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Sample records for crushed stone aggregate

  1. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

  2. Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engidasew, Tesfaye Asresahagne; Barbieri, Giulio

    2014-11-01

    The geology of the central part of Ethiopia exhibits a variety of rock types that can potentially be developed for construction stone production, of which the most wide spread and important one is the Termaber basalt. Even though some preliminary work is done on these rocks towards construction material application, it remains largely that this resource is untouched and needs further scientific characterization for the use in large scale industrial application. Basaltic rocks have been widely used in many parts of the world as concrete aggregate and dimension stone for various civil structures. The present research study was carried out for Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (around Debre Birhan). The main objective of the present research study was to assess the general suitability of the Termaber basalt to be used as coarse aggregate for concrete mix and/or to utilize it as cut stone at industrial level. Only choice made with full knowledge of the basic characteristics of the material, of its performance and durability against the foreseen solicitations will ensure the necessary quality of the stone work and thereby a possibility to reach its intended service life. In order to meet out the objective of the present study, data from both field and laboratory were collected and analyzed. The field data included geological investigations based on different methods and sample collection while the laboratory work included, uniaxial compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic elasticity modulus, bulk density, water absorption, specific gravity, open porosity, aggregate impact value, petrographic examination and XRF, aggregate crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion value, sodium sulfate soundness, X-ray diffraction and alkali silica reactivity tests. The field and laboratory data were compiled and compared together to reveal the engineering performance of the rock mass in terms of cut stone and coarse aggregates. The basaltic rock shows a variety of textural and mineralogical characteristics which could affect their physical and mechanical properties as well as their use as construction material. The compressive strength of the basaltic rock ranges from 130 MPa to 350 MPa, ultrasonic pulse velocity from 4000 m/s to 7000 m/s, open porosity from 0.33% to 3.08%, bulk density from 2.6 g/cm3 to 3.1 g/cm3, dynamic elasticity modulus from 64 GPa to 129 GPa, etc. The petrographic examination also indicated some deleterious constituents within the middle basaltic flow layers however; there are distinct flow layers which could be used as dimension stone and coarse aggregate for concrete and asphalt mix. The field investigation as well as the laboratory tests conducted indicated the high potential of the Termaber basalt formation to be used as construction material with further refining works. The study presented in this paper was carried out on basalts that are widespread in the central highland of Ethiopia and that comprise the major source of local crushed rock aggregates and building stone.

  3. Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2015-04-01

    Crushed aggregates for roads and their properties for frost protection Elena Kuznetsova, NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF With natural (fluvial, glaciofluvial) sand/gravel resources being rapidly depleted in many countries, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards using more alternative materials for construction purpose. In Norway the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the most important way to get around the problem with increased resource scarcity. Today Norway is one the European countries with the highest percentage of crushed/manufactured aggregates. A crushed product will reveal a different particle size distribution, a sharper, more angular particle shape, and not least - a significantly different mineral composition. The latter may often be characterised by more polymineral composition, and it will also much more depend on the local bedrock. When handled with care and knowledge, these differences can give the user a lot of new opportunities relating to materials design. Norwegian road construction practice has changed significantly during the last 40 years due to the replacement of gravel by crushed rock materials in the granular layers of the pavements. The use of non-processed rock materials from blasting was allowed in the subbase layer until 2012. This was a reason for a lot of problems with frost heaving due to inhomogeneity of this material, and in practice it was difficult to control the size of large stones. Since 2012 there is a requirement that rock materials for use in the subbase layer shall be crushed (Handbook N200, 2014). During the spring 2014 The Norwegian Public Roads Administration introduced a new handbook with requirements for roads construction in Norway, including new specifications for the frost protection layer. When pavements are constructed over moist and/or frost susceptible soils in cold and humid environments, the frost protection layer also becomes a very important part of the road system. According to new specification; the size of large stones for this layer should be maximum 0.5 m (longest edge) or ½ layer thickness. And minimum 30% of stones should be less than 90 mm. Fines content (<0.063 mm) should be maximum 15% of the material less than 22.4 mm. Analysing these new requirements, several questions are arising. First of all how this materials size will affect heat exchange in the layer, secondly - if the allowable fines content will make the materials frost susceptible. For calculations of frost protection layer thickness the knowledge of thermal conductivity of the aggregate layers is required. Handbook for geotechnical investigations of the soils provides this data for natural gravel which is limited by 0.7 - 1.3 W/mK. But when it comes to the crushed rocks, it can be significantly increased due to the higher conductivity of minerals (especially if they contain high amount of quartz), as well as due to higher effective conductivity. In rock-fill materials, i.e. materials with large particles and low degree of saturation, convection and radiation are the predominant heat transfer mechanisms. Convection and radiation can increase the effective conductivity by factor 2-10. Lebeau and Konrad (2007) showed that convection heat transfer could lead to the formation of undesirable permafrost conditions in toe drains of embankment dams located in Northern Quebec, i.e. in areas where there are no naturally occurring permafrost soils. In a frost design method the required parameter values of crushed rock aggregates are thermal conductivity, density and water content. The heat transfer during the freezing of natural soils is assumed proportional to thermal conductivity of the material. In a coarse-grained material with abundant pore space, convective heat transfer and radiation may be a considerable factor, sometimes even more significant than conduction. Specifications used by pavement engineers in most countries are solely based on grain size distribution and allowable fines content. The presence of fines in these layers can modify their frost susceptibility and cause severe degradation, especially with recent trends in climate change leading to more freeze-thaw cycle events during the winter season (Konrad & Lemieux, 2005). A higher content of fines due to sub-base wear will increase moisture in the structure and the risk of subsequent frost heave. Guthrie and Hermansson (2003) showed by laboratory tests in a closed drainage system that retained water in a soil sample was sufficient to feed the frost heave. Even though the most severe frost heave in real pavements occurs when the material is in contact with free water (open drainage system) we wanted to study freezing behaviour in aggregate materials having initial water contents (closed drainage system). The study presented here is part of a larger research program to investigate the properties of crushed rock materials in relation to frost heaving in the frost protection layer. An important issue will be the resistivity for frost penetration due to presence of water and fine particles. Due to new requirements for allowed fines content, it's essential to investigate if increased amount of stones <0.063 mm together with increasing of water content in the frost protection layer, will not lead to more frost heave problems. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of fines on the freezing characteristics of well-graded crushed aggregate in a closed drainage system. The reason for it is the understanding of the behaviour of the aggregate material when there is no access for any other water resources besides existing in the pavement (ex., from rain-fall). At the same time we did some estimation of thermal conductivity and frost penetration depth for all tested material using different aggregate density and water content. Experiments were made by using greenstones (methamorphic basaltic lava), collected in Vassfjellet, area of Sor-Trondelag, Norway. This material is commonly used for base, subbase and subgrade layers in roads and railways in the area. The material is of average strength (in Norway) and represents a typical material for this purpose. The influence of fines on the frost susceptibility of crushed rock aggregates in a closed drainage system was established by laboratory frost heave tests. A total of 10 samples with fines contents of 5%, 10% and 15% respectively were subjected to freezing in constant temperature. Also we made calculations for thermal conductivity by using Johansen's (1975) model. The study led to the following results: 1. Even for a closed system, without access of water, frost heave can occur just from redistributing water if the following conditions are met: a) Fines content exceeds 10%, b) Water content is around 7% 2. As to frost susceptibility classification, the crushed rock aggregates with 5% and 10% of fine material, fraction less than 0.063 mm, show negligible and/or low frost susceptibility. Those with 15% show medium frost susceptibility 3. Dry thermal conductivity for crushed rock samples, estimated by using Johansen's model, showed that an increase of dry density of 15% led to an increase of thermal conductivity of 75%. 4. Latent heat of fusion for all samples shows significant dependence on the water content, and less on the density 5. Highest calculated frost penetration depth was observed for dry samples. For other samples no big variation was found between 4% and 7% water content.

  4. Real-Time Imaging of the Process of Stone Crushing by Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Akira; Yoshizawa, Shin; Kaneko, Yukio; Kume, Haruki; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2007-05-01

    A new method of lithotripsy combining high and low frequency ultrasound has been investigated. This method controls generation of cavitation only on the stone surface and utilizes collapse pressure of the bubbles. In order to apply this method for clinical practice, it is important to monitor the process of stone crushing and behavior of cavitation from outside the body. In this study, ultrasound imaging was coupled with a therapeutic ultrasound system for real-time monitoring and targeting of stones. Stone crushing tests have been conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro experiment, crushing process of a model stone in a polyacrylamide gel was observed with both ultrasound imaging and a digital video camera. It was observed with ultrasound imaging that the stone was crushed with ultrasound. In vivo experiment, a stone crushing experiment has been conducted in a pig bladder. And a mark of crushing was found on the surface of the stone taken out from the bladder after the irradiation, as well as in vitro experiment. The process of stone crushing in a pig bladder could be monitored with bi-plane ultrasound imaging from outside the body.

  5. Crystal aggregation in kidney stones; a polymer aggregation problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, J.; Beshensky, A.; Viswanathan, P.; Zachowicz, W.; Kleinman, J.

    2008-03-01

    Kidney stones most frequently form as aggregates of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with organic layers between them, and the organic layers contain principally proteins. The pathway leading to the formation of these crystal aggregates in affected people has not been identified, but stone forming patients are thought to have a defect in the structure or distribution of urinary proteins, which normally protect against stone formation. We have developed two polyelectrolyte models that will induce COM crystal aggregation in vitro, and both are consistent with possible urinary protein compositions. The first model was based on mixing polyanionic and polycationic proteins, in portions such that the combined protein charge is near zero. The second model was based on reducing the charge density on partially charged polyanionic proteins, specifically Tamm-Horsfall protein, the second most abundant protein in urine. Both models demonstrated polymer phase separation at solution conditions where COM crystal aggregation was observed. Correlation with data from other bulk crystallization measurements suggest that the anionic side chains form critical binding interactions with COM surfaces that are necessary along with the phase separation process to induce COM crystal aggregation.

  6. Influences of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes used for crushed stone production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Richard; Cermak, Martin; Krutilova, Katerina

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on the influence of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes. These sedimentary rocks make about 27 % of crushed stone market in the Czech Republic. Mainly in Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), greywackes represent almost exclusive high quality aggregate. The behaviour of greywackes varies, however, from quarry to quarry. In this study, we have selected the most important deposits that cover major lithological variation of local greywackes. Studied greywackes were analysed for their petrographic parameters quantitatively (using image analysis of thin sections). The pore space characteristics were determined by using fluorescent dye - epoxy resin impregnated specimens. The studied rocks are composed of subangular and angular quartz grains, lithoclasts (stable rocks: quartzites, and unstable rocks: phylites, metaphylites, siltstones, slates, greywackes, and less frequently acid eruptive rocks), feldspars (orthoclas, microcline, plagioclase), and detrital micas. Detrital and authigenic chlorite has been found as well. The matrix which represents the largest volume of rock-forming components contains a mixture of sericite, chlorite, clay minerals, cements, and clasts in aleuropelitic size. Based on the microscopic examination, all studied rock types were classified as greywacke with fine- to medium-grained massive rock fabric. Only specimen from Bělkovice has shown partly layered structure. Alteration of feldspars and unstable rock fragments represents common feature. Diagenetic features included pressure dissolution of quartz clasts and formation of siliceous and/or calcite cements. Based on the experimental study of technological performance of studied greywackes and its correlation to petrographic features, the average size of clasts and volume of matrix make the driving factors affecting the LA values. The LA values decrease with the increasing of volume of matrix (R = 0.61) and with decreasing average grain size (R = 0.44). The degree of sorting influences LA values as well; more graded greywackes tend to show higher LA values. Regarding PSV, its values increase with increasing volume of quartz clasts.

  7. Crushed cement concrete substitution for construction aggregates; a materials flow analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the substitution of crushed cement concrete for natural construction aggregates is performed by using a materials flow diagram that tracks all material flows into and out of the cement concrete portion of the products made with cement concrete: highways, roads, and buildings. Crushed cement concrete is only one of the materials flowing into these products, and the amount of crushed cement concrete substituted influences the amount of other materials in the flow. Factors such as availability and transportation costs, as well as physical properties, that can affect stability and finishability, influence whether crushed cement concrete or construction aggregates should be used or predominate for a particular end use.

  8. Exposure to respirable particulates and silica in and around the stone crushing units in central India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Ramani, Raghunathan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Sadasivam, Arulselvan; Kumar, Pramod; Prasad, Shyam Narayan; Sambandam, Sankar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Stone crushing unit workers suffer from particulate matters and respirable silica at work and in their residents nearby. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the area and personal exposure concentration of respirable particulate matters and silica in workplaces and in surrounding villages. PM(10), PM(4) and PM(2.5) were considered for unit area measurement and PM(4) and PM(2.5) were considered for personal exposure measurements. The ambient PM(10) and indoor respirable particulate sampling and analyses were carried out in two neighboring villages adjacent to a cluster of 100 stone crushing units in central India. The study was conducted in two years with varied seasons to provide baseline data on the existing particulate concentration with and without control intervention. Monitoring and analytical criteria were fulfilled according to the National Institute for Occupational safety and Health (NIOSH), USA protocol. The study reports the higher particulates and respirable silica with respect to the national and international guidelines in and around the study units. However, in nearby villages, the particulate concentrations and silica were comparatively less. An innovative dust abatement dry engineering control system was installed as a pilot work to reduce dust emission from the unit and the results afterward were found to be encouraging. PMID:21173527

  9. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

    2000-01-01

    Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

  10. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  11. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

  12. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  13. Mineral resource of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the two major types of natural aggregates, are among the most abundant and accessible natural resources on the planet. The earliest civilizations used aggregates for various purposes, mainly construction. Today aggregates provide the basic raw materials for the foundation of modern society.

  14. Mineral of the month: aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, Valentin V.

    2005-01-01

    Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

  15. Aggregation of Calcium Phosphate and Oxalate Phases in the Formation of Renal Stones

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The majority of human kidney stones are comprised of multiple calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals encasing a calcium phosphate nucleus. The physiochemical mechanism of nephrolithiasis has not been well determined on the molecular level; this is crucial to the control and prevention of renal stone formation. This work investigates the role of phosphate ions on the formation of calcium oxalate stones; recent work has identified amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) as a rapidly forming initial precursor to the formation of calcium phosphate minerals in vivo. The effect of phosphate on the nucleation of COM has been investigated using the constant composition (CC) method in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our findings indicate COM nucleation is strongly promoted by the presence of phosphate; this occurs at relatively low phosphate concentrations, undersaturated with respect to brushite (dicalcium phosphate dehydrate, DCPD) formation. The results show that ACP plays a crucial role in the nucleation of calcium oxalate stones by promoting the aggregation of amorphous calcium oxalate (ACO) precursors at early induction times. The coaggregations of ACP and ACO precursors induce the multiple-point nucleation of COM. These novel findings expand our knowledge of urinary stone development, providing potential targets for treating the condition at the molecular level. PMID:25598742

  16. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

  17. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

  18. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  19. Rolling Stones Down Potential Hills: Reshaping Gravitational Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, Paolo; Comito, C.; Hestroffer, D.; Paolicchi, P.; Walsh, K.; Richardson, D. C.

    2008-09-01

    Numerical N-body models adopting self-gravitating spherical particles have proven to have interesting properties and are very useful for describing some aspects of the expected behaviour of rubble-piles. In fact, particle interlocking can simulate a certain degree of shear strength (corresponding to a non-zero critical slope in the Mohr-Coulomb approach). At the same time, if the critical slope angle is exceeded for some reason (thus temporarily breaking the sphere packing) the shape of the body can readjust to a new equilibrium. Usually, this re-organisation produces a shape closer to the theoretical fluid equilibrium predicted by theory, at the corresponding angular momentum. We have recently compared this reshaping process of ellipsoidal gravitational aggregates to the field of potential energy associated with incompressible fluid shapes. The gradient of this field suggests the evolutionary track that a reshaping body undergoing a slow (quasi-stationary) modification should follow. The same applies to the gradient of the maximum slope present on the surface. The results show the overall tendency to readjust along the potential slope. However, other effects are at work, making the interpretation more complex - among them we can identify: the granularity of the shape model; the relative flatness of the potential field; and a certain anisotropy of the most compact spherical packings. The results offer an interesting insight into the detailed behaviour of this model, allowing us to characterize its applicability in more realistic situations, such as restructuring due to tidal forces, impact reshaping, or shape build-up during gravitational reaccumulation.

  20. Crush injury

    MedlinePlus

    A crush injury occurs when force or pressure is put on a body part. This type of injury most often happens when part of the body is squeezed between two heavy objects. Damage related to crush injuries ...

  1. Crush Grinding

    SciTech Connect

    T. Q. Nguyen

    2005-04-01

    Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

  2. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  3. A brief review of the construction aggregates market

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and/or construction sand and gravel. Aggregates have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of purposes - construction being the major use. As construction aggregates, crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the basic raw materials used to build the foundation for modern society. The widespread use of construction aggregates is the result of their general availability throughout the country and around the world along with their relatively low cost. Although construction aggregates have a low unit value, their widespread use makes them major contributors to, and indicators of, the economic well-being of the nation.

  4. A look at construction aggregates production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Construction aggregates are defined as the combination of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Aggregates are one of the most accessible natural resources on Earth and one of the fundamental building blocks of our society. They have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of applications that have increased in number and complexity with time and technological progress. Despite the relatively low but increasing unit value of its basic products, the construction aggregates industry is a major contributor to and an indicator of the economic well-being of the nation.

  5. Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

  6. Study to improve asphalt mixes in South Carolina. Volume 2. A study of crushed slag aggregates in hot mix asphalt. Final report, April 1994-July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.I.; Lynn, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    The state of South Carolina contains two-slag-producing facilities: a chrome plant in Charleston and a steel plant in Georgetown. There has been some interest shown by the South Carolina Department of Transportation, in using slag in construction of state-funded roads. Prior to the acceptance of a new aggregate for state-funded projects, many tests must be conducted to ensure the products`s acceptability. This project was conducted in order to determine if chrome and/or steel slags would be acceptable aggregates in Hot Mix Asphalt. A literature review was conducted to reveal and past research on this subject, and their results. A plan of study was developed to focus on tests that would relate useful chararcteristics concerning the aggregate. Finally, the tests were performed and evaluated. The report concluded that both chrome and steel slag aggregates can provide satisfactory HMA mixtures if the expansive nature of steel slag aggregates is adequately treated and if the stripping potential of the mixture is counteracted.

  7. Car Crushed Under Building

    An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction....

  8. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  9. Crush Test Abuse Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob; Jeevarajan, Judith; Salinas, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this system is to simulate an internal short on battery cells by causing deformation (a crushing force) in a cell without penetration. This is performed by activating a hydraulic cylinder on one side of a blast wall with a hydraulic pump located on the other. The operator can control the rate of the crush by monitoring a local pressure gauge connected to the hydraulic cylinder or a load cell digital display located at the hydraulic pump control area. The internal short simulated would be considered a worst-case scenario of a manufacturer fs defect. This is a catastrophic failure of a cell and could be a very destructive event. Fully charged cells are to have an internal short simulated at the center of the length of the cell (away from terminals). The crush can be performed with a .- to 1-in. (.0.6- to 2.5-cm) rod placed crossways to the cell axis, causing deformation of the cell without penetration. The OCV (open-circuit voltage) and temperature of the cells, as well as the pressure and crushing force, are recorded during the operation. Occurrence of an internal short accompanied by any visible physical changes such as venting, fires, or explosions is reported. Typical analytical data examined after the test would be plots of voltage, temperature, and pressure or force versus time. The rate of crushing force can be increased or decreased based on how fast the operator pumps the hydraulic pump. The size of cylinder used to compress the battery cell can be easily changed by adding larger or smaller fittings onto the end of the hydraulic cylinder based on the battery/cell size being tested. The cell is crushed remotely and videotaped, allowing the operator to closely monitor the situation from a safe distance.

  10. Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

    2009-08-01

    Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks. PMID:19398196

  11. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  12. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... dissolved in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is the size ... painful. Often, people may not know they have kidney stones until they feel the painful symptoms resulting from ...

  13. Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Tucker, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened proposal where the county will gain 745 acres of new open space land in exchange for 60 acres of current open space land adjacent to the quarry. The process involved collaborative efforts by all stakeholders and resulted in an outcome that balances the needs of society, the environment, and business.

  14. Dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

  15. Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2008-09-01

    Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology—some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing—all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones—in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant—morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

  16. Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... when you urinate Your doctor will diagnose a kidney stone with urine, blood, and imaging tests. If you have a stone that won't pass on its own, you may need treatment. It can be done with shock waves; with ...

  17. Stone chewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picking stones up into the mouth and chewing them has been commonly reported in pigs and also in dogs. It has variously been described as play behavior, redirected foraging behavior or a stereotypic behavior. In pigs, stone chewing is often observed in sows housed on paddocks, and most frequently o...

  18. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  19. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for living space has encroached on the sites of production; in other words, the act of production has engendered condemnation. Many other environmental problems that are associated with dust and noise and blasting from quarry and pit operations have been reduced through the efficient use of technology. Recycling concrete in buildings, bridges, and roads and asphaltic pavements will ultimately reduce the demand for virgin natural aggregate. The impact created by the large holes in the ground required for the mining of natural aggregate can be greatly reduced by planning their reclamation before mining begins. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  20. Social Signals--Mike's Crush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitelman, Stephanie; Kohorn, Olivia Von

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the unique audiovisual-based curriculum "Mike's Crush", by Nancy Nowell, and briefly describes the autism spectrum and its associated challenges. The review explores the curriculum's noteworthy approach to teaching social skills and recommends it as helpful material for all educators, especially for those working with…

  1. COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuritis, Rolands; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2014-05-01

    COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway Rolands Cepuritis, Norcem/NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF Aggregate production is a mining operation where no purification of the "ore" is necessary. Still it is extremely rare that an aggregate production plant is operating on the basis of zero-waste concept. This is since historically the fine crushed aggregate (particles with a size of less than 2, 4 or sometimes 8 mm) has been regarded as a by-product or waste of the more valuable coarse aggregate production. The reason is that the crushed coarse aggregates can easily replace coarse rounded natural stones in almost any concrete composition; while, the situation with the sand is different. The production of coarse aggregate normally yields fine fractions with rough surface texture, flaky or elongated particles an inadequate gradation. When such a material replaces smooth and rounded natural sand grains in a concrete mix, the result is usually poor and much more water and cement has to be used to achieve adequate concrete flow. The consequences are huge stockpiles of the crushed fine fractions that can't be sold (mass balance problems) for the aggregate producers, sustainability problems for the whole industry and environmental issues for society due to dumping and storing of the fine co-generated material. There have been attempts of utilising the material in concrete before; however, they have mostly ended up in failure. There have been attempts to adjust the crushed sand to the properties of the natural sand, which would still give a lot of waste, especially if the grading would have to be adjusted and the high amounts of fines abundantly present in the crushed sand would have to be removed. Another fundamental reason for failure has been that historically such attempts have mainly ended up in a research carried out by people (both industrial and academic) with aggregate background (= parties willing to find market for their crusher fines) providing only conclusions already well known by the engineers involved in concrete production. Due to the pressing situation with the left resources of the natural sand and gravel in Scandinavia, a new and different development approach has been recently attempted with the Concrete Innovation Center (COIN) in Norway. The centre is a research based innovation project that has brought together and served as a source of funding to facilitate the crucial interaction between the professionals from the different involved industries (quarrying machinery supplier, aggregate producers, concrete producers and concrete contractors) and the academic people from universities and research institutions, in order come up with a better crushed sand solution for the future. The concept under development has been a zero-waste technology for aggregate production, where instead of reducing the amount of the crushed fines their properties are rather engineered to crucially increase the overall performance of the sand in concrete. The project also involves collaboration with a state-of-the-art aggregate production plant where the new technology has already been implemented. The production process there is based on the new engineered sand concepts successfully supplying 100% all of the produced fractions to concrete and asphalt producers.

  2. Pathological changes in the thyroid gland in crush asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether crush asphyxia may be associated with macro- and microscopic changes in the thyroid gland, four cases of death due to crush asphyxia were evaluated where the decedents (males aged 36, 37, 45, and 65 years respectively) suffered lethal chest compressions. The diagnosis of crush asphyxia in each case was suggested by the death scene description and confirmed by the finding of injuries to the torso, with marked congestion of the face, neck, and upper body associated with petechial and subconjunctival hemorrhages. In addition to other pathological findings, each decedent had intense congestion of their thyroid gland resulting in a dark/black appearance. Microscopically, stromal capillaries were engorged, with bulging of capillaries into the follicles. Rupture of these small vessels had created focal intrafollicular aggregates of erythrocytes within the colloid. As intense suffusion of the thyroid gland with blood in cases of crush asphyxia may impart an appearance of "black thyroid" this may be another feature of this condition to look for at autopsy, in addition to intrafollicular blood lakes on histology. PMID:23943304

  3. Stone Columns - Determination of the soil improvement factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar?, J.

    2011-09-01

    A stone column is one of the soil stabilizing methods that is used to increase strength, decrease the compressibility of soft and loose fine graded soils, accelerate a consolidation effect and reduce the liquefaction potential of soils. The columns consist of compacted gravel or crushed stone arranged by a vibrator. This paper deals with Priebe's theory (1976) on the design of an improvement factor, which belongs among the most used analytical methods and also describes the numerical and laboratory models of stone columns. The improvement factors calculated from numerical and laboratory models are compared with the improvement factors resulting from Priebe's theory.

  4. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  5. Dynamic Crush Characterization of Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2006-01-01

    During the space shuttle return-to-flight preparations following the Columbia accident, finite element models were needed that could predict the threshold of critical damage to the orbiter's wing leading edge from ice debris impacts. Hence, an experimental program was initiated to provide crushing data from impacted ice for use in dynamic finite element material models. A high-speed drop tower was configured to capture force time histories of ice cylinders for impacts up to approximately 100 ft/s. At low velocity, the force-time history depended heavily on the internal crystalline structure of the ice. However, for velocities of 100 ft/s and above, the ice fractured on impact, behaved more like a fluid, and the subsequent force-time history curves were much less dependent on the internal crystalline structure.

  6. Modeling Composite Laminate Crushing for Crash Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.; Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Crash modeling of composite structures remains limited in application and has not been effectively demonstrated as a predictive tool. While the global response of composite structures may be well modeled, when composite structures act as energy-absorbing members through direct laminate crushing the modeling accuracy is greatly reduced. The most efficient composite energy absorbing structures, in terms of energy absorbed per unit mass, are those that absorb energy through a complex progressive crushing response in which fiber and matrix fractures on a small scale dominate the behavior. Such failure modes simultaneously include delamination of plies, failure of the matrix to produce fiber bundles, and subsequent failure of fiber bundles either in bending or in shear. In addition, the response may include the significant action of friction, both internally (between delaminated plies or fiber bundles) or externally (between the laminate and the crushing surface). A figure shows the crushing damage observed in a fiberglass composite tube specimen, illustrating the complexity of the response. To achieve a finite element model of such complex behavior is an extremely challenging problem. A practical crushing model based on detailed modeling of the physical mechanisms of crushing behavior is not expected in the foreseeable future. The present research describes attempts to model composite crushing behavior using a novel hybrid modeling procedure. Experimental testing is done is support of the modeling efforts, and a test specimen is developed to provide data for validating laminate crushing models.

  7. Mining Mineral Aggregates in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert D.

    This study can be used in a geographic research methods course to show how nearest-neighbor analysis and regression analysis can be used to study various aspects of land use. An analysis of the sand, gravel, and crushed stone industry in three urban areas of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Florida illustrates the locational problems faced by…

  8. Management of Crush Syndrome Casualties after Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    After direct impact of the trauma, crush syndrome is the second most frequent cause of death after mass disasters. However, since crush syndrome is quite rare in daily practice, mistakes are frequent in the treatment of these cases. This paper summarizes the etiopathogenesis of traumatic rhabdomyolysis and of crush syndrome-based acute kidney injury. The clinical and laboratory features, prophylaxis, and treatment of crush cases are described as well. The importance of early and energetic fluid resuscitation is underlined for prophylaxis of acute kidney injury. Since there is chaos, and an overwhelming number of victims, logistic drawbacks create a specific problem in the treatment of crush victims after mass disasters. Potential solutions for logistic hurdles and disaster preparedness scenarios have also been provided in this review article. PMID:23908797

  9. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED LIMESTONE, STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed limestone industry. Crushed limestone plants emit particulates from drilling, blasting, transport on unpaved roads, crushing, screening, conveying, and stockpiling. The emission factor for total particulate f...

  10. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Urquhart, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300oC, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  11. Aluminum Honeycomb Characteristics in Dynamic Crush Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Vesta I.; Swanson, Lloyd H.

    1999-07-01

    Fifteen aluminum honeycomb cubes (3 in.) have been crushed in the Mechanical Shock Laboratory's drop table testing machines. This report summarizes shock experiments with honeycomb densities of 22.1 pcf and 38.0 pcf and with crush weights of 45 lb, 168 lb, and 268 lb. The honeycomb samples were crushed in all three orientations, W, L, and T. Most of the experiments were conducted at an impact velocity of {approx}40 fps, but higher velocities of up to 90 fps were used for selected experiments. Where possible, multiple experiments were conducted for a specific orientation and density of the honeycomb samples. All results are for Hexcel honeycomb except for one experiment with Alcore honeycomb and have been evaluated for validity. This report contains the raw acceleration data measured on the top of the drop table carriage, pictures of the crushed samples, and normalized force-displacement curves for all fifteen experiments. These data are not strictly valid for material characteristics in L and T orientations because the cross-sectional area of the honeycomb changed (split) during the crush. However, these are the best data available at this time. These dynamic crush data do suggest a significant increase in crush strength to 8000 psi ({approximately} 25-30% increase) over quasi-static values of {approximately}6000 psi for the 38.0 pcf Hexcel Honeycomb in the T-orientation. An uncertainty analysis is included and estimates the error in these data.

  12. Factors governing urinary tract stone disease.

    PubMed

    Watts, R W

    1989-07-01

    Urinary stone formation depends on the degree of saturation of the urine with respect to potential stone-forming substances. Urine contains a range of electrolytes which ionise to different and variable degrees and which interact with one another in ways which influence their solubilities. These ionisations are themselves influenced by the pH of the urine which is another variable factor. Urinary organic molecules, which may or may not ionise and which may bear surface charges, also influence the solubility of the low molecular weight stone-constituents. Some other substances in the urine, such as glycosaminoglycans, can modify the ability of inorganic micro-crystals to aggregate and form stones. Environmental factors, other urinary tract pathology and genetic influences all predispose to urolithiasis, but many cases lack either an identifiable specific cause or the presence of recognisable risk factors. In the risk factor model of calcium stone formation there are pre-renal risk factors which lead to urinary risk factors and hence to the chemical risk factors of supersaturation and decreased ability to inhibit crystallisation. There are, in addition to these general factors which may act synergistically to produce urinary stones, several specific single enzyme defects which alter the urinary composition in such a way as to produce stones of a highly characteristic composition. PMID:2702116

  13. Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation: Opportunities for the stone and cement industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; San, Juan A.; Rau, Greg H.; Caldeira, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Accelerated weathering of limestone appears to provide a low-tech, inexpensive, high-capacity, environmentally friendly CO2 mitigation method that could be applied to about 200 fossil fuel fired power plants and about eight cement plants located in coastal areas in the conterminous U.S. This approach could also help solve the problem of disposal of limestone waste fines in the crushed stone industry. Research and implementation of this technology will require new collaborative efforts among the crushed stone and cement industries, electric utilities, and the science and engineering communities.

