earthquake rescue reviews. The key to management is managing and predicting clinical conditions before they present themselves. The potential exists in the urban environment (with the potential of building collapses) to have patients with crush syndrome that far exceed local medical capabilities should be part of modern disaster planning. This article reviews the various body systems and presents management and assessment strategies for the clinician. PMID:15640677

  7. Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

  8. Electrohydraulic impulse lithotripsy of bladder stones with URAT-I.

    PubMed

    Trapeznikova, M F; Borodulin, G G

    1977-03-01

    The electrohydraulic method of crushing bladder stones due to many aforesaid advantages can fully replace mechanical lithotripsy as being both more effective and having little danger of traumas. In rare cases when the stone cannot be crushed with Urat-I its removal should be performed by way of cystomy. PMID:862590

  9. The Crushed Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polaine, Laura

    1995-01-01

    This article, based largely on participant observation by a British 18-year-old schoolgirl, considers forces that crush creativity in teenagers, including pressures at school, at home, and by peers. The article shows how teenagers whose creativity has been crushed then humiliate and crush the creativity of other teenagers. Mentoring is seen as one…

  10. Investigating the Swelling Pressure of1 Compacted Crushed-Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Investigating the Swelling Pressure of1 Compacted Crushed-Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone2 C. S. Tang This paper presents an experimental study on the swelling pressure of heavily2 compacted crushed Callovo whereas intra-aggregate pores were not17 significantly influenced.18 19 Keywords: crushed Callovo

  11. Classic crush and DK crush stenting techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2015-05-19

    Department of Cardiology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China Clinical data have supported the advantages of the double kissing (DK) crush technique, which consists of stenting the side branch (SB), balloon crush, first kissing, stenting the main vessel (MV) and final kissing balloon inflation, for complex coronary bifurcation lesions compared to other stenting techniques. Careful rewiring from the proximal cell of the MV stent to make sure the wire is in the true lumen of the SB stent is key to acquiring optimal angiographic results. Balloon anchoring from the MV, alternative inflation and each kissing inflation using large enough non-compliant balloons at high pressure, and the proximal optimisation technique are mandatory to improve both angiographic and clinical outcomes. Stratification of a given bifurcation lesion is recommended before decision making. PMID:25983140

  12. Car Crushed Under Building

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction....

  13. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  14. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks. PMID:19398196

  15. Crush Test Abuse Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob; Jeevarajan, Judith; Salinas, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this system is to simulate an internal short on battery cells by causing deformation (a crushing force) in a cell without penetration. This is performed by activating a hydraulic cylinder on one side of a blast wall with a hydraulic pump located on the other. The operator can control the rate of the crush by monitoring a local pressure gauge connected to the hydraulic cylinder or a load cell digital display located at the hydraulic pump control area. The internal short simulated would be considered a worst-case scenario of a manufacturer fs defect. This is a catastrophic failure of a cell and could be a very destructive event. Fully charged cells are to have an internal short simulated at the center of the length of the cell (away from terminals). The crush can be performed with a .- to 1-in. (.0.6- to 2.5-cm) rod placed crossways to the cell axis, causing deformation of the cell without penetration. The OCV (open-circuit voltage) and temperature of the cells, as well as the pressure and crushing force, are recorded during the operation. Occurrence of an internal short accompanied by any visible physical changes such as venting, fires, or explosions is reported. Typical analytical data examined after the test would be plots of voltage, temperature, and pressure or force versus time. The rate of crushing force can be increased or decreased based on how fast the operator pumps the hydraulic pump. The size of cylinder used to compress the battery cell can be easily changed by adding larger or smaller fittings onto the end of the hydraulic cylinder based on the battery/cell size being tested. The cell is crushed remotely and videotaped, allowing the operator to closely monitor the situation from a safe distance.

  16. Properties of concrete incorporating fine recycled aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Khatib

    2005-01-01

    The properties of concrete containing fine recycled aggregate are investigated. Recycled aggregate consisted of crushed concrete (CC) or crushed brick (CB) with particles less than 5 mm in diameter. The free water\\/cement ratio was kept constant for all mixes. The fine aggregate in concrete was replaced with 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% CC or CB. Generally, there is strength reduction

  17. Kidney Stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew N. Primak; Terri J. Vrtiska; Mingliang Qu; Cynthia H. McCollough

    \\u000a Although state-of-the-art CT provides accurate sub millimeter details of the size and location of renal stones, current routine\\u000a clinical image analysis does not differentiate stone composition. This is particularly important in the case of uric acid\\u000a (UA) stones (?10% of cases), since urinary alkalinization can be prescribed to dissolve UA stones. Therefore, simple and reliable\\u000a differentiation of UA vs. non-UA

  18. MediaCrush

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MediaCrush

    If you want to share any range of media files quickly with friends and others, MediaCrush can be quite useful. Visitors just need to drag and drop their images or URLS into the online box to get started. It's a completely open-source program and visitors don't need to worry about downloading any programs. This version is compatible with all operating systems and users may also wish to look over their "Blog" for helpful updates.

  19. Lessons from a Stone Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, John P.; Rao, P. Nagaraj

    2007-04-01

    The stone farm is a system for measuring macroscopic stone growth of 12 calcium stones simultaneously. It is based on mixed suspension, mixed product removal continuous crystallization principles and the stones are grown continuously for about 500 hours or more. The growth of the stones follows a surface area dependent pattern and the growth rate constants are very similar irrespective of whether the stating materials are fragments of human stone or pieces of marble chip. Increasing citrate from 2mM to 6mM caused a significant growth inhibition which persisted in the presence of urinary macromolecules. Phytate was a very effective inhibitor (about 50% at sub-?M concentrations) but the effective concentration was increased by an order of magnitude in the presence of urinary macromolecules. The effective concentration for inhibition in a crystallization assay was a further two orders of magnitude higher. Urinary macromolecules or almost whole urine were also strongly inhibitory although neither human serum albumin nor bovine mucin had any great effect. The relationship between the size distribution of crystals in suspension and the stone enlargement rate suggests that the primary enlargement mechanism for these in vitro stones is through aggregation. The stone farm is a powerful tool with which to study crystallization inhibitors in a new light. Some differences between inhibition of crystallization and inhibition of stone growth have emerged and we have obtained quantitative evidence on the mechanism of stone enlargement in vitro. Our findings suggest that the interface between crystals in suspension and the stone surface is the key to controlling stone enlargement.

  20. Dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

  1. Stone chewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picking stones up into the mouth and chewing them has been commonly reported in pigs and also in dogs. It has variously been described as play behavior, redirected foraging behavior or a stereotypic behavior. In pigs, stone chewing is often observed in sows housed on paddocks, and most frequently o...

  2. Kidney stones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tests to check calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, and electrolyte levels Kidney function tests Urinalysis to see crystals and look for red blood cells in urine Examination of the stone to determine ...

  3. Struvite Stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Brooke Johnson; Margaret S. Pearle

    The occurrence of urinary infection in patients with nephrolithiasis is not uncommon. Although stones of any composition may\\u000a occur in patients who experience urinary tract infections owing to a variety of urinary pathogens, the term“infection stone”\\u000a is reserved for calculi that form as a direct consequence of infection with urease-producing bacteria and the urinary environment\\u000a they promote. This chapter will

  4. The crush package Jesse A. Tov

    E-print Network

    Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam

    The crush package Jesse A. Tov tov@ccs.neu.edu This document corresponds to crush v0.2, dated 2011/07/29. Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Command Reference 2 3 Implementation 3 3.1 Crushing Boxes ] { width } { text } This command is for crushing vertical-mode text. It sets text in a box of width width

  5. Effect of fruit stoning on olive oil quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Patumi; S. Terenziani; M. Ridolfi; Giuseppe Fontanazza

    2003-01-01

    Stoning olives has been proposed as an alternative to crushing the whole fruit during the oil extraction process. Seven pairs\\u000a of oils obtained from stoned and nonstoned olives from five different cultivars were evaluated to determine the effect of\\u000a the proposed technology on oil quality. The main organoleptic and physicochemical parameters as well as resistance to oxidation\\u000a showed no obvious

  6. Characterisation of stone matrix asphalt mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laith Tashman; Brian Pearson

    2011-01-01

    This study applied conventional laboratory tests and advanced imaging techniques to experimentally verify the voids in coarse aggregate (VCA) method. Five stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures designed to have different coarse aggregate skeletons were investigated to establish relationships between the VCA ratio, microstructure parameters and the mechanical response of SMA. X-ray CT and image analysis techniques were utilised to non-destructively

  7. Characterisation of stone matrix asphalt mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laith Tashman; Brian Pearson

    2012-01-01

    This study applied conventional laboratory tests and advanced imaging techniques to experimentally verify the voids in coarse aggregate (VCA) method. Five stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures designed to have different coarse aggregate skeletons were investigated to establish relationships between the VCA ratio, microstructure parameters and the mechanical response of SMA. X-ray CT and image analysis techniques were utilised to non-destructively

  8. Influence of amount of recycled coarse aggregates and production process on properties of recycled aggregate concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Etxeberria; E. Vázquez; A. Marí; M. Barra

    2007-01-01

    In this study recycled coarse aggregates obtained by crushed concrete were used for concrete production. Four different recycled aggregate concretes were produced; made with 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% of recycled coarse aggregates, respectively. The mix proportions of the four concretes were designed in order to achieve the same compressive strengths. Recycled aggregates were used in wet condition, but not

  9. Research performed in cooperation with International Center for Aggregates Research and Aggregates Foundation for Technology, Research, and Education. Research Project Title: Role of Aggregate Characteristics on Resistance to Load in SMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Gatchalian; Eyad Masad; Arif Chowdhury; Dallas Little

    16. Abstract Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) mixtures rely on stone-on-stone contacts among particles to resist applied forces, and permanent deformation. Aggregates in SMA should resist degradation (fracture and abrasion) under high stresses at the contact points. This study utilizes conventional as well as advanced imaging techniques to evaluate aggregate characteristics, and their resistance to degradation. Aggregates from different sources and

  10. Patio Stones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Math Forum

    1999-01-01

    This Technology Problem of the Week (tPoW) challenges students to count and extrapolate the number of paving stones tiling successive hexagonal rings in a patio tessellation. It links to the Java applet "Pattern Blocks." Solve and explain your solution; download hints and answer checks. Free registration is required.

  11. Social Signals--Mike's Crush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitelman, Stephanie; Kohorn, Olivia Von

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the unique audiovisual-based curriculum "Mike's Crush", by Nancy Nowell, and briefly describes the autism spectrum and its associated challenges. The review explores the curriculum's noteworthy approach to teaching social skills and recommends it as helpful material for all educators, especially for those working with…

  12. Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Matthew R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be 'subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage.' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL's experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages. ORNL has crush tested five different drum-type package designs, continuing its 60 year history of RAM package testing. A total of 26 crush tests have been performed in a wide variety of package orientations and crush plate CG alignments. In all cases, the deformation of the outer drum created by the crush test was significantly greater than the deformation damage caused by the 9 m drop test. The crush test is a highly effective means for testing structural soundness of smaller nondense Type B shipping package designs. Further regulatory guidance could alleviate the need to perform the crush test in a wide range of orientations and crush plate CG alignments.

  13. Dynamic uniaxial crushing of wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Reid; C. Peng

    1997-01-01

    Experimental results are provided from a series of tests on the uniaxial dynamic crushing of cylindrical specimens of five species of wood selected for the density range they cover and tested up to impact velocities of approximately 300 ms?1. An account of the macro-deformation and micro-deformation modes resulting from quasi-static and dynamic uniaxial compression is given. Measurements of the force

  14. The effects of crushing surface roughness on the crushing characteristics of composite tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.; Wolterman, Richard L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of crushing-surface roughness on the energy-absorption capability of graphite and glass-epoxy composite tubes were investigated. Fifty different combinations of fiber, matrix, and specimen ply orientation were evaluated. Two different crushing surface roughnesses were used in this investigation. Crushing surface significantly influences the energy-absorption capability only of tubes that crush in the lamina bending crushing mode; tubes that crush in other modes are not influenced because their lamina bundles do not slide against the crushing surface. Those tubes that crush in the lamina bending mode can achieve higher, lower, or no change in energy-absorption capability as crushing surface roughness increases. If the fiber failure strain of tubes that crush in the lamina bending crushing mode exceeds the matrix failure strain then the energy-absorption capability increases as crushing surface roughness increases. However, if the matrix failure strain exceeds the fiber failure strain then the energy-absorption capability increases as crushing surface roughness decreases. Energy-absorption capability is uninfluenced by crushing surface roughness for tubes that have equal fiber and matrix failure strains.

  15. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  16. Measuring stone weathering in cities: Surface reduction on marble monuments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragovich, D. (Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia))

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether measurements of stone weathering recorded by different observers could be aggregated into a simple data base for evaluating pollution effects on calcareous building stone. Apparent differences in recorded weathering rates on marble tombstones were here found to be partly a result of lettering size measured, measuring devices used, and individual observers.

  17. Impact of nonconductive powder on electrostatic separation for recycling crushed waste printed circuit board

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Wu; Yufei Qin; Quan Zhou; Zhenming Xu

    2009-01-01

    The electrostatic separation is an effective and environmentally friendly method for recycling metals and nonmetals from crushed printed circuit board (PCB) wastes. However, it still confronts some problems brought by nonconductive powder (NP). Firstly, the NP is fine and liable to aggregate. This leads to an increase of middling products and loss of metals. Secondly, the stability of separation process

  18. Crush testing of small Type B packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Diggs, J.M.; Pope, R.B.; Trujillo, A.A.; Uncapher, W.L.

    1985-11-01

    This report details the results of a test series which investigated the sensitivity of small light-weight packages to the crush environment. Deformations resulting from dynamic crush environments, from a static crush environment, and from a drop impact environment were investigated. These external deformations are compared for each of eight types of packagings tested. Additionally, the current test results are compared to those previously obtained in a simulated accident test. 6 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Mining Mineral Aggregates in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert D.

    This study can be used in a geographic research methods course to show how nearest-neighbor analysis and regression analysis can be used to study various aspects of land use. An analysis of the sand, gravel, and crushed stone industry in three urban areas of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Florida illustrates the locational problems faced by…

  20. Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, Matthew R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL s experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages.

  1. Bulk crush testing of catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, S.A. (Allied-Signal Engineered Materials Research Center, Des Plaines, IL (USA)); Koves, W.J. (UOP Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA)); Pitzer, E.

    1988-09-01

    Catalysts have to be sufficiently strong to endure the rigors of handling and use. For examples, the catalyst must be strong enough to withstand the loading into a reactor. The catalyst also cannot attrite or breakup due to the weight of the bed, gas flow, catalyst movement in continuous processes or thermal expansion and contractions of the bed and container vessel. If a physical breakdown were to occur, the resulting fines formation could produce a pressure drop across the reactor as well as causing flow maldistribution. Channeling or maldistribution through the bed decreases reactor performance because of reduced catalyst contract and reduction of products of reaction. When required, evaluation of the mechanical properties of catalysts by both users and producers requires the utilization of identical test methods. To evaluate the mechanical properties of catalysts and catalyst precursors, the ASTM D-32 Committee on Catalysts has prepared several test methods that meet the criteria of acceptable interlaboratory reproducibility. Some of these methods for evaluating the physical characteristics of a catalyst include attrition and abrasion (D4058), single pellet crush strength (D4174), vibrated packing density (D4180 and D4512), and particle size analysis (D4438, D4464 and D4513). One physical property determination that has proved most difficult to standardize has been the bulk crush strength of a catalyst bed. This paper will describe the experimental problems associated with this determination as well as the development of a new test cell that significantly improves the interlaboratory reproducibility.

  2. Miscellaneous Stone Types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James B. Cutrell; Robert F. Reilly

    Drug-induced calculi and other rare stone types, such as ammonium acid urate or protein matrix stones, represent only about\\u000a 2% of all renal calculi. However, the chance to easily reverse stone formation risk by discontinuing the offending drug makes\\u000a identification of these entities important for clinicians. Additionally, study of these rare stone types contributes to understanding\\u000a the biochemistry of stone

  3. Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhan, Khaled

    This study evaluates the benefits to be gained by using a composite highway base course material consisting of recycled crushed concrete aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and a modest amount of reinforcing fibers. The primary objectives of this research were to (a) quantify the improvement that is obtained by adding fibers to a lean concrete composite (made from recycled aggregate and low quantities of Portland cement and/or fly ash), (b) evaluate the mechanical behavior of such a composite base course material under both static and repeated loads, and (c) utilize the laboratory-determined properties with a mechanistic design method to assess the potential advantages. The split tensile strength of a stabilized recycled aggregate base course material was found to be exponentially related to the compacted dry density of the mix. A lean mix containing 4% cement and 4% fly ash (by weight) develops sufficient unconfined compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths to be used as a high quality stabilized base course. The addition of 4% (by weight) of hooked-end steel fibers significantly enhances the post-peak load-deformation response of the composite in both indirect tension and static flexure. The flexural fatigue behavior of the 4% cement-4% fly ash mix is comparable to all commonly used stabilized materials, including regular concrete; the inclusion of 4% hooked-end fibers to this mix significantly improves its resistance to fatigue failure. The resilient moduli of stabilized recycled aggregate in flexure are comparable to the values obtained for traditional soil-cement mixes. In general, the fibers are effective in retarding the rate of fatigue damage accumulation, which is quantified in terms of a damage index defined by an energy-based approach. The thickness design curves for a stabilized recycled aggregate base course, as developed by using an elastic layer approach, is shown to be in close agreement with a theoretical model (based on Westergaard's assumptions for rigid pavements), which has been found to explain reasonably well the field behavior of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced concrete slabs on grade. Finally, a preliminary cost analysis demonstrated that the use of stabilized recycled aggregate instead of a standard crushed stone base course can result in a meaningful economic savings.

  4. The effects of aggregate gradation on moisture diffusivity in a cementious based material 

    E-print Network

    Szecsy, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The effects of aggregate gradation on moisture diffusivity in concrete are investigated. The method involves a factorial design that considers two types of gradation (Gap Gradation and Optimum Gradation), aggregate type (Crushed Limestone or River...

  5. Gas adsorption on crushed quartz and basalt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Barker; B. E. Torkelson

    1975-01-01

    The new surfaces generated by crushing rocks and minerals adsorb gases. Different gases are adsorbed to different extents so that both the total amount and composition of the released gases are changed. This affects the interpretation of the composition of the gases obtained by vacuum crushing lunar basalts, meteorites and minerals with fluid inclusions.

  6. Accuracy concerns in crush dressed form grinding

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the crushing operation for crush dressed form grinding is given. The implications of rolling vs sliding contact, and the role of loose grit on the accuracy of the parts and the wear on the roll is discussed. Several examples are detailed.

  7. Dynamic Crush Characterization of Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2006-01-01

    During the space shuttle return-to-flight preparations following the Columbia accident, finite element models were needed that could predict the threshold of critical damage to the orbiter's wing leading edge from ice debris impacts. Hence, an experimental program was initiated to provide crushing data from impacted ice for use in dynamic finite element material models. A high-speed drop tower was configured to capture force time histories of ice cylinders for impacts up to approximately 100 ft/s. At low velocity, the force-time history depended heavily on the internal crystalline structure of the ice. However, for velocities of 100 ft/s and above, the ice fractured on impact, behaved more like a fluid, and the subsequent force-time history curves were much less dependent on the internal crystalline structure.

  8. Use of building rubbles as recycled aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    How-Ji Chen; Tsong Yen; Kuan-Hung Chen

    2003-01-01

    The application of building rubble collected from damaged and demolished structures is an important issue in every country. After crushing and screening, this material could serve as recycled aggregate in concrete. A series of experiments using recycled aggregate of various compositions from building rubble was conducted. The test results show that the building rubble could be transformed into useful recycled

  9. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED LIMESTONE, STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed limestone industry. Crushed limestone plants emit particulates from drilling, blasting, transport on unpaved roads, crushing, screening, conveying, and stockpiling. The emission factor for total particulate f...

  10. Effects of contaminants on the properties of concrete paving blocks prepared with recycled concrete aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Sun Poon; Dixon Chan

    2007-01-01

    The use of recycled aggregates for preparing concrete products has been successfully implemented and gaining wider acceptance. However, the allowable level of contaminating materials (e.g., crushed clay bricks, crushed ceramic tiles, waste glass cullet, wood chips, etc.) in the recycled concrete aggregate, in the some of the current specifications, is low (

  11. Experimental testing of hot mix asphalt mixture made of recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Muhammad Masood; Qadir, Adnan; Siddiqui, Salman Hameed

    2011-12-01

    The migration of population towards big cities generates rapid construction activities. These activities not only put pressure on natural resources but also produce construction, renovation and demolition waste. There is an urgent need to find out ways to handle this waste owing to growing environmental concerns. This can reduce pressure on natural resources as well. This paper presents the results of experimental studies which were carried out on hot mix asphalt mixture samples. These samples were manufactured by adding recycled aggregates (RA) with natural crushed stone aggregates (CSA). Three levels of addition of RA were considered in the presented studies. RA were obtained from both the concrete waste of construction, renovation and demolition activities and reclaimed asphalt pavement. Separate samples were manufactured with the coarse and fine aggregate fractions of both types of RA. Samples made with CSA were used as control specimens. The samples were prepared and tested using the Marshall method. The performance of the samples was investigated in terms of density-void and stability/flow analysis and was compared with the performance criteria as given by National Highway Authority for wearing course material in Pakistan. Based on this data optimum asphalt contents were determined. All the samples made by adding up to 50% RA conform to the specification requirements of wearing course material as given by National Highway Authority in terms of optimum asphalt contents, voids in mineral aggregates and stability/flow. A statistical analysis of variation of these samples confirmed that addition is also possible statistically. PMID:20483876

  12. Comparison of natural and manufactured fine aggregates in cement mortars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Gonçalves; L. M. Tavares; R. D. Toledo Filho; E. M. R. Fairbairn; E. R. Cunha

    2007-01-01

    The performance of cement mortars using manufactured fine aggregates produced by cone crushing or impact crushing has been compared to that of mortars prepared from a natural sand control-sample. Samples from both crusher products have been additionally subjected to classification for partial removal of fines, being also used in preparing mortars. Particle shape analyses indicated that material produced by impact

  13. Aluminum Honeycomb Characteristics in Dynamic Crush Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Vesta I.; Swanson, Lloyd H.

    1999-07-01

    Fifteen aluminum honeycomb cubes (3 in.) have been crushed in the Mechanical Shock Laboratory's drop table testing machines. This report summarizes shock experiments with honeycomb densities of 22.1 pcf and 38.0 pcf and with crush weights of 45 lb, 168 lb, and 268 lb. The honeycomb samples were crushed in all three orientations, W, L, and T. Most of the experiments were conducted at an impact velocity of {approx}40 fps, but higher velocities of up to 90 fps were used for selected experiments. Where possible, multiple experiments were conducted for a specific orientation and density of the honeycomb samples. All results are for Hexcel honeycomb except for one experiment with Alcore honeycomb and have been evaluated for validity. This report contains the raw acceleration data measured on the top of the drop table carriage, pictures of the crushed samples, and normalized force-displacement curves for all fifteen experiments. These data are not strictly valid for material characteristics in L and T orientations because the cross-sectional area of the honeycomb changed (split) during the crush. However, these are the best data available at this time. These dynamic crush data do suggest a significant increase in crush strength to 8000 psi ({approximately} 25-30% increase) over quasi-static values of {approximately}6000 psi for the 38.0 pcf Hexcel Honeycomb in the T-orientation. An uncertainty analysis is included and estimates the error in these data.

  14. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  15. Effects of recycled concrete aggregates on properties of asphalt concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumeda Paranavithana; Abbas Mohajerani

    2006-01-01

    Recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are produced by crushing demolished concrete elements. RCA differ from fresh aggregates due to the cement paste attached to the surface of the original natural aggregates after the process of recycling. This highly porous cement paste and other contaminations contribute to the lower particle density and higher porosity, variation in the quality of the RCA and

  16. Recycled Concrete as Aggregate for Structural Concrete Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjana Malešev; Vlastimir Radonjanin; Snežana Marinkovi?

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the experimental results of the properties of fresh and hardened concrete with different replacement ratios of natural with recycled coarse aggregate is presented in the paper. Recycled aggregate was made by crushing the waste concrete of laboratory test cubes and precast concrete columns. Three types of concrete mixtures were tested: concrete made entirely with natural aggregate

  17. Crush mechanisms observed in polymeric composite tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.M.; Caliskan, A.G.

    1997-12-31

    In this study the crush mechanisms of polymer matrix composite tubes made with several material systems is reported. It was observed that for a given system, many different crush mechanisms could be observed. However, all systems showed a combination of four macroscopic and microscopic failure processes. They are fracture down the comers of the tube, bending of the fronds, kinking or fracturing of the fronds, and delamination of the fronds. Depending on the material system one or a combination of the failure modes dominated the crush behavior. As a result, depending on the failure modes different energy absorbtion was observed in the tubes.

  18. Renal Stone Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Sayer

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Renal stone disease may be seen as a clinical symptom of an underlying pathological process predisposing to crystallization within the renal tract. Renal stones may be comprised of calcium salts, uric acid, cystine and various other insoluble complexes. Nephrolithiasis may be the manifestation of rare single gene disorders or part of more common idiopathic renal stone-forming diseases. Methods and

  19. Stone Wall Classification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

  20. Honeycomb spacer crush stength test results

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1993-09-15

    This report discusses aluminum honeycomb spacers, which are used as an energy absorbent material in shipping packages for off site shipment of radioactive materials and which were ordered in two crush strengths, 1,000 psi and 2,000 psi for use in drop tests requested by the Packaging and Transportation group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the vendor and the SRTC Materials Laboratory performed crush strength measurements on test samples made from the material used to fabricate the actual spacers. The measurements of crush strength made in the SRTC Materials Laboratory are within 100 psi of the measurements made by the manufacturer for all samples tested and all test measurements are within 10% of the specified crush strength, which is acceptable to the P&T group for the planned tests.

  1. HIGH STRESS MINING UNDER SHALLOW OVERBURDEN IN UNDERGROUND U.S. STONE MINES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony T. Iannacchione; Dennis R. Dolinar; Thomas P. Mucho

    The Chestnut Ridge Anticline is a prominent structure in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. This structure has brought two economically valuable limestone formations to the surface, where they are easily accessible to room-and-pillar mining. Nine active crushed stone quarries, an underground research facility, and one industrial facility currently operate along the linear trend that represents the axis of the anticline. The National

  2. Single pellet crush strength testing of catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Brienza, P.K. (Engelhard Corp., Seneca, SC (USA))

    1988-09-01

    ASTM D-32 Committee on Catalysts has developed a standard test method for single pellet crush strength for formed catalyst shapes. This standard was issued under the fixed designation D 4179. The method is applicable to regular catalyst shapes such as tablets and spheres. Extrudates, granular materials, and other irregular shapes are excluded. The committee continues to work on the development of a method for the single pellet crush testing of extrudates.

  3. Geography of Stone Walls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurrence of stone walls in New England. Topics include what constitutes a stone wall province and three critical factors in the occurrence of stone walls: bedrock geology, glacial history, and land use history. Users can determine the type of stone wall in any given area by using the maps to determine its location, determine the type of bedrock, type of surface materials, and type of settlement history for that spot. Referring to the text of 'Exploring Stone Walls', they can determine which type of stone wall province contains those types of rock and surface process and read the description of what the most common type of stone walls should be in that area.

  4. Viscous fluids characterize the crushed zone

    SciTech Connect

    Rochon, J.; Creusot, M.R.; Feugas, D.; Thibeau, S.; Bergerot, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The crushed zone surrounding a perforation tunnel, which contributes to the overall skin effect, is well documented.Many authors have proposed equations to predict the pressure drop caused by both laminar and high-velocity flow through the crushed zone. However, determining the thickness of the crushed zone and its permeability always has been a major problem. The authors obtained cylindrical single-shot core samples perforated under API conditions. They evaluated the damage surrounding the perforation tunnels in the laboratory using a new technique. The core is saturated with a low-viscosity refined oil. The low-viscosity oil is flushed at a constant flow rate by another refined oil, which has a much higher viscosity. The differential pressure is monitored as the miscible front moves radially outwards. The rate of change of the differential pressure is affected as the high-viscosity oil invades zones with different permeabilities. The interpretation of the pressure differential was done analytically. The authors obtained results in terms of effective crushed-zone thickness and crushed-zone permeability alteration. Such results can be used to calculate the contribution of the crushed zone to the skin effect. The success of this nondestructive laboratory technique leads one to evaluate the possibility of injecting a viscous fluid into a real well to investigate in-situ formation damage.

  5. CRUSH: The NSI data compression utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiler, ED

    1991-01-01

    CRUSH is a data compression utility that provides the user with several lossless compression techniques available in a single application. It is intended that the future development of CRUSH will depend upon feedback from the user community to identify new features and capabilities desired by the users. CRUSH provides an extension to the UNIX Compress program and the various VMS implementations of Compress that many users are familiar with. An important capability added by CRUSH is the addition of additional compression techniques and the option of automatically determining the best technique for a given data file. The CRUSH software is written in C and is designed to run on both VMS and UNIX systems. VMS files that are compressed will regain their full file characteristics upon decompression. To the extent possible, compressed files can be transferred between VMS and UNIX systems, and thus be decompressed on a different system than they were compressed on. Version 1 of CRUSH is currently available. This version is a VAX VMS implementation. Version 2, which has the full range of capabilities for both VMS and UNIX implementations, will be available shortly.

  6. Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; McMurtry, W.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70{degrees}F), 150{degrees}F, and {minus}20{degrees}F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain.

  7. Crushing Characteristics of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Composite Tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Farley; Robert M. Jones

    1992-01-01

    Composite tubes can be reinforced with continuous fibers. When such tubes are subjected to crushing loads, the response is complex and depends on interaction between the different mechanisms that control the crushing process. The modes of crush ing and their controlling mechanisms are described. Also, the resulting crushing process and its efficiency are addressed.

