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1

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

2

Research for the development of crushed aggregates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the research on the development of the crushed aggregates for construction industry by the use of rocks in Korea implemented by KIGAM and OSUNG Industry. This development of crushed aggregates in dry and wet type has been accomplished. The dry typ...

D. N. Lee J. S. Min H. J. Lee J. H. Jung

1996-01-01

3

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. 436.20 Section 436...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crushed Stone Subcategory § 436.20 Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. The provisions of...

2009-01-01

4

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. 436.20 Section 436...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crushed Stone Subcategory § 436.20 Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. The provisions of...

2010-07-01

5

Geo-Engineering Evaluation of Rock Masses for Crushed Rock and Cut Stones in Khartoum State, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to find artificial coarse aggregates and cut stones around Khartoum. To meat the objectives of the study, data from both field and laboratory are collected. The field data includes geological investigations based on different methods and samples collection, whereas the laboratory tests consists of specific gravity, water absorption, impact value, crushing value, Los Angeles

E. E. Kheirelseed; T. H. Ming; S. B. Abdalla

2008-01-01

6

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES IN KRAFT PULP MILL AND CRUSHED STONE INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of fine particulate emissions from selected kraft pulp mill and stone crushing facilities is addressed. The principal devices considered are electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. Guidelines are provided for industrial personnel responsible for se...

7

Effects of crushed clay brick aggregate on mortar durability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an experimental study that aimed to investigate the effects of recycled clay brick, used as a part of fine aggregate, on mortar durability. The brick, in crushed form, was from a local brick manufacturer that salvages its off-standard products. It was used to replace 10% and 20% (by weight) of the river sand in mortar. Effects of

F. Bektas; K. Wang; H. Ceylan

2009-01-01

8

DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUSHED-STONE LAYER UNDER CYCLIC IMPACT LOADING FROM MICRO-MECHANICAL VIEW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Hanging sleepers', which have gaps between sleepers and ballast layer are often found in the neighborhood of rail joints or rugged surface rails. This suggests that differential settlement of the ballast layer is due to impact loading generated by the contact between running wheel and rugged surface rail. Then cyclic loading tests were performed on crushed-stone layer with two loading patterns, the one is a cyclic impact loading and the other one is cyclic 'standard' loading controlled at 1/10 loading velocity of the impact loading. It was shown that the crashed-stone layer deforms with volumetric expansion during every off-loading processes under the cyclic impact loading. This phenomena prevents crushed stone layer from forming stable grain columns, then the residual settlement under the cyclic impact loading is larger than that under the cyclic 'standard' loading. A simple mass-spring model simulates that two masses move in the opposite direction with increased frequency of harmonic excitation.

Kono, Akiko; Matsushima, Takashi

9

Effect of crushed ceramic and basaltic pumice as fine aggregates on concrete mortars properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the suitability of ceramic industrial wastes and huge amounts of basaltic pumice as a possible substitute for conventional crushed fine aggregates. Experiments were carried out to determine abrasion resistance, chloride penetration depths and the compressive strengths of concrete with crushed ceramic waste and basaltic pumice fine aggregates and to compare them with those of conventional concretes. Test

Hanifi Binici

2007-01-01

10

Influences of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes used for crushed stone production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the influence of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes. These sedimentary rocks make about 27 % of crushed stone market in the Czech Republic. Mainly in Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), greywackes represent almost exclusive high quality aggregate. The behaviour of greywackes varies, however, from quarry to quarry. In this study, we have selected the most important deposits that cover major lithological variation of local greywackes. Studied greywackes were analysed for their petrographic parameters quantitatively (using image analysis of thin sections). The pore space characteristics were determined by using fluorescent dye - epoxy resin impregnated specimens. The studied rocks are composed of subangular and angular quartz grains, lithoclasts (stable rocks: quartzites, and unstable rocks: phylites, metaphylites, siltstones, slates, greywackes, and less frequently acid eruptive rocks), feldspars (orthoclas, microcline, plagioclase), and detrital micas. Detrital and authigenic chlorite has been found as well. The matrix which represents the largest volume of rock-forming components contains a mixture of sericite, chlorite, clay minerals, cements, and clasts in aleuropelitic size. Based on the microscopic examination, all studied rock types were classified as greywacke with fine- to medium-grained massive rock fabric. Only specimen from B?lkovice has shown partly layered structure. Alteration of feldspars and unstable rock fragments represents common feature. Diagenetic features included pressure dissolution of quartz clasts and formation of siliceous and/or calcite cements. Based on the experimental study of technological performance of studied greywackes and its correlation to petrographic features, the average size of clasts and volume of matrix make the driving factors affecting the LA values. The LA values decrease with the increasing of volume of matrix (R = 0.61) and with decreasing average grain size (R = 0.44). The degree of sorting influences LA values as well; more graded greywackes tend to show higher LA values. Regarding PSV, its values increase with increasing volume of quartz clasts.

Prikryl, Richard; Cermak, Martin; Krutilova, Katerina

2014-05-01

11

Crushed cement concrete substitution for construction aggregates; a materials flow analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analysis of the substitution of crushed cement concrete for natural construction aggregates is performed by using a materials flow diagram that tracks all material flows into and out of the cement concrete portion of the products made with cement concrete: highways, roads, and buildings. Crushed cement concrete is only one of the materials flowing into these products, and the amount of crushed cement concrete substituted influences the amount of other materials in the flow. Factors such as availability and transportation costs, as well as physical properties, that can affect stability and finishability, influence whether crushed cement concrete or construction aggregates should be used or predominate for a particular end use.

Kelly, Thomas

1998-01-01

12

Early occupational hearing loss of workers in a stone crushing industry: our experience in a developing country.  

PubMed

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an irreversible sensorineural hearing loss associated with exposure to high levels of excessive noise. This paper aims to assess the prevalence of early NIHL and the awareness of the effects of noise on health among stone crushing industry workers. This was a comparative cross-sectional study in Ghana of 140 workers from the stone crushing industry compared with a control group of 150 health workers. The stone workers and controls were evaluated using a structured questionnaire, which assessed symptoms of hearing loss, tinnitus, knowledge on the health hazards associated with work in noisy environment and the use of hearing protective device. Pure tone audiometric assessment was carried out for stone workers and controls. Noise levels at the work stations of the stone workers and of the controls were measured. Statistical Analysis of data was carried out using SPSS package version 16. The mean age of stone workers and controls was 42.587.85 and 42.1912 years, respectively. Subjective hearing loss occurred in 21.5% of the workers and in 2.8% of the controls. Tinnitus occurred in 26.9% of stone workers and 21.5% of controls, while 87.5% stone workers had sound knowledge on the health hazards of a noisy environment. Early NIHL in the left ear occurred in 19.3% of the stone workers compared with 0.7% in controls and in the right ear, it occurred in 14.3% of the stone workers and in 1.3% of the controls; P<0.005. In conclusion, the prevalence rate of early NIHL among stone crushing workers is about 19.3% for the left ear and 14.3% for the right ear. PMID:22517306

Kitcher, Emmanuel D; Ocansey, Grace; Tumpi, Daniel A

2012-01-01

13

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

Langer, W. H.; Tepordei, V. V.; Bolen, W. P.

2000-01-01

14

On the use of crushed shells of apricot stones as the upper layer in dual media filters.  

PubMed

The use of crushed shells of apricot stones instead of anthracite coal in dual-media filters is investigated. Turbidity removal efficiencies were measured for several filtration rates in dual media filters composed of shells of apricot stones above silica sand and anthracite coal above silica sand. Backwash (fluidization) experiments were carried out using sieved fractions of crushed shells of apricot stones to establish curves of expansion versus backwash velocity at 25 degrees C. Such curves can be used in the design of filters employing this material. It is believed that the use of such a locally available and cheaper alternative filter medium would be of interest in many small water and wastewater treatment systems around the world. PMID:14753573

Akso?an, S; Ba?trk, A; Yksel, E; Akgiray, O

2003-01-01

15

Gist of medicinal plants of Pakistan having ethnobotanical evidences to crush renal calculi (kidney stones).  

PubMed

Human civilization is facing the problem of kidney stones since ancient ages. Although mortality rate is not so high, yet it affects the victim's quality of life. The patient suffers from intense pain and many other symptoms modifying his life style and affecting his socioeconomic status. Many drugs and invasive methods have also been developed for the treatment, but these are highly costly and unaffordable for poor people and the rate of reoccurrence is also high. The use of medicinal plants is both affordable and effective in this respect. In this article, 35 medicinal plants of Pakistan origin and their crucial information have been enumerated in alphabetical order of plant's scientific name, family, place (distribution), part used, local name, habit, major constituents and references. It can also be seen that all parts are used for the treatment of kidney stones. Leaves represent 28% contribution, whole plants and seeds 12%, fruits and roots 11% contribution in this respect. Flowers contribute 8% in the treatment of kidney stone while branches, bark, bushes, buds, milk and shoots contribute only 3% in the removal of kidney stones. Habits of plants were also taken under consideration. It was noticed that herbs are the most useful life form in this regard which contributed 63% for the removal of kidney stone. Shrubs contributed 20%, trees 11% while bushes and weeds contributed 3% for the removal of kidney stones. PMID:24779189

Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Durr-e-Sabih; Ikram, Raja Muhammad; Hussain, Muhammad Sikandar; Khan, Muhammad Tajammal; Ahamad, Ghafoor; Karim, Sabiha; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

2014-01-01

16

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

Tepordei, V. V.

1995-01-01

17

Low-Temperature-Tar Content of Bituminous Materials. Part 2: Dense Tarmacadam Basecourse with Crushed Rock Aggregate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a laboratory study, using the Marshall Test procedure, of dense tarmacadam basecourse made with entirely crushed rock aggregate and road tars of both low- and high-temperature carbonization sources, i.e. of low and high densities, wi...

1979-01-01

18

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

Bolen, W. P.; Tepordei, V. V.

2001-01-01

19

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

Tepordei, V. V.

1994-01-01

20

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

Nelson, T. I.; Bolen, W. P.

2007-01-01

21

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

Tepordei, V. V.

1993-01-01

22

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

Tepordei, V. V.

1996-01-01

23

Mechanical properties of steel fibre reinforced lightweight concrete with pumice stone or expanded clay aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents basic information on the mechanical properties of steel fibre-reinforced light-weight concrete, manufactured\\u000a using pumice stone or expanded clay aggregates. Results are presented for standard compressive tests and indirect tensile\\u000a tests (splitting tests on cylinder specimens and flexure tests on prismatic beams using a three-point loading arrangement)\\u000a under monotonically increasing or cyclically varying loads. The influence of steel

G. Campione; N. Miraglia; M. Papia

2001-01-01

24

Aggregates for radiation-shielding concrete  

SciTech Connect

Aggregates covered by the specification include (1) natural mineral aggregates that derive their specific utility for the purposes of the specification because they contain or consist predominantly of materials such as barite, magnetite, ilmenite, limonite, and serpentine, and (2) synthetic aggregates such as ferrophosphorus. Fine aggregate may consist of natural sand, manufactured sand, or a combination of both. Coarse aggregate may consist of crushed ore, stone, or synthetic products, or combinations. Steel punchings, iron shot, and aggregates containing boron are not included. The specification discusses composition and specific gravity, aggregate gradation, deleterious substances, abrasion resistance, and methods of sampling and testing. (JMT)

Not Available

1981-01-01

25

Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

1998-01-01

26

Crushing Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners design a crushing test and discover that identifying and controlling the variables may be difficult. Although the crushing test will not give conclusive results, it is a good opportunity to discuss variables and why they are sometimes difficult to control. This crushing test is also a good example of how a particular test does not always give enough information to answer a question. This is a follow-up to the activity called "Curious Crystals," in which learners investigate crystals and their properties to identify an unknown crystal.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

27

Crush Grinding  

SciTech Connect

Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

T. Q. Nguyen

2005-04-01

28

Crush injury and crush syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crush injury is caused by continuous prolonged pressure on the limbs. It is found in patients extricated after being trapped for at least 4 hours. The main injury is to the muscles of the limbs. Treatment should be conservative and fasciotomy should be avoided. If fasciotomy is performed, it should be followed by radical debridement of the injured muscle in

Moshe Michaelson

1992-01-01

29

Study to improve asphalt mixes in South Carolina. Volume 2. A study of crushed slag aggregates in hot mix asphalt. Final report, April 1994July 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of South Carolina contains two-slag-producing facilities: a chrome plant in Charleston and a steel plant in Georgetown. There has been some interest shown by the South Carolina Department of Transportation, in using slag in construction of state-funded roads. Prior to the acceptance of a new aggregate for state-funded projects, many tests must be conducted to ensure the products`s

D. I. Hanson; C. R. Lynn

1995-01-01

30

Kidney stones  

MedlinePLUS

... in families. It affects both men and women. Struvite stones are mostly found in women who have ... include: Allopurinol (for uric acid stones) Antibiotics (for struvite stones) Diuretics Phosphate solutions Sodium bicarbonate or sodium ...

31

Car Crushed Under Building  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction....

2009-01-26

32

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

33

Kidney stones  

MedlinePLUS

... in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is the size ... are very sensitive to being stretched, and when stones form and distend it, the stretching can be ...

34

Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened proposal where the county will gain 745 acres of new open space land in exchange for 60 acres of current open space land adjacent to the quarry. The process involved collaborative efforts by all stakeholders and resulted in an outcome that balances the needs of society, the environment, and business.

Langer, William H.; Tucker, M. L.

2003-01-01

35

Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology-some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing-all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones-in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant-morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

2008-09-01

36

MediaCrush  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you want to share any range of media files quickly with friends and others, MediaCrush can be quite useful. Visitors just need to drag and drop their images or URLS into the online box to get started. It's a completely open-source program and visitors don't need to worry about downloading any programs. This version is compatible with all operating systems and users may also wish to look over their "Blog" for helpful updates.

Mediacrush

37

Dimension stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

Dolley, T. P.

2003-01-01

38

Stone Mountain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

2004-01-01

39

An empirical model for predicting flakiness in cone crushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental understanding of the factors influencing particle shape is of central importance for optimisation of the output quality from crushing plants for aggregate production. The literature reports that the wear on and setting of a cone crusher influence particle shape, The fact that wear on and the setting of a cone crusher influence particle shape is considered common knowledge

Magnus Bengtsson; C. Magnus Evertsson

2006-01-01

40

Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for living space has encroached on the sites of production; in other words, the act of production has engendered condemnation. Many other environmental problems that are associated with dust and noise and blasting from quarry and pit operations have been reduced through the efficient use of technology. Recycling concrete in buildings, bridges, and roads and asphaltic pavements will ultimately reduce the demand for virgin natural aggregate. The impact created by the large holes in the ground required for the mining of natural aggregate can be greatly reduced by planning their reclamation before mining begins. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Drew, L. J.; Langer, W. H.; Sachs, J. S.

2002-01-01

41

Kidney stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction The age of peak incidence for stone disease is 20 to 40 years, although stones are seen in all age groups. There is a male to female ratio of 3:2. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions for stone removal in people with asymptomatic kidney stones? What are the effects of interventions for the removal of symptomatic renal stones? What are the effects of interventions to remove symptomatic ureteric stones? What are the effects of interventions for the management of acute renal colic? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antispasmodic drugs, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, intravenous fluids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, oral fluids, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and ureteroscopy.

2011-01-01

42

COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway Rolands Cepuritis, Norcem/NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF Aggregate production is a mining operation where no purification of the "ore" is necessary. Still it is extremely rare that an aggregate production plant is operating on the basis of zero-waste concept. This is since historically the fine crushed aggregate (particles with a size of less than 2, 4 or sometimes 8 mm) has been regarded as a by-product or waste of the more valuable coarse aggregate production. The reason is that the crushed coarse aggregates can easily replace coarse rounded natural stones in almost any concrete composition; while, the situation with the sand is different. The production of coarse aggregate normally yields fine fractions with rough surface texture, flaky or elongated particles an inadequate gradation. When such a material replaces smooth and rounded natural sand grains in a concrete mix, the result is usually poor and much more water and cement has to be used to achieve adequate concrete flow. The consequences are huge stockpiles of the crushed fine fractions that can't be sold (mass balance problems) for the aggregate producers, sustainability problems for the whole industry and environmental issues for society due to dumping and storing of the fine co-generated material. There have been attempts of utilising the material in concrete before; however, they have mostly ended up in failure. There have been attempts to adjust the crushed sand to the properties of the natural sand, which would still give a lot of waste, especially if the grading would have to be adjusted and the high amounts of fines abundantly present in the crushed sand would have to be removed. Another fundamental reason for failure has been that historically such attempts have mainly ended up in a research carried out by people (both industrial and academic) with aggregate background (= parties willing to find market for their crusher fines) providing only conclusions already well known by the engineers involved in concrete production. Due to the pressing situation with the left resources of the natural sand and gravel in Scandinavia, a new and different development approach has been recently attempted with the Concrete Innovation Center (COIN) in Norway. The centre is a research based innovation project that has brought together and served as a source of funding to facilitate the crucial interaction between the professionals from the different involved industries (quarrying machinery supplier, aggregate producers, concrete producers and concrete contractors) and the academic people from universities and research institutions, in order come up with a better crushed sand solution for the future. The concept under development has been a zero-waste technology for aggregate production, where instead of reducing the amount of the crushed fines their properties are rather engineered to crucially increase the overall performance of the sand in concrete. The project also involves collaboration with a state-of-the-art aggregate production plant where the new technology has already been implemented. The production process there is based on the new engineered sand concepts successfully supplying 100% all of the produced fractions to concrete and asphalt producers.

Cepuritis, Rolands; Willy Danielsen, Svein

2014-05-01

43

Coal crushing in impact crushers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and commercial data are presented on the impact crushing of various coals. Impact crushers give improved preparation for carbonization at reduced power consumptions. They have a high throughput capacity and need little attention.

A. Malonescu; E. Falk; I. Celinescu

1976-01-01

44

Patio Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Technology Problem of the Week (tPoW) challenges students to count and extrapolate the number of paving stones tiling successive hexagonal rings in a patio tessellation. It links to the Java applet "Pattern Blocks." Solve and explain your solution; download hints and answer checks. Free registration is required.

Forum, The M.

1999-01-01

45

Evaluation of Glauconite Aggregate for Pavement Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glauconite is an abundant aggregate in east central Texas. However, it is rather soft and thus subject to crushing and abrasion under normal construction processes. The purpose of this research study is to evaluate the quality of glauconite and determine ...

J. W. Button D. N. Little

1997-01-01

46

Experimental Assessment of Aggregate Surfacing Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extensive suite of geotechnical laboratory tests were conducted to quantify differences in engineering properties of three crushed aggregates commonly used on Montana highway projects. The material types are identified in the Montana Supplemental Speci...

E. Cuelho N. Trimble R. Mokwa

2007-01-01

47

Kidney and Ureteral Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... such as calcium phosphate, uric acid, cystine and struvite. Stones form when there is an imbalance between ... tract. This type of stone is called a struvite or infection stone. Much less common are the ...

48

Probabilistic prediction models for aggregate quarry siting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weights-of-evidence (WofE) and logistic regression techniques were used in a GIS framework to predict the spatial likelihood (prospectivity) of crushed-stone aggregate quarry development. The joint conditional probability models, based on geology, transportation network, and population density variables, were defined using quarry location and time of development data for the New England States, North Carolina, and South Carolina, USA. The Quarry Operation models describe the distribution of active aggregate quarries, independent of the date of opening. The New Quarry models describe the distribution of aggregate quarries when they open. Because of the small number of new quarries developed in the study areas during the last decade, independent New Quarry models have low parameter estimate reliability. The performance of parameter estimates derived for Quarry Operation models, defined by a larger number of active quarries in the study areas, were tested and evaluated to predict the spatial likelihood of new quarry development. Population density conditions at the time of new quarry development were used to modify the population density variable in the Quarry Operation models to apply to new quarry development sites. The Quarry Operation parameters derived for the New England study area, Carolina study area, and the combined New England and Carolina study areas were all similar in magnitude and relative strength. The Quarry Operation model parameters, using the modified population density variables, were found to be a good predictor of new quarry locations. Both the aggregate industry and the land management community can use the model approach to target areas for more detailed site evaluation for quarry location. The models can be revised easily to reflect actual or anticipated changes in transportation and population features. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2007.

Robinson, Jr. , G. R.; Larkins, P. M.

2007-01-01

49

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed...

2013-04-01

50

CRUSH: The NSI Data Compression Utility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CRUSH is a data compression utility that provides the user with several lossless compression techniques available in a single application. It is intended that the future development of CRUSH will depend upon feedback from the user community to identify ne...

E. Seiler

1991-01-01

51

Pathological changes in the thyroid gland in crush asphyxia.  

PubMed

To determine whether crush asphyxia may be associated with macro- and microscopic changes in the thyroid gland, four cases of death due to crush asphyxia were evaluated where the decedents (males aged 36, 37, 45, and 65years respectively) suffered lethal chest compressions. The diagnosis of crush asphyxia in each case was suggested by the death scene description and confirmed by the finding of injuries to the torso, with marked congestion of the face, neck, and upper body associated with petechial and subconjunctival hemorrhages. In addition to other pathological findings, each decedent had intense congestion of their thyroid gland resulting in a dark/black appearance. Microscopically, stromal capillaries were engorged, with bulging of capillaries into the follicles. Rupture of these small vessels had created focal intrafollicular aggregates of erythrocytes within the colloid. As intense suffusion of the thyroid gland with blood in cases of crush asphyxia may impart an appearance of "black thyroid" this may be another feature of this condition to look for at autopsy, in addition to intrafollicular blood lakes on histology. PMID:23943304

Byard, Roger W

2013-12-01

52

Crushing, Screening and Washing Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The procedure defines methods used to evaluate performance of primary and secondary jaw-type crushers, roll-type crushers, aggregate screens and washers, and scrubbers, as aggregate producing equipment operating independently and as part of a complete pla...

1971-01-01

53

Hyaluronan and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

Asselman, Marino

2008-09-01

54

Effects of aggregate size and angularity on alkalisilica reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of reactive aggregate size and aggregate angularity on alkalisilica reaction (ASR) were studied. An all-in natural reactive aggregate was used. The coarse aggregate particles were crushed to obtain crushed fine particles. The angularity of the aggregate was determined using ASTM C1252 and EN 933-6 methods. ASTM C1260 accelerated mortar bar test was conducted to compare the ASR expansion

K. Ramyar; A. Topal; . Andi

2005-01-01

55

Percutaneous Stone Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter the method of percutaneous stone removal is reviewed in its entirety. The indications for percutaneous stone\\u000a removal in the age of shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy are carefully reviewed: staghorn stones, obstruction and stones\\u000a (e.g., ureteropelvic junction obstruction and calyceal diverticula), renal anomalies (e.g., horseshoe kidney), stones with\\u000a difficult lower pole anatomy, and calculi that are extremely hard

Louis Eichel; Ralph V. Clayman

56

The effects of crushing surface roughness on the crushing characteristics of composite tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of crushing-surface roughness on the energy-absorption capability of graphite and glass-epoxy composite tubes were investigated. Fifty different combinations of fiber, matrix, and specimen ply orientation were evaluated. Two different crushing surface roughnesses were used in this investigation. Crushing surface significantly influences the energy-absorption capability only of tubes that crush in the lamina bending crushing mode; tubes that crush in other modes are not influenced because their lamina bundles do not slide against the crushing surface. Those tubes that crush in the lamina bending mode can achieve higher, lower, or no change in energy-absorption capability as crushing surface roughness increases. If the fiber failure strain of tubes that crush in the lamina bending crushing mode exceeds the matrix failure strain then the energy-absorption capability increases as crushing surface roughness increases. However, if the matrix failure strain exceeds the fiber failure strain then the energy-absorption capability increases as crushing surface roughness decreases. Energy-absorption capability is uninfluenced by crushing surface roughness for tubes that have equal fiber and matrix failure strains.

Farley, Gary L.; Wolterman, Richard L.; Kennedy, John M.

1992-01-01

57

Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the benefits to be gained by using a composite highway base course material consisting of recycled crushed concrete aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and a modest amount of reinforcing fibers. The primary objectives of this research were to (a) quantify the improvement that is obtained by adding fibers to a lean concrete composite (made from recycled aggregate and low quantities of Portland cement and/or fly ash), (b) evaluate the mechanical behavior of such a composite base course material under both static and repeated loads, and (c) utilize the laboratory-determined properties with a mechanistic design method to assess the potential advantages. The split tensile strength of a stabilized recycled aggregate base course material was found to be exponentially related to the compacted dry density of the mix. A lean mix containing 4% cement and 4% fly ash (by weight) develops sufficient unconfined compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths to be used as a high quality stabilized base course. The addition of 4% (by weight) of hooked-end steel fibers significantly enhances the post-peak load-deformation response of the composite in both indirect tension and static flexure. The flexural fatigue behavior of the 4% cement-4% fly ash mix is comparable to all commonly used stabilized materials, including regular concrete; the inclusion of 4% hooked-end fibers to this mix significantly improves its resistance to fatigue failure. The resilient moduli of stabilized recycled aggregate in flexure are comparable to the values obtained for traditional soil-cement mixes. In general, the fibers are effective in retarding the rate of fatigue damage accumulation, which is quantified in terms of a damage index defined by an energy-based approach. The thickness design curves for a stabilized recycled aggregate base course, as developed by using an elastic layer approach, is shown to be in close agreement with a theoretical model (based on Westergaard's assumptions for rigid pavements), which has been found to explain reasonably well the field behavior of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced concrete slabs on grade. Finally, a preliminary cost analysis demonstrated that the use of stabilized recycled aggregate instead of a standard crushed stone base course can result in a meaningful economic savings.

Sobhan, Khaled

58

Structure, Chemistry and Crystallization Conditions of Calcium Oxalates The Main Components of Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work contains the results of studies of crystal chemistry and crystallization of calcium oxalates from human renal\\u000a stones (whewellite and weddellite). These minerals are the most frequently occurring components of these pathogenic stones.\\u000a The whewellite-dominant stones usually occur as polynuclear spherulite aggregates with characteristic radial microstructure\\u000a (Fig. 1a). On the surface of whewellite stones, bipyramidic structures of weddellite

Alina R. Izatulina; Vladislav Yu. Yelnikov

59

Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL s experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages.

Feldman, Matthew R [ORNL

2011-01-01

60

Kidney stones in primary hyperoxaluria: new lessons learnt.  

PubMed

To investigate potential differences in stone composition with regard to the type of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH), and in relation to the patient's medical therapy (treatment nave patients versus those on preventive medication) we examined twelve kidney stones from ten PH I and six stones from four PH III patients. Unfortunately, no PH II stones were available for analysis. The study on this set of stones indicates a more diverse composition of PH stones than previously reported and a potential dynamic response of morphology and composition of calculi to treatment with crystallization inhibitors (citrate, magnesium) in PH I. Stones formed by PH I patients under treatment are more compact and consist predominantly of calcium-oxalate monohydrate (COM, whewellite), while calcium-oxalate dihydrate (COD, weddellite) is only rarely present. In contrast, the single stone available from a treatment nave PH I patient as well as stones from PH III patients prior to and under treatment with alkali citrate contained a wide size range of aggregated COD crystals. No significant effects of the treatment were noted in PH III stones. In disagreement with findings from previous studies, stones from patients with primary hyperoxaluria did not exclusively consist of COM. Progressive replacement of COD by small COM crystals could be caused by prolonged stone growth and residence times in the urinary tract, eventually resulting in complete replacement of calcium-oxalate dihydrate by the monohydrate form. The noted difference to the nave PH I stone may reflect a reduced growth rate in response to treatment. This pilot study highlights the importance of detailed stone diagnostics and could be of therapeutic relevance in calcium-oxalates urolithiasis, provided that the effects of treatment can be reproduced in subsequent larger studies. PMID:23940605

Jacob, Dorrit E; Grohe, Bernd; Gener, Michaela; Beck, Bodo B; Hoppe, Bernd

2013-01-01

61

Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

Blum, Mark E.

1997-01-01

62

Comparison of natural and manufactured fine aggregates in cement mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of cement mortars using manufactured fine aggregates produced by cone crushing or impact crushing has been compared to that of mortars prepared from a natural sand control-sample. Samples from both crusher products have been additionally subjected to classification for partial removal of fines, being also used in preparing mortars. Particle shape analyses indicated that material produced by impact

J. P. Gonalves; L. M. Tavares; R. D. Toledo Filho; E. M. R. Fairbairn; E. R. Cunha

2007-01-01

63

Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood

S. M. Cramer; J. C. Hermanson; W. M. McMurtry

1996-01-01

64

Dynamic Crush Characterization of Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the space shuttle return-to-flight preparations following the Columbia accident, finite element models were needed that could predict the threshold of critical damage to the orbiter's wing leading edge from ice debris impacts. Hence, an experimental program was initiated to provide crushing data from impacted ice for use in dynamic finite element material models. A high-speed drop tower was configured to capture force time histories of ice cylinders for impacts up to approximately 100 ft/s. At low velocity, the force-time history depended heavily on the internal crystalline structure of the ice. However, for velocities of 100 ft/s and above, the ice fractured on impact, behaved more like a fluid, and the subsequent force-time history curves were much less dependent on the internal crystalline structure.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Kellas, Sotiris

2006-01-01

65

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

66

Geography of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurrence of stone walls in New England. Topics include what constitutes a stone wall province and three critical factors in the occurence of stone walls: bedrock geology, glacial history, and land use history. Users can determine the type of stone wall in any given area by using the maps to determine its location, determine the type of bedrock, type of surficial materials, and type of settlement history for that spot. Referring to the text of 'Exploring Stone Walls', they can determine which type of stone wall province contains those types of rock and surface process and read the description of what the most common type of stone walls should be in that area.

67

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED LIMESTONE, STATE OF THE ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed limestone industry. Crushed limestone plants emit particulates from drilling, blasting, transport on unpaved roads, crushing, screening, conveying, and stockpiling. The emission factor for total particulate f...

68

Gall stone dissolving agents.  

PubMed

During the decade in which the medical dissolution of gall stones has become feasible several drugs have been introduced but only the two listed in the British National Formulary have been intensively evaluated and shown to be effective--chenodeoxycholic acid and the closely allied ursodeoxycholic acid. The dissolution of gall stones was last reviewed in the "BMF" in 1976, at which stage experience with chenodeoxycholic acid was limited. Since then the indications and potential for this bile acid in treating gall stones have become better understood, and data on the newly introduced ursodeoxycholic acid are being evaluated. Cholesterol, but not pigment, gall stones are amenable to oral dissolution treatment. This review will cover firstly, chenodeoxycholic acid, secondly, ursodeoxycholic acid, then a comparison of the two drugs, an assessment of the place of medical dissolution in the management of gall stones, and, finally, the dissolution of stones in the common bile duct. PMID:6402249

Bouchier, I A

1983-03-01

69

Observing Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn why and how stone walls were built. A prior knowledge of New England colonists and the history of New England is helpful. After a directed reading and discussion, they will take a nature walk to an area where they can examine a stone wall. The students will then use notebook and pencil to sketch the wall and make observations of the stones, the plants growing nearby, and other materials they see around the wall.

70

Managing caliceal stones  

PubMed Central

The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence.

Gross, Andreas J.; Knipper, Sophie; Netsch, Christopher

2014-01-01

71

Crusher-dryer and method of crushing  

SciTech Connect

An improved apparatus is described for the simultaneous crushing and drying of materials, such as coal with high moisture content. It includes a (Hammermill) crusher having parallel top inlets for the material and a rapid flow of hot air. The material drops into the (Impactor) impact circle of the (Hammermill) crusher prior to any substantial mixing with the flow of hot air. The flow of hot air is selectively directed into the crushing chamber , behind the breaker plates or in parallel to both locations, to dry the material during crushing. A substantially unobstructed bottom outlet permits high flow rates through the apparatus. A method of crushing and drying high moisture content material is also disclosed.