  14. Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhan, Khaled

    This study evaluates the benefits to be gained by using a composite highway base course material consisting of recycled crushed concrete aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and a modest amount of reinforcing fibers. The primary objectives of this research were to (a) quantify the improvement that is obtained by adding fibers to a lean concrete composite (made from recycled aggregate and low quantities of Portland cement and/or fly ash), (b) evaluate the mechanical behavior of such a composite base course material under both static and repeated loads, and (c) utilize the laboratory-determined properties with a mechanistic design method to assess the potential advantages. The split tensile strength of a stabilized recycled aggregate base course material was found to be exponentially related to the compacted dry density of the mix. A lean mix containing 4% cement and 4% fly ash (by weight) develops sufficient unconfined compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths to be used as a high quality stabilized base course. The addition of 4% (by weight) of hooked-end steel fibers significantly enhances the post-peak load-deformation response of the composite in both indirect tension and static flexure. The flexural fatigue behavior of the 4% cement-4% fly ash mix is comparable to all commonly used stabilized materials, including regular concrete; the inclusion of 4% hooked-end fibers to this mix significantly improves its resistance to fatigue failure. The resilient moduli of stabilized recycled aggregate in flexure are comparable to the values obtained for traditional soil-cement mixes. In general, the fibers are effective in retarding the rate of fatigue damage accumulation, which is quantified in terms of a damage index defined by an energy-based approach. The thickness design curves for a stabilized recycled aggregate base course, as developed by using an elastic layer approach, is shown to be in close agreement with a theoretical model (based on Westergaard's assumptions for rigid pavements), which has been found to explain reasonably well the field behavior of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced concrete slabs on grade. Finally, a preliminary cost analysis demonstrated that the use of stabilized recycled aggregate instead of a standard crushed stone base course can result in a meaningful economic savings.

  15. Honeycomb spacer crush stength test results

    SciTech Connect

    Leader, D.R.

    1993-09-15

    This report discusses aluminum honeycomb spacers, which are used as an energy absorbent material in shipping packages for off site shipment of radioactive materials and which were ordered in two crush strengths, 1,000 psi and 2,000 psi for use in drop tests requested by the Packaging and Transportation group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the vendor and the SRTC Materials Laboratory performed crush strength measurements on test samples made from the material used to fabricate the actual spacers. The measurements of crush strength made in the SRTC Materials Laboratory are within 100 psi of the measurements made by the manufacturer for all samples tested and all test measurements are within 10% of the specified crush strength, which is acceptable to the P&T group for the planned tests.

  16. Crusher-dryer and method of crushing

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, W.F.; Nigro, J.P.; Wallitsch, F.J.

    1981-10-20

    An improved apparatus is described for the simultaneous crushing and drying of materials, such as coal with high moisture content. It includes a (Hammermill) crusher having parallel top inlets for the material and a rapid flow of hot air. The material drops into the (Impactor) impact circle of the (Hammermill) crusher prior to any substantial mixing with the flow of hot air. The flow of hot air is selectively directed into the crushing chamber , behind the breaker plates or in parallel to both locations, to dry the material during crushing. A substantially unobstructed bottom outlet permits high flow rates through the apparatus. A method of crushing and drying high moisture content material is also disclosed.

  17. Effects Of Rapid Crushing On Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental study described in NASA technical memorandum performed to determine whether crash energy-absorption capabilities of graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy composite materials are functions of speed of crushing. Additional objective to develop understanding of mechanisms of crushing. Technology applied to enhancement of safety and crashworthiness of automobiles, design of energy-absorbing devices in machinery, and problems involving explosions and impacts.

  18. Single pellet crush strength testing of catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Brienza, P.K. )

    1988-09-01

    ASTM D-32 Committee on Catalysts has developed a standard test method for single pellet crush strength for formed catalyst shapes. This standard was issued under the fixed designation D 4179. The method is applicable to regular catalyst shapes such as tablets and spheres. Extrudates, granular materials, and other irregular shapes are excluded. The committee continues to work on the development of a method for the single pellet crush testing of extrudates.

  19. CRUSH: The NSI data compression utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiler, ED

    1991-01-01

    CRUSH is a data compression utility that provides the user with several lossless compression techniques available in a single application. It is intended that the future development of CRUSH will depend upon feedback from the user community to identify new features and capabilities desired by the users. CRUSH provides an extension to the UNIX Compress program and the various VMS implementations of Compress that many users are familiar with. An important capability added by CRUSH is the addition of additional compression techniques and the option of automatically determining the best technique for a given data file. The CRUSH software is written in C and is designed to run on both VMS and UNIX systems. VMS files that are compressed will regain their full file characteristics upon decompression. To the extent possible, compressed files can be transferred between VMS and UNIX systems, and thus be decompressed on a different system than they were compressed on. Version 1 of CRUSH is currently available. This version is a VAX VMS implementation. Version 2, which has the full range of capabilities for both VMS and UNIX implementations, will be available shortly.

  20. Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1996-12-01

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70{degrees}F), 150{degrees}F, and {minus}20{degrees}F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain.

  1. Kidney Stones in Primary Hyperoxaluria: New Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Dorrit E.; Grohe, Bernd; Gener, Michaela; Beck, Bodo B.; Hoppe, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    To investigate potential differences in stone composition with regard to the type of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH), and in relation to the patients medical therapy (treatment nave patients versus those on preventive medication) we examined twelve kidney stones from ten PH I and six stones from four PH III patients. Unfortunately, no PH II stones were available for analysis. The study on this set of stones indicates a more diverse composition of PH stones than previously reported and a potential dynamic response of morphology and composition of calculi to treatment with crystallization inhibitors (citrate, magnesium) in PH I. Stones formed by PH I patients under treatment are more compact and consist predominantly of calcium-oxalate monohydrate (COM, whewellite), while calcium-oxalate dihydrate (COD, weddellite) is only rarely present. In contrast, the single stone available from a treatment nave PH I patient as well as stones from PH III patients prior to and under treatment with alkali citrate contained a wide size range of aggregated COD crystals. No significant effects of the treatment were noted in PH III stones. In disagreement with findings from previous studies, stones from patients with primary hyperoxaluria did not exclusively consist of COM. Progressive replacement of COD by small COM crystals could be caused by prolonged stone growth and residence times in the urinary tract, eventually resulting in complete replacement of calcium-oxalate dihydrate by the monohydrate form. The noted difference to the nave PH I stone may reflect a reduced growth rate in response to treatment. This pilot study highlights the importance of detailed stone diagnostics and could be of therapeutic relevance in calcium-oxalates urolithiasis, provided that the effects of treatment can be reproduced in subsequent larger studies. PMID:23940605

  2. Treatment of the Infected Stone.

    PubMed

    Marien, Tracy; Miller, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Infected kidney stones refer to stones that form because of urinary tract infections with urease-producing bacteria, secondarily infected stones of any composition, or stones obstructing the urinary tract leading to pyelonephritis. The mainstay of treatment of infection stones is complete stone removal. Kidney stones that obstruct the urinary tract and cause obstructive pyelonephritis are also frequently referred to as infected stones. Obstructive pyelonephritis is a urologic emergency as it can result in sepsis and even death. Infection stones and obstructive stones causing pyelonephritis are different disease processes, and their workup and management are described separately. PMID:26475943

  3. External Validation of the STONE Score, a Clinical Prediction Rule for Ureteral Stone: An Observational Multi-institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ralph C.; Rodriguez, Robert M.; Moghadassi, Michelle; Noble, Vicki; Bailitz, John; Mallin, Mike; Corbo, Jill; Kang, Tarina L.; Chu, Phillip; Shiboski, Steve; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Study objective The STONE score is a clinical decision rule that classifies patients with suspected nephrolithiasis into low-, moderate-, and high-score groups, with corresponding probabilities of ureteral stone. We evaluate the STONE score in a multi-institutional cohort compared with physician gestalt and hypothesize that it has a sufficiently high specificity to allow clinicians to defer computed tomography (CT) scan in patients with suspected nephrolithiasis. Methods We assessed the STONE score with data from a randomized trial for participants with suspected nephrolithiasis who enrolled at 9 emergency departments between October 2011 and February 2013. In accordance with STONE predictors, we categorized participants into low-, moderate-, or high-score groups. We determined the performance of the STONE score and physician gestalt for ureteral stone. Results Eight hundred forty-five participants were included for analysis; 331 (39%) had a ureteral stone. The global performance of the STONE score was superior to physician gestalt (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve=0.78 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.74 to 0.81] versus 0.68 [95% CI 0.64 to 0.71]). The prevalence of ureteral stone on CT scan ranged from 14% (95% CI 9% to 19%) to 73% (95% CI 67% to 78%) in the low-, moderate-, and high-score groups. The sensitivity and specificity of a high score were 53% (95% CI 48% to 59%) and 87% (95% CI 84% to 90%), respectively. Conclusion The STONE score can successfully aggregate patients into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups and predicts ureteral stone with a higher specificity than physician gestalt. However, in its present form, the STONE score lacks sufficient accuracy to allow clinicians to defer CT scan for suspected ureteral stone. PMID:26440490

  4. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  5. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

  6. Managing caliceal stones

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Andreas J.; Knipper, Sophie; Netsch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence. PMID:24497690

  7. Technology meets aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, C.; Swan, C.

    2007-07-01

    New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  8. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), section 7.002 under “Preparation of Sample—Official Final Action,” and section... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  9. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), section 7.002 under “Preparation of Sample—Official Final Action,” and section... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  10. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), section 7.002 under “Preparation of Sample—Official Final Action,” and section... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  11. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Chemists,” 13th Ed. (1980), section 7.002 under “Preparation of Sample—Official Final Action,” and section... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  12. Reduction of respirable silica following the introduction of water spray applications in Indian stone crusher mills.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Perry; Nicas, Mark; Kephart, John W; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Rinehart, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Respirable crystalline silica dust generated during stone crushing operations has been linked to chronic lung disease and increased risk of tuberculosis. In India, most stone crushing mills operate without any dust control or containment systems. This investigation in the Khurda District of Orissa demonstrated a reduction in respirable particulate mass following the application of a fine mist of water. Average respirable quartz and cristobalite levels declined 82% and 69%, respectively, after water spray controls were installed. This finding suggests that relatively inexpensive modifications that are available in the local market can be effective at reducing silica exposures. Although average exposure levels, particularly during the dry season, may exceed the Permissible Exposure Limit for silica, the overall reductions observed were substantial. Widespread adoption of this simple control technology by stone crushers in India could have a positive public health impact. PMID:18507285

  13. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific type of kidney stone include the following: Calcium Oxalate Stones reducing sodium reducing animal protein, such as ... with increased daily sodium consumption. People who form calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate stones should limit their intake ...

  14. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords: Hallandia gneiss, natural stones, historic stones, urban planning and building

  15. 5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), SECOND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), SECOND FLOOR FACING EAST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  16. 7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, FACING NORTH. REMAINS OF CONVEYOR BELT VISIBLE AT BOTTOM RIGHT. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  17. 8. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  18. 3. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING NORTH. HEADFRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING NORTH. HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE 18) VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  19. VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST WALL OF THE CRYSTALLIZER WING. FENESTRA WINDOWS IN CRUSHING MILL WALL. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  20. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  1. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  2. Kidney Stones in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific type of kidney stone include the following: Calcium Oxalate Stones reducing sodium reducing animal protein, such as ... fish getting enough calcium from food or taking calcium supplements with food avoiding foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, rhubarb, nuts, and wheat bran ...

  3. Old Stone Field Marker

    This is a stone field marker that marked boundaries for land ownership. In the early days of Land Office Recordings, this is one type of monument used. Trees, Posts, Iron Pipes and as shown stones were used to mark off land during the Land Rush days. Later, when mapping was being done, Brass Caps wi...

  4. 6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, FACING SOUTH. REMAINS OF CONVEYOR BELT BETWEEN CRUSHING PLANT AND FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) SHOWN IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  5. MSHA releases data on CM crushing accidents

    SciTech Connect

    2007-02-15

    The US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MHSA) recently formed a committee to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents. The final report found that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another, place changing. Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are experienced miners who are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. This article was excerpted from the 'Remote Control Continuous Mining Machine Crushing Accident Data Study' published in May 2006. The report may be found from the website: www.msha.gov. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, K.

    2009-04-15

    Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

  7. 12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  8. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  9. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  10. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Café in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

  11. CRUSH TESTING OF 9977 GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-28

    The 9977 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP) was designed in response to the adoption of the crush test requirement in the US regulations for packages for radioactive materials (10 CFR 71). This presentation on crush testing of the 9977 GPFP Reviews origins of Crush Test Requirements and implementation of crush test requirements in 10 CFR 71. SANDIA testing performed to support the rule making is reviewed. The differences in practice, on the part of the US Department of Energy from those required by the NRC for commercial purposes, are explained. The design features incorporated into the 9977 GPFP to enable it to withstand the crush test and the crush tests performed on the 9977 are described. Lessons learned from crush testing of GPFP packagings are given.

  12. Skimming and Skipping Stones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

  13. Canine model of crush syndrome established by a digital crush injury device platform

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jie; Ding, Hui; Fan, Hao-Jun; Dong, Wen-Long; Sun, Zhen-Xing; Hou, Shi-Ke

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish a canine model of crush syndrome (CS). Methods: A total of 16 healthy adult female Beagle dogs were randomly divided into the control group (n=8) and the experimental group (n=8). The crush injury was created in the left hind leg of each dog in the experimental group. Results: The biochemical indexes in the experimental group changed significantly compared to the values before extrusion. And they were also significantly different from the values of the control group. The glomerular capillary dilation, renal tubular epithelial cell degeneration, and renal interstitial lymphocytic infiltration were found in the kidneys. Conclusion: The canine CS model established by the digital crush injury device platform was successful according with the diagnosis of CS. It is good for the investigation of the CS mechanism and treatment using this model. PMID:26261489

  14. Anal avulsion caused by abdominal crush injury.

    PubMed

    Terrosu, G; Rossetto, A; Kocjancic, E; Rossitti, P; Bresadola, V

    2011-12-01

    We report the case of a pelvic and lower abdomen crushing trauma in 37-year-old male patient. The patient had an open lumbar wound, laceration of the psoas muscle, pelvic fracture, a ruptured urogenital diaphragm, and extensive urogenital lacerations. An emergency laparotomy was performed with debridment, urethral reconstruction, and osteosynthesis of the pubic bone. The mobilization of the patient revealed a deep gap, about 8 × 8 cm, in the perineum, with the anus and rectum displaced from their original site. Anal reimplantation was performed, suturing the median raphe, inserting two pelvic drainage tubes, and fashioning a loop transverse colostomy. Closed rectal traumas account for only 4-11% of all rectal traumas. Crushing of the pelvis causes a sudden reduction in its anteroposterior diameter and a corresponding increase in its latero-lateral diameter, together with an abrupt rise in intra-abdominal pressure. The anus is pushed out of the perineal plane due to the divarication of the levator muscles. As suggested in the literature, the standard treatment is wound debridement with immediate or deferred repair, fashioning a diversion colostomy, and repair of the rectum, wherever possible. PMID:21556880

  15. Effect of braid architecture on progressive crush of composite tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Karbhari, V.M.; Falzon, P.J.; Herzburg, I.

    1996-12-31

    Braided tubes offer the potential of tailored crush for automotive applications. The effect of hybridization through the use of combinations of glass, carbon and aramid yam is shown through the testing of cylindrical braided tubes. Crush response as a function of braid geometry is discussed and failure locii are described. The inclusion of triaxial geometry and hybridization is shown to enhance crush performance through the attainment of combined energy absorbing mechanisms.

  16. Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

  17. Meckel's stone ileus.

    PubMed

    Rudge, F W

    1992-02-01

    Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital abnormality of the small bowel; it occurs in approximately 2% of the population. Complications of Meckel's diverticulum include hemorrhage, usually associated with heterotopic tissue within the diverticulum, intussusception, development of benign or malignant neoplasms, and inflammation. Formation of one or more enteroliths within a diverticulum is rare. An extremely rare complication is mechanical small bowel obstruction secondary to extrusion of an enterolith from a Meckel's diverticulum (Meckel's stone ileus). A case of Meckel's stone ileus is described herein, with a review of the literature of this extremely rare complication. PMID:1603394

  18. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

  19. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

  20. Stones and urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Miano, Roberto; Germani, Stefano; Vespasiani, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The term infection stones refers to calculi that occur following urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by urease-producing gram-negative organisms. They consist of magnesium ammonium phosphate, carbonate apatite and monoammonium urate. Alkaline urine is most favorable to their formation. Urinary tract obstruction, neurogenic bladder, voiding dysfunction, temporary or indwelling urinary catheters, distal renal tubular acidosis and medullary sponge kidney are considered the main risk factors for developing infection stones. Urinalysis and urine culture are essential for diagnosis. A typical finding on imaging is a moderately radiopaque, staghorn or branched stone. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone fragments and by eradicating UTI. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches is available. Metaphylactic treatment is mandatory to prevent recurrences. The relationship between urinary stones and UTIs is well known and shows two different clinical pictures: (1) stones that develop following UTIs (infection stones) which play a key role in stone pathogenesis, and (2) stones complicated by UTIs (stones with infection) which are metabolic stones that passively trap bacteria from coexistent UTIs and may consist of calcium or non-calcium. This article presents an overview of infection stones, analyzing the epidemiology, composition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this type of calculi. PMID:17726350

  1. Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2013-01-01

    Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that had been collected following behavioural observation, in order to (i) quantify the wear patterns in terms of the types and distribution of use-damage on the stones, and (ii) develop a Use-Action Index (UAI) to differentiate axe hammers from pound hammers by wear patterns alone. We used the intensity of crushing damage on differing surface zones of the stones, as well as stone weight, to produce a UAI that had 92% concordance when compared to how the stones had been used by macaques, as observed independently prior to collection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that quantitative archaeological use-wear techniques can accurately reconstruct the behavioural histories of non-human primate stone tools. PMID:23977365

  2. When Stones Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  3. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... days after this procedure. Drink a lot of water in the weeks after treatment. This helps pass any pieces of stone that still remain. Your health care provider may give you a medicine ... take and drink a lot of water if you have pain. You may need to ...

  4. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as urine (pee). Urine contains substances — such as calcium, oxalate, phosphate, carbonate, cystine, and uric acid — that in ... high in sodium can increase the risk of calcium stones. Obesity can ... lead to concentrated levels of oxalate (a substance made in the body and found ...

  5. The Big Crush: An Introduction to Materials Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Lots of engineering thinking can be involved in crushing things. As an example, engineers spend a great deal of time designing crush-proof packaging for delicate equipment and packing materials for items that must be stored or shipped. This article presents an activity wherein students can begin to appreciate the technology behind the engineering.…

  6. 64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY MILL FEEDS AT BOTTOM. MILL SOLUTION TANKS WERE TO THE LEFT (EAST) AND BARREN SOLUTION TANK TO THE RIGHT (WEST) OR THE CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  7. The Big Crush: An Introduction to Materials Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Lots of engineering thinking can be involved in crushing things. As an example, engineers spend a great deal of time designing crush-proof packaging for delicate equipment and packing materials for items that must be stored or shipped. This article presents an activity wherein students can begin to appreciate the technology behind the engineering.

  8. 1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF THE FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) ARE IN THE BACKGROUND ON LEFT. CONCRETE RESERVOIR (FEATURE 22) IS SHOWN AT THE RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTOGRAPH FACING SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  9. Having and Being an Other-Sex Crush during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Gyoerkoe, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined other-sex crush experiences (both having and being perceived as an other-sex crush) among 544 young adolescents (mean age = 12.74 years). Results indicated that 56% had at least one current other-sex crush, with little overlap between crushes, friends, and boyfriends/girlfriends. Significant associations between other-sex crush

  10. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Pietrzke, R. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M. A.; Hudson, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has focused its future on exploration class missions including the goal of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. With these objectives, humans will experience an extended exposure to the harsh environment of microgravity and the associated negative effects on all the physiological systems of the body. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes to the urinary chemical composition during and after space flight. These changes are associated with an increased risk of renal stone formation. The development of a renal stone would have health consequences for the crewmember and negatively impact the success of the mission. As of January 2007, 15 known symptomatic medical events consistent with urinary calculi have been experienced by 13 U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts. Previous results from both MIR and Shuttle missions have demonstrated an increased risk for renal stone formation. These data have shown decreased urine volume, urinary pH and citrate levels and increased urinary calcium. Citrate, an important urinary inhibitor of calcium-containing renal stones binds with calcium in the urine, thereby reducing the amount of calcium available to form calcium oxalate stones. Urinary citrate also prevents calcium oxalate crystals from aggregating into larger crystals and into renal stones. In addition, citrate makes the urine less acidic which inhibits the development of uric acid stones. Potassium citrate supplementation has been successfully used to treat patients who have formed renal stones. The evaluation of potassium citrate as a countermeasure has been performed during the ISS Expeditions 3-6, 8, 11-13 and is currently in progress during the ISS Expedition 14 mission. Together with the assessment of stone risk and the evaluation of a countermeasure, this investigation provides an educational opportunity to all crewmembers. Individual urinary biochemical profiles are generated and the risk of stone formation is estimated. Increasing fluid intake is recommended to all crewmembers. These results can be used to lower the risk for stone formation through lifestyle, diet changes or therapeutic administration to minimize the risk for stone development. With human presence in microgravity a continuing presence and exploration class missions being planned, maintaining the health and welfare of all crewmembers is critical to the exploration of space.

  11. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained. In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnières stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

  12. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  13. Complicated bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  14. Medical management of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention. PMID:26977089

  15. 79. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CRUSHING DEPT. AND TRAMWAY TERMINAL SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, CRUSHING DEPT. AND TRAMWAY TERMINAL SHEET NO. 4, ELEVATION LOOKING SOUTH - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  16. 53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ACCESS STAIR TO FEED LEVEL; DUST COLLECTOR ON LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

  18. SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  19. Double crush syndrome in the lower extremity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Borgia, Anthony V; Hruska, Jerome K; Braun, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Upton and McComas first described double crush syndrome in 1973. The theory behind double crush syndrome postulated that a proximal lesion in a nerve would make that same nerve more vulnerable to additional distal lesions. Many of the studies investigating the possibility of the double crush syndrome involve lesions in the upper extremity with very few articles written specifically about double crush syndrome in the lower extremity. We present the case of a 33-year-old massage therapist who uses her feet to provide therapy to clients who presented to our clinic with symptoms consistent with tarsal tunnel syndrome. Her failure to progress in a satisfactory manner after a variety of therapies made us search for additional etiologies for her foot pain. In cases where tarsal tunnel persists after surgical therapy, the treating physician should search for more proximal lesions along the course of the nerve. PMID:22826333

  20. [MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES ON KIDNEY STONES].

    PubMed

    Romanova, Yu M; Mulabaev, N S; Tolordava, E R; Seregin, A V; Seregin, I V; Alexeeva, N V; Stepanova, T V; Levina, G A; Barhatova, O I; Gamova, N A; Goncharova, S A; Didenko, L V; Rakovskaya, I V

    2015-01-01

    The clinical material obtained surgically in patients with kidney stone disease (KSD) was tested for content of the stone microflora using PCR and standard microbiological methods. It was demonstrated that about 50% of stones in patients with KSD were infected with various infection agents as observed using standard microbiological and molecular genetic methods. The percentage of detection of the Mycoplasma hominis using cultural method is lower than the percentage detected using PCR, which is due to difficult isolation and cultivation, as well as DNA fragments of mycoplasma observed after antibiotic therapy. Studies based on modern microscopy methods showed that microorganisms on the surface of the kidney stone formed multispecies biofilms. PMID:26182663

  1. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Recent findings Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the UPJ with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Summary Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing UPJ stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic. PMID:26845428

  2. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

  3. 45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR BIN FEED, LOWER CENTER, WITH STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR ELEVATOR SPLIT DISCHARGE (OXIDIZED/UNOXIDIZED) IN CENTER. CRUDE ORE BINS AND MACHINE SHOP BEYOND. NOTE TOP OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN IS BELOW TOP OF CRUDE ORE BINS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  4. Our Modern Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, W. D.

    Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

  5. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article Body ​ ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney stones ...

  6. Calcium oxalate crystal growth in human urinary stones

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.M.; Johnson, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    Calcium oxalate stones are very common and increasing. Crystal growth is no less important than the crystal nucleation in the pathogenesis of stone formation. The crystal growth was studied in human calcium oxalate stones by a combined electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The main mode of weddellite growth was interpenetration twinning of tetrahedral bipyramids. Bipyramids may form as initial crystal seeds, develop from anhedral crystals (crystals which lack flat symmetric faces) of spherular or mulberry shape, develop on the surface of preformed bipyramids by spiral dislocation mechanisms, or develop on whewellite crystal by heterogeneous nucleation and epitaxy. Heterogeneous nucleations of whewellite on weddellite, and calcium apatite on whewellite were also observed. Whewellite grew mainly by parallel twinning. Interpenetration twinning was exceptional. Transformation of anhedral to euhedral (completely bounded by flat faces that are set ar fixed angles to one another) whewellite occurred by parallel fissurations followed by brick wall like stacking of the crystals, while euhedral transformation of weddellite occurred by protrusion of bipyramids frm anhedral crystal surface. Occasionally, an evidence of crystal dissolution was noted. Although an aggregation of crystals is believed to play a pivotal role in stone nidus formation, growth in size of the formed crystals, and twinning and epitactic crystal intergrowth apparently play a significant role in the obstructive urinary stone formation.

  7. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts, electron microscopy revealed intra- and extra-cellular needle-like crystal deposits, which were stainable with von Kossa stain and resemble calcospherules found in pathological calcification. Thus bacteria-mediated apatite formation takes place in aqueous environments, in humans and in geological sediments.

  8. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  9. Recumbent Stone Circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  10. Having and Being an Other-Sex Crush during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Gyoerkoe, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined other-sex crush experiences (both having and being perceived as an other-sex crush) among 544 young adolescents (mean age = 12.74 years). Results indicated that 56% had at least one current other-sex crush, with little overlap between crushes, friends, and boyfriends/girlfriends. Significant associations between other-sex crush…

  11. The exposome for kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  12. From crystalluria to kidney stones, some physicochemical aspects of calcium nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Johannes M; Affolter, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis seems to be the result of crystal formation, aggregation and retention in the kidney during crystalluria. These processes have to occur within the short urinary transit time through the kidney being in the order of few minutes. Recently much work was done on rather qualitative aspects of nephrolithiasis like genetics, metabolism and morphology. In this review we try to provide some quantitative information on urinary supersaturation with respect to stone minerals, especially Ca oxalate (CaOx), on the formation and aggregation of CaOx crystals and on crystal retention in the kidney. The paper is centered on idiopathic Ca nephrolithiasis being the most frequent stone disease with only partially known pathogenesis. New aspects of the role of urinary macromolecules in stone formation and of the mechanism of crystal aggregation are provided. PMID:25374820

  13. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

  14. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  15. Common Bile Duct Stones Detected After Cholecystectomy:Advancement into the Duodenum via the Percutaneous Route

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, Nevzat Erdogan, Nuri; Baskol, Mevlut

    2003-04-15

    Purpose: To report our experience in the use of percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones detected in the post-cholecystectomy period. Methods: Forty-two patients in whom endoscopic cannulation and/or sphincterotomy had failed or could not be done due to several reasons underwent balloon dilatation of the ampulla of Vater and subsequent advancement of the stones via the percutaneous transhepatic route or T-tube tract. Results: The procedure was successful in 42 cases. In three patients, stones were crushed in the common bile duct and pushed as fragments into the duodenum. In all cases transient adverse effects were observed. There were no major complications. All cases were checked with ultrasonography for 6 months after the procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones is an effective method of treatment with a high success rate,low complication rate and shorter hospital stay. It may serve as an alternative method in cases where endoscopic removal of stones fails.

  16. A dynamic ball compression test for understanding rock crushing.

    PubMed

    Huang, S; Liu, H; Xia, K

    2014-12-01

    During crushing, rock particles are subjected to complicated loading. It is desired to establish the relation between the loading and the fragmentation parameters for better understanding rock crushing mechanism. In this work, a split Hopkinson pressure bar system in combination with high speed cameras is utilized in the dynamic ball compression test, in which the spherical rock sample is adopted to avoid the shape effect. Using elasticity theory, the loading rate and the dynamic indirect tensile strength are first calculated. With the aid of the moment-trap technique and high speed cameras, the surface energy is determined for each sample. The relations between the loading rate and the fragmentation parameters, i.e., the number of fragments and the surface energy are established. The application of this method to a granitic rock shows that it is flexible and can be applied to the crushing study of generic brittle solids. PMID:25554304

  17. The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in crush injuries.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Judith E

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been approved for primary or adjunctive care in 14 indications. A hyperbaric environment exists when a patient's whole body is physically exposed to 100% oxygen and pressure that is greater than one atmosphere absolute. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy works through the ideal gas laws and is effective as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of crush injuries. Oxygen is considered a drug and can have contraindications and adverse effects. Hyperbaric therapy works through several different mechanisms in the crush injury. Effects of hyperoxygenation, reduction of edema, infection control enhancement, blood vessel and collagen formation, and reduction of free radicals and reperfusion injury help in healing in patient with crush injuries. PMID:23736669

  18. Crushing virtual cigarettes reduces tobacco addiction and treatment discontinuation.

    PubMed

    Girard, Benoit; Turcotte, Vincent; Bouchard, Stéphane; Girard, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Pilot studies revealed promising results regarding crushing virtual cigarettes to reduce tobacco addiction. In this study, 91 regular smokers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions that differ only by the action performed in the virtual environment: crushing virtual cigarettes or grasping virtual balls. All participants also received minimal psychosocial support from nurses during each of 12 visits to the clinic. An affordable virtual reality system was used (eMagin HMD) with a virtual environment created by modifying a 3D game. Results revealed that crushing virtual cigarettes during 4 weekly sessions led to a statistically significant reduction in nicotine addiction (assessed with the Fagerström test), abstinence rate (confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide), and drop-out rate from the 12-week psychosocial minimal-support treatment program. Increased retention in the program is discussed as a potential explanation for treatment success, and hypotheses are raised about self-efficacy, motivation, and learning. PMID:19817561

  19. Crushing virtual cigarettes reduces tobacco addiction and treatment discontinuation.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Girard B; Turcotte V; Bouchard S; Girard B

    2009-10-01

    Pilot studies revealed promising results regarding crushing virtual cigarettes to reduce tobacco addiction. In this study, 91 regular smokers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions that differ only by the action performed in the virtual environment: crushing virtual cigarettes or grasping virtual balls. All participants also received minimal psychosocial support from nurses during each of 12 visits to the clinic. An affordable virtual reality system was used (eMagin HMD) with a virtual environment created by modifying a 3D game. Results revealed that crushing virtual cigarettes during 4 weekly sessions led to a statistically significant reduction in nicotine addiction (assessed with the Fagerström test), abstinence rate (confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide), and drop-out rate from the 12-week psychosocial minimal-support treatment program. Increased retention in the program is discussed as a potential explanation for treatment success, and hypotheses are raised about self-efficacy, motivation, and learning.