  8. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

  9. Performance of concrete made with commercially produced coarse recycled concrete aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Sagoe-Crentsil; T. Brown; A. H. Taylor

    2001-01-01

    Performance tests have been carried out for fresh and hardened properties of concrete made with commercially produced coarse recycled concrete aggregate and natural fine sand. Test results indicate that the difference between the characteristics of fresh and hardened recycled aggregate concrete and natural aggregate concrete is perhaps relatively narrower than reported for laboratory-crushed recycled aggregate concrete mixtures. For concrete without

  10. Reduction of respirable silica following the introduction of water spray applications in Indian stone crusher mills.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Nicas, Mark; Kephart, John W; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Rinehart, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Respirable crystalline silica dust generated during stone crushing operations has been linked to chronic lung disease and increased risk of tuberculosis. In India, most stone crushing mills operate without any dust control or containment systems. This investigation in the Khurda District of Orissa demonstrated a reduction in respirable particulate mass following the application of a fine mist of water. Average respirable quartz and cristobalite levels declined 82% and 69%, respectively, after water spray controls were installed. This finding suggests that relatively inexpensive modifications that are available in the local market can be effective at reducing silica exposures. Although average exposure levels, particularly during the dry season, may exceed the Permissible Exposure Limit for silica, the overall reductions observed were substantial. Widespread adoption of this simple control technology by stone crushers in India could have a positive public health impact. PMID:18507285

  11. Effects of crushed glass cullet sizes, casting methods and pozzolanic materials on ASR of concrete blocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerry Lee; Tung-Chai Ling; Yuk-Lung Wong; Chi-Sun Poon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of using different particle sizes of recycled glass, casting methods and pozzolanic materials in reducing the expansion due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) of concrete blocks prepared with the use of crushed glass as fine aggregate. In this work, 25×25×285mm mortar bar specimens were prepared using conventional wet-mixed and dry-mixed methods.

  12. Observing Stone Walls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will learn why and how stone walls were built. A prior knowledge of New England colonists and the history of New England is helpful. After a directed reading and discussion, they will take a nature walk to an area where they can examine a stone wall. The students will then use notebook and pencil to sketch the wall and make observations of the stones, the plants growing nearby, and other materials they see around the wall.

  13. Managing caliceal stones.

    PubMed

    Gross, Andreas J; Knipper, Sophie; Netsch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence. PMID:24497690

  14. Mutual Information for the Detection of Crush

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Peter; Gwynne, Steve; Amos, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organizers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that both the prediction and prevention of such conditions offer a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but often computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally “cheap” but subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of the onset of crush. PMID:22229055

  15. An early warning method for crush

    E-print Network

    Harding, Peter J; Amos, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organisers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that the prediction and mitigation of such conditions offers a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally "cheap" but subjective and time-consuming. In this paper we propose an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of crush.

  16. Description of Stone Walls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This outline provides a list of key terms used to describe stone walls. The definitions for each term can be found in the corresponding chapter and section of the book 'Exploring Stone Walls'. Users can use the outline as a checklist, marking off the terms that best describe the wall they are investigating.

  17. Building Stone Walls

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students will learn to identify the distinguishing characteristics of a stone wall. They will first draw a picture of a stone wall from memory, then go outside to view and sketch a real wall. Following the field activity, they will construct models of walls using modeling clay. A recipe for the clay ('model magic') is provided.

  18. Stone Mountain in Context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The colored square in this grayscale image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights the location of Stone Mountain, located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop.

  19. Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete

    E-print Network

    1 Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete National Concrete Consortium March 2012 Colin Lobo% increase by 2030 "Waste" to "Recycled" Returned Concrete - estimated 2 - 10% of production 8 to 12 by 2030 Recycled content: 200% increase by 2020 400% increase by 2030 Recycled Content: Where are we

  20. Food crushing sounds: An analytic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Drake; L. Halldin

    1974-01-01

    Summary As a complement to the study of human mastication sounds, crushing sounds produced with a mechanical device were tape recorded and played back in such a way as to obtain acoustical line spectra for short intervals around the points of time when the sounds were loudest. The spectra were then evaluated to give measures calculated from amplitudes belonging to

  1. The Crush Syndrome Revisited (1940–1990)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ori S. Better

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews the local and systemic effects of crush injury. Within minutes to hours after extrication of survivors trapped under fallen masonry (and immediately following decompression of limbs), a massive volume of extracellular fluid is lost into the injured muscles, leading to circulatory failure. Solutes leaking out of damaged muscles cause a spectrum of metabolic disturbances. Chief among them

  2. 8. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  3. 7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, FACING NORTH. REMAINS OF CONVEYOR BELT VISIBLE AT BOTTOM RIGHT. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  4. 3. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING NORTH. HEADFRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING NORTH. HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE 18) VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  5. 5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), SECOND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), SECOND FLOOR FACING EAST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  6. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST WALL OF THE CRYSTALLIZER WING. FENESTRA WINDOWS IN CRUSHING MILL WALL. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  7. 12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  8. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Café in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

  9. Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush

    SciTech Connect

    McQuarrie, I.G.; Jacob, J.M. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1991-03-01

    To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting {sup 35}S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative 'cytomatrix' proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with {sup 3}H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval.

  10. Mechanical and durability properties of concrete using contaminated recycled aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farid Debieb; Luc Courard; Said Kenai; Robert Degeimbre

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of concrete structures due to chlorides and sulphates penetration is of obvious importance in civil engineering as having major impact on structural durability. In this paper, the results of an investigation on the effect of contaminated crushed concrete aggregates on mechanical properties and durability of recycled concrete are presented. Natural aggregates concrete (NC) slabs were cured in water,

  11. Cryptanalysis of CRUSH hash structure1 Nasour Bagheri 1

    E-print Network

    Cryptanalysis of CRUSH hash structure1 Nasour Bagheri 1 n_bagheri@iust.ac.ir Majid Naderi1 m In this paper, we will present a cryptanalysis of CRUSH hash structure. Surprisingly, our attack could find pre be able to produce collisions for this stronger variant of CRUSH hash structure with a time complexity

  12. 6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, FACING SOUTH. REMAINS OF CONVEYOR BELT BETWEEN CRUSHING PLANT AND FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) SHOWN IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  13. A NEW APPROACH TO CRUSHING 3-MANIFOLD TRIANGULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Burton, Benjamin

    A NEW APPROACH TO CRUSHING 3-MANIFOLD TRIANGULATIONS BENJAMIN A. BURTON Author's self-archived version Available from http://www.maths.uq.edu.au/~bab/papers/ Abstract. The crushing operation of Jaco. Although the crushing operation will always reduce the size of a triangulation, it might alter its topology

  14. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

  15. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

  16. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

  17. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

  18. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

  19. Dynamic crushing and energy absorption of regular, irregular and functionally graded cellular structures

    E-print Network

    Vaziri, Ashkan

    Dynamic crushing and energy absorption of regular, irregular and functionally graded cellular crushing of two dimensional honeycombs with both regular hexagonal and irreg- ular arrangements to large crushing strains. Our numerical simulations showed three distinct crushing modes for honeycombs

  20. SCC mixes with poorly graded aggregate and high volume of limestone filler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Violeta Bokan Bosiljkov

    2003-01-01

    Nonpozzolanic fillers are frequently used to optimise the particle packing and flow behaviour of cementitious paste in self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixes. This paper deals with the influence of finely ground limestone and crushed limestone dust on the properties of SCC mixes in the fresh and hardened state. Mixes were prepared using poorly graded crushed limestone aggregate. To compensate the lack

  1. The Stone Wall Initiative

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural, and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles; links to books and other publications; and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

  2. Stone Wall Initiative

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles, links to books and other publications, and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

  3. Crushing modes of aluminium tubes under axial compression

    E-print Network

    Florent Henri Marc Rémy Pled; Wenyi Yan; Cui'E Wen

    2014-08-21

    A numerical study of the crushing of circular aluminium tubes with and without aluminium foam fillers has been carried out to investigate their buckling behaviours under axial compression. A crushing mode classification chart has been established for empty tubes. The influence of boundary conditions on crushing mode has also been investigated. The effect of foam filler on the crushing mode of tubes filled with foam was then examined. The predicted results would assist the design of crashworthy tube components with the preferred crushing mode with the maximum energy absorption.

  4. MSHA releases data on CM crushing accidents

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    The US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MHSA) recently formed a committee to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents. The final report found that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another, place changing. Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are experienced miners who are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. This article was excerpted from the 'Remote Control Continuous Mining Machine Crushing Accident Data Study' published in May 2006. The report may be found from the website: www.msha.gov. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. CRUSH TESTING OF 9977 GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-28

    The 9977 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP) was designed in response to the adoption of the crush test requirement in the US regulations for packages for radioactive materials (10 CFR 71). This presentation on crush testing of the 9977 GPFP Reviews origins of Crush Test Requirements and implementation of crush test requirements in 10 CFR 71. SANDIA testing performed to support the rule making is reviewed. The differences in practice, on the part of the US Department of Energy from those required by the NRC for commercial purposes, are explained. The design features incorporated into the 9977 GPFP to enable it to withstand the crush test and the crush tests performed on the 9977 are described. Lessons learned from crush testing of GPFP packagings are given.

  6. Fixture For Crush Testing Of Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Lavoie, J. Andre; Morton, John

    1995-01-01

    Test fixture holds composite-material (matrix/fiber) plate specimens for crush testing in universal compression-testing machine to determine energy absorption characteristics of composite material system and laminate. Accommodates specimens of two different sizes; 6 by 4 by 0.16 in. and 3 by 2 by 0.08 in., designated as full scale and half scale, respectively. Contributes to development of more crashworthy composite-material structural components of aircraft.

  7. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  8. Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

  9. Time-dependent behaviour of high performance concrete: influence of coarse aggregate characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makani, A.; Vidal, T.; Pons, G.; Escadeillas, G.

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the influence of coarse aggregate characteristics on the time-dependent deformations of High Performances Concretes (HPC). Four concretes made using the same cement paste but incorporating different types of aggregate (rolled siliceous gravel, crushed granite, crushed limestone and crushed siliceous gravels) were studied in order to investigate the effect of aggregate properties on the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage and creep. The results indicate that the aggregate type has a significant effect on creep and shrinkage deformations of HPC. An influence of the shape of aggregate on time-dependent deformations has also been observed. On the basis of these results, long-term behaviour seems to be correlated to the characteristics of the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) strongly depending on the mineralogical nature and properties of aggregates. The experimental results are compared with the values calculated using the current Eurocode 2 model in order to assess the accuracy of the predictions.

  10. [The long-term "stone trail": treatment experience using ureterorenoscopy].

    PubMed

    Martov, A G; Kamalov, A A; Gushchin, B L

    1994-01-01

    A residual "stone trace" is not a rare finding after impulse destruction of large stones. A complex of conservative treatment of lithotripsy of the fragments and sand which comprise the sand trace are not universally effective. Long-standing "stone trace" is characterized by a single or several large fragments of the crushed stone, failure of both conservative and lithotripsy treatment, the trace existence surpassing 1 month. Ureterorenoscopy was used for the trace management in 41 patients. The trace (2-6.5 cm in length) was localized in the lower, middle and upper third of the ureter in 28, 10 and 3 patients, respectively. Transureteral lithotripsy and lithoextraction were made by ureterorenoscopes (11.5 and 12.5 Tr) and miniscope (9.5 Tr). Lithotripsy was made using ultrasonic electrohydraulic and pneumatic lithotriptors. In transureteral endoscopic destruction of long-standing traces the authors point out apparent inflammation in the ureteral wall at the trace side, ready-to-bleed ureteral mucosa, poor endoscopic image, preferable initial use of atraumatic pneumatic lithotripsy followed by lithoextraction, previous renal drainage by means of transcutaneous puncture nephrostomy in acute inflammation or advanced retention changes of the kidney, etc. Ureterorenoscopy proved able to eliminating the traces. Side effects were reported in the form of an episode of pyelonephritis aggravation cured conservatively in 17% of the cases. PMID:8017000

  11. Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2013-01-01

    Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that had been collected following behavioural observation, in order to (i) quantify the wear patterns in terms of the types and distribution of use-damage on the stones, and (ii) develop a Use-Action Index (UAI) to differentiate axe hammers from pound hammers by wear patterns alone. We used the intensity of crushing damage on differing surface zones of the stones, as well as stone weight, to produce a UAI that had 92% concordance when compared to how the stones had been used by macaques, as observed independently prior to collection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that quantitative archaeological use-wear techniques can accurately reconstruct the behavioural histories of non-human primate stone tools. PMID:23977365

  12. Bioaerosol formation during grape stemming and crushing.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Marc; Krebs, Walter; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-15

    Indoor formation of airborne particles during pre-fermentation grape processing was assessed by particle counting using laser particle sizers. Particle numbers of four different aerodynamic size classes (0.3 to 0.5 microm, 0.5 to 1 microm, 1 to 5 microm, and >5 microm) were determined during unloading of harvest containers and subsequent grape stemming and crushing. Regarding these size classes, composition before grape handling was determined as 87.9%, 10.4%, 1.7%, and 0.1%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during grape handling to 50.4%, 15.2%, 33.0%, and 1.5%, respectively. Airborne bacteria and fungi originating from grape processing were collected by impactor and liquid impinger samplers. Grape handling resulted in a sixfold increase in total (biological and non-biological) airborne particles. The generation of bacterial and fungal aerosols was associated mostly with particles of aerodynamic diameters>5 microm (mainly 7 to 11 microm) as determined by flow cytometry. This fraction was increased 150fold in relation to background levels before grape crushing. Maximum concentrations of culturable bacteria reached 485,000 colony forming units (cfu/m3), whereas 146,000 cfu of fungi and yeasts were detected per cubic meter of air. Culturable Gram-negative bacteria occurred only in small numbers (180 cfu/m3). In relation to the total number of airborne particles emitted, culturable microorganisms comprised 0.1% to 0.2%. As soon as grape crushing was stopped, particle concentrations decreased rapidly either due to passive settling or due to air currents in the occupational indoor environment reaching background levels. PMID:15985281

  13. Progressive crush of hybrid composite components

    SciTech Connect

    Karbhari, V.M.; Haller, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Although considerable research has been, and continues to be conducted on the use of composites for crash energy management, there is limited work in the areas of true hybrid construction, and the use of actual structural elements (rather than simple tubes). In this paper we present the results of a study on the progressive crush characteristics of preforms that use a minimum of two different materials and which are shaped in the form of a set of flange connected tubes. The effect of hybridization and geometry is discussed and it is shown that the approach affords the potential for tailored damage mechanisms the value-added use of recyclate.

  14. Effect of braid architecture on progressive crush of composite tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Karbhari, V.M. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States); Falzon, P.J.; Herzburg, I. [Cooperative Research Centre for Aerospace Structures Ltd., Victoria (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Braided tubes offer the potential of tailored crush for automotive applications. The effect of hybridization through the use of combinations of glass, carbon and aramid yam is shown through the testing of cylindrical braided tubes. Crush response as a function of braid geometry is discussed and failure locii are described. The inclusion of triaxial geometry and hybridization is shown to enhance crush performance through the attainment of combined energy absorbing mechanisms.

  15. Biomolecular mechanism of urinary stone formation involving osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Kohri, Kenjiro; Yasui, Takahiro; Okada, Atsushi; Hirose, Masahito; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Niimi, Kazuhiro; Taguchi, Kazumi

    2012-12-01

    Urinary stones consist of two phases-an inorganic (mineral) phase and an organic (matrix) phase. Studies on the organic components of kidney stones have been undertaken later than those on the inorganic components. After osteopontin was identified as one of the matrix components, the biomolecular mechanism of urinary stone formation became clearer. It also triggered the development of new preventive treatments. Osteopontin expression is sporadically observed in normal distal tubular cells and is markedly increased in stone-forming kidneys. Calcium oxalate crystals adhering to renal tubular cells are incorporated into cells by the involvement of osteopontin. Stimulation of crystal-cell adhesion impairs the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTP) in tubular cells and produces oxidative stress, apoptosis, and osteopontin expression. Macrophages phagocytose and digest a small amount of crystals, but many crystals aggregate into a mass containing osteopontin and epithelial cell debris and are excreted into the renal tubular lumen, becoming nuclei of urinary stones. This biomolecular mechanism is similar to atherosclerotic calcification. Based on these findings, new preventive treatments have been developed. Dietary control such as low-cholesterol intake and the ingestion of antioxidative foods and vegetables have successfully reduced the 5-year recurrence rate. Osteopontin antibodies and cyclosporine A, which blocks the opening of mPTP, have markedly inhibited the expression of osteopontin and urinary stone formation in animal models. PMID:23124115

  16. When Stones Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  17. Having and Being an Other-Sex Crush during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Gyoerkoe, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined other-sex crush experiences (both having and being perceived as an other-sex crush) among 544 young adolescents (mean age = 12.74 years). Results indicated that 56% had at least one current other-sex crush, with little overlap between crushes, friends, and boyfriends/girlfriends. Significant associations between other-sex crush

  18. Clinical significance of stone analysis.

    PubMed

    Schmucki, O; Asper, R

    1986-01-01

    The bases of a real metaphylaxis in the renal stone diseases are the analysis of stones and the research of metabolism in blood plasma and urine. The greatest part of the stones analyzed may be classified in four groups: oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and cystine. The metaphylaxis by whewellite and weddellite is the same for both species but there is a distinction in growth and recurrence. In the phosphate stones, the section with the most different composition, a postoperative therapy is only possible with the distinction of 'acid' and 'alkaline' stones. The uric acid and cystine stones need a tight supervision and metaphylaxis for the whole life. On the basis of 15,000 analyses with X-ray diffraction the difference of the renal stones is discussed and the deducation for a genuine metaphylaxis is shown. PMID:3811035

  19. Gas adsorption on crushed quartz and basalt. [in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Torkelson, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    The new surfaces generated by crushing rocks and minerals adsorb gases. Different gases are adsorbed to different extents so that both the total amount and composition of the released gases are changed. This affects the interpretation of the composition of the gases obtained by vacuum crushing lunar basalts, meteorites and minerals with fluid inclusions.

  20. Maximization of the crushing energy absorption of tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yamazaki; J. Han

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns the development of crashworthiness maximization techniques for tubular structures, and the application to the axial crushing problem of cylindrical tubes as well as square tubes. In the program system presented in this study, an explicit finite element code, DYNA3D is adopted for simulating complicated crushing behaviour of tubular structures. The response surface approximation technique is applied to

  1. 64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY MILL FEEDS AT BOTTOM. MILL SOLUTION TANKS WERE TO THE LEFT (EAST) AND BARREN SOLUTION TANK TO THE RIGHT (WEST) OR THE CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. 1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF THE FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) ARE IN THE BACKGROUND ON LEFT. CONCRETE RESERVOIR (FEATURE 22) IS SHOWN AT THE RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTOGRAPH FACING SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  3. Crushing of axially compressed steel tubes filled with aluminium foam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Seitzberger; F. G. Rammerstorfer; H. P. Degischer; R. Gradinger

    1997-01-01

    Summary This study, with the emphasis on experiments, investigates the applicability of aluminium foam as filler material in tubes made of mild steel having square or circular cross sections, which are crushed axially at low loading velocities. In addition to the experiments finite element studies are performed to simulate the crushing behaviour of the tested square tubes, were a crushable

  4. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained. In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnières stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

  5. Pharmacology of Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakhaee, Khashayar

    2011-01-01

    Kidney stone disease remains a major health and economic burden on the nation. It has been increasingly recognized that nephrolithiasis can be both a chronic or systemic illness. There have been major limitations in the development of new drugs for the prevention and management of this disease, largely due to our lack of understanding of the complex pathophysiologic mechanisms involving the interaction of three major target organs: the kidney, bone, and intestine. We also do not yet understand the molecular genetic basis of this polygenic disorder. These limitations are coupled with the incorrect perception that kidney stone disease is solely an acute illness, and the lack of reliable tests to assess outcome measures. All of these factors combined have diminished the willingness of the pharmaceutical industry to engage in the development of novel drugs. PMID:19095203

  6. The brassiere 'sign' - a distinctive marker in crush asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2005-12-01

    The diagnosis of crush asphyxia typically relies on a history of chest or abdominal compression with the finding of skin petechiae and congestion. The following three cases of crush asphyxia demonstrate a distinctive pattern of petechiae and congestion associated with close-fitting clothing: Case 1, a 49-year-old woman who was crushed under a large hay bale; Case 2, a 35-year-old woman who was crushed between a wall and a car; Case 3, a 49-year-old woman who was crushed between a crane and the side of a truck. At autopsy in all three cases there were facial, conjunctival, neck and upper anterior chest petechiae. However, few or no petechiae, and reduced congestion, were observed in areas beneath the victims' brassieres. Deaths in these cases were all due to crush asphyxia, with the pattern of petechiae on the chests of the victims influenced by close-fitting clothing that had compressed cutaneous vasculature. This brassiere 'sign' provided a readily observable and easily recordable sign of crush asphyxia due to chest compression, and illustrated that vascular engorgement is necessary for the development of petechiae in these circumstances. PMID:16188481

  7. Recycled concrete made with different natural coarse aggregates exposed to high temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Javier Zega; Angel Antonio Di Maio

    2009-01-01

    The recycled aggregates obtained from crushed waste concretes have different characteristics from those of natural aggregates. For that reason, the mixture proportions and the fresh and hardened properties of recycled concretes are different. The performance of recycled concrete exposed to high temperatures is not a very well-known subject since most studies have been conducted on conventional concretes. Recycled concretes with

  8. About the effect of blending granular aggregates of different origin on the strength of concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Médici; O. A. Benegas; R. O. Uñac; A. M. Vidales

    This work correlates the resistance of concrete cores with the physical properties of the granular material forming it. A basic physical characterization is conduced taken into account the origin of the grains participating in the concrete mixture that is, if they come from natural degradation (natural granular aggregates) or from a grinding process (crushed granular aggregates). Apparent and real densities,

  9. The fractal crushing of granular materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. McDowell; M. D. Bolton; D. Robertson

    1996-01-01

    A study has been made of the micro mechanical origins of the irrecoverable compression of aggregates which comprise brittle grains. The terms “yielding” and “plastic hardening” are used in the discipline of soil mechanics to describe the post-elastic behaviour of granular media. These “plastic” phenomena are here related to the successive splitting of grains.Grains are taken to split probabilistically; the

  10. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts, electron microscopy revealed intra- and extra-cellular needle-like crystal deposits, which were stainable with von Kossa stain and resemble calcospherules found in pathological calcification. Thus bacteria-mediated apatite formation takes place in aqueous environments, in humans and in geological sediments.

  11. Recycled concrete as an aggregate for concrete—a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Nixon

    1978-01-01

    The present state of knowledge on the use of recycled concrete as an aggregate in new concrete is reviewed and suggestions\\u000a made as to what further work is necessary before a proper assessment of the material can be made. Where crushed uncontaminated\\u000a concrete is used the properties of the material as an aggregate and the basic engineering characteristics of the

  12. Reuse of ground waste glass as aggregate for mortars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Corinaldesi; G. Gnappi; G. Moriconi; A. Montenero

    2005-01-01

    This work was aimed at studying the possibility of reusing waste glass from crushed containers and building demolition as aggregate for preparing mortars and concrete. At present, this kind of reuse is still not common due to the risk of alkali–silica reaction between the alkalis of cement and silica of the waste glass. This expansive reaction can cause great problems

  13. Noble gases released by vacuum crushing of EETA 79001 glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    An EETA 79001 glass sample was crushed in a vacuum to observe the gases released. About 15 pct of the total gas concentrations were a mixture of a small amount of SPB-type gas with larger proportions of another air-like component. Less than 5 pct of the SPB gas was released by crushing, while 36-40 pct of the EETV (indigenous) gas was crush-released. The results are consistent with a siting of the EETV component in 10-100 micron vesicles seen in the glass. It is suggested that the SPB component is either in vesicles less than 6 microns in diameter or is primarily sited elsewhere.

  14. The Rosetta stone method.

    PubMed

    Date, Shailesh V

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of amino acid sequences from different organisms often reveals cases in which two or more proteins encoded for separately in a genome also appear as fusions, either in the same genome or that of some other organism. Such fusion proteins, termed Rosetta stone sequences, help link disparate proteins together, and suggest the likelihood of functional interactions between the linked entities, describing local and global relationships within the proteome. These relationships help us understand the role of proteins within the context of their associations, and facilitate assignment of putative functions to uncharacterized proteins based on their linkages with proteins of known function. PMID:18712302

  15. Reducing the startup time of aerobic granular sludge reactors through seeding floccular sludge with crushed aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Pijuan, Maite; Werner, Ursula; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2011-10-15

    One of the main challenging issues for the aerobic granular sludge technology is the long startup time when dealing with real wastewaters. This study presents a novel strategy to reduce the time required for granulation while ensuring a high level of nutrient removal. This new approach consists of seeding the reactor with a mixture of crushed aerobic granules and floccular sludge. The effectiveness of the strategy was demonstrated using abattoir wastewater, containing nitrogen and phosphorus at approximately 250 mgN/L and 30 mgP/L, respectively. Seven different mixtures of crushed granules and floccular sludge at granular sludge fractions (w/w in dry mass) of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, 30% and 50% were used to start eight granulation processes. The granulation time (defined as the time when the 10th percentile bacterial aggregate size is larger than 200 ?m) displayed a strong dependency on the fraction of granular sludge. The shortest granulation time of 18 days was obtained with 50% crushed granules, in comparison with 133 days with 5% crushed granules. Full granulation was not achieved in the two trials without seeding with crushed granules. In contrast to the 100% floccular sludge cases, where a substantial loss of biomass occurred during granulation, the biomass concentration in all other trails did not decrease during granulation. This allowed that good nitrogen removal was maintained in all the reactors during the granulation process. However, enhanced biological phosphorus removal was achieved in only one of the eight trials. This was likely due to the temporary accumulation of nitrite, a strong inhibitor of polyphosphate accumulating organisms. PMID:21803396

  16. Environmental Impacts Of Mining Natural Aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Langer; Belinda F. Arbogast

    \\u000a Nearly every community in nearly every industrialized or industrializing country is dependent on aggregate resources (sand,\\u000a gravel, and stone) to build and maintain their infrastructure. Indeed, even agrarian communities depend on well-maintained\\u000a transportation systems to move produce to markets. Unfortunately, aggregate resources necessary to meet societal needs cannot\\u000a be developed without causing environmental impacts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Most environmental impacts associated with aggregate

  17. Axial Crushing Characteristics of Circular Tubes with Radial Corrugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dai-Heng; Hattori, Kazuyuki; Ozaki, Shingo

    In this paper, the effect of radial corrugation on the crushing behaviors of circular tubes is studied by using the finite element method. The numerical analysis is carried out on two geometrically different types of corrugations, ”radial corrugated tube” (RCT) and ”radial corrugated tube with corners” (RCTC). To compare crushing behaviors of those of corrugated circular tubes, a non-corrugated circular tube (CT) is also analyzed. It is revealed that, in the crushing process, the crushing mode of RCT becomes more unstable than that of CT since the wavelength of the fold becomes long and the fold concentrates to the center of the wavelength. However, when the length and the diameter of the tubes are set to the same levels, RCT demonstrates good energy absorption characteristics. Further, it is shown that the compressive load and load efficiency of RCTC increases due to the corner part.

  18. Prediction and Mitigation of Crush Conditions in Emergency Evacuations

    E-print Network

    Harding, Peter J; Gwynne, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Several simulation environments exist for the simulation of large-scale evacuations of buildings, ships, or other enclosed spaces. These offer sophisticated tools for the study of human behaviour, the recreation of environmental factors such as fire or smoke, and the inclusion of architectural or structural features, such as elevators, pillars and exits. Although such simulation environments can provide insights into crowd behaviour, they lack the ability to examine potentially dangerous forces building up within a crowd. These are commonly referred to as crush conditions, and are a common cause of death in emergency evacuations. In this paper, we describe a methodology for the prediction and mitigation of crush conditions. The paper is organised as follows. We first establish the need for such a model, defining the main factors that lead to crush conditions, and describing several exemplar case studies. We then examine current methods for studying crush, and describe their limitations. From this, we develop ...

  19. 79. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CRUSHING DEPT. AND TRAMWAY TERMINAL SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CRUSHING DEPT. AND TRAMWAY TERMINAL SHEET NO. 4, ELEVATION LOOKING SOUTH - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  20. 53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ACCESS STAIR TO FEED LEVEL; DUST COLLECTOR ON LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  1. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  2. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration ash in stone mastic asphalt mixture: Pavement performance and environmental impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongjie Xue; Haobo Hou; Shujing Zhu; Jin Zha

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to the use of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate or mineral filler in stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixture. For saving natural rock and reusing solid waste, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) was used as part of coarse aggregate. And this makes SMA mixtures contain

  3. Oliver stone's defense of JFK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L. Benoit; Dawn M. Nill

    1998-01-01

    Oliver Stone and his film JFK were subjected to a scathing attack in the mainstream press. Stone, his direction of the film, his sources, and the conspiracy theory advanced by JFK were all subjected to harsh criticism. Nevertheless, his movie provoked renewed discussion and provoked calls for declassification of secret documents on the assassination. This essay addresses the question of

  4. Biodeterioration of stone: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. Warscheid; J. Braams

    2000-01-01

    The alteration and weathering of stone is basically determined by natural and anthropogenic impacts influencing various physical, chemical and biological damage factors at the object site. Whether as direct or catalytically enhancing factor, the biodeterioration of stone is coupled with nearly all environmentally induced degradation processes: the presence of the one makes deterioration by the other all the more effective.

  5. Microbial biofilms on building stone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hoppert; A. Kemmling; M. Kämper

    2003-01-01

    Microbial biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestric ecosystems as well as on man-made material. The organisms take part in biogenic weathering on natural rocks as well as on building stone [1]. Though the presence of biofilms on stone monuments exposed to the outdoor environment is obvious, thin films also occur on monuments under controllable indoor environment conditions. Numerous biofilm

  6. Ultrasonic lithotripsy of bladder stones.

    PubMed

    Cetin, S; Ozgür, S; Yazicio?lu, A; Unsal, K; Ilker, Y

    1988-01-01

    In the second half of 1985, 15 patients with 25 bladder stones were treated with Lutzeyer's Ultrasonic Lithotriptor. Of the patients 13 underwent additional operations, mostly transurethral resection of the prostate. The average duration of lithotripsy was 30.5 minutes. Some difficulties were experienced especially when drilling hard stones and as a complication late urethral bleeding occurred in one patient. PMID:3170106

  7. Management of pancreatic duct stone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Li; Sheng-Ning Zhang

    2008-01-01

    ancreatic duct stone is a rare disease. With the advancement of radiological techniques in diagnosis and in-depth study the incidence of the disease has appeared to be rising in recent years, especially in the Western world. Defined as stone or calcification in the pancreatic duct, the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown, but many theories are available for its formation.