Hahn, W.F.; Nigro, J.P.; Wallitsch, F.J.

1981-10-20

72

Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords: Hallandia gneiss, natural stones, historic stones, urban planning and building

Schouenborg, Bjrn; Andersson, Jenny; Gransson, Mattias

2013-04-01

73

Static contact crushing of composite laminated shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crush behavior of carbon-epoxy composite laminated shells with three different curvatures is investigated. The FEM package ABAQUS and the user-defined material subroutine (UMAT) based on the concept of progressive stiffness degradation were employed to simulate crushing until the specimens totally collapsed. The 2-D delamination propagation proposed by Davies et al. is considered to be an additional failure mechanism for

C. H. Huang; Y. J. Lee

2004-01-01

74

Interconversion of stone composition profiles from two recurrent stone episodes in stone formers.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the interconversion of the stone chemical composition of two recurrent stone episodes in stone formers. Methods: The data of 1098 stones analyses from 549 patients with a history of two renal stone episodes were selected and reviewed. The stone composition between the two recurrent episodes of stones was compared. Results: The percent occurrences of stones caused by infection, known as infection stones, in new episodes of stones significantly increased by 7% and uric acid stones increased by 3.8% while the calcium oxalate stones decreased by 13.1% (each p<0.05). The mean recurrent interval of new episodes of stones was 34.2 months. Infection stones had a significant shorter interval time compared to calcium oxalate stones (p<0.001). On a patient-by-patient investigation, 32.9% of patients underwent conversions of stone compositions, with 31.9% and 34.1% in men and female, respectively (p=0.590). The mutual conversion of infection stones to calcium oxalate stones was most common. The 61.1% of patients with uric acid recurrent stones were composed of calcium oxalate in the previous episode of stones, and 5% and 51.7% of patients with infection stones developed stones of uric acid or calcium oxalate in the new episode, respectively. Conclusions: Alterations of stone components during follow-up were found in as high as 32.9% of patients with no gender difference. The impetus of these shifts is not readily apparent. Accurate and repeated stone analyses throughout the course of recurrent stone disease are highly warranted, which may be useful to prevent recurrence of composition-specific stones. PMID:24633751

Zeng, Guohua; Zhao, Zhijian; Wu, Wenqi; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yeping; Yuan, Jian

2014-07-01

75

Reduction of respirable silica following the introduction of water spray applications in Indian stone crusher mills.  

PubMed

Respirable crystalline silica dust generated during stone crushing operations has been linked to chronic lung disease and increased risk of tuberculosis. In India, most stone crushing mills operate without any dust control or containment systems. This investigation in the Khurda District of Orissa demonstrated a reduction in respirable particulate mass following the application of a fine mist of water. Average respirable quartz and cristobalite levels declined 82% and 69%, respectively, after water spray controls were installed. This finding suggests that relatively inexpensive modifications that are available in the local market can be effective at reducing silica exposures. Although average exposure levels, particularly during the dry season, may exceed the Permissible Exposure Limit for silica, the overall reductions observed were substantial. Widespread adoption of this simple control technology by stone crushers in India could have a positive public health impact. PMID:18507285

Gottesfeld, Perry; Nicas, Mark; Kephart, John W; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Rinehart, Richard

2008-01-01

76

Crushing Characteristics of Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Composite Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite tubes can be reinforced with continuous fibers. When such tubes are subjected to crushing loads, the response is complex and depends on interaction between the different mechanisms that control the crushing process. The modes of crush ing and their controlling mechanisms are described. Also, the resulting crushing process and its efficiency are addressed.

Gary L. Farley; Robert M. Jones

1992-01-01

77

Detecting Stepping Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

One widely-used technique by which network attackers attain anonymity and complicate their apprehension is by employing stepping stones: they launch attacks not from their own computer but from intermediary hosts that they previously compromised. We develop an effi- cient algorithm for detecting stepping stones by monitor- ing a site' s Internet access link. The algorithm is based on the distinctive

Vern Paxson

78

Stone Picking Machines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stone picking machines are compared on the basis of their capabilities. Machines are classified as having a cyclic action which removes stones or a direct action which continuously loosens and sieves a layer of soil. The direct acting pickers have better ...

K. I. Preobrazhenskii V. S. Liflyandskii

1970-01-01

79

Description of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a list of key terms used to describe stone walls. The definitions for each term can be found in the corresponding chapter and section of the book 'Exploring Stone Walls'. Users can use the outline as a checklist, marking off the terms that best describe the wall they are investigating.

80

Stone Mountain in Context  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The colored square in this grayscale image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights the location of Stone Mountain, located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop.

2004-01-01

81

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE END, STONE COLUMNS ON FOREBAY. DATE STONE REMOVED IN 1914, BUT BARN MAY HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED IN THE 1830s - Barn, Beidler Road, Upper Merion Township, King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

82

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

83

Crushed salt reconsolidation at elevated temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

There is a long history of testing crushed salt as backfill for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program, but testing was typically done at 100 C or less. Future applications may involve backfilling crushed salt around heat-generating waste packages, where near-field temperatures could reach 250 C or hotter. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrostatic stress on run-of-mine salt at temperatures up to 250 C and pressures to 20 MPa. The results of these tests were compared with analogous modeling results. By comparing the modeling results at elevated temperatures to the experimental results, the adequacy of the current crushed salt reconsolidation model was evaluated. The model and experimental results both show an increase in the reconsolidation rate with temperature. The current crushed salt model predicts the experimental results well at a temperature of 100 C and matches the overall trends, but over-predicts the temperature dependence of the reconsolidation. Further development of the deformation mechanism activation energies would lead to a better prediction of the temperature dependence by the crushed salt reconsolidation model.

Holcomb, David Joseph; Clayton, Daniel James; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

2010-06-01

84

"Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Caf in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

2014-05-01

85

A huge bladder cystine stone.  

PubMed

An unusual cystine stone that occur only in patients, who have cystinuria is presented in 24-year-old man. Radiographs showed a giant bladder stone shadow, 8.0 x 10.0 x 5.0 cm in size. The literature was reviewed to identify the giant stones as well as the huge cystine stone which is exceptional yet as. PMID:15198153

Grdal, Mesut; Ayyildiz, Ali; Huri, Emre; Kanbero?lu, Hseyin; Karaman, M Ihsan

2003-01-01

86

Endoscopic seminal vesicle stone removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seminal vesicle stones are extremely rare, and few cases have been reported. Treatment requires removal of the stone, generally through an open vesiculectomy. A 31-year-old man presented with perineal pain, painful ejaculation, and infertility of several years duration. Multiple stones in the seminal vesicle duct system were diagnosed by radiologic examination. We treated the patient by seminal vesicle endoscopic stone

Ya?ar zgk; Mete Kilciler; Emin Aydur; Mutlu Saglam; Hasan Cem Irk?lata; Dogan Erduran

2005-01-01

87

Mutual Information for the Detection of Crush  

PubMed Central

Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organizers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that both the prediction and prevention of such conditions offer a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but often computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally cheap but subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of the onset of crush.

Harding, Peter; Gwynne, Steve; Amos, Martyn

2011-01-01

88

Infection-Related Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection and stones can be associated in two ways. Stone disease can occur due to infection by an organism that expresses\\u000a the urea-splitting enzyme urease (infection stones). Nephrolithiasis can also be complicated by urinary tract infection that\\u000a in turn was caused by obstruction of the urinary tract by a stone and\\/or colonization of a pre-existing stone, in both cases\\u000a by

Amy E. Krambeck; John C. Lieske

89

Skimming and Skipping Stones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

Humble, Steve

2007-01-01

90

The Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural, and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles; links to books and other publications; and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

91

Difficult bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statementBile duct stones are routinely removed at time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) after biliary sphincterotomy\\u000a with standard balloon or basket extraction techniques. However, in approximately 10% to 15% of patients, bile duct stones\\u000a may be difficult to remove due to challenging access to the bile duct (periampullary diverticulum, Billroth II anatomy, Roux-en-Y\\u000a gastrojejunostomy), large (> 15 mm in

Lee McHenry; Glen Lehman

2006-01-01

92

Disaster nephrology: crush injury and beyond.  

PubMed

Disasters result in a substantial number of renal challenges, either by the creation of crush injury in victims trapped in collapsed buildings or by the destruction of existing dialysis facilities, leaving chronic dialysis patients without access to their dialysis units, medications, or medical care. Over the past two decades, lessons have been learned from the response to a number of major natural disasters that have impacted significantly on crush-related acute kidney injury and chronic dialysis patients. In this paper we review the pathophysiology and treatment of the crush syndrome, as summarized in recent clinical recommendations for the management of crush syndrome. The importance of early fluid resuscitation in preventing acute kidney injury is stressed, logistic difficulties in disaster conditions are described, and the need for an implementation of a renal disaster relief preparedness program is underlined. The role of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force in providing emergency disaster relief and the logistical support required is outlined. In addition, the importance of detailed education of chronic dialysis patients and renal unit staff in the advance planning for such disasters and the impact of displacement by disasters of chronic dialysis patients are discussed. PMID:24107850

Gibney, R T Noel; Sever, Mehmet S; Vanholder, Raymond C

2014-05-01

93

Load diversion by embedding in crushed salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semihydrostatic model permits the analytical calculation of the pressure distribution in a vertical cylindrical borehole filled with waste packages and crushed salt. The pressure components depend on the axial and radial coordinates. Two test stands of CFRP with different wall roughnesses were erected for the experimental verification of the model. The sensors manufactured for measuring the radial and axial

W. Feuser; H. Vijgen; E. Barnert

1999-01-01

94

Recovery of proprioceptive feedback from nerve crush  

PubMed Central

Abstract Sensorimotor functions are restored by peripheral nerve regeneration with greater success following injuries that crush rather than sever the nerve. Better recovery following nerve crush is commonly attributed to superior reconnection of regenerating axons with their original peripheral targets. The present study was designed to estimate the fraction of stretch reflex recovery attributable to functional recovery of regenerated spindle afferents. Recovery of the spindle afferent population was estimated from excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by muscle stretch (strEPSPs) in motoneurons. These events were measured in cats that were anaesthetized, so that recovery of spindle afferent function, including both muscle stretch encoding and monosynaptic transmission, could be separated from other factors that act centrally to influence muscle stretch-evoked excitation of motoneurons. Recovery of strEPSPs to 70% of normal specified the extent of overall functional recovery by the population spindle afferents that regained responsiveness to muscle stretch. In separate studies, we examined recovery of the stretch reflex in decerebrate cats, and found that it recovered to supranormal levels after nerve crush. The substantial disparity in recovery between strEPSPs and stretch reflex led us to conclude that factors in addition to recovery of spindle afferents make a large contribution in restoring the stretch reflex following nerve crush.

Prather, Jonathan F; Nardelli, Paul; Nakanishi, Stan T; Ross, Kyla T; Nichols, T Richard; Pinter, Martin J; Cope, Timothy C

2011-01-01

95

7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, FACING NORTH. REMAINS OF CONVEYOR BELT VISIBLE AT BOTTOM RIGHT. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

96

3. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING NORTH. HEADFRAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING NORTH. HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE 18) VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

97

8. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

98

5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), SECOND FLOOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), SECOND FLOOR FACING EAST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

99

Potential of Using Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) for Thin Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) has been used within the U.S. since 1991. To date almost all of the SMA mixes have had either a 12.5 or 19.0 mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS). These two NMASs have been predominant because they conform to information obt...

L. A. Cooley E. R. Brown

2003-01-01

100

Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush  

SciTech Connect

To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting {sup 35}S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative 'cytomatrix' proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with {sup 3}H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval.

McQuarrie, I.G.; Jacob, J.M. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))

1991-03-01

101

Nephrolithiasis: molecular mechanism of renal stone formation and the critical role played by modulators.  

PubMed

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica; Tandon, Chanderdeep

2013-01-01

102

Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators  

PubMed Central

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation.

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

2013-01-01

103

Study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone contaminations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Causes of building stone contamination are acid rains in polluted areas, iron bearing minerals in stone itself, salts, sealants, cutting and grinding processes in stone factory and steel compounds structures such as stone anchors, bolts, rain culvert and ...

J. K. Hyun H. Y. Lee

1996-01-01

104

6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, FACING SOUTH. REMAINS OF CONVEYOR BELT BETWEEN CRUSHING PLANT AND FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) SHOWN IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

105

Thermal expansion of self-consolidating normal and lightweight aggregate concrete at elevated temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of aggregate type on the coefficient of thermal expansion of self-consolidating concrete produced with normal (SCC) and lightweight aggregate (SCLC) at elevated temperature were investigated. In experiments, two aggregate types, crushed limestone and pumice, were used. Different combinations of water\\/powder ratio and superplasticizer dosage levels were prepared for the SCC and SCLC mixtures. The total

Tayfun Uyguno?lu; ?lker Bekir Topu

2009-01-01

106

Roadstone aggregate: An intelligent opto-mechatronic product classifier for sizing and grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The British quarry industry produces 240 Mtonnes of aggregate per annum, consuming 3% of all U.K. generated electricity. Rigorous specifications exist for finished aggregate. Traditional control of Cone crushing plant relies on manual machine adjustment, resulting in poor performance and inconsistent product quality. A high speed 3D aggregate inspection and classification system is described here; a product sampling system directs

R. M. Parkin; D. W. Calkin; M. R. Jackson

1995-01-01

107

Synthetic lightweight aggregate from cool water slag: Bench-scale confirmation tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report analyzes the potential for production of synthetic lightweight aggregate (SLA) from a Texaco coal gasification solid residue. The objective of the project was to develop a replacement for conventional lightweight aggregates typically derived from expanded clays and shales or natural lightweight aggregates. The sequence of tests performed to develop SLA from slag began with the crushing of samples

V. Choudhry; S. R. Hadley

1990-01-01

108

Behaviour of beamcolumn joints made of recycled-aggregate concrete under cyclic loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a recycled-aggregate concrete (RAC) was prepared by replacing 30% virgin with recycled concrete aggregate coming from an industrial crushing plant in which concrete from building demolition is suitably treated. A reference concrete was also prepared by using 100% virgin aggregate with the same workability and strength class. Concrete specimens were manufactured for evaluating compressive, tensile, flexural and

Valeria Corinaldesi; Viviana Letelier; Giacomo Moriconi

2011-01-01

109

Stone Consolidating Materials - A Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on types of stone consolidating materials, their performances, and uses are critically reviewed. Processes responsible for the deterioration of stone and criteria for selecting stone consolidants are also reviewed. The main function of stone c...

J. R. Clifton

1980-01-01

110

Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

2009-01-01

111

GR Kerr Stone Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GR Kerr Stone program simulates orbits of an object in the equatorial plane near a rotating black hole using the Kerr metric. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the gr_kerr_stone.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default is an object initially with an r value of 3.0 near a black hole with angular momentum parameter, J/M = 0.75. GR Kerr Stone is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of General Relativity. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or General Relativity.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario; Cox, Anne

2009-05-03

112

[A new cartilage crushing instrument for rhinoseptoplasty].  

PubMed

The method of so called "Cartilage Crushing" is used for bone or cartilage which is temporarily removed from the nasal septum during surgery in order to straighten it, remove tension and then to replant it. Basically the pieces to be treated are placed between two metal blocks which are pressed together on impact by a hammer. The newly developed instrument presented here is not joined together in the form of an axle. The new instrument has a larger circular formed area with a diameter of 4 cm. The anvil has a rounded surface enclosed by cylindrical walls, while the pressure pestle functions as a piston within the cylindrical walls. This system allows the bone cartilage on the surface to receive an even impact on the whole section through the piston-like action of the pressure pestle, thus making it possible for the crushed cartilage to be evenly extended in all directions. PMID:1571056

Tolsdorff, P

1992-02-01

113

Industrial equipment for selective charge crushing  

SciTech Connect

The design, operation, and performance of fluidized-bed equipment for the pneumatic separation and selective crushing of the coal charge for coking plants are described. Air blown through gratings sets up a fluidized bed of coal in which separation by size and density is initiated. The oversize fraction is sent to a hammer crusher to be further reduced before returning it to the separator. Since the size is more uniform in the coal charge, the coke quality shows improvement.

Ryabichenko, A.D.; Belyaev, E.V.; Kochkin, V.V.

1983-01-01

114

Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus  

SciTech Connect

Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

Casteel, K.

2009-04-15

115

Use-wear patterns on wild macaque stone tools reveal their behavioural history.  

PubMed

Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that had been collected following behavioural observation, in order to (i) quantify the wear patterns in terms of the types and distribution of use-damage on the stones, and (ii) develop a Use-Action Index (UAI) to differentiate axe hammers from pound hammers by wear patterns alone. We used the intensity of crushing damage on differing surface zones of the stones, as well as stone weight, to produce a UAI that had 92% concordance when compared to how the stones had been used by macaques, as observed independently prior to collection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that quantitative archaeological use-wear techniques can accurately reconstruct the behavioural histories of non-human primate stone tools. PMID:23977365

Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

2013-01-01

116

Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History  

PubMed Central

Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that had been collected following behavioural observation, in order to (i) quantify the wear patterns in terms of the types and distribution of use-damage on the stones, and (ii) develop a Use-Action Index (UAI) to differentiate axe hammers from pound hammers by wear patterns alone. We used the intensity of crushing damage on differing surface zones of the stones, as well as stone weight, to produce a UAI that had 92% concordance when compared to how the stones had been used by macaques, as observed independently prior to collection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that quantitative archaeological use-wear techniques can accurately reconstruct the behavioural histories of non-human primate stone tools.

Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

2013-01-01

117

Clinical Significance of Stone Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bases of a real metaphylaxis in the renal stone diseases are the analysis of stones and the research of metabolism in blood plasma and urine. The greatest part of the stones analyzed may be classified in four groups: oxalate, phosphate, uric acid and cystine. The metaphylaxis by whewellite and weddellite is the same for both species but there is

O. Schmucki; R. Asper

1986-01-01

118

Heavy elements in urinary stones.  

PubMed

The presence and role of heavy metals in urinary stones is debated. We investigated the distribution of trace heavy metals in 78 calculi of well-defined composition by means of microfluorescence X analysis using synchrotron radiation. Seven elements were identified, the most abundant being Zn and Sr which together accounted for 91% of the heavy metal content of stones. The other heavy metals were Fe, Cu, Rb, Pb and Se. Zn and Sr were virtually confined to calcium-containing stones, whereas only trace amounts were found in uric acid or cystine stones. Among calcium stones, Zn and Sr were more abundant in calcium phosphate than in calcium oxalate stones and, in the latter, in weddellite than in whewellite stones. Fe, Cu and Rb were much less abundant and also found mainly in calcium stones. Pb was significantly less abundant than in previous studies, thus suggesting a rarefaction of Pb in the environment, and appreciable amounts of Se were found only in cystine stones. In conclusion, the preponderance of Zn and Sr, both bivalent ions, in calcium-containing stones suggests a substitution process of calcium by metal ions with similar charge and radius rather than a contribution of the metals to stone formation. Further studies are needed to examine the relationships between urine concentration in calcium or other solutes and the amount of Zn and Sr in calcium stones. PMID:17492279

Bazin, D; Chevallier, P; Matzen, G; Jungers, P; Daudon, M

2007-08-01

119

Stone Arrow Heads  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE interesting investigations of Mr. Redding on the method of making the above objects, as referred to in NATURE, vol. xxi. p. 613, have been somewhat anticipated by Mr. Paul Schumacher, ``Methods of making stone weapons,'' Bull. U.S. Geol. and Geog. Survey, vol. iii. p. 547, 1877, which again was a translation from an earlier publication in Archiv fr Anthropologie,

W. L. Distant

1880-01-01

120

Salivary duct stones  

MedlinePLUS

... of minerals in the ducts that drain the salivary glands. Salivary duct stones are a type of salivary gland disorder. ... Saliva (spit) is produced by the salivary glands in the mouth. The ... that can block the salivary ducts. When saliva cannot exit ...

121

Lunar Stone Saw.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the sou...

T. Clark T. Croker K. Hines M. Knight T. Walton

1988-01-01

122

Endoscopic seminal vesicle stone removal.  

PubMed

Seminal vesicle stones are extremely rare, and few cases have been reported. Treatment requires removal of the stone, generally through an open vesiculectomy. A 31-year-old man presented with perineal pain, painful ejaculation, and infertility of several years' duration. Multiple stones in the seminal vesicle duct system were diagnosed by radiologic examination. We treated the patient by seminal vesicle endoscopic stone removal, thereby obviating organ loss. The composition of the stones was whewellite. To our knowledge, this approach has not been previously reported, and our result may be encouraging for treatment of such pathologic conditions of the seminal vesicles. PMID:15780386

Ozgk, Ya?ar; Kilciler, Mete; Aydur, Emin; Saglam, Mutlu; Irkilata, Hasan Cem; Erduran, Dogan

2005-03-01

123

Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, ). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained. In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnires stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

2012-04-01

124

Single point diamond crushing of glass  

SciTech Connect

Single point diamond crushing of glass was originally developed by Dr. R.E. Reason of Taylor and Hobson in England 34 years ago as a means of shaping glass aspheres prior to polishing. It has recently been tried at LLNL. A surface finish of 50 microinches peak-to-valley with occasional deeper pits has been achieved on Zerodur and BK-7 glass. A depth of cut of 0.008 inch or more can be taken at a surface speed of 900 feet per minute. Tool wear is on the order of 10 microinches after removal of one cubic inch of Zerodur. The tool's cost is $5.45 each.

Bryan, J.B.; Carter, D.L.; Clouser, R.W.; Thompson, S.L.

1984-05-23

125

Pharmacology of Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Kidney stone disease remains a major health and economic burden on the nation. It has been increasingly recognized that nephrolithiasis can be both a chronic or systemic illness. There have been major limitations in the development of new drugs for the prevention and management of this disease, largely due to our lack of understanding of the complex pathophysiologic mechanisms involving the interaction of three major target organs: the kidney, bone, and intestine. We also do not yet understand the molecular genetic basis of this polygenic disorder. These limitations are coupled with the incorrect perception that kidney stone disease is solely an acute illness, and the lack of reliable tests to assess outcome measures. All of these factors combined have diminished the willingness of the pharmaceutical industry to engage in the development of novel drugs.

Sakhaee, Khashayar

2011-01-01

126

Rolling Stone Rock Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Rolling Stone_ magazine and Magellan have teamed up to create this Internet rock resource directory. Whether you want to find out about an artist or a genre of music, obtain tickets for a show, or even gather information on starting your own music career, this site is an excellent starting point. Content for the site is contributed by _Rolling Stone_, but the structure is very similar to Magellan (discussed in the September 1, 1995 Scout Report). The Rock Guide consists of Internet resources that are categorized, reviewed, and rated. Users can browse by genre or search the directory. There are sections on artists, music genres, magazines, books, merchandise, musical instruction, the music business, performances, clubs, online chat and discussion and more.

1996-01-01

127

Ocular manifestations of crush head injury in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsTo review the ocular manifestations of crush head injuries in children.MethodsRetrospective clinical and pathological reviews. Group 1: A total of 16 children admitted with crush head injuries from television tip over. Group 2: Nine autopsy findings in crush head injury.ResultsGroup 1: A total of 11 children had fundus examination: three by neurosurgeons, eight by ophthalmologists. Scattered posterior pole preretinal and

L Gnanaraj; M G F Gilliland; R R Yahya; J T Rutka; J Drake; P Dirks; A V Levin

2007-01-01

128

Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This children's book tells the story of a grandfather and his grandson who, as they examine and repair the stone walls that surround their family farm, learn about geology, history, and cultural anthropology. It is used as reading and reference material for many of the lessons in the curriculum. This item must be purchased; information on obtaining it is provided. A link to the book's publisher is also provided.

Thorson, Robert

129

Developmental morphology of calcium oxalate foreign body stones in rats.  

PubMed

Calcium oxalate bladder stones were induced in male rats by implanting plastic foreign bodies and by adding ethylene glycol to their drinking water. The foreign body surface was first coated with cellular debris and some amorphous material. Encrustation with crystals of calcium oxalate started on the third day of implantation. Within 2 weeks the entire surface of a foreign body was covered with crystals and some noncrystalline material. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals consisted of platelike crystallites arranged in hemispherulitic or spherulitic habit. Calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals wee basically dipyramidal, a majority of them showing interpenetrant twinning. The stone grew by confluent crystal growth and crystal aggregation. A transformation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals to calcium oxalate dihydrate also occurred. The matrix consisting of cellular debris and urinary macromolecules was universally distributed in the stone including the inside of crystal bodies. PMID:3924373

Khan, S R; Hackett, R L

1985-03-01

130

34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. NOTICE RAIL TIES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

131

A Review of Natural Stone Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With increased interest in stone preservation, it is desirable to know what causes stone to decay, and what materials can be used to preserve stone. This review covers the following topics: causes of stone decay, including faults in the stone, salts, natu...

G. A. Sleater

1973-01-01

132

Lithofibrin. A new remarkably stable substance found in renal stones.  

PubMed

Besides inorganic constituents, renal stones contain organic matter known as stone matrix. We have examined such matrix obtained from stones that had been crushed by extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, in order to determine its chemical properties. Morphologically, the matrix was composed of fibers of different colors, most of them exhibiting autofluorescence. Proteins or any other well-known biochemical material were not present. It was remarkably stable against chemical degradation, and could not be dissolved in hot concentrated acids or bases or any common organic solvent. Elementary analysis revealed carbon (60.8%), oxygen (26.9%), nitrogen (7.6%), hydrogen (5.3%) and sulfur (0.77%) to be present. Furthermore, X-ray emission spectroscopy revealed the presence of titanium and chromium. Solid-phase 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of aromatic and aliphatic carbon as well as carbon bound to O and/or N. The material was paramagnetic. All findings indicated the matrix to be composed of a new class of organic compound, probably a polyaromatic heterocyclic organic material. We welcome suggestions on further methods that can ultimately elucidate the nature of lithofibrins. PMID:8688252

Ohman, S; Larsson, L

1996-07-01

133

Having and Being an Other-Sex Crush during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined other-sex crush experiences (both having and being perceived as an other-sex crush) among 544 young adolescents (mean age = 12.74 years). Results indicated that 56% had at least one current other-sex crush, with little overlap between crushes, friends, and boyfriends/girlfriends. Significant associations between other-sex crush

Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Gyoerkoe, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

134

Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armua village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the faades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted faade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the faades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

2013-04-01

135

Calcium oxalate crystal growth in human urinary stones  

SciTech Connect

Calcium oxalate stones are very common and increasing. Crystal growth is no less important than the crystal nucleation in the pathogenesis of stone formation. The crystal growth was studied in human calcium oxalate stones by a combined electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The main mode of weddellite growth was interpenetration twinning of tetrahedral bipyramids. Bipyramids may form as initial crystal seeds, develop from anhedral crystals (crystals which lack flat symmetric faces) of spherular or mulberry shape, develop on the surface of preformed bipyramids by spiral dislocation mechanisms, or develop on whewellite crystal by heterogeneous nucleation and epitaxy. Heterogeneous nucleations of whewellite on weddellite, and calcium apatite on whewellite were also observed. Whewellite grew mainly by parallel twinning. Interpenetration twinning was exceptional. Transformation of anhedral to euhedral (completely bounded by flat faces that are set ar fixed angles to one another) whewellite occurred by parallel fissurations followed by brick wall like stacking of the crystals, while euhedral transformation of weddellite occurred by protrusion of bipyramids frm anhedral crystal surface. Occasionally, an evidence of crystal dissolution was noted. Although an aggregation of crystals is believed to play a pivotal role in stone nidus formation, growth in size of the formed crystals, and twinning and epitactic crystal intergrowth apparently play a significant role in the obstructive urinary stone formation.

Kim, K.M.; Johnson, F.B.

1981-01-01

136

Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts, electron microscopy revealed intra- and extra-cellular needle-like crystal deposits, which were stainable with von Kossa stain and resemble calcospherules found in pathological calcification. Thus bacteria-mediated apatite formation takes place in aqueous environments, in humans and in geological sediments.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

1998-07-01

137

Environmental Impacts Of Mining Natural Aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nearly every community in nearly every industrialized or industrializing country is dependent on aggregate resources (sand,\\u000a gravel, and stone) to build and maintain their infrastructure. Indeed, even agrarian communities depend on well-maintained\\u000a transportation systems to move produce to markets. Unfortunately, aggregate resources necessary to meet societal needs cannot\\u000a be developed without causing environmental impacts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Most environmental impacts associated with aggregate

William H. Langer; Belinda F. Arbogast

138

Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi.

Pak, C.Y.C.

1987-01-01

139

1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF THE FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) ARE IN THE BACKGROUND ON LEFT. CONCRETE RESERVOIR (FEATURE 22) IS SHOWN AT THE RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTOGRAPH FACING SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

140

The Big Crush: An Introduction to Materials Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lots of engineering thinking can be involved in crushing things. As an example, engineers spend a great deal of time designing crush-proof packaging for delicate equipment and packing materials for items that must be stored or shipped. This article presents an activity wherein students can begin to appreciate the technology behind the engineering.

Roman, Harry T.

2011-01-01

141

Bioavailability of Buprenorphine from Crushed and Whole Buprenorphine (Subutex) Tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Buprenorphine (Subutex) is the most abused opioid in Finland. In order to curb the abuse potential of this drug, many treatment centers and prisons crush Subutex tablets before administering them to patients. To date, there are no published studies comparing the efficacy and bioavailability of crushed and whole Subutex tablets. Methods: A total of 16 opioid-dependent patients stabilized on

Kaarlo Simojoki; Pirjo Lillsunde; Nicholas Lintzeris; Hannu Alho

2010-01-01

142

Crushing of axially compressed steel tubes filled with aluminium foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study, with the emphasis on experiments, investigates the applicability of aluminium foam as filler material in tubes made of mild steel having square or circular cross sections, which are crushed axially at low loading velocities. In addition to the experiments finite element studies are performed to simulate the crushing behaviour of the tested square tubes, were a crushable

M. Seitzberger; F. G. Rammerstorfer; H. P. Degischer; R. Gradinger

1997-01-01

143

The Rosetta stone method.  

PubMed

Analysis of amino acid sequences from different organisms often reveals cases in which two or more proteins encoded for separately in a genome also appear as fusions, either in the same genome or that of some other organism. Such fusion proteins, termed Rosetta stone sequences, help link disparate proteins together, and suggest the likelihood of functional interactions between the linked entities, describing local and global relationships within the proteome. These relationships help us understand the role of proteins within the context of their associations, and facilitate assignment of putative functions to uncharacterized proteins based on their linkages with proteins of known function. PMID:18712302

Date, Shailesh V

2008-01-01

144

Crafting Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-day lesson, students will discuss the formation of rocks in earth history, hear about earth history, discuss the importance of respect and stewardship of past and present, and consider height, width, texture and shape when making rock representations. Following a review of previous explorations of stone walls, they will read and discuss geological concepts, particularly what a rock looks like. They will then construct papier-mache 'rocks' and build a model wall from them, write stories about their hypothetical histories, and hide the stories in their model wall. Finally, they will read and discuss the stories hidden in their rocks.