  20. Ureteric stone in the presence of existing backache: lessons to learn.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, M Z; Ho, C C K; Goh, E H; Praveen, S; Das, S

    2012-01-01

    Incidence of urolithiasis is on the rise due to climatic changes especially global warming.The pain due to presence of ureteric stone is a well known identity but many times it may be asymptomatic or even masked by concurrent presence of backache. In the present article, we describe the case of a 43-year-old male who came to the clinic for treatment of backache persisting for more than two years. The patient complained of backache two years back for which he was treated with analgesics and physiotherapy which relieved his pain. No X-ray was taken earlier because the attending clinician thought the backache to be musculo-skeletal in origin. Recently, one day a sudden episode of backache in the midst of night compelled him to seek medical treatment. However, this time a X-ray was performed and it showed the presence of calculi in the right upper pelvis of ureter which measured 1.9 cm vertically. An ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was treated with two episodes of shock wave therapy which failed to crush the stone. A Double-J stent was inserted under general anaesthesia. The stone was crushed using a ureteroscope guided laser. The present case report describes how backache in professionals cannot be lightly attended. Even the characteristic groin to loin pain may be absent. All cases of backache should be properly investigated with an X-ray to rule out renal or ureteric calculi. PMID:22362229

  1. Liver Resection for Intrahepatic Stones

    PubMed Central

    Tranberg, Karl-Göran; Beng-Mark, Stig

    1990-01-01

    Intrahepatic stones are difficult to manage, especially when they are associated with bile duct stricture, cholangitis and destruction of liver parenchyma. Suggested modes of treatment include surgical bile duct exploration, endoscopic procedures, transhepatic cholangiolithotomy and liver resection. This paper reports 2 patients in whom liver resection was performed because of intrahepatic ductal stones, bile duct strictures and repeated episodes of cholangitis. Liver resection was uncomplicated and long-term results were satisfactory. Our results support the view that liver resection is indicated in rare instances of intrahepatic bile duct stones associated with bile duct strictures. PMID:2278909

  2. Investigation of off-axis crush of conical composite frusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyunjung

    The crush of composite conical shells under off-axis loading has two unique features. First, the details of fiber reinforcement & interfaces, including changes along the height, add a level of complexity. This can be related to the complex crush processes in composite crush such as delamination, fiber and matrix rupture, interlaminar and intralaminar crack, fiber pull out, macro and micro buckling etc. Secondly, this off-axis loading is in itself a complex process causing interaction at a variety of levels between material, configuration and structure. The presence of offaxis loading makes the process of understanding and tailoring composite material crush more difficult. This research began with the experimental approach of the composite conical frusta under axial and off-axis loading for 3 different woven fabric sets, i.e., carbon, E-glass, and carbon/E-glass hybrid with vinylester resin. As results, the failure modes of crush process are investigated, from which the common trends of the crush are gleaned. Specific mechanisms are identified and are further elucidated through computational and analytical investigations. The analytical approach incorporates modeling of both geometrical and damage mechanism related aspects with emphasis on the two critical mechanisms of splaying/bending and folding. Based on identification of phenomena for off-axis loading, a methodology is proposed for future development of optimized material-configuration sets. The computational approach is used to further visualize and elucidate the sequence of damage mechanisms as a means of validating the results of the analytical design based methodology. It is shown that conical frusta are extremely effective for energy absorption and that unique mechanisms can be tailored to provide the desired response even under cases of off-axis loading.

  3. Exposure to silica dust in the Danish stone industry.

    PubMed

    Guénel, P; Breum, N O; Lynge, E

    1989-04-01

    Exposure to silica dust among Danish stone workers was assessed from data collected in 1948-1980. After 1970, the exposure level was given in milligrams per cubic-meter and an exposure index (concentration of respirable dust divided by the threshold limit value for quartz) was calculated. The median index was 2.1 for the road and building material industry and 0.6 for the stonecutting industry. Crushing showed a median index of 2.6, compared to 1.0 for drilling, 0.9 for sieving, and 0.5 for cutting. The median index for the road and building material industry was higher for Bornholm than for other parts of Denmark. The median index of the stonecutting industry was 1.0 for Copenhagen and 0.5 for other parts of Denmark, and no data were available for Bornholm. Before 1970, the exposure level was given in particles per cubic meter, and few data were available on quartz content. Crushing showed the highest exposure before 1970. PMID:2549615

  4. Mechanisms of human kidney stone formation.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Coe, Fredric L; Williams, James; Lingeman, James E

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms of kidney stone formation and growth are not completely known, even though human stone disease appears to be one of the oldest diseases known to medicine. With the advent of the new digital endoscope and detailed renal physiological studies performed on well phenotyped stone formers, substantial advances have been made in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the most common type of stone former, the idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former as well as nine other stone forming groups. The observations from our group on human stone formers and those of others on model systems have suggested four entirely different pathways for kidney stone formation. Calcium oxalate stone growth over sites of Randall's plaque appear to be the primary mode of stone formation for those patients with hypercalciuria. Overgrowths off the ends of Bellini duct plugs have been noted in most stone phenotypes, do they result in a clinical stone? Micro-lith formation does occur within the lumens of dilated inner medullary collecting ducts of cystinuric stone formers and appear to be confined to this space. Lastly, cystinuric stone formers also have numerous small, oval, smooth yellow appearing calyceal stones suggestive of formation in free solution. The scientific basis for each of these four modes of stone formation are reviewed and used to explore novel research opportunities. PMID:25108546

  5. New crush test evaluates proppants under downhole conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Colt, J.R.; Johnson, R.L. II; Smith, S.B.; Smith, V.T.

    1995-10-01

    This article describes a modified crush resistance procedure for testing proppant strength in an elevated temperature, aqueous (hot and wet) environment that better simulates downhole conditions. Frac sand, resin-coated sand, light-weigh ceramic, resin-coated ceramic and bauxite proppants were used in this study. Results indicate a dramatic increase in fines generated for all proppant types tested under the hot and wet conditions when compared with results from the same test done under dry, ambient temperature conditions. This crush procedure may help determine the proppant`s physical characteristics under subterranean conditions.

  6. Reuse of industrial sludge as construction aggregates.

    PubMed

    Tay, J H; Show, K Y; Hong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Industrial wastewater sludge and dredged marine clay are high volume wastes that needed enormous space at landfill disposal sites. Due to the limitation of land space, there is an urgent need for alternative disposal methods for these two wastes. This study investigates the possibility of using the industrial sludge in combination with marine clay as construction aggregates. Different proportions of sludge and clay were made into round and angular aggregates. It was found that certain mix proportions could provide aggregates of adequate strength, comparable to that of conventional aggregates. Concrete samples cast from the sludge-clay aggregates yield compressive strengths in the range of 31.0 to 39.0 N/mm2. The results showed that the round aggregates of 100% sludge and the crush aggregates of sludge with up to 20% clay produced concrete of compressive strengths which are superior to that of 38.0 N/mm2 for conventional aggregate. The study indicates that the conversion of high volume wastes into construction materials is a potential option for waste management. PMID:11794664

  7. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  8. Kidney stones - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... stones: Eat less salt. Chinese and Mexican food, tomato juice, regular canned foods, and processed foods are ... beets, leeks, summer squash, sweet potatoes, spinach, and tomato soup Drinks: tea and instant coffee Other foods: ...

  9. Stone weathering in Southeast England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, Suzanne M.; Cooke, R. U.

    A 2-year exposure programme of Portland stone and Monk's Park stone at 25 sites in SE England revealed significant differences in weight losses, changes in surface roughness and chemistry at each location that can be attributed to the activity of air pollutants and salts. In particular it was shown that weight loss of exposed samples can be attributed to both solution and sulphation (the latter probably contributing an average of at least 39% for Portland stone, 44% of Monk's Park stone); that salt attack of sheltered samples is evident at Bletchley (brickmaking) and coastal locations; and surface roughness changes, measured by Ra values on a Surfcom plotter, appear to be particularly sensitive to processes of surface disruption, such as salt weathering. Analysis of SO 2 data at the sites showed significantly higher concentrations at London sites. The corresponding gradient in weight loss was gentler, probably as the result of the influence of other atmospheric variables.

  10. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  11. The Stepping Stone Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumfitt, A.

    Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

  12. Lunar stone saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  13. Effectiveness of a selective crushing method for a coal charge

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Yu.V.; Makhortova, L.A.; Revyakin, B.N.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of coke obtained from two different methods of preparation of coal charges used in Russia at two different locations is discussed. The two variables found to be very important were size distribution and ash content. When the raw coking base deteriorates, the effectiveness of a system of selective charge crushing increases when compared with the usual system of preparing coal for coking.

  14. 47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FEED IS AT CENTER, WITH DRIVE GEAR. THE 16 INCH FINES FEED IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IS SLIGHTLY RIGHT OF CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  15. 52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. 167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  17. 33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR IN CENTER. TEAM SUPERVISOR ROBERT W. GRZYWACZ ON LOWER LEVEL (LOCATION OF STEARNS-ROGER DRYER). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  18. LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE BIN AREA. NOTE STEEL CUSTOM ORE CHUTES IN BACKGROUND. THE FARTHEST BINS WERE LAST USED FOR STORAGE OF BALL MILL BALLS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  19. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers to extract latex from the sap during experiments to find native North American plant which would yield sufficiently high percentage of latex to produce natural rubber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  20. VIEW ALONG RAW MATERIAL CONVEYOR AT RIGHT WITH CRUSHED SHELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW ALONG RAW MATERIAL CONVEYOR AT RIGHT WITH CRUSHED SHELL CONVEYOR ABOVE. ENGINE AND RADIATOR AT LOWER LEFT. - F. & H. Benning Company Oyster Mill, 14430 Solomons Island Road (moved from 1014 Benning Road, Galesville, Anne Arundel County, Maryland), Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  1. Crushing Strength of Aluminum Honeycomb with Thinning Cell Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Nagahisa; Chiba, Norimasa; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kikuchi, Yuji

    To evaluate the crash safety of automobiles, various collision tests are performed by the auto industry. In the offset frontal collision test and the side collision test, the target is an aluminum honeycomb material which has thinning cell walls. In this study, based on the analyses of the shock absorption mechanism, a new crushing strength formula is proposed. First, load-displacement curves obtained from compression tests in quasi-static condition showed an almost linear relation between a thinning rate of cell walls and a crushing strength. Second, based on Wierzbicki's theory, a new formula was proposed, which can estimate a crushing strength of a honeycomb material with thinning wall. In addition, a correcting equation which considered an elastic deformation was also proposed. Third, parametric analyses were carried out with a FE model which can simulate a delamination between cell walls. The results obtained from the theory and FEM almost corresponded to each other for a wide range of the thinning rate. Fourth, impact tests were carried out, in which the weight was dropped freely at the speed used for the automobile tests. Those results almost agreed well with the sum of the theoretical crush strength and the inside air pressure.

  2. 1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  3. Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

    2013-06-01

    With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

  4. Detoxification of castor meal through reactive seed crushing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-edible oil crops, such as castor or jatropha, contain several toxic components. Post-harvest treatments should be used to reduce the risks associated with the possible dispersion of toxic compounds in the environment. A new processing technology named Reactive Seed Crushing was developed, which ...

  5. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

  6. Urinary stones in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nephrolithiasis is a common problem worldwide especially in areas of the hot climate like Saudi Arabia. The aim of this analysis was to study the characteristics of urinary stones in Eastern Saudi Arabia and to report the following: Composition of urinary stones, age and gender distribution, seasonal variation of stone development, comorbid conditions associated with stone development and the incidence of urinary stones. Methods: All urinary stones that were submitted to the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, previously Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization for analysis from January 2011 through January 2013 were analyzed. Results: A total of 384 urinary stones were collected and submitted for analysis from 347 patients. There was a male predominance with a male: female ratio of 3.9:1. The average age was 48.5 ± 12.8 years. Weight abnormality was predominant in both genders, and especially females. Calcium-based stones constituted the great majority (84.6%) followed by uric acid stones (12.8%). The other forms of stones were rare. More stones were recovered during the hot season, May to September. The calculated annual incidence of urolithiasis was 111/100,000 individuals. Conclusion: Calcium based stones are the most common urinary stones observed in Eastern Saudi Arabia. There is a clear association between the diagnosis of urinary stones and the hot season PMID:26834393

  7. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED SANDSTONE, QUARTZ, AND QUARTZITE, STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed sandstone, quartz, and quartzite industry. Particulates are emitted from drilling, blasting, loading and unloading trucks, transport on unpaved roads, washing, crushing, screening, conveying, and stockpiling....

  8. A case of crush syndrome induced by the kneeling seiza position.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Tomoatsu; Inoue, Shigeaki; Yamagiwa, Takeshi; Morita, Seiji; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2014-12-01

    Crush syndrome results in a characteristic syndrome of rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuric acute renal failure. The most commonly described crush injury is that which affects victims of natural disasters such as earthquakes. Here, we report a rare case of crush syndrome that was induced by the kneeling seiza position. PMID:25504202

  9. 31. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST TO CORNER WHERE SAMPLING/CRUSHING ADDITIONS ABUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST TO CORNER WHERE SAMPLING/CRUSHING ADDITIONS ABUT CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. INTACT BARREN SOLUTION TANK VISIBLE IN FRONT OF CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. THE ISOLATION OF SIMULATED UDDER ELEMENTS TO DECREASE DANGER TO PIGLETS DUE TO CRUSHING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three d post-farrowing is the critical period in which sows are more likely to overlay or crush piglets. Crushing accounts for 4.8 to 18 % of piglet mortality. Previous studies found that a simulated udder (SU) decreased the danger of piglet crushing by drawing the piglets away from the dam. The ...

  11. What I Need to Know about Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternate Language URL Español What I need to know about Kidney Stones Page Content On this page: ... stones? To prevent kidney stones, you need to know what caused your kidney stone. Your doctor may ...

  12. Percutaneous endoscopic management of intrahepatic stones in patients with altered biliary anatomy: A case series.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Suryaprakash; Bathini, Rajesh; Sharma, Atul; Maydeo, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Incidence of primary intrahepatic stones (IHS) in India is very less as compared to the Far East. However patients with altered biliary anatomy are prone for IHS formation secondary to anastomotic stricture formation. Indian data on percutaneous endoscopic management of IHS is scare. Five patients with IHS were managed percutaneously. All patients had undergone Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and were not suitable for direct endoscopic intervention. All patients underwent percutaneous biliary drainage followed by cholangioscopy-guided laser lithotripsy. Crushed stones were pushed across the anastomotic site using basket/balloon and ductal clearance was achieved. Good stone pulverization could be achieved in five patients (100 %). Complete ductal clearance could be achieved in all patients (100 %). Cholangioscopy-guided treatment of IHS can be valuable alternative to surgery in select group of patients especially those having dilated biliary tree with absence of intrahepatic strictures. However long-term follow up studies are required to see for recurrence of stone formation. PMID:27041379

  13. Drained cavity expansion in sands exhibiting particle crushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, A. R.; Khalili, N.

    2002-04-01

    The expansion of cylindrical and spherical cavities in sands is modelled using similarity solutions. The conventional Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and the state parameter sand behaviour model, which enables hardening-softening, are used in the analysis. The sand state is defined in terms of a new critical state line, designed to account for the three different modes of compressive deformation observed in sands across a wide range of stresses including particle rearrangement, particle crushing and pseudoelastic deformation. Solutions are generated for cavities expanded from zero and finite radii and are compared to those solutions where a conventional critical state line has been used. It is shown that for initial states typical of real quartz sand deposits, pseudoelastic deformation does not occur around an expanding cavity. Particle crushing does occur at these states and causes a reduction in the stress surrounding the cavity. This has major implications when using cavity expansion theory to interpret the cone penetration test and pressuremeter test.

  14. 34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ADDITIONS. SHAFT OF PRIMARY THICKENER No. 1 AT CENTER, WITH PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT. INTACT THICKENER SURGE TANK IS JUST ABOVE AND TO THE RIGHT (NORTH). ALL FRAMING ABOVE SECONDARY THICKENERS No. 2, No. 3, AND No. 7 HAS COLLAPSED. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  15. 43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ON TOP OF THE PLATFORM. OVERSIZE ORE IS FED BY CHUTE TO THE GYRATORY SECONDARY CRUSHER (MISSING) SITTING ON CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS TO LOWER RIGHT. UNDERSIZE ORE WAS FED BY THE LOWER CHUTE (CENTER LEFT) TO THE 24 INCH BELT CONVEYOR UNDER THE SECONDARY CRUSHER. THE DRYER ROOM IS BEYOND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J.

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  17. Bioreceptivity of building stones: a review.

    PubMed

    Miller, A Z; Sanmartín, P; Pereira-Pardo, L; Dionísio, A; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Macedo, M F; Prieto, B

    2012-06-01

    In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and will also provide useful information as regards selecting stones for the conservation of heritage monuments and construction of new buildings. Studies of the bioreceptivity of stone materials are reviewed here with the aim of providing a clear set of conclusions on the topic. Definitions of bioreceptivity are given, stone bioreceptivity experiments are described, and finally the stone properties related to bioreceptivity are discussed. We suggest that a standardized laboratory protocol for evaluating stone bioreceptivity and definition of a stone bioreceptivity index are required to enable creation of a database on the primary bioreceptivity of stone materials. PMID:22534363

  18. Gender Distribution of Pediatric Stone Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Thomas E.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Gearhart, John P.; Matlaga, Brian R.

    2008-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the gender prevalence among adult stone-formers is changing, with an increasing incidence of stone disease among women. No similar data have ever been reported for the pediatric stone-forming population. We performed a study to define the gender distribution among pediatric stone-formers using a large-scale national pediatric database. Our findings suggest that gender distribution among stone formers varies by age with male predominance in the first decade of life shifting to female predominance in the second decade. In contrast to adults, females in the pediatric population are more commonly affected by stones than are males. The incidence of pediatric stone disease appears to be increasing at a great rate in both sexes. Further studies should build on this hypothesis-generating work and define the effects of metabolic and environmental risk factors that may influence stone risk in the pediatric patient population

  19. "Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Janet Marie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

  20. Quantification of asymptomatic kidney stone burden by computed tomography for predicting future symptomatic stone events

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Michael G.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Krambeck, Amy E.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Elsherbiny, Hisham; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Lieske, John C.; Rule, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find the optimal characterization of asymptomatic radiographic stone burden on computed tomographic (CT) scans. Methods A survey was sent to stone formers who underwent a CT scan while asymptomatic during a stone clinic evaluation. Symptomatic stone passage events after CT scan were detected by survey and medical record review. Radiographic stone burden was quantified by number of stones, largest stone diameter, automated total stone volume (TSV), and bilateral stones and then compared as predictors of stone events. Results There were 550 stone formers; 43% had a stone event a median 4.7 years after the CT scan. Stone burden by quartiles was 0–1, 2–3, 4–6, ≥7 for number of stones; 0–2, 3–4, 5–7, ≥8 mm for largest stone diameter; and 0–8, 9–78, 79–280, and ≥ 281 mm3 for TSV; 48% had bilateral stones. The hazard ratios (HRs) for symptomatic event was 1.30 (p<0.001) for the number of stones per quartile, 1.26 (p<0.001) for largest stone diameter per quartile, 1.38 (p<0.001) for TSV per quartile, and 1.80 (p<0.001) for bilateral stones. On multivariable analysis, only TSV was an independent predictor of symptomatic events (HR=1.35 per quartile, p=0.01). This risk of events with TSV was also independent of demographics, urine chemistries, and stone composition. Among the 53 patients with interim events between CT scans, a rapid increase in TSV between CT scans (>570 mm3/year) predicted subsequent events (HR=2.8, p=0.05). Conclusions Automated TSV is more predictive of symptomatic events than manual methods for quantifying stone burden on CT scan. PMID:25440821

  1. Current concepts for oil decontamination of crush injuries: a review.

    PubMed

    Karimkhani, Chante; Amir, Mahsa; Dellavalle, Robert P; Ipaktchi, Kyros

    2014-01-01

    This anecdotal, non-systematic review serves to explore the principles and methods of effective oil decontamination from cutaneous wounds, particularly crush injuries. The current expansion of the petroleum industry is necessary to meet increasing world demands for oil. Most stages of oil refining and applications involve significant injury risks, particularly for crush injuries that become contaminated with petroleum compounds. A literature review regarding a standard of care for effective cutaneous oil decontamination is lacking. Based on case reports, animal models, and in vitro studies identified in our expert opinion review, standard water and soap cleansing may not be an appropriate approach. Instead, the principle of 'like dissolves like' guides the use of lipophilic, petroleum-derived solvents to attract and subsequently dissolve the petroleum contaminant from the skin injury. Limitations include paucity of and dated literature sources regarding the topic as well as no models specifically addressing crush injuries. Our literature review found that oil decontamination of cutaneous injuries may be best accomplished with oil-based cleansers. Certainly, this topic has significant importance for the potentially carcinogenic petroleum compounds that pervade virtually every aspect of modern human life. PMID:24855490

  2. Current concepts for oil decontamination of crush injuries: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This anecdotal, non-systematic review serves to explore the principles and methods of effective oil decontamination from cutaneous wounds, particularly crush injuries. The current expansion of the petroleum industry is necessary to meet increasing world demands for oil. Most stages of oil refining and applications involve significant injury risks, particularly for crush injuries that become contaminated with petroleum compounds. A literature review regarding a standard of care for effective cutaneous oil decontamination is lacking. Based on case reports, animal models, and in vitro studies identified in our expert opinion review, standard water and soap cleansing may not be an appropriate approach. Instead, the principle of ‘like dissolves like’ guides the use of lipophilic, petroleum-derived solvents to attract and subsequently dissolve the petroleum contaminant from the skin injury. Limitations include paucity of and dated literature sources regarding the topic as well as no models specifically addressing crush injuries. Our literature review found that oil decontamination of cutaneous injuries may be best accomplished with oil-based cleansers. Certainly, this topic has significant importance for the potentially carcinogenic petroleum compounds that pervade virtually every aspect of modern human life. PMID:24855490

  3. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on the architecture and urban landscape of many areas in NW Italy, some quite peculiar applications (for ex.: the "so-called "loze" or "lose", for the traditional roofing in alpine buildings) and the related constructive culture, the presence of an Eco-Museum, the occurrence of a local Fair (Pietra & Meccanizzazione), and many other important aspects.

  4. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge...: r3planning@fws.gov . Include ``Big Stone Draft CCP/ EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax:...

  5. Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

  6. Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Kidneys Clear Keep Your Kidneys Clear Kicking Kidney Stones Some say that passing a kidney stone is like delivering a baby made of razor ... is that, although they can be excruciatingly painful, kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage, and you may be ...

  7. Ultrasonic Destruction of Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Brannen, George E.; Bush, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Kidney stones may be removed without using a surgical incision by a combination of techniques and skills recently developed in the fields of urology and radiology. Percutaneous access to the kidney is established under fluoroscopic control. A guide wire placed into the renal pelvis allows a nephroscope to be inserted and the collecting system visualized. A long hollow metal probe is advanced through the nephroscope and placed in contact with the stone. This probe conducts the ultrasonic energy. The stone absorbs the energy and breaks into fine granules, which are evacuated by suction. Twenty-three consecutively seen patients presenting with 27 upper urinary tract calculi for which removal was indicated underwent successful percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy. Fifteen stones were located in the renal pelvis, eight in a calix, three at the ureteropelvic junction and one in the upper ureter. One infected staghorn calculus was removed. Two complications resulted in extended hospital stays, but in no patients were surgical incisions required. Of the 23 patients, 9 had previously had a surgical lithotomy. The authors believe that most renal and upper ureteral calculi for which removal is indicated may be extracted percutaneously with the aid of the ultrasonic lithotriptor. The patients may expect a rapid convalescence with diminished pain. Images PMID:6730470

  8. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  9. Treatment Outcomes of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Renal Stones and Predictive Factors of Stone-Free

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Soo Hyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for the treatment of renal stones and to analyze the predictive factors for stone-free. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent RIRS for renal stones from January 2000 to July 2009. We identified 66 RIRSs (63 patients with 3 bilateral renal stones) and collected data. Stone-free and success were respectively defined as no visible stones and clinically insignificant residual stones less than 3 mm on postoperative imaging; predictive factors for stone-free were evaluated. Results Of the 66 renal stones, 18 stones (27.3%) were located in the upper pole or midpole or renal pelvis and 48 (72.7%) in the lower pole with or without others, respectively. The mean cumulative stone burden was 168.9±392.5 mm2. The immediate postoperative stone-free rate was 69.7%, and it increased to 72.7% at 1 month after surgery. The success rate was 80.3% both immediately after the operation and 1 month later. In the multivariate analysis, stone location except at the lower pole (p=0.049) and small cumulative stone burden (p=0.002) were significantly favorable predictive factors for the immediate postoperative stone-free rate. The overall complication rate was 6%. Conclusions RIRS is a safe and effective treatment for renal stones. The stone-free rate of RIRS was particularly high for renal stones with a small burden, except for those located in the lower pole. RIRS could be considered in selective patients with renal stones. PMID:21165199

  10. Optimal Policies for Aggregate Recycling from Decommissioned Forest Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

  11. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

  12. Evaluation of Fracture in Concrete with Recycled Aggregate by Acoustic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishibata, Sayaka; Watanabe, Takeshi; Hashimoro, Chikanori; Kohno, Kiyoshi

    This research revealed fracture behavior of concrete in using recycled aggregates by Acoustic Emission as one of the Non-destructive Inspection. The phenomenon of acoustic emission (AE) is the propagation of elastic waves generated from a source, known as a micro-crack in an elastic material. There were taken to use low-treated recycled aggregate, crushed returned ready mixed concrete for aggregate and normal aggregate. Examination measured AE under the uniaxial compression test. The condition of load is repeated loading. As a result, fracture behavior due to low treated recycled aggregate was detected by AE. It is clarified that AE of concrete with low treated recycled aggregate appeared in low stress level. It has been understood that difference of aggregates becomes clear from Kaiser effect in repeated loading. In relation between RA value and average frequency, it has been understood the adhesion properties of the cement paste in recycled aggregate are appreciable.

  13. Experimental Analysis and Modeling of the Crushing of Honeycomb Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminanda, Y.; Castanié, B.; Barrau, J.-J.; Thevenet, P.

    2005-05-01

    In the aeronautical field, sandwich structures are widely used for secondary structures like flaps or landing gear doors. The modeling of low velocity/low energy impact, which can lead to a decrease of the structure strength by 50%, remains a designer’s main problem. Since this type of impact has the same effect as quasi-static indentation, the study focuses on the behavior of honeycomb cores under compression. The crushing phenomenon has been well identified for years but its mechanism is not described explicitly and the model proposed may not satisfy industrial purposes. To understand the crushing mechanism, honeycomb test specimens made of Nomex™, aluminum alloy and paper were tested. During the crushing, a CCD camera showed that the cell walls buckled very quickly. The peak load recorded during tests corresponded to the buckling of the common edge of three honeycomb cells. Further tests on corner structures to simulate only one vertical edge of a honeycomb cell show a similar behavior. The different specimens exhibited similar load/displacement curves and the differences observed were only due to the behavior of the different materials. As a conclusion of this phenomenological study, the hypothesis that loads are mainly taken by the vertical edge can be made. So, a honeycomb core subjected to compression can be modeled by a grid of nonlinear springs. A simple analytical model was then developed and validated by tests on Nomex™ honeycomb core indented by different sized spherical indenters. A good correlation between theory and experiment was found. This result can be used to satisfactorily model using finite elements the indentation on a sandwich structure with a metallic or composite skin and honeycomb core.

  14. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  15. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  16. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  17. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  18. Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, Brian R; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Novak, Thomas E; Trock, Bruce J

    2010-12-01

    The epidemiology of pediatric kidney stone has not yet been as rigorously defined as that of adult kidney stone disease. Herein, we review our recent epidemiologic works characterizing pediatric stone disease using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Specifically we investigated the age and gender distribution of pediatric kidney stone disease, changes in disease prevalence over time, and medical comorbidities associated with this disorder. We identified patients by International Classification of Disease 9th Edition (ICD-9) codes for renal and ureteral calculi as the primary diagnosis. Medical comorbidities were identified using specific comorbidity software. Statistical comparisons between children with and without stone disease were performed. In the first decade of life, stone disease was more prevalent among males than females; however, in the second decade of life females were more commonly affected. Of note, there was a significant increase in treated stone disease across both genders between 1997 and 2003. We also found that the risk of kidney stone diagnosis in children younger than 6 years of age was significantly associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The gender distribution among pediatric stone formers varies significantly by age, although overall females have a greater prevalence than males. There is also a strong association of stone disease and both diabetes and hypertension, although this was only observed in children less than 6 years of age. Taken all together, these findings suggest that urolithiasis in the young child is a complex systemic disease process. PMID:20967433

  19. Management of stone disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Azili, Mujdem Nur; Ozturk, Fatma; Inozu, Mihriban; Çayci, Fatma Şemsa; Acar, Banu; Ozmert, Sengul; Tiryaki, Tugrul

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating and treating renal stone disease in infants are technically challenging. In this study, we evaluated the surgical treatment of renal stones in children under 1 year of age. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients under 1 year old who were treated with ESWL, endourological or open surgical procedures for renal stone disease between January, 2009 and December, 2012. The patients' age, gender, stone size, stone location and number, complications, stone-free status, and postoperative complications were recorded. 19 of 121 infants with a mean age of 10.2 ± 3.07 months were treated with surgical procedures. Six (75%) of eight cystinuria patients required a surgical intervention. Retrograde endoscopic management was performed in thirteen patients (63.4%) as an initial surgical approach. There were three major (15.7%) complications. The rate of open surgical procedures was 31.6% (6 of 19 infants). The cutoff value of stone size for open surgery was 10 mm. There was a significant relationship between the conversion to open procedures and stone size, stone location, and symptom presentation especially the presence of obstruction (p < 0.05). After repeated treatments, the stone clearance rate of RIRS reached 84.6%. Retrograde intrarenal surgery is an effective and safe treatment method for renal stones in infants and can be used as a first-line therapy in most patients under 1 year old. This is especially important if an associated ureteral stone or lower pole stone that requires treatment is present and for patients with cystinuria, which does not respond favorably to ESWL. PMID:26036325

  20. Crush characteristic of foam-filled steel tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsalung, N.; Thinvongpituk, C.; Painthong, K.

    2009-12-01

    Square and circular tubes are generally used as a main frame for vehicle structures, since they are considered as high efficiency energy absorption elements. Therefore, various techniques to increase the energy absorption with less mass increment have been studied for years. One of those techniques is by filling foam in the tube. This paper is aimed to investigate the behavior of foam-filled square and circular tubes under axial load. The study was carried out experimentally by using a number of square and circular steel tubes having various geometries. Each tube was filled with polyurethane foam. The density of foam was varied from 100, 200 and 300 kg/m3. The foam-filled tubes were crushed axially using a 1,000 kN universal testing machine. The crush speed was 50 mm/min. The load-displacement were recorded and the energy absorption of each specimen was calculated and compared. In this paper the specific energy absorption is used as a key indicator, rather than energy absorption, in order to take the mass increment into account. The result revealed that the energy absorption of tube is increased as the density of foam increases. However, the specific energy absorption is not increased in many cases. In addition the collapse modes of the specimens were also discussed.

  1. Crush characteristic of foam-filled steel tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsalung, N.; Thinvongpituk, C.; Painthong, K.

    2010-03-01

    Square and circular tubes are generally used as a main frame for vehicle structures, since they are considered as high efficiency energy absorption elements. Therefore, various techniques to increase the energy absorption with less mass increment have been studied for years. One of those techniques is by filling foam in the tube. This paper is aimed to investigate the behavior of foam-filled square and circular tubes under axial load. The study was carried out experimentally by using a number of square and circular steel tubes having various geometries. Each tube was filled with polyurethane foam. The density of foam was varied from 100, 200 and 300 kg/m3. The foam-filled tubes were crushed axially using a 1,000 kN universal testing machine. The crush speed was 50 mm/min. The load-displacement were recorded and the energy absorption of each specimen was calculated and compared. In this paper the specific energy absorption is used as a key indicator, rather than energy absorption, in order to take the mass increment into account. The result revealed that the energy absorption of tube is increased as the density of foam increases. However, the specific energy absorption is not increased in many cases. In addition the collapse modes of the specimens were also discussed.

  2. Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

    2011-12-01

    Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly, so every visitor has a unique sound adventure. The experience is intensely engaging, playful and yet a little unsettling and provides a truly unique way to explore our scientific data and present geoscience research to the public. Crush-2 has featured in an exhibition on Sonic Interaction Design at the Norwegian Museum of Science, Technology and Medicine, Oslo, Norway (27 May - 21 August 2011) and forms part of a solo exhibition by Barrett at Galleri ROM, Oslo in fall 2011. Visitor feedback from the Museum exhibition suggests that users were initially attracted to the exhibit by its interactive 'hands-on' nature and dramatic sounds, but as they 'explored' the soundspace, became curious to ask questions about the underlying science. The concept of using sound rather than visual gives an unusual and therefore highly memorable experience. This science-art collaboration provides a novel and highly enjoyable way to present our work to the public - that is particularly attractive to youngsters. Visitors to this poster presentation will be able to explore the Crush-2 soundscape using a laptop and headphone interactive mode.