  8. Recumbent Stone Circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  9. Survival after an Intentional Ingestion of Crushed Abrus Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Reedman, Lisa; Shih, Richard D.; Hung, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Abrus precatorius seeds contain one of the most potent toxins known to man. However, because of the seed’s outer hard coat the vast majority of ingestions cause only mild symptoms and typically results in complete recovery. If the seeds are crushed and then ingested, more serious toxicity, including death, can occur. We present a case of a man who survived an intentional ingestion of crushed Abrus seeds after he was treated with aggressive gastric decontamination and supportive care. PMID:19561733

  10. Proteomics and kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2008-01-01

    Kidney stone disease (nephrolithiasis) is an ancient and common affliction. It has been recognized for a long time with evidence of stone found in approximately 7,000-year-old mummies and remains a common problem worldwide, indicating ineffective prevention in the past. Precise pathogenic and molecular mechanisms of kidney stone formation are still poorly understood and should be further elucidated. Also, identification of novel therapeutic targets for better therapeutic outcome and successful prevention of the occurrence and recurrence of the stone are crucially required. One of the most promising tools for current and future biomedical research is proteomics, which has been extensively and widely applied to the nephrology field during the past 5 years. Its high-throughput capability holds a great promise also to kidney stone research. This chapter provides a brief overview of proteomic methodologies recently used for the investigation of nephrolithiasis and recent proteomic studies of nephrolithiasis are summarized. PMID:18401167

  11. KICKING BLACK HOLES, CRUSHING NEUTRON STARS, AND THE VALIDITY OF THE ADIABATIC APPROXIMATION

    E-print Network

    Richardson Jr., James E.

    KICKING BLACK HOLES, CRUSHING NEUTRON STARS, AND THE VALIDITY OF THE ADIABATIC APPROXIMATION August 2006 #12;This document is in the public domain. #12;KICKING BLACK HOLES, CRUSHING NEUTRON STARS that the neutron stars are subject to a crushing force late in the inspiral. This crushing effect has had

  12. The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Steven G.

    The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail Johel matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water p

  13. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

  14. Rolling Stone Radio

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rolling Stone Radio is a fun and interesting site that may represent the future of Internet radio. The site provides a number of streaming audio channels that can be listened to via RealNetworks' RealPlayer G2 combined with a customized, radio-like interface to the site. Each channel features a particular genre of music, and the interface displays the artist and song title during play. The sound quality ranges from acceptable to excellent, and the sound controls and channel selectors are easy-to-use. While the site borders on the exploitative in its advertising and ability to purchase music by clicking through the interface, it does combine some of the best ideas on the Internet into a seamless entertainment package. All downloadable components of this site are free but run only on Win95/98/NT.

  15. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauko Pranji?, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovi?, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  16. Size dependent crush analysis of lithium orthosilicate pebbles

    E-print Network

    Ratna Kumar Annabattula; Matthias Kolb; Yixiang Gan; Rolf Rolli; Marc Kamlah

    2014-08-03

    Crushing strength of the breeder materials (lithium orthosilicate, $\\rm{Li_4SiO_4}$ or OSi) in the form of pebbles to be used for EU solid breeder concept is investigated. The pebbles are fabricated using a melt-spray method and hence a size variation in the pebbles produced is expected. The knowledge of the mechanical integrity (crush strength) of the pebbles is important for a successful design of breeder blanket. In this paper, we present the experimental results of the crush (failure) loads for spherical OSi pebbles of different diameters ranging from $250~\\mu$m to $800~\\mu$m. The ultimate failure load for each size shows a Weibull distribution. Furthermore, the mean crush load increases with increase in pebble diameter. It is also observed that the level of opacity of the pebble influences the crush load significantly. The experimental data presented in this paper and the associated analysis could possibly help us to develop a framework for simulating a crushable polydisperse pebble assembly using discrete element method.

  17. Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1997-12-31

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach.

  18. A dynamic ball compression test for understanding rock crushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Liu, H.; Xia, K.

    2014-12-01

    During crushing, rock particles are subjected to complicated loading. It is desired to establish the relation between the loading and the fragmentation parameters for better understanding rock crushing mechanism. In this work, a split Hopkinson pressure bar system in combination with high speed cameras is utilized in the dynamic ball compression test, in which the spherical rock sample is adopted to avoid the shape effect. Using elasticity theory, the loading rate and the dynamic indirect tensile strength are first calculated. With the aid of the moment-trap technique and high speed cameras, the surface energy is determined for each sample. The relations between the loading rate and the fragmentation parameters, i.e., the number of fragments and the surface energy are established. The application of this method to a granitic rock shows that it is flexible and can be applied to the crushing study of generic brittle solids.

  19. Effects of crushed ice and wetted ice on hamstring flexibility.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Chelsea C; Troiano, Jean M; Ramirez, Rebecca J; Miller, Michael G; Holcomb, William R

    2015-02-01

    Flexibility, which is the ability to move freely through a full range of motion (ROM), is desired to enhance the performance and decrease the likelihood of muscle injury. There are different techniques used to increase ROM and cryotherapy techniques to facilitation flexibility gains. However, the combination of stretching and type of cryotherapy agents are still confounding. The purpose was to determine which type of cryotherapy, crushed or wetted ice, would produce the greatest gains in hamstring ROM when followed by proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent 3 treatment conditions: crushed ice bag (crushed ice), wetted ice bag (wetted ice), and no ice bag (no ice). Subject's hamstring ROM was measured at baseline, then again after a 20-minute cryotherapy treatment session. Subjects were then stretched using a slow-reversal-hold-relax PNF technique followed by a final ROM measurement. A repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant differences between cryotherapy and measurement conditions. Post hoc testing indicated that no ice (75.49 ± 12.19° C) was significantly different from wetted ice (81.73 ± 10.34° C) and crushed ice (81.62 ± 13.19° C) at the end of the treatment session, and that no ice (85.27 ± 13.83° C) was significantly different than wetted ice (89.44 ± 11.31° C) and crushed ice (89.16 ± 13.78° C) after the stretching session. However, there were no differences between wetted ice and crushed ice. Results indicate that strength and conditioning specialists can increase ROM with both forms of ice in combination with PNF stretching more so than when using no ice at all. PMID:24378663

  20. Lunar stone saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  1. New crush test evaluates proppants under downhole conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Colt, J.R.; Johnson, R.L. II; Smith, S.B.; Smith, V.T.

    1995-10-01

    This article describes a modified crush resistance procedure for testing proppant strength in an elevated temperature, aqueous (hot and wet) environment that better simulates downhole conditions. Frac sand, resin-coated sand, light-weigh ceramic, resin-coated ceramic and bauxite proppants were used in this study. Results indicate a dramatic increase in fines generated for all proppant types tested under the hot and wet conditions when compared with results from the same test done under dry, ambient temperature conditions. This crush procedure may help determine the proppant`s physical characteristics under subterranean conditions.

  2. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

  3. CRUSH: Controlled, Scalable, Decentralized Placement of Replicated Data Sage A. Weil Scott A. Brandt Ethan L. Miller Carlos Maltzahn

    E-print Network

    Maltzahn, Carlos

    CRUSH: Controlled, Scalable, Decentralized Placement of Replicated Data Sage A. Weil Scott A. We have developed CRUSH, a scalable pseudo- random data distribution function designed relying on a central direc- tory. Because large systems are inherently dynamic, CRUSH is designed

  4. CRUSHING BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINIUM HONEYCOMBS UNDER IMPACT LOADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Zhao; G?rard Gary

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the crushing behaviour of honeycombs under dynamic loading is useful for crash simulations of vehicles and for design of impacting energy absorbers. Available experimental techniques, however, are not always able to provide satisfactory precision for tests on honeycombs under impact loading. This paper presents a new application of the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) for testing honeycombs. Viscoelastic bars

  5. The sequelae of vertebral crush fractures in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Scane; A. M. Sutcliffe; R. M. Francis

    1994-01-01

    The number of osteoporotic fractures is rising in men and women, because of the demographic trend towards an aging population and an increase in the age-specific incidence of fractures. Although previous studies have examined the morbidity following hip fractures in women, there is little information on the sequelae of vertebral crush fractures in men. We have therefore collected data on

  6. Static crushing of square aluminium extrusions with aluminium foam filler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Hanssen; M. Langseth; O. S. Hopperstad

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to study the behaviour of square aluminium extrusions filled with aluminium foam under quasi-static loading conditions. Based on the experimental work, simple relations between dimensionless numbers governing the influence of the foam on the characteristics of the crush problem were identified. Furthermore, a simplified set of equations applicable for design of foam-filled components was

  7. 47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FEED IS AT CENTER, WITH DRIVE GEAR. THE 16 INCH FINES FEED IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IS SLIGHTLY RIGHT OF CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. 167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. 52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  11. 4. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers to extract latex from the sap during experiments to find native North American plant which would yield sufficiently high percentage of latex to produce natural rubber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  12. Effect of Phenolic Compounds from Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.leaves on Experimental kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Byahatti, Vivek V; Pai, K Vasantkumar; D'Souza, Marina G

    2010-07-01

    Kidney stone formation or Urolithiasis is a complex process that results from series of several physicochemical events including super-saturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention within the kidneys. Among the treatments include Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and drug treatment. Even this ESWL treatment may cause acute renal injury, decrease in renal function and increase in stone recurrence. In addition, persistent residual stone fragments and possibility of infection after ESWL represent a serious problem in the treatment of stones. Data from in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical trials reveal that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either alternative or an adjunct therapy in the management of Urolithiasis. Medicinal plants /natural products are more acceptable to the body because they promote the repair mechanism in natural way. Various plant species of the genus Bergenia, have been reported to posses antiurolithiatic property. Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl, is one the ingredient of reputed herbal formulation Cy stone for the treatment of kidney stones. In this study alcohol, butanol, ethyl acetate extracts and isolated phenolic compounds from the Ayurvedic and Unani herb, Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. leaves (Saxifragaceae) were evaluated for their potential to dissolve experimentally prepared kidney stones-calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, by an in-vitro model. Phenolic compound P(1) isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves, demonstrated highest dissolution of both stones when compared to test extracts at 10 mg concentration. However, it was more effective in dissolving calcium phosphate stones (67.74 %) than oxalate (36.95%). Reference standard-formulation Cystone was found to be more effective (48.48%) when compared to compound P(1). PMID:22557418

  13. Effect of Phenolic Compounds from Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.leaves on Experimental kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Byahatti, Vivek V.; Pai, K. Vasantkumar; D’Souza, Marina G

    2010-01-01

    Kidney stone formation or Urolithiasis is a complex process that results from series of several physicochemical events including super-saturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention within the kidneys. Among the treatments include Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and drug treatment. Even this ESWL treatment may cause acute renal injury, decrease in renal function and increase in stone recurrence. In addition, persistent residual stone fragments and possibility of infection after ESWL represent a serious problem in the treatment of stones. Data from in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical trials reveal that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either alternative or an adjunct therapy in the management of Urolithiasis. Medicinal plants /natural products are more acceptable to the body because they promote the repair mechanism in natural way. Various plant species of the genus Bergenia, have been reported to posses antiurolithiatic property. Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl, is one the ingredient of reputed herbal formulation Cy stone for the treatment of kidney stones. In this study alcohol, butanol, ethyl acetate extracts and isolated phenolic compounds from the Ayurvedic and Unani herb, Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. leaves (Saxifragaceae) were evaluated for their potential to dissolve experimentally prepared kidney stones-calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, by an in-vitro model. Phenolic compound P1 isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves, demonstrated highest dissolution of both stones when compared to test extracts at 10 mg concentration. However, it was more effective in dissolving calcium phosphate stones (67.74 %) than oxalate (36.95%). Reference standard-formulation Cystone was found to be more effective (48.48%) when compared to compound P1. PMID:22557418

  14. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

  15. Investigation of the impact of stone bunds on water erosion in northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Jakob; Strohmeier, Stefan; Demelash, Nigus; Ziadat, Feras; Klik, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Soil degradation in northern Ethiopia results from intensive land-use, massive deforestation in the past and missing conservation measures. Every year huge amounts of fertile soil are flushed away irreversibly into the rivers. In order to prevent soil erosion, conservation methods are necessary, because otherwise erosion may cause severe problems in the future, especially in the cases of nutrition supply and agricultural land-use. In this study, the effectiveness of stone bonds as a soil conservation method was evaluated. The assessments took part during the raining season from June to September 2013 in the Gumara - Maksegnit watershed in the Amhara region in northern Ethiopia. On farmland two erosion plots were constructed at a representative hillslope. The plots were 20m long, 3m wide and bordered with metal sheets. In order to compare the effectiveness of stone bunds on soil erosion, one plot was constructed with a stone bund on his toe slope the other plot was constructed without a stone bund. The investigated slope was selected that all characteristics like slope, crop cover, stone cover, soil aggregate size, etc... could be considered as similar. To evaluate the impact of stone bunds on soil erosion, the lateral and the longitudinal runoff from the plot with the stone bund were collected separately. Surface runoff and eroded sediment were collected at the downward end of the plot using a trough leading to a divider sampling 10% of the total runoff. The sample was then collected in a pond (1,8m long, 1m wide and 0,5m deep). During the investigated period soil loss from the untreated plot amounted to 23.0 t.ha-1, whereas only 13.5 t.ha-1 were measured spilling over the stone bunds. This corresponds to a decrease by 41%. Beside the erosion monitoring, stone and crop cover were analyzed regularly as well as surface roughness and soil texture.

  16. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED SANDSTONE, QUARTZ, AND QUARTZITE, STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed sandstone, quartz, and quartzite industry. Particulates are emitted from drilling, blasting, loading and unloading trucks, transport on unpaved roads, washing, crushing, screening, conveying, and stockpiling....

  17. Dangers of crushing pills The UEA was in the spotlight following the

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    Dangers of crushing pills The UEA was in the spotlight following the publication of new guidelines to crush their medication to make it easier to swallow. Many drugs today are specially formulated to ensure

  18. Crush strength of silicon carbide coated TRISO particles: Influence of test method and process variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromarty, R. D.; van Rooyen, G. T.; de Villiers, J. P. R.

    2014-02-01

    The influence of deposition temperature, methyl trichlorosilane (MTS) concentration, hydrogen carrier-gas flow rate and gas inlet design on the strength of silicon carbide coated TRISO particles was investigated using whole particle crushing strength. Crush strength was measured using soft aluminium anvils. For comparison a selection of particles were also measured with hard anvils. The influence of silicon carbide thickness was determined to allow for normalisation of all crush strength measurements to a crush strength at an equivalent thickness of 35 ?m.

  19. Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151715.html Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones Researchers find eight or ... March 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Drinking plenty of water will lower your risk of kidney stones, researchers ...

  20. Gender Distribution of Pediatric Stone Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Thomas E.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Gearhart, John P.; Matlaga, Brian R.

    2008-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the gender prevalence among adult stone-formers is changing, with an increasing incidence of stone disease among women. No similar data have ever been reported for the pediatric stone-forming population. We performed a study to define the gender distribution among pediatric stone-formers using a large-scale national pediatric database. Our findings suggest that gender distribution among stone formers varies by age with male predominance in the first decade of life shifting to female predominance in the second decade. In contrast to adults, females in the pediatric population are more commonly affected by stones than are males. The incidence of pediatric stone disease appears to be increasing at a great rate in both sexes. Further studies should build on this hypothesis-generating work and define the effects of metabolic and environmental risk factors that may influence stone risk in the pediatric patient population

  1. INELASTIC WEB CRUSHING CAPACITY OF HIGH-STRENGTH-CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALLS

    E-print Network

    Hines, Eric

    INELASTIC WEB CRUSHING CAPACITY OF HIGH-STRENGTH-CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALLS R. Burgueño1 , X. Liu2 and can exhibit stable ductile behavior before failing by diagonal compression shear, or web crushing. Unlike the approach of current design codes, rational assessment models show that web crushing strength

  2. 2 Effects of pore collapse and grain crushing on 3 ultrasonic velocities and Vp/Vs

    E-print Network

    Fortin, Jérôme

    2 Effects of pore collapse and grain crushing on 3 ultrasonic velocities and Vp/Vs 4 Je and grain crushing. Theoretically, two different processes are 12 affecting the elastic wave velocities show that cracking is the 14 dominant effect, so that grain crushing and porosity reduction were

  3. A Study of the Hydro-Mechanical Behaviour of Compacted Crushed Argillite

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A Study of the Hydro-Mechanical Behaviour of Compacted Crushed Argillite C.S. Tang a, b , A) is proposed, after being crushed and com- pacted, as a possible sealing and backfill material and the microstruc- ture on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the compacted crushed argillite have been in

  4. 31. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST TO CORNER WHERE SAMPLING/CRUSHING ADDITIONS ABUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST TO CORNER WHERE SAMPLING/CRUSHING ADDITIONS ABUT CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. INTACT BARREN SOLUTION TANK VISIBLE IN FRONT OF CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. A New Approach to Crushing 3-Manifold Triangulations Benjamin A. Burton

    E-print Network

    Burton, Benjamin

    A New Approach to Crushing 3-Manifold Triangulations Benjamin A. Burton School of Mathematics The crushing operation of Jaco and Rubinstein is a powerful technique in algorithmic 3-manifold topology for essential surfaces. Although the crushing operation will always reduce the size of a triangu- lation

  6. Fabrication and crushing behavior of low density carbon fiber composite pyramidal truss structures

    E-print Network

    Vaziri, Ashkan

    Fabrication and crushing behavior of low density carbon fiber composite pyramidal truss structures examined using scanning electron microscope. The crushing response of the truss cores was also inves of the core crushing response. Our results show that the fabricated low-density truss cores have superior

  7. Crush Injury in Two Earthquake Disasters within a 3Month Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Necmi Kurt; Hasan Fehmi Küçük; Recep Demirhan

    2003-01-01

    Background: This study describes our one-center experience in crush injury and compartment syndrome sustained in the Marmara and Düzce earthquakes that hit the region within a 3-month period. Patients and Methods: We reviewed medical records of patients with crush injuries from the two earthquakes and analyzed treatment, morbidity and mortality rates. Results: A total number of 75 patients with crush

  8. EDAX versus FTIR in mixed stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Fazil Marickar; P. R. Lekshmi; Luxmi Varma; Peter Koshy

    2009-01-01

    Mixed stones form a significant number of all urinary stones. Accurate analysis of individual areas of stones is fraught with\\u000a uncertainties. Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis (SEM-EDAX) is a very important tool in assessing\\u000a stone composition. The objective of this paper is to project the role of the combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)\\u000a spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX combination

  9. Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Matlaga; Anthony J. Schaeffer; Thomas E. Novak; Bruce J. Trock

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of pediatric kidney stone has not yet been as rigorously defined as that of adult kidney stone disease. Herein,\\u000a we review our recent epidemiologic works characterizing pediatric stone disease using the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID).\\u000a Specifically we investigated the age and gender distribution of pediatric kidney stone disease, changes in disease prevalence\\u000a over time, and medical comorbidities associated

  10. Development of a Procedure to Identify Aggregates for Bituminous Surfaces in Indiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry R. West; Kyu H. Cho

    2001-01-01

    Adequate friction resistance is needed to prevent pavement slipperiness allowing vehicles to stop in a reasonable distance. For stone mastic asphalt surfaces, friction resistance is mainly a function of the interaction between the aggregates exposed at the road surface and vehicle tires. Aggregate performance is reduced with time by wear and polishing as a consequence of vehicular traffic. In this

  11. Development of a Procedure to Identify Aggregates for Bituminous Surfaces in Indiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Bruner; Jung Chan Choi; Terry R. West

    1996-01-01

    Adequate friction resistance is needed to prevent pavement slipperiness and to allow vehicles to stop in a reasonable distance. In stone mastic asphalt surfaces, friction resistance is mainly a function of the interaction between the aggregates exposed at the road surface and the vehicle tires. Performance of the aggregate is reduced over time by wear and polishing as a consequence

  12. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on the architecture and urban landscape of many areas in NW Italy, some quite peculiar applications (for ex.: the "so-called "loze" or "lose", for the traditional roofing in alpine buildings) and the related constructive culture, the presence of an Eco-Museum, the occurrence of a local Fair (Pietra & Meccanizzazione), and many other important aspects.

  13. Petra: Lost City of Stone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the Petra: Lost City of Stone exhibit, looks at this once flourishing city in the heart of the ancient Near East. Although the exhibit is now closed, the web site contains a wealth of information about Petra.

  14. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  15. Diagnostic usefulness of fragments of crushed cells in autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akansha; Aggarwal, Seema; Arora, Vinod K

    2012-05-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology has emerged as an important diagnostic tool in cases of autoimmune thyroiditis. However, the patchy nature of this disease and its coexistence with other thyroid pathologies, with only subtle demonstrable cytologic features in many cases can lead to misdiagnosis. Of 313 thyroid aspirates, 62 were diagnosed as autoimmune thyroiditis. Fragments of crushed cells were observed in 51 (82.11%) of autoimmune thyroiditis (P < 0.001). The presence of "crush artifact" that can be easily picked up on low magnification should be used as an important criterion for the diagnosis of thyroiditis. It is particularly helpful in cellular smears from thyroiditis to avoid misdiagnosis of neoplasia. PMID:22619158

  16. Strength evaluation of recycled-aggregate concrete by in-situ tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sri Ravindrajah; Y. H. Loo; C. T. Tam

    1988-01-01

    Coarse and fine aggregates generated from crushed concrete products for new concrete can be generally accepted only when the\\u000a properties of recycled aggregate concrete, in addition to the relationships between different properties of such a concrete,\\u000a are well understood. The results of an experimental investigation into the relationship of compressive strength to ultrasonic\\u000a pulse velocity and to rebound number is

  17. Cluster structure of anaerobic aggregates of an expanded granular sludge bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gonzalez-Gil; P. N. L. Lens; A. Van Aelst; H. Van As; A. I. Versprille; G. Lettinga

    2001-01-01

    The metabolic properties and ultrastructure of mesophilic aggregates from a full-scale expanded granular sludge bed reactor treating brewery wastewater are described. The aggregates had a very high methanogenic activity on acetate (17.19 mmol of CH4\\/g of volatile suspended solids [VSS]?day or 1.1 g of CH4 chemical oxygen demand\\/g of VSS?day). Fluorescent in situ hybridization using 16S rRNA probes of crushed

  18. The compression-deformation behaviour of concrete with various modified recycled aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Du Ting; Li Huiqiang; Wu Xianguo; Qin Yawei

    2005-01-01

    Modified recycled aggregates were prepared with three different cement-admixture grouts. The physical properties, such as\\u000a water absorption, apparent density, crushing index, slump and compressive strength of the recycled aggregate and the recycled\\u000a concretes were tested, and the tests for the compression-deformation behavior of the concretes were also performed. The experimental\\u000a results show that the cement-Kim powder grout is satisfied for

  19. Properties of self-compacting concrete prepared with coarse recycled concrete aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoran Jure Grdic; Gordana A. Toplicic-Curcic; Iva M. Despotovic; Nenad S. Ristic

    2010-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete has significant environmental advantages in comparison to the vibrated concrete: absence of noise and vibrations during installing provides a healthier working environment. In the paper the potential for usage of coarse recycled aggregate obtained from crushed concrete for making of self-compacting concrete was researched, additionally emphasizing its ecological value. On the other hand the issue of the waste

  20. Influence of coarse aggregate size, shape and surface texture on rutting of hot mix asphalt concrete

    E-print Network

    Yeggoni, Mohan

    1993-01-01

    increased Hveem Stability, Marshall Stability and resistance to creep of hot mix asphalt concrete. The resilient modulus of the specimens was also enhanced by the increase in the amount of crushed aggregate in the mix at high temperatures (115'F). Fractal...

  1. Influence of coarse aggregate size, shape and surface texture on rutting of hot mix asphalt concrete 

    E-print Network

    Yeggoni, Mohan

    1993-01-01

    increased Hveem Stability, Marshall Stability and resistance to creep of hot mix asphalt concrete. The resilient modulus of the specimens was also enhanced by the increase in the amount of crushed aggregate in the mix at high temperatures (115'F). Fractal...

  2. Mechanical and thermal pretreatments of crushed tomatoes: effects on consistency and in vitro accessibility of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Tibäck, Evelina A; Svelander, Cecilia A; Colle, Ines J P; Altskär, Annika I; Alminger, Marie A G; Hendrickx, Marc E G; Ahrné, Lília M; Langton, Maud I B C

    2009-09-01

    The effects of mechanical and thermal treatments on the consistency and in vitro lycopene accessibility of crushed tomatoes were evaluated. Different crushing intensities and a subsequent heat treatment carried out as a heat shock (95 degrees C for 8 min) or a boiling step (100 degrees C for 20 min) were examined. Additional homogenization was compared with milder crushing regarding the effect on lycopene content and in vitro accessibility. Textural properties, polygalacturonase and pectinmethylesterase activity, pectin degree of methoxylation, lycopene content, and in vitro lycopene accessibility were evaluated. Microstructure was studied using both light and transmission electron microscopy. Crushing and subsequent heating affected the pectin degree of methoxylation and the consistency of the crushed tomatoes. The mechanical and thermal treatments did not affect the lycopene content to any great extent; however, in vitro accessibility seemed to improve with extensive crushing followed by heating. Crushing or homogenization in itself was not enough to increase in vitro lycopene accessibility. PMID:19895468

  3. The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability of composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    The energy-absorption capability as a function of crushing speed was determined for Thornel 300/Fiberite 934 (Gr/E) and Kevlar-49/Fiberite 934 (K/E) composite material. Circular cross section tube specimens were crushed at quasi-static, 6 m/sec, and 12 m/sec speeds. Ply orientations of the tube specimens were (0/+ or - theta) sub 2 and (+ or - theta) sub 3 where theta=15, 45, and 75 degress. Based on the results of these tests the energy-absortion capability of Gr/E and K/E was determined to be a function of crushing speed. The crushing modes based on exterior appearance of the crushed tubes were unchanged for either material. However, the interlaminar crushing behavior changed with crushing speed.

  4. CRUSH: fast and scalable data reduction for imaging arrays

    E-print Network

    Kovács, A

    2008-01-01

    CRUSH is an approach to data analysis under noise interference, developed specifically for submillimeter imaging arrays. The method uses an iterated sequence of statistical estimators to separate source and noise signals. Its filtering properties are well-characterized and easily adjusted to preference. Implementations are well-suited for parallel processing and its computing requirements scale linearly with data size -- rendering it an attractive approach for reducing the data volumes from future large arrays.

  5. CRUSH: fast and scalable data reduction for imaging arrays

    E-print Network

    A. Kovacs

    2008-06-30

    CRUSH is an approach to data analysis under noise interference, developed specifically for submillimeter imaging arrays. The method uses an iterated sequence of statistical estimators to separate source and noise signals. Its filtering properties are well-characterized and easily adjusted to preference. Implementations are well-suited for parallel processing and its computing requirements scale linearly with data size -- rendering it an attractive approach for reducing the data volumes from future large arrays.

  6. Crushing singularities in spacetimes with spherical, plane and hyperbolic symmetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan D. Rendall; Yvette France

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that the initial singularities in spatially compact spacetimes\\u000awith spherical, plane or hyperbolic symmetry admitting a compact constant mean\\u000acurvature hypersurface are crushing singularities when the matter content of\\u000aspacetime is described by the Vlasov equation (collisionless matter) or the\\u000awave equation (massless scalar field). In the spherically symmetric case it is\\u000afurther shown that if the

  7. In-plane crushing of a polycarbonate honeycomb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. Papka; Stelios Kyriakides

    1998-01-01

    The in-plane compressive response and crushing of a polycarbonate honeycomb with circular close-packed cells is studied through combined experimental and analytical efforts. Under displacement controlled quasi-static loading the response is characterized by a relatively sharp rise to a load maximum followed by a drop down to an extended load plateau which is then terminated by a sharp rise in load.

  8. 43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ON TOP OF THE PLATFORM. OVERSIZE ORE IS FED BY CHUTE TO THE GYRATORY SECONDARY CRUSHER (MISSING) SITTING ON CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS TO LOWER RIGHT. UNDERSIZE ORE WAS FED BY THE LOWER CHUTE (CENTER LEFT) TO THE 24 INCH BELT CONVEYOR UNDER THE SECONDARY CRUSHER. THE DRYER ROOM IS BEYOND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. 34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ADDITIONS. SHAFT OF PRIMARY THICKENER No. 1 AT CENTER, WITH PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT. INTACT THICKENER SURGE TANK IS JUST ABOVE AND TO THE RIGHT (NORTH). ALL FRAMING ABOVE SECONDARY THICKENERS No. 2, No. 3, AND No. 7 HAS COLLAPSED. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. Current concepts for oil decontamination of crush injuries: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This anecdotal, non-systematic review serves to explore the principles and methods of effective oil decontamination from cutaneous wounds, particularly crush injuries. The current expansion of the petroleum industry is necessary to meet increasing world demands for oil. Most stages of oil refining and applications involve significant injury risks, particularly for crush injuries that become contaminated with petroleum compounds. A literature review regarding a standard of care for effective cutaneous oil decontamination is lacking. Based on case reports, animal models, and in vitro studies identified in our expert opinion review, standard water and soap cleansing may not be an appropriate approach. Instead, the principle of ‘like dissolves like’ guides the use of lipophilic, petroleum-derived solvents to attract and subsequently dissolve the petroleum contaminant from the skin injury. Limitations include paucity of and dated literature sources regarding the topic as well as no models specifically addressing crush injuries. Our literature review found that oil decontamination of cutaneous injuries may be best accomplished with oil-based cleansers. Certainly, this topic has significant importance for the potentially carcinogenic petroleum compounds that pervade virtually every aspect of modern human life. PMID:24855490

  11. Hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates under organic and conventional soil management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójciga, A.; Ku?, J.; Turski, M.; Lipiec, J.

    2009-04-01

    Variation in hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates is an important factor affecting water storage and infiltration because the large inter-aggregate pores are dewatered first and the transport of water and solutes is influenced by the properties of the individual aggregates and contacts between them. A high mechanical stability of soil aggregates is fundamental for the maintenance of proper tilth and provides stable traction for farm implements, but limit root growth inside aggregates. The aggregate properties are largely influenced by soil management practices. Our objective was to compare the effects of organic and conventional soil management on hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates. Experimental fields subjected to long-term organic (14 years) and conventional managements were located on loamy soil at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - National Research Institute in Pulawy, Poland. Soil samples were collected from two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). After air-drying, two size fractions of soil aggregates (15-20 and 30-35 mm) were manually selected and kept in the dried state in a dessicator in order to provide the same boundary conditions. Following properties of the aggregates were determined: porosity (%) using standard wax method, cumulative infiltration Q (mm3 s-1) and sorptivity S (mm s -1/2) of water and ethanol using a tube with a sponge inserted at the tip, wettability (by comparison of sorptivity of water and ethanol) using repellency index R, crushing strength q (MPa) using strength testing device (Zwick/Roell) and calculated by Dexter's formula. All properties were determined in 15 replicates for each treatment, aggregates size and depth. Organic management decreased porosity of soil aggregates and ethanol infiltration. All aggregates revealed rather limited wettability (high repellency index). In most cases the aggregate wettability was lower under conventional than organic soil management. Crushing strength was higher for aggregates from organic managed field, especially for 30-35 mm aggregates.