145

Two dislodged and crushed coronary stents: treatment of two simultaneously dislodged stents using crushing techniques  

PubMed Central

Coronary stent dislodgement is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. We report a rare case of dislodgement of two intracoronary stents. On withdrawal of two balloon catheters, one with a guide wire was mechanically distorted from the left main (LM) to the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) while the other was dislodged from the LM to the ostial left circumflex artery. The stent in the LAD could not be retrieved into the guide catheter using a Goose neck snare, because it was caught on a previously deployed stent at the mid LAD. A new stent was quickly deployed from the LM to the proximal LAD, because the patient developed cardiogenic shock. Both stents, including a distorted and elongated stent, were crushed to the LM wall. Stent deployment and crushing may be a good alternative technique to retrieving a dislodged stent.

Yang, Dong-Hyeok; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Park, Sang-Don; Jang, Ji-Hun; Kwan, Jun; Shin, Sung-Hee

2013-01-01

146

Utilization of coal refuse for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to study the relationship between the washability fractions of coal refuse and the quality of lightweight aggregate products prepared from such refuse. Three samples of current refuse, each weighing three thousand pounds, were collected from preparation plant tipples. Products of sink-float separations were individually crushed to 100% minus 60 mesh and recombined into ten

R. W. Utley; H. L. Lovell; T. S. Spicer

1964-01-01

147

Eukaryotic Microorganisms and Stone Biodeterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic microorganisms (especially green algae and fungi) can have a significant impact on the structure and appearance of stone cultural heritage. This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of eukaryotes in the biodeterioration of stone. Considerable uncertainty remains over community-level interactions and the response of lithobiontic communities to environmental change. Three inter-linked approaches to future research are proposed: (1)

Nick Cutler; Heather Viles

2010-01-01

148

Biodeterioration of stone: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alteration and weathering of stone is basically determined by natural and anthropogenic impacts influencing various physical, chemical and biological damage factors at the object site. Whether as direct or catalytically enhancing factor, the biodeterioration of stone is coupled with nearly all environmentally induced degradation processes: the presence of the one makes deterioration by the other all the more effective.

Th. Warscheid; J. Braams

2000-01-01

149

62 FR 8906 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...220 test procedure for roof crush resistance of raised roof vehicles. Standard No...resulting in diminished roof crush resistance, the agency does not agree that the...windshield probably contributes to roof crush resistance in more representative, less...

1997-02-27

150

Piedra Pajarilla: A candidate for nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource from Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piedra Pajarilla is a tourmaline bearing leucogranite outcropping at Martinamor, near Salamanca, Spain. It is part of the Hercynian granitic chain in the Spanish Central System. The stone received the local name "Piedra Pajarilla", meaning "Little Bird Stone" due to the shape of the many tourmaline aggregates that are the main visual feature of the rock. This local name has been extrapolated to every granitic stone used in the area, even if they differ significantly in mineralogy, and as recently tested in physical and mechanical properties as well. Here we present the nomination of Piedra Pajarilla as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used since Roman times in Salamanca (Spain) and since the Middle Ages in the construction of major historic buildings, including both the Old and New Cathedrals, and many additional churches, castles and walls in the Salamanca area. Salamancs historic city core has been granted UNESCO World Heritage status in 1988, and all associated buildings, monuments and pedestrian streets are constructed from original materials. One of utilised materials, Piedra Pajarilla, was quarried for centuries from the immediate area. It was also the preferred building stone of many internationally renowned architects of Spanish origin during the 18th and 19th centuries especially involved in reconstruction following the Lisbon earthquake. Although the associated quarries are no longer active, the Piedra Pajarilla quarry sites remain relatively undisturbed and accessible. A renewal of quarrying is consequently feasible if additional stone supplies are required for heritage restoration. Thus there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries in anticipation of such work. The importance of Salamanca as emblematic heritage makes the historic stone quarries worthwhile to preserve as well. At the same time, Piedra Pajarilla can be considered as the first of several natural stones that can contribute to the denomination of a "Global Heritage Stone Province", as a suite of associated stone resources have been utilised in the historical buildings of Salamanca.

Pereira, Dolores; Gimeno, Ana; del Barrio, Santiago

2013-04-01

151

Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration ash in stone mastic asphalt mixture: Pavement performance and environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to the use of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate or mineral filler in stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixture. For saving natural rock and reusing solid waste, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) was used as part of coarse aggregate. And this makes SMA mixtures contain

Yongjie Xue; Haobo Hou; Shujing Zhu; Jin Zha

2009-01-01

152

The fractal crushing of granular materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of the micro mechanical origins of the irrecoverable compression of aggregates which comprise brittle grains. The terms yielding and plastic hardening are used in the discipline of soil mechanics to describe the post-elastic behaviour of granular media. These plastic phenomena are here related to the successive splitting of grains.Grains are taken to split probabilistically; the

G. R. McDowell; M. D. Bolton; D. Robertson

1996-01-01

153

The brassiere 'sign' - a distinctive marker in crush asphyxia.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of crush asphyxia typically relies on a history of chest or abdominal compression with the finding of skin petechiae and congestion. The following three cases of crush asphyxia demonstrate a distinctive pattern of petechiae and congestion associated with close-fitting clothing: Case 1, a 49-year-old woman who was crushed under a large hay bale; Case 2, a 35-year-old woman who was crushed between a wall and a car; Case 3, a 49-year-old woman who was crushed between a crane and the side of a truck. At autopsy in all three cases there were facial, conjunctival, neck and upper anterior chest petechiae. However, few or no petechiae, and reduced congestion, were observed in areas beneath the victims' brassieres. Deaths in these cases were all due to crush asphyxia, with the pattern of petechiae on the chests of the victims influenced by close-fitting clothing that had compressed cutaneous vasculature. This brassiere 'sign' provided a readily observable and easily recordable sign of crush asphyxia due to chest compression, and illustrated that vascular engorgement is necessary for the development of petechiae in these circumstances. PMID:16188481

Byard, Roger W

2005-12-01

154

Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

155

Management of uric acid stone.  

PubMed

Uric acid stones are the most readily dissolvable of all types of urinary stones. By maintaining urinary pH between 6.2-6.8 with the use of sodium acid citrate or uralyt-U and reducing serum uric acid by allopurinol, we tried to dissolve 107 stones in 67 patients. Ninety three (86.9%) stones were dissolved and 6 (5.6%) passed spontaneously within a period of one year. Eight (7.5%) stones were removed surgically or with ESWL. Five (7.5%) patients had stone recurrence over a period of 3 years follow-up. Serum uric acid was raised in 19 (28.5%) and urinary uric acid in 12 (18%) patients while urinary pH was low in 46 (69%) patients. For uncomplicated uric acid stones oral chemolysis on an out-patient basis is the treatment of choice. It is simple, safe and inexpensive. However, it requires rigid compliance by the patient and strict follow-up by ultrasonography (JPMA 42: 153, 1992). PMID:1404830

Chugtai, M N; Khan, F A; Kaleem, M; Ahmed, M

1992-07-01

156

Brazilian Stone Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Why are Brazilian stone meteorites interesting and worthy of their own volume? Before the investigations reported in this volume, many had been poorly described, but, more significantly, several are unique and their proper description is important for the development of ideas on the origin and evolution of all meteorites.Twenty-one meteorites are described. The most significant and important are the achondrites Angra dos Reis, Governador Valadares, Ibitira, and Serra de Mage. These four require 31 pages of text compared with 62 pages for 17 ordinary chondrites. Descriptions for the ordinary chondrites include mineralogic, petrographic, electron microprobe, and bulk chemical studies. In the case of the achondrites age dating, trace element geochemistry and other data are included. These data are from the authors and other investigators. The location of available material in museums and collections is recorded for each meteorite.

Moore, Carleton B.

157

Rolling Stone Radio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rolling Stone Radio is a fun and interesting site that may represent the future of Internet radio. The site provides a number of streaming audio channels that can be listened to via RealNetworks' RealPlayer G2 combined with a customized, radio-like interface to the site. Each channel features a particular genre of music, and the interface displays the artist and song title during play. The sound quality ranges from acceptable to excellent, and the sound controls and channel selectors are easy-to-use. While the site borders on the exploitative in its advertising and ability to purchase music by clicking through the interface, it does combine some of the best ideas on the Internet into a seamless entertainment package. All downloadable components of this site are free but run only on Win95/98/NT.

1999-01-01

158

Analysis of Crushing Response of Composite Crashworthy Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes quasi-static and dynamic tests to characterise the energy absorption properties of polymer composite crash energy absorbing segment elements under axial loads. Detailed computer tomography scans of failed specimens are used to identify local compression crush failure mechanisms at the crush front. The varied crushing morphology between the compression strain rates identified in this paper is observed to be due to the differences in the response modes and mechanical properties of the strain dependent epoxy matrix. The importance of understanding the role of strain rate effects in composite crash energy absorbing structures is highlighted in this paper.

David, Matthew; Johnson, Alastair F.; Voggenreiter, H.

2013-10-01

159

Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

McGee, E. S.; Mossotti, V. G.

1992-01-01

160

Renal Stones and Their Medical Management  

PubMed Central

Renal stones are common; in North America calcific stones far exceed uric acid and cystine stones in number. Patients with recurrent, complicated, or bilateral stones merit thoughtful investigation which should take into account what is known about the causes of stone. This review gives an outline of investigation and therapy for cystine and uric acid stones on the assumption that they can be dissolved and recurrences prevented. The challenge of calcific stones is faced and the use of thiazide and allopurinol is discussed as a potentially useful approach to treatment.

Smith, E. Kinsey M.

1978-01-01

161

79. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CRUSHING DEPT. AND TRAMWAY TERMINAL SHEET ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

79. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CRUSHING DEPT. AND TRAMWAY TERMINAL SHEET NO. 4, ELEVATION LOOKING SOUTH - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

162

Process for intensification of grinding stone coal  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for intensifying grinding of stone coal comprising: (a) ascertaining the water content of the stone coal in a air-dry state, (b) adjusting the water content of the stone coal to a value of 0.05-2.5% by weight greater than that of the stone coal in an air-dry state, and (c) grinding the stone coal after adjusting its water content to the desired value.

Szekely, E.; Szekely, R.

1988-09-13

163

Idiopathic Bladder-Stone Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews current knowledge concerning idiopathic bladder stone disease, particularly in regard to its occurrence in children. The geographic distribution of the disease has changed during the past 100 years, disappearing from the USA, Western Eur...

R. Van Reen A. Valyasevi

1973-01-01

164

Improved ureteral stone fragmentation catheter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catheter includes fiber optic viewer, more reliable ultrasonic probe, and better contact sensor. It is guided by four steering wires, and irrigation fluid is supplied through lumen to remove stone fragments.

Gammell, P. M.

1981-01-01

165

Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

Evan, Andrew P.

2007-04-01

166

Heavy elements in urinary stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence and role of heavy metals in urinary stones is debated. We investigated the distribution of trace heavy metals\\u000a in 78 calculi of well-defined composition by means of microfluorescence X analysis using synchrotron radiation. Seven elements\\u000a were identified, the most abundant being Zn and Sr which together accounted for 91% of the heavy metal content of stones.\\u000a The other

D. Bazin; P. Chevallier; G. Matzen; P. Jungers; M. Daudon

2007-01-01

167

Theoretical Analysis of Axial Crushing of Cylindrical Tubes with Corrugated Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new theoretical model of axial crushing of cylindrical tubes with corrugated surfaces has been developed in which the crushing force is analyzed by considering the equilibrium of work done by the crushing force and the energy required to deform the tube. The energy absorbed by the cylindrical tube being crushed is taken to be the sum of the bending

Dai-Heng Chen; Shingo Ozaki

2009-01-01

168

Lunar stone saw  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

1988-01-01

169

Evidence suggesting a genetic contribution to kidney stone in northeastern Thai population.  

PubMed

Genetic factor may play a role in the pathogenesis of kidney stone that is found in the northeastern (NE) Thai population. Herein, we report initial evidence suggesting genetic contribution to the disease in this population. We examined 1,034 subjects including 135 patients with kidney stone, 551 family members, and 348 villagers by radiography of kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) and other methods, and also analyzed stones removed by surgical operations. One hundred and sixteen of 551 family members (21.05%) and 23 of the 348 villagers (6.61%) were affected with kidney stone. The relative risk (lambda(R)) of the disease among family members was 3.18. Calcium stones (whewellite, dahllite, and weddellite) were observed in about 88% of stones analyzed. Our data indicate familial aggregation of kidney stone in this population supporting that genetic factor should play some role in its pathogenesis. Genetic and genomic studies will be conducted to identify the genes associated with the disease. PMID:19387627

Sritippayawan, Suchai; Borvornpadungkitti, Sombat; Paemanee, Atchara; Predanon, Chagkrapan; Susaengrat, Wattanachai; Chuawattana, Duangporn; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Nakjang, Sirintra; Pongtepaditep, Suttikarn; Nettuwakul, Choochai; Rungroj, Nanyawan; Vasuvattakul, Somkiat; Malasit, Prida; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

2009-06-01

170

Laboratory comparison study for the use of stone matrix asphalt in hot weather climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) is a hot mixture asphalt consisting of a coarse aggregate skeleton and a high binder content mortar. It was developed in Germany during the mid-1960s and it has been used in Europe for more than 20 years to provide better rutting resistance and to resist studded tyre wear. The main objective of this research study was

Ibrahim M. Asi

2006-01-01

171

Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

172

Thirty-eight years of stone meetings in Europe.  

PubMed

Of decisive importance for the many research groups all over Europe were the scientific symposia dealing with the theoretical foundations and clinical aspects of urinary stone disease. There were several sources from which today's European Urinary Stone meetings and the "Eurolithiasis Society" itself arose. It was a long way from Leeds in 1968 to Jena 1970, Bonn-Vienna in 1972 and to 11 European meetings from 1989 to 2005. Which developments in urinary stone disease research have been presented at our congresses during the past 40 years? The 1970s and 1980s are the years marked by efforts to measure the important lithogenic substances such as calcium, ionized calcium, uric acid, phosphate, oxalate with reliable methods. Hypercalciuria and specifically mild hyperoxaluria were the topics of numerous investigations in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The calcium-loading test described by Pak has been discussed frequently since its application. It became apparent that oxalic acid is more important in urinary stone formation than hypercalciuria. Of importance were investigations done by Robertson and his colleagues on the influence of diet (in particular, an animal protein-rich diet) on urinary stone formation. Another emphasis of research was investigation of the crystallization process: supersaturation, crystal growth and aggregation are important steps in urinary stone formation. Of great importance in the formation of urinary stones are inhibitors (inhibitory activity): citrate, magnesium, pyrophosphate, macromolecules: GAGs, THP etc. and it became possible in the early 1970s to determine substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) and GAGs. Much attention in the 1970s and 1980s was focused on urinary stone analysis (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, polarization microscopy) and standardization of these methods. In the mid-1980s, a whole series of epidemiological studies were carried out, with data for the Federal Republic of Germany, East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Austria. The search for "stone-removing" medications, their description and clinical use was the subject of much clinical research and in vitro examinations. A definite advance occurred in the 1980s with the development of new instrumental technologies for the management of urinary stones such as shockwave ("Stosswelle") lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureterorenoscopy (" breakthrough innovations"). Since the 8th European Urolithiasis Symposium there have regularly been presentations pertaining to the topic of the molecular basis of inherited lithiasis. The last 10-15 years have shown an increasing turning toward the importance of cellular alterations and supersaturation and their relation to stone formation. In conclusion, I would like to note that it is of decisive importance for the research groups all over Europe to organize scientific symposia dealing with the theoretical foundations and clinical aspects of urinary stone disease under the protection of the European Urolithiasis Society. PMID:16506036

Bichler, K H

2006-04-01

173

Laser lithotripsy retropulsion varies with stone mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that retropulsion varies with stone size. METHODS: Stone phantoms of uniform cube dimensions were constructed and irradiated with Ho:YAG energy (0.5 J - 3.5 J). Displacement was measured. RESULTS: At any given pulse energy, retropulsion decreased as stone size increased, p<0.05. At any given stone size, retropulsion increased as pulse energy increased, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of low pulse energy at high repetition rate is appropriate for ureteral stones. For larger bladder and renal stones, retropulsion is minimal even with high pulse energies. More study is warranted.

Robinson, Michael E.; Teichman, Joel M. H.

174

Nerve crush injuries--a model for axonotmesis.  

PubMed

Nerve crush is a commonly used experimental model in the rat; however, a standard method of inducing this injury has not been defined. This study examined six crush techniques that are frequently used and characterized the subsequent nerve injury. Five types of nerve crush using a No. 5 jeweler's forceps and a sixth using a 30-s single crush with a serrated hemostat were studied in the posterior tibial nerve of the Lewis rat. Regeneration was evaluated using serial walking track assessments at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperatively. Nerve conduction studies and histological examination were performed at 2 days, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks. Blood-nerve barrier breakdown was observed at 2 days and recovered by 2 weeks. By 4 weeks normal walking track patterns were obtained in all groups. A pattern of Wallerian degeneration and axonal regeneration was noted at 2 weeks, with histological recovery in all groups by 8 weeks. Nerve crush, induced by any of the six methods tested, was similar and provides a reliable model of axonotmesis. PMID:8033968

Bridge, P M; Ball, D J; Mackinnon, S E; Nakao, Y; Brandt, K; Hunter, D A; Hertl, C

1994-06-01

175

Novel ultrasound method to reposition kidney stones.  

PubMed

The success of surgical management of lower pole stones is principally dependent on stone fragmentation and residual stone clearance. Choice of surgical method depends on stone size, yet all methods are subjected to post-surgical complications resulting from residual stone fragments. Here we present a novel method and device to reposition kidney stones using ultrasound radiation force delivered by focused ultrasound and guided by ultrasound imaging. The device couples a commercial imaging array with a focused annular array transducer. Feasibility of repositioning stones was investigated by implanting artificial and human stones into a kidney-mimicking phantom that simulated a lower pole and collecting system. During experiment, stones were located by ultrasound imaging and repositioned by delivering short bursts of focused ultrasound. Stone motion was concurrently monitored by fluoroscopy, ultrasound imaging, and video photography, from which displacement and velocity were estimated. Stones were seen to move immediately after delivering focused ultrasound and successfully repositioned from the lower pole to the collecting system. Estimated velocities were on the order of 1 cm/s. This in vitro study demonstrates a promising modality to facilitate spontaneous clearance of kidney stones and increased clearance of residual stone fragments after surgical management. PMID:20967437

Shah, Anup; Owen, Neil R; Lu, Wei; Cunitz, Bryan W; Kaczkowski, Peter J; Harper, Jonathan D; Bailey, Michael R; Crum, Lawrence A

2010-12-01

176

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For utilizing waste stone and stone powder sludge generated from domestic quarry and cutting process of stone plates, the manufacturing technology of artificial stone plate as a building material was investigated. By introducing firing method and hydrothe...

C. K. Kim J. S. Sohn B. G. Kim Y. Sohn

1997-01-01

177

Calcium stone disease: a multiform reality.  

PubMed

In calcium renal stones, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in various crystal forms and states of hydration can be identified. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) or whewellite and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) or weddellite are the commonest constituents of calcium stones. Calcium oxalate stones may be pure or mixed, usually with calcium phosphate or sometimes with uric acid or ammonium urate. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and urinary patterns of patients forming calcium stones of different composition according to infrared spectroscopic analysis in order to obtain an insight into their etiology. The stones of 84 consecutive calcium renal stone formers were examined by infrared spectroscopy. In each patient, a blood sample was drawn and analysed for serum biochemistry and a 24-h urine sample was collected and analysed for calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate and other electrolytes. We classified 49 patients as calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formers, 32 as calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) stone formers and three as apatite stone formers according to the main component of their stones. Patients with COM stones were significantly older than patients with COD stones (P < 0.002). Mean daily urinary calcium and urinary saturation with respect to calcium oxalate were significantly lower in patients with COM than in those with COD stones (P < 0.000). Patients with calcium oxalate stones containing a urate component (< or = 10%) presented with higher saturation (P < 0.012) with respect to uric acid in their urine (and lower with respect to calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, respectively P < 0.024 and P < 0.003) in comparison with patients without a urate component in the stone. Patients with calcium oxalate stones with a calcium phosphate component (> or = 15%) showed higher (P < 0.0016) urinary saturation levels with respect to calcium phosphate (and lower with respect to uric acid (P < 0.009), compared with patients forming stones without calcium phosphate or with a low calcium phosphate component. Patients with calcium stones mixed with urate had a significantly lower urinary pH (P < 0.002) and urinary calcium (P < 0.000), and patients with calcium phosphate >15%, higher urinary pH (P < 0.004) and urinary calcium (P < 0.000). In conclusion, in the evaluation of the individual stone patient, an accurate analysis of the stone showing its exact composition and the eventual presence of minor components of the stone is mandatory in order to plan the correct prophylactic treatment. Patients with "calcium stones" could require various approaches dependent on the form and hydration of the calcium crystals in their stones, and on the presence of "minor" crystalline components that could have acted as epitaxial factors. PMID:15714335

Trinchieri, Alberto; Castelnuovo, Chiara; Lizzano, Renata; Zanetti, Giampaolo

2005-06-01

178

In Idiopathic Calcium Oxalate Stone Formers, Unattached Stones Show Evidence of Having Originated as Attached Stones on Randall's Plaque  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the structure and composition of unattached stones in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) and compare them to attached stones from the same cohort in order to investigate whether more than one pathogenic mechanism exists for stone formation in ICSF. Patients and methods ICSF undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy or ureteroscopy for treatment of nephrolithiasis were consented for this study. All accessible renal papillae were endoscopically imaged using a digital endoscope. All stones were removed and determined by the operating surgeon to be attached or unattached to the underlying papilla. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), which provides three-dimensional analysis of entire stones, was used to compare the structure and composition of attached versus unattached stones. Results Of 115 stones collected from 9 patients (12 renal units), only 25 stones were found not to be attached to renal papillae. Of these 25 stones, 4 were lost and 12 showed definite morphological evidence of having been attached to tissue, probably having been knocked off of papillae during access. For the remaining 9 stones, micro-CT analysis revealed at least one internal region of calcium phosphate within each of these unattached calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones. That is, the internal structure of the unattached stones is consistent with their having originated attached to RP, and then having become detached but retained in the kidney, with new layers of CaOx eventually covering the original attachment site. Conclusions Micro CT analysis supports the hypothesis that in ICSF, both attached and unattached stones occur as a result of a common pathogenic mechanism. That is, in this type of stone former, CaOx stoneseven those not showing morphology that betrays attachmentall originate attached to interstitial plaque on the renal papilla.

Miller, Nicole L.; Williams, James C.; Evan, Andrew P.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.; Munch, Larry C.; Handa, Shelly E.; Lingeman, James E.

2009-01-01

179

Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

2008-01-01

180

Investigation of the impact of stone bunds on water erosion in northern Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil degradation in northern Ethiopia results from intensive land-use, massive deforestation in the past and missing conservation measures. Every year huge amounts of fertile soil are flushed away irreversibly into the rivers. In order to prevent soil erosion, conservation methods are necessary, because otherwise erosion may cause severe problems in the future, especially in the cases of nutrition supply and agricultural land-use. In this study, the effectiveness of stone bonds as a soil conservation method was evaluated. The assessments took part during the raining season from June to September 2013 in the Gumara - Maksegnit watershed in the Amhara region in northern Ethiopia. On farmland two erosion plots were constructed at a representative hillslope. The plots were 20m long, 3m wide and bordered with metal sheets. In order to compare the effectiveness of stone bunds on soil erosion, one plot was constructed with a stone bund on his toe slope the other plot was constructed without a stone bund. The investigated slope was selected that all characteristics like slope, crop cover, stone cover, soil aggregate size, etc... could be considered as similar. To evaluate the impact of stone bunds on soil erosion, the lateral and the longitudinal runoff from the plot with the stone bund were collected separately. Surface runoff and eroded sediment were collected at the downward end of the plot using a trough leading to a divider sampling 10% of the total runoff. The sample was then collected in a pond (1,8m long, 1m wide and 0,5m deep). During the investigated period soil loss from the untreated plot amounted to 23.0 t.ha-1, whereas only 13.5 t.ha-1 were measured spilling over the stone bunds. This corresponds to a decrease by 41%. Beside the erosion monitoring, stone and crop cover were analyzed regularly as well as surface roughness and soil texture.

Rieder, Jakob; Strohmeier, Stefan; Demelash, Nigus; Ziadat, Feras; Klik, Andreas

2014-05-01

181

The Stone Wall Initiative: Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) offers educational materials at three basic levels of engagement. For younger students, there is a classroom curriculum based on the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. This curriculum features a series of lesson plans with activities, content standards, learner background information and objectives, instructions, and closure materials. Worksheets and handouts for students and a teacher's reference are included. Information on how to obtain a teacher's kit (including rock specimens) to accompany the lessons is also provided. For secondary students, there are a series of hands-on investigations that use the subject of stone walls to teach science, math, history, and other subjects. For older students and adults, there is information on public lectures, workshops, and links to information on reading materials.

182

Asymptomatic gall stones--revisited.  

PubMed

India has a large burden of individuals harboring asymptomatic gallstones. Based on Markov model decision and cost analysis, selective and concomitant cholecystectomy is recommended for special indications like hemolytic disorders and stones in endemic areas. Expectant management should be adopted in all others. The evolution of laparoscopy should not alter the indications of cholecystectomy. Since more than 90% patients with asymptomatic gallstones remain clinically "silent", routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not indicated for the vast majority of subjects with asymptomatic cholelithiasis. Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become much safer, there remains associated morbidity and mortality. The risks of the operation outweigh the complications if stones are left in-situ. Patients should be counseled about the natural history and available management options, their advantages and disadvantages, and should be part of the decision making process. Prophylactic routine cholecystectomy for asymptomatic stones is not recommended. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be performed selectively or concomitantly in a specific subgroup of patients. PMID:22332335

Supe, Avinash

2011-01-01

183

Bioreceptivity of building stones: a review.  

PubMed

In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and will also provide useful information as regards selecting stones for the conservation of heritage monuments and construction of new buildings. Studies of the bioreceptivity of stone materials are reviewed here with the aim of providing a clear set of conclusions on the topic. Definitions of bioreceptivity are given, stone bioreceptivity experiments are described, and finally the stone properties related to bioreceptivity are discussed. We suggest that a standardized laboratory protocol for evaluating stone bioreceptivity and definition of a stone bioreceptivity index are required to enable creation of a database on the primary bioreceptivity of stone materials. PMID:22534363

Miller, A Z; Sanmartn, P; Pereira-Pardo, L; Dionsio, A; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Macedo, M F; Prieto, B

2012-06-01

184

Gender Distribution of Pediatric Stone Formers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the gender prevalence among adult stone-formers is changing, with an increasing incidence of stone disease among women. No similar data have ever been reported for the pediatric stone-forming population. We performed a study to define the gender distribution among pediatric stone-formers using a large-scale national pediatric database. Our findings suggest that gender distribution among stone formers varies by age with male predominance in the first decade of life shifting to female predominance in the second decade. In contrast to adults, females in the pediatric population are more commonly affected by stones than are males. The incidence of pediatric stone disease appears to be increasing at a great rate in both sexes. Further studies should build on this hypothesis-generating work and define the effects of metabolic and environmental risk factors that may influence stone risk in the pediatric patient population

Novak, Thomas E.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Gearhart, John P.; Matlaga, Brian R.

2008-09-01

185

"Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

Geist, Janet Marie

2000-01-01

186

AGGREGATE SIZING AND SHAPE DETERMINATION USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregate size and shape measurements are increasingly becoming important issues in the mining, comminution, materials handling, and construction industries. Screening or sieving methods, today's standard method of sizing stone materials, are simply too inefficient for some applications, excessively time consuming and costly for others, and do not provide enough data for yet other applications. Optical methods using digital image processing,

N. H. MAERZ

1998-01-01

187

Investigation of off-axis crush of conical composite frusta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crush of composite conical shells under off-axis loading has two unique features. First, the details of fiber reinforcement & interfaces, including changes along the height, add a level of complexity. This can be related to the complex crush processes in composite crush such as delamination, fiber and matrix rupture, interlaminar and intralaminar crack, fiber pull out, macro and micro buckling etc. Secondly, this off-axis loading is in itself a complex process causing interaction at a variety of levels between material, configuration and structure. The presence of offaxis loading makes the process of understanding and tailoring composite material crush more difficult. This research began with the experimental approach of the composite conical frusta under axial and off-axis loading for 3 different woven fabric sets, i.e., carbon, E-glass, and carbon/E-glass hybrid with vinylester resin. As results, the failure modes of crush process are investigated, from which the common trends of the crush are gleaned. Specific mechanisms are identified and are further elucidated through computational and analytical investigations. The analytical approach incorporates modeling of both geometrical and damage mechanism related aspects with emphasis on the two critical mechanisms of splaying/bending and folding. Based on identification of phenomena for off-axis loading, a methodology is proposed for future development of optimized material-configuration sets. The computational approach is used to further visualize and elucidate the sequence of damage mechanisms as a means of validating the results of the analytical design based methodology. It is shown that conical frusta are extremely effective for energy absorption and that unique mechanisms can be tailored to provide the desired response even under cases of off-axis loading.

Yang, Hyunjung

188

Stone prevention: why so little progress?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite intensive research the knowledge of stone pathogenesis, which is the basis of every rational stone metaphylaxis,\\u000a has remained rather scanty. Epidemiology shows that stone formation in most patients is only a sporadic event, probably resulting\\u000a from a coincidence of different factors. The hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria frequently\\u000a found in calcium stone formers can be influenced therapeutically and, in

Johannes M. Baumann

1998-01-01

189

Stone Pages: A Guide to European Megaliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the Stone Pages is a frequently updated site, available in English or Italian, that contains unique reports on megalithic and other archaeological stone sites in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Wales, and Ireland. Regular and high resolution photos, site maps, and evaluations are provided for court and passage tombs, cairns-crannogs, dolmens, and standing stones and stone circles. QTVR panoramic views of several sites are also available.

1996-01-01

190

EDAX versus FTIR in mixed stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed stones form a significant number of all urinary stones. Accurate analysis of individual areas of stones is fraught with\\u000a uncertainties. Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis (SEM-EDAX) is a very important tool in assessing\\u000a stone composition. The objective of this paper is to project the role of the combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)\\u000a spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX combination

Y. M. Fazil Marickar; P. R. Lekshmi; Luxmi Varma; Peter Koshy

2009-01-01

191

In-pit movable crushing/conveying systems  

SciTech Connect

Many mature open pit mines throughout the world can probably achieve a marked reduction in overall mining costs by installing movable gyratory crushing and conveying systems within the pit. Truck haulage would be limited to transporting material for the short distance between the working face and the nearest crusher module. The work of elevating the materials is handled by belt conveyors which have much greater efficiency than haul trucks. The technology for this more economical method of crushing and transporting hard rock materials is available today and several forward-looking mines can be expected to install some variation of this system in the near future.

Almond, R.M.

1982-01-01

192

New crush test evaluates proppants under downhole conditions  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a modified crush resistance procedure for testing proppant strength in an elevated temperature, aqueous (hot and wet) environment that better simulates downhole conditions. Frac sand, resin-coated sand, light-weigh ceramic, resin-coated ceramic and bauxite proppants were used in this study. Results indicate a dramatic increase in fines generated for all proppant types tested under the hot and wet conditions when compared with results from the same test done under dry, ambient temperature conditions. This crush procedure may help determine the proppant`s physical characteristics under subterranean conditions.

Colt, J.R.; Johnson, R.L. II; Smith, S.B.; Smith, V.T.