  3. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake of vegetables that can carry a plentiful supply of alkali that counteract the acid load coming from animal protein. New prospective studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the diet for the prevention of renal stones should be oriented to simple dietary advices that should be focused on a few specific goals easily controlled by means of self-evaluation tools, such as the LAKE food screener. PMID:23392537

  4. Piedra Pajarilla: A candidate for nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource from Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Dolores; Gimeno, Ana; del Barrio, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Piedra Pajarilla is a tourmaline bearing leucogranite outcropping at Martinamor, near Salamanca, Spain. It is part of the Hercynian granitic chain in the Spanish Central System. The stone received the local name "Piedra Pajarilla", meaning "Little Bird Stone" due to the shape of the many tourmaline aggregates that are the main visual feature of the rock. This local name has been extrapolated to every granitic stone used in the area, even if they differ significantly in mineralogy, and as recently tested in physical and mechanical properties as well. Here we present the nomination of Piedra Pajarilla as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used since Roman times in Salamanca (Spain) and since the Middle Ages in the construction of major historic buildings, including both the Old and New Cathedrals, and many additional churches, castles and walls in the Salamanca area. Salamancás historic city core has been granted UNESCO World Heritage status in 1988, and all associated buildings, monuments and pedestrian streets are constructed from original materials. One of utilised materials, Piedra Pajarilla, was quarried for centuries from the immediate area. It was also the preferred building stone of many internationally renowned architects of Spanish origin during the 18th and 19th centuries especially involved in reconstruction following the Lisbon earthquake. Although the associated quarries are no longer active, the Piedra Pajarilla quarry sites remain relatively undisturbed and accessible. A renewal of quarrying is consequently feasible if additional stone supplies are required for heritage restoration. Thus there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries in anticipation of such work. The importance of Salamanca as emblematic heritage makes the historic stone quarries worthwhile to preserve as well. At the same time, Piedra Pajarilla can be considered as the first of several natural stones that can contribute to the denomination of a "Global Heritage Stone Province", as a suite of associated stone resources have been utilised in the historical buildings of Salamanca.

  5. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2009-06-01

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  6. Bioremediation of weathered-building stone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Webster, Alison; May, Eric

    2006-06-01

    Atmospheric pollution and weathering of stone surfaces in urban historic buildings frequently results in disfigurement or damage by salt crust formation (often gypsum), presenting opportunities for bioremediation using microorganisms. Conventional techniques for the removal of these salt crusts from stone have several disadvantages: they can cause colour changes; adversely affect the movement of salts within the stone structure; or remove excessive amounts of the original surface. Although microorganisms are commonly associated with detrimental effects to the integrity of stone structures, there is growing evidence that they can be used to treat this type of stone deterioration in objects of historical and cultural significance. In particular, the ability and potential of different microorganisms to either remove sulfate crusts or form sacrificial layers of calcite that consolidate mineral surfaces have been demonstrated. Current research suggests that bioremediation has the potential to offer an additional technology to conservators working to restore stone surfaces in heritage buildings. PMID:16647149

  7. Preparation-induced errors in EPR dosimetry of enamel: pre- and post-crushing sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Errors in dose estimation as a function of grain size for tooth enamel has been previously shown for beta irradiation after crushing. We tested the effect of gamma radiation applied to specimens before and after crushing. We extend the previous work in that we found that post-crushing irradiation altered the slope of the dose-response curve of the hydroxyapatite signal and produced a grain-size dependent offset. No changes in the slope of the dose-response curve were seen in enamel caps irradiated before crushing.

  8. Potential crush loading of radioactive material packages in highway, rail and marine accidents. Regulatory report

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, J.D.; Romander, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential crush loads on radioactive material packages in highway, rail, and marine accidents. The study concluded that if allowance is made for small gaps between packages, the deflections produced by inertial crush are comparable (within 20%) of those produced by impact under the same accident conditions. Therefore an additional qualification test is not needed to ensure that the level of protection against crush is comparable to the current level of protection against impact. The study also evaluated potential crush loads in extremely severe transportation accidents. In highway accidents, the most severe crush environment is produced when a truck carrying several small, soft packages strikes a rigid barrier and the inertia of the aft packages crushes the front package. In railroad accidents, severe crush environments are produced when a railcar on which the packages are carried strikes a barrier or when the packages are pinned between two railcars after a derailment. Analysis of ship collisions showed that for packages carried by a containerized cargo ship struck by another ship, the probability of producing significant crush loads is small because most collisions occur at low velocities during maneuvering. The study suggested various types of package tests which would simulate severe crush loads in each mode of transport.

  9. The effect of recycled concrete aggregate properties on the bond strength between RCA concrete and steel reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L. West, J.S.; Tighe, S.L.

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that replacing natural coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) has on concrete bond strength with reinforcing steel. Two sources of RCA were used along with one natural aggregate source. Numerous aggregate properties were measured for all aggregate sources. Two types of concrete mixture proportions were developed replacing 100% of the natural aggregate with RCA. The first type maintained the same water-cement ratios while the second type was designed to achieve the same compressive strengths. Beam-end specimens were tested to determine the relative bond strength of RCA and natural aggregate concrete. On average, natural aggregate concrete specimens had bond strengths that were 9 to 19% higher than the equivalent RCA specimens. Bond strength and the aggregate crushing value seemed to correlate well for all concrete types.

  10. Modern management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, James

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

  11. Computational stoning method for surface defect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ninshu; Zhu, Xinhai

    2013-12-01

    Surface defects on outer panels of automotive bodies must be controlled in order to improve the surface quality. The detection and quantitative evaluation of surface defects are quite difficult because the deflection of surface defects is very small. One of detecting methods for surface defects used in factories is a stoning method in which a stone block is moved on the surface of a stamped panel. The computational stoning method was developed to detect surface low defect by authors based on a geometry contact algorithm between a stone block and a stamped panel. If the surface is convex, the stone block always contacts with the convex surface of a stamped panel and the contact gap between them is zero. If there is a surface low, the stone block does not contact to the surface and the contact gap can be computed based on contact algorithm. The convex surface defect can also be detected by applying computational stoning method to the back surface of a stamped panel. By performing two way stoning computations from both the normal surface and the back surface, not only the depth of surface low defect but also the height of convex surface defect can be detected. The surface low defect and convex surface defect can also be detected through multi-directions. Surface defects on the handle emboss of outer panels were accurately detected using the computational stoning method and compared with the real shape. A very good accuracy was obtained.

  12. Natural Abundance 43Ca NMR as a Tool for Exploring Calcium Biomineralization: Renal Stone Formation and Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2011-12-07

    Renal stone diseases are a global health issue with little effective therapeutic recourse aside from surgery and shock-wave lithotripsy, primarily because the fundamental chemical mechanisms behind calcium biomineralization are poorly understood. In this work, we show that natural abundance 43Ca NMR at 21.1 T is an effective means to probe the molecular-level Ca2+ structure in oxalate-based kidney stones. We find that the 43Ca NMR resonance of an authentic oxalate-based kidney stone cannot be explained by a single pure phase of any common Ca2+-bearing stone mineral. Combined with XRD results, our findings suggest an altered calcium oxalate monohydrate-like Ca2+ coordination environment for some fraction of Ca2+ in our sample. The evidence is consistent with existing literature hypothesizing that nonoxalate organic material interacts directly with Ca2+ at stone surfaces and is the primary driver of renal stone aggregation and growth. Our findings show that 43Ca NMR spectroscopy may provide unique and crucial insight into the fundamental chemistry of kidney stone formation, growth, and the role organic molecules play in these processes.

  13. Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

    2013-04-01

    Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global stone heritage.

  14. Remote control continuous mining machine crushing accident data study

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-11

    A committee was formed to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents as part of US MSHA's efforts to reduce and eliminate these types of accidents. The committee was tasked with collecting, reviewing, and evaluating remote control accident data to identify significant factors that could possibly contribute to remote control accidents. The report identifies that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another (place changing). Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. 10 figs., 5 tabs., 7 apps.

  15. What is the matter with crushing pills and opening capsules?

    PubMed

    Kirkevold, Oyvind; Engedal, Knut

    2010-02-01

    This study aims to map out to what degree medication is being crushed and mixed into the patients' food and beverages and how often this practice included medication, which has a statement in the Norwegian pharmaceutical compendium that this should not be done (inappropriately altered medication (IAM)). Data from a total of 2108 patients in 151 wards in 65 nursing homes were collected. The data contained information about the kind of drugs the patient received, in which form it was given and how it was given. Patient characteristics and ward characteristics were also recorded. Twenty-three per cent were given at least one drug mixed into their food or beverages and 10% were given at least one IAM. This study shows a malpractice regarding one aspect of medication in nursing homes. Even though we need more knowledge, we know enough to take action to raise the quality of the administration of medicines in nursing homes. PMID:20158553

  16. A Lion of a Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm.

    This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  17. Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

  18. Chemical dissolution of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Leuschner, U; Baumgärtel, H

    1984-01-01

    Dissolution of bile duct calculi is complicated by the facts that about 30-40% of them are pigment stones and the stone cannot be unambiguously identified by radiography before the start of therapy. Thus it does not appear logical only to infuse irrigation media that dissolve cholesterol (cholate, Capmul) but to use solutions that also dissolve calcium bilirubinate. Calcium bilirubinate is the most important compound in primary pigment stones in the bile duct. Thin sections of calcium bilirubinate stones can be dissolved in EDTA 4Na. The rate is determined by the temperature, the pH, and the surface tension of the solution. In vitro experiments showed that cholesterol stones and composition stones can be dissolved more rapidly by alternating therapy with an EDTA solution and a Capmul preparation than by monotherapy with glycerol octanoate, and that bovine pigment stones can also be disaggregated. Since calcium bilirubinate stones consist up to 20-60% of an organic matrix, a mixture of glycerol octanoate and EDTA was prepared containing SH-activated papain. It was possible, by using this mixture, to disaggregate human calcium bilirubinate stones. The process of dissolution is complex and is not yet understood in detail. It is supposed that the important steps are the extraction of calcium, the chemical solution and molecular dispersion of bilirubin and cholesterol, and the disaggregation of the structure of the stone by surface-active substances. The irrigation media have but little effect on black pigment stones. Toxicity studies have shown that cholate, glycerol octanoate, and glycerol octanoate preparations are locally toxic and can lead to cholangitis and cholecystitis in animals. EDTA solutions bring about lesser changes. In humans, it has not been possible to distinguish these inflammatory changes unambiguously from those found in untreated gallstone patients. PMID:6433355

  19. Dynamic Crush Behaviors Of Aluminum Honeycomb Specimens Under Compression Dominant Inclined Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Pan, Jwo; Tyan, Tau; Prasad, Priya

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic crush behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens under out-of-plane inclined loads are investigated by experiments. Different types of honeycomb specimens were designed for crush tests under pure compressive and inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction. A test fixture was designed for both quasi-static and dynamic crush tests under inclined loads. The results of the quasi-static crush tests indicate that the normal crush and shear strengths under inclined loads are consistent with the corresponding results under combined loads. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same. The trends of the normalized normal crush strengths under inclined loads for specimens with different in-plane orientation angles as functions of the impact velocity are very similar to each other. Based on the experimental results, a macroscopic yield criterion as a function of the impact velocity is proposed. The experimental results suggest that as the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state. The experimental results also show similar microscopic progressive folding mechanisms in honeycomb specimens under pure compressive and inclined loads. However, honeycomb specimens under inclined loads show inclined stacking patterns of folds due to the asymmetric location of horizontal plastic hinge lines.

  20. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure...

  1. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure...

  2. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure...

  3. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure...

  4. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure...

  5. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  6. Armenian Khatchkar (Stone Cross) Carved in 1308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacobian, Mossik

    This booklet introduces students to a unique form of stone sculpture made by Armenian artists for over twelve centuries, the khatchkar, or stone cross. The document is part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans. It contains a reading on khatchkars as symbols of faith for eternity, a…

  7. The Stone Center: A Visitor's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Shirley M.

    1991-01-01

    Author describes her perspective on the Stone Center for Developmental Services and Studies, integral part of Wellesley College established in 1981 and dedicated to prevention of emotional problems, primarily among women. Describes Education, Research, and Counseling divisions of the Stone Center and the basic tenets that drive the center's…

  8. Ventricular candidiasis in stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Ventricular candidiasis is consistently one of the most prominent pathologic conditions diagnosed in stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) in the United Arab Emirates, predominately affecting the captive population. Predisposing factors are a humid environment, stress, immunosuppression, inadequate nutrition, and an extended use of oral antibiotics. In this report, we describe the clinical signs, diagnosis, and pathologic result in stone curlews with ventricular candidiasis. PMID:22017057

  9. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  10. First-aid treatments of crush injuries after earthquake: 2 special cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Bai, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Qing

    2014-07-01

    Hyperkalemia and acute renal failure are the life-threatening complications of crush injuries. Vigilant prehospital emergency care is vital to reduce the complications. We report and discuss 2 cases diagnosed as crush syndrome after earthquake, in order to illustrate the value of prehospital application of tourniquets to prevent hyperkalemia accompanying extremity crush injuries. The victim in case 1 died of hyperkalemia shortly after extrication without tourniquet. The prehospital tourniquet had been used to avoid uncontrollable hemorrhage and release of toxic metabolites into the circulation in case 2. Providers need to be fully aware of the risk of hyperkalemia in the field for patients with crush syndrome. Tourniquet application is strongly recommended in the prehospital setting for severe crush injuries. PMID:24534195

  11. Kidney stone risk following modern bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D; Canales, Benjamin K

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers. PMID:24658828

  12. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  13. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts' gain.

  14. Economics of stone disease/treatment

    PubMed Central

    Strohmaier, Walter Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Urolithiasis is a considerable economic burden for health systems, especially in industrialised countries where the incidence of stone disease has increased during the last few decades, and probably will further increase for several reasons. Methods The survey was based on investigations in collaboration with a German health insurance company and on a literature search (PubMed, and the author’s collection of proceedings of urolithiasis conferences: The keywords included economics, cost, urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, renal stone disease, metaphylaxis, recurrence) during 1999–2011. In all, 1221 articles were found but only those cited here were sufficient for the purpose of the study. Due to the nature of the subject it is not possible to give levels of evidence, as economic data on stone treatment cannot be obtained with randomised studies. Results The costs for the treatment and diagnosis of stones vary tremendously among different healthcare systems. Several calculation models showed that metaphylaxis is medically and economically effective when used rationally. Rational metaphylaxis is restricted to patients with a high risk of recurrence (brushite, uric acid, cystine and infected stones, patients with residual fragments after stone treatment and recurrent calcium oxalate stone formers). Conclusions For the groups identified, metaphylaxis is cost-effective in almost all healthcare systems, but the cost saved differs. The savings increase even more when adding the economic loss avoided from days off work due to treatment of recurrent stones. In most countries, stone frequency must exceed one stone per patient per year before medical therapy is more cost-effective than dietary measures. PMID:26558036

  15. Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives from said compositions

    DOEpatents

    Minnick, L. John

    1981-01-01

    Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives of said compositions, and cementitious compositions and aggregates produced by said method, wherein fluidized bed combustion residue and pozzolanic material, such as pulverized coal combustion system fly ash, are incorporated in a cementitious mix. The mix is cast into desired shape and cured. If desired, the shape may then be crushed so as to result in a fluidized bed combustion residue-fly ash aggregate material or the shape may be used by itself.

  16. Modeling of crushed ore agglomeration for heap leach operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Nikhil

    The focus of this dissertation is modeling of the evolution of size distribution in batch agglomeration drum. There has been no successful work on modeling of crushed ore agglomeration although the framework for population balance modeling of pelletization and granulation is readily available. In this study three different batch agglomeration drums were used to study the agglomeration kinetics of copper, gold and nickel ores. The agglomerate size distribution is inherently subject to random fluctuation due the very nature of the process. Yet, with careful experimentation and size analysis the evolution of size distribution can be followed. The population balance model employing the random coalesce model with a constant rate kernel was shown to work well in a micro and lab scale agglomerator experiments. In small drums agglomerates begin to break in a short time, whereas the growth is uniform in the lab scale drum. The experimental agglomerate size distributions exhibit self-preserving size spectra which confirms the applicability of coalescence rate based model. The same spectra became a useful fact for predicting the size distribution with an empirical model. Since moisture is a principal variable, the absolute deviation from optimum moisture was used as the primary variable in the empirical model. Having established a model for the size distribution, the next step was to delve into the internal constituents of each agglomerate size class. To this end, an experimental scheme known as dip test was devised. The outcome of the test was the size distribution of progeny particles which make up a given size class of agglomerate. The progeny size distribution was analyzed with a model that partitions the particles into a host and guest category. The ensuing partition coefficient is a valuable in determining how a particle in a size class participates in larger agglomerates. This dissertation lays out the fundamentals for applying the population balance concept to batch agglomeration, specifically crushed ore agglomeration. The experimental difficulties and how to overcome them are described. An empirical model that is readily useful for plant heap leach operations is shown in detail. The analysis of constituent particles within agglomerate size class is done with a partition model. The guest and host nature of particles, thus delineated, helps one to anticipate the nature of agglomerates that would be formed with a given ore size distribution. Thus, all aspects of batch agglomeration are addressed in this work.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of 4-(Phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one on optic nerve crush model in rats.

    PubMed

    Chien, Jia-Ying; Sheu, Jyh-Horng; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Tsai, Rong-Kung; Huang, Shun-Ping

    2016-02-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of coral-related compound, 4-(phenylsulfanyl)butan-2-one (4-PSB-2) on optic nerves (ON) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in a rat model subjected to ON crush. The ONs of adult male Wistar rat (150-180 g) were crushed by a standardized method. The control eyes received a sham operation. 4-PSB-2 (5 mg/kg in 0.2 mL phosphate-buffered saline) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control) was immediately administered after ON crush once by subcutaneous injection. Rats were euthanized at 2 weeks after the crush injury. RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold (FG) application to the superior colliculus, and visual function was assessed by flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP). TUNEL assay, immunoblotting analysis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) in the retinas, and immunohistochemistry of ED1 in the ON were evaluated. Two weeks after the insult, the RGC densities in the central and mid-peripheral retinas in ON-crushed, 4-PSB-2-treated rats were significantly higher than that of the corresponding ON-crushed, PBS-treated rats FVEP measurements showed a significantly better preserved latency of the P1 wave in the ON-crushed, 4-PSB-2-treated rats than the ON-crushed, PBS treated rats. TUNEL assays showed fewer TUNEL positive cells in the ON-crushed, 4-PSB-2-treated rats. The number of ED1 positive cells was reduced at the lesion site of the optic nerve in the ON-crushed, 4-PSB-2-treated group. Furthermore, administration of 4-PSB-2 significantly attenuated ON crush insult-stimulated iNOS and COX2 expression in the retinas. These results demonstrated that 4-PSB-2 protects RGCs and helps preserve the visual function in the rat model of optic nerve crush. 4-PSB-2 may work by being anti-apoptotic and by attenuation of the inflammatory responses involving less ED1 positive cells infiltration in ON as well as suppression of iNOS/COX-2 signaling pathway in the retinas to rescue RGCs after ON crush injury. PMID:26472213

  18. Gall stone pulverisation strategy in patients treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and follow up results of maintenance treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Boscaini, M; Piccinni-Leopardi, M; Andreotti, F; Montori, A

    1994-01-01

    Between November 1988 and July 1992 70 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESL) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; mean (SD) dose 11.2 (1.9) mg/kg/day). Fifty three patients have been followed for one year. One week after lithotripsy, 30.6% had completely eliminated all stone fragments from the gall bladder and one year later 93.9% were free of stones. Three factors were considered important in achieving these results. 'Pulverisation' of the stone--that is, its fragmentation into echogenic dust (crystalline aggregates, some few hundred mu in size) or particles similar to grains of sand, smaller than 1 mm in diameter, or both, is required. Secondly, dust and particles were rapidly eliminated, strongly suggesting a mechanical elimination process by physiological gall bladder contractions. Thirdly, there must be chemical dissolution with biliary acids. This therapeutic approach gave excellent results without causing any clinically relevant side effects. The first 20 patients who became free of stones after ESL were given oral bile acid maintenance treatment--300 mg/day of UDCA at bedtime, for two years. All were asymptomatic and none had suffered a recurrence after two years. In four patients, crystalline aggregates, detected in gall bladder bile by ultrasound, were subsequently dissolved between one and three months after resuming a full dose regimen of UDCA. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8307431

  19. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  20. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  1. An Evaluation of Ethyl Silicate-Based Grouts for Weathered Silicate Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolph, Brittany Helen

    Culturally significant monuments made of weathered siliceous stone often display sub-surface condition issues such as cracks and voids. These issues require grouts that are ideally compatible with the composition and properties of the substrate. Based on the successful application of ethyl silicates as consolidants in recent literature, this study examines possible formulation pathways for the development of a grout incorporating ethyl silicate. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTL) as a catalyst, silicone oil (PDMS), various grades of ground quartz, sepiolite, and hollow glass spheres were used in differing concentrations to create samples. These were visually and physically assessed on workability, separation, shrinkage, cracking, strength, and flexibility. Quantitative analysis was performed on selected formulations using UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy in coordination with a weight loss experiment to investigate kinetics, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Successful formulations tended to include oligomeric TEOS, crushed quartz of mixed grades, sepiolite powder, and PDMS, and show promise for future investigations.

  2. Stone orientation affects the mechanism of failure in artificial kidney stones subject to shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Cauwelaert, Javier; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-10-01

    Micro computed tomography (CT) imaging was used to follow the progressive development of cracks in artificial kidney stones. The artificial stones were made from U30 cement with a cylindrical shape (6.5 mm diameter and 8.5 mm long). The stones were held within a polypropylene vial in one of three orientations: vertical, horizontal, and angled at 45 deg. The stones were treated with an electromagnetic lithotripter and the initiation and growth of cracks was observed using microCT. The images show that the orientation of the stones with respect to the shock changes the dominant mechanism for fragmentation. Vertical stones developed a spall-like crack near the distal surface, which propagated from the surface to the interior of the stone. Initiation of a secondary spall-like crack was observed proximal to the first crack. Little surface damage was observed. Horizontal stones presented pitting in the proximal surface and erosion in lateral faces, indicating the action of cavitation. Angled stones presented both spall-like fracture in either the leading or the distal corners and surface damage (pitting) in the proximal surface. Experiments are being performed to follow the development of cracks in human kidney stones. [Work supported by the Whitaker Foundation.

  3. Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ureteral Stones: Evaluation of Patient and Stone Related Predictive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Ozgur; Tuncer, Murat; Sahin, Cahit; Demirkol, Mehmet K.; Kafkasli, Alper; Sarica, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the patient and stone related factors which may influence the final outcome of SWL in the management of ureteral stones. Materials and Methods: Between October 2011 and October 2013, a total of 204 adult patients undergoing SWL for single ureteral stone sizing 5 to 15 mm were included into the study program. The impact of both patient (age, sex, BMI,) and stone related factors (laterality, location, longest diameter and density as CT HU) along with BUN and lastly SSD (skin to stone distance) on fragmentation were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Stone free rates for proximal and distal ureteral stones were 68.8% and 72.7%, respectively with no statistically significant difference between two groups (p=0.7). According to univariate and multivariate analyses, while higher BMI (mean: 26.8 and 28.1, p=0.048) and stone density values (mean: 702 HU and 930 HU, p<0.0001) were detected as statistically significant independent predictors of treatment failure for proximal ureteral stones, the only statistically significant predicting parameter for the success rates of SWL in distal ureteral stones was the higher SSD value (median: 114 and 90, p=0.012). Conclusions: Our findings have clearly shown that while higher BMI and increased stone attenuation values detected by NCCT were significant factors influencing the final outcome of SWL treatment in proximal ureteral stones; opposite to the literature, high SSD was the only independent predictor of success for the SWL treatment of distal ureteral stones. PMID:26401859

  4. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, Rajendra; Jali, Mallikarjuna; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Patne, Pravin; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of urinary stone disease has shown a steep rise in recent decades along with marked modifications in dietary habits and life- style. There has been an increased prevalence of urinary stone disease in patients with diabetes. We took up this study to determine the association of diabetes mellitus with kidney stones in patients undergoing surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with renal stones for surgical management formed the study group. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by noting the weight and height of the patient. The extracted stone/stone fragments were analyzed to determine the chemical composition. Urinary pH was similarly noted in all. Results: The mean BMI among the diabetics was 26.35 ± 5.20 (range 17.75-35.60), whereas the mean BMI among the non-diabetics was 23.41 ± 2.85 (range 17.71-31.62) (P < 0.0004). The incidence of uric acid calculi in the diabetics was significantly high (P < 0.03). The mean urinary pH among the diabetics was 5.61 ± 0.36 and among the non-diabetics was 6.87 ± 0.32, which was significantly lower (P < 0.000044). Conclusions: There is a strong association between type 2 diabetes and uric acid stone formation. There is also a strong association between diabetes mellitus, BMI, and also with lower urinary pH. PMID:26605219

  6. How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

  7. Agglomeration and leaching of a crushed secondary sulfide copper ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Gregory Roger

    A crushed, secondary sulfide copper ore was provided by a large mining company. The agglomeration of the ore was studied in three phases. In phase one, a series of scoping experiments were conducted to characterize agglomerates produced in terms of agglomerate size distribution, electrical conductivity, hydraulic conductivity, and a test of binding strength. Using these tools and visual appearance, optimum agglomeration conditions were determined to be 13.0% moisture determined on a wet basis, 60 g/L H2SO 4, 30% critical speed, and 3 minute agglomeration time. Upon determination of agglomeration conditions, the study entered a second phase where agglomerates were subjected to leaching in order to determine the relation of leaching behavior to agglomeration conditions. Acid concentration was found to be important for the initial week of leaching. None of the agglomeration conditions affected copper recovery at 90 days of leaching. Following leaching, acid-resistant agglomeration aids were evaluated to identify those with a potential to improve agglomerate stability and potentially, leaching behavior. Two cationic polymers were selected from an assortment of potential binders. Both polymers greatly improved agglomerate strength and hydraulic conductivity when used during agglomeration at a dosage of 0.5 kg polymer per tonne of ore.

  8. Contaminated open fracture and crush injury: a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Shawn R; Camara, Justin; Camara, Richard; Duffy, Lynn; Waites, Ken; Kim, Hyunki; Zinn, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Modern warfare has caused a large number of severe extremity injuries, many of which become infected. In more recent conflicts, a pattern of co-infection with Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged. We attempted to recreate this pattern in an animal model to evaluate the role of vascularity in contaminated open fractures. Historically, it has been observed that infected bones frequently appear hypovascular, but vascularity in association with bone infection has not been examined in animal models. Adult rats underwent femur fracture and muscle crush injury followed by stabilization and bacterial contamination with A. baumannii complex and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Vascularity and perfusion were assessed by microCT angiography and SPECT scanning, respectively, at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after injury. Quantitative bacterial cultures were also obtained. Multi-bacterial infections were successfully created, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus predominating. There was overall increase in blood flow to injured limbs that was markedly greater in bacteria-inoculated limbs. Vessel volume was greater in the infected group. Quadriceps atrophy was seen in both groups, but was greater in the infected group. In this animal model, infected open fractures had greater perfusion and vascularity than non-infected limbs. PMID:26273534

  9. Segmented Aluminum Honeycomb Characteristics in T-Direction, Dynamic Crush Environments

    SciTech Connect

    BATEMAN,VESTA I.; BROWN,FREDERICK A.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.; SWANSON,LLOYD H.

    2000-08-23

    Thirteen segmented aluminum honeycomb samples (5 in. diameter and 1.5 in. height) have been crushed in an experimental configuration that uses a drop table impact machine. The 38.0 pcf bulk density samples are a unique segmented geometry that allows the samples to be crushed while maintaining a constant cross-sectional area. A crush weight of 175 lb was used to determine the rate sensitivity of the honeycomb's highest strength orientation, T-direction, in a dynamic environment of {approx}50 fps impact velocity. Experiments were conducted for two honeycomb manufacturers and at two temperatures, ambient and +165 F. Independent measurements of the crush force were made with a custom load cell and a force derived from acceleration measurements on the drop table using the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique with a Calibrated Force (SWAT-CAL). Normalized stress-strain curves for all thirteen experiments are included and have excellent repeatability. These data are strictly valid for material characteristics in the T orientation because the cross-sectional area of the honeycomb did not change during the crush. The dynamic crush data have a consistent increase in crush strength of {approximately}7--19% as compared to quasi-static data and suggest that dynamic performance may be inferred from static tests. An uncertainty analysis estimates the error in these data is {+-} 11%.

  10. Evaluating the Psychological Concomitants of Other-Sex Crush Experiences During Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G

    2016-05-01

    Very little empirical attention has been paid to other-sex crush experiences during adolescence. As a result, it is not known whether such experiences, which appear to be relatively common, impact psychological adjustment outcomes. This two-wave (3 month interval) longitudinal study of 268 young adolescents (48 % girls; M age at Time 1 = 11.84 years) examined the psychological concomitants of other-sex crush experiences (having and being viewed by others as a crush). Anxious-withdrawal and gender were evaluated as moderators. Peer nomination measures at Time 1 assessed both types of crush experiences and mutual friendship involvement, and participants completed self-report measures of loneliness and depressive symptoms at Times 1 and 2. The results from regression analyses revealed significant associations between having an other-sex crush and depressive symptoms at Time 1 and loneliness at Time 2, after accounting for the effects of mutual friendship. Two interaction effects also revealed that crush status was a risk factor for depressive symptoms at low levels of anxious-withdrawal but a protective factor at high levels. The findings provide the first empirical evidence that other-sex crush experiences are developmentally significant during early adolescence. PMID:26984754

  11. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone < 5 mm in diameter is identified, the expectation is that this will pass without intervention. Initially medical management is still useful for stones between 5 and 10mm in diameter, but urology input is more likely to be necessary as up to 50% of these may require intervention. Stones that are >10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously. PMID:27032222

  12. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words “Focused ultrasound” and “kidney stone”. All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease. PMID:25624572

  13. Suitability of bedrock for construction stone in the Greenville 1° by 2° Quadrangle, South Carolina, Georgia, and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Agostino, John P.; Horton, J. Wright, Jr.; Nelson, Arthur E.; Clarke, James W.

    1993-01-01

    This map presents a qualitative regional assessment of the resource potential of bedrock for use as construction stone the the Greenville 1° by 2° quadrangle. Other studies will include metallic minerals (D'Agostine and others, in press a), gold (D'Agostino an others, in press b), and non-metallic commodities (D'Agostino and others, in press c). Construction stone, as used here in the context of bedrock suitability, refers mainly to dimension stone and crushed stone. Abundant supplies of bedrock and alluvial sand and gravel are available from numerous sources in the quadrangle. There is a modern quarry industry with 176 active and inactive quarries situated in the quadrangle--153 in Georgia, 23 in South Carolina, and one in North Carolina. Sixty-five dimension-stone quarries are located in a single granite mass, the Elberton Granite, in Elbert, Madison, and Oglethorpe Counties, Ga. There are numerous undeveloped sources of moderate amounts of stream sand and gravel and major abundant upland residual clay deposits in the quadrangle area.

  14. Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad

    SciTech Connect

    Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

    1998-04-01

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad.