  12. The effect of recycled concrete aggregate properties on the bond strength between RCA concrete and steel reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L., E-mail: L3Butler@uwaterloo.ca; West, J.S.; Tighe, S.L.

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that replacing natural coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) has on concrete bond strength with reinforcing steel. Two sources of RCA were used along with one natural aggregate source. Numerous aggregate properties were measured for all aggregate sources. Two types of concrete mixture proportions were developed replacing 100% of the natural aggregate with RCA. The first type maintained the same water-cement ratios while the second type was designed to achieve the same compressive strengths. Beam-end specimens were tested to determine the relative bond strength of RCA and natural aggregate concrete. On average, natural aggregate concrete specimens had bond strengths that were 9 to 19% higher than the equivalent RCA specimens. Bond strength and the aggregate crushing value seemed to correlate well for all concrete types.

  13. Application of traditional cyclone with spray scrubber to remove airborne silica particles emitted from stone-crushing factories.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Ghorbani, Farshid; Mahjub, Hossien; Golbabei, Farideh; Aliabadi, Mohsan

    2009-08-01

    The traditional cyclone with spray scrubber was developed for the removal of airborne silica particles from local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The objective of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of this process for removing silica particles in LEV. After designing and installing a traditional cyclone and spray scrubber, air samples were obtained at the inlet and outlet of the apparatus. The mass of each collected sample was determined gravimetrically using EPA method. The efficiency of the cyclone with spray scrubber for the removal of dust particles from the LEV system was determined to be in the range of 92-99%. There was a high correlation between the inlet concentration of dust particles and the efficiency of the apparatus. The total pressure across the system was 772.17-1120.90 Pa. It was concluded that a traditional cyclone with a spray scrubber can effectively remove a very high percentage of the incoming silica particles from an LEV. The total pressure drop across the current process is less than the pressure drop across other treatment equipment, which means that our process can effectively remove silica particles while using less electricity than other processes. PMID:19672019

  14. Recycling of stone cutting sludge in formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles.

    PubMed

    Al-Zboon, Kamel; Tahat, Montasser; Abu-Hamatteh, Ziad S H; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad S

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the possibility for enhancing the use of stone cutting sludge waste in the production of building bricks and terrazzo tiles, which would reduce both the environmental impact and the production costs. Stone cutting wastes in the form of sludge is currently generated at several factories in Jordan. At the Samara factory, incorporation of the sludge in the batch formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles was examined. The physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sludge were analyzed to identify the major components. Results indicated that the sludge generated from stone cutting could be used in producing concrete bricks. Mixtures of aggregates with added amounts of sludge were used successfully to produce non-load bearing bricks. Sludge was also used to produce terrazzo tiles and the results indicate that the transverse strength, water absorption and tile measurements, for all the taken samples, comply with Jordanian standards. The transverse strength decreased while water absorption increased as the sludge ratio increased. PMID:19837706

  15. Geology of Stone Mountain, Georgia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Gore

    This virtual field trip to Stone Mountain Georgia includes both a narrative and photographs of such features as flow banding, tourmaline pods, and several types of xenoliths. Intrusive granite and diabase dikes are shown at both the east quarry and old route 78 locations where products of weathering such as saprolite, kaolinite, halloysite, and gibbsite reside. Photographs of an area of the east quarry taken six years apart show the progress of exfoliation. The site also has a list of references.

  16. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  17. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake of vegetables that can carry a plentiful supply of alkali that counteract the acid load coming from animal protein. New prospective studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the diet for the prevention of renal stones should be oriented to simple dietary advices that should be focused on a few specific goals easily controlled by means of self-evaluation tools, such as the LAKE food screener. PMID:23392537

  18. 6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

  19. Approach to the Adult Kidney Stone Former

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a prevalent and costly condition with high recurrence rate. A medical evaluation to identify abnormalities responsible for nephrolithiasis and guide subsequent therapy has been advocated to reduce the risk of stone recurrence. The evaluation of kidney stone formers generally comprises an extensive medical history to identify metabolic, environmental, dietary and/or genetic factors contributing to stone formation. Imaging studies are utilized to evaluate and follow stone burden. Laboratory studies including stone composition analysis and serum and urinary chemistries are commonly obtained to further assess for any underlying systemic disorders, to detect environmental and metabolic processes contributing to stone disease, and to guide initial and follow-up dietary and pharmacological therapy. The nature and extent of such an evaluation is discussed in this review article. PMID:22654574

  20. Fluoride metabolism and fluoride content of stones from children with endemic vesical stones.

    PubMed

    Teotia, M; Rodgers, A; Teotia, S P; Wandt, A E; Nath, M

    1991-10-01

    Twenty children with endemic vesical stones showed normal plasma and urinary excretion of fluoride on a mean fluoride intake of 2.5 +/- 0.8 mg/24 h. The mean fluoride content of the stones obtained from these children was 315.6 +/- 264.9 micrograms/g in the nucleus and 229.9 +/- 212.8 micrograms/g in the periphery (this was not statistically significant). Calcium-containing stones had a higher fluoride content than stones containing uric acid and ammonium urate. It was concluded that children with endemic vesical stones have normal fluoride metabolism. Trace quantities of fluoride present equally in the nucleus and peripheral parts of the stones suggest that fluoride does not cause initiation or growth of the nucleus of vesical stones and is adventitiously deposited with calcium salts in these stones. PMID:1933167

  1. OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    SEA GRANT AND STONE LABORATORY ·Sedimentation ·Phosphorus and nutrient loading ·Harmful algal blooms LABORATORY Blue-green Algae Bloom circa 1971, Lake Erie Photo: Forsythe and Reutter OHIO SEA GRANT AND STONE

  2. Impact of nonconductive powder on electrostatic separation for recycling crushed waste printed circuit board.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Qin, Yufei; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-05-30

    The electrostatic separation is an effective and environmentally friendly method for recycling metals and nonmetals from crushed printed circuit board (PCB) wastes. However, it still confronts some problems brought by nonconductive powder (NP). Firstly, the NP is fine and liable to aggregate. This leads to an increase of middling products and loss of metals. Secondly, the stability of separation process is influenced by NP. Finally, some NPs accumulate on the surface of the corona and electrostatic electrodes during the process. These problems lead to an inefficient separation. In the present research, the impacts of NP on electrostatic separation are investigated. The experimental results show that: the separation is notably influenced when the NP content is more than 10%. With the increase of NP content, the middling products sharply increase from 1.4 g to 4.3g (increase 207.1%), while the conductive products decrease from 24.0 g to 19.1g (decrease 20.4%), and the separation process become more instable. PMID:18977592

  3. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  4. Experimental investigation and numerical simulation of the crush behaviour of composite structural parts

    SciTech Connect

    Kerth, S.; Dehn, A.; Ostgathe, M.; Maier, M. [Univ. of Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The energy absorption and failure behavior of composite structural parts under crush load will be discussed. It will be focused oil crush elements with double hat geometry. Double belt press and stamp forming technique have been chosen for economic industrial scale manufacturing of thermoplastic composite parts. Various specimens with different fibre/matrix combinations have been tested. Their crush behavior has been compared to thermoset composite parts. The, paper points out the good crush behavior and energy absorption capacity of composite parts with thermoplastic matrix systems. A first approach to numerical crush simulation of thermoplastic composite structures is presented and discussed. The philosophy beyond this paper is to provide a system solution for the development of crush worthy structures.

  5. The Boomerang: A Crushed and Re-born PWN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothes, R.; Uyaniker, B.; Reich, W.

    We present new high radio frequency observations of the Boomerang pulsar wind nebula (PWN) made with the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope. A comparison with low frequency data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS; Taylor et al. 2003) reveals a change of the nebula's emission structure with frequency caused by a radial steepening of the radio spectrum above 5 GHz. We also find evidence that the reverse shock of the initial supernova shock wave has driven away or crushed the original PWN which might explain why the current nebula around the pulsar has such a low radio luminosity.

  6. Influence of crushing and additive irradiation procedures on EPR dosimetry of tooth enamel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Sholom; E. H. Haskell; R. B. Hayes; V. V. Chumak; G. H. Kenner

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the crushing and additive dose procedures used in EPR dosimetry of enamel on EPR signals with g-factors of 2.0045 and g?=2.0018, g||=1.9975 was studied. Eight fractions, ranging in size from <75?m to 2mm, were prepared from one tooth. Two cases were investigated: crushing of a non-irradiated sample and crushing of a previously irradiated sample (6Gy from a

  7. Lipoprotein lipase is expressed in rat sciatic nerve and regulated in response to crush injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Uelmen Huey; Kathleen C. Waugh; Jacqueline Etienne; Robert H. Eckel

    Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral crush injury, and expression of LPL protein and mRNA were assessed as a function of time post-crush. LPL activity increased in the distal portion of the injured nerve by Day 4 post-crush, after which LPL activity gradu- ally returned to normal levels. Conversely, quantification of LPL mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reac-

  8. Potential crush loading of radioactive material packages in highway, rail and marine accidents. Regulatory report

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, J.D.; Romander, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential crush loads on radioactive material packages in highway, rail, and marine accidents. The study concluded that if allowance is made for small gaps between packages, the deflections produced by inertial crush are comparable (within 20%) of those produced by impact under the same accident conditions. Therefore an additional qualification test is not needed to ensure that the level of protection against crush is comparable to the current level of protection against impact. The study also evaluated potential crush loads in extremely severe transportation accidents. In highway accidents, the most severe crush environment is produced when a truck carrying several small, soft packages strikes a rigid barrier and the inertia of the aft packages crushes the front package. In railroad accidents, severe crush environments are produced when a railcar on which the packages are carried strikes a barrier or when the packages are pinned between two railcars after a derailment. Analysis of ship collisions showed that for packages carried by a containerized cargo ship struck by another ship, the probability of producing significant crush loads is small because most collisions occur at low velocities during maneuvering. The study suggested various types of package tests which would simulate severe crush loads in each mode of transport.

  9. What I Need to Know about Kidney Stones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on the type of kidney stone you had: Calcium Oxalate Stones reduce sodium reduce animal protein, such as ... Kidney stones are caused by high levels of calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus in the urine. You may have ...

  10. Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives from said compositions

    DOEpatents

    Minnick, L. John (Box 271, Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462)

    1981-01-01

    Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives of said compositions, and cementitious compositions and aggregates produced by said method, wherein fluidized bed combustion residue and pozzolanic material, such as pulverized coal combustion system fly ash, are incorporated in a cementitious mix. The mix is cast into desired shape and cured. If desired, the shape may then be crushed so as to result in a fluidized bed combustion residue-fly ash aggregate material or the shape may be used by itself.

  11. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  12. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease.

    PubMed

    Killilea, David W; Westropp, Jodi L; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  13. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  14. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Kay Babcock Monet

    2006-01-01

    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college

  15. Stone cutting automation technology based on features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio Garrido Campos; Ricardo Marin Martin; Jose Ignacio Armesto; Juan Saez Lopez

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a CAD\\/CAM\\/CNC architecture to automate saw blade stone cutting machines (disc stone cutting machines). The architecture is designed to give the controller the capacity of decision making as well as control of the machine tool, with the objective of being able to react to changes in the machining conditions, which is common in this kind technology. Adopting

  16. Medical Management of Urinary Stone Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Y. C. Pak

    2004-01-01

    A variety of dietary and metabolic factors may contribute or cause stone formation in idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Dietary factors include a high intake of animal proteins, oxalate and sodium, and a low intake of fluids and potassium-containing citrus products. Some of the metabolic causes of stones are hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, gouty diathesis, hyperoxaluria, and hyperuricosuria. Dietary modification, to be applied

  17. Genetics of hypercalciuric stone forming diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Devuyst; Y Pirson

    2007-01-01

    With a lifetime incidence of up to 12% in man and 6% in woman, nephrolithiasis is a major health problem worldwide. Approximately, 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium and hypercalciuria is found in up to 40% of stone-formers. Although the mechanisms resulting in precipitation and growth of calcium crystals in the urinary tract are multiple and not fully

  18. STONE DUALITY, TOPOLOGICAL ALGEBRA, AND RECOGNITION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STONE DUALITY, TOPOLOGICAL ALGEBRA, AND RECOGNITION MAI GEHRKE Abstract. Our main result is that any topological algebra based on a Boolean space is the extended Stone dual space of a certain associated Boolean algebra with additional operations. A particular case of this result is that the profinite

  19. Kidney stone risk following modern bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D; Canales, Benjamin K

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers. PMID:24658828

  20. An Evaluation of Ethyl Silicate-Based Grouts for Weathered Silicate Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolph, Brittany Helen

    Culturally significant monuments made of weathered siliceous stone often display sub-surface condition issues such as cracks and voids. These issues require grouts that are ideally compatible with the composition and properties of the substrate. Based on the successful application of ethyl silicates as consolidants in recent literature, this study examines possible formulation pathways for the development of a grout incorporating ethyl silicate. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTL) as a catalyst, silicone oil (PDMS), various grades of ground quartz, sepiolite, and hollow glass spheres were used in differing concentrations to create samples. These were visually and physically assessed on workability, separation, shrinkage, cracking, strength, and flexibility. Quantitative analysis was performed on selected formulations using UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy in coordination with a weight loss experiment to investigate kinetics, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Successful formulations tended to include oligomeric TEOS, crushed quartz of mixed grades, sepiolite powder, and PDMS, and show promise for future investigations.

  1. Dynamic Crush Behaviors Of Aluminum Honeycomb Specimens Under Compression Dominant Inclined Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Pan, Jwo; Tyan, Tau; Prasad, Priya

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic crush behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens under out-of-plane inclined loads are investigated by experiments. Different types of honeycomb specimens were designed for crush tests under pure compressive and inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction. A test fixture was designed for both quasi-static and dynamic crush tests under inclined loads. The results of the quasi-static crush tests indicate that the normal crush and shear strengths under inclined loads are consistent with the corresponding results under combined loads. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same. The trends of the normalized normal crush strengths under inclined loads for specimens with different in-plane orientation angles as functions of the impact velocity are very similar to each other. Based on the experimental results, a macroscopic yield criterion as a function of the impact velocity is proposed. The experimental results suggest that as the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state. The experimental results also show similar microscopic progressive folding mechanisms in honeycomb specimens under pure compressive and inclined loads. However, honeycomb specimens under inclined loads show inclined stacking patterns of folds due to the asymmetric location of horizontal plastic hinge lines.

  2. Research report Persistence of PAD and presynaptic inhibition of muscle spindle afferents after peripheral nerve crush

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Enriquez-Denton; E. Manjarrez; P. Rudomin

    Two to twelve weeks after crushing a muscle nerve, still before the damaged afferents reinnervate the muscle receptors, conditioning stimulation of group I fibers from flexor muscles depolarizes the damaged afferents (M. Enriquez, I. Jimenez, P. Rudomin, Changes in PAD patterns of group I muscle afferents after a peripheral nerve crush. Exp. Brain Res., 107 (1996), 405-420). It is not

  3. Research on Fractal Mechanism of the Crushed Particle of Waste Printed Circuit Board

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duan Chen-long; Zhao Yue-min; He Ya-qun; He Jing-feng; Wang Shuai

    2010-01-01

    Waste printed circuit board (PCB) is the most important part of Waste electronic and electric equipment (WEEE), and also one of the most arduous job to deal with because of its heterogeneity and high complexity. Crushing is the crucial process for the technology of recycling waste PCB, for chemical and bio-metallurgy methods, the process of crushing could have enough chance

  4. Acute Repair of Crushed Guinea Pig Spinal Cord by Polyethylene Glycol

    E-print Network

    Shi, Riyi

    Acute Repair of Crushed Guinea Pig Spinal Cord by Polyethylene Glycol RIYI SHI AND RICHARD B of crushed guinea pig spinal cord by polyethylene glycol. J. Neurophysiol. 81: 2406­2414, 1999. We have studied the responses of adult guinea pig spinal cord white matter to a standardized compression within

  5. Viability of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush in adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis J. Misantone; Mark Gershenbaum; Marion Murray

    1984-01-01

    Summary The response of retinal ganglion cells to optic nerve crush was examined in the hooded rat. Intracranial nerve crush produces a transient shrinkage of the retinal ganglion cells during the first several weeks postoperatively but partial recovery of cell size then appears to occur. This transient response is considered to be a direct response to axotomy. Retrograde transport of

  6. Thermal crush injury of the hand caused by roller type ironing press machine.

    PubMed

    Sever, Celalettin; Külahç?, Yalç?n; Noyan, Nurettin; Acar, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Industrial garment machines may cause occupational hand injuries. However, combined thermal and crush injuries are uncommon, and their etiologies are varied. We present a case of thermal crush injury of the hand caused by laundry roller type ironing press machine. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed. PMID:21358258

  7. Sow body movements that crush piglets: a comparison between two types of farrowing accommodation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Weary; Edmond A. Pajor; David Fraser; Anne-Marie Honkanen

    1996-01-01

    Crushing by the sow is a major cause of death for piglets. The behavior of 20 sows and their litters kept in two types of farrowing accommodation (farrowing crates and more open pens) was video recorded for 4 days after farrowing. In total, 24 piglets were killed by maternal crushing during the study (four in the farrowing crates, 20 in

  8. Experimental studies on the quasi-static axial crushing of steel columns filled with aluminium foam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Seitzberger; F. G. Rammerstorfer; R. Gradinger; H. P. Degischer; M. Blaimschein; C. Walch

    2000-01-01

    Experimental investigations are carried out in order to study the effects of different tube and filler arrangements on the crushing behaviour of axially compressed tubular crush elements. To this end quasistatic experiments are performed on monotubal and bitubal, empty and filled steel profiles with different materials, dimensions and cross-sectional shapes. Aluminium foam, produced by a powder metallurgical production process, is

  9. Risky behaviour by piglets: a trade off between feeding and risk of mortality by maternal crushing?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL M WEARY; EDMOND A PAJOR; BRIAN K THOMPSON; DAVID FRASER

    1996-01-01

    Accidental crushing by the sow is a major cause of death among domestic piglets. Piglets risk being crushed if they are underneath the sow as she lies down, but they may benefit from staying close to the sow by improving their access to teats during nursings and by increasing milk production. The prediction was tested that piglets with relatively low

  10. Tibial fractures associated with crush injuries to the soft tissues of the dorsal foot in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoru Fujita; Kazuhiko Yokoyama; Koushin Nakamura; Masataka Uchino; Ryuji Wakita; Moritoshi Itoman

    2004-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 15 children with tibial fractures associated with crush injuries to the soft tissues of the dorsal foot. The fractures, including six open fractures, were united with no complications within an average of 11.1 weeks. Wound closure to treat crush injuries of the dorsal foot was achieved using split- or full-thickness skin grafts in most patients. The outcomes

  11. Remote control continuous mining machine crushing accident data study

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2006-05-11

    A committee was formed to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents as part of US MSHA's efforts to reduce and eliminate these types of accidents. The committee was tasked with collecting, reviewing, and evaluating remote control accident data to identify significant factors that could possibly contribute to remote control accidents. The report identifies that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another (place changing). Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. 10 figs., 5 tabs., 7 apps.

  12. Written in Stone Earthquake Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeff Sale, EdCenter Staff Scientist

    This group of brief animations shows destructive phenomena related to earthquakes and provides some advice on mitigating their effects. The collection includes an animation of Rayleigh waves, showing the reverse elliptical motion that makes them especially damaging; a demonstration of the difference in wave propagation and amplitude between hard rock and unconsolidated sediment; and an animation showing the relationship between earthquake magnitude and fault movement on the San Andreas Fault. For homeowners, there are animations depicting an unsecured cripple wall and chimney failure, with suggestions for strengthening these components. There are also animations of fault movement that occurred during specific earthquakes, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1992 Landers earthquake, and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The animations were developed for the educational video "Written in Stone," a project funded by and developed for the California Seismic Safety Commission.

  13. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  14. Molecular Logic: Browsing Stepping Stones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by the Concord Consortium with support from the National Science Foundation, the goal of the Molecular Logic website is "to develop students' understanding of molecules, their interactions and the consequences of these interactions." The researchers and specialists in charge of the site have selected ten physical-chemical principles that underlie many biological processes. They call them "Molecular Stepping Stones", and the site includes entry-level model-based activities for each of these steps. Some of the steps have multiple parts, and visitors will note that each section includes an interactive activity and notes for teachers. Some of the subjects covered here include molecular folding, chemical reactions, and the structure and function in proteins.

  15. A "Rosetta Stone" for AViz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Joan; Glanz, Hila; Izrael, Nadir

    The Computational Physics group at the Technion has developed a visualization code, AViz, for atomistic visualization. AViz can visualize atoms, vector spins, quadrupoles, electronic densities, polymers and more. The required input of data files in the standard .xyz format can be prepared from a wide range of private and public domain simulation codes; and in the event that these are not the natural output of the code, conversion can be made. In order to extend its use, especially for industrial simulations, it is highly desirable to simplify the translation from simulation output to visualization input. We describe some steps towards the goal of providing a "Rosetta Stone" for such translation that can lead to better understanding. A recent simulation of liquid crystals is used as an example.

  16. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  17. Removal of residual cavitation nuclei to enhance histotripsy erosion of model urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Duryea, Alexander P; Roberts, William W; Cain, Charles A; Hall, Timothy L

    2015-05-01

    Histotripsy has been shown to be an effective treatment for model kidney stones, eroding their surface to tiny particulate debris via a cavitational bubble cloud. However, similar to shock wave lithotripsy, histotripsy stone treatments display a rate-dependent efficacy, with pulses applied at a low rate generating more efficient stone erosion in comparison with those applied at a high rate. This is hypothesized to be the result of residual cavitation bubble nuclei generated by bubble cloud collapse. Although the histotripsy bubble cloud only lasts on the order of 100 ?s, these microscopic remnant bubbles can persist on the order of 1 s, inducing direct attenuation of subsequent histotripsy pulses and influencing bubble cloud dynamics. In an effort to mitigate these effects, we have developed a novel strategy to actively remove residual cavitation nuclei from the field using low-amplitude ultrasound pulses. Previous work has demonstrated that with selection of the appropriate acoustic parameters these bubble removal pulses can stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of microscopic bubble nuclei, effectively deleting them from the target volume. Here, we incorporate bubble removal pulses in histotripsy treatment of model kidney stones. It was found that when histotripsy is applied at low rate (1 Hz), bubble removal does not produce a statistically significant change in erosion. At higher pulse rates of 10, 100, and 500 Hz, incorporating bubble removal results in 3.7-, 7.5-, and 2.7-fold increases in stone erosion, respectively. High-speed imaging indicates that the introduction of bubble removal pulses allows bubble cloud dynamics resulting from high pulse rates to more closely approximate those generated at the low rate of 1 Hz. These results corroborate previous work in the field of shock wave lithotripsy regarding the ill effects of residual bubble nuclei, and suggest that high treatment efficiency can be recovered at high pulse rates through appropriate manipulation of the cavitation environment surrounding the stone. PMID:25965682

  18. Hounsfield Units on Computed Tomography Predict Calcium Stone Subtype Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sutchin R. Patel; George Haleblian; Gyan Pareek

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Hounsfield unit (HU) determination of urinary stones on noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) has been shown to predict stone composition. However, no in vivo studies have attempted to radiographically separate the various calcium stone compositions. We investigate the efficacy of HU measurement on NCCT to determine if it can differentiate the various calcium stone subtypes. Patients and Methods: Of the

  19. Thomas Young and the Rosetta Stone.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Who deciphered the Rosetta Stone and the Egyptian hieroglyphs? The usual answer is Jean-François Champollion, beginning in 1822. But ever since that time, Egyptologists have debated the role of his rival, the polymath Thomas Young, the first person to publish a partially correct translation of the Rosetta Stone. A recent BBC television dramatisation rekindled the controversy by presenting Champollion as a 'lone genius' who succeeded independently of Young. While there is no doubt that Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphic script as a whole, the evidence suggests that Young's early detailed study of the Rosetta Stone created the conceptual framework that made possible Champollion's later breakthrough. PMID:17583792

  20. Longitudinal Tensile and Transverse Crushing Behavior Of a Prototype Multi-cellular Pultruded FRP Highway Guardrail System

    E-print Network

    Bank, Lawrence C.

    Longitudinal Tensile and Transverse Crushing Behavior Of a Prototype Multi-cellular Pultruded FRP to theoretical predictions. Crush tests were performed on six samples with different profiles. The samples were. The results of the tensile tests and the crush tests showed that further development must be made

  1. On February 8, 2010, a 62year old truck driver was crushed and killed between a 53foot

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    On February 8, 2010, a 62year old truck driver was crushed and killed between a 53foot, it is likely that the parking brakes were not set, allowing the truck and trailer to move and crush the trailer to move on the rail over the axle as the truck rolled backwards. He died of crushing

  2. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  3. A case of recurrent renal aluminum hydroxide stone.

    PubMed

    Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  4. Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kraaij, S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I; Brand, H S

    2014-12-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones are more often located in the gland itself. Salivary stones consist of an amorphous mineralised nucleus, surrounded by concentric laminated layers of organic and inorganic substances. The organic components of salivary stones include collagen, glycoproteins, amino acids and carbohydrates. The major inorganic components are hydroxyapatite, carbonate apatite, whitlockite and brushite. The management of salivary stones is focused on removing the salivary stones and preservation of salivary gland function which depends on the size and location of the stone. Conservative management of salivary stones consists of salivary gland massage and the use of sialogogues. Other therapeutic options include removal of the stone or in some cases surgical removal of the whole salivary gland. PMID:25476659

  5. Investigation into viability of using two-stage (pre-placed aggregate) concrete in Irish setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O’Malley; Hakim S. Abdelgader

    2010-01-01

    Two-stage (pre-placed aggregate) concrete (TSC) consists of coarse aggregate, which is first deposited into the formwork,\\u000a and grout, which is later pumped into the formwork from the bottom up to bind the stone together into a monolith. During the\\u000a course of this study the formation of grout for two stage concrete was investigated using readily available 5 mm sand mixed

  6. Investigations on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Recycled Aggregate Self Compacting Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revathi, P.; Selvi, R. S.; Velin, S. S.

    2013-09-01

    In the recent years, construction and demolition waste management issues have attracted the attention from researchers around the world. In the present study, the potential usage of recycled aggregate obtained from crushed demolition waste for making self compacting concrete (SCC) was researched. The barriers in promoting the use of recycled material in new construction are also discussed. In addition, the results of an experimental study involving the use of recycled concrete aggregate as coarse aggregates for producing self-compacting concrete to study their flow and strength characteristics are also presented. Five series of mixture were prepared with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % coarse recycled aggregate adopting Nan Su's mix proportioning method. The fresh concrete properties were evaluated through the slump flow, J-ring and V-funnel tests. Compressive and tensile strengths were also determined. The results obtained showed that SCC could be successfully developed by incorporating recycled aggregates.

  7. Muscle crush injury of extremity: quantitative elastography with supersonic shear imaging.

    PubMed

    Lv, Faqin; Tang, Jie; Luo, Yukun; Ban, Yu; Wu, Rong; Tian, Jiangke; Yu, Tengfei; Xie, Xia; Li, Tanshi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the characteristic of muscle crush injury at quantitative ultrasonographic elastography using supersonic shear imaging (SSI). Twenty-three New Zealand rabbits underwent crush injury to left hind leg caused by a special balloon cuff device. Conventional ultrasonography and SSI quantitative elastography were performed at both crushed and uncrushed regions of the left hind legs. Quantitative lesion elasticity was measured using the Young's modulus (in kilopascals) at 0.5 h, 2 h, 6 h, 24 h and 72 h after the release of the crushing pressure. Compared with those from the uncrushed regions, both the maximum and mean elasticity values at these time points from the crushed regions were significantly higher (p < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to assess diagnostic performance. ROC curves showed that extremity crush injury was diagnosed using elasticity value and the greater the elasticity value, the greater the diagnostic value. SSI provides quantitative elasticity measurements, thus, adding complementary information that potentially could help in crush injury characterization with conventional ultrasonography. PMID:22402021

  8. The crush behavior of fiber composite rods with a toughened matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.C.; Garard, R.J.; Lokhandwala, K.K.; Roberston, R.E. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The crush behavior (specific energy absorption and crush load stability) of unidirectional fiber composite rods having tougher matrices than vinyl ester were investigated and compared with the crush behavior of similar specimens having a vinyl ester matrix. The matrices were a cyclic polyester and two rubber-toughened vinyl esters. The specific energy absorption with the cyclic polyester matrix, 180 MJ/m{sup 3}, was slightly lower than that with the vinyl ester matrix, 230 MJ/m{sup 3}. On the other hand, the crush stability was markedly better. The average deviation of the crush load about the mean was as small as 3.5% with the cyclic polyester matrix, in contrast to about 12% with the vinyl ester matrix. The higher ductility of the cyclic polyester and the good fiber-matrix bond strength together resulted in less fracturing of the matrix and more uniform kink-band formation across the composite cross section than occurred with the vinyl ester matrix. There was also a reduction in the tendency for fibers at the periphery of the rod to splay outward rather than being crushed. Of the two rubber-toughened vinyl ester matrices, a 30% reduction was found in the average deviation of the crush load about the mean with the matrix toughened with a core-shell material, although no improvement was found with the CTBN rubber-modified vinyl ester resin.

  9. The nutrition consult for recurrent stone formers.

    PubMed

    Penniston, Kristina L

    2015-07-01

    Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence. PMID:26025494

  10. Kitkahahki Chipped Stone Technologies: A Comparative Study

    E-print Network

    Asher, Brendon Patrick

    2009-06-11

    The decades around 1800 A.D. witnessed dramatic changes in material culture and technology among Central Plains tribes. About this time, the rapidity of change in and transition from traditional chipped stone technologies was unprecedented...