1995-10-01

193

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the problem of "partializing" Stone spacesby "Sequence of Finite Posets" (SFP) domains. More specifically, we introducea suitable subcategory SFPmof SFP which is naturally related tothe special category of Stone spaces 2-Stone by the functor MAX, whichassociates to each object of SFPmthe space of its maximal elements. Thecategory SFPmis closed under limits as well as many

Fabio Alessi; Paolo Baldan; Furio Honsell

1997-01-01

194

Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor  

MedlinePLUS

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in your kidney. The kidney stone may be stuck in your ureter (the tube ... from your bladder to outside your body). A stone can block the flow of your urine and ...

195

Mirizzi syndrome treated by percutaneous stone removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of Mirizzi syndrome due to a cystic duct stone occurring in a 66-year-old man in the presence of multiple debilitating medical conditions which precluded surgery. The patient was successfully treated by percutaneous stone removal and made a swift and uneventful recovery. This is the first report of Mirizzi syndrome due to a ductal stone being treated

John William Oxtoby; Chee Chew Yeong; David John West

1994-01-01

196

Calcium stone disease: a multiform reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In calcium renal stones, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in various crystal forms and states of hydration can be identified. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) or whewellite and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) or weddellite are the commonest constituents of calcium stones. Calcium oxalate stones may be pure or mixed, usually with calcium phosphate or sometimes with uric acid or ammonium urate.

Alberto Trinchieri; Chiara Castelnuovo; Renata Lizzano; Giampaolo Zanetti

2005-01-01

197

Petra: Lost City of Stone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Petra: Lost City of Stone exhibit, looks at this once flourishing city in the heart of the ancient Near East. Although the exhibit is now closed, the web site contains a wealth of information about Petra.

198

Further characterization of photothermal breakdown products of uric acid stones following holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previously we found that Ho:YAG laser (2120 nm) lithotripsy of uric acid stones produced cyanide, a known thermal breakdown product of uric acid. We now report that alloxan, another thermal breakdown product, is also likely produced. Uric acid stones (approximately 98% pure) of human origin were placed in distilled water and subjected to one of the following experimental treatments: unexposed control, exposed to Ho:YAG laser, Nd:YAG laser, or mechanically crushed. Samples were then processed for HPLC analysis with UV detection. Peaks were identified by comparison to authentic standards. All samples contained uric acid, with retention time (RT) about 6 min. All of the laser-exposed samples contained a peak that eluted at 2.5 min, identical to the RT of authentic alloxan. Ho:YAG laser irradiation, however, produced a larger presumed alloxan peak than did the Nd:YAG laser. The peak at 2.5 min, as well as unidentified later-eluting peaks, were present in the laser-exposed, but not the unexposed or mechanically crushed, samples. These results confirm the thermal nature of lithotripsy performed with long-pulse IR lasers.

Glickman, Randolph D.; Weintraub, Susan E.; Kumar, Neeru; Corbin, Nicole S.; Lesani, Omid; Teichman, Joel M.

2000-06-01

199

Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.  

PubMed

To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

2008-08-01

200

Optimal Policies for Aggregate Recycling from Decommissioned Forest Roads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

2008-08-01

201

Treatment Outcomes of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Renal Stones and Predictive Factors of Stone-Free  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for the treatment of renal stones and to analyze the predictive factors for stone-free. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent RIRS for renal stones from January 2000 to July 2009. We identified 66 RIRSs (63 patients with 3 bilateral renal stones) and collected data. Stone-free and success were respectively defined as no visible stones and clinically insignificant residual stones less than 3 mm on postoperative imaging; predictive factors for stone-free were evaluated. Results Of the 66 renal stones, 18 stones (27.3%) were located in the upper pole or midpole or renal pelvis and 48 (72.7%) in the lower pole with or without others, respectively. The mean cumulative stone burden was 168.9392.5 mm2. The immediate postoperative stone-free rate was 69.7%, and it increased to 72.7% at 1 month after surgery. The success rate was 80.3% both immediately after the operation and 1 month later. In the multivariate analysis, stone location except at the lower pole (p=0.049) and small cumulative stone burden (p=0.002) were significantly favorable predictive factors for the immediate postoperative stone-free rate. The overall complication rate was 6%. Conclusions RIRS is a safe and effective treatment for renal stones. The stone-free rate of RIRS was particularly high for renal stones with a small burden, except for those located in the lower pole. RIRS could be considered in selective patients with renal stones.

Lim, Soo Hyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo

2010-01-01

202

Acute renal failure due to crush syndrome during Marmara earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the earthquake in Marmara, Turkey (August 17, 1999), 87 of 476 victims (18.3%) admitted to Marmara University Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) experienced renal failure caused by crush injuries. Fifty-nine patients (68%; 40 men, 19 women) required renal replacement therapy (RRT), whereas 28 patients (32%; 20 men, 16 women) recovered renal function under conservative treatment. The aim of the present study

Glin Kantarci; Raymond Vanholder; Serhan Tuglular; Hakan Akin; Mehmet Ko; etin zener; Emel Akoglu

2002-01-01

203

Energy considerations in compressive and impact crushing of rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cone crusher and a vertical shaft impact (VSI) crusher were operated in closed circuit to compare the performance of the two different crushing machines. The crushers were operated in closed circuit with a 9mm final screen aperture size. A comparison of capacity, size reduction and power draw shows that the VSI crusher is significantly more energy efficient than the

Mats Lindqvist

2008-01-01

204

167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

205

33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR IN CENTER. TEAM SUPERVISOR ROBERT W. GRZYWACZ ON LOWER LEVEL (LOCATION OF STEARNS-ROGER DRYER). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

206

47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FEED IS AT CENTER, WITH DRIVE GEAR. THE 16 INCH FINES FEED IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IS SLIGHTLY RIGHT OF CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

207

Removal of manganese from water using crushed dolomite filtration technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses manganese removal from water by filtration through low cost coarse media. A laboratory scale filtration technique was used to remove manganese from manganese bearing water to prove previous batch studies which showed that the removal of manganese was better in the case of limestone particle as compared to the gravel, crushed brick or with no media addition,

Hamidi A. Aziz; Paul G. Smith

1996-01-01

208

Crush energy absorption of composite channel section specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon\\/epoxy square tubes and channel sections have been used in modern automotive and aircraft structures, respectively, as dedicated components designed to dissipate energy under controlled collapse. However, there are currently no specialized test methods for the characterization of Specific Energy Absorption (SEA) of composite materials. A systematic experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effect of geometric features on crush

Paolo Feraboli; Bonnie Wade; Francesco Deleo; Mostafa Rassaian

2009-01-01

209

An Analysis of Axial Crushing of Composite Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite tubes of different D\\/t and H\\/D ratios and made of glass woven mats with epoxy resin, were tested under axial compression. The crushing mode and the energy absorbing capacity of these tubes were studied. Some of the tubes were filled with foam before testing, and the effect of the infill foam on the failure mode and the energy absorbing

N. K. Gupta; R. Velmurugan; S. K. Gupta

1997-01-01

210

Determination of Impact Force and Crush Energy Using Abductive Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory based methods as well as approximation methods are currently being used to determine the impact force and the crush energy pertained to vehicles' collision. This paper describes a method, based on Abductive Networks that can be used to develop explicit models by which the above quantities can be estimated. Similar to Neural Networks Abductive Networks are \\

Oren Masory; Nicolas Putod

211

Static crushing of square aluminium extrusions with aluminium foam filler  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was carried out to study the behaviour of square aluminium extrusions filled with aluminium foam under quasi-static loading conditions. Based on the experimental work, simple relations between dimensionless numbers governing the influence of the foam on the characteristics of the crush problem were identified. Furthermore, a simplified set of equations applicable for design of foam-filled components was

A. G. Hanssen; M. Langseth; O. S. Hopperstad

1999-01-01

212

Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

2013-06-01

213

Topical Antibiotic Spray in Contaminated Crush Wounds in Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topical applications of adequate doses of oxytetracycline or Neosporin from individual disposable spray units to large contaminated crush wounds of the thighs of rabbits reduced mortality from 64 per cent in the control group to 4 per cent in the experime...

T. Matsumoto A. S. Dobek J. J. Kovaric H. F. Hamit

1968-01-01

214

70 FR 49223 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...agency's safety standard on roof crush resistance in several ways. First, we are proposing...C. Consumer Information on Rollover Resistance D. Development of Comprehensive...

2005-08-23

215

Helium in the Archean komatiites revisited: significantly high 3He/ 4He ratios revealed by fractional crushing gas extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to provide constraints on 3He/ 4He ratios in the Archean mantle source, we have analyzed helium isotopic compositions in 2.7 Ga old Archean komatiites from the Abitibi green stone belt, Ontario, Canada. Two spinifex-textured komatiites yielded significantly high 3He/ 4He ratios of about 30 Ra (where Ra denotes the atmospheric 3He/ 4He ratio) in fractions released by sequential crushing. These results are the first confirmation of the occurrence of high 3He/ 4He ratios in Archean komatiites after the intriguing finding by Richard et al. [Science 273 (1996) 93-95] in komatiites from a nearby locality, Alexo. We also found that the crystal structure of the komatiites was significantly enriched in a radiogenic component ( 4He) and that this 4He was actually degassed by crushing gas extraction, indicating that the nominal 3He/ 4He ratios measured by crushing are lower limits for the 3He/ 4He ratio of the intrinsic component. By constraining the release behavior of radiogenic 4He by crushing, we have estimated the initial 3He/ 4He ratio of the inclusion-trapped component to be 73.0 +7.8-5.5 Ra. A mantle source with such a high 3He/ 4He ratio at 2.7 Ga, if evolved in a closed system, would have a present-day 3He/ 4He ratio of 46-60 Ra, indicating that the komatiites from Munro have trapped their helium from a mantle reservoir with a very high 3He/ 4He ratio in the context of the present-day value. However, whether or not such a source can be considered as equivalent to the primitive mantle source (such that sampled at hotspots) is highly model-dependent. If a closed system evolution model is assumed, helium in the Munro komatiites is not likely to be derived from the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source-like reservoir. However, the notion that the komatiites may be derived from a depleted reservoir in terms of trace elemental and isotopic geochemistry might require an alternative view for the 3He/ 4He evolution in ancient mantle reservoirs, as has been demonstrated by a recent model calculation by Seta et al. [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 188 (2001) 211-219] in which the 3He/ 4He ratios in the MORB mantle source could have been as high as those in the primitive (less degassed) mantle source in the Archean.

Matsumoto, Takuya; Seta, Akihiro; Matsuda, Jun-ichi; Takebe, Masamichi; Chen, Yuelong; Arai, Shoji

2002-03-01

216

Helium in the Archaean komatiites revisited: significantly high 3He/4He ratios revealed by fractional crushing gas extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to provide constraints on 3He/4He ratios in the Archaean mantle source, we have analysed helium isotopic compositions in 2.7Ga old Archaean komatiites from the Abitibi green stone belt, Ontario, Canada. Two spinifex-textured komatiites yielded significantly high 3He/4He ratios of about 30Ra (where Ra denotes the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio) in fractions released by sequential crushing. These results are the first confirmation of the occurrence of high 3He/4He component in Archaean komatiites after the intriguing finding by [Richard et al., Science 273 (1996) 93-95] in komatiites from a nearby locality, Alexo. We also found that the crystal structure of the komatiites was significantly enriched in a radiogenic component (4He) and that the radiogenic 4He in the crystal structure was actually degassed by a crushing gas extraction, indicating that the nominal 3He/4He ratios measured by crushing are lower limits for the 3He/4He ratio of an intrinsic component. By constraining the release behaviour of radiogenic 4He by crushing, we have estimated the initial 3He/4He ratio of an inclusion-trapped component to be 73 (+7.8/-5.5) Ra. A mantle source with such a high 3He/4He ratio at 2.7Ga would, if evolved in a closed-system, have present-day 3He/4He ratio of 46-60Ra, indicating that the komatiites from Munro had been trapped their helium from a mantle reservoir with very high 3He/4He ratio in the context of the present-day value. However, whether or not such a source can be considered as the one that is equivalent to the primitive mantle source (such that sampled at hotspots) is highly model-dependent. If a closed-system evolution model were assumed, helium in the Munro komatiites is not likely to be derived from the MORB-source-like reservoir. However, the notion that the komatiites may be derived from a depleted reservoir in terms of trace elemental and isotopic geochemistry might requires an alternative view for the evolution of 3He/4He ratio in ancient mantle reservoirs, as has been demonstrated by a recent model calculation by [Seta et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 188 (2001) 211-219] in which the 3He/4He ratios in the MORB mantle source could have been as high as those in the primitive (less-degassed) mantle source in Archaean.

Matsumoto, T.; Seta, A.; Matsuda, J.; Chen, Y.; Arai, S.

2001-12-01

217

64 FR 22567 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...solely on roof crush resistance. It stated that it...the vehicle by sheet metal screws. As a result...positioning during Roof Crush Resistance testing. The non-Ford...improving roof crush resistance. A cumulative report...attachment with sheet metal screws by final...

1999-04-27

218

Predictive factors for acute renal failure in crush injuries in the Sichuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe Sichuan earthquake caused a large number of crush injuries and many of them developed acute renal failure (ARF). A retrospective study was performed on victims with crush injuries of West China Hospital to investigate the predictive factors for acute renal failure (ARF) in crush injuries.

Zhangxue Hu; Xiaoxi Zeng; Ping Fu; Zhijuan Luo; Yuanmao Tu; Jingyuan Liang; Ye Tao; Wei Qin

219

Laboratory and field investigations of recycled portland cement concrete subbase aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycled portland cement concrete (RPCC) aggregates are increasingly being considered for use in the U.S as an alternative to new aggregate materials for rigid pavement subbases. The four papers in this dissertation present results of studies that compared the strength\\/stiffness and permeability of RPCC subbases to crushed limestone subbases; employed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis to investigate RPCC

Thang Huu Phan

2010-01-01

220

Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

2008-09-01

221

Chemical composition and morphology of renal stones.  

PubMed

Two issues related to nephrolithiasis are explored: (1) does the chemical composition and morphology of renal calculi in South Poland overlap with the studies from other countries? and (2) are there possibilities to evaluate in vivo chemical composition of stones using computed tomography? The study was conducted on 108 renal stones. X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical composition. The morphology of the stones was examined using micro computed tomography. The stone chemical composition in South Poland indicate that calcium oxalate monohydrate was overwhelmingly dominant (84%) followed by hydroxyapatite (8%) and struvite (6%). The occurrence of uric acid stones was very low (2%). The relative frequency of various stone types is similar in South Poland to other industrialized countries. The studied renal stones were characterized by a large variability in the concentrations of both major and trace elements. The maximum/minimum concentration ratio exceeds two orders of magnitude. Significant morphological differences have been observed between different types of stones. The stones were composed of oxalate polyhedrons stuck together or had the phosphate core overlaid with layers oxalate and organic mater. The use of CT to identify stone type seems to be limited. PMID:24858554

Wrobel, Andrzej; Rokita, Eugeniusz; Taton, Grzegorz; Thor, Piotr

2013-01-01

222

Preventing stone retropulsion during intracorporeal lithotripsy.  

PubMed

Several studies of ureteroscopic treatment for ureteral stones have reported that most stone clearance failures can be attributed to stone fragment retropulsion. Stone retropulsion can result in increased operative time and cost-resulting from the need to change from the semi-rigid ureteroscope to a flexible instrument to chase migrated calculi-and additional procedures to treat residual migrated fragments are often required. The degree of migration depends mainly on the energy source used for lithotripsy; pneumatic and electrohydraulic lithotripters are associated with a greater degree of retropulsion than lasers. Different stone-trapping strategies and devices have been developed to minimize stone migration. Novel devices include the Lithovac() suction device, the Passport() balloon, the Stone Cone(), the PercSys Accordion(), the NTrap(), and stone baskets such as the LithoCatch(), the Parachute(), and the Escape(). Some authors have also reported on the use of lubricating jelly and BackStop() gel (a reverse thermosensitive polymeric plug); these devices are instilled proximal to the stone prior to the application of kinetic energy in order to prevent retrograde stone migration. PMID:23165399

Elashry, Osama M; Tawfik, Ahmad M

2012-12-01

223

Ultrastructural study of laminated urinary stone.  

PubMed

Several modalities of stone analysis are utilised in different laboratories. However, the treating clinician finds it hard to assess the initiation and progression of stone formation. The pathogenesis of calculogenesis still remains a mystery. The purpose of this paper is to assess the pathological mechanisms of stone nucleation and growth by observing the ultra microscopic morphology of the different layers of laminated stones; 130 fragments from 28 randomly selected laminated stones of more than 10-mm diameter were analysed. Wet chemical analysis of the stones was performed. Surface and cross-sectional morphology of the entire stones and the individual fragments was assessed using optical microscopy and images were recorded using ordinary camera. They were further analysed using FTIR for confirmation. By morphological analysis, whewellite, weddellite, uric acid, and phosphate were the main minerals identified. Mixtures of these minerals were also found. Concentric lamination, radial striation, frond formation, and amorphous pattern were the main cross-sectional morphologies obtained. The calculi analysed had differences in their outer and inner portions. This was more pronounced in stones containing predominantly whewellite and uric acid. Whewellite was the outer component in most mixed stones. Uric acid was more in the inner layers of mixed stones than the surface. PMID:19657634

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

2009-10-01

224

Hot Mix Asphalt Using Light Weight Aggregate Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot mix asphalt concrete is produced by properly blending asphalt, coarse and fine aggregates in addition to filler at temperatures ranging from 80 to 165C. This research is directed to study the effect of replacing the conventional aggregates by the recycled Light Weight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC) on the properties of the produced asphalt mix. The research studied the optimum asphalt content and the effect of some parameters on the properties of the recycled LWAC. The research included studying thirty-six Marshal Specimens lie in four main groups. Each group was made from crushed LWAC in addition to a comparison group used the pumice instead of the crushed LWAC. The LWAC mixes contained (0, 10, 15 and 20%) of silica powder content. The density, stability, flow, percentages of the air Voids in the Compacted Mixture (VTM), compacted mineral aggregate (VMA) and the Voids Filled by Asphalt (VFA) were investigated for all the studied specimens. The main conclusions drawn from the current research implies that the optimum percent of asphalt was 7.5% for the different percentages of silica powder ratios. The presence of voids in the light weight aggregates and the porosity of the obtained concrete affected largely the behavior of the obtained mix.

Awwad, Mohammad T.

225

Management of pediatric stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric and adult stone disease differs in both presentation and treatment. Children can present with a wide range of symptoms\\u000a varying from flank pain and hematuria to nonspecific symptoms such as irritability and nausea. Although ultrasonography and\\u000a plain radiographs can play a role in diagnosis and follow-up, the standard of care for a child who presents to the emergency\\u000a department

H. Serkan Dogan; Serdar Tekgul

2007-01-01

226

The effect of recycled concrete aggregate properties on the bond strength between RCA concrete and steel reinforcement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that replacing natural coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) has on concrete bond strength with reinforcing steel. Two sources of RCA were used along with one natural aggregate source. Numerous aggregate properties were measured for all aggregate sources. Two types of concrete mixture proportions were developed replacing 100% of the natural aggregate with RCA. The first type maintained the same water-cement ratios while the second type was designed to achieve the same compressive strengths. Beam-end specimens were tested to determine the relative bond strength of RCA and natural aggregate concrete. On average, natural aggregate concrete specimens had bond strengths that were 9 to 19% higher than the equivalent RCA specimens. Bond strength and the aggregate crushing value seemed to correlate well for all concrete types.

Butler, L., E-mail: L3Butler@uwaterloo.ca; West, J.S.; Tighe, S.L.

2011-10-15

227

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

228

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the building stone industry, waste stone and stone power sludge that were occurred in the quarry and cutting process of stone plates are regarded as environmental pollution materials. So to activate the building stone industry and to make further profi...

C. K. Kim B. K. Kim J. S. Son

1995-01-01

229

Current aspects of epidemiology and nutrition in urinary stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current examples for the development of urinary stone disease are discussed by means of data from the literature and our own studies. Urinary stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions, i.e., industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained.

A. Hesse; R. Siener

1997-01-01

230

Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances  

PubMed Central

Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators experience, patients preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estevao; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

2008-01-01

231

Approach to the Adult Kidney Stone Former  

PubMed Central

Nephrolithiasis is a prevalent and costly condition with high recurrence rate. A medical evaluation to identify abnormalities responsible for nephrolithiasis and guide subsequent therapy has been advocated to reduce the risk of stone recurrence. The evaluation of kidney stone formers generally comprises an extensive medical history to identify metabolic, environmental, dietary and/or genetic factors contributing to stone formation. Imaging studies are utilized to evaluate and follow stone burden. Laboratory studies including stone composition analysis and serum and urinary chemistries are commonly obtained to further assess for any underlying systemic disorders, to detect environmental and metabolic processes contributing to stone disease, and to guide initial and follow-up dietary and pharmacological therapy. The nature and extent of such an evaluation is discussed in this review article.

Maalouf, Naim

2012-01-01

232

Drained cavity expansion in sands exhibiting particle crushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of cylindrical and spherical cavities in sands is modelled using similarity solutions. The conventional Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and the state parameter sand behaviour model, which enables hardening-softening, are used in the analysis. The sand state is defined in terms of a new critical state line, designed to account for the three different modes of compressive deformation observed in sands across a wide range of stresses including particle rearrangement, particle crushing and pseudoelastic deformation. Solutions are generated for cavities expanded from zero and finite radii and are compared to those solutions where a conventional critical state line has been used. It is shown that for initial states typical of real quartz sand deposits, pseudoelastic deformation does not occur around an expanding cavity. Particle crushing does occur at these states and causes a reduction in the stress surrounding the cavity. This has major implications when using cavity expansion theory to interpret the cone penetration test and pressuremeter test.

Russell, A. R.; Khalili, N.

2002-04-01

233

Protective effect of paeoniflorin against optic nerve crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIn order to evaluate the efficacy of traditional paeonia extract paeoniflorin against optic nerve crush, 16 Brown Norway rats\\u000a were divided into two groups at random, with 8 rats in each group. In paeoniaflorin-treated group, 2 mg paeoniaflorin (total\\u000a volum: 1 mL) was injected into rats peritoneum one time a day for a period of 8 days. Rats in untreated

Jing Li; Xinchun Xiong; Yunhai Liu

2007-01-01

234

Land application of crushed gypsum wallboard waste for alfalfa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three seasons of research that evaluated the effect of the land application of crushed gypsum wallboard waste (CW) for alfalfa were conducted at four Wisconsin locations having differing soil types and climatic conditions. Material was applied at rates up to 36.0 Mg ha preplant and 2.2 Mg hatopdress. The highest application of CW pre?plant showed a positive trend for increased

R. P. Wolkowski

2000-01-01

235

Absorption Of Crushing Energy In Square Composite Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes investigation of crash-energy-absorbing capabilities of square-cross-section tubes of two matrix/fiber composite materials. Both graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy tubes crushed in progressive and stable manner. Ratio between width of cross section and thickness of wall determined to affect energy-absorption significantly. As ratio decreases, energy-absorption capability increases non-linearly. Useful in building energy-absorbing composite structures.

Farley, Gary L.

1992-01-01

236

43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ON TOP OF THE PLATFORM. OVERSIZE ORE IS FED BY CHUTE TO THE GYRATORY SECONDARY CRUSHER (MISSING) SITTING ON CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS TO LOWER RIGHT. UNDERSIZE ORE WAS FED BY THE LOWER CHUTE (CENTER LEFT) TO THE 24 INCH BELT CONVEYOR UNDER THE SECONDARY CRUSHER. THE DRYER ROOM IS BEYOND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

237

The influence of crushed rock salt particle gradation on compaction  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of laboratory compaction testing to determine the influence of particle size, size gradation and moisture-content on compaction of crushed rock salt. Included is a theoretical analysis of the optimum size gradation. The objective is to evaluate the relative densities that can be achieved with tamping techniques. Initial results indicate that compaction increases with maximum particle size and compaction energy, and varies significantly with article size gradation and water content.

Ran, C.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1994-12-31

238

Adjunctive Therapy to Promote Stone Passage  

PubMed Central

The majority of individuals with nephrolithiasis have small ureteral stones that pass spontaneously. However, patients may experience severe pain during this process, which significantly alters their quality of life and may limit their vocational responsibilities. Therefore, measures to facilitate stone passage are uniformly embraced. We discuss methods to enhance spontaneous stone passage as well as the elimination of fragments generated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.

Nuss, Geoffrey R; Rackley, Judson D; Assimos, Dean G

2005-01-01

239

[Urethral diverticulum with stone complicating epispadias repair].  

PubMed

Diverticula of the male urethra are rare clinical entities. Congenital and acquired have similar modes of presentation. No case of urethral diverticulum, containing stone, complicating epispadias repair have been reported. We report the case of 8-year-old boy with an urethral diverticulum, containing stone, complicating epispadias repair. Diverticulectomy with removal of the stone by urethroplasty was performed. Through this observation and review of the literature, authors describe pathological and management finding of urethral diverticula. PMID:20142059

Margi, M; Benhaddou, H; Ammor, A; Abdelhak, M; Oulahyane, R; Benhmamouch, M N

2010-02-01

240

National Geographic: Stone Skipping Gets Scientific  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article in National Geographic tells us how and why the magic angle of 20 degrees allows for the most number of skips when skipping stones. How does the author know this? Well, a French scientist constructed a stone-skipping machine to find out the optimal speed, spin, and angle for the maximum number of bounces. Learn more about the physics of stone skipping in this article.

241

Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease.BackgroundCross-sectional studies have shown that nephrolithiasis is more frequently found in hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects, but the pathogenic link between hypertension and stone disease is still not clear.MethodsBetween 1984 and 1991, we studied the baseline stone risk profile, including supersaturation of lithogenic salts, in 132 patients with stable essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure

Loris Borghi; Tiziana Meschi; Angela Guerra; Angelo Briganti; Tania Schianchi; Franca Allegri; Almerico Novarini

1999-01-01

242

Ultra structural study of laminated urinary stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several modalities of stone analysis are utilised in different laboratories. However, the treating clinician finds it hard\\u000a to assess the initiation and progression of stone formation. The pathogenesis of calculogenesis still remains a mystery. The\\u000a purpose of this paper is to assess the pathological mechanisms of stone nucleation and growth by observing the ultra microscopic\\u000a morphology of the different layers

Y. M. Fazil Marickar; Luxmi Varma; Peter Koshy

2009-01-01

243

Laparoscopic management of a large staghorn stone  

PubMed Central

Urinary calculi are prevalent and result in significant morbidity, with a marked economic impact. Various therapeutic options exist, from medical to surgical management according to stone size. Laparoscopic pyelolithotomy is a viable option for significant staghorn renal stones. We report the case of a laparoscopic pyelolithotomy performed on a 48-year-old man with a left recurrent staghorn renal stone secondary to an ureteropelvic junction obstruction following a grade IV renal trauma several years ago.

Richard, Patrick; Bettez, Mathieu; Martel, Arold; Ponsot, Yves; Sabbagh, Robert

2012-01-01

244

Current concepts for oil decontamination of crush injuries: a review  

PubMed Central

This anecdotal, non-systematic review serves to explore the principles and methods of effective oil decontamination from cutaneous wounds, particularly crush injuries. The current expansion of the petroleum industry is necessary to meet increasing world demands for oil. Most stages of oil refining and applications involve significant injury risks, particularly for crush injuries that become contaminated with petroleum compounds. A literature review regarding a standard of care for effective cutaneous oil decontamination is lacking. Based on case reports, animal models, and in vitro studies identified in our expert opinion review, standard water and soap cleansing may not be an appropriate approach. Instead, the principle of like dissolves like guides the use of lipophilic, petroleum-derived solvents to attract and subsequently dissolve the petroleum contaminant from the skin injury. Limitations include paucity of and dated literature sources regarding the topic as well as no models specifically addressing crush injuries. Our literature review found that oil decontamination of cutaneous injuries may be best accomplished with oil-based cleansers. Certainly, this topic has significant importance for the potentially carcinogenic petroleum compounds that pervade virtually every aspect of modern human life.

2014-01-01

245

Digital radiography of crush thoracic trauma in the Sichuan earthquake  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the features of crush thoracic trauma in Sichuan earthquake victims using chest digital radiography (CDR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 772 CDR of 417 females and 355 males who had suffered crush thoracic trauma in the Sichuan earthquake. Patient age ranged from 0.5 to 103 years. CDR was performed between May 12, 2008 and June 7, 2008. We looked for injury to the thoracic cage, pulmonary parenchyma and the pleura. RESULTS: Antero-posterior (AP) and lateral CDR were obtained in 349 patients, the remaining 423 patients underwent only AP CDR. Thoracic cage fractures, pulmonary contusion and pleural injuries were noted in 331 (42.9%; 95% CI: 39.4%-46.4%), 67 and 135 patients, respectively. Of the 256 patients with rib fractures, the mean number of fractured ribs per patient was 3. Rib fractures were mostly distributed from the 3rd through to the 8th ribs and the vast majority involved posterior and lateral locations along the rib. Rib fractures had a significant positive association with non-rib thoracic fractures, pulmonary contusion and pleural injuries (P < 0.001). The number of rib fractures and pulmonary contusions were significant factors associated with patient death. CONCLUSION: Earthquake-related crush thoracic trauma has the potential for multiple fractures. The high number of fractured ribs and pulmonary contusions were significant factors which needed appropriate medical treatment.

Dong, Zhi-Hui; Shao, Heng; Chen, Tian-Wu; Chu, Zhi-Gang; Deng, Wen; Tang, Si-Shi; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhi-Gang

2011-01-01

246

LYSOSOMES IN THE RAT SCIATIC NERVE FOLLOWING CRUSH  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerves undergoing degeneration are favorable material for studying the types, origins, and functions of lysosomes. The following lysosomes are described: (a) Autophagic vacuoles in altered Schwann cells. Within these vacuoles the myelin and much of the axoplasm which it encloses in the normal nerve are degraded (Wallerian degeneration). The delimiting membranes of the vacuoles apparently form from myelin lamellae. Considered as possible sources of their acid phosphatase are Golgi vesicles (primary lysosomes), lysosomes of the dense body type, and the endoplasmic reticulum which lies close to the vacuoles. (b) Membranous bodies that accumulate focally in myelinated fibers in a zone extending 2 to 3 mm distal to the crush. These appear to arise from the endoplasmic reticulum in which demonstrable acid phosphatase activity increases markedly within 2 hours after the nerve is crushed. (c) Autophagic vacuoles in the axoplasm of fibers proximal to the crush. The breakdown of organelles within these vacuoles may have significance for the reorganization of the axoplasm preparatory to regeneration. (d) Phagocytic vacuoles of altered Schwann cells. As myelin degeneration begins, some axoplasm is exposed. This is apparently engulfed by the filopodia of the Schwann cells, and degraded within the phagocytic vacuoles thus formed. (e) Multivesicular bodies in the axoplasm of myelinated fibers. These are generally seen near the nodes of Ranvier.

Holtzman, Eric; Novikoff, Alex B.

1965-01-01

247

The Swelling of Clays Within Stone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Clays within the stone used to construct historical sites such as Angor Wat and Aztec ruins are susceptible to swelling when exposed to water which can cause damage to the structures. The effects of surfactants in ameliorating this problem on stone samples from these sites were explored. Swelling was reduced significantly in Aztec stone (~ 60-90%) and somewhat reduced (~ 20-55%) in Angor Wat stone. Conclusions included: carbon chains with amine ends reduced swelling; mixtures worked better when applied twice; sequences worked better than mixtures; treatment worked better when the smaller molecule was applied first.