  15. Impact of recommendations on crushing medications in geriatrics: from prescription to administration.

    PubMed

    Bourdenet, Gwladys; Giraud, Sophie; Artur, Marion; Dutertre, Sophie; Dufour, Marie; Lefèbvre-Caussin, Marie; Proux, Alice; Philippe, Sandrine; Capet, Corinne; Fontaine-Adam, Magali; Kadri, Karine; Landrin, Isabelle; Gréboval, Emmanuelle; Touflet, Myriam; Nanfack, Jules; Tharasse, Christine; Varin, Rémi; Rémy, Elise; Daouphars, Mikaël; Doucet, Jean

    2015-06-01

    The practice of crushing drugs is very common in geriatric units. In 2009 a first study, performed in all geriatric units of a university hospital, showed that numerous errors were made during prescription, preparation and administration. The aim of this second prospective study was to assess the impact of regional and national recommendations in the same geriatric units. A survey of 719 patients (85.3 ± 6.7 years) was performed in 2013. For each patient who received crushed drugs, we recorded the reason the drugs were crushed, pharmacological classes, galenic presentations and the technique used for preparation and administration. Results were compared to the previous study. The number of patients receiving drugs after crushing was significantly lower than in the previous study (22.9% vs. 32.3%, P < 0.001). The number of crushed drugs was lower too (594 per 165 patients vs. 966 per 224 patients (P < 0.01). The main indication for crushing drugs remained swallowing disorders. The dosage form prevented crushing in 24.9% of drugs (vs. 42.0% in 2009, P < 0.001), but the drugs generally remained crushed all together. A mortar was used less often (38.6% vs. 92.6%, P < 0.001), with preference for individual-specific cups (56.1%). Mortars were more often cleaned between each patient (56.0% vs. 11.6%). The vehicle was more often neutral (water 88.5% vs. 5.7%, P < 0.001). This second study shows that regional and national recommendations have led to an overall improvement of practices for crushing drugs. Technical improvements are still possible, in association with appropriate pharmacological studies. PMID:25789404

  16. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  17. Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation opportunities for the stone and cement industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Juan, C.A.S.; Rau, G.H.; Caldeira, K.

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of limestone fines coproduced during the processing of crushed limestone may be useful in the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is proposed as a low-tech method to capture and sequester CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants and other point-sources such as cement manufacturing. AWL reactants are readily available, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Waste CO 2 is hydrated with water to produce carbonic acid, which then reacts with and is neutralized by limestone fines, thus converting CO2 gas to dissolved calcium bicarbonate. AWL waste products can be disposed of in the ocean. Feasibility requires access to an inexpensive source of limestone and to seawater, thus limiting AWL facilities within about 10 km of the coastline. The majority of U.S. coastal power generating facilities are within economical transport distance of limestone resources. AWL presents opportunities for collaborative efforts among the crushed stone industry, electrical utilities, cement manufactures, and research scientists.

  18. Quasi-Uniform High Speed Foam Crush Testing Using a Guided Drop Mass Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor); Kellas, Sotiris

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple method for measuring the dynamic crush response of foam materials at various loading rates is described. The method utilizes a drop mass impact configuration with mass and impact velocity selected such that the crush speed remains approximately uniform during the entire sample crushing event. Instrumentation, data acquisition, and data processing techniques are presented, and limitations of the test method are discussed. The objective of the test method is to produce input data for dynamic finite element modeling involving crash and energy absorption characteristics of foam materials.

  19. In vivo evaluation of demyelination and remyelination in a nerve crush injury model

    PubMed Central

    Blanger, E.; Henry, F. P.; Valle, R.; Randolph, M. A.; Kochevar, I. E.; Winograd, J. M.; Lin, C. P.; Ct, D.

    2011-01-01

    Nerves of the peripheral nervous system have, to some extent, the ability to regenerate after injury, particularly in instances of crush or contusion injuries. After a controlled crush injury of the rat sciatic nerve, demyelination and remyelination are followed with functional assessments and imaged both ex vivo and in vivo over the course of 4 weeks with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. A new procedure compatible with live animal imaging is developed for performing histomorphometry of myelinated axons. This allows quantification of demyelination proximal and remyelination distal to the crush site ex vivo and in vivo respectively. PMID:22091449

  20. INACCURATE REPORTING OF MINERAL COMPOSITION BY COMMERCIAL STONE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR INFECTION AND METABOLIC STONES

    PubMed Central

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Khan, Naseem F.; Jackson, Molly E.; Lingeman, James E.; McAteer, James A; Williams, James C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of stone composition analysis by commercial laboratories. METHODS 25 human renal stones with infrared spectroscopy (IR) determined compositions were fragmented into aliquots and studied with micro-computed tomography (CT) to ensure fragment similarity. Representative fragments of each stone were submitted to 5 commercial stone laboratories for blinded analysis. RESULTS All laboratories agreed on composition for 6 pure stones. Of 4 stones known to contain struvite, only 2(50%) were identified as struvite by all laboratories. Struvite was reported as a component by some laboratories for 4 stones previously determined not to contain struvite. Overall, there was disagreement regarding struvite in 6(24%) stones. For 9 calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, all laboratories reported some mixture of CaOx, but the quantities of subtypes differed significantly among laboratories. In 6 apatite containing stones, apatite was missed by the laboratories in 20% of the samples. None of the laboratories identified atazanavir in a stone containing that antiviral drug. One laboratory reported protein in every sample, while all others reported it in only 1 sample. Nomenclature for apatite differed among laboratories, with one reporting apatite as carbonate apatite (CA) and never hydroxyapatite (HA), another never reporting CA and always reporting HA, and a third reporting CA as apatite with calcium carbonate. CONCLUSIONS Commercial laboratories reliably recognize pure calculi; however, variability in reporting of mixed calculi suggests a problem with accuracy of stone analysis results. Furthermore, there is a lack of standard nomenclature used by laboratories. PMID:20728108

  1. Removal of Residual Cavitation Nuclei to Enhance Histotripsy Erosion of Model Urinary Stones

    PubMed Central

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Histotripsy has been shown to be an effective treatment for model kidney stones, eroding their surface to tiny particulate debris via a cavitational bubble cloud. However, similar to shock wave lithotripsy, histotripsy stone treatments display a rate-dependent efficacy with pulses applied at low rate generating more efficient stone erosion in comparison to those applied at high rate. This is hypothesized to be the result of residual cavitation bubble nuclei generated by bubble cloud collapse. While the histotripsy bubble cloud only lasts on the order of 100 µs, these microscopic remnant bubbles can persist on the order of 1 second—inducing direct attenuation of subsequent histotripsy pulses and influencing bubble cloud dynamics. In an effort to mitigate these effects, we have developed a novel strategy to actively remove residual cavitation nuclei from the field using low-amplitude ultrasound pulses. Previous work has demonstrated that with selection of the appropriate acoustic parameters these bubble removal pulses can stimulate the aggregation and subsequent coalescence of microscopic bubble nuclei—effectively deleting them from the target volume. Here, we incorporate bubble removal pulses in histotripsy treatment of model kidney stones. It was found that when histotripsy is applied at low rate (1 Hz), bubble removal does not produce a statistically significant change in erosion. At higher pulse rates of 10, 100, and 500 Hz, incorporating bubble removal results in 3.7-, 7.5-, and 2.7-fold increases in stone erosion, respectively. High speed imaging indicates that the introduction of bubble removal pulses allows bubble cloud dynamics resulting from high pulse rates to more closely approximate those generated at the low rate of 1 Hz. These results corroborate previous work in the field of shock wave lithotripsy regarding the ill-effects of residual bubble nuclei, and suggest that high treatment efficiency can be recovered at high pulse rates through appropriate manipulation of the cavitation environment surrounding the stone. PMID:25965682

  2. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  3. Metaconcrete: designed aggregates to enhance dynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Pandolfi, Anna; Ortiz, Michael

    2014-04-01

    We propose a new type of concrete for the attenuation of elastic waves induced by dynamic excitation. In this metamaterial, which we call metaconcrete, the stone, sand, and gravel aggregates of standard concrete are replaced with spherical inclusions consisting of a heavy metal core coated with a soft outer layer. These engineered aggregates can be tuned so that particular frequencies of a propagating blast wave will activate resonant oscillations of the heavy mass within the inclusions. The resonant behavior causes the system to exhibit negative effective mass, and this interaction between the wave motion and the resonant aggregates results in the attenuation of the applied dynamic loading. We introduce the concept of negative mass by deriving the effective momentum mass for the system and we define the geometrical and material parameters for the design of resonant aggregates. We develop finite element models for the analysis of metaconcrete behavior, defining a section of slab containing a periodic arrangement of inclusions. By computing the energy histories for the system when subject to a blast load, we show that there is a transfer of energy between the inclusions and the surrounding mortar. The inclusions are able to absorb a significant portion of the applied energy, resulting in a reduction in the amount of stress carried by the mortar phase and greatly improving the ability of the material to resist damage under explosive dynamic loading.

  4. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built numerous churches which today can be found in Brazil but also along the South American and African coasts. Currently the global market of Modern Dimension Stones Industry allows Portuguese Marbles to be present in buildings, architectural pieces and works of arts all over the World. Despite almost continuous mining activity in the region it's notice that there was no depletion of raw material, in fact almost every varieties of marble have enough reserves to sustain the mining activity is several hundreds of years. The Alentejo whitewashed houses are a hallmark of the unique landscape that can only have been developed by the availability of marbles to produce quicklime. In cities and villages, the built heritage based on the marble is very rich and is always present, meanwhile the surrounding countryside is marked by intense mining activity living side by side with rural industries, namely wheatfields, groves, orchards and vineyards; therefore the region has unique characteristics allowing the development of integrated industrial tourism routes. The Portuguese Marbles are a key factor for local sustainable development and it's leading the region to new opportunities of industrial, scientific and technological culture, pointing to a successful future.

  5. The nutrition consult for recurrent stone formers.

    PubMed

    Penniston, Kristina L

    2015-07-01

    Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence. PMID:26025494

  6. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stone].

    PubMed

    Hara, Noboru; Koike, Hiroshi

    2004-05-01

    An 18-year-old female, who had undergone antireflux surgery for bilateral vesicoureteral reflux 5 years ago, was admitted to our department with complaints of fever and left-sided back pain. Bilateral renal stones and pyelonephritis were diagnosed after roentgenography, ultrasonography and urinalysis. Pyelonephritis was successfully treated with antibiotics and the left renal stone was completely disintegrated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the stone was composed of pure ammonium urate (AU). The patient had not experienced any episodes of urinary tract infection from the antireflux surgery until the present event, but had lost 20 kg in body weight during the last year due to a low-caloric diet and laxative abuse. AU urinary stones have been infrequently reported in Japan, and they are supposed to be associated with a low-caloric diet, laxative abuse, and anorexia nervosa. PMID:15237492

  7. Fractal Aggregates in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurm, Gerhard; Schnaiter, Martin

    Individual cosmic dust particles come in very complex shapes but there are a variety of environments where dust particles are aggregates of smaller grains. These aggregates often can be characterized by a fractal particle structure. Within this fractal framework, morphologically averaged particle properties depend only on a few parameters. Despite the complexity of the individual particles, fractal dimension, aggregate size, and building-block size are sufficient parameters for many applications. This paper reviews the process of aggregation to generate fractal aggregates with focus on some general features of those aggregates (mass to surface ratios, aspect ratios). Some implications for aerodynamical and optical properties (gas- grain coupling times, polarization, extinction) are discussed.

  8. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

  9. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (?50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (?50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 1019 (63%) and 2029 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  10. Immunoproteasome Deficiency Protects in the Retina after Optic Nerve Crush

    PubMed Central

    Kapphahn, Rebecca J.; Lehmann, Ute; Roehrich, Heidi; Rageh, Abrar A.; Heuss, Neal D.; Bratten, Wendy; Gregerson, Dale S.; Ferrington, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The immunoproteasome is upregulated by disease, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines, suggesting an expanded role for the immunoproteasome in stress signaling that goes beyond its canonical role in generating peptides for antigen presentation. The signaling pathways that are regulated by the immunoproteasome remain elusive. However, previous studies suggest a role for the immunoproteasome in the regulation of PTEN and NF-κB signaling. One well-known pathway upstream of NF-κB and downstream of PTEN is the Akt signaling pathway, which is responsible for mediating cellular survival and is modulated after optic nerve crush (ONC). This study investigated the role of retinal immunoproteasome after injury induced by ONC, focusing on the Akt cell survival pathway. Retinas or retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice lacking either one (LMP2) or two (LMP7 and MECL-1) catalytic subunits of the immunoproteasome were utilized in this study. We show that mRNA and protein levels of the immunoproteasome subunits are significantly upregulated in WT retinas following ONC. Mice lacking the immunoproteasome subunits show either a delayed or dampened apoptotic response as well as altered Akt signaling, compared to WT mice after ONC. Treatment of the RPE cells with insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to stimulate Akt signaling confirmed that the immunoproteasome modulates this pathway, and most likely modulates parallel pathways as well. This study links the inducible expression of the immunoproteasome following retinal injury to Akt signaling, which is important in many disease pathways. PMID:25978061

  11. [Pharmacokinetics characteristics of dexamethasone in Crush syndrome model rats].

    PubMed

    Murata, Isamu; Otsuka, Akio; Hara, Chihiro; Motohashi, Risa; Kouno, Shiho; Inoue, Yutaka; Kanamoto, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Crush syndrome (CS) is characterized by ischemia/reperfusion-induced rhabdomyolysis and subsequent systemic inflammation and has a high mortality rate, even when treated with conventional therapy. In previous studies, we demonstrated that treatment of rats with acute lethal CS using dexamethasone (DEX) had therapeutic effects in laboratory findings and improved the clinical course of CS. However, because the application of DEX in CS therapy is unknown, evaluation of the pharmacokinetic parameters of DEX was considered essential to support its clinical use. Here, we investigated the pharmacokinetic characteristics of DEX in a rat model of CS. Anesthetized rats were subjected to bilateral hind limb compression using rubber tourniquets for 5 h, followed by reperfusion for 0 to 24 h. Rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: saline-treated sham (S) and CS groups and 5.0 mg/kg DEX-treated S (S-DEX) and CS (CS-DEX) groups. Blood and tissue samples were collected for HPLC analysis. In the CS-DEX group, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the area under the concentration-time curve, mean residence time, and distribution volume levels increased significantly compared to the S-DEX group, whereas total body clearance, elimination rate constant, and renal clearance levels decreased significantly. Moreover, decrease of muscle tissue DEX concentration and of CYP3A activity were observed in the CS-DEX group. These results show the pharmacokinetic characteristics of DEX in the rat CS model and support the potential use of DEX in disaster medical care. PMID:25747231

  12. Meridian Stones: for Form or for Function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amory, L.; Boyce, P.; diCurcio, R.; Strelnitski, V.

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this investigation was to reveal the original intent and purpose of the creator of the ``Nantucket Meridian Stones'' - self taught astronomer and surveyor William Mitchell (the father of the first American female astronomer, Maria Mitchell). Throughout time, these two enigmatic stone obelisks in downtown Nantucket have been cloaked in controversial legends. We did not find any mention of these stones in the original diaries and journals of William Mitchell, or in the town's public documents (except for the written decision of the 1840 town meeting to allot money for the stones' erection). However, amongst several controversial articles on the stones in the local newspaper published during the 20th century, we found one (dated 1921) which gives the most plausible explanation: the meridian line defined by the stones was used by the local surveyors to keep track of the variation in the magnetic declination, the angle between the directions to the magnetic North and the true (geographical) North. This hypothesis will be compared with the existing information on the purpose and use of other historical meridian markers, both in America and Europe. This project was supported by Vassar College and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  13. Stone formation and management after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarplin, Sarah; Ganesan, Vishnu; Monga, Manoj

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a significant health concern and is associated with an increased risk of nephrolithiasis, particularly in women. The underlying pathophysiology of stone formation in obese patients is thought to be related to insulin resistance, dietary factors, and a lithogenic urinary profile. Uric acid stones and calcium oxalate stones are common in these patients. Use of surgical procedures for obesity (bariatric surgery) has risen over the past two decades. Although such procedures effectively manage obesity-dependent comorbidities, several large, controlled studies have revealed that modern bariatric surgeries increase the risk of nephrolithiasis by approximately twofold. In patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, fat malabsorption leads to hyperabsorption of oxalate, which is exacerbated by an increased permeability of the gut to oxalate. Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery show characteristic 24 h urine parameters including low urine volume, low urinary pH, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria and hyperuricosuria. Prevention of stones with dietary limitation of oxalate and sodium and a high intake of fluids is critical, and calcium supplementation with calcium citrate is typically required. Potassium citrate is valuable for treating the common metabolic derangements as it raises urinary pH, enhances the activity of stone inhibitors, reduces the supersaturation of calcium oxalate, and corrects hypokalaemia. Both pyridoxine and probiotics have been shown in small studies to reduce hyperoxaluria, but further study is necessary to clarify their effects on stone morbidity in the bariatric surgery population. PMID:25850790

  14. Kidney stones are common after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lieske, John C.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Milliner, Dawn S.; Rule, Andrew D; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Sarr, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for kidney stones and chronic kidney disease (CKD), is effectively treated with bariatric surgery. However, it is unclear if surgery alters stone or CKD risk. To determine this we studied 762 Olmsted County, Minnesota residents who underwent bariatric surgery and matched them with equally obese control individuals who did not undergo surgery. The majority of bariatric patients underwent standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (78%), with the remainder having more malabsorptive procedures (very long limb RYGB or biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch; 14%), or restrictive procedures (laparoscopic banding or sleeve gastrectomy; 7%). Mean age was 45 years with 80% female. The mean preoperative BMI was 46.7 kg/m2 for both cohorts. Rates of kidney stones were similar between surgery patients and controls at baseline, but new stone formation significantly increased in surgery patients (11.0%) compared to controls (4.3%) during 6.0 years of follow up. After malabsorptive and standard surgery, the comorbidity-adjusted hazard ratio of incident stones was significantly increased to 4.15 and 2.13, respectively but not significantly changed for restrictive surgery. The risk of CKD significantly increased after the malabsorptive procedures (adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96). Thus, while RYGB and malabsorptive procedures are more effective for weight loss, both are associated with increased risk of stones, while malabsorptive procedures also increase CKD risk. PMID:25354237

  15. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  16. Adoption of quad bike crush prevention devices on Australian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Lower, Tony; Trotter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Quad bikes (all-terrain vehicles) are the leading cause of nonintentional farm injury deaths in Australia. Approximately 50% result from rollovers of the vehicle, with death frequently due to crush injury/asphyxiation. Crush protection devices fitted to quads have been demonstrated to enhance safety. This exploratory study aimed to assess feedback from a small group of dairy farmers (N = 11) that had crush protection devices fitted to their quads. A mixed-methods design was adopted consisting of pre- and post-intervention surveys in addition to focus groups/interviews for this exploratory study. Results indicate that the crush protection device was viewed positively by the majority of participants, with virtually no impact on the reported performance of the quad in terms of braking, steering, suspension, and getting on/off. The most problematic issue was some contact with overhead objects, although the majority reported no issues at all. Some issues were also identified with attaching trailers, carrying loads, and noise from rattling. The participants reported that the likely potential benefits of a crush protection device clearly outweighed these issues. Some 4 to 6 months following the study, 10 of the 11 farmers continued to have the crush protection device fitted to their quad. The major barrier to adoption was the manufacturers' resistance and negative public statements regarding the effectiveness of crush protection devices. Participants suggested that there are steps that can be taken to increase the uptake of crush protection devices by dairy farmers. Further lag in promoting these potentially life-saving devices will only add to the death and injury burden associated with quad bikes. PMID:24417528

  17. Assesment of Alkali Resistance of Basalt Used as Concrete Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    al-Swaidani, Aref M.; Baddoura, Mohammad K.; Aliyan, Samira D.; Choeb, Walid

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to report a part of an ongoing research on the influence of using crushed basalt as aggregates on one of durability-related properties of concrete (i.e. alkali-silica reaction which is the most common form of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction). Alkali resistance has been assessed through several methods specified in the American Standards. Results of petrographic examination, chemical test (ASTM C289) and accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C1260) have particularly been reported. In addition, the weight change and compressive strength of 28 days cured concrete containing basaltic aggregates were also reported after 90 days of exposure to 10% NaOH solution. Dolomite aggregate were used in the latter test for comparison. The experimental results revealed that basaltic rocks quarried from As-Swaida'a region were suitable for production of aggregates for concrete. According to the test results, the studied basalt aggregates can be classified as innocuous with regard to alkali-silica reaction. Further, the 10% sodium hydroxide attack did not affect the compressive strength of concrete.

  18. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for isolated calyceal stones: How important is the stone location?

    PubMed Central

    Özgör, Faruk; Küçüktopcu, Onur; Şimşek, Abdulmuttalip; Sarılar, Ömer; Binbay, Murat; Gürbüz, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of percutaneous access site on the success and complication rates of isolated calyceal stones. Material and methods We retrospectively evaluated 2700 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in our clinic between October 2002 and August 2014. We selected only the patients with isolated lower, middle or upper calyceal stones and we grouped the patients according to the location of their stones. Successful operation was defined as complete stone clearence or retention of stone fragments smaller than 4 mm which do not lead to infection, obstruction or pain requiring treatment. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Results Totally 360 patients underwent PNL for their isolated upper, middle and lower calyceal stones. Access sites for those patients were selected based on stone location. The stones were localized in the lower (n=304), middle (n=14), and upper (n=42) calices. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to operation and scopy times. Hemoglobin drop was seen more frequently in the upper calyceal access group, without any significant intergroup difference. Thoracic complications including hemothorax, pneumothorax and pleural effusion were more common in the upper calyceal access group (11.9%; p<0.001). Complete stone clerance was accomplished in 81.9%, 92.9% and 78.6% of the patients with lower, middle and upper calyceal stones respectively without any significant intergroup difference (p=0.537). Conclusion PNL is an effective and safe treatment modality for isolated calyceal kidney stones and upper calyceal access causes thoracic complications more than other access sites. PMID:26623144

  19. Cytoplasmic dynein conversion at a crush injury in rat peripheral axons.

    PubMed

    Li, J Y; Pfister, K K; Brady, S T; Dahlström, A

    2000-07-15

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a motor for retrograde axonal transport for movement of membranous organelles toward the neuronal cell body. However, cytoplasmic dynein is synthesized in the cell body and conveyed along the axon to nerve terminals. To characterize the axonal transport of cytoplasmic dynein in relation to synaptic vesicles and other membrane compartments, immunocytochemical and cytofluorimetric scanning analyses of crush-operated rat sciatic nerves were performed. Distal to the crush, the kinetics of dynein accumulation were consistent with its role in the retrograde transport of membranous organelles. During the initial 3 hr after crush, only small amounts of dynein-immunoreactive material accumulated proximal to the crush. This is consistent with metabolic labeling studies showing that most of the dynein moving in the anterograde direction is in the slow component of axonal transport. Thereafter, the rate of proximal accumulation of dynein increased, and by 8 hr postcrush a large amount of dynein immunoreactivity was observed. This accelerated accumulation may be due to recruitment of dynein from slow component b onto organelles proximal to the crush. Double labeling demonstrated that dynein immunoreactivity colocalized with synaptophysin, a transmembrane protein found in small, clear synaptic vesicles. In contrast, dynein immunoreactivity did not colocalize well with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a peptide matrix marker for some large dense-cored vesicles. Finally, dynein immunoreactivity colocalized with the anterograde transport motor kinesin both proximal and distal to a crush, suggesting that kinesin may carry some dynein-containing membrane compartments during fast anterograde axonal transport. PMID:10878588

  20. Calculation of density and permeability of compacted crushed salt within an engineered shaft sealing system

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, M.

    1997-07-01

    Crushed salt from the host Salado Formation is proposed as a sealing material in one component of a multicomponent seal system design for the shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a mined geological repository for storage and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The crushed salt will be compacted and placed at a density approaching 90% of the intact density of the host Salado salt. Creep closure of the shaft will further compact the crushed salt over time, thereby reducing the crushed-salt permeability from the initial state and creating an effective long-term seal. A structural model and a fluid flow model have been developed to provide an estimate of crushed-salt reconsolidation rate as a function of depth, time, and pore pressure. Model results are obtained in terms of crushed-salt permeability as a function of time and depth within the salt column. Model results indicate that average salt column permeability will be reduced to 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} m{sup 2} in about 100 years, which provides for an acceptable long-term seal component.

  1. Morphology does not predict performance: jaw curvature and prey crushing in durophagous stingrays.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Crofts, Stephanie B; Dean, Mason N; Summers, Adam P; Lovejoy, Nathan R

    2015-12-01

    All stingrays in the family Myliobatidae are durophagous, consuming bivalves and gastropods, as well as decapod crustaceans. Durophagous rays have rigid jaws, flat teeth that interlock to form pavement-like tooth plates, and large muscles that generate bite forces capable of fracturing stiff biological composites (e.g. mollusk shell). The relative proportion of different prey types in the diet of durophagous rays varies between genera, with some stingray species specializing on particular mollusk taxa, while others are generalists. The tooth plate module provides a curved occlusal surface on which prey is crushed, and this curvature differs significantly among myliobatids. We measured the effect of jaw curvature on prey-crushing success in durophagous stingrays. We milled aluminum replica jaws rendered from computed tomography scans, and crushed live mollusks, three-dimensionally printed gastropod shells, and ceramic tubes with these fabricated jaws. Our analysis of prey items indicate that gastropods were consistently more difficult to crush than bivalves (i.e. were stiffer), but that mussels require the greatest work-to-fracture. We found that replica shells can provide an important proxy for investigations of failure mechanics. We also found little difference in crushing performance between jaw shapes, suggesting that disparate jaws are equally suited for processing different types of shelled prey. Thus, durophagous stingrays exhibit a many-to-one mapping of jaw morphology to mollusk crushing performance. PMID:26567348

  2. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

  3. Investigations on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Recycled Aggregate Self Compacting Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revathi, P.; Selvi, R. S.; Velin, S. S.

    2013-09-01

    In the recent years, construction and demolition waste management issues have attracted the attention from researchers around the world. In the present study, the potential usage of recycled aggregate obtained from crushed demolition waste for making self compacting concrete (SCC) was researched. The barriers in promoting the use of recycled material in new construction are also discussed. In addition, the results of an experimental study involving the use of recycled concrete aggregate as coarse aggregates for producing self-compacting concrete to study their flow and strength characteristics are also presented. Five series of mixture were prepared with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % coarse recycled aggregate adopting Nan Su's mix proportioning method. The fresh concrete properties were evaluated through the slump flow, J-ring and V-funnel tests. Compressive and tensile strengths were also determined. The results obtained showed that SCC could be successfully developed by incorporating recycled aggregates.

  4. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

  5. Kidney stone erosion by micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation and consequent kidney stone treatment.

    PubMed

    Perk, Osman Yavuz; Şeşen, Muhsincan; Gozuacik, Devrim; Koşar, Ali

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal the potential of micro scale hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation for the use of kidney stone treatment. Hydrodynamically generated cavitating bubbles were targeted to the surfaces of 18 kidney stone samples made of calcium oxalate, and their destructive effects were exploited in order to remove kidney stones in in vitro experiments. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was used as the working fluid under bubbly cavitating conditions in a 0.75 cm long micro probe of 147 μm inner diameter at 9790 kPa pressure. The surface of calcium oxalate type kidney stones were exposed to bubbly cavitation at room temperature for 5 to 30 min. The eroded kidney stones were visually analyzed with a high speed CCD camera and using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques. The experiments showed that at a cavitation number of 0.017, hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation device could successfully erode stones with an erosion rate of 0.31 mg/min. It was also observed that the targeted application of the erosion with micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation may even cause the fracture of the kidney stones within a short time of 30 min. The proposed treatment method has proven to be an efficient instrument for destroying kidney stones. PMID:22476893

  6. Metaconcrete: Engineered aggregates for enhanced dynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.

    This work presents the development and investigation of a new type of concrete for the attenuation of waves induced by dynamic excitation. Recent progress in the field of metamaterials science has led to a range of novel composites which display unusual properties when interacting with electromagnetic, acoustic, and elastic waves. A new structural metamaterial with enhanced properties for dynamic loading applications is presented, which is named metaconcrete. In this new composite material the standard stone and gravel aggregates of regular concrete are replaced with spherical engineered inclusions. Each metaconcrete aggregate has a layered structure, consisting of a heavy core and a thin compliant outer coating. This structure allows for resonance at or near the eigenfrequencies of the inclusions, and the aggregates can be tuned so that resonant oscillations will be activated by particular frequencies of an applied dynamic loading. The activation of resonance within the aggregates causes the overall system to exhibit negative effective mass, which leads to attenuation of the applied wave motion. To investigate the behavior of metaconcrete slabs under a variety of different loading conditions a finite element slab model containing a periodic array of aggregates is utilized. The frequency dependent nature of metaconcrete is investigated by considering the transmission of wave energy through a slab, which indicates the presence of large attenuation bands near the resonant frequencies of the aggregates. Applying a blast wave loading to both an elastic slab and a slab model that incorporates the fracture characteristics of the mortar matrix reveals that a significant portion of the supplied energy can be absorbed by aggregates which are activated by the chosen blast wave profile. The transfer of energy from the mortar matrix to the metaconcrete aggregates leads to a significant reduction in the maximum longitudinal stress, greatly improving the ability of the material to resist damage induced by a propagating shock wave. The various analyses presented in this work provide the theoretical and numerical background necessary for the informed design and development of metaconcrete aggregates for dynamic loading applications, such as blast shielding, impact protection, and seismic mitigation.

  7. Changes in ocular aquaporin expression following optic nerve crush

    PubMed Central

    Oku, Hidehiro; Fukuhara, Masayuki; Kurimoto, Takuji; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Patil, Rajkumar V.; Sharif, Najam A.; Yorio, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Changes in the expression of water channels (aquaporins; AQP) have been reported in several diseases. However, such changes and mechanisms remain to be evaluated for retinal injury after optic nerve crush (ONC). This study was designed to analyze changes in the expression of AQP4 (water selective channel) and AQP9 (water and lactate channel) following ONC in the rat. Methods Rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were retrogradely labeled by applying FluoroGold onto the left superior colliculus 1 week before ONC. Retinal injuries were induced by ONC unilaterally. Real-time PCR was used to measure changes in AQP4, AQP9, thy-1, Kir4.1 (K+ channel), and β-actin messages. Changes in AQP4, AQP9, Kir4.1, B cell lymphoma-x (bcl-xl), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression were measured in total retinal extracts using western blotting. Results The number of RGCs labeled retrogradely from the superior colliculus was 2,090±85 cells/mm2 in rats without any treatment, which decreased to 1,091±78 (47% loss) and 497±87 cells/mm2 (76% loss) on days 7 and 14, respectively. AQP4, Kir4.1, and thy-1 protein levels decreased at days 2, 7, and 14, which paralleled a similar reduction in mRNA levels, with the exception of Kir4.1 mRNA at day 2 showing an apparent upregulation. In contrast, AQP9 mRNA and protein levels showed opposite changes to those observed for the latter targets. Whereas AQP9 mRNA increased at days 2 and 14, protein levels decreased at both time points. AQP9 mRNA decreased at day 7, while protein levels increased. GFAP (a marker of astrogliosis) remained upregulated at days 2, 7, and 14, while bcl-xl (anti-apoptotic) decreased. Conclusions The reduced expression of AQP4 and Kir4.1 suggests dysfunctional ion coupling in retina following ONC and likely impaired retinal function. The sustained increase in GFAP indicates astrogliosis, while the decreased bcl-xl protein level suggests a commitment to cellular death, as clearly shown by the reduction in the RGC population and decreased thy-1 expression. Changes in AQP9 expression suggest a contribution of the channel to retinal ganglion cell death and response of distinct amacrine cells known to express AQP9 following traumatic injuries. PMID:20216911

  8. Management of 1-2 cm renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Aneesh; Chipde, Saurabh S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The preferred treatment of >1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone <2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise. PMID:24082440

  9. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  10. Priming effects in aggregate size fractions induced by glucose addition and grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jing; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Pausch, Johanna; Kuzaykov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    It is widely recognized that soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization can be accelerated (positive priming) or retarded (negative priming) by addition of easily available substrates to soil. SOM is a heterogeneous mixture, which contains numerous compounds with different degradability and turnover rates times. Nevertheless, so far, there is still lack of knowledge on identifying single fractions of the SOM as the source of C and N released by priming effects. The aim of this study was to determine the priming effect as related to different aggregate fractions, aggregate disruption and the amounts of substrate. In a 49 days incubation experiment, the soil samples were separated into three aggregate fractions (>2 mm, 2-0.25 mm and <0.25 mm), and with one sample left intact while the other were crushed. Then two concentrations of uniformly labeled 14C-glucose were added to the six aggregate fractions. The cumulative CO2 production was greater in the macroaggregates (> 0.25 mm) than in the microaggregates (< 0.25 mm) after 49 days incubation irrespective of glucose levels and aggregate grinding. This indicates the higher amount of easily degradable organic matter in macroaggregate versus microaggregate. Higher glucose addition increased the portion mineralization to CO2, but decreased the incorporation into microbial biomass for both intact and crushed aggregate fractions. Compared with the corresponding intact aggregate fraction, grinding resulted in increased glucose mineralization in macroaggregate. The priming effect increased as added glucose increased in all intact aggregate size, and highest priming effect was observed in >2 mm fraction. However, the magnitude of priming effect response to glucose addition depended on the aggregate size after grinding. This study demonstrates that substrate amounts, aggregate fractionation and grinding can have obvious impacts on priming effect, indicating important implications for understanding SOM cycling and stability.