  11. Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter J; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J

    2009-10-01

    The concomitant recycling of waste and carbon dioxide emissions is the subject of developing technology designed to close the industrial process loop and facilitate the bulk-re-use of waste in, for example, construction. The present work discusses a treatment step that employs accelerated carbonation to convert gaseous carbon dioxide into solid calcium carbonate through a reaction with industrial thermal residues. Treatment by accelerated carbonation enabled a synthetic aggregate to be made from thermal residues and waste quarry fines. The aggregates produced had a bulk density below 1000 kg/m(3) and a high water absorption capacity. Aggregate crushing strengths were between 30% and 90% stronger than the proprietary lightweight expanded clay aggregate available in the UK. Cast concrete blocks containing the carbonated aggregate achieve compressive strengths of 24 MPa, making them suitable for use with concrete exposed to non-aggressive service environments. The energy intensive firing and sintering processes traditionally required to produce lightweight aggregates can now be augmented by a cold-bonding, low energy method that contributes to the reduction of green house gases to the atmosphere. PMID:19577916

  12. Impact of recommendations on crushing medications in geriatrics: from prescription to administration.

    PubMed

    Bourdenet, Gwladys; Giraud, Sophie; Artur, Marion; Dutertre, Sophie; Dufour, Marie; Lefèbvre-Caussin, Marie; Proux, Alice; Philippe, Sandrine; Capet, Corinne; Fontaine-Adam, Magali; Kadri, Karine; Landrin, Isabelle; Gréboval, Emmanuelle; Touflet, Myriam; Nanfack, Jules; Tharasse, Christine; Varin, Rémi; Rémy, Elise; Daouphars, Mikaël; Doucet, Jean

    2015-06-01

    The practice of crushing drugs is very common in geriatric units. In 2009 a first study, performed in all geriatric units of a university hospital, showed that numerous errors were made during prescription, preparation and administration. The aim of this second prospective study was to assess the impact of regional and national recommendations in the same geriatric units. A survey of 719 patients (85.3 ± 6.7 years) was performed in 2013. For each patient who received crushed drugs, we recorded the reason the drugs were crushed, pharmacological classes, galenic presentations and the technique used for preparation and administration. Results were compared to the previous study. The number of patients receiving drugs after crushing was significantly lower than in the previous study (22.9% vs. 32.3%, P < 0.001). The number of crushed drugs was lower too (594 per 165 patients vs. 966 per 224 patients (P < 0.01). The main indication for crushing drugs remained swallowing disorders. The dosage form prevented crushing in 24.9% of drugs (vs. 42.0% in 2009, P < 0.001), but the drugs generally remained crushed all together. A mortar was used less often (38.6% vs. 92.6%, P < 0.001), with preference for individual-specific cups (56.1%). Mortars were more often cleaned between each patient (56.0% vs. 11.6%). The vehicle was more often neutral (water 88.5% vs. 5.7%, P < 0.001). This second study shows that regional and national recommendations have led to an overall improvement of practices for crushing drugs. Technical improvements are still possible, in association with appropriate pharmacological studies. PMID:25789404

  13. Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad

    SciTech Connect

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1998-04-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad.

  14. Metaconcrete: designed aggregates to enhance dynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Pandolfi, Anna; Ortiz, Michael

    2014-04-01

    We propose a new type of concrete for the attenuation of elastic waves induced by dynamic excitation. In this metamaterial, which we call metaconcrete, the stone, sand, and gravel aggregates of standard concrete are replaced with spherical inclusions consisting of a heavy metal core coated with a soft outer layer. These engineered aggregates can be tuned so that particular frequencies of a propagating blast wave will activate resonant oscillations of the heavy mass within the inclusions. The resonant behavior causes the system to exhibit negative effective mass, and this interaction between the wave motion and the resonant aggregates results in the attenuation of the applied dynamic loading. We introduce the concept of negative mass by deriving the effective momentum mass for the system and we define the geometrical and material parameters for the design of resonant aggregates. We develop finite element models for the analysis of metaconcrete behavior, defining a section of slab containing a periodic arrangement of inclusions. By computing the energy histories for the system when subject to a blast load, we show that there is a transfer of energy between the inclusions and the surrounding mortar. The inclusions are able to absorb a significant portion of the applied energy, resulting in a reduction in the amount of stress carried by the mortar phase and greatly improving the ability of the material to resist damage under explosive dynamic loading.

  15. The evolving epidemiology of stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving – not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends. PMID:24497682

  16. Kidney stones are common after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lieske, John C; Mehta, Ramila A; Milliner, Dawn S; Rule, Andrew D; Bergstralh, Eric J; Sarr, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for kidney stones and chronic kidney disease (CKD), is effectively treated with bariatric surgery. However, it is unclear whether surgery alters stone or CKD risk. To determine this we studied 762 Olmsted County, Minnesota residents who underwent bariatric surgery and matched them with equally obese control individuals who did not undergo surgery. The majority of bariatric patients underwent standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; 78%), with the remainder having more malabsorptive procedures (very long limb RYGB or biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch; 14%) or restrictive procedures (laparoscopic banding or sleeve gastrectomy; 7%). The mean age was 45 years with 80% being female. The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 46.7?kg/m(2) for both cohorts. Rates of kidney stones were similar between surgery patients and controls at baseline, but new stone formation significantly increased in surgery patients (11.0%) compared with controls (4.3%) during 6.0 years of follow-up. After malabsorptive and standard surgery, the comorbidity-adjusted hazard ratio of incident stones was significantly increased to 4.15 and 2.13, respectively, but was not significantly changed for restrictive surgery. The risk of CKD significantly increased after the malabsorptive procedures (adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96). Thus, while RYGB and malabsorptive procedures are more effective for weight loss, both are associated with increased risk of stones, while malabsorptive procedures also increase CKD risk. PMID:25354237

  17. The characterization of strain, impurity content, and crush strength of synthetic diamond crystals

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, T.L. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Jackson, W.E. [GE Superabrasives, 6325 Huntley Road, P.O. Box 568, Worthington, Ohio 43085 (United States); Nemanich, R.J. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses the correlation of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of synthetic diamond crystals produced by high pressure, high temperature conditions. Microscopic properties were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, birefringence, and photoluminescence (PL). Macroscopic properties characterized included inclusion content and crush force. Raman measurements detected measurable stress shifts in only two samples. The PL measurements indicated an increased presence of the H3 center in areas of high strain. The absence of the H3 center and the presence of the N-V PL center was correlated to lower average crush force. A hierarchy has been developed that relates microscopic properties to average crush force. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  18. Quasi-Uniform High Speed Foam Crush Testing Using a Guided Drop Mass Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor); Kellas, Sotiris

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple method for measuring the dynamic crush response of foam materials at various loading rates is described. The method utilizes a drop mass impact configuration with mass and impact velocity selected such that the crush speed remains approximately uniform during the entire sample crushing event. Instrumentation, data acquisition, and data processing techniques are presented, and limitations of the test method are discussed. The objective of the test method is to produce input data for dynamic finite element modeling involving crash and energy absorption characteristics of foam materials.

  19. A mixture of crushing and segregation: The complexity of grainsize in natural granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Benjy; Einav, Itai

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between grain crushing and segregation controls the dynamics of dense granular flows that underpin many natural hazards. We address this issue for the first time by developing a simple lattice model with three interacting rules—for grain crushing, mixing, and segregation. In earthquake faults, particles are trapped, they crush and mix, but do not segregate. In this case the model produces power law distributions, consistent with previous models. When segregation by kinetic sieving is added to the model, we predict depth-dependent lognormal distributions as previously observed, but not explained, in pyroclastic flows, debris flows, rock avalanches, and dry snow avalanches.

  20. Aggregates for road building from Apulia region quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region is characterized by several quarries producing aggregates for road construction. A good knowledge of the technical behavior of aggregates is really important for the use. A laboratrory investigation has been developed in cooperation with Tecnoprove laboratory on 50 quarries from all over the Apulia region. Have been studied aggregates for road construction, avoiding weak rock quarry. The study has concerned unit weigth, compressive strength, wear and tear strength (Los Angeles test) and crushing strength. Tests have been made according to Italian rules for aggregates.Quarries from Foggia district were mainly located along the southern-western boundary of Gargano calcareous horst where back-reef limestone outcrop. Only two of the studied quarries were of alluvial deposits from the Appenine. The values of technical properties were quite interesting and also the variation coefficients have been really low witnessing that the material is quite homogeneous. Only a quarry, located really close to an important fault gave poor values. Quarries from Bari district dug limestone of the Mesozoic calcareous platform. The values of the compressive strength has been between 100 and 200 MPa, while the unit weight has beetween 26,5 and 25 kN/m3. Crushing coefficient values have been quite high. It due probably either to the corned shape of limestone aggregates or the fact that aggregates quarries are located where limestone are strongly tectonized. Quarries from Brindisi and Taranto districts even are oper in Mesozoic calcareous platform unit gave the worst values of compressive strength and other technical properties. The compressive strength was normally lower than 100 MPa. The Also crushing test and the Los Angeles test has given values quite poor. Compressive strength values of limestone are strongly variable, with an high coefficient of variation (more than 30%).Probably it is due to the fact that all the studied quarries are located along the boundary of the Apulian Mesozoic carbonatic platform where more severe are the effect of tectonics induced by the faults that have broken the platform. Quarries from Lecce district were dug in grey microcrystalline limestone. Although these limestone are strongly fissured and fractured the compressive strength value are quite high and also the results of Los Angeles tests and crushing strength tests are encouraging. Los Angeles tests has given values always lower than 25% with a minimum of 14.7%. For one of the quarry the medium values of the compressive strength has been higher that 300 MPa. Also the unit weight values have been quite high, normally higher that a 25 kN/m3.The study has shown that technical properties of the aggregates, manly calcareous, from different Apulian zone are really different. They are strongly conditioned by the tectonic more than by the lithology. Where the rock is strongly tectonized wear and tear and crushing strength decrease in a really strong way, much more than it was possible to suppose on the base of compressive strength. Compressive strength is quite variable from 50 and 300 MPa with a high value of variation coefficient. The highest values of strength have been obtained for dolomitic limestone of Southern Apulia (Salento), value really high for limestone.

  1. When should one perform shockwave lithotripsy for lower caliceal stones?

    PubMed

    Ilker, Y; Tarcan, T; Akdas, A

    1995-12-01

    Extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy of lower caliceal stones is often unrewarding because of the difficulty of passing stone fragments. We report our results in SWL of lower pole stones in 219 patients and compare them with the results of SWL of middle (82 patients) and upper pole (85 patients) stones. The stone-free rate of SWL monotherapy was found to be 59%, 77%, and 64% in lower, middle, and upper caliceal stones, respectively. In lower pole stones, SWL was unsuccessful in 41% of the patients, of whom 9% had minimal residual asymptomatic stones (less than 4 mm in greatest diameter). In comparison with the results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCN) of lower pole urolithiasis in the literature, SWL was unsuccessful in large stones, with stone-free rates of 13% and 0 when the stone size was 3 to 4.9 cm2 and > 5 cm2, respectively. A stone-free rate of 82% when the stone burden was < 1 cm2 is similar to the PCN results of other centers, suggesting that SWL may be the first choice of treatment in lower pole stones of this size. We achieved a stone-free rate of 59% when the stone size was between 1 and 3 cm2, which is lower than the stone-free rates of PCN in the literature. In spite of its lower stone-free rates, SWL, with its lower morbidity, may still be considered an acceptable treatment modality in this range of moderate stone burden, especially when there is a patient desire for conservative treatment. PMID:8775070

  2. Stepping stones in DNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Stranneheim, Henrik; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there have been tremendous advances in our ability to rapidly and cost-effectively sequence DNA. This has revolutionized the fields of genetics and biology, leading to a deeper understanding of the molecular events in life processes. The rapid technological advances have enormously expanded sequencing opportunities and applications, but also imposed strains and challenges on steps prior to sequencing and in the downstream process of handling and analysis of these massive amounts of sequence data. Traditionally, sequencing has been limited to small DNA fragments of approximately one thousand bases (derived from the organism's genome) due to issues in maintaining a high sequence quality and accuracy for longer read lengths. Although many technological breakthroughs have been made, currently the commercially available massively parallel sequencing methods have not been able to resolve this issue. However, recent announcements in nanopore sequencing hold the promise of removing this read-length limitation, enabling sequencing of larger intact DNA fragments. The ability to sequence longer intact DNA with high accuracy is a major stepping stone towards greatly simplifying the downstream analysis and increasing the power of sequencing compared to today. This review covers some of the technical advances in sequencing that have opened up new frontiers in genomics. PMID:22887891

  3. FOP: still turning into stone.

    PubMed

    Taslimi, Reza; Jafarpour, Saba; Hassanpour, Nahid

    2015-02-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare catastrophic genetic condition of extraskeletal (heterotopic) ossification. One in every two million people is affected worldwide, with no ethnic, racial, gender, or geographic predisposition. Most cases of FOP arise from a spontaneous missense mutation in the gene encoding bone morphogenic protein (BMP) type II receptor (ACVR1/ALK2). Affected individuals are normal at birth apart from malformed great toes. Onset of clinical symptoms is usually in the first decade of life, presenting with episodic emergence of painful rapidly appearing tumor-like soft tissue swellings (flare-ups). Heterotopic bone replaces the skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, and connective tissue at the site of the damage through a process of endochondral ossification, causing fixation of joints and permanent limitation of motion. Most affected individuals are confined to wheelchair in the third decade of life. Worldwide rate of misdiagnosis of FOP is very high; clinicians often fail to associate the two classic clinical features of FOP: rapidly developing soft tissue swellings and the abnormal great toes. The current case presents a previously undiagnosed 39-year-old FOP patient, sadly a victim of lack of clinical awareness of this rare condition. As a result of repetitive iatrogenic harm, he has tragically "turned into stone." PMID:24253442

  4. Oxidized Metal Powders for Mechanical Shock and Crush Safety Enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    GARINO, TERRY J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of oxidized metal powders in mechanical shock or crush safety enhancers in nuclear weapons has been investigated. The functioning of these devices is based on the remarkable electrical behavior of compacts of certain oxidized metal powders when subjected to compressive stress. For example, the low voltage resistivity of a compact of oxidized tantalum powder was found to decrease by over six orders of magnitude during compaction between 1 MPa, where the thin, insulating oxide coatings on the particles are intact, to 10 MPa, where the oxide coatings have broken down along a chain of particles spanning the electrodes. In this work, the behavior of tantalum and aluminum powders was investigated. The low voltage resistivity during compaction of powders oxidized under various conditions was measured and compared. In addition, the resistivity at higher voltages and the dielectric breakdown strength during compaction were also measured. A key finding was that significant changes in the electrical properties persist after the removal of the stress so that a mechanical shock enhancer is feasible. This was verified by preliminary shock experiments. Finally, conceptual designs for both types of enhancers are presented.

  5. Release of major elements from recycled concrete aggregates and geochemical modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian J. Engelsen; Hans A. van der Sloot; Grethe Wibetoe; Gordana Petkovic; Erik Stoltenberg-Hansson; Walter Lund

    2009-01-01

    The pH dependent leaching characteristics were assessed for different types of recycled concrete aggregates, including real construction debris and crushed fresh concrete samples prepared in laboratory. Carbonation effects were identified from the characteristic pH dependent leaching patterns for the major constituents Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si and SO42–. The original particle size ranges were different for the samples investigated and

  6. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

  7. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96 %). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70 % of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ? 25 in 56 % (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8 %. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45 % (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22 % (55/255); Uric Acid 16 % (40/255); and Cystine 4 % (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  8. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

  9. Y-P30 confers neuroprotection after optic nerve crush in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Macharadze, Tamar; Landgraf, Peter; Pape, Hans-Christian; Wahle, Petra; Kreutz, Michael R

    2011-08-01

    The survival-promoting peptide, Y-P30, has been shown to be neuroprotective and stimulates neurite outgrowth in vitro. In this study, we examined whether the peptide increases survival and induces axon outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells after an incomplete optic nerve crush. A single intraocular injection of the peptide directly after optic nerve crush increased the number of retinal ganglion cells that preserved an axonal connection with the superior colliculus in the adult rat by more than 50%. However, administration of Y-P30 into the vitreous or optic nerve had no effect on the number of axons growing into the crush site after optic nerve crush. These findings suggest that the peptide is a neuroprotective agent after optic nerve damage, but does not stimulate the axon outgrowth. PMID:21666514

  10. Functional and Neuroanatomical Effects of Vaginal Distention and Pudendal Nerve Crush in the Female Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGOT S. DAMASER; CARLA BROXTON-KING; CORRI FERGUSON; FERNANDO J. KIM; JAMES M. KERNS

    2003-01-01

    PurposeWe tested the hypothesis that neuroanatomical degeneration near the external urethral sphincter (EUS) would parallel urinary dysfunction after vaginal distention or bilateral pudendal nerve crush in female rats.

  11. Compaction characteristics of crushed limestone using the Gyratory Testing Machine 

    E-print Network

    Parsons, Walter Herbert, III

    1963-01-01

    Results of Testing, Gyratory Testing Nachine (Adjusted) . . . . . . . . 55 Error in Unit Weight Caused by Unsteady Novement of Consolidation Dial Needle . . 60 5. Unit Weight Gradient 6. Noisture Content Gradient, Gyratory Testing Nachine Samples... the soil for tests, and the method used, for correcting the unit weight and moisture content for coarse aggregate excluded from the sample. Another important variable is the soil itself. Standard impact compaction tests have proven satisfactory...

  12. Speed and Temperature Effects in the Energy Absorption of Axially Crushed Composite Tubes

    E-print Network

    Fontana, Quentin, P V

    1990-06-05

    release rate Gl: glass fibres Gr: graphite fibers (carbon fibres) ILSS: interlaminar shear strength K: Kevlar fibres KI: stress intensity factor L: longitudinal M: mass N: layer number, number of layers OD: outer diameter P: local crush load, polyester... between epoxy and polyester resins, particularly the difference in fibre-matrix bond strength [40]. The effect of fibre orientation on the crush stress for flat sections and tube corners, manufactured from glass tape-epoxy was studied by Thornton [41...

  13. Adoption of quad bike crush prevention devices on Australian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Lower, Tony; Trotter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Quad bikes (all-terrain vehicles) are the leading cause of nonintentional farm injury deaths in Australia. Approximately 50% result from rollovers of the vehicle, with death frequently due to crush injury/asphyxiation. Crush protection devices fitted to quads have been demonstrated to enhance safety. This exploratory study aimed to assess feedback from a small group of dairy farmers (N?=?11) that had crush protection devices fitted to their quads. A mixed-methods design was adopted consisting of pre- and post-intervention surveys in addition to focus groups/interviews for this exploratory study. Results indicate that the crush protection device was viewed positively by the majority of participants, with virtually no impact on the reported performance of the quad in terms of braking, steering, suspension, and getting on/off. The most problematic issue was some contact with overhead objects, although the majority reported no issues at all. Some issues were also identified with attaching trailers, carrying loads, and noise from rattling. The participants reported that the likely potential benefits of a crush protection device clearly outweighed these issues. Some 4 to 6 months following the study, 10 of the 11 farmers continued to have the crush protection device fitted to their quad. The major barrier to adoption was the manufacturers' resistance and negative public statements regarding the effectiveness of crush protection devices. Participants suggested that there are steps that can be taken to increase the uptake of crush protection devices by dairy farmers. Further lag in promoting these potentially life-saving devices will only add to the death and injury burden associated with quad bikes. PMID:24417528

  14. Experiments and full-scale numerical simulations of in-plane crushing of a honeycomb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Papka; S. Kyriakides

    1998-01-01

    The in-plane mechanical behavior of honeycombs has been widely used as a two-dimensional model of the behavior of more complicated space filling foams. This paper deals with the mechanisms governing in-plane crushing of hexagonal aluminum honeycombs. Finite size honeycomb specimens are crushed quasi-statically between parallel rigid surfaces. The force–displacement response is initially stiff and elastic but this is terminated by

  15. Streaming potential measurements 1. Properties of the electrical double layer from crushed rock samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit Lorne; Frédéric Perrier; Jean-Philippe Avouac

    1999-01-01

    The zeta potential has been inferred from streaming potential measurements with crushed rock samples as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration for various salts. The value obtained for crushed Fontainebleau sandstone at pH=5.7 and a KCl solution with a resistivity of 400 Omegam is -40+\\/-5mV, where the error is dominated by sample to sample variations. The sensitivity of the

  16. Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

    1998-03-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask`s top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer`s testing of the foam and to determine the foam`s stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask.

  17. Electron-optical microscopic study of incipient dental microdamage from experimental seed and bone crushing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Peters

    1982-01-01

    No living analogue exists for the hypothetical early hominid hard\\/tough-seed, coarse-root-eating, and bone-crushing masticatory adaptation. To investigate possible microdamage\\/microwear to dental enamel caused by such usage, puncture-crushing experiments were carried out on single human teeth, using an Instron compression apparatus on the following six test materials: Makapansgat Limeworks chert (e.g., taphonomy), fresh steer longbone, mongongo nuts, Grewia berries, Carob beans,

  18. Medical and Dietary Therapy for Kidney Stone Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  19. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Lima, Hellen L; Goes, Rafael H T B de; Cerilo, Sara L N; Oliveira, Euclides R de; Gressler, Maria G M; Brabes, Kelly C S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05) by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day). There was no significant effect (P>0.05) for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41). For contents of ruminal NH?-N was a significant effect (P <0.05) only for collection time, and ammonia peaks occurred between 2 and 4 h after feeding, with values of 22.56 and 21.40 mg/dL. The total concentration of short chain fatty acids and the C2:C3 ratio was reduced in 9.6 and 15.43%. The ruminal degradability of NDF was not affected by the supplements. The supplementation with sunflower crushed to beef steers grazing, in partial replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters. PMID:24270841

  20. Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-à-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all the rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushed garlic. Consistent with these results, freshly crushed garlic group displayed significantly greater phosphorylation of anti-apoptotic ERK1/2 proteins, reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and reduced phosphorylation of proapoptotic p-38MAPK and JNK. Moreover, the survival signaling network consisting of Akt-FoxO1 was increased in the freshly crushed garlic treated hearts. Freshly crushed garlic, but not the processed garlic, showed enhanced redox signaling as evident by increased level of p65 subunit of NF?B, Nrf2 and enhanced GLUT 4, PPAR? and PPAR?. The results thus show that although both freshly crushed garlic and processed garlic provide cardioprotection; the former has additional cardioprotective properties presumably due to the presence of H2S. PMID:19722587

  1. A model for the crush of polymer-matrix composite tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hulway, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the many variables involved in the fabrication of composites, it is desirable to develop a modeling technique to allow the prediction of crush performance based on a limited number of material properties. The role of mode 1 interlaminar fracture in the crush of composites was studied to determine if a model could be developed to predict its contribution to the crushing process. Laminated strips, with a midplane delamination at the end, were compressed against a crush plate to propagate the delamination crack down the length of the strip. Energy models were developed to account for strain, friction, and mode 1 fracture energies. These models were then evaluated to predict the force required to propagate the crack as a function of crack length. The force and crack length at which the process reached a steady state condition were also predicted. The model was modified to account for mode 2 interlaminar fracture and in-plane fracture that occur in composite tubes undergoing stable crush. Crush force as a function of crack depth was predicted for round tubes. The model predictions for the laminated strips were in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  2. Natural Aggregate: A Primer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Langer

    This slide show provides an introduction to the production and uses of natural aggregate. Topics include some definitions, uses, and demand for aggregate. There is also information on its occurrence, mining, and production.

  3. Lightweight aggregate production from claystone and shale in Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Norbert A.; Khan, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    Muffle furnace tests were made on samples of clay, claystone, and shale collected in the Chittagong and Dacca areas of East Pakistan to determine their amenability to bloating for the commercial production of light-weight aggregate. Several areas, sampled in some detail, were selected for investigation because of their proximity to market, and accessibility to fuel and electricity. Muffle furnace tests show that the clay, claystone, and shale are natural bloaters at temperatures in the 1700? to 2200? F range, and do not require additives. The most desirable deposit, insofar as producing a strong aggregate is concerned, can be determined only by pilot-kiln testing and by crushing-strength tests made on concrete test cylinders. Reserves of suitable raw material are large in both the Chittagong and Dacca areas.

  4. Clustering Aggregation References

    E-print Network

    Terzi, Evimaria

    Clustering Aggregation · References ­ A. Gionis, H. Mannila, P. Tsaparas: Clustering aggregation and clustering, JACM 2008 Tuesday, October 15, 13 #12;Clustering aggregation · Many different clusterings for the same dataset! ­ Different objective functions ­ Different algorithms ­ Different number of clusters

  5. Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. PMID:22466339

  6. Kidney Stones: A Fetal Origins Hypothesis†

    PubMed Central

    Howles, Sarah A.; Edwards, Mark H.; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    Kidney stones are common with a multifactorial aetiology involving dietary, environmental and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early life events, including low birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation and there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesise that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the aetiology of nephrolithiasis. PMID:23703881

  7. 8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  8. Prompt Treatment of Kidney Stones Keeps Costs Down: Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of patients presenting with kidney stones," Dr. Howard Adler, associate professor of urology at Stony Brook University ... States as prevalence of kidney stones has increased, Adler said. More than one million Americans are expected ...

  9. A Quantum Rosetta Stone for Interferometry

    E-print Network

    Lee, H; Dowling, J P; Lee, Hwang; Kok, Pieter; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2002-01-01

    Heisenberg-limited measurement protocols can be used to gain an increase in measurement precision over classical protocols. Such measurements can be implemented using, e.g., optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers and Ramsey spectroscopes. We address the formal equivalence between the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Ramsey spectroscope, and the discrete Fourier transform. Based on this equivalence we introduce the ``quantum Rosetta stone'', and we describe a projective-measurement scheme for generating the desired correlations between the interferometric input states in order to achieve Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. The Rosetta stone then tells us the same method should work in atom spectroscopy.

  10. A Quantum Rosetta Stone for Interferometry

    E-print Network

    Hwang Lee; Pieter Kok; Jonathan P. Dowling

    2002-04-09

    Heisenberg-limited measurement protocols can be used to gain an increase in measurement precision over classical protocols. Such measurements can be implemented using, e.g., optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers and Ramsey spectroscopes. We address the formal equivalence between the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Ramsey spectroscope, and the discrete Fourier transform. Based on this equivalence we introduce the ``quantum Rosetta stone'', and we describe a projective-measurement scheme for generating the desired correlations between the interferometric input states in order to achieve Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. The Rosetta stone then tells us the same method should work in atom spectroscopy.

  11. Mathematical model describing erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Implications for blood viscosity changes in traumatic shock and crush syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ismailov, Rovshan M; Shevchuk, Nikolai A; Khusanov, Higmat

    2005-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory test, which is widespread in clinical practice, for assessing the inflammatory or acute response. This work addresses the theoretical and experimental investigation of sedimentation a single and multiple particles in homogeneous and heterogeneous (multiphase) medium, as it relates to their internal structure (aggregation of solid or deformed particles). Methods The equation system has been solved numerically. To choose finite analogs of derivatives we used the schemes of directional differences. Results (1) Our model takes into account the influence of the vessel wall on group aggregation of particles in tubes as well as the effects of rotation of particles, the constraint coefficient, and viscosity of a mixture as a function of the volume fraction. (2) This model can describe ESR as a function of the velocity of adhesion of erythrocytes; (3) Determination of the ESR is best conducted at certain time intervals, i.e. in a series of periods not exceeding 5 minutes each; (4) Differential diagnosis of various diseases by means of ESR should be performed using the aforementioned timed measurement of ESR; (5) An increase in blood viscosity during trauma results from an increase in rouleaux formation and the time-course method of ESR will be useful in patients with trauma, in particular, with traumatic shock and crush syndrome. Conclusion The mathematical model created in this study used the most fundamental differential equations that have ever been derived to estimate ESR. It may further our understanding of its complex mechanism. PMID:15807888

  12. Pigment vs cholesterol cholelithiasis: Comparison of stone and bile composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce W. Trotman; J. Donald Ostrow; Roger D. Soloway; Eleanor B. Cheong; Regina B. Longyear

    1974-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study of gallstone and gallbladder bile composition from 100 unselected American patients, 23 with pigment and 77 with cholesterol cholelithiasis. Cholesterol stones were predominantly composed of cholesterol, whereas pigment stones were mainly composed of an unidentified residue, bilirubin, and bile salts. The residue in pigment stones was not calcium bilirubinate, which sharply contrasts with the

  13. Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to…

  14. Reproducing stone monument photosynthetic-based colonization under laboratory conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Zélia Miller; Leonila Laiz; Juan Miguel Gonzalez; Amélia Dionísio; Maria Filomena Macedo; Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the biodeterioration process occurring on stone monuments, we analyzed the microbial communities involved in these processes and studied their ability to colonize stones under controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, a natural green biofilm from a limestone monument was cultivated, inoculated on stone probes of the same lithotype and incubated in a laboratory chamber. This incubation

  15. Relationship between common duct stones and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Song; Jie Wu; Ping Wang; Xiao-Dong Huang; Heng Zhang; Dan Zheng; Yan Su Min Song; Song M; Wu J; Wang P; Huang XD; Zheng D

    AIM: To investigate the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in patients with common duct stones and analyze the relationship between common duct stones and H pylori infection. METHODS: One hundred and five patients with common duct stones (experiment group) and 132 control subjects (control group) were in- cluded in the study. All the patients underwent electronic gastroscopy, rapid

  16. Mineral inlays in natural stone slabs: techniques, materials and preservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Garcia-Guinea; Cristina Sapalski; Victor Cardenes; Manuel Lombardero

    2000-01-01

    Italy (first) and Spain (second) are the largest producers of marble in the world, and they share a rich history of quarrying and artworks made from natural stone and coloured stones inlaid in marbles. The present decrease of manufactured marble from Spain and Italy is directly related to the increased imports of high quality manufactured natural stone products from Asian

  17. An Update and Practical Guide to Renal Stone Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikhil Johri; Bruce Cooper; William Robertson; Simon Choong; David Rickards; Robert Unwin

    2010-01-01

    Renal stone disease covers kidney and lower urinary tract stones caused by a variety of conditions, including metabolic and inherited disorders, and anatomical defects with or without chronic urinary infection. Most cases are idiopathic, in which there is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition, but where environmental and lifestyle factors play an important role. Indeed, it is becoming apparent that renal stone

  18. The spatiotemporal localization of JAM-C following sciatic nerve crush in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Avari, Parizad; Huang, Wenlong; Averill, Sharon; Colom, Bartomeu; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan; Priestley, John V

    2012-01-01

    JAM-C is a junctional adhesion molecule, enriched at tight junctions on endothelial and epithelial cells, and also localized to Schwann cells at junctions between adjoining myelin end loops. The role of JAM-C following peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is currently unknown. We examined the localization of JAM-C after sciatic nerve crush injury in adult rats. JAM-C immunoreactivity was present in paranodes and incisures in sham surgery control nerve, but distal to the crush injury significantly decreased at three and 14 days. JAM-C was re-expressed at 28 days and, by 56 days, was significantly increased in the distal nerve compared to controls. In a 7-mm length of sciatic nerve sampled distal to the crush site, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive paranodes increased in the distal direction. Conversely, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive incisures were highest immediately distal to the crush site and decreased in the more distal direction. Further analysis revealed a strong correlation between JAM-C localization and remyelination. Fifty-six days after crush injury, greater densities of JAM-C paranodes were seen compared to the nodal marker jacalin, suggesting that paranodal JAM-C precedes node formation. Our data are the first to demonstrate a potential role of JAM-C in remyelination after PNI. PMID:22950044

  19. Tubulization increases axonal outgrowth of rat sciatic nerve after crush injury.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, P; Dahlin, L; Povlsen, B

    1996-06-01

    It is important to develop methods which increase nerve regeneration since restoration of function following injury to peripheral nerves often requires outgrowth of the injured axons over long distances. In this study, axonal outgrowth after bilateral crush injury to the sciatic nerve of the rat was measured. One group with large-diameter nonpermeable silicone tubes and one group with large diameter permeable silicone tubes applied around the crush site on one side had regeneration following nerve injury compared to controls on the other side. The length of regeneration of the regenerating axons were then measured 4, 5, and 6 days following the crush injury using the "pinch reflex test." The presence of axons at the pinch level was confirmed by immunocytochemical staining for neuro-filaments. The length of regeneration for rats with nonpermeable tubes was significantly greater than that of the contralateral control side and was so at all times (p < 0.05). The effect was present but not that pronounced where permeable tubes were used. We conclude that the outgrowth of regenerating sensory axons after sciatic nerve crush injury in the rat can be increased by enclosing the regeneration site in a silicone tube. The observed effect may be due to local mechanisms such as macrophage invasion or prevention of rapid wash-out of fluid from the crush zone. PMID:8654526

  20. Laboratory Characterization of Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Dynamically Compacted Crushed Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1999-02-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located at a depth of about 655 meters. The WIPP underground facility is located in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation. Access to the facility is provided through vertical shafts, which will be sealed after decommissioning to limit the release of hazardous waste from the repository and to limit flow into the facility. Because limited data are available to characterize the properties of dynamically compacted crushed salt, Sandia National Laboratories authorized RE/SPEC to perform additional tests on specimens of dynamically compacted crushed salt. These included shear consolidation creep, permeability, and constant strain-rate triaxial compression tests. A limited number of samples obtained from the large compacted mass were available for use in the testing program. Thus, additional tests were performed on samples that were prepared on a smaller scale device in the RE/SPEC laboratory using a dynamic-compaction procedure based on the full-scale construction technique. The laboratory results were expected to (1) illuminate the phenomenology of crushed-salt deformation behavior and (2) add test results to a small preexisting database for purposes of estimating parameters in a crushed-salt constitutive model. The candidate constitutive model for dynamically compacted crushed salt was refined in parallel with this laboratory testing.