Wylykanowitz, Angela

2005-08-05

248

Multiple Pulp Stones: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Pulp stones are usually found in the pulp chamber. Radiographically, they appear as radiopaque structures in the pulp chambers or root canals of individual teeth. Generalized pulp stones throughout the dentition are usually associated with systemic or genetic disorders of the dentine. This report presents an unusual case of a 13-year-old girl with generalized pulp stones with clinically normal crowns. The patients main complaint was a crossbite affecting all permanent canines. Radiographic examination revealed multiple pulp stones and several teeth with atypically shaped roots. Orthodontic treatment, gingivoplasty, and esthetic restorations were performed, thus using a multidisciplinary approach to establish functionally and esthetically sound dentition.

Ozkalayci, Nurhat; Zengin, A. Zeynep; Turk, Selma Elekdag; Sumer, A. Pinar; Bulucu, Bilinc; Kirtiloglu, Tugrul

2011-01-01

249

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from Stone House south side yard facing southeast. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

250

Stone Preservatives: Methods of Laboratory Testing and Preliminary Performance Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although numerous materials have been proposed as preservatives for stone in historic buildings and monuments, their efficacy is difficult to establish. A laboratory research program of accelerated simulated stone decay was used to obtain data on stone pr...

G. A. Sleater

1977-01-01

251

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge (III).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was performed to activate the building stone industry by increasing the recycling amounts of waste resources and minimizing the generation of the environmental pollution materials. In order to utilize the waste stone and stone powder sludge gen...

C. K. Kim J. S. Sohn B. G. Kim

1996-01-01

252

Complications Common, Costly with Some Kidney Stone Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Complications Common, Costly With Some Kidney Stone Treatments Study found 1 in 7 patients has ... Tuesday, April 29, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Kidney Stones TUESDAY, April 29, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Kidney stone ...

253

Structure pattern of gallbladder stone in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the compositions and structure of crystal materials in gallbladder stone and their roles in the formation and growth of gallbladder stone. METHODS: The crystal structure, section ultramicroscopic structure and crystal compositions were observed with polarizing microscope, SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis respectively in single-blind trial. RESULTS: Varied as it was in external and profile structures, all kinds

Jie Wu; Hai-Ming Yang; Jing-Yi Li; Yi-De Song; Gang Liu

2003-01-01

254

Stone cutting automation technology based on features  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a CAD\\/CAM\\/CNC architecture to automate saw blade stone cutting machines (disc stone cutting machines). The architecture is designed to give the controller the capacity of decision making as well as control of the machine tool, with the objective of being able to react to changes in the machining conditions, which is common in this kind technology. Adopting

Julio Garrido Campos; Ricardo Marin Martin; Jose Ignacio Armesto; Juan Saez Lopez

2009-01-01

255

Armenian Khatchkar (Stone Cross) Carved in 1308.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet introduces students to a unique form of stone sculpture made by Armenian artists for over twelve centuries, the khatchkar, or stone cross. The document is part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans. It contains a reading on khatchkars as symbols of faith for eternity, a

Hacobian, Mossik

256

Percutaneous removal of kidney stones. Preliminary report.  

PubMed

We have performed percutaneous extractions of renal pelvic stones in 15 patients with the use of the Wolf percutaneous universal nephroscope. At one session, with the patient under general anesthesia, a percutaneous tract is dilated to 24 F, and the stone is immediately removed. Fifteen stones have been removed successfully by ultrasonic lithotripsy, basket retrieval, use of a forceps, or a combination of these techniques. Average operating time has been 1 hour and the mean hospitalization time 4 days. The advantages of this technique are that a skin incision of only 1 to 2 cm is required to remove the stone, hospital days are fewer than with open procedures, and postoperative morbidity is minimal. In selected situations, this method represents a significant advance over standard open surgical procedures for removal of renal pelvic stones. PMID:7121066

Segura, J W; Patterson, D E; LeRoy, A J; McGough, P F; Barrett, D M

1982-10-01

257

[Implementation of a scale on stone baskets].  

PubMed

Complications after endoscopic retrieval of kidney and ureter stones are obviously related to the size of the stones as well as the experience of the surgeon and other factors. During the procedure it is sometimes difficult for surgeons to estimate stone size and therefore give prognostic advises. The visual perception of the stone size depends on the shape, colour, distance to the renoscope and dilatation of the ureter. This is the so-called binding problem, because shape, color and direction of motion are processed separately by different population of optical neurons. In order to establish a better prognostic ratio, especially for less experienced surgeons we established an intraoperative semi-quantitative measurement of the stone size supported by a stone basket.We modified the tipped nitinol stone baskets from the company Urotech with diameters of 2.5, 3.0 and 4?Ch. The handle of this basket has a spring mechanism, which automatically closes the basket and provides a predefined fixation force of the stones within the basket. On the handle we established a non-linear scale in mm by grabbing standardized balls or standardized screws.The scales are nonlinear because of the nonlinear relation between the diameter of the stone and the distance of the slider. Also the scales differ in between the basket size, because of the different strain conditions due to the different wire sizes and materials or the spring and basket.This scale could be an important orientation for a surgeon during endourological procedures to estimate stone sizes. It could be used also for the documentation of the size of fragments after an endourologic lithotripsy and could help in the decision for or against an extraction. Finally it could be very interesting for other disciplines like gastroenterology. The scale should be validated in further clinical trials. PMID:24902071

Cordes, J; Nguyen, F; Pinkowski, W; Jocham, D

2014-05-01

258

EDAX versus FTIR in mixed stones.  

PubMed

Mixed stones form a significant number of all urinary stones. Accurate analysis of individual areas of stones is fraught with uncertainties. Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis (SEM-EDAX) is a very important tool in assessing stone composition. The objective of this paper is to project the role of the combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX combination in achieving a total understanding of mixed stone morphology. Ten mixed urinary stones were washed and dried and the composition recognized by analysis of FTIR spectra by comparing with the spectra of pure components. Spectra for different layers were obtained. Then the stone samples were further studied by SEM-EDAX analysis. The findings of FTIR were correlated with SEM-EDAX and detailed data generated. Using SEM-EDAX, the spatial distribution of major and trace elements were studied to understand their initiation and formation. As much as 80% of the stones studied were mixtures of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) in various proportions. Quantitative evaluation of components was achieved through FTIR and SEM-EDAX analysis. It was possible to get an idea about the spatial distribution of molecules using SEM analysis. The composition of different areas was identified using EDAX. Analyzing with EDAX, it was possible to obtain the percentage of different elements present in a single sample. The study concludes that the most common mixed stone encountered in the study is a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate in a definite proportion. The combination identified not only the molecular species present in the calculus, but also the crystalline forms within chemical constituents. Using EDAX, the amount of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon present in the stone sample could be well understood. PMID:19536531

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Lekshmi, P R; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

2009-10-01

259

Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. PMID:23439376

Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

2013-03-01

260

Experimental Analysis and Modeling of the Crushing of Honeycomb Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aeronautical field, sandwich structures are widely used for secondary structures like flaps or landing gear doors. The modeling of low velocity/low energy impact, which can lead to a decrease of the structure strength by 50%, remains a designers main problem. Since this type of impact has the same effect as quasi-static indentation, the study focuses on the behavior of honeycomb cores under compression. The crushing phenomenon has been well identified for years but its mechanism is not described explicitly and the model proposed may not satisfy industrial purposes. To understand the crushing mechanism, honeycomb test specimens made of Nomex, aluminum alloy and paper were tested. During the crushing, a CCD camera showed that the cell walls buckled very quickly. The peak load recorded during tests corresponded to the buckling of the common edge of three honeycomb cells. Further tests on corner structures to simulate only one vertical edge of a honeycomb cell show a similar behavior. The different specimens exhibited similar load/displacement curves and the differences observed were only due to the behavior of the different materials. As a conclusion of this phenomenological study, the hypothesis that loads are mainly taken by the vertical edge can be made. So, a honeycomb core subjected to compression can be modeled by a grid of nonlinear springs. A simple analytical model was then developed and validated by tests on Nomex honeycomb core indented by different sized spherical indenters. A good correlation between theory and experiment was found. This result can be used to satisfactorily model using finite elements the indentation on a sandwich structure with a metallic or composite skin and honeycomb core.

Aminanda, Y.; Castani, B.; Barrau, J.-J.; Thevenet, P.

2005-05-01

261

Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models  

SciTech Connect

Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)] [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

1995-12-01

262

Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives from said compositions  

DOEpatents

Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives of said compositions, and cementitious compositions and aggregates produced by said method, wherein fluidized bed combustion residue and pozzolanic material, such as pulverized coal combustion system fly ash, are incorporated in a cementitious mix. The mix is cast into desired shape and cured. If desired, the shape may then be crushed so as to result in a fluidized bed combustion residue-fly ash aggregate material or the shape may be used by itself.

Minnick, L. John (Box 271, Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462)

1981-01-01

263

Double crush syndrome due to plating of humeral shaft fracture  

PubMed Central

Median nerve injury is rarely associated with the humeral shaft fracture. A Sixty two year old woman with a displaced humeral shaft fracture, developed a symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome after plating with a screw protruding medially. 16 months later, the implants were removed and the symptoms gradually improved without carpal tunnel release surgery. A double crush syndrome resulted due to the proximal compression by the medially protruding screw and the distal compression by carpal tunnel. The proximal decompression produced by removal of the screw led to relief of the symptoms.

Huang, Yi-Gang; Chang, Shi-Min

2014-01-01

264

Common complication of crush injury, but a rare compartment syndrome.  

PubMed

Compartment syndrome (CS) is a common complication of crush injury but it is rare to find bilateral gluteal compartment syndrome (BGCS). Only six cases of BGCS have been reported in the literature. This syndrome has been reported after crush injury, drug overdose, surgical positioning, and vascular surgery. Apart from CS, crush injury is associated with multi-system adverse effects and these patients are at high risk for renal failure and sepsis. CS patients may present with dehydration; coagulation disorders; elevated creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin levels; hyperkalemia and hypocalcaemia, which may cause life-threatening arrhythmias and therefore need urgent and aggressive therapy. The early goal in these patients is prevention of acute renal failure with aggressive fluid therapy, alkalinization of urine, and forced diuresis. Early treatment of hyperkalemia, antibiotic therapy, immunoprophylaxis, and wound care will minimize the risk of arrhythmias and sepsis. CS must be considered when any patient is diagnosed with crush injury syndrome. CS is defined as elevation of interstitial/ intracompartmental pressure, leading to microvascular and myoneural dysfunction and secondary hypoxia; it may cause functional loss or even death if not detected early and treated properly. The increase in pressure in one or all compartments of the gluteal region causes CS with devastating effects on muscle and neurovascular bundles. CS is traditionally diagnosed on the basis of five 'p's: pain, pallor, paraesthesia, pulselessness and paralysis. Diagnosis of gluteal CS is difficult as the peripheral pulses are preserved and the condition is usually only diagnosed when neurological abnormality is noticed. Diagnosis of CS can be made by direct measurement of the compartment pressure and magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography. Gluteal CS is managed by fasciotomy and debridement of necrosed tissue, with secondary closure of fascia. A high index of suspicion is necessary for the early diagnosis of gluteal CS, and this will reduce the disability and complications as a consequence of this syndrome. The acute-care physician, the intensivist, and the trauma surgeon must be aware of this rare syndrome, as it can result in multiorgan dysfunction and death. Here we report a case of bilateral gluteal CS that was successfully treated in our trauma intensive care unit. PMID:20606796

Shaikh, Nissar

2010-04-01

265

Impact of nonconductive powder on electrostatic separation for recycling crushed waste printed circuit board.  

PubMed

The electrostatic separation is an effective and environmentally friendly method for recycling metals and nonmetals from crushed printed circuit board (PCB) wastes. However, it still confronts some problems brought by nonconductive powder (NP). Firstly, the NP is fine and liable to aggregate. This leads to an increase of middling products and loss of metals. Secondly, the stability of separation process is influenced by NP. Finally, some NPs accumulate on the surface of the corona and electrostatic electrodes during the process. These problems lead to an inefficient separation. In the present research, the impacts of NP on electrostatic separation are investigated. The experimental results show that: the separation is notably influenced when the NP content is more than 10%. With the increase of NP content, the middling products sharply increase from 1.4 g to 4.3g (increase 207.1%), while the conductive products decrease from 24.0 g to 19.1g (decrease 20.4%), and the separation process become more instable. PMID:18977592

Wu, Jiang; Qin, Yufei; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Zhenming

2009-05-30

266

Effect of Inherent Anisotropy on Shear Strength Following Crushing of Natural Aqaba Subgrade Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherent anisotropy affects the overall shear strength of sand deposits. Soil inherent anisotropy was evaluated for pre-crushed Aqaba subgrade sand by deposition of soil grains onto an inclined surface. Crushing of Aqaba sand was induced by one-dimensional compression. Sand characteristic properties (mineralogical properties, grain size and crushing resistance strength) were determined by standard laboratory testing. Particle breakage factors and inter-particle

Taleb Al-Rousan; Omar Al-Hattamleh; Reyad Al-Dwairi

2011-01-01

267

On a new crush trigger for energy absorption of composite tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new crush trigger, called crown trigger, is introduced at one end of carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer circular tubes. Quasi-static compression tests are performed on the tubes to investigate their energy absorption characteristics. It is observed that all tubes are crushed in a brittle fracturing mode. Both crown trigger and bevel trigger can effectively control the position of crushing initiation, reduce the

Jiancheng Huang; Xinwei Wang

2010-01-01

268

Having and being an other-sex crush during early adolescence.  

PubMed

This study examined other-sex crush experiences (both having and being perceived as an other-sex crush) among 544 young adolescents (mean age=12.74 years). Results indicated that 56% had at least one current other-sex crush, with little overlap between crushes, friends, and boyfriends/girlfriends. Significant associations between other-sex crush scores (scores reflecting the number of crush nominations received) and physical attractiveness, relational aggression, physical aggression, and popularity, as reported by same-sex and other-sex peers, were found. In addition, crush scores were (a) associated with same-sex likeability for boys (but not girls) and (b) uniquely related to peer nominations of popularity and physical attractiveness, as reported by other-sex peers. Neither having nor being perceived as an other-sex crush was uniquely related to loneliness. Taken together, the findings suggest that other-sex crushes are normative experiences during early adolescence that warrant further research attention. PMID:22240032

Bowker, Julie C; Spencer, Sarah V; Thomas, Katelyn K; Gyoerkoe, Elizabeth A

2012-04-01

269

Acid rain stone test sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the United States National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Task Group G: Effects on Materials and Cultural Resources, which is chaired by Ray Herrmann, the National Park Service has established four test sites for 10-year testing of two kinds of dimension stone used in buildings and monuments. The four sites are (from south to north) Research Triangle Park near Raleigh, N.C. (activated May 25, 1984); the roof of the West End Branch of the Washington, D.C. Library (activated August 11, 1984); the Department of Energy Compound at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of Bell Telephone Laboratories near Chester, N.J. (activated June 5, 1984); and Huntington Wildlife Forest in the Adirondack Mountains, Newcomb, N.Y. (activated June 19, 1984).

Sherwood, Susan I.; Doe, Bruce R.

1984-04-01

270

Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

Angulo, E. D. (inventor)

1984-01-01

271

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

272

[Treatment of middle and lower ureteral stones with ESWL: evaluation of the results of 190 solitary stones in comparison with those of upper ureteral stones].  

PubMed

We analyzed the results of treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) (Dornier HM-3) for middle and lower ureteral solitary stones from April 1986 to March 1993 in our hospital. A total of 238 sessions of ESWL were done for 71 cases of middle ureteral stones and 119 cases of lower ureteral stones. The findings were compared with those obtained on the upper ureteral solitary stones. The final stone-free rate of the upper ureteral stones by ESWL alone were 91.9%, whereas those of middle and lower ureteral stones were 86.2% and 85.2%. We conclude that ESWL is equally useful for middle and lower ureteral stones to upper ureteral stones. PMID:7741069

Inaba, Y; Okamoto, M; Harada, M

1995-03-01

273

Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly, so every visitor has a unique sound adventure. The experience is intensely engaging, playful and yet a little unsettling and provides a truly unique way to explore our scientific data and present geoscience research to the public. Crush-2 has featured in an exhibition on Sonic Interaction Design at the Norwegian Museum of Science, Technology and Medicine, Oslo, Norway (27 May - 21 August 2011) and forms part of a solo exhibition by Barrett at Galleri ROM, Oslo in fall 2011. Visitor feedback from the Museum exhibition suggests that users were initially attracted to the exhibit by its interactive 'hands-on' nature and dramatic sounds, but as they 'explored' the soundspace, became curious to ask questions about the underlying science. The concept of using sound rather than visual gives an unusual and therefore highly memorable experience. This science-art collaboration provides a novel and highly enjoyable way to present our work to the public - that is particularly attractive to youngsters. Visitors to this poster presentation will be able to explore the Crush-2 soundscape using a laptop and headphone interactive mode.

Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

2011-12-01

274

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of proximal and distal ureteral stones.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was used for treatment of 105 patients with ureteral stones. There were 77 stones in the upper part of the ureter, i.e. above the pelvic brim, and 28 in the lower part, i.e. below the sacroiliac joint. Successful fragmentation was attained in 101 (96%). In 93% of the patients with stones in the upper ureter and in 100% with stones in the lower ureter the fragments were eliminated completely. In 87% of the patients with stones in the upper ureter, a ureteral catheter was introduced under local anesthesia but without fluoroscopic control. It was thereby possible to remove 30% of the stones from the ureter to the kidney. For the remaining stones, saline was infused through the catheter during ESWL. For patients with stones in the lower part of the ureter, a ureteral catheter was passed in 79% and saline infused during treatment. Whereas some form of anesthesia was used for treatment of all upper ureteral stones, 89% of the treatments for lower ureteral stones were performed without anesthesia. Auxiliary procedures after ESWL were limited to four ureteral catheter manipulations for distal stones. Four proximal stones which remained unaffected by ESWL had to be treated by open surgery (3 stones) or percutaneous surgery (1 stone). Of 82 ureteric stones treated in situ the success fragmentation rate was 95%. The average number of ESWL sessions was 1.04 for both proximal and distal ureteral stones. PMID:3383929

Pettersson, B; Tiselius, H G

1988-01-01

275

Mineral Composition of Renal Stones from the Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urolithiasis is a very frequent finding in the Sudan, but stone analysis is not routinely performed in this country. It would, however, give important evidence for the metabolic basis of stone formation. We therefore set out to analyze urinary stones in 80 Sudanese patients (45 male, 35 female), 12 of whom where children. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy was used for stone

A. A. Balla; A. M. Salah; A. H. H. Khattab; A. Kambal; D. Bongartz; B. Hoppe; A. Hesse

1998-01-01

276

Thomas Young and the Rosetta Stone.  

PubMed

Who deciphered the Rosetta Stone and the Egyptian hieroglyphs? The usual answer is Jean-Franois Champollion, beginning in 1822. But ever since that time, Egyptologists have debated the role of his rival, the polymath Thomas Young, the first person to publish a partially correct translation of the Rosetta Stone. A recent BBC television dramatisation rekindled the controversy by presenting Champollion as a 'lone genius' who succeeded independently of Young. While there is no doubt that Champollion deciphered the hieroglyphic script as a whole, the evidence suggests that Young's early detailed study of the Rosetta Stone created the conceptual framework that made possible Champollion's later breakthrough. PMID:17583792

Robinson, Andrew

2007-06-01

277

Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene  

PubMed Central

Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition.

Ramdass, Michael J.

2014-01-01

278

Metaconcrete: designed aggregates to enhance dynamic performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new type of concrete for the attenuation of elastic waves induced by dynamic excitation. In this metamaterial, which we call metaconcrete, the stone, sand, and gravel aggregates of standard concrete are replaced with spherical inclusions consisting of a heavy metal core coated with a soft outer layer. These engineered aggregates can be tuned so that particular frequencies of a propagating blast wave will activate resonant oscillations of the heavy mass within the inclusions. The resonant behavior causes the system to exhibit negative effective mass, and this interaction between the wave motion and the resonant aggregates results in the attenuation of the applied dynamic loading. We introduce the concept of negative mass by deriving the effective momentum mass for the system and we define the geometrical and material parameters for the design of resonant aggregates. We develop finite element models for the analysis of metaconcrete behavior, defining a section of slab containing a periodic arrangement of inclusions. By computing the energy histories for the system when subject to a blast load, we show that there is a transfer of energy between the inclusions and the surrounding mortar. The inclusions are able to absorb a significant portion of the applied energy, resulting in a reduction in the amount of stress carried by the mortar phase and greatly improving the ability of the material to resist damage under explosive dynamic loading.

Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Pandolfi, Anna; Ortiz, Michael

2014-04-01

279

A case of recurrent renal aluminum hydroxide stone.  

PubMed

Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

2014-01-01

280

A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone  

PubMed Central

Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics.

Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

2014-01-01

281

Endoscopic management of bile duct stones: residual bile duct stones after surgery, cholangitis, and "difficult stones".  

PubMed

Endoscopic treatment has become, according to the latest recommendations, the standard treatment for common bile duct stones (CBDS), although in certain situations, surgical clearance of the common duct at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still considered a possible alternative. The purpose of this article is not to compare endoscopic with surgical treatment of CBDS, but to describe the various techniques of endoscopic treatment, detailing their preferential indications and the various treatment options that must sometimes be considered when faced with "difficult calculi" of the CBD. The different techniques of lithotripsy and the role of biliary drainage with plastic or metallic stents will be detailed as well as papillary balloon dilatation and particularly the technique of sphincterotomy with macrodilatation of the sphincter of Oddi (SMSO), a recently described approach that has changed the strategy for endoscopic management of CBDS. Finally, the overall strategy for endoscopic management of CBDS, with description of different techniques, will be exposed. PMID:23817008

Karsenti, D

2013-06-01

282

Clinical implications of abundant calcium phosphatein routinely analyzed kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical implications of abundant calcium phosphate in routinely analyzed kidney stones.BackgroundTo better portray the clinical phenotype of kidney stone patients with high calcium phosphate (CaP) stone abundance, we present here clinical and laboratory findings of large numbers of stone formers (SF) with stone CaP ranging from 0% to 100%. Our purpose was to inform clinicians and highlight areas that seem

JOAN H PARKS; ELAINE M WORCESTER; FREDRIC L COE; ANDREW P EVAN; JAMES E LINGEMAN

2004-01-01

283

Crystal sedimentation and stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of crystal collision being the first step of aggregation (AGN) were analyzed for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM)\\u000a directly produced in urine. COM was produced by oxalate titration in urine of seven healthy men, in solutions of urinary macromolecules\\u000a and in buffered distilled water (control). Crystal formation and sedimentation were followed by a spectrophotometer and analyzed\\u000a by scanning electron microscopy.

Johannes Markus Baumann; Beat Affolter; Rolf Meyer

2010-01-01

284

Kidney and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management  

MedlinePLUS

... consectetur adipiscing elit. Kidney and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management Normally, urine contains chemicals that prevent crystals from ... BPH: Diagnosis (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia/Enlarged Prostate) BPH: Management (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia/Enlarged Prostate) BPH: Medical Management ( ...

285

[Bladder stones in acute spinal cord injury].  

PubMed

Urologic complications are an important cause of morbidity and even mortality in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). It has been estimated that within eight years after injury, approximately 7% of SCI patients would develop kidney stones, whereas 36% would have bladder stones. Risk factors for urolithiasis among patients with SCI include complete spinal cord injury, lesions at or above the 4th thoracic spinal cord segment, upper motor neurone type of bladder, urinary tract infection with urease producing bacteria, recurrent urinary tract infection, indwelling catheters, presence of residual urine and immobilization. Detection and removal of bladder stones are important to prevent possible complications such as recurrent urinary tract infection, urosepsis and renal failure. The authors describe a clinical case of a patient with acute SCI that developed bladder stones and discuss its possible causes. PMID:20353715

Silva, Ana Isabel; Sousa, Pedro; Miranda, Maria Joo; Andrade, Maria Joo

2010-01-01

286

Kidney Stones in Children (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... to increase citrate levels (potassium citrate or potassium bicarbonate). Struvite Struvite stones usually develop because of a ... kidney infection. Graphic 54658 Version 3.0 Low-sodium diet %: percent. Graphic 73775 Version 3.0 Low- ...

287

Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

2014-03-01

288

Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built numerous churches which today can be found in Brazil but also along the South American and African coasts. Currently the global market of Modern Dimension Stones Industry allows Portuguese Marbles to be present in buildings, architectural pieces and works of arts all over the World. Despite almost continuous mining activity in the region it's notice that there was no depletion of raw material, in fact almost every varieties of marble have enough reserves to sustain the mining activity is several hundreds of years. The Alentejo whitewashed houses are a hallmark of the unique landscape that can only have been developed by the availability of marbles to produce quicklime. In cities and villages, the built heritage based on the marble is very rich and is always present, meanwhile the surrounding countryside is marked by intense mining activity living side by side with rural industries, namely wheatfields, groves, orchards and vineyards; therefore the region has unique characteristics allowing the development of integrated industrial tourism routes. The Portuguese Marbles are a key factor for local sustainable development and it's leading the region to new opportunities of industrial, scientific and technological culture, pointing to a successful future.

Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

2013-04-01

289

The evolving epidemiology of stone disease  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends.

Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

2014-01-01

290

Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, ``being cut for the stone'' was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of ``not so well knowns.'' Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

Moran, Michael E.

2007-04-01

291

Infrared spectroscopic analysis of 5,248 urinary stones from Chinese patients presenting with the first stone episode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 5,248 urinary stones was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy between 1999 and 2008. This study\\u000a evaluated the percentage of each stone type and the association with sex and age in Chinese stone formers presenting with\\u000a the first stone episode. The overall sex ratio (male:female) was 2.34:1. Results showed that the preponderant type of stone\\u000a was calcium

Xizhao Sun; Luming Shen; Xiaoming Cong; Huaijun Zhu; Lei He; Jianlin Lu

292

Experimental and Modeling Studies of Crush, Puncture, and Perforation Scenarios in the Steven Impact Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steven test and associated modeling has greatly increased the fundamental knowledge of practical predictions of impact safety hazards for confined and unconfined explosive charges. Building on a database of initial work, experimental and modeling studies of crush, puncture, and perforation scenarios were investigated using the Steven impact test. The descriptions of crush, puncture, and perforation arose from safety scenarios

Kevin S. Vandersall; Steven K. Chidester; Jerry W. Forbes; Frank Garcia; Daniel W. Greenwood; Lori L. Switzer; Craig M. Tarver

2002-01-01

293

Particle damage and exposure analysis in HPGR crushing of selected copper ores for column leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mining operations, jaw and gyratory crushers are generally used for primary crushing, and cone crushers are used for secondary crushing. During the past decade, however, high-pressure grinding rolls (HPGR) are being considered due to potential processing benefits such as energy savings, improved exposure\\/liberation and particle weakening. At this time there is no detailed quantification of particle damage and downstream

Phanindra Kodali; Nikhil Dhawan; Tolga Depci; C. L. Lin; Jan D. Miller

2011-01-01

294

Influence of forming effects on the axial crush response of hydroformed aluminum alloy tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact behaviour of tubular hydroformed axial crush tubes is examined. The results of dynamic axial crush tests performed with both non-hydroformed and hydroformed AA5754 aluminum alloy tubes were compared to predictions from finite element models. Explicit dynamic finite element simulations of the hydroforming and crash events were carried out with particular attention to the transfer of forming history from

B. W. Williams; M. J. Worswick; G. DAmours; A. Rahem; R. Mayer

2010-01-01

295

The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability of composite tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy-absorption capability as a function of crushing speed was determined for Thornel 300-Fiberite 934 (Gr-E) and Kevlar-49-Fiberite 934 (K-E) composite material. Circular cross section tube specimens were crushed at speeds ranging from 0.01 to 12 m/sec. Ply orientations of the tube specimens were (0/ +/- theta)2 and (+/- theta)2 where theta = 15, 45, and 75 deg. Based upon the results of these tests, the energy-absorption capability of Gr-E and K-E was determined to be a function of crushing speed. The magnitude of the effects of crushing speed on energy-absorption capability was determined to be a function of the mechanisms that control the crushing process. The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability is related to whether the mechanical response of the crushing mechanism that controls the crushing process is a function of strain rate. Energy-absorption capability of Gr-E and K-E tubes ranged between 0 and 35 percent and 20 and 45 percent, respectively, depending upon ply orientation.

Farley, Gary L.

1991-01-01

296

Pharmaceutical and safety considerations of tablet crushing in patients undergoing enteral intubation.  

PubMed

Medication in patients undergoing enteral intubation addresses various challenging issues considering safety and treatment efficiency. Ideally, other routes of administration (i.e. intravenous or intramuscular routes) or especially dedicated formulations should be used. However, in absence of liquid dosage form, tablets or pills must be crushed and suspended in a vehicle before administration. The administration of oral dosage forms by enteral tube is usually performed by the nursing staff facing (i) pharmaceutical relevance of crushing, (ii) loss and concomitant aero-contamination of drug substance, (iii) drug-nutriment interactions and (iv) enteral feeding tube clogging. In the present study, different combinations of either open or confined crushing and suspending protocols were compared by taking into account the crushing yield, the stability and granulometry of the solid oral form suspension and finally the extend of aerosol contamination during crushing and suspending. All protocols exhibited comparable crushing efficiency and suspending properties, but significantly higher aerosolisation of tablet particles was observed in both open crushing and suspending protocol. Therefore, both confined crushing and suspending protocol constitutes an efficient, time saving and safe alternative to the absence of available liquid dosage form for intubated patients. PMID:23299084

Salmon, Damien; Pont, Elisa; Chevallard, Hlne; Diouf, Elhadji; Tall, Mamadou-Lamine; Pivot, Christine; Pirot, Fabrice

2013-02-25

297

Experimental Investigation of Composite Sandwich Square Tubes under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Axial Crushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the crush behaviors of square sandwich composite tubes with woven fabric carbon\\/epoxy skins and aluminum honeycomb cores with the different honeycomb cell sizes and tube sizes were evaluated. For the evaluation, four different kinds of tubes were fabricated and crushed under quasi-static and dynamic impact loads. The impact tests were carried out using heavy wagons. From the

Jung-Seok Kim; Hyuk-Jin Yoon; Kwang-Bok Shin

2011-01-01

298

Effect of crush lesion on radiolabelling of ganglioside in rat peripheral nerve.  

PubMed

Left sciatic nerves of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were crushed and allowed to recover for 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days. At each of these times both L-5 dorsal root ganglia were injected with 100 microCi of [3H]glucosamine. Two days later, dorsal root ganglia, lumbosacral trunks, and sciatic nerves were removed bilaterally. The amounts of radiolabelled ganglioside in crushed lumbosacral trunks were consistently higher than in the controls, with the largest difference occurring within 2 days from simultaneous crush and injection to killing (specimens labelled day 0). The largest difference in the amount of radiolabelled ganglioside between crushed and control sciatic nerve (4-9 days from crush to killing) occurred later than that of lumbosacral trunk, but no significant difference occurred within the first 3 days following crush. There was only a slightly higher radioactivity in gangliosides totalled from all three anatomical specimens of crushed than in control nerves. The neutral nonganglioside lipid and acid-precipitable fraction followed patterns of synthesis and accumulation similar to those of the gangliosides. These findings indicate that after nerve crush gangliosides, glucosamine-labelled neutral nonganglioside lipids, and glycoproteins accumulate close to the proximal end of the regenerating axon. This accumulation could serve as a reservoir to increase the ganglioside concentration in the growth cone membrane. PMID:3335841

Guzman-Harty, M; Warner, J K; Mancini, M E; Pearl, D K; Yates, A J

1988-01-01

299

Improving the method of crushing coal charge components  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were conducted to compare the operating efficiency of hammer crushers with screens and grates. It was found that the replacement of grates with screens in hammer crushers improved the granulometric composition of the crushed coal, decreased the quantity of breeze classes, and increased the bulk density of the coking charge. The efficiency of crusher operation depends on the degree of wear of the beaters and the size of the gap between the beaters of the moving rotor and the screens. The service life of the screens was six times greater than the service life of the grates: the use of screens permitted an improvement in the operation of hammer crushers and the working conditions of the service personnel. (JMT)

Gainieva, G.R.; Poroshin, B.K.; Babasev, N.N.