  11. Medical and dietary therapy for kidney stone prevention.

    PubMed

    Gul, Zeynep; Monga, Manoj

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  12. Medical and Dietary Therapy for Kidney Stone Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  13. Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Liang; Su, Jingjing; Jing, Lingyan; Huang, Ying; Di, Yu; Peng, Lichao; Liu, Jianren

    2014-01-01

    Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI) plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size) even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy. PMID:24778886

  14. Laser ablation of gall bladder stones.

    PubMed

    Marafi, M; Makdisi, Y; Bhatia, K S; Abdulah, A H; Kokaj, Y; Mathew, K; Quinn, F; Qabazard, A

    1999-06-01

    Study of laser interaction with calculi is presented. A system of Nd-Yag and Ho-Yag pulsed lasers were used to produce fluorescence and plasma signals at the stone surface surrounded by saline and bile fluids. Fourth harmonic from Nd-Yag laser was transmitted to the samples by graded UV optical fibres. Gall bladder stones of various compositions were subjected to the high power Ho-Yag laser. Temporal transients and spectral evolution of plasma and fluorescence signals were monitored by a streak camera. A profile of acoustic pressures generated by shock waves was recorded with sensitive hydrophones placed in the surrounding fluids. Ablation threshold, cavitation process and fluorescence dependence on the laser parameters were studied in detail. Potential of stone identification by fluorescence and possible hydrodynamic model for ablation of biological samples is discussed. PMID:10384733

  15. Urinary Stone Disease: Progress, Status, and Needs.

    PubMed

    Kirkali, Ziya; Rasooly, Rebekah; Star, Robert A; Rodgers, Griffin P

    2015-10-01

    Urinary stone disease (USD) is an important healthcare problem in the US affecting both adults and children, and costs $10 billion to the nation. Prevalence of USD has nearly doubled during the last 15 years in parallel to the obesity and type 2 diabetes epidemic. Despite the advances in the management of an acute episode, one of three stone formers experience recurrence. A better understanding of stone formation is necessary to develop secondary prevention strategies. There are many unanswered research questions that require a multidisciplinary approach. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases recently held a workshop on USD, and is committed to continue conducting and supporting research in this field. PMID:26190090

  16. Technetium Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Asmussen, Robert M.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-10-15

    The cementitious material known as Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. Two radionuclides of particular concern in these waste streams are technetium-99 (99Tc) and iodine-129 (129I). These radioactive tank waste components contribute the most to the environmental impacts associated with the cleanup of the Hanford site. A recent environmental assessment of Cast Stone performance, which assumes a diffusion controlled release of contaminants from the waste form, calculates groundwater in excess of the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for both contaminants. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of both 99Tc and 129I in Cast Stone. One method to improve the performance of Cast Stone is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc and I, therefore reducing their diffusion out of Cast Stone. In this paper, we present results of Tc and I removal from solution with various getters with batch sorption experiments conducted in deionized water (DIW) and a highly caustic 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. In general, the data show that the selected getters are effective in DIW but their performance is comprised when experiments are performed with the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. Reasons for the mitigated performance in the LAW simulant may be due to competition with Cr present in the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant and to a pH effect.

  17. Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

  18. Laboratory Characterization of Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Dynamically Compacted Crushed Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1999-02-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located at a depth of about 655 meters. The WIPP underground facility is located in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation. Access to the facility is provided through vertical shafts, which will be sealed after decommissioning to limit the release of hazardous waste from the repository and to limit flow into the facility. Because limited data are available to characterize the properties of dynamically compacted crushed salt, Sandia National Laboratories authorized RE/SPEC to perform additional tests on specimens of dynamically compacted crushed salt. These included shear consolidation creep, permeability, and constant strain-rate triaxial compression tests. A limited number of samples obtained from the large compacted mass were available for use in the testing program. Thus, additional tests were performed on samples that were prepared on a smaller scale device in the RE/SPEC laboratory using a dynamic-compaction procedure based on the full-scale construction technique. The laboratory results were expected to (1) illuminate the phenomenology of crushed-salt deformation behavior and (2) add test results to a small preexisting database for purposes of estimating parameters in a crushed-salt constitutive model. The candidate constitutive model for dynamically compacted crushed salt was refined in parallel with this laboratory testing.

  19. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain significance. However, a small asymptomatic MRM or stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic, and so affect launch and flight schedules, cause incapacitation during flight, and ultimately require medical evacuation. For exploration class missions, evacuation is unlikely. The new screening and management algorithm allows better management of mission risks, and will define the true incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts. This information will be used to refine future screening, countermeasures and treatment methods; and will also inform the needed capabilities to be flown on exploration-class missions.

  20. Building stones of our Nation's Capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, Charles F.

    1975-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital serve as an unusual geologic display, for the city has been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building is a unique museum that not only displays the important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed, but also serves as an historic witness to the city's growth and to the development of its architecture. This booklet describes the source and appearance of the stones used in Washington, D.C.; it includes a map and a walking guide to assist the visitor in examining them.

  1. 2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  2. 1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  3. 3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  4. 3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EASTNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  5. 2. STONE CABIN II FROM MIDNORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. STONE CABIN II FROM MID-NORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  6. 4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  7. 1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE NORTH. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  8. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  9. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing third drop, stone pier in center, cement piers to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  11. 54. View looking north on meal floor level showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. View looking north on meal floor level showing stone floor, mill stone vat and hurst frame. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1D-6 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  12. 3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING THE BUILDER AND YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHEAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  13. 8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  14. Mathematical model describing erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Implications for blood viscosity changes in traumatic shock and crush syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ismailov, Rovshan M; Shevchuk, Nikolai A; Khusanov, Higmat

    2005-01-01

    Background The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory test, which is widespread in clinical practice, for assessing the inflammatory or acute response. This work addresses the theoretical and experimental investigation of sedimentation a single and multiple particles in homogeneous and heterogeneous (multiphase) medium, as it relates to their internal structure (aggregation of solid or deformed particles). Methods The equation system has been solved numerically. To choose finite analogs of derivatives we used the schemes of directional differences. Results (1) Our model takes into account the influence of the vessel wall on group aggregation of particles in tubes as well as the effects of rotation of particles, the constraint coefficient, and viscosity of a mixture as a function of the volume fraction. (2) This model can describe ESR as a function of the velocity of adhesion of erythrocytes; (3) Determination of the ESR is best conducted at certain time intervals, i.e. in a series of periods not exceeding 5 minutes each; (4) Differential diagnosis of various diseases by means of ESR should be performed using the aforementioned timed measurement of ESR; (5) An increase in blood viscosity during trauma results from an increase in rouleaux formation and the time-course method of ESR will be useful in patients with trauma, in particular, with traumatic shock and crush syndrome. Conclusion The mathematical model created in this study used the most fundamental differential equations that have ever been derived to estimate ESR. It may further our understanding of its complex mechanism. PMID:15807888

  15. The ROKS Nomogram for Predicting a Second Symptomatic Stone Episode

    PubMed Central

    Lieske, John C.; Li, Xujian; Melton, L. Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E.; Bergstralh, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials. PMID:25104803

  16. The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode.

    PubMed

    Rule, Andrew D; Lieske, John C; Li, Xujian; Melton, L Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E; Bergstralh, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials. PMID:25104803

  17. Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

  18. A rodent model to advance the field treatment of crush muscle injury during earthquakes and other natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Speck, Kirsten; Schneider, Barbara St Pierre; Deashinta, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 170 earthquakes of 6.0 or higher magnitude occur annually worldwide. Victims often suffer crush muscle injuries involving impaired blood flow to the affected muscle and damage to the muscle fiber membrane. Current rescue efforts are directed toward preventing acute kidney injury (AKI), which develops upon extrication and muscle reperfusion. But field-usable, muscle-specific interventions may promote muscle regeneration and prevent or minimize the pathologic changes of reperfusion. Although current rodent crush injury models involve reperfusion upon removal of the crush stimulus, an analysis of their methodological aspects is needed to ensure adequate simulation of the earthquake-related crush injury. The objectives of this systematic review are to (a) describe rodent crush muscle injury models, (b) discuss the benefits and limitations of these models, and (c) offer a recommendation for animal models that would increase our understanding of muscle recovery processes after an earthquake-induced crush muscle injury. The most commonly used rodent model uses a clamping or pressing crush stimulus directly applied to murine hindlimb muscle. This model has increased our understanding of muscle regeneration but its open approach does not adequately represent the earthquake-related crush injury. The model we recommend for developing field-usable, muscle-specific interventions is a closed approach that involves a nonclamping crush stimulus. Findings from studies employing this recommended model may have greater relevance for developing interventions that lessen the earthquake's devastating impact on individual and community health and quality of life, especially in developing countries. PMID:21821639

  19. Design of two crushing devices for release of the fluid inclusion volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dublyansky, Yuri V.

    2012-06-01

    Two crushing cells have been described for the release of volatiles from fluid inclusions in minerals in vacuum, static gas, and gas-flow applications. To minimize the adsorption of released volatiles on the freshly created mineral surfaces, both devices employed heated crushing. In the MTSN (Museo Tridentine di Scienze Naturali) crusher, samples were disintegrated by a piston driven by an induction coil. For efficient crushing, the electromagnet operated in dynamic impulse mode. In the LFU (Leopold-Franzens-Universität) crusher, the sample was disintegrated through the combined action of compression (manually operated hydraulic ram) and attrition. Crushers are able to be used in off-line and on-line modes, in gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses.

  20. A Radiographic Correlation between Renal and Pulp Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ertas, E Tarim; Inci, M; Demirtas, A; Ertas, H; Yengil, E; Sisman, Y; Gokce, C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between pulp stones and renal stones. This study also aimed to report associations between the presence of pulp stone and gender, age, tooth type, dental arches and sides. Patients and Methods: Data were collected through examination of bitewing radiographs of 116 kidney stone patients and a similar number of age-matched controls, referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University. Two oral radiologists examined the radiographs to identify pulp stones. The Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to investigate the correlations between the presence of pulp chamber calcification and age, gender, dental status and kidney stone. Results: Pulp chamber opacities were detected in 199 (19.3%) out of the 1031 examined teeth, and in 84 (72.4%) out of the 116 kidney stone patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the study and control group (p = 0.882). The occurrence of pulp stones was significantly higher in molars than premolars and similar prevalences were found between dental arches and sides. Conclusion: In this study, no correlation was found between the presence of pulp stones and kidney stones in the investigated group. Therefore, the presence of pulp stones does not seem to be correlated with that of kidney stones. PMID:25803378

  1. Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to

  2. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780... Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device intended for the analysis of urinary calculi. Analysis of urinary calculi...

  7. Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing original cut stone masonry, concrete-encased nose on upstream end, portion of squared cut stone masonry south abutment, and portion of truss superstructure - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  8. 8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE; ALSO SEEN IS THE CHUTE FROM THE TUN OF THE BURR STONES; HANGING IN THE BACKGROUND ARE THE MILL SAILS. - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  9. Randomized Comparison of the Crush Versus the Culotte Stenting for Coronary Artery Bifurcation Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xu-Wei; Zhao, Dong-Hui; Peng, Hong-Yu; Fan, Qian; Ma, Qin; Xu, Zhen-Ye; Fan, Chao; Liu, Li-Yu; Liu, Jing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: The crush and the culotte stenting were both reported to be effective for complex bifurcation lesion treatment. However, their comparative performance remains elusive. Methods: A total of 300 patients with coronary bifurcation lesions were randomly assigned to crush (n = 150) and culotte (n = 150) treatment. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 12 months including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and target vessel revascularization. Index lesion restenosis at 12 months was a secondary endpoint. The surface integrals of time-averaged wall shear stress at bifurcation sites were also be quantified. Results: There were no significant differences in MACE rates between the two groups at 12-month follow-up: Crush 6.7%, culotte 5.3% (P = 0.48). The rates of index lesion restenosis were 12.7% versus 6.0% (P = 0.047) in the crush and the culotte groups, respectively. At 12-month follow-up, the surface integrals of time-averaged wall shear stress at bifurcation sites in the crush group were significantly lower than the culotte group ([5.01 ± 0.95] × 10−4 Newton and [6.08 ± 1.16] × 10−4 Newton, respectively; P = 0.003). Conclusions: Both the crush and the culotte bifurcation stenting techniques showed satisfying clinical and angiographic results at 12-month follow-up. Bifurcation lesions treated with the culotte technique tended to have lower restenosis rates and more favorable flow patterns. PMID:26904982

  10. Environmental management of the stone cutting industry.

    PubMed

    Nasserdine, Khaled; Mimi, Ziad; Bevan, Blair; Elian, Belal

    2009-01-01

    Environmental Management of the stone cutting industry in Hebron is required to reduce the industry's adverse impact on the downstream agricultural land and the adverse impact on the drinking water aquifers. This situation requires the implementation of an industrial wastewater management strategic approach and technology, within the available technical and financial resources. Ten pilot projects at different locations were built at Hebron to reduce or eliminate the incompatible discharge of the liquid and solid waste to the environment and improve the stone cutting industry's effluent quality. A review of existing practices and jar test experiments were used to optimize the water recycling and treatment facilities. The factors reviewed included influent pumping rates and cycles, selection of the optimal coagulant type and addition methods, control of the sludge recycling process, control over flow rates, control locations of influent and effluent, and sludge depth. Based on the optimized doses and Turbidity results, it was determined that the use of Fokland polymer with an optimal dose of 1.5mg/L could achieve the target turbidity levels. The completion of the pilot projects resulted in the elimination of stone cutting waste discharges and an improvement in the recycled effluent quality of 44-99%. This in turn reduced the long term operating costs for each participating firm. A full-scale project that includes all the stone cutting firms in Hebron industrial area is required. PMID:18248874

  11. Kidney Stones - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Kidney Stones - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) ...

  12. [Reproduction of interocclusal relationship on stone casts].

    PubMed

    Arai, Y

    2000-12-01

    We fabricate a prosthesis by the indirect method. To fabricate a prosthesis functionally harmonized with the stomatognathic system, the interocclusal relationship must be reproduced on stone casts as accurately as possible. In this study, two subjects (one male, age 28; one female, age 31) were selected, and the occlusal contacts of complete arch stone casts made by three different impression methods were observed and compared with the true occlusal contacts in the intercuspal position in the mouth. To take the interocclusal records, we used a silicone bite checker. The following results were obtained. The occlusal contact points reproduced on the stone casts made by a conventional custom tray and a stock tray were rather low; that is, the number of occlusal contact points was less, and the size of the occlusal contact area was smaller, than in vivo. The states of the occlusal contact on the casts made by the same method differed from each other. On the bite-impression technique, the reproduction of occlusal contact was superior to that of the others. The shape, area, and number of contact regions under 60 micrometers were similar to contact regions under 30 micrometers in the mouth. There was no significant difference in reproduction between the custom tray and the stock tray. It is likely that the results were due to the distortion of the jaws and periodontal tissue during clenching at the intercuspal position, which could not be reproduced on the stone casts made by both the conventional custom and stock trays. PMID:11201196

  13. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Barton Warren Stone: An American Religious Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Evan

    This biographical sketch of Barton Warren Stone, an early American advocate of the Restoration Movement, describes and interprets some of the innate and environmental factors that must have been to a large measure responsible for his leadership of what has been called the largest indigenous American religious movement. It details some of the…

  15. Profilometry of medieval Irish stone monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubos, Thierry; Redfern, Michael; O Croinin, Daibh

    2005-06-01

    National monuments are at ever-increasing risk of severe and permanent damage. The 3D laser scanning of stone monuments brings a new dimension in the field of cultural heritage by providing means of preserving, visualizing, accessing and analysing some of its most invaluable artefacts. In this article, we present the results obtained with our project "Profilometry of Medieval Irish Stone Monuments" hosted at the Centre for the Study of Human Settlement and Historical Change, NUI Galway. This project aims to create a virtual archive of selected incised stones from 3D scans taken in the field. The raw scans are processed into watertight 3D models and new processing techniques have been developed to enhance the surface features of the stones. Also, textured 3D models of the artefacts have been made available online for the benefit of both the historian community and the broader public. This article focuses on the analysis we performed on the shaft of the east cross at Toureen Peacaun, Co Tipperary, which shows the longest inscription in Ireland with geometrical capitals.

  16. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willerton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive

  18. Drop impact on natural porous stones.

    PubMed

    Lee, J B; Derome, D; Carmeliet, J

    2016-05-01

    Drop impact and spreading on three natural porous stones are experimentally determined using high-speed imaging and compared with spreading over an impermeable steel surface. The dynamic non-wetting behavior during spreading and the hydrophobic contact angle >90° is attributed to the presence of an air layer between the droplet and the porous substrate. As the contact line pins at maximum spreading on the porous stone, the maximum spreading determines the liquid contact area on such substrate. The droplet gets pinned when the air layer is broken at the contact line and capillary forces develop in fines pores at the droplet edge, pinning the droplet. Maximum spreading on porous stones increases with impact velocity but does not scale with Weber number at low impact velocity. It is demonstrated that dynamic wetting plays an important role in the spreading at low velocity and that the dynamic wetting as characterized by the dynamic contact angle θD has to be taken into account for predicting the maximum spreading. Correcting the maximum spreading ratio with the dynamic wetting behavior, all data for porous stones and non-porous substrate collapse onto a single curve. PMID:26874980

  19. Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

  20. Automated visual inspection for polished stone manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Melvyn L.; Smith, Lyndon N.

    2003-05-01

    Increased globalisation of the ornamental stone market has lead to increased competition and more rigorous product quality requirements. As such, there are strong motivators to introduce new, more effective, inspection technologies that will help enable stone processors to reduce costs, improve quality and improve productivity. Natural stone surfaces may contain a mixture of complex two-dimensional (2D) patterns and three-dimensional (3D) features. The challenge in terms of automated inspection is to develop systems able to reliably identify 3D topographic defects, either naturally occurring or resulting from polishing, in the presence of concomitant complex 2D stochastic colour patterns. The resulting real-time analysis of the defects may be used in adaptive process control, in order to avoid the wasteful production of defective product. An innovative approach, using structured light and based upon an adaptation of the photometric stereo method, has been pioneered and developed at UWE to isolate and characterize mixed 2D and 3D surface features. The method is able to undertake tasks considered beyond the capabilities of existing surface inspection techniques. The approach has been successfully applied to real stone samples, and a selection of experimental results is presented.

  1. Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney stones are caused by high levels of calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus in the urine. Some foods may ... consume of the following: • liquids • sodium • animal protein • calcium • oxalate Drinking enough liquids each day is the best ...

  2. Characterization of the jet perforation crushed zone by SEM and image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Asadi, M.; Preston, P.W. )

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a method to measure porosity and permeability alteration of the crushed zone with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. A new phenomenon, shock metamorphism, was used to evaluate shock-wave penetration. Berea sandstone samples were prepared with a modification of the API recommended practice for test-sample preparation. Samples were perforated with low- and medium-penetration shaped charges. Analysis of the low-charge shot sample indicated an average porosity reduction of 25% and an average permeability reduction of 55% in the crushed zone. The sample shot with the medium-penetration shaped charge shoved planar-element shock metamorphism.

  3. Percutaneous Salvage of Crushed Bilateral Aorto-Iliac Stents: Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, Gregory M.; Coiner, Leonard G.; Gunlock, Michael G.; Hagino, Ryan T.

    2002-12-15

    There are multiple reports of externally deformed or crimped intravascular stents. Percutaneous salvage has been described in multiple anatomic locations including the carotid artery,coronary artery bypass grafts, and hemodialysis conduits. We report successful percutaneous salvage of severely crushed aortoiliac stents in a patient status post low anterior resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy for rectal carcinoma. A review of the literature describing approaches to externally deformed stents in other anatomic regions, the limited experience with crushed iliac stents, and our technique is presented.

  4. Sarsen Stones of Stonehenge: How and by what route were the stones transported? What is the significance of their markings?

    PubMed

    Hill, P A

    1961-04-21

    A route via Lockeridge and the Avon Valley, involving a slide down the chalk escarpment, is postulated for the sarsen stones of Stonehenge. The transportation problem would have been greatly simplified if the stones had been relayed from point to point over snow or slush during successive winters. Markings on the stones hitherto undescribed are interpreted. PMID:17830710

  5. Risk Factors for Stone Recurrence after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Rangel, Laureano J.; LeRoy, Andrew J.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated more than 30% of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients will experience a stone recurrence over a 20 year period. The goal of our study was to identify risk factors for stone recurrence after PCNL. Chart review identified 754 patients treated with PCNL for urolithiasis from March of 1983 to July 1984 at our institution. Of this cohort, 87 patients continued to receive medical care at our clinic and had been evaluated within the last 5 years. Of the 87 patients, 80 had recent radiographic imaging. Average follow-up was 19.2 years and 32 (40.0%) experienced at least 1 stone recurrence. There was no difference in preoperative BMI (p = 0.453) or change in BMI (p = 0.964) between patients that did and did not have a stone recurrence. Renal stone location (p = 0.605) and stone size (p = 0.238) were not predictive of recurrence. Patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were less likely to recur (38.7% vs. 41.6%, p = 0.004) and those with calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) were more likely to recur (31.1% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.006) compared to other compositions. Diabetes mellitus was not associated with recurrent stones (p = 0.810). Those patients with residual stones or fragments <3 mm were more likely to recur and to recur earlier than patients rendered entirely stone free at time of PCNL (p = 0.015). Stone recurrences were associated with the late development of renal insufficiency (25% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.002). In conclusion, stone composition, as well as the presence of residual fragments was associated with recurrent symptomatic stone events after PCNL. Recurrent stone events were significantly associated with the risk of developing renal insufficiency, further stressing the need for complete stone clearance at time of PCNL.

  6. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyan, B.; Sabale, V.; Mane, D.; Satav, V.; Mulay, A.; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (60 patients), retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using a semirigid ureteroscope; Group B (62 patients), transperitoneal LU (Lap-TPUL). Results: The overall stone-free rate was 71.6% and 93.5% for Group A and Group B respectively (P = 0.008). Auxiliary procedure rate was higher in Group A than in Group B (27.3% vs. 5.6%). The complication rate was 11.2% in Group B versus 25% in Group A. Mean procedure time was higher in laparoscopy group as compared to ureterorenoscopy (URS) groups (84.07 ± 16.80 vs. 62.82 ± 12.71 min). Hospital stay was 4.16 ± 0.67 days in laparoscopy group and 1.18 ± 0.38 days in URS group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery. PMID:27141190

  7. Aggregations in Flatworms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

  8. Erosion of dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seizinger, A.; Krijt, S.; Kley, W.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force, which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 ms-1 and above. Though fractal aggregates as formed during the first growth phase are most susceptible to erosion, we observe erosion of aggregates with rather compact surfaces as well. Conclusions: We find that bombarding a larger target aggregate with small projectiles results in erosion for impact velocities as low as a few ms-1. More compact aggregates suffer less from erosion. With increasing projectile size the transition from accretion to erosion is shifted to higher velocities. This allows larger bodies to grow through high velocity collisions with smaller aggregates.

  9. Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The disadvantage, besides being more labour intensive than mineral mortars based on ZnCl, is that no specific recipes are yet developed for Lede stone and the result is thus dependent on the knowledge of the restorer. Both of the repair mortars have the problem that Lede stone changes its colour due to ageing while the mortar itself remains colour stable. This means that if the mortar colour was adapted for a resemblance at the moment of application, the colour difference between stone and mortar will increase in time. In this study, the compatibility of the different stone repair mortars with the Lede stone are tested. Further, a study was made whether the mortar recipes can be adapted for a better compatibility. In addition, the effect of glauconite addition in the mortar is studied to resolve the possibility of ageing of the mortar similar to the stone.

  10. Bile duct stone formation around a Prolene suture after cholangioenterostomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Tao, Liang; Wu, Xingyu; Mou, Lingjun; Sun, Xitai; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The iatrogenic cause of bile duct stone formation is mainly due to suture materials, especially silk sutures. In recent years, Prolene and Vicryl sutures have been widely used in biliary surgery, and bile duct stone formation related to sutures are seemingly becoming rare, as there has only been one report of bile duct stone formation caused by Prolene sutures in the literature. In the last few years we have had two cases of Prolene suture-related bile duct stone formation within our unit. We therefore suggest that Vicryl sutures should be used as the first choice in biliary surgery, in order to prevent the formation of iatrogenic bile duct stones. PMID:27022388

  11. Ureteroscopy and stones: Current status and future expectations

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anna E; Rukin, Nicholas J; Somani, Bhaskar K

    2014-01-01

    Urolithaisis is becoming an ever increasing urological, nephrological and primary care problem. With a lifetime prevalence approaching 10% and increasing morbidity due to stone disease, the role of ureteroscopy and stone removal is becoming more important. We discuss the current status of stone disease and review the ever increasing role that ureteroscopy has to play in its management. We discuss technological advances that have been made in stone management and give you an overview of when, how and why ureteroscopy is the most common treatment option for stone management. We touch on the role of robotic ureteroscopy and the future of ureteroscopy in the next 10 years. PMID:25374818

  12. Bile duct stone formation around a Prolene suture after cholangioenterostomy.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Tao, Liang; Wu, Xingyu; Mou, Lingjun; Sun, Xitai; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The iatrogenic cause of bile duct stone formation is mainly due to suture materials, especially silk sutures. In recent years, Prolene and Vicryl sutures have been widely used in biliary surgery, and bile duct stone formation related to sutures are seemingly becoming rare, as there has only been one report of bile duct stone formation caused by Prolene sutures in the literature. In the last few years we have had two cases of Prolene suture-related bile duct stone formation within our unit. We therefore suggest that Vicryl sutures should be used as the first choice in biliary surgery, in order to prevent the formation of iatrogenic bile duct stones. PMID:27022388

  13. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  14. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

  15. Laparoscopic Stone Surgery With the Aid of Flexible Nephroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Jeong, Hyeon; Son, Hwancheol; Woo, Seung Hyo; Kim, Dae Kyung; Min, Sun-Ho; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Hyeon-Hoe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcome of laparoscopic pyelo- and ureterolithotomies with the aid of flexible nephroscopy. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 71 patients with complex renal stones or large and impacted proximal ureteral stones. Patients underwent laparoscopic pyelo- or ureterolithotomies with or without the removal of small residual stones by use of flexible nephroscopy between July 2005 and July 2010. Operative success was defined as no residual stones in the intravenous pyelogram at 12 weeks postoperatively. Perioperative results and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results The patients' mean age was 54.7±13.7 years, and 53 males (74.6%) and 18 females (25.4%) were included. The mean maximal stone size was 19.4±9.4 mm. A total of 47 cases were complex renal stones and 24 cases were impacted ureteral stones. Mean operative time was 139.0±63.7 minutes. Stones were completely removed in 61 cases (85.9%), and no further ancillary treatment was needed for clinically insignificant residual fragments in 7 cases (9.9%). For complex renal stones, the complete stone-free rate and clinically significant stone-free rate were 80.9% and 93.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of flexible nephroscopy for complex renal stones can reduce the risk of residual stones. A major complication occurred in one case, in which open conversion was performed. Conclusions Laparoscopic stone surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure with a high success rate, especially with the aid of flexible nephroscopy, and is not associated with procedure-specific complications. PMID:25045447

  16. 75 FR 17605 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... published in the Federal Register (74 FR 22348) a final rule \\1\\ substantially upgrading Federal Motor... resistance final rule (74 FR 22348). The roof crush final rule, by itself, addressed a relatively small... highest life-saving benefits are the ones to reduce the occurrence of rollovers (prevention) and...

  17. The effects of non-uniform environmental conditions on piglet crushing and maternal behavior of sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crushing is one of the main causes of piglet death in swine farrowing systems. Studies have shown a wide variability of piglet mortality rate among distinct litters, which has been associated with maternal ability of sows. In an effort to understand factors that affect sow maternal ability, this stu...

  18. EMISSIONS FROM THE CRUSHED GRANITE INDUSTRY: STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed granite industry. The potential environmental effect of this emission source was evaluated using source severity, defined as the ratio of the maximum time-averaged ground level concentration of a pollutant at...

  19. Using a Computer Animation To Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding of a Can-Crushing Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.; Fienhold, Jason

    2000-01-01

    Presents several student responses to viewing a can-crushing demonstration in which a soda can containing a small amount of water was heated on a hot-plate to boil the water, removed from the heat, and sealed by inverting over a container of cold water. Students were given a quiz, made predictions, and explained what happened on a molecular level.…

  20. Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

  1. Regeneration of perivascular adrenergic innervation in rat tibial nerve after nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Koistinaho, J; Wadhwani, K C; Balbo, A; Rapoport, S I

    1991-01-01

    Adrenergic innervation of blood vessels in the rat tibial nerve during degeneration and regeneration was studied using the formaldehyde-induced fluorescence method. The left sciatic nerve was crushed with suture threads to produce a 4-mm length of crushed nerve. At 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days after nerve crush, degenerative and regenerative changes in the nerve were verified using light microscopy. At each time point, adrenergic innervation was examined in epi-perineurial whole mount and nerve cross-section preparations. One day after nerve crush, fluorescence of adrenergic nerve fibers in the endoneurium was absent. Fluorescent adrenergic nerve fibers reappeared in the endoneurium at day 56 and reached the control density by 84 days. In the epi-perineurium, adrenergic innervation of small and medium-size arterioles was absent at 3 days, in large arterioles at 7 days. At 56 days, all epi-perineurial arterioles were reinnervated by a faint, sparse adrenergic network, which reached the control density at 84 days. The results suggest that adrenergic innervation in the rat peripheral nerve is lost during nerve degeneration, but recovers when the nerve has regenerated. PMID:1713392

  2. Exogenous nerve growth factor protects the hypoglossal nerve against crush injury

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-yuan; Wang, Zhong-chao; Wang, Pin; Lan, Yu-yan; Tu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that sensory nerve damage can activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, but whether the same type of nerve injury after exercise activates the p38MAPK pathway remains unclear. Several studies have demonstrated that nerve growth factor may play a role in the repair process after peripheral nerve injury, but there has been little research focusing on the hypoglossal nerve injury and repair. In this study, we designed and established rat models of hypoglossal nerve crush injury and gave intraperitoneal injections of exogenous nerve growth factor to rats for 14 days. p38MAPK activity in the damaged neurons was increased following hypoglossal nerve crush injury; exogenous nerve growth factor inhibited this increase in acitivity and increased the survival rate of motor neurons within the hypoglossal nucleus. Under transmission electron microscopy, we found that the injection of nerve growth factor contributed to the restoration of the morphology of hypoglossal nerve after crush injury. Our experimental findings indicate that exogenous nerve growth factor can protect damaged neurons and promote hypoglossal nerve regeneration following hypoglossal nerve crush injury. PMID:26889186

  3. 75 FR 17604 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AG51 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety..., NHTSA published in the Federal Register (74 FR 22348) \\1\\ a final rule substantially upgrading Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 216, Roof Crush Resistance. The upgraded standard...

  4. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  5. Ceftriaxone crystallization and its potential role in kidney stone formation.