  1. MARS PRESS CONFERENCE Dr. Edward Stone's Presentation

    E-print Network

    Leveson, Nancy

    1 MARS PRESS CONFERENCE Dr. Edward Stone's Presentation #12;2 Actions · MANAGEMENT ­ Additional of Entry, Descent & Landing #12;5 Actions · ENGINEERING ­ Significantly increased temperature margin of propulsion system during Descent and Landing ­ Reverified propulsion system operation #12;6 Actions · PEER

  2. Environmental management of the stone cutting industry.

    PubMed

    Nasserdine, Khaled; Mimi, Ziad; Bevan, Blair; Elian, Belal

    2009-01-01

    Environmental Management of the stone cutting industry in Hebron is required to reduce the industry's adverse impact on the downstream agricultural land and the adverse impact on the drinking water aquifers. This situation requires the implementation of an industrial wastewater management strategic approach and technology, within the available technical and financial resources. Ten pilot projects at different locations were built at Hebron to reduce or eliminate the incompatible discharge of the liquid and solid waste to the environment and improve the stone cutting industry's effluent quality. A review of existing practices and jar test experiments were used to optimize the water recycling and treatment facilities. The factors reviewed included influent pumping rates and cycles, selection of the optimal coagulant type and addition methods, control of the sludge recycling process, control over flow rates, control locations of influent and effluent, and sludge depth. Based on the optimized doses and Turbidity results, it was determined that the use of Fokland polymer with an optimal dose of 1.5mg/L could achieve the target turbidity levels. The completion of the pilot projects resulted in the elimination of stone cutting waste discharges and an improvement in the recycled effluent quality of 44-99%. This in turn reduced the long term operating costs for each participating firm. A full-scale project that includes all the stone cutting firms in Hebron industrial area is required. PMID:18248874

  3. The Dedekind Reals in Abstract Stone Duality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrej Bauer; Paul Taylor

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Stone Duality (ASD) is a direct axiomatisation of the spaces and maps in general topology, whereas the traditional and all other contemporary approaches treat spaces as sets (types, objects of a topos) with additional structure. ASD is presented as a -calculus, of which this paper provides a self-contained summary, the foundational background having been investigated in earlier work. This

  4. The Stone Age in the Malay Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hale

    1886-01-01

    IN NATURE, vol. xxxiii. p. 377, there is a notice of a paper by M. de Morgan, published in Cosmos, on the Stone Age in the Malay Peninsula. Will you permit me to offer a few remarks with reference to this matter. In the first place, it is said that M. de Morgan came into contact with three native races,

  5. Subpixel Registration of Images Harold Stone

    E-print Network

    Chang, Ee-Chien

    Subpixel Registration of Images Harold Stone NEC Research Institute Princeton, NJ 08540 hstone@research.nj.nec.com Michael Orchard Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08540 orchard@ee.princeton.edu Ee­chien Chang NEC Research Institute Princeton, NJ 08540 changec@cz3.nus.edu.sg Abstract Phase correlation has been studied

  6. Profilometry of medieval Irish stone monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubos, Thierry; Redfern, Michael; O Croinin, Daibh

    2005-06-01

    National monuments are at ever-increasing risk of severe and permanent damage. The 3D laser scanning of stone monuments brings a new dimension in the field of cultural heritage by providing means of preserving, visualizing, accessing and analysing some of its most invaluable artefacts. In this article, we present the results obtained with our project "Profilometry of Medieval Irish Stone Monuments" hosted at the Centre for the Study of Human Settlement and Historical Change, NUI Galway. This project aims to create a virtual archive of selected incised stones from 3D scans taken in the field. The raw scans are processed into watertight 3D models and new processing techniques have been developed to enhance the surface features of the stones. Also, textured 3D models of the artefacts have been made available online for the benefit of both the historian community and the broader public. This article focuses on the analysis we performed on the shaft of the east cross at Toureen Peacaun, Co Tipperary, which shows the longest inscription in Ireland with geometrical capitals.

  7. Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.

    PubMed

    Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-08-01

    Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone. PMID:22614098

  8. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maciejewski; R. Neuhäuser; R. Errmann; M. Mugrauer; Ch. Adam; A. Berndt; T. Eisenbeiss; S. Fiedler; Ch. Ginski; M. Hohle; U. Kramm; C. Marka; M. Moualla; T. Pribulla; St. Raetz; T. Roell; T. O. B. Schmidt; M. Seeliger; I. Spaleniak; N. Tetzlaff; L. Trepl

    2011-01-01

    Transiting exoplanets (TEPs) observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs), the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger

  9. Effect of blind treatment on stone disease.

    PubMed

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2010-06-01

    Most of the drugs administered to stone patients appear to be inappropriate and doing more harm than good to the patients. The objective of this paper is to identify the prevalence of blind chemotherapy among the stone patients and find out the real indication for the drugs administered. Patients who attended the stone clinic for the first time were interviewed to find out what drugs they had been taking before the attendance at the stone clinic. 350 patients consuming specific drugs relevant to stone formation at least for a period of 15 days were selected for a detailed assessment. The type of drug consumed, the dose, the duration, the side effects, compliance rate and effect on stone disease were assessed. The biochemical profile of the patients was assessed to identify the role of the therapeutic modalities utilised. Conclusions regarding the utility of drugs in the process of stone formation were made. The values were compared with those of patients not on medication and considering laboratory standards. Of the 350 patients studied, 96 patients were consuming potassium citrate in different doses, 50 were consuming allopurinol, 44 cystone, 27 potassium citrate + magnesium, 25 calcury, 24 rowatinex, 21 ayurvedic drugs, 17 dystone, 17 homeopathic medicines and 17 other drugs. The longest duration of compliance was for cystone-2.5 years. All other drugs were stopped by the patients themselves due to recurrence of symptoms. As much as 93% of the patients did not feel that there was any significant relief of symptoms. The side effects which prompted the patients to stop medicine were gastro intestinal upset, particularly with potassium citrate, rowatinex and potassium citrate + magnesium combination. The relevant biochemical changes noted were increased urinary citrate levels in patients consuming potassium citrate alone or in combination with magnesium. Serum uric acid was within normal limits in patients consuming allopurinol. Urine uric acid levels were also lower in patients on allopurinol. It is concluded that most of the drugs administered blindly were neither indicated nor beneficial for the patients. Metabolic correction has to be based on proper metabolic assessment. PMID:19997722

  10. Dietary habits of calcium stone formers.

    PubMed

    Martini, L A; Heilberg, I P; Cuppari, L; Medeiros, F A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1993-08-01

    1. Since dietary factors are known to be related to nephrolithiasis, calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients were evaluated in terms of calcium, total protein of both animal and plant origin, carbohydrate and energy intakes, on the basis of 72-h dietary records during the week plus 24-h dietary records during the week-end. 2. The data for 77 calcium stone formers (57 with absorptive hypercalciuria and 20 with renal hypercalciuria) were compared to those for 29 age-matched healthy subjects. The body mass index of the CSF group was higher than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Consumption of all nutrients was similar for both groups during the week but week-end dietary records for CSF showed higher calcium intake (586 +/- 38 vs 438 +/- 82 mg/day, P < 0.05), protein to body weight ratio (1.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 g kg-1 day-1, P < 0.05) and animal protein (56 +/- 3 vs 40 +/- 3 g/day, P < 0.05) when compared with healthy subjects. 3. Comparison of hypercalciuria subtypes (renal hypercalciuria and absorptive hypercalciuria) did not indicate any difference in calcium or energy intake between groups, either during the week or during the week-end. However, the absorptive hypercalciuric group presented higher protein and animal protein consumption during the week-end. 4. These data suggest a low calcium intake in this population, even by stone formers. The higher animal protein consumption by our calcium stone formers observed during week-ends seems to be more important than calcium intake for stone formation. PMID:8298515

  11. A probabilistic mechanical model for prediction of aggregates’ size distribution effect on concrete compressive strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miled, Karim; Limam, Oualid; Sab, Karam

    2012-06-01

    To predict aggregates' size distribution effect on the concrete compressive strength, a probabilistic mechanical model is proposed. Within this model, a Voronoi tessellation of a set of non-overlapping and rigid spherical aggregates is used to describe the concrete microstructure. Moreover, aggregates' diameters are defined as statistical variables and their size distribution function is identified to the experimental sieve curve. Then, an inter-aggregate failure criterion is proposed to describe the compressive-shear crushing of the hardened cement paste when concrete is subjected to uniaxial compression. Using a homogenization approach based on statistical homogenization and on geometrical simplifications, an analytical formula predicting the concrete compressive strength is obtained. This formula highlights the effects of cement paste strength and aggregates' size distribution and volume fraction on the concrete compressive strength. According to the proposed model, increasing the concrete strength for the same cement paste and the same aggregates' volume fraction is obtained by decreasing both aggregates' maximum size and the percentage of coarse aggregates. Finally, the validity of the model has been discussed through a comparison with experimental results (15 concrete compressive strengths ranging between 46 and 106 MPa) taken from literature and showing a good agreement with the model predictions.

  12. In vitro studies on the role of glycosaminoglycans in crystallization intensity during infectious urinary stones formation.

    PubMed

    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Ró?alski, Antoni

    2014-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis cause urinary tract infections which are recurrent and can lead to formation of urinary calculi. Both bacterial and the host factors are involved in the development of urolithiasis. To determine the impact of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the formation of P. mirabilis-induced urinary stones, we investigated the in vitro crystallization, aggregation and adhesion of crystals in the presence of GAGs naturally appearing in urine. Crystallization experiments were performed in synthetic urine infected with P. mirabilis in the presence of: hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate A, B and C (ChSA, ChSB, ChSC). The intensity of crystallization and aggregation were established by counting particles and phase-contrast microscopy. To analyze the adhesion of crystals, we used normal urothelium and (45)Ca isotope-labeled crystals. In the presence of ChSC, both the size of the crystals formed and their number were higher compared with the control. GAGs increased crystals adhesion to the cells, but only for ChSA this effect was significant. Chondroitin sulfates, which accelerate the first stages of infection-induced stones formation, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24164670

  13. Diffusion Limited Aggregation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This module presents the problem of growing aggregate structures one particle at a time through random processes. Such structures are seen throughout nature, through examples such as electrodeposition, dielectric breakdown, and snowflake Formation. The main algorithm for modeling these aggregate structures is diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). DLA models cover a wide range of phenomena and size sales, and variations range from lattice based models to models that allow free movement, models in multiple dimensions, and models that change how particles stick to the growing aggregate.

  14. Universality in snowflake aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, C. D.; Ball, R. C.; Field, P. R.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    2004-08-01

    Aggregation of ice crystals is a key process governing precipitation. Individual ice crystals exhibit considerable diversity of shape, and a wide range of physical processes could influence their aggregation; despite this we show that a simple computer model captures key features of aggregate shape and size distribution reported recently from cirrus clouds. The results prompt a new way to plot the experimental size distributions leading to remarkably good dynamical scaling. That scaling independently confirms that there is a single dominant aggregation mechanism at play, albeit our model (based on undeflected trajectories to contact) does not capture its form exactly.

  15. Comparisons of Cubed Ice, Crushed Ice, and Wetted Ice on Intramuscular and Surface Temperature Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Joseph H; Hill, Holly M; Miller, Michael G; Cheatham, Christopher C; Michael, Timothy J; Baker, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different types of cold application, including cold whirlpools, ice packs, and chemical packs. However, few have investigated the effectiveness of different types of ice used in ice packs, even though ice is one of the most common forms of cold application. Objective: To evaluate and compare the cooling effectiveness of ice packs made with cubed, crushed, and wetted ice on intramuscular and skin surface temperatures. Design: Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Setting: Human performance research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women) with no history of musculoskeletal disease and no known preexisting inflammatory conditions or recent orthopaedic injuries to the lower extremities. Intervention(s): Ice packs made with cubed, crushed, or wetted ice were applied to a standardized area on the posterior aspect of the right gastrocnemius for 20 minutes. Each participant was given separate ice pack treatments, with at least 4 days between treatment sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus one-half skinfold measurement) temperatures of the right gastrocnemius were measured every 30 seconds during a 20-minute baseline period, a 20-minute treatment period, and a 120-minute recovery period. Results: Differences were observed among all treatments. Compared with the crushed-ice treatment, the cubed-ice and wetted-ice treatments produced lower surface and intramuscular temperatures. Wetted ice produced the greatest overall temperature change during treatment and recovery, and crushed ice produced the smallest change. Conclusions: As administered in our protocol, wetted ice was superior to cubed or crushed ice at reducing surface temperatures, whereas both cubed ice and wetted ice were superior to crushed ice at reducing intramuscular temperatures. PMID:19295957

  16. Characterization of the jet perforation crushed zone by SEM and image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Asadi, M.; Preston, P.W. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States))

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a method to measure porosity and permeability alteration of the crushed zone with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. A new phenomenon, shock metamorphism, was used to evaluate shock-wave penetration. Berea sandstone samples were prepared with a modification of the API recommended practice for test-sample preparation. Samples were perforated with low- and medium-penetration shaped charges. Analysis of the low-charge shot sample indicated an average porosity reduction of 25% and an average permeability reduction of 55% in the crushed zone. The sample shot with the medium-penetration shaped charge shoved planar-element shock metamorphism.

  17. Coupling continuous damage and debris fragmentation for energy absorption prediction by cfrp structures during crushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, Christine; Lachaud, Frédéric; Limido, Jérome; Lacome, Jean-Luc; Bisson, Antoine; Charlotte, Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Energy absorption during crushing is evaluated using a thermodynamic based continuum damage model inspired from the Matzenmiller-Lubliner-Taylors model. It was found that for crash-worthiness applications, it is necessary to couple the progressive ruin of the material to a representation of the matter openings and debris generation. Element kill technique (erosion) and/or cohesive elements are efficient but not predictive. A technique switching finite elements into discrete particles at rupture is used to create debris and accumulated mater during the crushing of the structure. Switching criteria are evaluated using the contribution of the different ruin modes in the damage evolution, energy absorption, and reaction force generation.

  18. Lecture outline Clustering aggregation

    E-print Network

    Terzi, Evimaria

    Lecture outline · Clustering aggregation ­ Reference: A. Gionis, H. Mannila, P. Tsaparas: Clustering aggregation, ICDE 2004 · Co-clustering (or bi-clustering) · References: ­ A. Anagnostopoulos, A. Dasgupta and R. Kumar: Approximation Algorithms for co-clustering, PODS 2008. ­ K. Puolamaki. S. Hanhijarvi

  19. Functional recovery from sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat correlates with individual differences in responses to chronic intermittent stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Gispen; N. L. U. Meeteren; J. H. Brakkee; P. J. M. Helders; V. M. Wiegant

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the influence of chronic stress on functional recovery from a sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat. Male Wistar rats underwent standard unilateral sciatic nerve crush. Subsequently, chronic stress was induced during the recovery phase using a daily 30 min shock box session where rats received three electric footshocks each session

  20. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  1. Testing to define the sensitivity of small Type B packagings to the proposed IAEA crush test requirement

    SciTech Connect

    Diggs, J.M.; Leisher, W.B.; Pope, R.B.; Trujillo, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The test series described in this paper has shown that the proposed dynamic crush test or the alternate static crush test result in significantly greater packaging deformation than occurs when the regulatory 9 meter drop test is performed on lightweight, low density, Type B packagings. Furthermore, when the test results from the current program are compared with test results from an accident simulating test of a truck/trailer system carrying such lightweight packagings, the proposed dynamic crush test or the alternate static crush test both appear to provide a crush environment similar to that which can be expected in transport accidents, whereas the 9 meter drop test does not appear to simulate this environment. The energy absorbed by the packaging under the proposed dynamic crush test is independent of the packaging mass and can be significantly greater than the energy the packaging must absorb during a 9 meter drop test. The deformations produced in the 310 kN static crush test and the proposed dynamic crush test are very similar, and are generally greater than those experienced in the 9 meter drop test. The outer drum lid of the generic designs opened under these conditions, at times exposing the inner container. Such damage could lead to increased heating of the inner container during the following thermal test prescribed by regulations.

  2. Stones River Battlefield Historic Landscape Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Battle of Stones River (or the Battle of Murfreesboro as it referred to in the South), was fought between December 31, 1862 and January 2, 1863 in middle Tennessee. At the conclusion of this skirmish, the Union Army had repelled two intense Confederate attacks and it was a bit of an uplift after the Union's defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg. This fine collection from Middle Tennessee State University's Walker Library "documents the history of people, land use, and nature in the Stones River Battlefield area." The collection contains over 500 documents, including photographs, deeds to various land parcels, and so on. Visitors can browse the collection by names, deeds, and photographs, or they can also perform their own search. For anyone interested in rural geography, Tennessee history, and related matters this site will warrant several visits.

  3. PBS-Nova: America's Stone Age Explorers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Nova website asks the question: "Who were the first Americans, and where did they come from?" The site was designed to accompany a Nova program about America's Stone Age Explorers that aired on November 9, 2004. The site provides a transcript of the program; a brief article discussing the disappearance of many large mammals around 13,000 years ago; a photographic exhibit of 10 expertly-crafted stone Clovis tools from the Fenn Cache; a map that shows potential pre-Clovis sites in North America; and an interactive matching game that examines early human artifacts. The site also links to a brief, downloadable Teacher's Guide that includes a Program Overview, Classroom Activity, and Viewing Ideas.

  4. Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment for Kidney Stone Disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Dayron; Sacco, Dianne E

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive interventions for stone disease in the United States are mainly founded on 3 surgical procedures: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopic lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. With the advancement of technology, treatment has shifted toward less invasive strategies and away from open or laparoscopic surgery. The treatment chosen for a patient with stones is based on the stone and patient characteristics. Each of the minimally invasive techniques uses an imaging source, either fluoroscopy or ultrasound, to localize the stone and an energy source to fragment the stone. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses a shock wave energy source generated outside the body to fragment the stone. In contrast, with ureteroscopy, laser energy is placed directly on the stone using a ureteroscope that visualizes the stone. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy requires dilation of a tract through the back into the renal pelvis so that instruments can be inserted directly onto the stone to fragment or pulverize it. The success of the surgical intervention relies on performing the least invasive technique with the highest success of stone removal. PMID:26088070

  5. Are stone analysis results different with repeated sampling?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Terence T. N.; Elkoushy, Mohamed A.; Andonian, Sero

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed differences in results of stone analyses on subsequent sampling. Methods: A retrospective review of patients with stone analyses at a tertiary stone centre between March 2006 and July 2012 was performed. All stones were analyzed at a centralized laboratory using infrared spectroscopy. Patients were grouped according to the first predominant stone type on record, as defined by the predominant stone component of at least 60%. Stone groups included calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaP), uric acid (UA), cystine, struvite, mixed CaOx-CaP and mixed CaOx-UA. All patients had a full metabolic stone workup. Results: Of the 303 patients with stone analyses, 118 (38.9%) patients had multiple stone analyses. The mean age was 53.4 ± 15.1 years, and 87 (73.7%) were males. Of the 118, the initial stone analysis showed 43 CaOx, 38 CaP, 21 UA, 4 CaOx-CaP, 2 CaOx-UA, 6 cystine, and 4 struvite. There was a different stone composition in 25 (21.2%) patients with a median time delay of 64.5 days. Different compositions were found in 7 CaOx (to 3 CaP, 2 CaOx-CaP, and 2 UA), 5 CaP (to 3 CaOx and 2 CaOx-CaP), 3 UA (to 3 CaOx), 4 CaOx-CaP (to 2CaOx, 1 UA and 1 CaP), 2 CaOx-UA (to 2 CaOx) and 4 struvite (to 3 CaP and 1 UA). Conclusions: Stone composition was different in 21.2% of patients on subsequent analyses. PMID:24940457

  6. Pricing the C's of Diamond Stones

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chu, Singfat

    This article, created by Singfat Chu of the National University of Singapore, describes a dataset containing information on 308 diamond stones, which is useful when studying concepts in multiple linear regression analysis. Some of the key concepts include: categorical variables, data transformation and standardized residuals. It shows how the same type of linear regression used in such fields as finance, marketing and human resources can be used for this type of study.

  7. Preparation of charcoal from cherry stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Valle, Carlos J.; Gómez-Corzo, Manuel; Gómez-Serrano, Vicente; Pastor-Villegas, José; Rojas-Cervantes, María L.

    2006-06-01

    Cherry stones (CS) are carbonised at 400-1000 °C for 0-4 h in N 2 and the charcoals obtained are characterised to gain information about their chemical composition and porous texture, with a view to their use in the preparation of activated carbon. Depending on the heating conditions, the products obtained may possess a low ash content and a high fixed carbon content and are essentially microporous and macroporous solids.

  8. FastStone Capture 5.2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    Screen capture software can be quite helpful and potential applications include looking at graphics for use in a report or just reviewing visual material later for other purposes. The latest version of FastStone Capture allows users to capture full screen rectangle regions, scrolling windows, and other objects. The application takes up a small amount of memory, and it also allows users to add comments to each captured image. This version is compatible with all computers running Windows 95 and newer.

  9. A quantum Rosetta stone for interferometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hwang Lee; Pieter Kok; Jonathan P. Dowling

    2002-01-01

    Heisenberg-limited measurement protocols can be used to gain an increase in measurement precision over classical protocols. Such measurements can be implemented using, e.g., optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers and Ramsey spectroscopes. We address the formal equivalence between the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Ramsey spectroscope, and the discrete Fourier transform. Based on this equivalence we introduce the ``quantum Rosetta stone'', and we describe a

  10. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Maciejewski; R. Neuhaeuser; R. Errmann; M. Mugrauer; Ch. Adam; A. Berndt; T. Eisenbeiss; S. Fiedler; Ch. Ginski; M. Hohle; U. Kramm; C. Marka; M. Moualla; T. Pribulla; St. Raetz; T. Roell; T. O. B. Schmidt; M. Seeliger; I. Spaleniak; N. Tetzlaff; L. Trepl

    2010-01-01

    Transiting exoplanets (TEPs) observed just about 10 Myrs after formation of\\u000atheir host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation\\u000atheories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet\\u000aformation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10\\u000aMyrs), the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by\\u000agravitational collapse (being

  11. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Erhard M.

    1987-06-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  12. Mix design for oil palm shell concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A Mannan; C Ganapathy

    2001-01-01

    The mix design of lightweight concrete using oil palm shell (OPS) as aggregate differs widely from the procedure of mix proportioning for conventional concrete with crushed stone aggregate. The mix design depends on the properties of aggregates. The 28-day compressive strengths of OPS concrete designed according to the ACI method for conventional concrete and methods mentioned in references [A. Short,

  13. Effects of organic and conventional management on physical properties of soil aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Król, A.; Lipiec, J.; Turski, M.; Ku?, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of organic and conventional management systems on total porosity, water and ethanol sorptivity, repellency index, and tensile strength of soil aggregates. Two size fractions of soil aggregates (15-20 and 30-35 mm) were collected from the 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths. Data on water and ethanol sorptivities of the initially air-dry soil aggregate fractions were obtained from the steady state flow measurements using an infiltration device. Water repellency was identified by the ethanol/water sorptivity method. The total porosity was higher in aggregates from the conventionally than organically managed soil irrespective of soil layer or aggregate size. Infiltration and sorptivity of ethanol (60 mm3) were faster under the conventional than organic management irrespective of aggregate size and depth. Infiltration and sorptivity of water in 30-35mmaggregates were greater under organic than conventional management. The repellency index was mostly higher for the conventional management of soil and for agregates 30-35 than 15-20 mm in each management system. Aggregate crushing strength was in most cases greater under the organic than conventional management and could increase resistance to compaction and carbon sequestration under the former.

  14. Identification of Lotus rhizobia by direct DNA hybridization of crushed root nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.E.; Bjourson, A.J.; Thompson, J.K.

    1987-07-01

    Hybridization of crushed Lotus pedunculatus root nodules with /sup 32/P-labeled total genomic DNA probes was used to identify Rhizobium loti and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus rhizobia). Probes always hybridized with homologous target DNA and frequency with DNAs of other strains from the same genus. Intergeneric hybridization did not occur. Results were comparable to those from colony hybridization.

  15. The use of crushing equipments for soil management practice in chestnut orchards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Santos; Afonso Martins; Olga Borges; Isabel Linhares

    Chestnut orchards have an important role on the rural economy and landscape ecology of Northern Portugal. Previous studies have shown the need of new management practices in those agro-ecosystems in order to improve its productivity and sustainability and, one of the envisaged techniques is the use of new equipment that destroys the vegetation under canopy and crushes the organic residues

  16. EMISSIONS FROM THE CRUSHED GRANITE INDUSTRY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed granite industry. The potential environmental effect of this emission source was evaluated using source severity, defined as the ratio of the maximum time-averaged ground level concentration of a pollutant at...

  17. In Vitro Stability of Sapropterin Dihydrochloride From Crushed Tablets Mixed in Applesauce, Pudding, and Infant Formula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Striepeke; Elaina R. Jurecki; Carl S. Hornfeldt; Sean Turbeville; Bill Prince

    2009-01-01

    Sapropterin is approved to reduce blood phenylalanine levels in patients with hyperphenylalaninemia due to tetrahydrobiopterin-responsive phenylketonuria. The current Food and Drug Administration—approved labeling states that sapropterin tablets should be dissolved in 4 to 8 oz of water or apple juice; however, numerous requests for information regarding the feasibility of administering crushed sapropterin tablets in infant formula or soft foods such

  18. Motor pattern control for increasing crushing force in the striped burrfish ( Chilomycterus schoepfi)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wyatt L. Korff; Peter C. Wainwright

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between muscular force modulation and the underlying nervous system control signals has been difficult to quantify for in vivo animal systems. Our goal was to understand how animals alter muscle activation patterns to increase bite forces and to evaluate how accurate these patterns are in predicting crushing forces. We examined the relationship between commonly used measures of cranial

  19. Contribution of Failure Mechanisms to Crush Energy Absorption in a Composite Tube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narasimhan Swaminathan; Ronald C. Averill

    2006-01-01

    The main energy absorbing mechanisms during quasi-static crush of a circular composite tube have been investigated using an axisymmetric finite element model. Failure mechanisms such as material failure, delamination, friction between plies and friction between a metallic initiator and the tube are explicitly represented in the model. A Design of Experiments (DOE) study is performed to estimate the contribution of

  20. Numerical model of crushing of grains inside two-dimensional granular materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Tsoungui; Denis Vallet; Jean-Claude Charmet

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to define the failure criterion on an individual grain subjected to an arbitrary set of contact forces. The model is implemented in a two-dimensional computer simulation code based on the molecular dynamics method to study the crushing mechanisms of grains inside a granular material under œdometric compression. The simulation results are partially compared with experiments

  1. A local isotropic/global orthotropic finite element technique for modeling the crush of wood

    SciTech Connect

    Attaway, S.W.

    1988-09-01

    Wood has often been used as the crushable material in impact limiters. However, the analysis of wood has been difficult because of its orthotropic crush behavior. A micro-mechanical technique for analyzing crushable orthotropic materials, such as wood, has been developed. Alternating layers of hard and soft isotropic material were used to produce global orthotropic behavior. This technique captured many of the phenomena observed with large crush of orthotropic materials. Crush stresses at different angles of loading with respect to the grain obtained with this technique compared well with Hankinson's empirical formula and with the Tsai-Wu failure criterion for orthotropic materials. Shear strain localizations, which have been observed experimentally in tests with loading parallel to the grain, were also predicted using the alternating layer model. In order to verify the constitutive behavior of the local isotropic/global orthotropic model, a parametric study of a simple wood sample crushed at different grain angles was performed. Following completion of the verification study, the technique was applied to the analysis of a transportation cask impact limiter that contained wood as part of its energy absorbing matrix. The analysis was repeated with an isotropic material model for comparison, and the differences between the results from the two studies will be discussed. 34 refs., 26 figs.