1982-01-01

300

Remote control continuous mining machine crushing accident data study  

SciTech Connect

A committee was formed to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents as part of US MSHA's efforts to reduce and eliminate these types of accidents. The committee was tasked with collecting, reviewing, and evaluating remote control accident data to identify significant factors that could possibly contribute to remote control accidents. The report identifies that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another (place changing). Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. 10 figs., 5 tabs., 7 apps.

NONE

2006-05-11

301

Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

Not Available

1987-01-01

302

Natural Aggregate: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show provides an introduction to the production and uses of natural aggregate. Topics include some definitions, uses, and demand for aggregate. There is also information on its occurrence, mining, and production.

Langer, Bill

303

Theory for Protein Aggregation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proteins often aggregate to form biologically inactive precipitates. To better understand this problem, we have developed a mean-field lattice statistical mechanics theory for the equilibrium between native, denatured, and aggregated states of proteins an...

G. B. Fields D. O. Alonso D. Stigter K. A. Dill

1992-01-01

304

Investigations on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Recycled Aggregate Self Compacting Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years, construction and demolition waste management issues have attracted the attention from researchers around the world. In the present study, the potential usage of recycled aggregate obtained from crushed demolition waste for making self compacting concrete (SCC) was researched. The barriers in promoting the use of recycled material in new construction are also discussed. In addition, the results of an experimental study involving the use of recycled concrete aggregate as coarse aggregates for producing self-compacting concrete to study their flow and strength characteristics are also presented. Five series of mixture were prepared with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % coarse recycled aggregate adopting Nan Su's mix proportioning method. The fresh concrete properties were evaluated through the slump flow, J-ring and V-funnel tests. Compressive and tensile strengths were also determined. The results obtained showed that SCC could be successfully developed by incorporating recycled aggregates.

Revathi, P.; Selvi, R. S.; Velin, S. S.

2013-09-01

305

Aggregates for road building from Apulia region quarries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apulia region is characterized by several quarries producing aggregates for road construction. A good knowledge of the technical behavior of aggregates is really important for the use. A laboratrory investigation has been developed in cooperation with Tecnoprove laboratory on 50 quarries from all over the Apulia region. Have been studied aggregates for road construction, avoiding weak rock quarry. The study has concerned unit weigth, compressive strength, wear and tear strength (Los Angeles test) and crushing strength. Tests have been made according to Italian rules for aggregates.Quarries from Foggia district were mainly located along the southern-western boundary of Gargano calcareous horst where back-reef limestone outcrop. Only two of the studied quarries were of alluvial deposits from the Appenine. The values of technical properties were quite interesting and also the variation coefficients have been really low witnessing that the material is quite homogeneous. Only a quarry, located really close to an important fault gave poor values. Quarries from Bari district dug limestone of the Mesozoic calcareous platform. The values of the compressive strength has been between 100 and 200 MPa, while the unit weight has beetween 26,5 and 25 kN/m3. Crushing coefficient values have been quite high. It due probably either to the corned shape of limestone aggregates or the fact that aggregates quarries are located where limestone are strongly tectonized. Quarries from Brindisi and Taranto districts even are oper in Mesozoic calcareous platform unit gave the worst values of compressive strength and other technical properties. The compressive strength was normally lower than 100 MPa. The Also crushing test and the Los Angeles test has given values quite poor. Compressive strength values of limestone are strongly variable, with an high coefficient of variation (more than 30%).Probably it is due to the fact that all the studied quarries are located along the boundary of the Apulian Mesozoic carbonatic platform where more severe are the effect of tectonics induced by the faults that have broken the platform. Quarries from Lecce district were dug in grey microcrystalline limestone. Although these limestone are strongly fissured and fractured the compressive strength value are quite high and also the results of Los Angeles tests and crushing strength tests are encouraging. Los Angeles tests has given values always lower than 25% with a minimum of 14.7%. For one of the quarry the medium values of the compressive strength has been higher that 300 MPa. Also the unit weight values have been quite high, normally higher that a 25 kN/m3.The study has shown that technical properties of the aggregates, manly calcareous, from different Apulian zone are really different. They are strongly conditioned by the tectonic more than by the lithology. Where the rock is strongly tectonized wear and tear and crushing strength decrease in a really strong way, much more than it was possible to suppose on the base of compressive strength. Compressive strength is quite variable from 50 and 300 MPa with a high value of variation coefficient. The highest values of strength have been obtained for dolomitic limestone of Southern Apulia (Salento), value really high for limestone.

Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

2013-04-01

306

Optimization of stone-quarry technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the research projects of the Department of Process Engineering of the University of Miskolc the empirical breakage functions of several crushers (jaw, gyratory, cone and hammer crushers) were determined by measurements under operating or pilot-plant (laboratory) conditions. A method was developed to optimize the crushing technology. An appropriate computer algorithm was developed by the Department of

B. Cske; S. Peth; J. Fldesi; L. Mszros

1996-01-01

307

Management of 1-2 cm renal stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The preferred treatment of >1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone <2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise.

Srivastava, Aneesh; Chipde, Saurabh S

2013-01-01

308

Kidney stone erosion by micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation and consequent kidney stone treatment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to reveal the potential of micro scale hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation for the use of kidney stone treatment. Hydrodynamically generated cavitating bubbles were targeted to the surfaces of 18 kidney stone samples made of calcium oxalate, and their destructive effects were exploited in order to remove kidney stones in in vitro experiments. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was used as the working fluid under bubbly cavitating conditions in a 0.75 cm long micro probe of 147 ?m inner diameter at 9790 kPa pressure. The surface of calcium oxalate type kidney stones were exposed to bubbly cavitation at room temperature for 5 to 30 min. The eroded kidney stones were visually analyzed with a high speed CCD camera and using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques. The experiments showed that at a cavitation number of 0.017, hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation device could successfully erode stones with an erosion rate of 0.31 mg/min. It was also observed that the targeted application of the erosion with micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation may even cause the fracture of the kidney stones within a short time of 30 min. The proposed treatment method has proven to be an efficient instrument for destroying kidney stones. PMID:22476893

Perk, Osman Yavuz; ?e?en, Muhsincan; Gozuacik, Devrim; Ko?ar, Ali

2012-09-01

309

Priming effects in aggregate size fractions induced by glucose addition and grinding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely recognized that soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization can be accelerated (positive priming) or retarded (negative priming) by addition of easily available substrates to soil. SOM is a heterogeneous mixture, which contains numerous compounds with different degradability and turnover rates times. Nevertheless, so far, there is still lack of knowledge on identifying single fractions of the SOM as the source of C and N released by priming effects. The aim of this study was to determine the priming effect as related to different aggregate fractions, aggregate disruption and the amounts of substrate. In a 49 days incubation experiment, the soil samples were separated into three aggregate fractions (>2 mm, 2-0.25 mm and <0.25 mm), and with one sample left intact while the other were crushed. Then two concentrations of uniformly labeled 14C-glucose were added to the six aggregate fractions. The cumulative CO2 production was greater in the macroaggregates (> 0.25 mm) than in the microaggregates (< 0.25 mm) after 49 days incubation irrespective of glucose levels and aggregate grinding. This indicates the higher amount of easily degradable organic matter in macroaggregate versus microaggregate. Higher glucose addition increased the portion mineralization to CO2, but decreased the incorporation into microbial biomass for both intact and crushed aggregate fractions. Compared with the corresponding intact aggregate fraction, grinding resulted in increased glucose mineralization in macroaggregate. The priming effect increased as added glucose increased in all intact aggregate size, and highest priming effect was observed in >2 mm fraction. However, the magnitude of priming effect response to glucose addition depended on the aggregate size after grinding. This study demonstrates that substrate amounts, aggregate fractionation and grinding can have obvious impacts on priming effect, indicating important implications for understanding SOM cycling and stability.

Tian, Jing; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Pausch, Johanna; Kuzaykov, Yakov

2014-05-01

310

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

311

A Composite Kidney Stone Phantom with Mechanical Properties Controllable Across the Range of Properties of Human Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

A novel composite kidney stone phantom has been developed. This stone phantom is producible with mechanical properties mimicking the range of tensile fracture strength and acoustic properties of human kidney stones and is an inorganic/organic composite material, as are natural kidney stones. Diametral compression testing was used to measure tensile fracture strength, which determines the acoustic comminution behavior of kidney stones. Ultrasound transmission tests were made to characterize the acoustic properties of these stone phantoms. Both the tensile fracture strength (controllable from 1 to ~ 5 MPa) and acoustic properties (CL = 2700 to 4400m/s and CT = 1600 2300 m/s) of these composite phantom stones match those of a wide variety of human kidney stones. These artificial stone phantoms should have wide utility in lithotripsy research.

Simmons, W. N.; Cocks, F. H.; Zhong, P.; Preminger, Glenn

2013-01-01

312

Effects of boundary conditions on the energy absorption of thin-walled polymer composite tubes under axial crushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer composite tubes can be designed to absorb high levels of impact energy by progressive crushing. When a tube is crushed onto a flat platen, energy is absorbed by bending failure of the plies, delamination and friction mechanisms. In the present work, significant increases in energy absorption are shown when a shear mode of failure is initiated by crushing the

N. A. Warrior; T. A. Turner; E. Cooper; M Ribeaux

2008-01-01

313

Stone Morphology Suggestive of Randall's Plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Randall's plaques are found in a number of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stones developed on a Randall's plaque typically present a small depressed zone (``umbilication'') corresponding to the tip of the papilla and containing material detached from the plaque. By examining the morphology and infrared composition of 45,774 calculi referred to our laboratory over the past three decades, we identified 8,916 umbilicated calculi (19.5%). We have selected three periods of time corresponding to the first years of each decade. Over these periods, we analyzed 26,182 consecutive calculi. Among them, we identified 5,401 umbilicated calculi, of which 91.5% had an identifiable plaque. We analyzed the relative prevalence of umbilicated stones over time and the respective composition of Randall's plaque and stones. The proportion of umbilicated stones rose significantly from 10% in period 1 (1978-1984) to 21% in period 2 (1990-1993) and 22.2% in period 3 (2000-2006), with a parallel rise in the prevalence of stones with identifiable Randall's plaque. The main component of plaques was carbapatite in 90.8% of cases, whereas other components such as amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate, sodium hydrogen urate or uric acid were found in other cases. The morphology of plaques made of carbapatite was diverse, as was their carbonate content, thus suggesting variable pathophysiological mechanisms. Stones were made of whewellite as the main component in 51.4% of cases, or admixed with weddellite in 26.8%, predominant weddellite in 12.5% and other components (mainly uric acid) in 7.5% of cases. Our findings confirm that Randall's plaques are made of carbapatite in the great majority of cases, but with the stones more frequently composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (which is associated with hyperoxaluria) than of calcium oxalate dihydrate (associated with hypercalciuria). In conclusion, in our country, stones developed on a carbapatite Randall's plaque are as frequently made of monohydrate than dihydrate calcium oxalate, thus suggesting a role for a high urine concentration in both oxalate and calcium ions in the lithogenic process.

Daudon, Michel; Traxer, Olivier; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

2007-04-01

314

Investigations on common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Common bile duct stones from 59 consecutive patients who underwent cholecystectomy more than 1 year before radiological detection of choledocholithiasis (group I) and from 31 consecutive patients with choledocholithiasis and gallbladder in situ (group II) were subjected to chemical analysis and compared with the composition of gallbladder stones from the same population (two consecutive biopsy and autopsy series, n = 343). In contrast to cholecystolithiasis, inorganic calcium salts were infrequent in choledocholithiasis while calcium bilirubinate and fatty acid calcium salts played an important role in the composition of common bile duct stones. This is of particular importance in terms of litholysis. With respect to stone pathogenesis, clinical and radiological data were analyzed, as was hepatic bile lipid composition. There was no significant difference in the lithogenic index (percent cholesterol saturation) in cholecystectomized and in non-cholecystectomized patients with choledocholithiasis. The most important cause of stone recurrence in the common duct after surgery was incrustation of unabsorbed suture material, which was the case in 30.5% of group-I patients. PMID:6840404

Wosiewitz, U; Schenk, J; Sabinski, F; Schmack, B

1983-01-01

315

Progressive renal papillary calcification and ureteral stone formation in mice deficient for Tamm-Horsfall protein.  

PubMed

Mammalian urine contains a range of macromolecule proteins that play critical roles in renal stone formation, among which Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is by far the most abundant. While THP is a potent inhibitor of crystal aggregation in vitro and its ablation in vivo predisposes one of the two existing mouse models to spontaneous intrarenal calcium crystallization, key controversies remain regarding the role of THP in nephrolithiasis. By carrying out a long-range follow-up of more than 250 THP-null mice and their wild-type controls, we demonstrate here that renal calcification is a highly consistent phenotype of the THP-null mice that is age and partially gene dosage dependent, but is gender and genetic background independent. Renal calcification in THP-null mice is progressive, and by 15 mo over 85% of all the THP-null mice develop spontaneous intrarenal crystals. The crystals consist primarily of calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite, are located more frequently in the interstitial space of the renal papillae than intratubularly, particularly in older animals, and lack accompanying inflammatory cell infiltration. The interstitial deposits of hydroxyapatite observed in THP-null mice bear strong resemblances to the renal crystals found in human kidneys bearing idiopathic calcium oxalate stones. Compared with 24-h urine from the wild-type mice, that of THP-null mice is supersaturated with brushite (calcium phosphate), a stone precursor, and has reduced urinary excretion of citrate, a stone inhibitor. While less frequent than renal calcinosis, renal pelvic and ureteral stones and hydronephrosis occur in the aged THP-null mice. These results provide direct in vivo evidence indicating that normal THP plays an important role in defending the urinary system against calcification and suggest that reduced expression and/or decreased function of THP could contribute to nephrolithiasis. PMID:20591941

Liu, Yan; Mo, Lan; Goldfarb, David S; Evan, Andrew P; Liang, Fengxia; Khan, Saeed R; Lieske, John C; Wu, Xue-Ru

2010-09-01

316

The biomagnetic signature of a crushed axon. A comparison of theory and experiment.  

PubMed Central

The response of a crayfish medial giant axon to a nerve crush is examined with a biomagnetic current probe. The experimental data is interpreted with a theoretical model that incorporates both radial and axial ionic transport and membrane kinetics similar to those in the Hodgkin/Huxley model. Our experiments show that the effects of the crush are manifested statically as an elevation of the resting potential and dynamically as a reduction in the amplitude of the action current and potential, and are observable up to 10 mm from the crush. In addition, the normally biphasic action current becomes monophasic near the crush. The model reflects these observations accurately, and based on the experimental data, it predicts that the crush seals with a time constant of 45 s. The injury current density entering the axon through the crush is calculated to be initially on the order of 0.1 mA/mm2 and may last until the crush seals or until the concentration gradients between the intra- and extracellular spaces equilibrate.

van Egeraat, J M; Stasaski, R; Barach, J P; Friedman, R N; Wikswo, J P

1993-01-01

317

Postoperative flexible choledochoscopy for residual primary intrahepatic stones.  

PubMed Central

Postoperative flexible choledochoscopy was carried out in 103 patients with residual biliary calculi. Forty-one patients had residual stones in the common duct, and 63 patients had residual stones in the intrahepatic ducts with or without stones in the common duct. The majority of the intrahepatic stones were primary stones. Postoperative choledochoscopy was very effective in removing residual common duct stones (95% removed, no morbidity). For intrahepatic stones, removal was more difficult and was associated with a higher morbidity (11.2%). Stone extraction through the stenotic intrahepatic ducts was made possible by the balloon dilatation of the ducts. Repeated endoscopic access to the biliary system was made easier by the construction of a hepatico-cutaneous-jejunostomy, which also provides a route to the biliary tree for future stone removal if stone reformation occurs. Complimented by these procedures, postoperative choledochoscopy was successful in removing the residual intrahepatic stones in 82.3% of the patients. At a median follow-up of 17 months, the majority of the patients who had all the stones removed as well as those who had stones left behind were symptom free. Images FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4.

Choi, T K; Fok, M; Lee, M J; Lui, R; Wong, J

1986-01-01

318

76 FR 57087 - Stone Harbor Investment Partners LP, et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Release No. 29784; File No. 812-13931] Stone Harbor Investment Partners LP, et al.; Notice...certain financial instruments. Applicants: Stone Harbor Investment Partners LP (``Stone Harbor'') and Stone Harbor Investment...

2011-09-15

319

Pharmacokinetics of Lopinavir/Ritonavir Crushed versus Whole Tablets in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective Lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) is first line therapy for pediatric HIV infection. In clinical practice, Kaletra tablets are occasionally crushed for pediatric administration. This study compared lopinavir/ritonavir exposure between whole and crushed tablets in HIV-infected children. Design This was a randomized, open-label, cross-over study of pediatric patients taking lopinavir/ritonavir as part of their antiretroviral regimen. Each subject had two separate (within 30 days) steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic (PK) studies with crushed and whole 200/50 mg lopinavir/ritonavir tablets. Methods PK blood samples were drawn at 0 (pre-dose), 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours post-dose. Lopinavir and ritonavir plasma concentrations measured by high performance liquid chromatography were used to calculate non-compartmental area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) and clearance (CL/F). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared PK values between crushed and whole tablets. Results Twelve children, median age of 13 years (1016 years), took 550/138 mg/m2/day lopinavir/ritonavir divided every 12 hours. The median lopinavir AUC following crushed and whole tablets were 92 mg*hr/L and 144 mg*hr/L, respectively, with an AUC ratio of 0.55 (p=0.003). Median ritonavir AUC of crushed and whole tablets were 7 mg*hr/L and 13.3 mg*hr/L, respectively, with an AUC ratio of 0.53 (p=0.006). Conclusions Administration of crushed 200/50 mg lopinavir/ritonavir tablets to children significantly reduced lopinavir and ritonavir exposure with a decrease in AUC by 45% and 47%, respectively. The administration of crushed tablets would require higher doses and therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure adequate lopinavir exposure in patients requiring this practice. The use of crushed lopinavir/ritonavir tablets should be avoided, if possible.

Best, Brookie M.; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Diep, Huy; Rossi, Steven S.; Farrell, Michael J.; Williams, Elaine; Lee, Grace; van den Anker, John N.; Rakhmanina, Natella

2011-01-01

320

Lightweight aggregate production from claystone and shale in Bangladesh  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Muffle furnace tests were made on samples of clay, claystone, and shale collected in the Chittagong and Dacca areas of East Pakistan to determine their amenability to bloating for the commercial production of light-weight aggregate. Several areas, sampled in some detail, were selected for investigation because of their proximity to market, and accessibility to fuel and electricity. Muffle furnace tests show that the clay, claystone, and shale are natural bloaters at temperatures in the 1700? to 2200? F range, and do not require additives. The most desirable deposit, insofar as producing a strong aggregate is concerned, can be determined only by pilot-kiln testing and by crushing-strength tests made on concrete test cylinders. Reserves of suitable raw material are large in both the Chittagong and Dacca areas.

Parker, Norbert A.; Khan, M. A.

1976-01-01

321

Quasi-Uniform High Speed Foam Crush Testing Using a Guided Drop Mass Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple method for measuring the dynamic crush response of foam materials at various loading rates is described. The method utilizes a drop mass impact configuration with mass and impact velocity selected such that the crush speed remains approximately uniform during the entire sample crushing event. Instrumentation, data acquisition, and data processing techniques are presented, and limitations of the test method are discussed. The objective of the test method is to produce input data for dynamic finite element modeling involving crash and energy absorption characteristics of foam materials.

Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor); Kellas, Sotiris

2004-01-01

322

Proteome of melamine urinary bladder stones and implication for stone formation.  

PubMed

Melamine can cause urinary stones related to nephropathy of the kidney and hyperplasia or carcinoma of the bladder, but the mechanism of stone formation is not well understood. In this study, male rats were administered melamine for thirteen weeks to establish melamine bladder stone models and the stones were analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and western blot, respectively, for the composition and proteome, and to explore the implication of proteins for stone formation. The results showed bladder stones were composed of predominant melamine and a few amount of proteins. The proteins had a wide range of molecular weights and 1051 proteins were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) classification of the identified proteins showed most proteins were from injured cells, involved in various metabolic processes and had binding functions. Of the identified proteins, there were a few inflammatory proteins and urinary proteins. Physicochemical characteristics of the identified proteins showed that 67.1% proteins' isoelectric points (pI) value was below 7.0, 91.1% proteins' grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) scores were below 0 and nearly half of the proteins were stable. Our data indicated proteins might play an important role in melamine bladder stone formation. PMID:22688180

Liu, Jian-dong; Liu, Jian-jun; Yuan, Jian-hui; Tao, Gong-hua; Wu, De-sheng; Yang, Xi-fei; Yang, Lin-qing; Huang, Hai-yan; Zhou, Li; Xu, Xin-yun; Hu, Jun-jie; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

2012-08-01

323

Kidney stones: a fetal origins hypothesis.  

PubMed

Kidney stones are common, with a multifactorial etiology involving dietary, environmental, and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone-associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early-life events, including low-birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation; there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesize that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life, which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the etiology of nephrolithiasis. PMID:23703881

Howles, Sarah A; Edwards, Mark H; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V

2013-12-01

324

Laser ablation of gall bladder stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study of laser interaction with calculi is presented. A system of Nd-Yag and Ho-Yag pulsed lasers were used to produce fluorescence and plasma signals at the stone surface surrounded by saline and bile fluids. Fourth harmonic from Nd-Yag laser was transmitted to the samples by graded UV optical fibres. Gall bladder stones of various compositions were subjected to the high power Ho-Yag laser. Temporal transients and spectral evolution of plasma and fluorescence signals were monitored by a streak camera. A profile of acoustic pressures generated by shock waves was recorded with sensitive hydrophones placed in the surrounding fluids. Ablation threshold, cavitation process and fluorescence dependence on the laser parameters were studied in detail. Potential of stone identification by fluorescence and possible hydrodynamic model for ablation of biological samples is discussed.

Marafi, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Bhatia, K. S.; Abdulah, A. H.; Kokaj, Y.; Mathew, K.; Quinn, F.; Qabazard, A.

1999-06-01

325

Kidney Stones: A Fetal Origins Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Kidney stones are common with a multifactorial aetiology involving dietary, environmental and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early life events, including low birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation and there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesise that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the aetiology of nephrolithiasis.

Howles, Sarah A.; Edwards, Mark H.; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V.

2013-01-01

326

Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options.

Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

2012-01-01

327

Superior palatability of crushed lercanidipine compared with amlodipine among children  

PubMed Central

AIMS To compare the taste of equivalent doses of pulverized amlodipine and lercanidipine, two calcium channel blockers, among children with kidney disease. METHODS Each child received a test dose of 1 mg of amlodipine besylate and 2 mg of lercanidipine in a single-blinded fashion. Children indicated their preference by pointing to the appropriate face on a visual analogue scale (VAS) that depicts five degrees of pleasure. RESULTS The VAS palatability score assigned to lercanidipine was higher than that assigned to amlodipine both in nine children 47 years of age (P < 0.005) and in 10 children 811 years of age (P < 0.005). The preference for lercanidipine was statistically significant in both girls (P < 0.02) and boys (P < 0.001) and in both children initially presented amlodipine (P < 0.005) and children initially presented lercanidipine (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS There is a lack of appropriate formulations for children prescribed drugs originally designed for adults, such as calcium channel blockers. Parents therefore crush available tablets and administer the medication mixed with solid food or a palatable drink. From the perspective of the child, the taste of pulverized lercanidipine is superior to that of pulverized amlodipine.

Milani, Gregorio; Ragazzi, Monica; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Ramelli, Gian P; Rizzi, Mattia; Bianchetti, Mario G; Fossali, Emilio F

2010-01-01

328

Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

329

Ultracal-30 gypsum artificial stones for research on the mechanisms of stone breakage in shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

Artificial stones are used in research on the mechanisms of stone breakage in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and in assessing lithotripter performance. We have adopted Ultracal-30 gypsum as a model, finding it suitable for SWL studies in vitro, acute animal experiments in which stones are implanted in the kidney, and as a target to compare the in vitro performance of intracorporeal lithotripters. Here we describe the preparation of U-30 stones, their material properties, shock wave (SW) breakage characteristics, and methods used for quantitation of stone fragmentation with this model. Ultracal-30 gypsum cement was mixed 1:1 with water, cast in plastic multi-well plates, then, the stones were liberated by dissolving the plastic with chloroform and stored under water. Stone breakage in SWL was assessed by several methods including measures of the increase in projected surface area of SW-treated stones. Breakage of hydrated stones showed a linear increase in fragment area with increased SW-number and SW-voltage. Stones stored in water for an extended time showed reduced fragility. Dried stones could be rehydrated so that breakage was not different from stones that had never been dry, but stones rehydrated for less than 96 h showed increased fragility to SWs. The physical properties of U-30 stones place them in the range reported for natural stones. U-30 stones in vitro and in vivo showed equivalent response to SW-rate, with approximately 200% greater fragmentation at 30 SW/min compared to 120 SW/min, suggesting that the mechanisms of SW action are similar under both conditions. U-30 stones provide a convenient, reproducible model for SWL research. PMID:16133577

McAteer, James A; Williams, James C; Cleveland, Robin O; Van Cauwelaert, Javier; Bailey, Michael R; Lifshitz, David A; Evan, Andrew P

2005-12-01

330

Will a Warmer Climate Mean More Kidney Stones?  

MedlinePLUS

... Preidt Thursday, July 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Climate Change Kidney Stones THURSDAY, July 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ... woe to the growing list of consequences of climate change: Kidney stones. A new study of American cities ...

331

3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EASTNORTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

332

1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

333

2. STONE CABIN II FROM MIDNORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. STONE CABIN II FROM MID-NORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

334

2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

335

3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

336

4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

337

1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE NORTH. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

338

21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...flexible tip, or other special construction. It is inserted through a cystoscope and used to entrap and remove stones from the ureter. This generic type of device includes the metal basket and the flexible ureteral stone dislodger. (b)...

2010-04-01

339

Ultrasound Trumps CT Scan for Diagnosing Kidney Stones in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ultrasound Trumps CT Scan for Diagnosing Kidney Stones in ... 2014 (HealthDay News) -- When diagnosing kidney stones, using ultrasound instead of CT scans reduces costs as well ...

340

8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

341

RENAL STONE RISK ASSESSMENT DURING SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation.

Peggy A. Whitson; Robert A. Pietrzyk; Charles Y. C. Pak

1997-01-01

342

Protein misfolding and aggregation.  

PubMed

Interest in the problem of protein misfolding and aggregation has exploded in recent years for two reasons: (1) the sharp rise in the number and volume of therapeutic proteins produced commercially and (2) the recognition of the central role of protein aggregates in degenerative diseases. The systematic study of protein aggregation presents major challenges to both the experimentalist and the theoretician. Much of the work retains an empirical flavor due to the experimental complexities; the sensitivity of protein aggregation to the slightest change in protein amino acid composition, solvent properties, or protein concentration; and the lack of robust theoretical models of misfolding and aggregation. Novel experimental and computational approaches are being developed, and we anticipate substantial progress will be made in the near future. Several presentations describing the latest advances in protein misfolding and aggregation were given at the American Chemical Society meeting (BIOT division) held in September, 2006 in San Francisco. PMID:17425329

Murphy, Regina M; Kendrick, Brent S

2007-01-01

343

An increasing number of calcium oxalate stone events worsens treatment outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of calcium oxalate stone events worsens treatment outcome. Current practice recommends metabolic evaluation of patients who have formed multiple renal stones, but not those with one stone or temporally remote stones. This presumes that recentness and recurrence imply greater risk of new future stones. We hypothesize that number of stones reflects how long patients are permitted to

Joan H Parks; Fredric L Coe

1994-01-01

344

Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

2012-02-01

345

Nanobacteria: An infectious cause for kidney stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanobacteria: An infectious cause for kidney stone formation.BackgroundNanobacteria are cytotoxic, sterile-filterable, gram-negative, atypical bacteria detected in bovine and human blood. Nanobacteria produce carbonate apatite on their cell walls. Data on Randall's plaques suggest that apatite may initiate kidney stone formation. We assessed nanobacteria in 72 consecutively collected kidney stones from Finnish patients.MethodsNanobacteria and kidney stone units were compared using scanning

Neva iftioglu; Mikael Bjrklund; Kai Kuorikoski; Kim Bergstrm; E. Olavi Kajander

1999-01-01

346

Diffusion Limited Aggregation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents the problem of growing aggregate structures one particle at a time through random processes. Such structures are seen throughout nature, through examples such as electrodeposition, dielectric breakdown, and snowflake Formation. The main algorithm for modeling these aggregate structures is diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). DLA models cover a wide range of phenomena and size sales, and variations range from lattice based models to models that allow free movement, models in multiple dimensions, and models that change how particles stick to the growing aggregate.

347

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP Domains (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the problem of partializing Stone spaces by Sequence of Finite Posets (SFP) domains. More specifically, we introduce a suitable subcategory SFP\\u000am of SFP which is naturally related to the special category of Stone spaces 2-Stone by the functor MAX, which associates to each object of SFPm the space of its maximal elements. The category

Fabio Alessi; Paolo Baldan; Furio Honsell

1997-01-01

348

29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN, SHOWING THE MAKER'S MARK. STONE FROM THE GARFIELD COMPANY WERE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF BOTH THE BEEHIVE AND RECTANGULAR OVENS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

349

8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE; ALSO SEEN IS THE CHUTE FROM THE TUN OF THE BURR STONES; HANGING IN THE BACKGROUND ARE THE MILL SAILS. - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

350

Macroinvertebrate colonization of stones in two upland southern Australian streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on the colonization by macroinvertebrates of stones were performed in the Acheron and Toorongo Rivers, two upland rivers in south-eastern Australia. The three experiments were each about one month in duration. In the first experiment Acheron I and the third experiment Toorongo river stones were used. In the Acheron II experiment both river stones and

P. S. Lake; T. J. Doeg

1985-01-01

351

Single Stones of the Lower Pole of the Kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCN) as a treatment for stones of the lower pole of the kidney and to compare their morbidity according to the stone size. Methods: We retrospectively studied 739 patients treated for a single stone of the lower pole. Group I consisted of 666 patients treated by

Denis Havel; Christian Saussine; Christian Fath; Herv Lang; Franois Faure; Didier Jacqmin

1998-01-01

352

Relationship between common duct stones and Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in patients with common duct stones and analyze the relationship between common duct stones and H pylori infection. METHODS: One hundred and five patients with common duct stones (experiment group) and 132 control subjects (control group) were in- cluded in the study. All the patients underwent electronic gastroscopy, rapid

Min Song; Jie Wu; Ping Wang; Xiao-Dong Huang; Heng Zhang; Dan Zheng; Yan Su Min Song; Song M; Wu J; Wang P; Huang XD; Zheng D

353

Single puncture percutaneous nephrolithomy for management of complex renal stones  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this report is to assess the safety and efficacy of single lower pole access for multiple and branched renal calculi. A prospective non randomized clinical study included 26 patients with complex renal stones (9 patients had branched renal stones and the other 17 had multiple renal stones) in the period from May 2003 to May 2004. Mean patient age was 42 years 13.2 (range 18 to 67 years). All patients underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) via a single lower calyceal puncture. Small stones were intactly extracted by a range of stone graspers while large stones (smallest diameter more than 1 cm) were disintegrated using either the pneumatic EMS Swiss lithoclast or Holmium YAG laser. Flexible nephroscope was used for stones inaccessible by the rigid instruments. Findings Overall stone-free rate was 74.8%. Patients with residual stones were managed by one session of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Mean operative time was (80 minutes 27.4) for branched stones and (49.1 minutes 15.9) for multiple stones. No significant blood loss reported. Perforation of pelvicalyceal system occurred in 2 patients (11.5%) with no serious sequelae. Only 1 patient developed secondary hemorrhage which necessitated blood transfusion and selective angio-embolization. Conclusion In our hands, the efficacy and safety of single lower calyceal puncture PCNL in management of complex renal stones are comparable to those of the general procedure stated in literature.

Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Abdalla, Medhat A; Aboul-Ella, Hassan A; El-haggagy, Abdel-Monem A; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A

2009-01-01

354

Mineral composition of renal stones from the Sudan.  

PubMed

Urolithiasis is a very frequent finding in the Sudan, but stone analysis is not routinely performed in this country. It would, however, give important evidence for the metabolic basis of stone formation. We therefore set out to analyze urinary stones in 80 Sudanese patients (45 male, 35 female), 12 of whom where children. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy was used for stone analysis. As is known from other countries, calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones were the most frequent, with 68.7% of all stones in adults and 43.7% of childhood stones. Uric acid and uric acid dihydrate stones were more often seen in adults (13.2%) than in children (4. 1%). Ammonium urate stones are common in the Sudan, especially in children (32.9%), which is typical for underdeveloped countries. Infectious stones (struvite and carbonate apatite) were more often found in women (7.0%) and in children (5.3%) than in men (1.4%). Brushite stones were seldom seen and cystine stones did not occur. PMID:9933835

Balla, A A; Salah, A M; Khattab, A H; Kambal, A; Bongartz, D; Hoppe, B; Hesse, A

1998-01-01

355

Ships on Hero Stones from the West Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hero stones were raised to honour the memory of those who lost their lives either in a battle (sea or land) or in some other untoward accident. This practice has been continued since the early times and varieties of hero stones have been reported from various provinces of India. Maximum number of hero stones so far reported from India has

Sila Tripati

2006-01-01

356

Weathering Grade Classification of Granite Stone Monument Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone monument has been placed in field and exposed to rain and wind. This outdoor environment and air pollution induced weathering of stone monument. Weathering grade classification is necessary to manage and conserve stone monuments. Visual interpretation by geologist and laboratory experiments using specimens fallen off from the monument to avoid damage on the monument have been applied to classify

C. Hyun; T. Roh; M. Choi

2009-01-01

357

'Intensive' Culture of the Stone Crab, 'Menippe mercenaria'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Culture technique for stone crab larvae is summarized and data is given on the adaptability of juvenile stone crabs to intensive culture systems used for penaeid shrimp. It was found that stone crabs did not adapt well to intensive culture techniques. Lar...

W. T. Yang G. E. Krantz

1976-01-01

358

An Update and Practical Guide to Renal Stone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone disease covers kidney and lower urinary tract stones caused by a variety of conditions, including metabolic and inherited disorders, and anatomical defects with or without chronic urinary infection. Most cases are idiopathic, in which there is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition, but where environmental and lifestyle factors play an important role. Indeed, it is becoming apparent that renal stone

Nikhil Johri; Bruce Cooper; William Robertson; Simon Choong; David Rickards; Robert Unwin

2010-01-01

359

Calcium oxalate crystal growth in human urinary stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium oxalate stones are very common and increasing. Crystal growth is no less important than the crystal nucleation in the pathogenesis of stone formation. The crystal growth was studied in human calcium oxalate stones by a combined electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The main mode of weddellite growth was interpenetration twinning of tetrahedral bipyramids. Bipyramids may form as initial crystal

K. M. Kim; F. B. Johnson

1981-01-01

360

Crush performance of redwood for developing design procedures for impact limiters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most simplistic information exists on its crush properties. Tbe stress-strain interrelat...

S. M. Cramer J. C. Hermanson W. M. McMurtry

1995-01-01

361

Crush pelvic injury in the Sichuan earthquake evaluated by multidetector CT scanning.  

PubMed

CT scanning is sensitive and specific for the identification of pelvic fractures and injury to the pelvic wall soft tissue and the pelvic cavity. Crush pelvic trauma in an earthquake can be identified by multidetector CT scanning. PMID:20581405

Chen, Tian-wu; Yang, Zhi-gang; Dong, Zhi-hui; Wang, Qi-ling; Yao, Jin; Deng, Wen; Zhuang, Hua

2010-11-01

362

Crush pelvic injury in the Sichuan earthquake evaluated by multidetector CT scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT scanning is sensitive and specific for the identification of pelvic fractures and injury to the pelvic wall soft tissue and the pelvic cavity. Crush pelvic trauma in an earthquake can be identified by multidetector CT scanning.

Tian-wu Chen; Zhi-gang Yang; Zhi-hui Dong; Qi-ling Wang; Jin Yao; Wen Deng; Hua Zhuang

2010-01-01

363

Functional and Neuroanatomical Effects of Vaginal Distention and Pudendal Nerve Crush in the Female Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe tested the hypothesis that neuroanatomical degeneration near the external urethral sphincter (EUS) would parallel urinary dysfunction after vaginal distention or bilateral pudendal nerve crush in female rats.

MARGOT S. DAMASER; CARLA BROXTON-KING; CORRI FERGUSON; FERNANDO J. KIM; JAMES M. KERNS

2003-01-01

364

Experimental Study of Particle Size and Size Distribution of Minerals Crushed by Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes an experimental study of the progressive changes in particle size distribution as a homogeneous isotropic mineral such as quartz is crushed by impact. Mathematical relationships are developed for the change in mean particle size with ...

H. W. St. Clair R. E. Brown

1972-01-01

365

Elemental abundances in stone meteorites.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of abundances of Na, Al, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu by instrumental neutron activation analyses of 103 chondrites and 17 achondrites. Various sources of error in the method, including sampling errors, are discussed in detail. Examination of the patterns of coherence of the elements determined suggests the presence of effects of fractionation during condensation from the solar nebula of matter parental to chondrites. Such effects seem to be exhibited both in the abundances of lithophilic elements, perhaps being related to varied temperatures of accretion and in the abundances of those elements which would be affected by metal-silicate fractionation in the solar nebula. Atomic abundances relative to Si vary little in carbonaceous chondrites, suggesting that efficient mixing processes operated on these meteorites prior to or during their formation. It is suggested that, at present, no single class of carbonaceous chondrites is clearly more primitive than another. Carbonaceous and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites may represent aggregates of material accreted from the solar nebula at relatively low temperatures. The present data support a model of equilibration and minor mobilization of nonvolatile elements within small domains of chondrites after accretion. Such a model would be consistent with the petrologic types of Van Schmus and Wood (1967).

Schmitt, R. A.; Goles, G. G.; Osborn, T. W.; Smith, R. H.

1972-01-01

366

Streaming potential measurements 1. Properties of the electrical double layer from crushed rock samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zeta potential has been inferred from streaming potential measurements with crushed rock samples as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration for various salts. The value obtained for crushed Fontainebleau sandstone at pH=5.7 and a KCl solution with a resistivity of 400 Omegam is -40+\\/-5mV, where the error is dominated by sample to sample variations. The sensitivity of the

Benoit Lorne; Frdric Perrier; Jean-Philippe Avouac

1999-01-01

367

Adoption of quad bike crush prevention devices on Australian dairy farms.  

PubMed

Quad bikes (all-terrain vehicles) are the leading cause of nonintentional farm injury deaths in Australia. Approximately 50% result from rollovers of the vehicle, with death frequently due to crush injury/asphyxiation. Crush protection devices fitted to quads have been demonstrated to enhance safety. This exploratory study aimed to assess feedback from a small group of dairy farmers (N?=?11) that had crush protection devices fitted to their quads. A mixed-methods design was adopted consisting of pre- and post-intervention surveys in addition to focus groups/interviews for this exploratory study. Results indicate that the crush protection device was viewed positively by the majority of participants, with virtually no impact on the reported performance of the quad in terms of braking, steering, suspension, and getting on/off. The most problematic issue was some contact with overhead objects, although the majority reported no issues at all. Some issues were also identified with attaching trailers, carrying loads, and noise from rattling. The participants reported that the likely potential benefits of a crush protection device clearly outweighed these issues. Some 4 to 6 months following the study, 10 of the 11 farmers continued to have the crush protection device fitted to their quad. The major barrier to adoption was the manufacturers' resistance and negative public statements regarding the effectiveness of crush protection devices. Participants suggested that there are steps that can be taken to increase the uptake of crush protection devices by dairy farmers. Further lag in promoting these potentially life-saving devices will only add to the death and injury burden associated with quad bikes. PMID:24417528

Lower, Tony; Trotter, Mark

2014-01-01

368

Axial crushing of thin-walled high-strength steel sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-static and dynamic axial crushing tests were performed on thin-walled square tubes and spot-welded top-hat sections made of high-strength steel grade DP800. The dynamic tests were conducted at velocities up to 15m\\/s with an impacting mass of 600kg in order to assess the crush behaviour, the deformation force and the energy absorption. Typical collapse modes developed in the sections and

V. Tarigopula; M. Langseth; O. S. Hopperstad; A. H. Clausen

2006-01-01

369

Experimental study on crushing characteristics of brittle fibre\\/epoxy hybrid composite tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collapse characteristics and energy-absorption capability of three kinds of hybrid composite tubes, G827-G803\\/3234, G827-G803\\/5224 and G827-759\\/5224, are studied in the present article. Each of the specimens containing two kinds of brittle fibre has been examined by both axial quasi-static and impact crushing test. The effects of fibre type, fibre content and loading conditions on the crushing-failure characteristics, peak load

D. Y. Hu; M. Luo; J. L. Yang

2010-01-01

370

Reproducible mouse sciatic nerve crush and subsequent assessment of regeneration by whole mount muscle analysis.  

PubMed

Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is widely studied both for its relevance to human disease and to understand the robust regenerative response mounted by PNS neurons thereby possibly illuminating the failures of CNS regeneration(1). Sciatic nerve crush (axonotmesis) is one of the most common models of peripheral nerve injury in rodents(2). Crushing interrupts all axons but Schwann cell basal laminae are preserved so that regeneration is optimal(3,4). This allows the investigator to study precisely the ability of a growing axon to interact with both the Schwann cell and basal laminae(4). Rats have generally been the preferred animal models for experimental nerve crush. They are widely available and their lesioned sciatic nerve provides a reasonable approximation of human nerve lesions(5,4). Though smaller in size than rat nerve, the mouse nerve has many similar qualities. Most importantly though, mouse models are increasingly valuable because of the wide availability of transgenic lines now allows for a detailed dissection of the individual molecules critical for nerve regeneration(6, 7). Prior investigators have used multiple methods to produce a nerve crush or injury including simple angled forceps, chilled forceps, hemostatic forceps, vascular clamps, and investigator-designed clamps(8,9,10,11,12). Investigators have also used various methods of marking the injury site including suture, carbon particles and fluorescent beads(13,14,1). We describe our method to obtain a reproducibly complete sciatic nerve crush with accurate and persistent marking of the crush-site using a fine hemostatic forceps and subsequent carbon crush-site marking. As part of our description of the sciatic nerve crush procedure we have also included a relatively simple method of muscle whole mount we use to subsequently quantify regeneration. PMID:22395197

Bauder, Andrew R; Ferguson, Toby A

2012-01-01

371

Reproducible Mouse Sciatic Nerve Crush and Subsequent Assessment of Regeneration by Whole Mount Muscle Analysis  

PubMed Central

Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is widely studied both for its relevance to human disease and to understand the robust regenerative response mounted by PNS neurons thereby possibly illuminating the failures of CNS regeneration1. Sciatic nerve crush (axonotmesis) is one of the most common models of peripheral nerve injury in rodents2. Crushing interrupts all axons but Schwann cell basal laminae are preserved so that regeneration is optimal3,4. This allows the investigator to study precisely the ability of a growing axon to interact with both the Schwann cell and basal laminae4. Rats have generally been the preferred animal models for experimental nerve crush. They are widely available and their lesioned sciatic nerve provides a reasonable approximation of human nerve lesions5,4. Though smaller in size than rat nerve, the mouse nerve has many similar qualities. Most importantly though, mouse models are increasingly valuable because of the wide availability of transgenic lines now allows for a detailed dissection of the individual molecules critical for nerve regeneration6, 7. Prior investigators have used multiple methods to produce a nerve crush or injury including simple angled forceps, chilled forceps, hemostatic forceps, vascular clamps, and investigator-designed clamps8,9,10,11,12. Investigators have also used various methods of marking the injury site including suture, carbon particles and fluorescent beads13,14,1. We describe our method to obtain a reproducibly complete sciatic nerve crush with accurate and persistent marking of the crush-site using a fine hemostatic forceps and subsequent carbon crush-site marking. As part of our description of the sciatic nerve crush procedure we have also included a relatively simple method of muscle whole mount we use to subsequently quantify regeneration.

Bauder, Andrew R.; Ferguson, Toby A.

2012-01-01

372

Muscle force recovery after continuous direct current stimulation of a crushed nerve.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to examine whether, after sciatic axonotmesis, continuous low-amplitude direct current stimulation across the nerve crush lesion could affect the overall regeneration rate and shorten the time necessary to restore muscle force. Rats were randomly divided into cathode-stimulated (7 animals with a cathode stimulating electrode at the distal end of the nerve crush), anode-stimulated (6 animals with an anode stimulating electrode at the distal end of the nerve crush) and sham-treated (6 animals) groups. The recovery of muscle force was assessed by measuring the isometric tetanic contraction of the plantar flexor muscles once weekly, for five weeks in all groups. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) among the three groups from the first to the third week after the nerve crush. The cathode-stimulated animals had a statistically significantly enhanced muscle force recovery in the fourth (P = 0.023) and fifth week (P = 0.003) after the nerve crush, when compared to the anode-stimulated and sham-treated groups. From the first to the fifth week after the nerve crush there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in muscle force between the anode-stimulated and sham groups. After axonotmesis, the average ratio of normalized muscle force to normalized body weight in the cathode-stimulated group reached the pre-crush control value in the fourth week following the nerve injury. This ratio was significantly lower all five weeks compared to the initial one before axonotmesis in anode-stimulated and sham-treated groups. Placing the cathode-stimulating electrode at the distal end of the nerve crush seems to have shortened the overall time of muscle force recovery. A possible mechanism for the enhancement of muscle force recovery in the cathode-stimulated group is proposed. PMID:21551664

Ribari?, S; Stefanovska, A; Vodovnik, L; Cvirn, P

1992-01-01

373

Barton Warren Stone: An American Religious Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This biographical sketch of Barton Warren Stone, an early American advocate of the Restoration Movement, describes and interprets some of the innate and environmental factors that must have been to a large measure responsible for his leadership of what has been called the largest indigenous American religious movement. It details some of the

Ulrey, Evan

374

Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

Angulo, E. D.

1983-01-01

375

Modeling and rendering of weathered stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes ap- pearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric ef- fects such as erosion and mineral dissolution. This paper presents an approach for the modeling and

Julie Dorsey; Alan Edelman; Henrik Wann Jensen; Justin Legakis; Hans Khling Pedersen

1999-01-01

376

Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive

Willerton, Chris

2010-01-01

377

Endoscopic management of bile duct stones.  

PubMed

The surgical risk of common duct exploration for the treatment of biliary calculi is considerably higher than that of cholecystectomy. Therefore, introduction of endoscopic sphincterotomy in 1974 was a major advance. It has become the therapy of choice in cholecystectomized patients or in those with an increased operative risk. Endoscopic sphincterotomy has a mortality rate of around 1% and a morbidity rate of 7%. These figures compare favourably with open surgery, especially in old patients. The procedure fails in about 10% of all patients referred for endoscopic removal of their calculi. However, several techniques have been described or are currently under evaluation to overcome these failures: intracorporeal or extracorporeal lithotripsy, long-term stenting of the bile duct, or direct application of solvents. Long-term follow-up studies show that between 2% and 20% of successfully managed patients may develop recurrent stones, mainly caused by bile stasis and infection. Patients with a functioning gall-bladder and no concomitant gall-bladder stones probably do not require cholecystectomy after successful endoscopic treatment of their choledochal stones. While endoscopic stone removal has replaced surgery in the elderly frail patients it has no major advantages in the young and fit patients, especially when the gall-bladder is still in situ. PMID:1611022

Sauerbruch, T

1992-01-01

378

Changing surgical aspects of urinary stone disease.  

PubMed

Surgical management of urinary calculous disease has changed dramatically in the past decade. The development of percutaneous nephrostomy techniques has allowed new access to upper tract stones. Percutaneous removal of large calculi was made possible by the development of ultrasonic and electrohydraulic lithotripsy. All upper tract calculi can now be removed in 70 to 100 per cent of cases with minimal complications. Nephrostolithotomy has reduced transfusion rates and hospitalization costs and has markedly shortened convalescence periods compared with open surgery. Ureteroscopy followed nephrostolithotomy as advanced fiberoptic technology allowed the development of the small-caliber instruments required for this procedure. With experience, successful stone retrieval has occurred in 90 per cent or more of cases, again with minimal complications. As nephrostolithotomy and ureteroscopy have become available, the subspecialty of endourology has emerged and significantly changed the management of urinary tract calculi. Perhaps the most significant advance in stone therapy has been the design and implementation of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. With this noninvasive technique, most renal and proximal ureteral calculi can be effectively treated with minimal morbidity and convalescence. Research in lithotripter design is continuing, with more advanced and effective machines on the horizon. The applicability of extracorporeal therapy for the treatment of biliary tract calculi is currently under investigation. Finally, one should not disparage medical therapy for recurrent nephrolithiasis. A comprehensive metabolic evaluation combined with selective medical therapy provides almost complete relief from recurrent stone formation and makes medical therapy an integral component of treating the patient with renal or ureteral calculi. PMID:3051454

Brown, R D; Preminger, G M

1988-10-01

379

Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

380

Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

381

Building Stones of the U.S.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By examining the NIST Stone wall via the Internet, students will determine the weathering rate of various rocks in the mid-Atlantic region. They will then pick a rock to use in building their "dream house" and justify their choice. Students should have a background in types of rocks.

Mckain, Keith

382

Mssbauer analysis of iron in stone meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of resonant gamma rays by Fe 57 nuclei in stone meteorites produces patterns characteristic of the various iron compounds in the meteorite. By comparison with absorption patterns of terrestrial reference minerals, the meteoritic compounds may be identified and the relative amounts of iron in each mineral determined. The minerals identified in the Plainview meteorite were olivine and pyroxene

E. L. Sprenkel-Segel; S. S. Hanna

1964-01-01

383

Environmental management of the stone cutting industry.  

PubMed

Environmental Management of the stone cutting industry in Hebron is required to reduce the industry's adverse impact on the downstream agricultural land and the adverse impact on the drinking water aquifers. This situation requires the implementation of an industrial wastewater management strategic approach and technology, within the available technical and financial resources. Ten pilot projects at different locations were built at Hebron to reduce or eliminate the incompatible discharge of the liquid and solid waste to the environment and improve the stone cutting industry's effluent quality. A review of existing practices and jar test experiments were used to optimize the water recycling and treatment facilities. The factors reviewed included influent pumping rates and cycles, selection of the optimal coagulant type and addition methods, control of the sludge recycling process, control over flow rates, control locations of influent and effluent, and sludge depth. Based on the optimized doses and Turbidity results, it was determined that the use of Fokland polymer with an optimal dose of 1.5mg/L could achieve the target turbidity levels. The completion of the pilot projects resulted in the elimination of stone cutting waste discharges and an improvement in the recycled effluent quality of 44-99%. This in turn reduced the long term operating costs for each participating firm. A full-scale project that includes all the stone cutting firms in Hebron industrial area is required. PMID:18248874

Nasserdine, Khaled; Mimi, Ziad; Bevan, Blair; Elian, Belal

2009-01-01

384

Ultracal-30 gypsum artificial stones for research on the mechanisms of stone breakage in shock wave lithotripsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial stones are used in research on the mechanisms of stone breakage in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and in assessing lithotripter performance. We have adopted Ultracal-30 gypsum as a model, finding it suitable for SWL studies in vitro, acute animal experiments in which stones are implanted in the kidney, and as a target to compare the in vitro performance of

James A. McAteer; James C. Williams Jr; Robin O. Cleveland; Javier Van Cauwelaert; Michael R. Bailey; David A. Lifshitz; Andrew P. Evan

2005-01-01

385

A model for the crush of polymer-matrix composite tubes  

SciTech Connect

Because of the many variables involved in the fabrication of composites, it is desirable to develop a modeling technique to allow the prediction of crush performance based on a limited number of material properties. The role of mode 1 interlaminar fracture in the crush of composites was studied to determine if a model could be developed to predict its contribution to the crushing process. Laminated strips, with a midplane delamination at the end, were compressed against a crush plate to propagate the delamination crack down the length of the strip. Energy models were developed to account for strain, friction, and mode 1 fracture energies. These models were then evaluated to predict the force required to propagate the crack as a function of crack length. The force and crack length at which the process reached a steady state condition were also predicted. The model was modified to account for mode 2 interlaminar fracture and in-plane fracture that occur in composite tubes undergoing stable crush. Crush force as a function of crack depth was predicted for round tubes. The model predictions for the laminated strips were in excellent agreement with experimental results.

Hulway, J.A.

1991-01-01

386

Characterisation of risk factors for stones in hyperuricosuric men attending a stone clinic.  

PubMed

Hyperuricosuria is common among stone formers, but its significance is uncertain. To progress our understanding and target treatment, we need to identify and characterise patients with uniform underlying pathology. We aimed to identify hyperuricosuric patients with a primary defect in renal urate reabsorption (renal hyperuricosuria) and to look for associated risk factors for stones. We undertook a retrospective cross-sectional database study of 666 male stone formers attending the Southampton stone clinic. We estimated filtered urate from plasma urate and 24-h creatinine clearance, and the net percentage reabsorbed. 153 men had hyperuricosuria (urine urate >4.80mmol/24h); 513 had normouricosuria. Hyperuricosuric men filtered more urate (median 68.1 and 52.5mmol/24h) but the ranges overlapped. Thirty hyperuricosuric men with filtered urate below the median for normouricosuria were selected as the renal hyperuricosuria group. Their normal plasma urate and high urate clearance substantiated this classification. In comparison with 60 normouricosuric stone formers matched for filtration, they had a higher incidence of hypercalciuria (67 versus 40%), but similar, high, frequencies of hyperoxaluria (25 and 11%) and phosphaturia (40 and 27%).There were no differences in age at first stone, incidence of stone recurrence or positive family history (20 and 25%). The findings demonstrate multiple risk factors for stones in this subgroup. In comparison, the 30 hyperuricosuric men with the highest filtration had a higher incidence of hyperoxaluria (58%) but fewer (7%) had a positive family history. Creatinine clearance was raised in 73%. An excessive protein intake might be a major correctable factor underlying these abnormalities. PMID:24894816

Walker, Valerie; Cook, Paul; Griffin, Damian G

2014-08-01

387

Bandwidth aggregation with SCTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a number of modifications to the stream control transmission protocol (SCTP) recently adopted by IETF; they allow bandwidth aggregation over the multiple interfaces of a host. We show that it is possible to implement a number of algorithms for bandwidth aggregation, with only a small number of modifications to the basic SCTP. Our simulation results clearly depict the

Antonios Argyriou; Vijay Madisetti

2003-01-01

388

Erosion of dust aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force, which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 ms-1 and above. Though fractal aggregates as formed during the first growth phase are most susceptible to erosion, we observe erosion of aggregates with rather compact surfaces as well. Conclusions: We find that bombarding a larger target aggregate with small projectiles results in erosion for impact velocities as low as a few ms-1. More compact aggregates suffer less from erosion. With increasing projectile size the transition from accretion to erosion is shifted to higher velocities. This allows larger bodies to grow through high velocity collisions with smaller aggregates.

Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

2013-12-01

389

Weathering of Serpentine Aggregates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the rapid weathering of serpentine aggregates in an autoclave-type device. Samples of serpentine aggregate from three sources were subjected to ten weathering cycles each and the results were compared with the resistance to rapid we...

1965-01-01

390

Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, ). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The disadvantage, besides being more labour intensive than mineral mortars based on ZnCl, is that no specific recipes are yet developed for Lede stone and the result is thus dependent on the knowledge of the restorer. Both of the repair mortars have the problem that Lede stone changes its colour due to ageing while the mortar itself remains colour stable. This means that if the mortar colour was adapted for a resemblance at the moment of application, the colour difference between stone and mortar will increase in time. In this study, the compatibility of the different stone repair mortars with the Lede stone are tested. Further, a study was made whether the mortar recipes can be adapted for a better compatibility. In addition, the effect of glauconite addition in the mortar is studied to resolve the possibility of ageing of the mortar similar to the stone.

De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzn, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

2012-04-01

391

Diversity in Protein Profiles of Individual Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

Calcium oxalate kidney stones contain low amounts of proteins, some of which have been implicated in progression or prevention of kidney stone formation. To gain insights into the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, we have characterized protein components of calcium oxalate kidney stones by proteomic approaches. Proteins extracted from kidney stones showed highly heterogeneous migration patterns in gel electrophoresis as reported. This was likely to be mainly due to proteolytic degradation and protein-protein crosslinking of Tamm-Horsfall protein and prothrombin. Protein profiles of calcium oxalate kidney stones were obtained by in-solution protease digestion followed by nanoLC-MALDI-tandem mass spectrometry, which resulted in identification of a total of 92 proteins in stones from 9 urolithiasis patients. Further analysis showed that protein species and their relative amounts were highly variable among individual stones. Although proteins such as prothrombin, osteopontin, calgranulin A and calgranulin B were found in most stones tested, some samples had high contents of prothrombin and osteopontin, while others had high contents of calgranulins. In addition, calgranulin-rich stones had various neutrophil-enriched proteins such as myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin. These proteomic profiles of individual kidney stones suggest that multiple systems composed of different groups of proteins including leucocyte-derived ones are differently involved in pathogenesis of individual kidney stones depending on situations.

Okumura, Nobuaki; Tsujihata, Masao; Momohara, Chikahiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Suto, Kouzou; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko; Takao, Toshifumi

2013-01-01

392

Risk factors for cholecystectomy in patients with gallbladder stones after endoscopic clearance of common bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCholecystectomy usually is recommended for patients with gallbladder (GB) stones who previously underwent endoscopic removal\\u000a of common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, in practice, many patients still have GB stones after improvement of their biliary\\u000a symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors for cholecystectomy in patients with GB stones after complete endoscopic\\u000a clearance of CBD stones.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsFrom August 2003

Kang-Moon Lee; Chang Nyol Paik; Woo Chul Chung; Jin Dong Kim; Cheong Rok Lee; Jin Mo Yang

2009-01-01

393

Laparoscopic Stone Surgery With the Aid of Flexible Nephroscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the outcome of laparoscopic pyelo- and ureterolithotomies with the aid of flexible nephroscopy. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 71 patients with complex renal stones or large and impacted proximal ureteral stones. Patients underwent laparoscopic pyelo- or ureterolithotomies with or without the removal of small residual stones by use of flexible nephroscopy between July 2005 and July 2010. Operative success was defined as no residual stones in the intravenous pyelogram at 12 weeks postoperatively. Perioperative results and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results The patients' mean age was 54.713.7 years, and 53 males (74.6%) and 18 females (25.4%) were included. The mean maximal stone size was 19.49.4 mm. A total of 47 cases were complex renal stones and 24 cases were impacted ureteral stones. Mean operative time was 139.063.7 minutes. Stones were completely removed in 61 cases (85.9%), and no further ancillary treatment was needed for clinically insignificant residual fragments in 7 cases (9.9%). For complex renal stones, the complete stone-free rate and clinically significant stone-free rate were 80.9% and 93.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of flexible nephroscopy for complex renal stones can reduce the risk of residual stones. A major complication occurred in one case, in which open conversion was performed. Conclusions Laparoscopic stone surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure with a high success rate, especially with the aid of flexible nephroscopy, and is not associated with procedure-specific complications.

Jung, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Jeong, Hyeon; Son, Hwancheol; Woo, Seung Hyo; Kim, Dae Kyung; Min, Sun-Ho; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Hyeon-Hoe

2014-01-01

394

Gaussian Multiscale Aggregation Applied to Segmentation in Hand Biometrics  

PubMed Central

This paper presents an image segmentation algorithm based on Gaussian multiscale aggregation oriented to hand biometric applications. The method is able to isolate the hand from a wide variety of background textures such as carpets, fabric, glass, grass, soil or stones. The evaluation was carried out by using a publicly available synthetic database with 408,000 hand images in different backgrounds, comparing the performance in terms of accuracy and computational cost to two competitive segmentation methods existing in literature, namely Lossy Data Compression (LDC) and Normalized Cuts (NCuts). The results highlight that the proposed method outperforms current competitive segmentation methods with regard to computational cost, time performance, accuracy and memory usage.

de Santos Sierra, Alberto; Avila, Carmen Sanchez; Casanova, Javier Guerra; del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador

2011-01-01

395

Truck Escape Ramp Aggregate Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Performance of aggregate in various truck escape ramps in Colorado was monitored over a 2 year period. Samples were obtained and their distributions were determined. Freezing of aggregate during the winter months is closely related to the aggregate contam...

M. Derakhshandeh

1985-01-01

396

Photmicrography of urinary deposits in stone clinic.  

PubMed

The importance of routine urine deposit study has not been projected satisfactorily in literature. This paper analyses the findings of urine microscopy of urinary stone patients who attended the stone clinic. A total number of 800 patients who attended the urinary stone clinic during the years 2005-2007 were selected for the study. Each patient had two samples of urine studied; early morning urine (EMU) and random. The patients were classified into different groups as proved stone patients (304), colic patients (289) and crystalluria patients (207). They were further classified as pre-treatment group and post-treatment group. The patients had chemotherapy depending on the biochemical abnormalities. The urine samples were centrifuged and the deposits examined under the low-power and high-power magnifications of the binocular microscope. The appropriate fields were photographed using a micro-photographic camera. 23% of the urinary samples studied contained deposits (36% of the EMU and 16% of the random samples). The most common deposits were red blood cells (RBC) (17%), pus cells (PC) (13%), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals (7%), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals (11%), uric acid crystals (2%), amorphous phosphates (1%), epithelial cells (13%) and sperms (7%). The unusual deposits included ammonium urate and cystine. Comparison of the results of deposits with those of 473 deposits from other laboratories showed that the present reports showed much more deposits than the outside ones. Deposits were more in the male patients (25%) compared to the females (19%). 83% of the patients with significant deposits had symptoms at the time of collection of sample, while 17% were not symptomatic. Among the patients with crystals, 53% had RBC associated and 49% had PC. RBCs were seen most in the COD crystal group. PC alone were seen in 2% and all were females. Percentage of urinary deposits was more in the pre-treatment group (32%) than in the post-treatment group (17%). Extent of crystalluria was more in the colic group (38%) compared to the crystalluria (22%) and stone (13%) groups. It is concluded from the study that accurate assessment of the urinary stone patient lies in a proper microscopic evaluation. It is mandatory that EMU should be examined as there is greater chance of identifying crystals and other deposits. Centrifuged deposits showed more deposits and these should be standards in urine examination. Regular urine deposit examination should be performed in all patients coming for follow-up. PMID:19834702

Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya

2009-12-01

397

In vitro studies on the role of glycosaminoglycans in crystallization intensity during infectious urinary stones formation.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis cause urinary tract infections which are recurrent and can lead to formation of urinary calculi. Both bacterial and the host factors are involved in the development of urolithiasis. To determine the impact of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the formation of P.mirabilis-induced urinary stones, we investigated the in vitro crystallization, aggregation and adhesion of crystals in the presence of GAGs naturally appearing in urine. Crystallization experiments were performed in synthetic urine infected with P.mirabilis in the presence of: hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate A, B and C (ChSA, ChSB, ChSC). The intensity of crystallization and aggregation were established by counting particles and phase-contrast microscopy. To analyze the adhesion of crystals, we used normal urothelium and (45) Ca isotope-labeled crystals. In the presence of ChSC, both the size of the crystals formed and their number were higher compared with the control. GAGs increased crystals adhesion to the cells, but only for ChSA this effect was significant. Chondroitin sulfates, which accelerate the first stages of infection-induced stones formation, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24164670

Torzewska, Agnieszka; R?alski, Antoni

2014-06-01

398

Tableting characteristics of micro-aggregated egg albumin particles containing paracetamol.  