    PubMed

    Chutipongtanate, Somchai; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2011-03-18

    Drug-induced nephrolithiasis contributes to 1-2% of the incidence of renal calculi. We examined whether ceftriaxone at therapeutic doses could be crystallized in the urine and also explored its role in kidney stone formation. Crystallization was induced by mixing ceftriaxone sodium at therapeutic urinary excretion levels (0.5-4.0 mg/ml) to calcium chloride at physiologic urinary concentration (5mM) in deionized (dI) water or artificial urine (AU). The results showed that ceftriaxone was crystallized with free calcium in dose- and time-dependent manner. These ceftriaxone/calcium crystals showed birefringence property under polarized microscope. Individual crystals had needle-shape (5-100 μm in length), whereas the aggregated form had star-burst and irregular-plate shape (40-200 μm in diameter) (note that the crystal sizes were much larger than renal tubular lumens). Calcium-depletion assay revealed that crystallization required free calcium as a substrate. In AU, crystallization remained although it was partially inhibited when compared to that in dI water. Finally, these crystals could tightly adhere onto renal tubular cell surface. Our data demonstrated that ceftriaxone at therapeutic levels could be crystallized with free calcium in the urine under physiologic condition. We hypothesize that tubular occlusion and crystal-cell adhesion may play important role in pathogenic mechanisms of ceftriaxone-induced nephrolithiasis. PMID:21329669

  6. Nephrocalcinosis in animal models with and without stones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nephrocalcinosis is the deposition of calcium salts in renal parenchyma and can be intratubular or interstitial. Animal model studies indicate that intratubular nephrocalcinosis is a result of increased urinary supersaturation. Urinary supersaturation with respect to calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP) are generally achieved at different locations in the renal tubules. As a result experimental induction of hyperoxaluria in animals with CaP deposits does not lead to growth of CaOx over CaP. Interstitial nephrocalcinosis has been seen in mice with lack of crystallization modulators Tamm–Horsfall protein and osteopontin. Sodium phosphate co-transporter or sodiumhydrogen exchanger regulator factor-1 null mice also produced interstitial nephrocalcinosis. Crystals plug the tubules by aggregating and attaching to the luminal cell surface. Structural features of the renal tubules also play a role in crystal retention. The crystals plugging the terminal collecting ducts when exposed to the metastable pelvic urine may promote the formation of stone. PMID:20658131

  7. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole Administered Orally as either Crushed or Whole Tablets▿

    PubMed Central

    Dodds Ashley, E. S.; Zaas, A. K.; Fang, A. F.; Damle, B.; Perfect, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal agent used to treat serious, invasive fungal infections including aspergillosis and candidemia. Limitations with existing formulations of voriconazole including restricted utility in patients with renal dysfunction (intravenous preparation) and the unavailability of an oral suspension in some countries make the administration of crushed tablets desirable in many clinical scenarios. However, concerns that this approach may alter the systemic absorption of voriconazole exist. Therefore, an open-label, randomized, two-way crossover comparative pharmacokinetic (PK) study using healthy volunteers was performed to compare these methods of tablet administration. In a random sequence, subjects received voriconazole tablets either crushed or whole. The voriconazole dose was 400 mg every 12 h for 1 day orally followed by 200 mg every 12 h orally for 5.5 days. Study periods were separated by 7 days. PK parameters were determined by the noncompartmental method. An equivalence approach with no-effect boundaries of 80 to 125% was used to assess bioequivalence. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males; aged 20 to 43 years) were enrolled in and completed the study. The adjusted mean areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to τ, where τ equals 12 h, for the crushed and whole tablet groups were 9,793 and 11,164 ng · h/ml, respectively (ratio, 87.72; 90% confidence interval [CI], 80.97, 95.04). The ratio of the maximum concentration of drug in serum for the crushed tablet versus whole tablet arms was 94.94 (90% CI, 86.51, 104.22). The only difference noted between groups was a slightly faster time to maximum concentration of drug in serum when subjects received crushed tablets, 0.5 h versus 1.5 h (90% CI, −0.75, −0.25). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 12 subjects receiving whole tablets and 9 subjects receiving crushed tablets; all were mild. The administration of crushed voriconazole tablets is bioequivalent to whole-tablet administration. PMID:17145785

  8. Aggregate and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, William H.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sachs, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to help you understand our aggregate resources-their importance, where they come from, how they are processed for our use, the environmental concerns related to their mining and processing, how those concerns are addressed, and the policies and regulations designed to safeguard workers, neighbors, and the environment from the negative impacts of aggregate mining. We hope this understanding will help prepare you to be involved in decisions that need to be made-individually and as a society-to be good stewards of our aggregate resources and our living planet.

  9. Protein aggregation in silico

    PubMed Central

    Cellmer, Troy; Bratko, Dusan; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2009-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a challenge to the successful manufacture of protein therapeutics; it can impose severe limitations on purification yields and compromise formulation stability. Advances in computer power, and the wealth of computational studies pertaining to protein folding, have facilitated the development of molecular simulation as a tool to investigate protein misfolding and aggregation. Here, we highlight the successes of protein aggregation studies carried out in silico, with a particular emphasis on studies related to biotechnology. To conclude, we discuss future prospects for the field, and identify several biotechnology-related problems that would benefit from molecular simulation. PMID:17433843

  10. The effect of aquatic plant abundance on shell crushing resistance in a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M; García de León, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

  11. The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; García de León, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

  12. Behavioral responses of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to different enantiomer concentrations and blends of the synthetic aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...

  13. A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Mathew D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2008-09-01

    An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared to caliper measurements. A 10-MHz, 10-french ultrasound transducer probe was used to send an ultrasound pulse and receive ultrasound reflections from the stone using two methods. In Method 1 the instrument was aligned over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. The time between reflections from the proximal and the distal surface of the stone were used along with the sound speed to calculate the stone size. Although the sound speed varied between stones, it was unlikely to be known during surgery and thus was estimated at 3000 m/s for calculations. In Method 2 the instrument was aligned partially over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through water with a sound speed of 1481 m/s. Time was determined between the reflection from the proximal stone surface and the reflection from the tissue phantom on which the stone rested. Methods 1 and 2 were compared by linear regression to caliper measurements of the size of 19 human stones of 3 different stone types. Accuracy was measured by the difference of the mean ultrasound and mean caliper measurement and precision was measured as the standard deviation in the ultrasound measurements. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper-determined stone size and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2 = 0.71 (p<0.0001). In all but two stones accuracy and precision were less than 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.0001) and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. We conclude that the prototype device and either method measure stone size with good accuracy.

  14. Minority shareholder claims foul at Stone & Webster

    SciTech Connect

    Krizan, W.G.

    1994-05-09

    An activist minority shareholder is trying to shake up the management of one of the industry`s oldest firms, New York City-based engineering-constructor Stone & Webster Inc., The shareholder has filed a lawsuit against the 105-year-old firm, claiming that it is understanding losses from construction activities and is using the voting rights of employee-owned stock to perpetuate current management to the detriment of all shareholders.

  15. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  16. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  17. Minimally invasive surgical treatment for kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Dayron; Sacco, Dianne E

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive interventions for stone disease in the United States are mainly founded on 3 surgical procedures: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopic lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. With the advancement of technology, treatment has shifted toward less invasive strategies and away from open or laparoscopic surgery. The treatment chosen for a patient with stones is based on the stone and patient characteristics. Each of the minimally invasive techniques uses an imaging source, either fluoroscopy or ultrasound, to localize the stone and an energy source to fragment the stone. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses a shock wave energy source generated outside the body to fragment the stone. In contrast, with ureteroscopy, laser energy is placed directly on the stone using a ureteroscope that visualizes the stone. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy requires dilation of a tract through the back into the renal pelvis so that instruments can be inserted directly onto the stone to fragment or pulverize it. The success of the surgical intervention relies on performing the least invasive technique with the highest success of stone removal. PMID:26088070

  18. Protein aggregation and prionopathies.

    PubMed

    Renner, M; Melki, R

    2014-06-01

    Prion protein and prion-like proteins share a number of characteristics. From the molecular point of view, they are constitutive proteins that aggregate following conformational changes into insoluble particles. These particles escape the cellular clearance machinery and amplify by recruiting the soluble for of their constituting proteins. The resulting protein aggregates are responsible for a number of neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob, Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington diseases. In addition, there are increasing evidences supporting the inter-cellular trafficking of these aggregates, meaning that they are "transmissible" between cells. There are also evidences that brain homogenates from individuals developing Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases propagate the disease in recipient model animals in a manner similar to brain extracts of patients developing Creutzfeldt-Jacob's disease. Thus, the propagation of protein aggregates from cell to cell may be a generic phenomenon that contributes to the evolution of neurodegenerative diseases, which has important consequences on human health issues. Moreover, although the distribution of protein aggregates is characteristic for each disease, new evidences indicate the possibility of overlaps and crosstalk between the different disorders. Despite the increasing evidences that support prion or prion-like propagation of protein aggregates, there are many unanswered questions regarding the mechanisms of toxicity and this is a field of intensive research nowadays. PMID:24698014

  19. The Effect of Grain Size on Radon Exhalation Rate in Natural-dust and Stone-dust Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Raj; Kant, Krishan; Garg, Maneesha

    Radiation dose to human population due to inhalation of radon and its progeny contributes more than 50% of the total dose from the natural sources which is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In the present work the dependence of radon exhalation rate on the physical sample parameters of stone dust and natural dust were studied. The samples under study were first crushed, grinded, dried and then passed through sieves with different pore sizes to get samples of various grain sizes (μm). The average value of radon mass exhalation rate is 5.95±2.7 mBqkg-1hr-1 and average value of radon surface exhalation rate is 286±36 mBqm-2 hr-1 for stone dust, and the average value of radon mass exhalation rate is 9.02±5.37 mBqkg-1hr-1 and average value of radon surface exhalation rate is 360±67 mBqm-2 hr-1 for natural dust. The exhalation rate was found to increase with the increase in grain size of the sample. The obtained values of radon exhalation rate for all the samples are found to be under the radon exhalation rate limit reported worldwide.

  20. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup −} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup −}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The Cr oxidation front (depth to which soluble Cr was detected) for the Cast Stone sample exposed for 68 days to ambient outdoor temperatures and humid air (total age of sample was 131 days) was determined to be about 35 mm below the top sample surface exposed. The Tc oxidation front, depth at which Tc was insoluble, was not determined. Interpretation of the results indicates that the oxidation front is at least 38 mm below the exposed surface. The sample used for this measurement was exposed to ambient laboratory conditions and humid air for 50 days. The total age of the sample was 98 days. Technetium appears to be more easily oxidized than Cr in the Cast Stone matrix. The oxidized forms of Tc and Cr are soluble and therefore leachable. Longer exposure times are required for both the Cr and Tc spiked samples to better interpret the rate of oxidation. Tc spiked subsamples need to be taken further from the exposed surface to better define and interpret the leachable Tc profile. Finally Tc(VII) reduction to Tc(IV) appears to occur relatively fast. Results demonstrated that about 95 percent of the Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV) during the setting and very early stage setting for a Cast Stone sample cured 10 days. Additional testing at longer curing times is required to determine whether additional time is required to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII) in Cast Stone or whether the Tc loading exceeded the ability of the waste form to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII). Additional testing is required for samples cured for longer times. Depth discrete subsampling in a nitrogen glove box is also required to determine whether the 5 percent Tc extracted from the subsamples was the result of the sampling process which took place in air. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium or technetium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium and technetium (i.e., effective Cr and Tc oxidation fronts). Residual reduction capacity in the oxidized region of the test samples indicates that the remaining reduction capacity is not effective in re-reducing Cr(VI) or Tc(VII) in the presence of oxygen. Depth discrete sampling and leaching is a useful for evaluating Cast Stone and other chemically reducing waste forms containing ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) or other reduction / sequestration reagents to control redox sensitive contaminant chemistry and leachability in the near surface disposal environment. Based on results presented in this report, reduction capacity measured by the Angus-Glasser Ce(IV) method is not an appropriate or meaningful parameter for determining or predicting Tc and Cr oxidation / retentions, speciation, or solubilities in cementitious materials such as Cast Stone. A model for predicting Tc(IV) oxidation to soluble Tc(VII) should consider the waste form porosity (pathway for oxygen ingress), oxygen source, and the contaminant specific oxidation rates and oxidation fronts. Depth discrete sampling of materials exposed to realistic conditions in combination with short term leaching of crushed samples has potential for advancing the understanding of factors influencing performance. This information can be used to support conceptual model development.

  1. Comminution and sizing processes of concrete block waste as recycled aggregates.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P C C; Ulsen, C; Pereira, F A; Quattrone, M; Angulo, S C

    2015-11-01

    Due to the environmental impact of construction and demolition waste (CDW), recycling is mandatory. It is also important that recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) are used in concrete to meet market demands. In the literature, the influence of RCAs on concrete has been investigated, but very limited studies have been conducted on how the origin of concrete waste and comminution processes influence RCA characteristics. This paper aims to investigate the influence of three different comminution and sizing processes (simple screening, crushing and grinding) on the composition, shape and porosity characteristics of RCA obtained from concrete block waste. Crushing and grinding implies a reduction of RCA porosity. However, due to the presence of coarse quartz rounded river pebbles in the original concrete block mixtures, the shape characteristics deteriorated. A large amount of powder (<0.15 mm) without detectable anhydrous cement was also generated. PMID:26168872

  2. Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most significant factors directly effecting the formation of stones are water, climate conditions, food rich in protein and rich in different chemicals. Moreover, some drugs and diseases might also help in developing other stones. PMID:18064405

  3. [A Case of Atazanavir Urolithiasis Diagnosed by Stone Analysis].

    PubMed

    Noma, Yasuhiro; Tambo, Mitsuhiro; Kitamura, Junji; Okegawa, Takatsugu; Nutahara, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old man was referred to our hospital for right back pain. His past history included human immunodeficiency virus infection, which had been treated with atazanavir for 7 years. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic scan showed right hydronephrosis due to a strongly suspected right ureteral radiolucent stone. He underwent indwelling of a right ureteral stent because of obstructive pyelonephritis due to the ureteral stone. After improvement of the pyelonephritis, he underwent transurethral ureterolithotripsy for the right ureteral stone. Stone analysis showed the atazanavir stone. He has been followed up for 8 months without evidence of recurrence. Herein, we report this rare case of an atazanavir stone in Japan, which was confirmed by calculus analysis, and present a review of the literature. PMID:26932333

  4. Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

    2009-08-01

    Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

  5. Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Fredric L.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

  6. Development of latent fingermarks from rocks and stones.

    PubMed

    Hefetz, Ido; Cohen, Amit; Cohen, Yaron; Chaikovsky, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginning of recorded history, stones have been used in the commission of crimes due to their widespread availability. Stones can be used as a lethal weapon that sometimes might be the only evidence in a serious case. The common perception, even in professional fingermark circles, is that stones do not yield identifiable latent fingermarks. The authors of this research paper examined the feasibility of developing fingermarks from seven types of stones using three latent fingermark techniques: magnetic powder, cyanoacrylate fuming, and ninhydrin. The paper will demonstrate that by classifying stones and rocks according to their natural properties (porosity, permeability, and the nature of surface area), even application of the simplest development techniques can produce good results. In conclusion, chert and limestone yielded the most qualitative and quantitative results using magnetic powder. The time factor is also important in recovering latent fingermarks on stones and rocks. PMID:24502220

  7. The Effects of Phrenic Nerve Degeneration by Axotomy and Crush on the Electrical Activities of Diaphragm Muscles of Rats.

    PubMed

    Alkiş, Mehmet Eşref; Kavak, Servet; Sayır, Fuat; Him, Aydin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of axotomy and crush-related degeneration on the electrical activities of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats. In the present study, twenty-one male Wistar-albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The animals in the first group were not crushed or axotomized and served as controls. Phrenic nerves of the rats in the second and third groups were crushed or axotomized in the diaphragm muscle. Resting membrane potential (RMP) was decreased significantly in both crush and axotomy of diaphragm muscle strips of experimental rats (p < 0.05). Depolarization time (T DEP) and half-repolarization (1/2 RT) time were significantly prolonged in crush and axotomy rats (p < 0.05). Crushing or axotomizing the phrenic nerves may produce electrical activities in the diaphragm muscle of the rat by depolarization time and half-repolarization time prolonged in crush and axotomy rats. PMID:26972299

  8. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  9. Milk of calcium stones: radiological signs and management outcome.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, M

    2015-06-01

    Milk of calcium (MOC) is a rare type of stone that was first described in 1940 by Ludin and Howald who reported MOC in renal cysts. Milk of calcium is a viscous colloidal suspension of calcium salts. Stasis, obstruction and infection are important predisposing factors. Due to a layering effect, characteristic radiological signs especially in CT can help in diagnosis to avoid unsuccessful shock wave lithotripsy. This is the largest reported case series, in which radiological signs by CT scan to predict renal MOC stones, clinical picture and management outcome are described in detail. Cases with suspected renal milk of calcium stones were studied over 7 years (2008-2015). All cases were diagnosed preoperatively by non-contrast CT. Urine cultures were performed in all patients preoperatively. Intra-operative and postoperative findings were reported. Stones retrieved were sent for chemical analysis using an infrared method. Seven cases of milk of calcium renal stones were included in this study. These stones were faint radio-opaque in two cases and radiolucent in five cases. All cases were diagnosed preoperatively with non-contrast CT. Their Hounsfield units (HU) ranged from 114 to 612. All stones were located in a dependent position (gravitational effect) in the posterior aspect of dilated calyces. Five cases exhibited the typical fluid level and two cases demonstrated semilunar (half moon) pattern in the anterior surface of the stones. All cases underwent PCNL with suction and retrieval of soft stones without the need for disintegration. When stones demonstrate a low Hounsfield unit, are arranged in dependent positions within dilated calyces and exhibit fluid level or semilunar pattern on non-contrast CT, milk of calcium stones should be considered. PCNL is an effective modality for management of renal milk of calcium stones. PMID:25820293

  10. PERSPECTIVE, FROM NORTHWEST. NOTE HOW ARCH SPRINGS FROM STONE SKEWBACKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE, FROM NORTHWEST. NOTE HOW ARCH SPRINGS FROM STONE SKEWBACKS ON FACEWALL OF ABUTMENTS. - Barrackville Covered Bridge, Spanning Buffalo Creek on Pike Street , Barrackville, Marion County, WV

  11. Do Kidney Stone Formers Have A Kidney Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, Anna L.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disorder affecting approximately one in eleven people and is associated with multiple complications including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Significant epidemiologic associations with chronic kidney disease and ESRD have been noted and are reviewed herein, but debate persists in the literature as to whether kidney stone formation is a pathogenic process contributing to kidney disease. Corroborating evidence supporting the presence of kidney disease in stone formers includes the variability of renal function by stone type, the positive association of stone size with renal dysfunction, the presence of markers of renal injury in the urine of even asymptomatic stone formers, and direct evidence of renal tissue injury on histopathology. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms include recurrent obstruction and comorbid conditions such as recurrent urinary tract infections and structural abnormalities. Recent work evaluating the renal histopathology of different groups of stone formers adds further granularity, suggesting variability in mechanisms of renal injury by stone type and confirming the pathogenic effects of crystal formation. Genetic abnormalities leading to stone formation including cystinuria and primary hyperoxaluria, among others, contribute to the burden of disease in the stone-forming population. PMID:26376133

  12. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  13. Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL William E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  15. Magnetic navigation system used successfully to cross a crushed stent in a bifurcation that failed with conventional wires.

    PubMed

    Ramcharitar, Steve; Patterson, Mark S; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Serruys, Patrick W

    2007-05-01

    Bifurcation lesions can be technically demanding to manage, and even in the era of drug eluting stents, their procedural success is variable. The use of the crush technique followed by "kissing" balloon postdilatation has been shown to improve the overall outcome. However, crossing the crushed stent is essential to allow performance of a final dilatation with "kissing" balloons and is regarded as the main Achilles' heel of this technique. In this report, we describe the first reported, planned procedure to use a magnetic navigation system to steer a wire through the crushed stent to use "kissing" balloons that had previously failed with conventional wires. PMID:17191212

  16. Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (∼10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ∼40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

  17. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

  18. Sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock borehole plugs

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, S.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1992-07-01

    This study includes a systematic investigation of the sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock plugs. American Colloid C/S granular bentonite and crushed Apache Leap tuff have been mixed to prepare samples for laboratory flow testing. Bentonite weight percent and crushed tuff gradation are the major variables studied. The sealing performance assessments include high injection pressure flow tests, polyaxial flow tests, high temperature flow tests, and piping tests. The results indicate that a composition to yield a permeability lower than 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm/s would have at least 25% bentonite by weight mixed with well-graded crushed rock. Hydraulic properties of the mixture plugs may be highly anisotropic if significant particle segregation occurs during sample installation and compaction. Temperature has no significant effect on the sealing performance within the test range from room temperature to 600{degree}C. Piping damage to the sealing performance is small if the maximum hydraulic gradient does not exceed 120 and 280 for samples with a bentonite content of 25 and 35%, respectively. The hydraulic gradients above which flow of bentonite may take place are deemed critical. Analytical work includes the introduction of bentonite occupancy percentage and water content at saturation as two major parameters for plug design. A permeability model is developed for the prediction of permeability in clays, especially in view of the difficulties in obtaining this property experimentally. A piping model is derived based on plastic flow theory. This piping model permits the estimation of critical hydraulic gradients at which flow of bentonite takes place. The model can also be used to define the maximum allowable pore diameter of a protective filter layer.

  19. Enterobacter cancerogenus ("Enterobacter taylorae") infections associated with severe trauma or crush injuries.

    PubMed

    Abbott, S L; Janda, J M

    1997-03-01

    Five cases of Enterobacter cancerogenus infections (wound, n = 4; bacteremia, n = 1) in adults are described. All infections seemed to be community acquired and occurred after precipitating events such as multiple trauma to the head or severe crush injuries. All five strains of E cancerogenus were recovered in pure culture, and three of these were isolated on multiple occasions. The results indicate that E cancerogenus can cause wound infections and septicemia in persons environmentally exposed to these organisms during traumatic events. PMID:9052388

  20. Convergence in a mechanically complex phenotype: detecting structural adaptations for crushing in cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Hulsey, C Darrin; Roberts, Richard J; Lin, Angela S P; Guldberg, Robert; Streelman, J Todd

    2008-07-01

    Morphological convergence provides strong evidence that evolution is adaptive. However, putatively convergent morphology is often examined in two dimensions with no explicit model of function. In this study, we investigated structural and mechanical similarities of the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) in cichlid fish that have evolved the ability to crush hard-shelled molluscs. Using a novel phylogeny, we demonstrated molluscivory has been gained and/or been lost numerous times in Heroine cichlids. Within this comparative framework, we produced three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) scans for LPJs of both morphotypes in the trophically polymorphic Herichthys minckleyi and six evolutionarily independent pairs of closely related species. Like H. minckleyi, these species exhibit divergence between a molluscivore and a nonmolluscivore. Using the CT scans, we generated finite element models of papilliform H. minckleyi LPJs to determine where stress would concentrate in a jaw not modified to crush molluscs. Then, we examined whether stress in the papilliform LPJ predicted structural modifications in molariform H. minckleyi and other molluscivorous species. Despite potential constraints, stresses imposed during prey processing explain 40% of LPJ variation in mollusc crushing species. The structural and mechanical analyses also suggest divergence found in polymorphic species could provide the substrate for trophic differences found in reproductively isolated cichlids. PMID:18373629

  1. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Crush, Puncture, and Perforation Scenarios in the Steven Impact Test

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, K S; Chidester, S K; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2002-06-28

    The Steven test and associated modeling has greatly increased the fundamental knowledge of practical predictions of impact safety hazards for confined and unconfined explosive charges. Building on a database of initial work, experimental and modeling studies of crush, puncture, and perforation scenarios were investigated using the Steven impact test. The descriptions of crush, puncture, and perforation arose from safety scenarios represented by projectile designs that ''crush'' the energetic material or either ''puncture'' with a pinpoint nose or ''perforate'' the front cover with a transportation hook. As desired, these scenarios offer different aspects of the known mechanisms that control ignition: friction, shear and strain. Studies of aged and previously damaged HMX-based high explosives included the use of embedded carbon foil and carbon resistor gauges, high-speed cameras, and blast wave gauges to determine the pressure histories, time required for an explosive reaction, and the relative violence of those reactions, respectively. Various ignition processes were modeled as the initial reaction rate expression in the Ignition and Growth reaction rate equations. Good agreement with measured threshold velocities, pressure histories, and times to reaction was calculated for LX-04 impacted by several projectile geometries using a compression dependent ignition term and an elastic-plastic model with a reasonable yield strength for impact strain rates.

  2. Utility and challenges in intraoperative consultation of spinal lesions by crush smear cytology

    PubMed Central

    Dikondwar, Aparna R.; Dani, Aarti A.; Gaikwad, Saroj A.; Tathe, Shilpa P.; Randale, Archana A.; Chawhan, Sanjay M.; Kumbhalkar, Dinkar T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods are used for intraoperative consultation of spinal lesions. Crush smear cytology is one such method that is accurate, rapid, and allows preservation of tissue for paraffin-embedded sections. Aims: To study the cytomorphology of various neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions involving and compressing the spinal cord. To evaluate accuracy and discuss diagnostic pitfalls of crush smear cytology. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 5 years (January 2008 to October 2012), a total of 57 spinal lesions were referred for intraoperative cytology. In four cases, material was inadequate for evaluation, so we analyzed 53 cases. Results: Majority of lesions were neoplastic accounting for 86.79% whereas nonneoplastic lesions constituted 13.20%. Most of the tumors were low grade (82.92%). Overall accuracy rate was 90.56% with accuracy of 91.30% and 85.71% for neoplastic and inflammatory lesions, respectively. Conclusion: Crush smear technique is a simple, reliable, easy, and rapid method for diagnosing neoplastic and inflammatory lesions involving and compressing the spinal cord. It gives an immediate idea of prognosis so that surgeon can modify the operative procedure, if necessary. PMID:27057218

  3. The neuroprotective effects of aspirin following crush injury to rat sciatic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Li, Jun; Zhu, Yueliang; Tang, Hui; He, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yongqing

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin has been reported to be neuroprotective and produce some benefits for central nervous system diseases. However, the possibility of using aspirin as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve injuries has rarely been reported thus far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibly beneficial effects of aspirin on sciatic nerve crush injury therapy in rats. Crush injury animal model was prepared with Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were evenly divided into high-dose aspirin group, low-dose aspirin group, and vehicle group. Aspirin solution or normal saline were intraperitoneally injected once a day for 28 days after sciatic nerve crush injury. A sham-operative group was also added as normal control. The results from walking track analysis and electrophysiological assessment indicated that motor functional recovery in the aspirin groups were better than that in the vehicle group. Morphometric analysis of regenerated nerves and Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracing demonstrated that axonal regeneration in the aspirin groups was superior to that in the vehicle group. Our findings suggest that aspirin might be used as a neuroprotective agent for treating peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:26770418

  4. The christchurch earthquake: crush injury, neuropathic pain, and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cammack, Frances; Shipton, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    On February 22, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck Christchurch, New Zealand. The peak ground acceleration, a measure of the shaking or intensity of an earthquake, was one of the highest ever recorded worldwide. One hundred and eighty-five people lost their lives; many others were injured. Two cases both involving young women are presented; they sustained crush injuries to limbs after being trapped by falling debris and went on to develop severe neuropathic pain. This report examines the mechanisms of neuropathic pain in the setting of crush injury, the treatment modalities, and the association between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. These case reports highlight the fact that crush injury is relatively common during major earthquakes and that neuropathic pain is an important sequel of this. Post-traumatic stress disorder is common in earthquake survivors with a recognised association with chronic pain. Pain-related disability may increase as well. Issues such as chronic pain and physical disability should not be overlooked as attention focuses on disaster management and the treatment of life-threatening injuries. PMID:23956754

  5. The Christchurch Earthquake: Crush Injury, Neuropathic Pain, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    On February 22, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck Christchurch, New Zealand. The peak ground acceleration, a measure of the shaking or intensity of an earthquake, was one of the highest ever recorded worldwide. One hundred and eighty-five people lost their lives; many others were injured. Two cases both involving young women are presented; they sustained crush injuries to limbs after being trapped by falling debris and went on to develop severe neuropathic pain. This report examines the mechanisms of neuropathic pain in the setting of crush injury, the treatment modalities, and the association between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. These case reports highlight the fact that crush injury is relatively common during major earthquakes and that neuropathic pain is an important sequel of this. Post-traumatic stress disorder is common in earthquake survivors with a recognised association with chronic pain. Pain-related disability may increase as well. Issues such as chronic pain and physical disability should not be overlooked as attention focuses on disaster management and the treatment of life-threatening injuries. PMID:23956754

  6. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant availability and throughput capacity and to produce quality lightweight aggregate for use in commercial applications.

  7. "Azul Platino": another Spanish natural stone to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Several granites are quarried in Extremadura, Spain, with very good aesthetic and physic and mechanical characteristics. "Azul Platino" has a striking bluish colour and its properties make this granite a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. This granite has been used for centuries, first in the architectonic heritage of the extraction surrounding area, but afterwards in many important projects in Spain, Europe and all around the world: La Guardia Airport (NYC, USA), Yokohama Bridge (Tokyo, Japan), European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium), Planetarium (Valencia, Spain), Tenerife Auditorium (Tenerife, Spain), Suntec City (Singapore), MTR Kowlonn Station (Hong Kong), O'Connel Street (Dublin, Ireland), .... One important characteristic of this natural stone is the low radon exhalation that all the varieties, including the more weathered ones, show. For being a granite, this is an important characteristic for its use, both in interior and exterior use. But "Azul Platino" accomplishes all requirements to be considered as a nominee for Global Heritage Stone Resource consideration. Together with other local natural stones, it could be part as well of a Global Heritage Stone Province nomination.

  8. Quantifying Dictyostelium discoideum Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Colin; Kriebel, Paul; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    Upon nutrient deprivation, the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum enter a developmental program causing them to aggregate into multicellular organisms. During this process cells sense and secrete chemical signals, often moving in a head-to-tail fashion called a `stream' as they assemble into larger entities. We measure Dictyostelium speed, shape, and directionality, both inside and outside of streams, and develop methods to distinguish group dynamics from behavior of individual cells. We observe an overall increase in speed during aggregation and a decrease in speed fluctuations once a cell joins a stream. Initial results indicate that when cells are in close proximity the trailing cells migrate specifically toward the backs of leading cells.

  9. Pollution-fueled `biodeterioration` threatens historic stone

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    Microorganisms appear to pose as great a threat to historic buildings, monuments, and statues as does acid precipitation, according to recent research findings. Air pollution from urban and industrial growth may be fueling these microbes and speeding the deterioration of venerated artworks and cultural treasures in many parts of the world - the Taj Mahal in India; the Acropolis and the Delos Sanctuary in Greece; stone Buddhas in Japan; cathedrals in Europe; and ancient temples in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Central America. This paper reports research being done in this field. 8 refs.