  2. Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Crush Strength of Cellulose Fiberboard Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C.

    2002-02-07

    Cane fiberboard is widely used as the impact absorption and thermal insulation material in overpacks for radioactive materials shipping package. The study described here investigated the properties of cane fiberboard assemblies under environmental conditions important to radioactive materials packaging applications. This study examines the effects of temperature and humidity on the crush strength of cane fiberboard assemblies.

  3. Axial crushing analysis of tubes deforming in the multi-lobe mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Singace

    1999-01-01

    Similar to the concertina mode, the wall of axially crushed tubes deforming in multi-lobe or diamond mode, will be laid down partly to the inside and partly to the outside of the tube generator with the latter part being smaller than the former. Such proportion of the folding length is known as the eccentricity factor, in both the concertina and

  4. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Bostick; D. E. Beck; K. T. Bowser

    1996-01-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent

  5. Crushing Artifacts Resulting in Small Blue Cellular Clusters That Simulate Small Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federica Flamminio; Anna Lisa Tosi; Giovanni Fellegara

    2011-01-01

    The presence of “crushing” artifacts in histological sections is a very common finding and represents a potentially major pitfall for the surgical pathologist, particularly in small biopsy specimens. Microscopically, it appears as bluish clusters in which the cellular details are not recognizable. Here the authors report examples of this phenomenon that have been reported or that they have personally observed

  6. Measures for controlling safety of crushed ice and tube ice in developing country

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Visith Chavasit; Kukkanang Sirilaksanamanon; Phannakon Phithaksantayothin; Yuttana Norapoompipat; Tipvon Parinyasiri

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of pathogens in crushed and tube ice is a public health concern in many developing countries, calling for the development of practical preventive measures to reduce microbial and chemical contamination. By applying principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP), data on production and distribution processes in 11 ice-making plants in different provinces of Thailand were obtained. Results

  7. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Michael J. (Aston, PA)

    1994-01-01

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

  8. Crushing of hard prey by the oral jaws during feeding has been observed in only a few osteichthyan groups, such as the

    E-print Network

    Motta, Philip J.

    ) (Fig. 2). We define crushing as the forceful occlusion of the opposing dental surfaces and grinding so that the dental surfaces not only oppose each other, as in crushing, but also slide past one another. Sharks

  9. Business models of information aggregators

    E-print Network

    Hu, Jiangxia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This thesis identifies the specific characteristics of information aggregators, and proposes nine business models appropriate for information aggregators. These nine models are: advertising, brokerage, subscription, ...

  10. The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; García de León, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

  11. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  12. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  13. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  14. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant availability and throughput capacity and to produce quality lightweight aggregate for use in commercial applications.

  15. WPW syndrome: the 'Rosetta stone' of rhythmology. The history of the Rosetta stone.

    PubMed

    Lüderitz, Berndt

    2009-03-01

    Prior to the 'discovery' of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, interpreting the respective phenomena was akin to reading hieroglyphic characters; thus a clear pathophysiological understanding and practical clinical diagnosis were impossible. The epochal work by Wolff, Parkinson, and White, which resulted in the electrophysiologically correct interpretation of circus movements as the cause of tachycardic rhythm disorders, can therefore indeed be compared to the deciphering of hieroglyphic writing by Champollion in 1822 with the aid of the Rosetta stone. After intensive archaeological and graphological examinations by the Society of Antiquaries, the Rosetta stone finally made its way to the British Museum, where it can still be viewed and admired today. PMID:19131345

  16. Milk of calcium stones: radiological signs and management outcome.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, M

    2015-06-01

    Milk of calcium (MOC) is a rare type of stone that was first described in 1940 by Ludin and Howald who reported MOC in renal cysts. Milk of calcium is a viscous colloidal suspension of calcium salts. Stasis, obstruction and infection are important predisposing factors. Due to a layering effect, characteristic radiological signs especially in CT can help in diagnosis to avoid unsuccessful shock wave lithotripsy. This is the largest reported case series, in which radiological signs by CT scan to predict renal MOC stones, clinical picture and management outcome are described in detail. Cases with suspected renal milk of calcium stones were studied over 7 years (2008-2015). All cases were diagnosed preoperatively by non-contrast CT. Urine cultures were performed in all patients preoperatively. Intra-operative and postoperative findings were reported. Stones retrieved were sent for chemical analysis using an infrared method. Seven cases of milk of calcium renal stones were included in this study. These stones were faint radio-opaque in two cases and radiolucent in five cases. All cases were diagnosed preoperatively with non-contrast CT. Their Hounsfield units (HU) ranged from 114 to 612. All stones were located in a dependent position (gravitational effect) in the posterior aspect of dilated calyces. Five cases exhibited the typical fluid level and two cases demonstrated semilunar (half moon) pattern in the anterior surface of the stones. All cases underwent PCNL with suction and retrieval of soft stones without the need for disintegration. When stones demonstrate a low Hounsfield unit, are arranged in dependent positions within dilated calyces and exhibit fluid level or semilunar pattern on non-contrast CT, milk of calcium stones should be considered. PCNL is an effective modality for management of renal milk of calcium stones. PMID:25820293

  17. Metabolic risk factors in children with kidney stone disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco R. Spivacow; Armando L. Negri; Elisa E. del Valle; Irene Calviño; Erich Fradinger; José R. Zanchetta

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of metabolic risk factor in children with renal stone disease is the basis of medical treatment aimed at preventing\\u000a recurrent stone events and the growth of preexisting calculi. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the metabolic risk\\u000a factors and clinical and family histories of 90 children with kidney stone disease who had been referred to our institution\\u000a and

  18. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  19. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  20. The Stone Wall Initiative: Grades 3-5 Curricula

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This curriculum includes lessons and activities which are grounded in the children's book 'Stone Wall Secrets' as well as in New England's abundance of stone walls. Many students are familiar with stone walls in their neighborhoods and are afforded instances in which they may delve into essential questions regarding the walls, the stones they are made from, and the history associated with their construction. The curriculum includes a set of lessons with national content standard alignments for each one, accompanied by worksheets, a teacher's kit, a teacher's reference, links to related texts, and some sample student work.

  1. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  2. Advances in the endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Arain, Mustafa A; Attam, Rajeev; Freeman, Martin L

    2014-09-01

    Extraction of common bile duct stones by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography generally involves biliary sphincterotomy, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation or a combination of both. Endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation after sphincterotomy has increased the safety of large stone extraction. Cholangioscopically directed electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy using single-operator mother-daughter systems or direct peroral cholangioscopy using ultraslim endoscopes are increasingly utilized for the management of refractory stones. In this Review, we focus on advances in endoscopic approaches and techniques, with a special emphasis on management strategies for 'difficult' common bile duct stones. PMID:24860928

  3. A survey of natural aggregate properties and characteristics important in remote sensing and airborne geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H., Jr.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.

    1995-01-01

    Natural aggregate is vital to the construction industry. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is abundant, new sources are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transportation costs, and environmental concerns. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics detect surface and near-surface phenomena, and may be useful for detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources; however, before a methodology for applying these techniques can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits. The distribution of potential aggregate sources is closely tied to local geologic history. Conventional exploration for natural aggregate deposits has been largely a ground-based operation, although aerial photographs and topographic maps have been extensively used to target possible deposits. Today, the exploration process also considers factors such as the availability of the land, space and water supply for processing, political and environmental factors, and distance from the market; exploration and planning cannot be separated. There are many physical properties and characteristics by which to judge aggregate material for specific applications; most of these properties and characteristics pertain only to individual aggregate particles. The application of remote sensing and airborne geophysical measurements to detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources, however, is based on intrinsic bulk physical properties and extrinsic characteristics of the deposits that can be directly measured, mathematically derived from measurement, or interpreted with remote sensing and geophysical data. ?? 1995 Oxford UniversityPress.

  4. Recycling of construction debris as aggregate in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Menzie, W.D.; Hyun, H.

    2004-01-01

    Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available substitutes for natural aggregate in many areas. This paper presents an overview of factors that affect recycled aggregate cost, availability, and engineering performance, and the results of a survey of business practices in the Mid-Atlantic region. For RAP, processing costs are less than those for virgin natural aggregate. Use of efficient asphalt pavement stripping technology, on-site reclamation, and linked two-way transport of asphalt debris and processed asphalt paving mix between asphalt mix plants and paving sites has led to extensive recycling of asphalt pavement in the Mid-Atlantic region of the US. Most of the sites that recycle asphalt pavement (RAP) are located in or near urban areas close to important transportation corridors. RPCC is a viable aggregate source in urban settings where unit costs for processed aggregate from RPCC and natural aggregate are comparable. Disposal fees charged at RPCC recycling sites help defray processing costs and the significantly lower tipping fees at recycling sites versus landfill disposal sites encourage recycling of construction debris as aggregate. Construction contractors and construction debris recycling centers, many of which have the ability to crush and process concrete debris at the job site, produce most RPCC. Production of RPCC aggregate from construction debris that is processed on site using portable equipment moved to the construction site eliminates transportation costs for aggregate and provides an economic incentive for RPCC use. Processing costs, quality and performance issues, and lack of large quantities where needed limit RPCC use. Most RPCC suppliers in the Mid-Atlantic area are located in counties with population densities greater than 400 people/km2 (1036 people/mile2) and that have high unit-value costs and limited local availability of natural aggregate. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Monitoring particle aggregation processes.

    PubMed

    Gregory, John

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of test methods for monitoring particle aggregation processes is reviewed. These include techniques for measuring aggregation rates in fundamental studies and those which are useful in the monitoring and control of practical coagulation/flocculation processes. Most emphasis is on optical methods, including light transmission (turbidity) and light scattering measurements and the fundamentals of these phenomena are briefly introduced. It is shown that in some cases, absolute aggregation rates can be derived. However, even when only relative rates can be obtained, these can still be very useful, for instance in defining optimum flocculation conditions. Some of the methods available for investigating properties of aggregates (flocs), such as size, strength and fractal dimension are also discussed, along with some related properties such as sedimentation rate and filterability of flocculated suspensions. PMID:18930173

  6. The effect of indwelling endoprosthesis on stone size or fragmentation after long-term treatment with biliary stenting for large stones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Katsinelos; I. Galanis; I. Pilpilidis; G. Paroutoglou; P. Tsolkas; B. Papaziogas; S. Dimiropoulos; E. Kamperis; D. Katsiba; M. Kalomenopoulou; A. Papagiannis

    2003-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic biliary stenting is often used for large or difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones, but the effect of indwelling endoprosthesis on size or fragmentation of stones after long-term treatment with biliary stenting has not been formally established. We compared the stone size or fragmentation of common bile duct stones after a long period of biliary stenting. Methods: Endoscopic

  7. Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

  8. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

  9. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

  10. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

  11. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644...Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  12. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644...Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  13. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644...Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  14. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644...Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  15. Cystone® for 1 year did not change urine chemistry or decrease stone burden in cystine stone formers.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Stephen B; Vrtiska, Terri J; Canzanello, Vincent J; Lieske, John C

    2011-06-01

    Cystine kidney stones frequently recur because inadequate prevention exists. We recruited documented recurrent cystine kidney stone formers (6 men, 4 women, 44 ± 17 years) into a 2-phased study to assess safety and effectiveness of Cystone®, a herbal treatment used to prevent and facilitate passage of cystine kidney stones. The first phase was a randomized double-blinded 12 weeks crossover study assessing the effect of Cystone® versus placebo (2 tablets BID) on urinary chemistries. The second phase was an open label 1 year study of Cystone® to determine if renal stone burden decreased, as assessed by quantitative and subjective assessment of CT. There was no statistically significant change of urinary composition from baseline short (6 weeks) or long (52 weeks) term on Cystone®, including volume (2525, 2611, 2730 ml), pH (6.7, 6.7, 7.05), and cystine excretion (2770, 2889, 4025 ?mol). Pre and post-CT was available in nine patients. Although seven kidneys lost stones spontaneously or surgically, overall stone burden increased in seven kidneys, was unchanged in nine, and fell in only two. Quantitative scoring increased in both the left and right kidneys (1602-1667 and 301-2064 volumetric units, respectively). Therefore, this study does not suggest that Cystone® has a favorable effect on urinary chemistries that could decrease cystine stone formation, nor does it appear to prevent stone growth or promote stone passage over a 1-year period. PMID:21161651

  16. Quantitative analysis of liquid penetration kinetics and slaking of aggregates as related to solid-liquid interfacial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, Marc-O.; Woche, Susanne K.; Bachmann, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    SummaryAggregate stability is frequently shown to be enhanced by strong soil water repellency, however, there is limited systematic evidence on this effect for moderately (subcritically) water repellent soils. This study aimed to investigate the specific effects of interfacial properties on the liquid penetration kinetics in relation to the stability of subcritically water repellent aggregates (4-6.3 mm) from various arable and forest soils against breakdown by slaking. In contrast to many other studies, where aggregate stability was determined by wet sieving, we here assessed the stability by immersion of air-dry aggregates in water-ethanol solutions with surface tensions ranging from 30 to 70 mN m-1. This approach allowed a highly sensitive discrimination of different stability levels and the determination of breakdown kinetics also for less stable aggregates. Interfacial properties were characterized in terms of contact angle measured on crushed aggregates, ?c, and calculated for intact aggregates, ?i, based on infiltration measurements with water and ethanol. Aggregate stability turned out to be higher in forest soils compared to arable soils with topsoil aggregates generally found to be more stable than subsoil aggregates. For water repellent aggregates, characterized by contact angles >40° and low water infiltration rates (<0.2 mm3 s-0.5), the fraction of disrupted aggregates after 30 s of immersion was generally below 10%, whereas in case of the more wettable aggregates, characterized by contact angles <10° and higher infiltration rates (>0.25 mm3 s-0.5) more than 80% of the aggregates were disrupted. In accordance, we found a close relationship between aggregate stability and wettability with differences between ?c and ?i being generally small. In addition, aggregate stability turned out to be related to organic carbon content. However, correlation analysis revealed that both persistence of aggregate stability and kinetics of aggregate breakdown were more strongly affected by the contact angle, ?c (r = 0.90 and r = -0.83, respectively) and ?i (r = 0.89 and r = -0.76, respectively) than the organic carbon content (r = 0.62 and -0.52, respectively), suggesting that stability was primarily controlled by aggregate interfacial properties. Calculation of liquid penetrativity as a function of surface tension and contact angle clearly demonstrated the importance of both solid and liquid interfacial properties in determining the stability of subcritically water repellent aggregates against slaking.

  17. Management of waste from stone processing industry.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, K; Joseph, Kurian

    2007-10-01

    Characteristics of waste generated in stone processing industries, impact of its current disposal practices and waste recycling potential were assessed by field studies. The physical and chemical characteristics of waste are comparable to construction materials like sand and cement. The environmental issues due to the disposal of waste including that on ambient air quality were identified at respective disposal sites. It was found that the waste can be used to replace about 60% of sand and 10% of cement in concrete. Similarly the waste can replace 40% of clay in clay bricks with affecting its compressive strength. PMID:18476374

  18. Renal effects of percutaneous stone removal

    SciTech Connect

    Eshghi, M.; Schiff, R.G.; Smith, A.D.

    1989-02-01

    Preoperative and postoperative renography with 99mTechnetium-diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid was performed on 33 patients who were free of renal scarring, infection, and obstruction and who underwent percutaneous renal stone removal. Although there was a transient decrease in renal function postoperatively in some patients, statistically significant reductions in renal function occurred only in 1 patient with an arteriovenous malformation that was embolized and in 1 patient who had a postoperative ureteropelvic junction stricture. The creation of more than one nephrostomy tract did not affect the results. In the absence of serious complications, percutaneous nephrostomy does not have a significant effect on renal function.

  19. Exploring the building stones of downtown Seattle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lyn Gualtieri

    Most introductory geology students have experience identifying hand-sized rock samples in the lab, but never get to see bigger rock exposures outside the classroom. This activity includes takes students to downtown Seattle, where they observe the geology of the building stones within a few blocks of campus. The exercise exposes students to large, polished rock samples in an area where they are familiar, but might not have noticed the rocks before. For students on urban campuses or online geology classes with a limited amount of lab time this is a useful activity.

  20. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    E-print Network

    Maciejewski, G; Errmann, R; Mugrauer, M; Adam, Ch; Berndt, A; Eisenbeiss, T; Fiedler, S; Ginski, Ch; Hohle, M; Kramm, U; Marka, C; Moualla, M; Pribulla, T; Raetz, St; Roell, T; Schmidt, T O B; Seeliger, M; Spaleniak, I; Tetzlaff, N; Trepl, L

    2010-01-01

    Transiting exoplanets (TEPs) observed just about 10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs), the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger when young) or accretion growth (being smaller when young). We present a survey, the main goal of which is to find and then characterise TEPs in very young open clusters.

  1. Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, G.; Neuhäuser, R.; Errmann, R.; Mugrauer, M.; Adam, Ch.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Fiedler, S.; Ginski, Ch.; Hohle, M.; Kramm, U.; Marka, C.; Moualla, M.; Pribulla, T.; Raetz, St.; Roell, T.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Seeliger, M.; Spaleniak, I.; Tetzlaff, N.; Trepl, L.

    2011-02-01

    Transiting exoplanets (TEPs) observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs), the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger when young) or accretion growth (being smaller when young). We present a survey, the main goal of which is to find and then characterise TEPs in very young open clusters.

  2. Measurements of the stress supported by the crush zone in open hole composite laminates loaded in compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, E. Gail; Bradley, Walter L.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the stress supported by the crush zone in open hole specimens loaded in compression were carried out on two composite laminates, AS4/PEEK and IM6/HST-7, containing circular holes of three different diameters. Compression tests were conducted in a specially designed high-axial-alignment material test system machine. Results indicated that the local stress supported in the crush zone is much less than the stress required to initiate the crush, providing the reason for the finding of Guynn et al. (1987) that the Dugdale model does not accurately predict the load-damage size relationship of open hole composite specimens loaded in compression.

  3. The use of the chrysotile cement waste as the secondary aggregate for the concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V.; Pligina, A.; Rozovskaya, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of research on the effective concrete with secondary chrysotile cement aggregate. One of the important problems of modern science of construction materials is the use of secondary resources for the production of construction materials, and a considerable part of them are the chrysotile cement waste and scrapped chrysotile cement products. The aim of presented research is the development of effective concrete for the production of foundation wall blocks with the use of crushed chrysotile cement products as a secondary aggregate. The main characteristics of the secondary chrysotile cement aggregate have been determined. The concrete with different compositions and with different content of secondary chrysotile cement rubble has been studied. The dependences of the strength and the specific strength of concrete with a constant W/C ratio and constant binder consumption on the consumption of the secondary aggregate have been obtained. It is stated that the introduction of secondary chrysotile cement aggregate does not significantly effect the water resistance and frost resistance of the concrete. It is shown that the variation of the fractions of secondary aggregates and the binder makes it possible to obtain the effective concrete with a wide range of strength values.

  4. A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

  5. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  6. 259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner Overlook. This is a common feature at all overlooks on the parkway. All stone on the parkway, except for the Linn Cove Viaduct was quarried from within fifty miles of where it was used. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  8. Biofilm quantification on stone surfaces: comparison of various methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Prieto; B. Silva; O. Lantes

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of three different methods of estimating biofilm biomass on stone (amount of chlorophyll a, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis and changes in colour) is discussed. Stone samples were sprayed with solutions of cyanobacteria and the actual microbial biomass—determined by cell culture—was compared with the biomass estimated using the different methods. Statistically significant differences between actual biomass

  9. Characteristics of nanobacteria and their possible role in stone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Olavi Kajander; Neva Ciftcioglu; Katja Aho; Enrique Garcia-Cuerpo

    2003-01-01

    Kidney stone formation is a multifactorial disease in which the defence mechanisms and risk factors are imbalanced in favour of stone formation. We have proposed a novel infectious agent, mineral forming nanobacteria (NB), to be active nidi that attach to, invade and damage the urinary epithelium of collecting ducts and papilla forming the calcium phosphate center(s) found in most kidney

  10. Nutritional Risk Factors in Calcium Stone Disease in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Iguchi; Kiyonori Kataoka; Kenjiro Kohri; Sunao Yachiku; Takashi Kurita

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the nutritional environment affecting calcium stone disease in Japan. The following results were obtained. Renal stone disease in the late 1970s increased by about three times than that of the 1940s. Fats and oils, animal protein and calcium intake increased remarkably after the second World War and milk plus milk products, meat

  11. Temporally variable macroinvertebrate–stone relationships in streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean Jacobsen

    2005-01-01

    Stones were used to sample macroinvertebrates and characterise microhabitats at monthly or bimonthly intervals in six Ecuadorian streams covering a gradient in four different stability measures and other stream characteristics. The physical variables current velocity, water depth, horizontal position, embeddedness and size were measured to characterise stone microhabitats and presumed to be affected by or related to physical impact during

  12. 11. FLOOR 2 LOOKING NORTH; SHOWS BURR STONES AND ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FLOOR 2 LOOKING NORTH; SHOWS BURR STONES AND ROCK STONES, BEARING OF UPRIGHT SHAFT ON CENTER POST, BELT AT BASE OF UPRIGHT SHAFT DRIVES GOVERNOR SPINDLE; TRUNDLEWHEELS OF TWO LAYSHAFTS ENGAGE WITH CROWN WHEEL ABOVE GREAT SPUR WHEEL - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  13. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles grafted on stone surface.

    PubMed

    Bellissima, F; Bonini, M; Giorgi, R; Baglioni, P; Barresi, G; Mastromei, G; Perito, B

    2014-12-01

    Microbial colonization has a relevant impact on the deterioration of stone materials with consequences ranging from esthetic to physical and chemical changes. Avoiding microbial growth on cultural stones therefore represents a crucial aspect for their long-term conservation. The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively investigated in recent years, showing that they could be successfully applied as bactericidal coatings on surfaces of different materials. In this work, we investigated the ability of AgNPs grafted to Serena stone surfaces to inhibit bacterial viability. A silane derivative, which is commonly used for stone consolidation, and Bacillus subtilis were chosen as the grafting agent and the target bacterium, respectively. Results show that functionalized AgNPs bind to stone surface exhibiting a cluster disposition that is not affected by washing treatments. The antibacterial tests on stone samples revealed a 50 to 80 % reduction in cell viability, with the most effective AgNP concentration of 6.7 ?g/cm(2). To our knowledge, this is the first report on antimicrobial activity of AgNPs applied to a stone surface. The results suggest that AgNPs could be successfully used in the inhibition of microbial colonization of stone artworks. PMID:24151026

  14. Response of porous building stones to acid deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Grossi; M. Murray; R. N. Butlin

    1995-01-01

    This work investigates the response of porous carbonate building stones to acid deposition during a short-terra exposure period and the characteristics that influence their reactivity and\\/or durability. Several carbonate porous stones used in Spanish and English monuments were exposed to English urban and suburban environments. In each location they were both exposed to and sheltered from rainfall. Monthly analyses were

  15. Monte-Carlo Tree Search in Crazy Stone Remi Coulom

    E-print Network

    Coulom, Rémi - Groupe de Recherche sur l'Apprentissage Automatique, Université Charles de Gaulle

    Monte-Carlo Tree Search in Crazy Stone R´emi Coulom Universit´e Charles de Gaulle, INRIA, CNRS Introduction 2 Crazy Stone's Algorithm Principles of Monte-Carlo Evaluation Tree Search Patterns 3 Playing global understanding The Monte-Carlo Approach random playouts dynamic evaluation with global

  16. Kinetics of Swelling in Clay-Bearing Stones

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    with theory #12;The Problem The swelling of clays in stone leads to stress which can cause the stone to break Cylindrical Samples: 8mm 10mm 14mm 20mm 40mm diameter All samples are from the same block of Portland Brownstone with clay layers horizontally orientated Samples to be used to analyze varying kinetics based

  17. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district.

    PubMed

    Aslin Shamema, A; Thanigai Arul, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium. PMID:25033236

  18. Use of Local Stone: Successes, Failures and Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerns, Edward; Will, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Stone has been used in construction for thousands of years. Until relatively recently, local stone was used almost exclusively due to limited transportation options and to reduce costs. . Historically, the stone was often taken from nearby fields, known as fieldstone, without any specific quarrying operations and used to create unique assemblages of vernacular buildings. Stone, perhaps more than any other natural building material, has numerous varieties and characteristics within the broader classifications of stone: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. In exterior applications, stone historically has been used for foundations, localized cladding elements and in some instances entire building facades. Many of these local stones are appropriate for foundations, but not necessarily for cladding systems, particularly once the stone was quarried and modified rather than used in its natural form. These issues tended to be less significant in historic buildings when wall systems were much thicker and had more redundancies in the cladding systems Since around 1880, the use of these thinner applications of quarried stones as more traditional cladding systems (rather than cladding and structure) has resulted in challenges including unanticipated weathering characteristics, residual stresses and detrimental inclusions. These conditions can result in expensive and extensive repairs and maintenance. Often the options to address these characteristics are limited or potentially drastic depending on the scale of installation. It is important to understand the cause of the issues, understand if these issues are significant and finally how to address them appropriately. Where and how these unique local stones are installed as well as climate and weathering patterns certainly contribute to the potential unanticipated conditions. This presentation will be divided into two general parts. The first will address various stones used historically throughout regions within the United States including looking at some of the physical characteristics and problems that have been encountered with the use of the stone in various building applications. The focus will be on limestones and sandstones utilized in the Midwestern United States that have variable performances in these installations, contrasted with, the coral and shell stones of the Southern United States have performed as intended. The second part of the presentation will include a variety of case studies focusing on evaluation, distress and repair options for these local stones.

  19. The Crush and Spray: A patented design for herbicide application with less waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service recently patented an equipment design to deliver herbicides more efficiently and cost-effectively. Towed by a standard all-terrain vehicle, the Crush and Spray can access out-of-the-way or wet locations. An adjustable roller first knocks down the unwanted plants. A low-set spray boom with wide angle sprayer nozzles then provides precise, close-to-the-ground application of herbicide along the length

  20. Effect of crushing on olive paste and virgin olive oil minor components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio M. Inarejos-García; G. Fregapane; M. Desamparados Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on the influence of the olive crushing technique on the minor composition of olive pastes and their\\u000a corresponding virgin olive oils since these compounds are strongly related to their quality and characteristics. Two different\\u000a cultivars, Arbequina and Cornicabra—known for their different minor component composition—were processed at laboratory scale\\u000a using hammer mills at various breakage forces and

  1. Regeneration and remyelination of Xenopus tadpole optic nerve fibres following transection or crush

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Reier; H. F. de Webster

    1974-01-01

    Summary Optic nerves of stage 54–56Xenopus laevis tadpoles were either transected or crushed, and subsequent Wallerian degeneration, regeneration, and remyelination were examined. After 4 days, normal myelinated fibres were no longer present in the distal stump, and only a few unmyelinated fibres remained. After 10–13 days, the distal nerve consisted mainly of a core of reactive astrocytes with enlarged processes

  2. Batch study of liquid-phase adsorption of methylene blue using cedar sawdust and crushed brick

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oualid Hamdaoui

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the batch adsorption of basic dye, methylene blue, from aqueous solution (40mgL?1) onto cedar sawdust and crushed brick in order to explore their potential use as low-cost adsorbents for wastewater dye removal. Adsorption isotherms were determined at 20°C and the experimental data obtained were modelled with the Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich and Temkin isotherm equations.