PubMed

The tableting characteristics of micro-aggregated egg albumin particles containing paracetamol were evaluated and compared with non-micro-encapsulated paracetamol and coagulated egg albumin particles. Mean yield pressure values of micro-aggregated egg albumin particles containing paracetamol and coagulated egg albumin particles were 30.5 and 49.3 MPa, respectively, which were lower than the mean yield pressure obtained for paracetamol (97.5 MPa). Paracetamol tablets obtained with micro-aggregated egg albumin particles did not show the capping characteristic of conventional paracetamol tablets. Crushing strength of paracetamol tablets obtained with egg micro-aggegated particles was similar to that obtained using paracetamol granulated with povidone and gelatin as binders at 3 and 6% (w/w) concentrations. Drug release from the paracetamol tablets depends on the choice of excipients. Crospovidone showed good protective characteristics for the tableting of micro-aggregated particles. Crushing strength of paracetamol tablets formed from egg albumin-coated particles could be increased using crospovidone or microcrystalline cellulose as fillers and was decreased by the use of magnesium stearate. Nevertheless, magnesium stearate was useful to decrease the ejection force. PMID:7602464

Torrado-Durn, J J; Torrado, S; Cadrniga, R; Augsburger, L L

1995-02-01

399

A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared to caliper measurements. A 10-MHz, 10-french ultrasound transducer probe was used to send an ultrasound pulse and receive ultrasound reflections from the stone using two methods. In Method 1 the instrument was aligned over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. The time between reflections from the proximal and the distal surface of the stone were used along with the sound speed to calculate the stone size. Although the sound speed varied between stones, it was unlikely to be known during surgery and thus was estimated at 3000 m/s for calculations. In Method 2 the instrument was aligned partially over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through water with a sound speed of 1481 m/s. Time was determined between the reflection from the proximal stone surface and the reflection from the tissue phantom on which the stone rested. Methods 1 and 2 were compared by linear regression to caliper measurements of the size of 19 human stones of 3 different stone types. Accuracy was measured by the difference of the mean ultrasound and mean caliper measurement and precision was measured as the standard deviation in the ultrasound measurements. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper-determined stone size and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2 = 0.71 (p<0.0001). In all but two stones accuracy and precision were less than 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.0001) and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. We conclude that the prototype device and either method measure stone size with good accuracy.

Sorensen, Mathew D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Bailey, Michael R.

2008-09-01

400

Analysis of renal stones by capillary isotachophoresis.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of the composition of renal stones by capillary isotachophoresis with conductometric detection was developed. Using different leading/terminating electrolyte systems, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds (urate, xanthate, oxalate) and inorganic ions (phosphate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), NH(4)(+)) species commonly present in mixed renal stones in three separate steps can be carried out with limits of detection about 10 ?mol/L. The developed method was validated by the analysis of real samples and can be used for urinary calculi classification. In addition, it was verified that this method can also be employed for the determination of the above mentioned analytes in some other samples (bones, teeth) concerning apatite biominerals (fluoro-, carbonate-, chloro-apatite). PMID:22939127

Jarolmov, Zde?ka; Lubal, P?emysl; Kanick, Viktor

2012-08-30

401

PBS-Nova: America's Stone Age Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nova website asks the question: "Who were the first Americans, and where did they come from?" The site was designed to accompany a Nova program about America's Stone Age Explorers that aired on November 9, 2004. The site provides a transcript of the program; a brief article discussing the disappearance of many large mammals around 13,000 years ago; a photographic exhibit of 10 expertly-crafted stone Clovis tools from the Fenn Cache; a map that shows potential pre-Clovis sites in North America; and an interactive matching game that examines early human artifacts. The site also links to a brief, downloadable Teacher's Guide that includes a Program Overview, Classroom Activity, and Viewing Ideas.

402

Fish Aggregating Device (FAD).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Fisherman have long known that tuna aggregate around floating objects such as logs, masses of drifting seaweed, and other flotsam. They have used this knowledge when...

1984-01-01

403

Are stone analysis results different with repeated sampling?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We assessed differences in results of stone analyses on subsequent sampling. Methods: A retrospective review of patients with stone analyses at a tertiary stone centre between March 2006 and July 2012 was performed. All stones were analyzed at a centralized laboratory using infrared spectroscopy. Patients were grouped according to the first predominant stone type on record, as defined by the predominant stone component of at least 60%. Stone groups included calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaP), uric acid (UA), cystine, struvite, mixed CaOx-CaP and mixed CaOx-UA. All patients had a full metabolic stone workup. Results: Of the 303 patients with stone analyses, 118 (38.9%) patients had multiple stone analyses. The mean age was 53.4 15.1 years, and 87 (73.7%) were males. Of the 118, the initial stone analysis showed 43 CaOx, 38 CaP, 21 UA, 4 CaOx-CaP, 2 CaOx-UA, 6 cystine, and 4 struvite. There was a different stone composition in 25 (21.2%) patients with a median time delay of 64.5 days. Different compositions were found in 7 CaOx (to 3 CaP, 2 CaOx-CaP, and 2 UA), 5 CaP (to 3 CaOx and 2 CaOx-CaP), 3 UA (to 3 CaOx), 4 CaOx-CaP (to 2CaOx, 1 UA and 1 CaP), 2 CaOx-UA (to 2 CaOx) and 4 struvite (to 3 CaP and 1 UA). Conclusions: Stone composition was different in 21.2% of patients on subsequent analyses.

Lee, Terence T. N.; Elkoushy, Mohamed A.; Andonian, Sero

2014-01-01

404

Preparation of charcoal from cherry stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cherry stones (CS) are carbonised at 400-1000 C for 0-4 h in N 2 and the charcoals obtained are characterised to gain information about their chemical composition and porous texture, with a view to their use in the preparation of activated carbon. Depending on the heating conditions, the products obtained may possess a low ash content and a high fixed carbon content and are essentially microporous and macroporous solids.

Durn-Valle, Carlos J.; Gmez-Corzo, Manuel; Gmez-Serrano, Vicente; Pastor-Villegas, Jos; Rojas-Cervantes, Mara L.

2006-06-01

405

Renal effects of percutaneous stone removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preoperative and postoperative renography with 99mTechnetium-diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid was performed on 33 patients who were free of renal scarring, infection, and obstruction and who underwent percutaneous renal stone removal. Although there was a transient decrease in renal function postoperatively in some patients, statistically significant reductions in renal function occurred only in 1 patient with an arteriovenous malformation that was embolized

Majid Eshghi; Robert G. Schiff; Arthur D. Smith

1989-01-01

406

The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail  

PubMed Central

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Cinegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures.

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; Garcia de Leon, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

2012-01-01

407

Blood-nerve barrier: ultrastructural and endothelial surface charge alterations following nerve crush.  

PubMed

Nerve crush results in an enhanced vascular permeability of the endoneurial vessels distal to the lesion. Vascular permeability at the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) to serum proteins is influenced by many factors, including anionic surface charge, endothelial vesicular transcytosis and the presence or absence of fenestrated vessels. Using mice and rats, the present ultrastructural investigation examined the effect of nerve crush (axonotmesis) on: (1) the distribution of endothelial anionic sites and (2) the appearance of fenestrations in endoneurial vessels after 4 and 14 day intervals as demonstrated with cationic probes. Transient anionic fenestrations developed in a minority of mouse endoneurial vessels in 4-day crushed nerves, but were not found in 14-day crushed nerves of mice nor in crushed nerves of rats. The known increase in the permeability of endoneurial vessels in rats and mice was not associated with reduced luminal labelling with cationic ferritin at physiological pH. At pH 2.0 the labelling of glycocalyx moieties (such as sialic acid) with cationic colloidal gold was disrupted in some epi- and endoneurial vessels of 4-day rats, but in a greater proportion after 14 days. The enhanced permeability of the BNB during degeneration and regeneration is related to the formation of anionic fenestrations in endoneurial vessels of mice and to the reduced and uneven distribution of endothelial glycocalyx moieties that are anionic at pH 2.0 in rats. PMID:8474598

Bush, M S; Reid, A R; Allt, G

1993-02-01

408

Effects of crush and axotomy on oxidative stress and some trace element levels in phrenic nerve of rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effect of crush and axotomy on oxidative stress and some trace element levels in phrenic nerve of rats. Eighteen male Wistar-albino rats were divided randomly into three groups, each consisting of 6 rats. The animals in the first group were not crushed or axotomized and served as control. Phrenic nerves of the animals in the second and third groups were crushed and axotomized, respectively. Animals in all groups were sacrificed one week after the crush or axotomy, and degenerated phrenic nerves were harvested for the determination of tissue oxidative stress and trace element levels. Lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde and antioxidant glutathione levels increased in both crushed and axotomized phrenic nerves. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in crushed and axotomized phrenic nerves than in controls. The levels of Fe, Pb, Mn, Cd and Co increased, and Mg and Cu levels decreased in crushed phrenic nerves. The levels of Fe and Mg decreased, Pb and Co levels increased in axotomized phrenic nerves. It was concluded that crushing or axotomizing the phrenic nerves may produce oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation and decreasing antioxidant enzyme activities. It was also concluded that while crush to phrenic nerves causes accumulation of minerals, axotomizing phrenic nerves causes depletion of minerals in the tissues. PMID:21803127

Say?r, Fuat; Kavak, Servet; Meral, Ismail; Demir, Halit; Cengiz, Nurettin; Cobano?lu, Ufuk

2013-03-01

409

Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.  

PubMed

Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most significant factors directly effecting the formation of stones are water, climate conditions, food rich in protein and rich in different chemicals. Moreover, some drugs and diseases might also help in developing other stones. PMID:18064405

Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

2008-10-01

410

Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

2009-08-01

411

Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

Coe, Fredric L.

2007-04-01

412

Characteristics of crushed rocks observed in drilled cores in landslide bodies located in accretionary complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of high-quality boring, which uses foam surfactants, has made it possible to examine the detailed geological constitution and structure of landslide bodies. However, geological information related to landslides has not been obtained appropriately even from undisturbed high-quality drilled cores. Moreover, it has been difficult to distinguish between rocks crushed by landslide movement and the fault breccia in accretionary complexes. We examined the detailed geology of high-quality drilled cores of landslide bodies on the Shimanto Belt and the Chichibu Belt. The fault breccia near the landslide bodies was found to exhibit planar fabrics while the crushed breccias in the landslide bodies showed a random fabric. We discovered that classifying the degree of crushing and inspecting the planar fabrics of rocks are effective in the geological determination of landslide bodies.

Wakizaka, Yasuhiko

2013-10-01

413

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2013-09-17

414

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

2013-10-02

415

WPW syndrome: the 'Rosetta stone' of rhythmology. The history of the Rosetta stone.  

PubMed

Prior to the 'discovery' of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, interpreting the respective phenomena was akin to reading hieroglyphic characters; thus a clear pathophysiological understanding and practical clinical diagnosis were impossible. The epochal work by Wolff, Parkinson, and White, which resulted in the electrophysiologically correct interpretation of circus movements as the cause of tachycardic rhythm disorders, can therefore indeed be compared to the deciphering of hieroglyphic writing by Champollion in 1822 with the aid of the Rosetta stone. After intensive archaeological and graphological examinations by the Society of Antiquaries, the Rosetta stone finally made its way to the British Museum, where it can still be viewed and admired today. PMID:19131345

Lderitz, Berndt

2009-03-01

416

Marine Stone Columns to Prevent Earthquake Induced Soil Liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ports and other near shore structures expanding, and regions previously not considered prone to earthquakes being re-classified\\u000a after recent earthquake events, ground improvement by stone columns is increasingly considered to improve loose or soft in situ soils. The Dry Bottom Feed Stone Column construction technique can be used under water if a double-lock stone delivery system\\u000a is attached to

Azm S. Al-Homoud; Wilhelm S. Degen

2006-01-01

417

Design method and performance for large stone porous asphalt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design method for large stone porous asphalt mixtures (LSPM) was analyzed to avoid the early distresses of semi-rigid asphalt\\u000a pavements. Based on stone-to-stone skeleton structure concept, processes of LSPM gradation design was given. The gradation\\u000a composite design for LSPM shows that the LSPM nominal maximum size (NMS) should be larger than 26.5 mm, and the NMS sieve\\u000a passing percentage should

Yongli Zhao; Xiaoming Huang

2010-01-01

418

Effect of verapamil on urinary stone-forming risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of recurrent stone formation will only be possible with careful metabolic evaluation and appropriate management.\\u000a In this present prospective study, a total of 95 patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease were evaluated with respect\\u000a to the effects of a calcium channel blocking agent (verapamil) therapy on stone-forming risk factors. A total of 95 patients\\u000a with CaOx urolithiasis were

Kemal Sarica; Sakip Erturhan; Bulent Altay

2007-01-01

419

Dietary risk factors for hyperoxaluria in calcium oxalate stone formers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary risk factors for hyperoxaluria in calcium oxalate stone formers.BackgroundHyperoxaluria is a major predisposing factor in calcium oxalate urolithiasis. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and to assess dietary risk factors for hyperoxaluria in calcium oxalate stone patients.MethodsDietary intakes of 186 calcium oxalate stone formers, 93 with hyperoxaluria

Roswitha Siener; Dagmar Ebert; Claudia Nicolay; Albrecht Hesse

2003-01-01

420

The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates has been studied. The following waste materials were investigated: silica sludge, superfluous clay in the quarry, waste glass, and residue from the polishing process of different types of stone. SiC and MnO2 were selected as foaming agents. Feldspar containing minerals and scrap glass were added in order to

V. Ducman; B. Mirti?

2009-01-01

421

Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash  

DOEpatents

Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

Boyle, Michael J. (Aston, PA)

1994-01-01

422

Percutaneous Salvage of Crushed Bilateral Aorto-Iliac Stents: Case Report  

SciTech Connect

There are multiple reports of externally deformed or crimped intravascular stents. Percutaneous salvage has been described in multiple anatomic locations including the carotid artery,coronary artery bypass grafts, and hemodialysis conduits. We report successful percutaneous salvage of severely crushed aortoiliac stents in a patient status post low anterior resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy for rectal carcinoma. A review of the literature describing approaches to externally deformed stents in other anatomic regions, the limited experience with crushed iliac stents, and our technique is presented.

Soares, Gregory M.; Coiner, Leonard G.; Gunlock, Michael G. [Department of Radiology, WilfordHall Medical Center, 2200 Bergquist Drive, Suite 1, Lackland Air Force Base, TX 78236-5300 (United States); Hagino, Ryan T. [Department of Vascular Surgery, Wilford Hall Medical Center, 2200 Bergquist Drive, Suite 1, Lackland Air Force Base, TX 78236-5300 (United States)

2002-12-15

423

The Stone Wall Initiative: Grades 3-5 Curricula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum includes lessons and activities which are grounded in the children's book 'Stone Wall Secrets' as well as in New England's abundance of stone walls. Many students are familiar with stone walls in their neighborhoods and are afforded instances in which they may delve into essential questions regarding the walls, the stones they are made from, and the history associated with their construction. The curriculum includes a set of lessons with national content standard alignments for each one, accompanied by worksheets, a teacher's kit, a teacher's reference, links to related texts, and some sample student work.

424

Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

1997-01-01

425

The effect of indwelling endoprosthesis on stone size or fragmentation after long-term treatment with biliary stenting for large stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Endoscopic biliary stenting is often used for large or difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones, but the effect of indwelling endoprosthesis on size or fragmentation of stones after long-term treatment with biliary stenting has not been formally established. We compared the stone size or fragmentation of common bile duct stones after a long period of biliary stenting. Methods: Endoscopic

P. Katsinelos; I. Galanis; I. Pilpilidis; G. Paroutoglou; P. Tsolkas; B. Papaziogas; S. Dimiropoulos; E. Kamperis; D. Katsiba; M. Kalomenopoulou; A. Papagiannis

2003-01-01

426

Long Range Interpretive Plan: Thomas Stone National Historic Site, March 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Thomas Stone National Historical Site exists to preserve, interpret, and support research directly linked to the on-site resources of Thomas Stone's Port Tobacco home, Haberdeventure, particularly as they relate to Stone's decision to sign the Declara...

2005-01-01

427

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330.302 Section 330.302...REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302...

2010-01-01

428

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in...REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301...

2010-01-01

429

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in...REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301...

2009-01-01

430

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330.302 Section 330.302...REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302...

2009-01-01

431

"Azul Platino": another Spanish natural stone to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several granites are quarried in Extremadura, Spain, with very good aesthetic and physic and mechanical characteristics. "Azul Platino" has a striking bluish colour and its properties make this granite a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. This granite has been used for centuries, first in the architectonic heritage of the extraction surrounding area, but afterwards in many important projects in Spain, Europe and all around the world: La Guardia Airport (NYC, USA), Yokohama Bridge (Tokyo, Japan), European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium), Planetarium (Valencia, Spain), Tenerife Auditorium (Tenerife, Spain), Suntec City (Singapore), MTR Kowlonn Station (Hong Kong), O'Connel Street (Dublin, Ireland), .... One important characteristic of this natural stone is the low radon exhalation that all the varieties, including the more weathered ones, show. For being a granite, this is an important characteristic for its use, both in interior and exterior use. But "Azul Platino" accomplishes all requirements to be considered as a nominee for Global Heritage Stone Resource consideration. Together with other local natural stones, it could be part as well of a Global Heritage Stone Province nomination.

Jos Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

2014-05-01

432

Local isotropic\\/global orthotropic finite element technique for modeling the crush of wood in impact limiters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood is often used as the energy absorbing material in impact limiters, because it begins to crush at low strains, then maintains a near constant crush stress up to nearly 60 percent volume reduction, and there ''locks up.'' Hill has performed tests that show how wood is one of the best absorbers of energy per pound. However, wood's orthotropic behavior

S. W. Attaway; H. R. Yoshimura

1989-01-01

433

The protective effects of Achyranthes bidentata polypeptides in an experimental model of mouse sciatic nerve crush injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have separated the active polypeptides from aqueous extracts of Achyranthes bidentata Blume (ABPP), a commonly prescribed Chinese medicinal plant with a range of pharmaceutical properties. We investigated the effects of ABPP administration on peripheral nerve regeneration in a mouse sciatic nerve crush injury model. After nerve crush, the mice received daily tail vein injections of 1, 4, and 16mg\\/kg

Ying Yuan; Hongmei Shen; Jian Yao; Nan Hu; Fei Ding; Xiaosong Gu

2010-01-01

434

Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transiting exoplanets (TEPs) observed just ~10 Myrs after formation of their host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation theories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet formation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10 Myrs), the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by gravitational collapse (being larger when young) or accretion growth (being smaller when young). We present a survey, the main goal of which is to find and then characterise TEPs in very young open clusters.

Maciejewski, G.; Neuhuser, R.; Errmann, R.; Mugrauer, M.; Adam, Ch.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Fiedler, S.; Ginski, Ch.; Hohle, M.; Kramm, U.; Marka, C.; Moualla, M.; Pribulla, T.; Raetz, St.; Roell, T.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Seeliger, M.; Spaleniak, I.; Tetzlaff, N.; Trepl, L.

2011-02-01

435

George chester stone (1924-2013).  

PubMed

George Chester Stone was born February 21, 1924, and died on July 13, 2013. A quiet revolutionary, George was a founder of the field of health psychology. George played critical roles conceptualizing the field of health psychology, charting its bounds and potential, promulgating guidelines for training, founding the first doctoral program in health psychology, editing influential volumes defining the new field, launching the flagship journal for the field, and establishing a home for the field within APA. He was able to accomplish all this through his talent for working collaboratively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25046719

Adler, Nancy

2014-01-01

436

Exploring the building stones of downtown Seattle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most introductory geology students have experience identifying hand-sized rock samples in the lab, but never get to see bigger rock exposures outside the classroom. This activity includes takes students to downtown Seattle, where they observe the geology of the building stones within a few blocks of campus. The exercise exposes students to large, polished rock samples in an area where they are familiar, but might not have noticed the rocks before. For students on urban campuses or online geology classes with a limited amount of lab time this is a useful activity.

Gualtieri, Lyn

437

Pollution-fueled `biodeterioration` threatens historic stone  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms appear to pose as great a threat to historic buildings, monuments, and statues as does acid precipitation, according to recent research findings. Air pollution from urban and industrial growth may be fueling these microbes and speeding the deterioration of venerated artworks and cultural treasures in many parts of the world - the Taj Mahal in India; the Acropolis and the Delos Sanctuary in Greece; stone Buddhas in Japan; cathedrals in Europe; and ancient temples in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Central America. This paper reports research being done in this field. 8 refs.

Young, P.

1996-05-01

438

Recycling of construction debris as aggregate in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available substitutes for natural aggregate in many areas. This paper presents an overview of factors that affect recycled aggregate cost, availability, and engineering performance, and the results of a survey of business practices in the Mid-Atlantic region. For RAP, processing costs are less than those for virgin natural aggregate. Use of efficient asphalt pavement stripping technology, on-site reclamation, and linked two-way transport of asphalt debris and processed asphalt paving mix between asphalt mix plants and paving sites has led to extensive recycling of asphalt pavement in the Mid-Atlantic region of the US. Most of the sites that recycle asphalt pavement (RAP) are located in or near urban areas close to important transportation corridors. RPCC is a viable aggregate source in urban settings where unit costs for processed aggregate from RPCC and natural aggregate are comparable. Disposal fees charged at RPCC recycling sites help defray processing costs and the significantly lower tipping fees at recycling sites versus landfill disposal sites encourage recycling of construction debris as aggregate. Construction contractors and construction debris recycling centers, many of which have the ability to crush and process concrete debris at the job site, produce most RPCC. Production of RPCC aggregate from construction debris that is processed on site using portable equipment moved to the construction site eliminates transportation costs for aggregate and provides an economic incentive for RPCC use. Processing costs, quality and performance issues, and lack of large quantities where needed limit RPCC use. Most RPCC suppliers in the Mid-Atlantic area are located in counties with population densities greater than 400 people/km2 (1036 people/mile2) and that have high unit-value costs and limited local availability of natural aggregate. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Robinson, Jr. , G. R.; Menzie, W. D.; Hyun, H.

2004-01-01

439

Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt  

SciTech Connect

Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

Brodsky, N.S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1994-03-01

440

Precision of reinnervation of original postsynaptic sites in frog muscle after a nerve crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Regenerating neuromuscular junctions in the cutaneous pectoris muscle of the frog were examined by light and electron microscopy up to three months after crushing the motor nerve. The aim was to determine the precision of reinnervation of the original synaptic sites. More than 95% of the original postsynaptic membrane is recovered by nerve terminals and little, if any, synaptic

M. S. Letinsky; K. H. Fischbeck; U. J. McMahan

1976-01-01

441

Uniaxial crushing of sandwich plates under air blast: Influence of mass distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by recent efforts to mitigate blast loading using energy-absorbing materials, this paper uses analytical and computational modeling to investigate the influence of mass distribution on the uniaxial crushing of cellular sandwich plates under air blast loading. In the analytical model, the cellular core is represented using a rigid, perfectly-plastic, locking idealization, as in previous studies, and the front and

Joseph A. Main; George A. Gazonas

2008-01-01

442

Calcanisation of tibia using Ilizarov fixator in crush injuries of hindfoot: a new method.  

PubMed

Crush injuries of the foot are one of the most difficult and challenging tasks for a trauma surgeon to manage in terms of limb salvage and provision of a painless functional foot. Injuries to the foot, especially the hindfoot, account for almost 24.6% of all the warfare injuries in Afghanistan, of which more than 70% end in amputation for various reasons. We devised a method using the principles of Ilizarov's distraction osteosynthesis to salvage limbs with bony defects in the hindfoot which otherwise were candidates for amputation. The procedure is done in two stages. Initially, the ring fixator is applied for the soft tissue reconstruction and infection control, and the next stage consists of percutaneous "inverted L"-shaped osteotomy in the posterior half of the lower tibia. The study included 32 patients with hindfoot crush injuries involving talus, calcaneum, a combination of both, or even involving the adjacent tarsal bones. All these crush injuries were classified using the Gustilo and Anderson classification. The postoperative functional assessment of the feet was done using the Maryland Foot Score system with a minimum follow-up of four years. We had good results in 53%, fair in 34% and failure in 13% of our cases. The complications of this procedure were the same as with the use of the ring fixator elsewhere in the body. This method provides a technique to salvage the foot and produce a painless, stable, fused foot in one of the most difficult settings of a hindfoot crush injury. PMID:17639385

Wardak, Mussa; Wardak, Emal; Goel, Akshay

2008-12-01

443

Visual simulation for granular rocks crush in virtual environment based on fractal geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new method is proposed for the simulation of rock crushing in virtual environment. The method can be described as a combination of a physical behavioral model with a phenomenological rock generator. The main modules of the solution consist of a Virtual Reality system, fractal geometric modeling, and physical control models. Virtual Reality and geometric modeling compose

Dianliang Wu; Yong Hu; Xiumin Fan

2009-01-01

444

Neovascularization occurs in response to crush lesions of adult frog optic nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The capacity of the adult frog optic nerve to regenerate following a crush lesion is well established and is in contrast to the lack of regeneration of mammalian optic nerves after similar lesions. One factor which may contribute to the enhanced regenerative capacity of amphibian optic nerves is the rapid removal of cellular debris from the nerve after injury.

F. J. Liuzzi; R. H. Miller

1990-01-01

445

Processes of the Collision Interaction between Ceramic Particles Being Crushed in a Circulation Pneumatic Crusher  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new circulation pneumatic crusher capable of producing submicron powders of refractory materials is presented. A mathematical model is constructed for the dynamic breaking of ceramic macroparticles. This model allows the basic laws of shock-wave crushing in the circulation pneumatic apparatus to be analyzed.

N. N. Belov; Yu. A. Biryukov; A. T. Roslyak; N. T. Yugov; S. A. Afanaseva

2005-01-01

446

Static and dynamic roof crush simulation using LS-DYNA3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-static roof crush simulations based on FMVSS 216 have been carried out successfully on a small European car, and different loading conditions have been tested. Results show that bonded windscreens contribute at least 30% of roof strength based on FMVSS 216. This confirms experimental test results carried out by other researchers. Furthermore, results show that the roll and pitch angles

M. Mao; E. C. Chirwa; T. Chen; J. Latchford

2004-01-01

447

Identification of Lotus Rhizobia by Direct DNA Hybridization of Crushed Root Nodules  

PubMed Central

Hybridization of crushed Lotus pedunculatus root nodules with 32P-labeled total genomic DNA probes was used to identify Rhizobium loti and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus rhizobia). Probes always hybridized with homologous target DNA and frequently with DNAs of other strains from the same genus. Intergeneric hybridization did not occur. Results were comparable to those from colony hybridization. Images

Cooper, J. E.; Bjourson, A. J.; Thompson, J. K.

1987-01-01

448

Identification of lotus rhizobia by direct DNA hybridization of crushed root nodules.  

PubMed

Hybridization of crushed Lotus pedunculatus root nodules with P-labeled total genomic DNA probes was used to identify Rhizobium loti and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus rhizobia). Probes always hybridized with homologous target DNA and frequently with DNAs of other strains from the same genus. Intergeneric hybridization did not occur. Results were comparable to those from colony hybridization. PMID:16347400

Cooper, J E; Bjourson, A J; Thompson, J K

1987-07-01

449

Solitary Unicameral Bone Cyst: Treatment with Freeze-Dried Crushed Cortical-Bone Allograft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One hundred and forty-four solitary bone cysts were treated by curettage and packing with freeze-dried crushed cortical-bone allograft. One hundred and eight healed primarily. There was a higher rate of recurrence in young patients (less than ten years ol...

K. F. Spence R. W. Bright S. P. Fitzgerald K. W. Sell

1976-01-01

450

EMISSIONS FROM THE CRUSHED GRANITE INDUSTRY: STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed granite industry. The potential environmental effect of this emission source was evaluated using source severity, defined as the ratio of the maximum time-averaged ground level concentration of a pollutant at...

451

Identification of Lotus rhizobia by direct DNA hybridization of crushed root nodules  

SciTech Connect

Hybridization of crushed Lotus pedunculatus root nodules with /sup 32/P-labeled total genomic DNA probes was used to identify Rhizobium loti and Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lotus rhizobia). Probes always hybridized with homologous target DNA and frequency with DNAs of other strains from the same genus. Intergeneric hybridization did not occur. Results were comparable to those from colony hybridization.

Cooper, J.E.; Bjourson, A.J.; Thompson, J.K.

1987-07-01

452

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Iowa: Worker Crushed in Rubber Tire Assembly Machine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the fall of 2000, a 46-year-old worker at a tire assembly plant was caught and crushed in a tire assembly machine. The machine was making prototype agricultural tires, which differ significantly in assembly procedure from other tires manufactured a...

2002-01-01

453

Quasi-static axial and lateral crushing of radial corrugated composite tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the effect of corrugation geometry on the crushing behavior, energy absorption, failure mechanism, and failure mode of woven roving glass fibre\\/epoxy laminated composite tube. Experimental investigations were carried out on three geometrical different types of composite tubes subjected to axial and lateral compressive loadings. On the addition to a radial corrugated composite tube, cylindrical composite tube, and

Elfetori F. Abdewi; Shamsuddeen Sulaiman; A. M. S. Hamouda; E. Mahdi

2008-01-01

454

Experimental investigation of strain rate effects on the crushing characteristics of composite sandwich panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the influence of strain rate on the collapse modes, the crushing mechanisms and the energy absorption characteristics of four types of composite sandwich panels was investigated in a series of impact and static in-plane tests. The tested sandwich specimens were formed combining two types of glass fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) faceplate laminates with three types of

A. G. Mamalis; D. P. Papapostolou

2010-01-01

455

A numerical study on the axial crushing response of hybrid pultruded and 45 braided tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive numerical investigation was carried out to evaluate the response and energy absorbing capacity of hybrid composite tubes made of unidirectional pultruded tube over wrapped with 45 braided fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The numerical simulation characterized the crushing behaviors of these tubes subject to both quasi-static compression and axial dynamic impact loadings. Two types of braided FRP, glass and carbon

Haipeng Han; Farid Taheri; Neil Pegg; You Lu

2007-01-01