  3. Calcanisation of tibia using Ilizarov fixator in crush injuries of hindfoot: a new method

    PubMed Central

    Wardak, Emal; Goel, Akshay

    2007-01-01

    Crush injuries of the foot are one of the most difficult and challenging tasks for a trauma surgeon to manage in terms of limb salvage and provision of a painless functional foot. Injuries to the foot, especially the hindfoot, account for almost 24.6% of all the warfare injuries in Afghanistan, of which more than 70% end in amputation for various reasons. We devised a method using the principles of Ilizarov’s distraction osteosynthesis to salvage limbs with bony defects in the hindfoot which otherwise were candidates for amputation. The procedure is done in two stages. Initially, the ring fixator is applied for the soft tissue reconstruction and infection control, and the next stage consists of percutaneous “inverted L”-shaped osteotomy in the posterior half of the lower tibia. The study included 32 patients with hindfoot crush injuries involving talus, calcaneum, a combination of both, or even involving the adjacent tarsal bones. All these crush injuries were classified using the Gustilo and Anderson classification. The postoperative functional assessment of the feet was done using the Maryland Foot Score system with a minimum follow-up of four years. We had good results in 53%, fair in 34% and failure in 13% of our cases. The complications of this procedure were the same as with the use of the ring fixator elsewhere in the body. This method provides a technique to salvage the foot and produce a painless, stable, fused foot in one of the most difficult settings of a hindfoot crush injury. PMID:17639385

  4. Green pigment in crushed garlic ( Allium sativum L.) cloves: Purification and partial characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Jin Lee; Jung-Eun Cho; Jeong-Han Kim; Seung-Koo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Unknown green pigment, responsible for greening in crushed garlic cloves, was purified and characterized by using a series of column chromatography, liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (LC–ESI), fast atom bombardment (FAB), matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The purified green pigment was highly polar and slightly viscous, with a garlic flavor, and easily turned

  5. Microbial deterioration of stone monuments--an updated overview.

    PubMed

    Scheerer, Stefanie; Ortega-Morales, Otto; Gaylarde, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Cultural heritage monuments may be discolored and degraded by growth and activity of living organisms. Microorganisms form biofilms on surfaces of stone, with resulting aesthetic and structural damage. The organisms involved are bacteria (including actinomycetes and cyanobacteria), fungi, archaea, algae, and lichens. Interactions between these organisms and stone can enhance or retard the overall rate of degradation. Microorganisms within the stone structure (endoliths) also cause damage. They grow in cracks and pores and may bore into rocks. True endoliths, present within the rock, have been detected in calcareous and some siliceous stone monuments and are predominantly bacterial. The taxonomic groups differ from those found epilithically at the same sites. The nature of the stone substrate and the environmental conditions influence the extent of biofilm colonization and the biodeterioration processes. A critical review of work on microbial biofilms on buildings of historic interest, including recent innovations resulting from molecular biology, is presented and microbial activities causing degradation are discussed. PMID:19203650

  6. Assays for ?-synuclein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Giehm, Lise; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    This review describes different ways to achieve and monitor reproducible aggregation of ?-synuclein, a key protein in the development of Parkinson's disease. For most globular proteins, aggregation is promoted by partially denaturing conditions which compromise the native state without destabilizing the intermolecular contacts required for accumulation of regular amyloid structure. As a natively disordered protein, ?-synuclein can fibrillate under physiological conditions and this process is actually stimulated by conditions that promote structure formation, such as low pH, ions, polyamines, anionic surfactants, fluorinated alcohols and agitation. Reproducibility is a critical issue since ?-synuclein shows erratic fibrillation behavior on its own. Agitation in combination with glass beads significantly reduces the variability of aggregation time curves, but the most reproducible aggregation is achieved by sub-micellar concentrations of SDS, which promote the rapid formation of small clusters of ?-synuclein around shared micelles. Although the fibrils produced this way have a different appearance and secondary structure, they are rich in cross-? structure and are amenable to high-throughput screening assays. Although such assays at best provide a very simplistic recapitulation of physiological conditions, they allow the investigator to focus on well-defined molecular events and may provide the opportunity to identify, e.g. small molecule inhibitors of aggregation that affect these steps. Subsequent experiments in more complex cellular and whole-organism environments can then validate whether there is any relation between these molecular interactions and the broader biological context. PMID:21163351

  7. Crushed concrete as a phosphate binding material: a potential new management tool.

    PubMed

    Egemose, Sara; Sønderup, Melanie J; Beinthin, Malde V; Reitzel, Kasper; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Flindt, Mogens R

    2012-01-01

    To avoid eutrophication of receiving waters, effective methods to remove P in urban and agricultural runoff are needed. Crushed concrete may be an effective filter material to remove dissolved and particulate P. Five types of crushed concrete were tested in the laboratory to evaluate the retention capacity of dissolved P. All types removed P very effectively (5.1-19.6 g P kg(-1) concrete), while the possible release of bound P varied between 0.4 and 4.6%. The retention rate was positively related to a decreasing concrete grain size due to an increasing surface area for binding. The P retention was also related to a marked increase in pH (up to pH 12), and the highest retention was observed when pH was high. Under these circumstances, column experiments showed outlet P concentrations <0.0075 mg P L(-1). Furthermore, experiments revealed that release of heavy metals is of no importance for the treated water. We demonstrate that crushed concrete can be an effective tool to remove P in urban and agricultural runoff as filter material in sedimentation/infiltration ponds provided that pH in the treated water is neutralized or the water is diluted before outlet to avoid undesired effects caused by the high pH. PMID:22565246

  8. Chitooligosaccharides promote peripheral nerve regeneration in a rabbit common peroneal nerve crush injury model.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanpei; Gong, Leilei; Gu, Xiaosong; Ding, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Chitooligosaccharides (COSs) are the biodegradation products of chitosan that have been demonstrated with neuroaffinity and/or neuroprotective actions. In this study, we investigated the possible benefits of treatment with COSs on nerve regeneration after crush injuries to peripheral nerves. The rabbits with the crushed common peroneal nerve were treated by daily intravenous injection of 1.5 or 3 mg/kg body weight of COSs or identical volume of saline (as the control) for a 6-week period. At the end of COSs treatment, electrophysiological assessments, Meyer's trichrome and Masson trichrome staining, and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the regeneration of injured common peroneal nerve and atrophy of the tibialis posterior muscle. The results showed that the compound muscle action potentials, the number of regenerated myelinated nerve fibers, the thickness of regenerated myelin sheaths, and the cross-sectional area of tibialis posterior muscle fibers were significantly improved in the nerves that received COSs treatment and the results with COSs treatment displayed a dose-dependent pattern. This study demonstrated that COSs accelerated peripheral nerve regeneration after crush injury to rabbit common peroneal nerves. The COSs could probably become a potential neuroprotective agent for improvement of peripheral nerve regeneration after the injury and deserve for further studies. PMID:19653322

  9. The Christchurch Earthquake: Crush Injury, Neuropathic Pain, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    On February 22, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck Christchurch, New Zealand. The peak ground acceleration, a measure of the shaking or intensity of an earthquake, was one of the highest ever recorded worldwide. One hundred and eighty-five people lost their lives; many others were injured. Two cases both involving young women are presented; they sustained crush injuries to limbs after being trapped by falling debris and went on to develop severe neuropathic pain. This report examines the mechanisms of neuropathic pain in the setting of crush injury, the treatment modalities, and the association between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. These case reports highlight the fact that crush injury is relatively common during major earthquakes and that neuropathic pain is an important sequel of this. Post-traumatic stress disorder is common in earthquake survivors with a recognised association with chronic pain. Pain-related disability may increase as well. Issues such as chronic pain and physical disability should not be overlooked as attention focuses on disaster management and the treatment of life-threatening injuries. PMID:23956754

  10. Immediate Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor-? (Etanercept) Therapy Enhances Axonal Regeneration After Sciatic Nerve Crush

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kinshi; Liu, Huaqing; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Myers, Robert R.; Shubayev, Veronica I.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration begins immediately after injury. Understanding the mechanisms by which early modulators of axonal degeneration regulate neurite outgrowth may affect the development of new strategies to promote nerve repair. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) plays a crucial role in the initiation of degenerative cascades after peripheral nerve injury. Here we demonstrate using real-time Taqman quantitative RT-PCR that, during the time course (days 1–60) of sciatic nerve crush, TNF-? mRNA expression is induced at 1 day and returned to baseline at 5 days after injury in nerve and the corresponding dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Immediate therapy with the TNF-? antagonist etanercept (fusion protein of TNFRII and human IgG), administered systemically (i.p.) and locally (epineurially) after nerve crush injury, enhanced the rate of axonal regeneration, as determined by nerve pinch test and increased number of characteristic clusters of regenerating nerve fibers distal to nerve crush segments. These fibers were immunoreactive for growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and etanercept, detected by anti-human IgG immunofluorescence. Increased GAP-43 expression was found in the injured nerve and in the corresponding DRG and ventral spinal cord after systemic etanercept compared with vehicle treatments. This study established that immediate therapy with TNF-? antagonist supports axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. PMID:19746434

  11. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated.

  12. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Crush, Puncture, and Perforation Scenarios in the Steven Impact Test

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, K S; Chidester, S K; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2002-06-28

    The Steven test and associated modeling has greatly increased the fundamental knowledge of practical predictions of impact safety hazards for confined and unconfined explosive charges. Building on a database of initial work, experimental and modeling studies of crush, puncture, and perforation scenarios were investigated using the Steven impact test. The descriptions of crush, puncture, and perforation arose from safety scenarios represented by projectile designs that ''crush'' the energetic material or either ''puncture'' with a pinpoint nose or ''perforate'' the front cover with a transportation hook. As desired, these scenarios offer different aspects of the known mechanisms that control ignition: friction, shear and strain. Studies of aged and previously damaged HMX-based high explosives included the use of embedded carbon foil and carbon resistor gauges, high-speed cameras, and blast wave gauges to determine the pressure histories, time required for an explosive reaction, and the relative violence of those reactions, respectively. Various ignition processes were modeled as the initial reaction rate expression in the Ignition and Growth reaction rate equations. Good agreement with measured threshold velocities, pressure histories, and times to reaction was calculated for LX-04 impacted by several projectile geometries using a compression dependent ignition term and an elastic-plastic model with a reasonable yield strength for impact strain rates.

  13. Up-regulation of NF45 correlates with Schwann cell proliferation after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Shiran; Xu, Hua; Yan, Shixian; Xu, Dawei; Zhang, Yi

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear factor (NF)45 (also known as interleukin enhancer-binding factor (ILF)2), is a transcription factor that interacts with NF90 to regulate gene expression. It has long been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation. However, the role of NF45 in the process of peripheral nervous system regeneration after injury remains poorly understood. Herein, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of NF45 in a rat sciatic nerve crush model. We detected the up-regulated expression of NF45 in Schwann cell after sciatic nerve crush. What's more, the expression of the cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) exhibited a similar tendency with that of NF45. In cell cultures, we observed increased expression of NF45 during the process of TNF-?-induced Schwann cell proliferation, whereas the protein level of p21 was down-regulated. Interference of NF45 led to enhanced expression of p21 and also impaired proliferation of Schwan cells. Taken together, our data implicated that NF45 was up-regulated in the sciatic nerve after crush, which was associated with proliferation of Schwann cell. PMID:25566957

  14. Tibial fractures associated with crush injuries to the soft tissues of the dorsal foot in children.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Koushin; Uchino, Masataka; Wakita, Ryuji; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2004-03-01

    We retrospectively studied 15 children with tibial fractures associated with crush injuries to the soft tissues of the dorsal foot. The fractures, including six open fractures, were united with no complications within an average of 11.1 weeks. Wound closure to treat crush injuries of the dorsal foot was achieved using split- or full-thickness skin grafts in most patients. The outcomes of these grafts were acceptable, and all skin coverage was successful and remained viable with no breakdown. Extensor tendon injuries of the foot sustained by eight patients could not be sutured or repaired due to the nature of the injuries. However, the functional abilities of those injured tendons that could be sutured to surrounding tissues in a neutral position were acceptable, even though two patients had contracture of the toes that was problematic when wearing shoes. To manage crush skin injuries of the dorsal foot, split- or full-thickness skin grafts appear to provide a simple and convenient treatment strategy. In cases associated with extensor tendon injuries, suturing damaged extensor tendons to surrounding tissues represents another useful strategy with acceptable outcomes. PMID:15124795

  15. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration in WldS transgenic rats after optic nerve crush and lens injury

    E-print Network

    Lorber, Barbara; Tassoni, Alessia; Bull, Natalie D; Moschos, Marilita M; Martin, Keith R

    2012-06-06

    Abstract Background We have previously shown that the slow Wallerian degeneration mutation, whilst delaying axonal degeneration after optic nerve crush, does not protect retinal ganglion cell (RGC) bodies in adult rats. To test the effects of a...

  16. Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, Jonathan M.

    The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

  17. Algal 'greening' and the conservation of stone heritage structures.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Viles, Heather A; Ahmad, Samin; McCabe, Stephen; Smith, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    In humid, temperate climates, green algae can make a significant contribution to the deterioration of building stone, both through unsightly staining ('greening') and, possibly, physical and chemical transformations. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the deteriorative impact and spatial distribution of green algal biofilms, hindering attempts to model the influence of climate change on building conservation. To address this problem, we surveyed four sandstone heritage structures in Belfast, UK. Our research had two aims: 1) to investigate the relationships between greening and the deterioration of stone structures and 2) to assess the impacts of environmental factors on the distribution of green biofilms. We applied an array of analytical techniques to measure stone properties indicative of deterioration status (hardness, colour and permeability) and environmental conditions related to algal growth (surface and sub-surface moisture, temperature and surface texture). Our results indicated that stone hardness was highly variable but only weakly related to levels of greening. Stone that had been exposed for many years was, on average, darker and greener than new stone of the same type, but there was no correlation between greening and darkening. Stone permeability was higher on 'old', weathered stone but not consistently related to the incidence of greening. However, there was evidence to suggest that thick algal biofilms were capable of reducing the ingress of moisture. Greening was negatively correlated with point measurements of surface temperature, but not moisture or surface texture. Our findings suggested that greening had little impact on the physical integrity of stone; indeed the influence of algae on moisture regimes in stone may have a broadly bioprotective action. Furthermore, the relationship between moisture levels and greening is not straightforward and is likely to be heavily dependent upon temporal patterns in moisture regimes and other, unmeasured, factors such as nutrient supply. PMID:23178775

  18. Determinants of Brushite Stone Formation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Siener, Roswitha; Netzer, Linda; Hesse, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The occurrence of brushite stones has increased during recent years. However, the pathogenic factors driving the development of brushite stones remain unclear. Methods Twenty-eight brushite stone formers and 28 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Anthropometric, clinical, 24 h urinary parameters and dietary intake from 7-day weighed food records were assessed. Results Pure brushite stones were present in 46% of patients, while calcium oxalate was the major secondary stone component. Urinary pH and oxalate excretion were significantly higher, whereas urinary citrate was lower in patients as compared to healthy controls. Despite lower dietary intake, urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher in brushite stone patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed pH>6.50 (OR 7.296; p?=?0.035), calcium>6.40 mmol/24 h (OR 25.213; p?=?0.001) and citrate excretion <2.600 mmol/24 h (OR 15.352; p?=?0.005) as urinary risk factors for brushite stone formation. A total of 56% of patients exhibited distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Urinary pH, calcium and citrate excretion did not significantly differ between patients with or without dRTA. Conclusions Hypercalciuria, a diminished citrate excretion and an elevated pH turned out to be the major urinary determinants of brushite stone formation. Interestingly, urinary phosphate was not associated with urolithiasis. The increased urinary oxalate excretion, possibly due to decreased calcium intake, promotes the risk of mixed stone formation with calcium oxalate. Neither dietary factors nor dRTA can account as cause for hypercalciuria, higher urinary pH and diminished citrate excretion. Further research is needed to define the role of dRTA in brushite stone formation and to evaluate the hypothesis of an acquired acidification defect. PMID:24265740

  19. Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

  20. Co-melting technology in resource recycling of sludge derived from stone processing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Hua; Hu, Shen-Chih; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2012-12-01

    Stone processing sludge (SPS) is a by-product of stone-processing wastewater treatment; it is suitable for use as a raw material for making artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWAs). In this study, boric acid was utilized as a flux to lower sintering temperature. The formation of the viscous glassy phase was observed by DTA curve and changes in XRD patterns. Experiments were conducted to find the optimal combination of sintering temperature, sintering time, and boric acid dosage to produce an ALWA of favorable characteristics in terms of water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, compressive strength and weight loss to satisfy Taiwan's regulatory requirements for construction and insulation materials. Optimal results gave a sintering temperature of 850 degrees C for 15 min at a boric acid dosage of 15% by weight of SPS. Results for ALWA favorable characteristics were: 0.21% (water absorption), 0.35% (apparent porosity), 1.67 g/cm3 (bulk density), 66.94 MPa (compressive strength), and less than 0.1% (weight loss). PMID:23362764

  1. Local isotropic/global orthotropic finite element technique for modeling the crush of wood in impact limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Attaway, S.W.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    Wood is often used as the energy absorbing material in impact limiters, because it begins to crush at low strains, then maintains a near constant crush stress up to nearly 60 percent volume reduction, and there ''locks up.'' Hill has performed tests that show how wood is one of the best absorbers of energy per pound. However, wood's orthotropic behavior for large crush is difficult to model. In the past, analysts have used isotropic foam-like material models for modeling wood. A new finite element technique is presented in this paper that gives a better model of wood crush than the model currently in use. The orthotropic technique is based on locally isotropic, but globally orthotropic (LIGO) assumptions in which alternating layers of hard and soft crushable material are used. Each layer is isotropic; however, by alternating hard and soft thin layer, the resulting global behavior is orthotropic. In the remainder of this paper, the new technique for modeling orthotropic wood crush will be presented. The model is used to predict the crush behavior for different grain orientations of a 5 /times/ 5 inch sample of balsa wood. As an example problem, an impact limiter containing balsa wood as the crushable material is analyzed using both an isotropic model and the alternating layer model. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Common bile duct stones on multidetector computed tomography: Attenuation patterns and detectability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Whan; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Tae Ho; Lee, In Seok; Han, Sok Won

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the attenuation patterns and detectability of common bile duct (CBD) stones by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). METHODS: Between March 2010 and February 2012, 191 patients with suspicion of CBD stones undergoing both MDCT and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were enrolled and reviewed retrospectively. The attenuation patterns of CBD stones on MDCT were classified as heavily calcified, radiopaque, less radiopaque, or undetectable. The association between the attenuation patterns of CBD stones on MDCT and stone type consisting of pure cholesterol, mixed cholesterol, brown pigment, and black pigment and the factors related to the detectability of CBD stones by MDCT were evaluated. RESULTS: MDCT showed CBD stones in 111 of 130 patients in whom the CBD stones were demonstrated by ERCP with 85.4% sensitivity. The attenuation patterns of CBD stones on MDCT were heavily calcified 34 (26%), radiopaque 31 (24%), less radiopaque 46 (35%), and undetectable 19 (15%). The radiopacity of CBD stones differed significantly according to stone type (P < 0.001). From the receiver operating characteristic curve, stone size was useful for the determination of CBD stone by MDCT (area under curve 0.779, P < 0.001) and appropriate cut-off stone size on MDCT was 5 mm. The factors related to detectability of CBD stones on MDCT were age, stone type, and stone size on multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The radiopacity of CBD stones on MDCT differed according to stone type. Stone type and stone size were related to the detectability by MDCT, and appropriate cut-off stone size was 5 mm. PMID:23555167

  3. [Mineralogical and spectral characteristics of "Gaozhou stone" from Jiangxi Province].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Shi, Guang-hai; Lou, Fa-sheng; Wu, Shi-jin; Shi, Miao; Huang, An-jie

    2015-01-01

    The seal stone is a kind of artwork with historical and cultural characteristics of China, which has been playing an important role in Chinese traditional culture. "Gaozhou stone", a new kind of the seal stone, has been found in the market recently. To investigate the mineralogical and spectral characterastics of "Gaozhou stone", samples were studied by using XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM and DTA. Measurements by XRD reveal that kaolin minerals (kaolinite, dickite), pyrophyllite and minor sericite and illite occur in the ores. When kaolinite and dickite are associated, it is not easy to differentiate them from each other. Although some reflections overlap others, kaolin polytypes can be differentiated by XRD patterns in the range 18°-40° (2?), the reflections at 0. 395, 0. 379, 0. 343, 0. 326, 0. 294, 0. 280, 0. 232 and 0. 221 nm are diagnostic of dickite. The XRD results indicate the presence of transitional mineral of kaolinite and dickite in these samples. The main chemical components of "Gaozhou stone" are SiO2 and Al2O3 with minor Fe2O3, K2O and Na2O, corresponding with that of kaolin minerals. The OH groups in kaolin group minerals have attracted considerable attention as a sensitive indicator of structural disorder. In principle, dickite has three bands, whereas kaolinite has four bands at the OH-stretching region. According to the results of FTIR, transitional mineral of kaolinite and dickite in "Gaozhou stone" has 3 absorption bands of 3 670, 3 650 and 3 620 cm-1 in high frequency region. The intensity of 3 670 cm-1 band that belongs to outer layer hydroxyl vibration is approximately equal to the intensity of 3 620 cm band ascribing to inner layer OH vibration. This value will only have subtle changes due to the different component ratio of kaolinite and dickite layers. Micro-morphology viewed by SEM presents irregular platy or pseudo-hexagonal platy particles with an average diameter of 0. 5-4 µm of "Gaozhou stone". Such morphologies are quite similar to other seal stones of China that the formation environments of all these stones are of the same kind. DTA curves demonstrate that the disparity of dehydroxylation temperature can be seen as a differential feature for identifying kaolin group minerals, but that is not undoubted. And what's more, the size of the mineral grains seems has a greater effect on the disparity of dehydroxylation temperature. This research shows that the mineral type of "Gaozhou stone" is similar to "Four Famous stones of China", and it could be a viable substitute of other famous seal stones. In this point, "Gaozhou stone" has a broad market prospect. PMID:25993822

  4. Microelements in stones, urine, and hair of stone formers: a new key to the puzzle of lithogenesis?

    PubMed

    S?ojewski, Marcin; Czerny, Bogus?aw; Safranow, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Pawlik, Andrzej; Go??b, Adam; Dro?dzik, Marek; Chlubek, Dariusz; Sikorski, Andrzej

    2010-12-01

    The role of trace elements in lithogenesis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of elements in urinary stones and in the urine and hair of stone formers to identify these elements that have synergic correlations in studied materials and may contribute to lithogenesis. A total of 219 consecutive patients with idiopathic upper urinary tract stones were prospectively enrolled in the study. Urine and hair samples were collected from all patients. The content of the stone was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrometry, spectrophotometry, and colorimetric methods. The analysis of 29 elements in stones and hair and 21 elements in urine was performed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The strength of correlation was described with the value of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The positive correlation between concentration of sodium, potassium, magnesium, barium, vanadium, zinc, silicon, phosphorus, and iodine in phosphate stones was observed. Only a few incidental correlations between the composition of stones and the distribution of elements in urine and in hair were found. There were 109 positive two-element correlations between two materials. The most common were observed for vanadium, aluminum, lead, cobalt, and molybdenum. Two-element positive correlations for all samples were established only for three elements: vanadium, lead, and aluminum. Results indicate that analysis of particular elements in hair and urine cannot predict the composition of urinary stones. This study showed, for the first time, correlations between the levels of vanadium, lead, and aluminum in the stones, urine, and hair of stone formers. PMID:20024629

  5. Proper dimensioning of stone paving slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Loorents, Karl-Johan; Larsson, Jörgen; Holstad, Terje

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, dimensioning of stone paving slabs is usually made according to the European product standard EN 1341: Slabs of natural stone for external paving - Requirements and test methods. An informative annex provides guidelines for determining the slab thickness depending on the flexural strength, traffic loads and surface dimensions of the slab. The present edition of the standard has been updated with a possibility to use different safety factors depending on the type of foundation, e.g. paving over a bound construction, unbound or over a gap supported on two or four sides or four corners. In addition, the safety factors differ depending on the length of the slabs. Slabs larger than 600 mm are "punished" by larger safety factors. However, these safety factors are not uncontroversial. A project was therefore undertaken to compare the calculated thickness of paving slabs strictly according to the standard requirements and the measured breaking load of tested slabs on different foundations/supports. The standard way of determining the thickness is based on measurement of the flexural strength of test prisms according to EN 12372: Natural stone test methods - Determination of flexural strength under concentrated load, e.g. with 50x50x300 mm sized prisms. The conversion into breaking load of the final slab and its thickness is based on a standard beam theory, also given in the annex of the standard. The questions to be answered by the project were whether the beam theory is appropriate for slabs, if the safety factors for different foundations are realistic and if the difference in safety factors above and below 600 mm length is relevant. The Evja granite from the SW Sweden was used for the tests on unbound and bound paving. The Offerdal schist from NW Sweden was used for testing paving over a gap with support on four corners. A large number of granite slabs ranging from 350 x 350 x 40 mm up to 1050 x 1050 x 40 mm were tested. As regards the schist specimens, the four following, commonly used dimensions were tested: 500 x 400 x 25 mm, 500 x 400 x 30 mm, 800 x 400 x 25 mm and 800 x 400 x 30 mm. In short, the results clearly indicated that the product standard recommendations generate very conservative thicknesses, i.e. too thick slabs. The use of the recommendations in the standard's annex thus results in unnecessarily high consumption of natural resources, increased environmental loads due to heavy freights, handling and more expensive paving construction. All test results will be presented together with a reasoning about an improved dimensioning system.

  6. Impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in a large group of Austrian patients with urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Patzak, Johanna; Lutfi, Andre; Pummer, Karl; Augustin, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To investigate retrospectively the impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in 253 patients with urolithiasis. Material and methods CT scans were performed in 253 patients with suspected urinary stone disease from 2008 to 2010 using CT–Scanner Siemens, SOMATOM, Sensation 64. One experienced radiologist (A.L) who was blinded to the chemical composition of the stones retrospectively reviewed images and analyzed data to determine the composition of the stones. The results were compared with the biochemical analysis results obtained by infrared spectroscopy (100 FTIR, PerkinElmer). Results 253 consecutive patients from 2008 to 2010 were included into analysis: 189 males, and 64 females. Mean age was 51.2. According to stone volume, stones were divided into 2 groups: 126 stones with volume of 4.3 mm or more, 127 stones with volume less than 4.3 mm. There was a significant relationship between stone volume and its CT attenuation only in stones with a volume 4.3 mm or more (p <0.05). Conclusions We failed to show a significant relationship between stone volume and its attenuations in Hounsfield units. We could not distinguish uric acid stones from non uric acid stones. PMID:25247090

  7. Intravesical stone formation on intrauterine contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Ozgür, Abdurrahman; Si?mano?lu, Alper; Yazici, Cenk; Co?ar, Emine; Tezen, Devrim; Ilker, Yalçin

    2004-01-01

    Since more than 30 years, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) have been used for a contraceptive opportunity. Although they are termed to be a safe and effective method for contraception, they also have some type of complications and uterine perforation, septic abortion, pelvic abscess are the serious complications of these devices. The incidence of uterine perforation is very low, but in the literature nearly 100 cases were reported about the extra uterine localization of IUCD. Migration may occur to the adjacent organs. We here in describe a case of a 31 year-old woman who had an IUCD with stone formation in the bladder. In the literature all of the cases were reported as IUCD migration, but although it seems technically impossible, IUCD placement into the bladder should also be considered in misplaced IUCDs. PMID:15783103

  8. Laserlithotripsy of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed Central

    Ell, C; Lux, G; Hochberger, J; Müller, D; Demling, L

    1988-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde laser lithotripsy of common bile duct stones is a new technique which can be carried out through the endoscope without anaesthesia using ordinary endoscopic equipment. In the method described here a flashlamp pulsed Neodymium YAG laser (wave length 1064 nm) was used. Light energy was transmitted along a highly flexible quartz fibre with a diameter of 0.2 mm. This new technique was used in nine patients with concrements in the common bile duct, which could not be removed with the established endoscopic techniques. In eight of the nine the concrements (maximum diameter 4.7 x 3.1 cm) could be fragmented and in six the fragments could be extracted from the common bile duct. The total energy required was 80-300 J; complications were not observed. Images Figs 3 and 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs 8 and 9 PMID:2898421

  9. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  10. Injury experience in stone mining, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  11. Recent advances in endoscopic management of difficult bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Itoi, Takao

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic treatment is now recognized worldwide as the first-line treatment for bile duct stones. Endoscopic sphincterotomy combined with basket and/or balloon catheter is generally carried out for stone extraction. However, some stones are refractory to treatment under certain circumstances, necessitating additional/other therapeutic modalities. Large bile duct stones are typically treated by mechanical lithotripsy. However, if this fails, laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) is carried out under the guidance of conventional mother-baby cholangioscopy. More recently, direct cholangioscopy using an ultrathin gastroscope and the newly developed single-use cholangioscope system - the SpyGlass direct visualization system - are also used. In addition, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has also been used for stone fragmentation. Such fragmentation techniques are effective in cases with impacted stones, including Mirizzi syndrome. Most recently, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilationhas been introduced as an easy and effective technique for treating large and multiple stones. In cases of altered anatomy, it is often difficult to reach the papilla; in such cases, a percutaneous transhepatic approach, such as EHL or laser lithotripsy under percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy, can be a treatment option. Moreover, enteroscopy has recently been used to reach the papilla. Furthermore, an endoscopic ultrasound-guided procedure has been attempted most recently. In elderly patients and those with very poor general condition, biliary stenting only is sometimes carried out with or without giving subsequent dissolution agents. PMID:23650878

  12. Symptomatic and silent gall stones in the community.

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, K W; Braddon, F E; Mountford, R A; Hughes, A O; Emmett, P M

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of gall stone disease in a stratified random sample of 1896 British adults (72.2% of those approached) was established using real time ultrasound. The prevalence rose with age, except in women of 40-49 years, so that at 60-69 years, 22.4% of women and 11.5% of men had gall stones or had undergone cholecystectomy. The cholecystectomy rate of people with gall stone disease was higher in women than in men (43.5% v 24%, p less than 0.05). Very few subjects with gall stones had convincing biliary symptoms. In women, 10.4% had symptoms according to a questionnaire definition of biliary pain and 6.3% according to conventional history taking, while no men at all admitted to biliary pain. Nevertheless, cholecystectomy in men had nearly always been preceded by convincing biliary symptoms. The age at cholecystectomy was, on average, nine years less than the age at detection of silent gall stones in both sexes. It is concluded that either gall stones are especially prone to cause symptoms in younger people or that there are two kinds of cholelithiasis - symptomatic and silent. The lack of symptomatic gall stones in cross sectional surveys is probably due to their rapid diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2013429

  13. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  14. Hierarchical Entity Aggregation for Situation Assessment: Identifying Asymmetric Aggregates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Farrell

    In order to perform Level 3 Fusion (Threat Refinement) processing, entities that pose threats need to be identified and grouped so that predictions can be made concerning their intent and future actions. The process of identifying and grouping entities for Level 3 Fusion is typically called Entity Aggregation. Historically, Spatial Aggregation and Template Matching have been applied to Entity Aggregation.

  15. AGGREGATION AND ORGANIC MATTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) consists of plant, animal and microbial residues, and organic decomposition products that are associated with the inorganic soil matrix. Soil organic mater turnover is coupled to the agradation/degradation of soil aggregates through the activity of soil microorganisms. This...

  16. Diffusion Limited Aggregation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Joiner

    The Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) algorithm models the growth of an object one particle at a time sticking in random places. This calculator computes DLA on a square, hexagonal, or octagonal lattice, and allows for the computation of fractal dimension by a box counting method.

  17. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  18. Decay and preservation of stone in modern environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauri, K. Lal

    1990-01-01

    Stone objects decay in all environments, but the modes of decay vary from one region to another. In the modern industrial countries acid deposition has accelerated the decay of stone. Many objects that survived centuries of weathering without serious damage have, in the present century, decomposed beyond recognition. The black crusts seen on stone structures mostly contain gypsum formed by SO2 reactions with calcareous minerals. These crusts exfoliate, destroying the sculptural form. Because of the absence of proven technology to treat and restore these objects, the caryatids at the Acropolis had to be moved indoors to save them from further disfiguration. In arid climates, the salts in stone and the meteorologic conditions combine to disrupt stone structures. The Great Sphinx at Giza is a prominent example of this mode of stone decay. In humid, tropical regions, such as in southern India, hydrolysis disrupts the mineral structure, causing rapid damage even to such durable stone as granite. The human effort to save the deteriorating structures has often aggravated the problem. The sandstone at the Legislative Building in Olympia, Washington has, because of the “protective” acrylic coating, suffered greater damage than the similar but unprotected sandstone at a nearby school building. It appears that proper management can greatly help to reduce the decay of the stone. A scientifically designed cleaning can inhibit the formation of crusts and the accumulation of efflorescences. The absence of the crusts and efflorescence and application of appropriate impregnants, which consolidate yet maintain the "breathability" of stone, may prolong the life of historic structures.

  19. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  20. In-situ monitoring of biological growth on stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brechet, Eric; McStay, Daniel; Wakefield, Rachael D.; Sweet, M. A. S.; Jones, M. S.

    1996-11-01

    A Scanning Fluorescence Microscope system for quantifying and mapping biological growth on stone is described. The system uses 488 nm light from an Argon-ion laser to excite the 685 nm fluorescence from the Chlorophyll-a in the algae and uses this as the means of mapping the biological material. The measured 685 nm fluorescence is shown to increase linearly with the quantity of algae on the stone surface. Application of the system to study the effectiveness of biocide treatment for the control of algae on stone is reported.