  10. An Unusual Type of Kidney Stone.

    PubMed

    De Koninck, Anne-Sophie; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Maes, Heleen; Verstraete, Alain Gaston; Stove, Veronique; Delanghe, Joris Richard

    2016-01-01

    A very rare case of acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis is presented in a 54-year-old female patient who had been prescribed sulfasalazine (6 x 500 mg/day) because of psoriatic arthritis for the last 9 years. The patient's renal function was only slightly impaired. Reflectance infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of the chemical nature of the stone. As acetylsulfapyridine is a metabolite of sulfasalazine, administration of the latter drug was the cause of the nephrolithiasis. PMID:27012055

  11. Prevalence of Kidney Stones in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Scales, Charles D.; Smith, Alexandria C.; Hanley, Janet M.; Saigal, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The last nationally representative assessment of kidney stone prevalence in the United States occurred in 1994. After a 13-yr hiatus, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) reinitiated data collection regarding kidney stone history. Objective Describe the current prevalence of stone disease in the United States, and identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. Design, setting, and participants A cross-sectional analysis of responses to the 2007–2010 NHANES (n = 12 110). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Self-reported history of kidney stones. Percent prevalence was calculated and multivariable models were used to identify factors associated with a history of kidney stones. Results and limitations The prevalence of kidney stones was 8.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1–9.5). Among men, the prevalence of stones was 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4–11.9), compared with 7.1% (95% CI, 6.4–7.8) among women. Kidney stones were more common among obese than normal-weight individuals (11.2% [95% CI, 10.0–12.3] compared with 6.1% [95% CI, 4.8–7.4], respectively; p < 0.001). Black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals were less likely to report a history of stone disease than were white, non-Hispanic individuals (black, non-Hispanic: odds ratio [OR]: 0.37 [95% CI, 0.28–0.49], p < 0.001; Hispanic: OR: 0.60 [95% CI, 0.49–0.73], p < 0.001). Obesity and diabetes were strongly associated with a history of kidney stones in multivariable models. The cross-sectional survey design limits causal inference regarding potential risk factors for kidney stones. Conclusions Kidney stones affect approximately 1 in 11 people in the United States. These data represent a marked increase in stone disease compared with the NHANES III cohort, particularly in black, non-Hispanic and Hispanic individuals. Diet and lifestyle factors likely play an important role in the changing epidemiology of kidney stones. PMID:22498635

  12. Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

  13. Aggregate Item Response Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Gordon G.; Ofir, Chezy

    1988-01-01

    A stochastic postulate is given for the multiple-item, successive-intervals scaling of populations. The logistic equivalent of this postulate provides an aggregate item response model in which a unidimensional submodel may be nested. Subtractive conjoint measurement of items and generalized least square methods are incorporated. (TJH)

  14. AGGREGATION AND ORGANIC MATTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) consists of plant, animal and microbial residues, and organic decomposition products that are associated with the inorganic soil matrix. Soil organic mater turnover is coupled to the agradation/degradation of soil aggregates through the activity of soil microorganisms. This...

  15. Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

    1989-09-01

    Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

  16. A survey of natural aggregate properties and characteristics important in remote sensing and airborne geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H., Jr.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.

    1995-01-01

    Natural aggregate is vital to the construction industry. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is abundant, new sources are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transportation costs, and environmental concerns. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics detect surface and near-surface phenomena, and may be useful for detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources; however, before a methodology for applying these techniques can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits. The distribution of potential aggregate sources is closely tied to local geologic history. Conventional exploration for natural aggregate deposits has been largely a ground-based operation, although aerial photographs and topographic maps have been extensively used to target possible deposits. Today, the exploration process also considers factors such as the availability of the land, space and water supply for processing, political and environmental factors, and distance from the market; exploration and planning cannot be separated. There are many physical properties and characteristics by which to judge aggregate material for specific applications; most of these properties and characteristics pertain only to individual aggregate particles. The application of remote sensing and airborne geophysical measurements to detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources, however, is based on intrinsic bulk physical properties and extrinsic characteristics of the deposits that can be directly measured, mathematically derived from measurement, or interpreted with remote sensing and geophysical data. ?? 1995 Oxford UniversityPress.

  17. Recycling of construction debris as aggregate in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Menzie, W.D.; Hyun, H.

    2004-01-01

    Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available substitutes for natural aggregate in many areas. This paper presents an overview of factors that affect recycled aggregate cost, availability, and engineering performance, and the results of a survey of business practices in the Mid-Atlantic region. For RAP, processing costs are less than those for virgin natural aggregate. Use of efficient asphalt pavement stripping technology, on-site reclamation, and linked two-way transport of asphalt debris and processed asphalt paving mix between asphalt mix plants and paving sites has led to extensive recycling of asphalt pavement in the Mid-Atlantic region of the US. Most of the sites that recycle asphalt pavement (RAP) are located in or near urban areas close to important transportation corridors. RPCC is a viable aggregate source in urban settings where unit costs for processed aggregate from RPCC and natural aggregate are comparable. Disposal fees charged at RPCC recycling sites help defray processing costs and the significantly lower tipping fees at recycling sites versus landfill disposal sites encourage recycling of construction debris as aggregate. Construction contractors and construction debris recycling centers, many of which have the ability to crush and process concrete debris at the job site, produce most RPCC. Production of RPCC aggregate from construction debris that is processed on site using portable equipment moved to the construction site eliminates transportation costs for aggregate and provides an economic incentive for RPCC use. Processing costs, quality and performance issues, and lack of large quantities where needed limit RPCC use. Most RPCC suppliers in the Mid-Atlantic area are located in counties with population densities greater than 400 people/km2 (1036 people/mile2) and that have high unit-value costs and limited local availability of natural aggregate. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effects of Oil Palm Shell Coarse Aggregate Species on High Strength Lightweight Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Ming Kun; Bin Mahmud, Hilmi; Ang, Bee Chin; Yew, Ming Chian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of oil palm shell (OPS) coarse aggregates on the properties of high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). Original and crushed OPS coarse aggregates of different species and age categories were investigated in this study. The research focused on two OPS species (dura and tenera), in which the coarse aggregates were taken from oil palm trees of the following age categories (3–5, 6–9, and 10–15 years old). The results showed that the workability and dry density of the oil palm shell concrete (OPSC) increase with an increase in age category of OPS species. The compressive strength of specimen CD3 increases significantly compared to specimen CT3 by 21.8%. The maximum achievable 28-day and 90-day compressive strength is 54 and 56 MPa, respectively, which is within the range for 10–15-year-old crushed dura OPS. The water absorption was determined to be within the range for good concrete for the different species of OPSC. In addition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) results showed that the OPS HSLWC attain good condition at the age of 3 days. PMID:24982946

  19. Effects of oil palm shell coarse aggregate species on high strength lightweight concrete.

    PubMed

    Yew, Ming Kun; Bin Mahmud, Hilmi; Ang, Bee Chin; Yew, Ming Chian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of oil palm shell (OPS) coarse aggregates on the properties of high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). Original and crushed OPS coarse aggregates of different species and age categories were investigated in this study. The research focused on two OPS species (dura and tenera), in which the coarse aggregates were taken from oil palm trees of the following age categories (3-5, 6-9, and 10-15 years old). The results showed that the workability and dry density of the oil palm shell concrete (OPSC) increase with an increase in age category of OPS species. The compressive strength of specimen CD3 increases significantly compared to specimen CT3 by 21.8%. The maximum achievable 28-day and 90-day compressive strength is 54 and 56 MPa, respectively, which is within the range for 10-15-year-old crushed dura OPS. The water absorption was determined to be within the range for good concrete for the different species of OPSC. In addition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) results showed that the OPS HSLWC attain good condition at the age of 3 days. PMID:24982946

  20. Smartphone sensors for stone lithography authentication.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Giuseppe Schirripa; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to "authenticate" non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  1. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  2. [Prevention of infected urinary stones by urease inhibitor. IV. Treatment of infection stones in rats by a new hydroxamic acid and cefalexin].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Tomoyoshi, T; Okada, Y; Yoshida, O; Kobashi, K

    1983-03-01

    We investigated the combined effectiveness of a new urease inhibitor, N-( pivaroyl ) glycinohydroxamic acid, with Cefalexin in the treatment of infection stones in rats. Combination therapy with the hydroxamic acid and Cefalexin inhibited bladder stone formation, and dissolved the stone dose dependently, while separate therapy was not significantly effective against stone formation or bacterial growth. This compound may become a useful medicine for the treatment of infection stones. PMID:6375315

  3. Diagnosis and management of bile stone disease and its complications.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Anneline; Arvanitakis, Marianna

    2016-03-01

    Bile stone disease is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological diseases with a considerable geographical and ethnic variation. Bile stones can be classified according their origin, their localization and their biochemical structure. Development and clinical expression depend on a complex interaction between congenital and acquired risk factors. Indeed, bile stones can be either asymptomatic, or cause biliary colic or complications such as acute cholecystitis, jaundice, cholangitis and acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory findings and imaging techniques and correct identification of symptomatic gallstone patients is essential before cholecystectomy. Transabdominal ultrasonography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of gallstones. However, endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and intraoperative cholangiography may also play a role in the diagnosis of bile stones. Management includes prevention measures against modifiable risk factors. Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis are common indications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, while endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stone extraction is the gold standard for the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. Timing of ERCP and cholecystectomy are of critical importance in the management. Lithotripsy modalities are generally reserved for patients with technically difficult CBD stone removal. Percutaneous access combined with lithotripsy may be helpful for complicated intrahepatic stones. PMID:26771377

  4. 26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone facing on concrete box culvert. Stone facing appears on the headwall, tail wall, wingwalls, interior abutment wall and the pier. Looking northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  6. 4. STONE CABIN II CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOUBLE THICK FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STONE CABIN II CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOUBLE THICK FEATURE OF THE ROCK WALL. WALL PHOTOGRAPHED IS THE NORTHERNMOST WALL TAKEN FROM THE INTERIOR OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  7. A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

  8. DNA AND PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM WASHED EXPERIMENTAL STONE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA residues may preserve on ancient stone tools used to process animals. We studied 24 stone tools recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming. Nine tools that yielded DNA included five bifaces, two side scrapers, one end scraper, and one utilized flake. The...

  9. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district.

    PubMed

    Aslin Shamema, A; Thanigai Arul, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium. PMID:25033236

  10. 1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER AT NINTH STREET IN LOCKPORT. THE BRIDGE WAS BUILT ABOUT 1865. NOTE METAL CLAMP ON THE NEAR PIER AND THE 20TH CENTURY REINFORCED CONCRETE ADDITION. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

  11. DETAIL OF MORTARLAID STONE AT THE BASE OF THE LIMEKILN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF MORTAR-LAID STONE AT THE BASE OF THE LIMEKILN AND AROUND THE ARCH OPENING AND DRY-LAID STONE ABOVE. STRONG OBLIQUE TO THE WEST. 63 - Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, Cajon Subdivision, Limekiln, Between Cajon Summit and Keenbrook, Devore, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. Stepping Stones to Evaluating Your Own School Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Jeri; Carnahan, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Stepping Stones to Literacy is a tool for elementary school improvement teams to evaluate and strengthen their reading programs. Each Stepping Stone is a guided activity to stimulate reflection and guide systematic inquiry. It is a collaborative, active research approach to evaluation (Levesque & Hinton 2001). The goal is to eliminate the gap…

  13. Perioperative cultures and the role of antibiotics during stone surgery

    PubMed Central

    Motamedinia, Piruz; Korets, Ruslan; Badalato, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and urosepsis are the most common complications associated with the procedures urologists employ to manage stone disease. Recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis and utilization of perioperative urine and stone culture prior to shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) or endoscopic intervention have evolved overtime. We sought to provide readers with a comprehensive consensus regarding these most recent recommendations. PMID:26816781

  14. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  15. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  16. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  17. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  18. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  19. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  20. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles grafted on stone surface.

    PubMed

    Bellissima, F; Bonini, M; Giorgi, R; Baglioni, P; Barresi, G; Mastromei, G; Perito, B

    2014-12-01

    Microbial colonization has a relevant impact on the deterioration of stone materials with consequences ranging from esthetic to physical and chemical changes. Avoiding microbial growth on cultural stones therefore represents a crucial aspect for their long-term conservation. The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively investigated in recent years, showing that they could be successfully applied as bactericidal coatings on surfaces of different materials. In this work, we investigated the ability of AgNPs grafted to Serena stone surfaces to inhibit bacterial viability. A silane derivative, which is commonly used for stone consolidation, and Bacillus subtilis were chosen as the grafting agent and the target bacterium, respectively. Results show that functionalized AgNPs bind to stone surface exhibiting a cluster disposition that is not affected by washing treatments. The antibacterial tests on stone samples revealed a 50 to 80 % reduction in cell viability, with the most effective AgNP concentration of 6.7 μg/cm(2). To our knowledge, this is the first report on antimicrobial activity of AgNPs applied to a stone surface. The results suggest that AgNPs could be successfully used in the inhibition of microbial colonization of stone artworks. PMID:24151026

  1. 259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner Overlook. This is a common feature at all overlooks on the parkway. All stone on the parkway, except for the Linn Cove Viaduct was quarried from within fifty miles of where it was used. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. Use of Local Stone: Successes, Failures and Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerns, Edward; Will, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Stone has been used in construction for thousands of years. Until relatively recently, local stone was used almost exclusively due to limited transportation options and to reduce costs. . Historically, the stone was often taken from nearby fields, known as fieldstone, without any specific quarrying operations and used to create unique assemblages of vernacular buildings. Stone, perhaps more than any other natural building material, has numerous varieties and characteristics within the broader classifications of stone: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. In exterior applications, stone historically has been used for foundations, localized cladding elements and in some instances entire building facades. Many of these local stones are appropriate for foundations, but not necessarily for cladding systems, particularly once the stone was quarried and modified rather than used in its natural form. These issues tended to be less significant in historic buildings when wall systems were much thicker and had more redundancies in the cladding systems Since around 1880, the use of these thinner applications of quarried stones as more traditional cladding systems (rather than cladding and structure) has resulted in challenges including unanticipated weathering characteristics, residual stresses and detrimental inclusions. These conditions can result in expensive and extensive repairs and maintenance. Often the options to address these characteristics are limited or potentially drastic depending on the scale of installation. It is important to understand the cause of the issues, understand if these issues are significant and finally how to address them appropriately. Where and how these unique local stones are installed as well as climate and weathering patterns certainly contribute to the potential unanticipated conditions. This presentation will be divided into two general parts. The first will address various stones used historically throughout regions within the United States including looking at some of the physical characteristics and problems that have been encountered with the use of the stone in various building applications. The focus will be on limestones and sandstones utilized in the Midwestern United States that have variable performances in these installations, contrasted with, the coral and shell stones of the Southern United States have performed as intended. The second part of the presentation will include a variety of case studies focusing on evaluation, distress and repair options for these local stones.

  3. The mechanisms of stone disintegration by shock waves.

    PubMed

    Sass, W; Bräunlich, M; Dreyer, H P; Matura, E; Folberth, W; Preismeyer, H G; Seifert, J

    1991-01-01

    Through interpretation of high-speed films at 10,000 frames per second of shock wave action on kidney stones and gallstones, the mechanism of stone destruction was analyzed in detail. This shows that the interaction of the shock wave with the targets firstly produces fissures in the stone material. Liquid then enters these small cracks. The actual disintegration is caused later by the enormous violence of imploding cavitation bubbles within these small split lines. That cavitation acts inside the stone and causes fragmentation even within the human gallbladder could furthermore be demonstrated by using scanning electron microscopy. These results should lead to a different process in gallstone lithotripsy leaving intervals between the shock wave treatments. This will allow the viscous bile fluids to occupy the fissures of the stones more completely and, therefore, should increase the cavitational activity on the subsequent treatment with shock pulses. PMID:1887509

  4. Low voltage scanning electron microscopy of uncoated kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Cheng, P T; Reid, A D

    1985-01-01

    Some organic kidney stone components are easily damaged by a 10-30 kV electron beam used in conventional scanning electron microscopy. To avoid beam damage and reduce charging, it is desirable to study kidney stones by low voltage (1-5 kV) scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) even though image resolution will suffer and X-ray microanalysis will not be available. If one is proficient in crystal morphology one can analyze gold-coated kidney stones by LVSEM without much difficulty. Stone components examined include calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, struvite, calcium apatite, brushite, whitlockite, cystine, uric acid, uric acid dihydrate and ammonium acid urate. For all these components with the exception of the very small whitlockite and ammonium acid urate crystals, uncoated kidney stones can be examined with a 1 kV electron beam. PMID:4095500

  5. Berroqueña stone of Madrid (Spain). A traditional and contemporary building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; Varas Muriel, Ma José

    2014-05-01

    In the Alpedrete monzogranite to granodiorite pluton (350 km2) at 45 km north of the city of Madrid, there are several quarries of Berroqueña stone.This stone has been widely used as building stone in well-preserved and significant buildings of the central area of Spain, such as the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción in Alpedrete (16th century), Royal Palace and Alcalá Gate in Madrid (18th century). This building stone is used, both for new construction and restoration work, like headquarter of the Banco de España in Madrid (19th century) and its restoration (20th century). Alpedrete granite is compositionally classified as monzogranite. Petrographically, it is a medium (1-5 mm) grained subidiomorphic, and equigranular. This mineralogy consists chiefly of quartz (2-3 mm and 40-50% vol.), plagioclase (1-3 mm and 25-30% vol.), K-feldspar (microcline; 2-4 mm and 10-15% vol.) and biotite (1- 2 mm and 10-15% vol.). Its accessory minerals are cordierite, apatite, zircon and monazite. This grey granite has low amount of cracks, its open porosity (accessible to water) is 0,8 % and accessible to mercury is 0,50 %, with a diameter ranging mostly from 0.01 to 0.1 µm. Water absortion is 0,3%. Its bulk density is 2668 kg/m3 and its anisotropy grade (dM) is 6,5 %. its ultrasound propagation velocity (Vp) is 4626 m/s and microhardness of Knoop test 4544 Mpa. Pressure strenght ,and flexure strength 136.9 Mpa and 8.88 Mpa, respectiverly. Measurements obtained of petrophysical properties make this granite a high quality building material. Petrological and petrophysical characteristics of Berroqueña stone, with which have been used for many buildings from 16th century to present, provide a good answer to the decay agents, and therefore durability, possibility of differents finishes and good cleaning. Currently widely used in restoration and paving streets, outdoor tiling and funerary art. Acknowledgments: Special thanks are given to the Geomaterials (S2009/MAT 1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) Programmes, as well as the Complutense University of Madrid's research group on the alteration and conservation of heritage stone (921349) and RedLabPat (CEI-Moncloa).

  6. Semi-rigid ureteroscopy: Proximal versus distal ureteral stones

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, Mahmoud; Azab, Mohamad M.; Nassir, Anmar A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of semi-rigid ureteroscopy in proximal and distal ureteral stones, and to compare the operative and perioperative characteristics between the two stone groups. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent semi-rigid ureteroscopy for management of ureteral stones at the International Medical Center between June 2007 and September 2012. All stones were fragmented using Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripter. Stones located above the pelvic brim are considered proximal and below it are distal. Results: One hundred and ninety-one patients were included. One hundred and three patients (54%) underwent ureteroscopy for proximal stones and 88 (46%) for distal stones. The stone size in the proximal group was 10 mm (±5.5) versus 8.6 mm (±5) in the distal group. The initial stone-free rate for proximal and distal calculi were 89–98.2%, respectively. The perioperative complication rate was higher in the proximal group 10% compared to the distal group which is 1.5% (P = 0.06). Both groups have the same average of hospital stay 1.2 days. Conclusion: Although there is a clinical difference between proximal and distal calculi groups in terms of complication and stone-free rates, this difference remained statistically insignificant (P = 0.06). Using a smaller caliber semi-rigid ureteroscopy combined with Holmium-YAG laser can be carried out as a day care procedure and showed a slightly higher risk in patients with proximal ureteral calculi which should be explained to the patient PMID:26834409

  7. Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, Jonathan M.

    The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

  8. Algal 'greening' and the conservation of stone heritage structures.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Viles, Heather A; Ahmad, Samin; McCabe, Stephen; Smith, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    In humid, temperate climates, green algae can make a significant contribution to the deterioration of building stone, both through unsightly staining ('greening') and, possibly, physical and chemical transformations. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the deteriorative impact and spatial distribution of green algal biofilms, hindering attempts to model the influence of climate change on building conservation. To address this problem, we surveyed four sandstone heritage structures in Belfast, UK. Our research had two aims: 1) to investigate the relationships between greening and the deterioration of stone structures and 2) to assess the impacts of environmental factors on the distribution of green biofilms. We applied an array of analytical techniques to measure stone properties indicative of deterioration status (hardness, colour and permeability) and environmental conditions related to algal growth (surface and sub-surface moisture, temperature and surface texture). Our results indicated that stone hardness was highly variable but only weakly related to levels of greening. Stone that had been exposed for many years was, on average, darker and greener than new stone of the same type, but there was no correlation between greening and darkening. Stone permeability was higher on 'old', weathered stone but not consistently related to the incidence of greening. However, there was evidence to suggest that thick algal biofilms were capable of reducing the ingress of moisture. Greening was negatively correlated with point measurements of surface temperature, but not moisture or surface texture. Our findings suggested that greening had little impact on the physical integrity of stone; indeed the influence of algae on moisture regimes in stone may have a broadly bioprotective action. Furthermore, the relationship between moisture levels and greening is not straightforward and is likely to be heavily dependent upon temporal patterns in moisture regimes and other, unmeasured, factors such as nutrient supply. PMID:23178775

  9. Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

  10. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited range of the factors in the test matrix hindered the identification of individual component effects. Future work should involve broader factor ranges to identify the roles played by each of the components in the mix via thermal analyses, analytical microscopy, and characterization of phase formation.

  11. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited range of the factors in the test matrix hindered the identification of individual component effects. Future work should involve broader factor ranges to identify the roles played by each of the components in the mix via thermal analyses, analytical microscopy, and characterization of phase formation.

  12. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited range of the factors in the test matrix hindered the identification of individual component effects. Future work should involve broader factor ranges to identify the roles played by each of the components in the mix via thermal analyses, analytical microscopy, and characterization of phase formation.

  13. The use of the chrysotile cement waste as the secondary aggregate for the concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V.; Pligina, A.; Rozovskaya, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of research on the effective concrete with secondary chrysotile cement aggregate. One of the important problems of modern science of construction materials is the use of secondary resources for the production of construction materials, and a considerable part of them are the chrysotile cement waste and scrapped chrysotile cement products. The aim of presented research is the development of effective concrete for the production of foundation wall blocks with the use of crushed chrysotile cement products as a secondary aggregate. The main characteristics of the secondary chrysotile cement aggregate have been determined. The concrete with different compositions and with different content of secondary chrysotile cement rubble has been studied. The dependences of the strength and the specific strength of concrete with a constant W/C ratio and constant binder consumption on the consumption of the secondary aggregate have been obtained. It is stated that the introduction of secondary chrysotile cement aggregate does not significantly effect the water resistance and frost resistance of the concrete. It is shown that the variation of the fractions of secondary aggregates and the binder makes it possible to obtain the effective concrete with a wide range of strength values.

  14. Photophoretic force on aggregate grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Kimery, Jesse B.; Wurm, Gerhard; de Beule, Caroline; Kuepper, Markus; Hyde, Truell W.

    2016-01-01

    The photophoretic force may impact planetary formation by selectively moving solid particles based on their composition and structure. This generates collision velocities between grains of different sizes and sorts the dust in protoplanetary discs by composition. This numerical simulation studied the photophoretic force acting on fractal dust aggregates of μm-scale radii. Results show that aggregates tend to have greater photophoretic drift velocities than spheres of similar mass or radii, though with a greater spread in the velocity. While the drift velocities of compact aggregates continue to increase as the aggregates grow larger in size, fluffy aggregates have drift velocities which are relatively constant with size. Aggregates formed from an initially polydisperse size distribution of dust grains behave differently from aggregates formed from a monodisperse population, having smaller drift velocities with directions which deviate substantially from the direction of illumination. Results agree with microgravity experiments which show the difference of photophoretic forces with aggregation state.

  15. Reversible Aggregation of Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colby, Ralph H.; Oates, Katherine M. N.; Krause, Wendy E.; Jones, Ronald L.

    2004-03-01

    We explore the interactions in synovial fluid involving the polyelectrolyte sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) and plasma proteins in their native state (albumin and globulins). Rheological measurements on synovial fluid show it to be highly viscoelastic and also rheopectic (stress increases with time in steady shear). Equilibrium dialysis confirms the findings of Ogston and Dubin that there is no association between NaHA and albumin at physiological pH and salt. What we find instead is a reversible aggregation of albumin, with an association energy of order 3kT and commensurate association lifetime of order microseconds. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs are shown to prevent this reversible aggregation. The implications of these findings for synovial fluid and blood rheology are discussed.

  16. [Inhibition of platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Wascher, Thomas C; Säly, Christoph H

    2016-04-01

    Acute thrombotic complications as a key feature of accelerated atherothrombotic disease typically precipitate cardiovascular events and therefore strongly contribute to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Inhibition of platelet aggregation can reduce the risk for acute atherothrombosis. The present article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of antiplatelet drugs in diabetic patients according to current scientific evidence. PMID:27052222

  17. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Regulation and effects of GDF-15 in the retina following optic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, Petar; Wang, Xiaolong; Thanos, Solon; Schober, Andreas; Unsicker, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    Growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a distant member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and is ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system. It is prominently upregulated in cerebral cortical and ischemic lesion paradigms. GDF-15 robustly promotes the survival of lesioned nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo; GDF-15-deficient mice exhibit progressive postnatal motor and sensory neuron losses implying essential functions of GDF-15 in neuronal survival. We show that GDF-15 mRNA and protein are, respectively, six-fold and three-fold upregulated in the murine retina at 1 day after optic nerve crush, slightly elevated mRNA levels being maintained until day 28. However, the magnitude and time course of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death are indistinguishable in knockout and control mice. Selected mRNAs implicated in the regulation of the death vs. survival of RGCs, including ATF3, Bad, Bcl-2 and caspase-8, were similarly regulated in both knockout and control retinae. Immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase revealed no differences in staining patterns in the two genotypes. mRNA and protein levels of galanin, a putative neuroprotective factor and positive regulator of neuron survival and axonal regeneration, were prominently upregulated after crush in knockout retinae at day 3, as compared with control retinae, suggesting that GDF-15 acts as a physiological regulator of galanin. GDF-15 is therefore prominently upregulated in the retina after optic nerve crush but does not directly interfere with the magnitude and temporal progression of RGC death. PMID:23640134

  19. Electron-optical microscopic study of incipient dental microdamage from experimental seed and bone crushing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.R.

    1982-03-01

    No living analogue exists for the hypothetical early hominid hard/tough-seed, coarse-root-eating, and bone-crushing masticatory adaptation. To investigate possible microdamage/microwear to dental enamel caused by such usage, puncture-crushing experiments were carried out on single human teeth, using an Instron compression apparatus on the following six test materials: Makapansgat Limeworks chert (e.g., taphonomy), fresh steer longbone, mongongo nuts, Grewia berries, Carob beans, and wild-onion bulbs. Pairs of extracted unworn third molars were utilized, with one tooth acting as the control. The teeth were mounted, ultrasonically cleaned, and two-stage replicas made with a vinyl polysiloxane elastomer and araldite epoxy resin. After Instron loading and materials failure (1.2-395.0 kg) the test items and the crowns were prepared for comparison with scanning electron microscopy and dispersive x-ray elemental analysis and mapping. The results revealed that although grit adhering to food item surfaces caused microscratches (0.1-1.0 micron wide) similar in appearance to those caused by opal phytoliths in grasses, the dicotyledonous seed coats per se were unable to score enamel. This suggests microscratch morphology alone may not provide a reliable indication of food type. In some cases puncture-crushing of bone and hard legumes produced a localized microfracture pattern (crazing with cracks less than or equal to 0.1-1.0 micron wide) that was readily distinguishable from the simulated taphonomic damage caused by chert fragments, suggesting only analysis of enamel mistaphonomic damage caused by chart fragments, suggesting analysis of enamel microfracture patterns may provide clues as to early hominid dietary adaptations.

  20. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  1. Injury experience in stone mining, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations and developing countries. For each of these three proposed stepping stones, recommendations for coordination mechanisms are presented.

  3. An Understanding of Renal Stone Development in a Mixed Oxalate–Phosphate System

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xiangying; Wang, Lijun; Dosen, Anja; Tang, Ruikang; Giese, Rossman F.; Giocondi, Jennifer L.; Orme, Christine A.; Hoyer, John R.; Nancollas, George H.

    2009-01-01

    The in vivo formation of calcium oxalate concretions having calcium phosphate nidi is simulated in an in vitro (37 °C, pH 6.0) dual constant composition (DCC) system undersaturated (σDCPD = −0.330) with respect to brushite (DCPD, CaHPO4 · 2H2O) and slightly supersaturated (σCOM = 0.328) with respect to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM, CaC2O4 · H2O). The brushite dissolution provides calcium ions that raise the COM supersaturation, which is heterogeneously nucleated either on or near the surface of the dissolving calcium phosphate crystals. The COM crystallites may then aggregate, simulating kidney stone formation. Interestingly, two intermediate phases, anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (monetite, CaHPO4) and calcium oxalate trihydrate (COT), are also detected by X-ray diffraction during this brushite–COM transformation. In support of clinical observations, the results of these studies demonstrate the participation of calcium phosphate phases in COM crystallization providing a possible physical chemical mechanism for kidney stone formation. PMID:18557638

  4. Selective batch crushing in the coal-preparation shop at OAO NTMK

    SciTech Connect

    N.A. Berkutov; Yu.V. Stepanov; P.V. Shtark; L.A. Makhortova; N.K. Popova; D.A. Koshkarov; N.V. Tsarev

    2007-05-15

    In September 2004, after reconstruction at OAO Nizhnetagil'skii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (NTMK), blast furnace 6 went into operation for the production of vanadium from hot metal. At the startup of furnace 6, besides optimising its composition; it was decided to restore selective crushing of the coal batch using pneumatic and mechanical separation in the third unit of the coal preparation shop. Additional increase in the mechanical strength of coke by 1.5-2.0% was predicted with a 0.5-1.0% decrease in wear.

  5. Addressing the crush of sampling. [technology programs for space information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olstad, W. B.; Holcomb, L. B.; Rubin, B.

    1980-01-01

    An overall space information system involves sensing, processing, analyzing, and distributing space-acquired information. These systems may be partitioned into the spacecraft segment, the wideband space-to-ground communication segment, and the ground-based data analysis and distribution segment. The paper discusses NASA's advanced technology programs aimed at providing improved sensors and on-board data systems. Advances in charge-transfer devices, lasers, and microwave technologies will be responsible for major improvements in NASA's sensing and detection capabilities for future missions. These improvements will result in a future data crush that will amplify the data management problem.

  6. Feasibility of establishing a 100-ton per day sunflower seed crushing plant at Clifford, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    Considerable interest is currently being shown in the concept of local processing of agricultural products. The production of sunflowers in North Dakota has shown tremendous growth over the past years. Cash receipts from sunflowers have made it the second most important cash crop in the state. It is felt that the plant can be justified as an energy producing facility. A sunflower crushing plant has to be feasible when competing as a producer of oil within traditional markets. The use of the oil as a source of energy is to be considered as an intangible benefit to the community, if sunflower oil is found to be an acceptable fuel.

  7. Acute Sensorineural Hearing Loss After Abuse of an Inhaled, Crushed Oxymorphone Extended-Release Tablet.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Lisa E; Onsrud, Jennifer E; Mullins-Hodgin, Rita

    2015-07-01

    Oxymorphone, a semisynthetic μ-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active metabolite of oxycodone. It is a highly potent narcotic analgesic due to its high lipid solubility, which allows it to readily cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the central nervous system. It is available as both an immediate-release and extended-release (ER) formulation. Oxymorphone can be abused by injection or inhalation of crushed tablets; thus, in 2011, the manufacturer of ER oxymorphone reformulated the drug with crush-resistant technology to deter its misuse and abuse. We describe the case of a previously healthy, 24-year-old male who experienced reproducible acute subjective bilateral temporary hearing loss that occurred after inhalation of oxymorphone. He presented to the emergency department complaining of acute bilateral hearing loss after he reported snorting a crushed oxymorphone ER 30-mg tablet. Emergency department evaluation revealed obvious bilateral hearing loss as well as coincidental aspiration pneumonia. The patient's medical history revealed that he had experienced a similar episode of hearing loss after a previous episode of oxymorphone inhalation. His hearing loss began to improve 3 hours after presentation to the emergency department and was completely resolved by the following day. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale revealed oxymorphone to be a probable cause of this patient's acute hearing loss (score of 6). The mechanism of action of opioid-associated hearing loss (OAHL) is not completely understood, but it is thought to be due to disturbances within the cochlea, such as cochlear ischemia. To our knowledge, this is only the second published case report of acute reversible hearing loss following oxymorphone inhalation and the first published case report of reproducible OAHL. Since opioid misuse continues to be prevalent despite attempts at reformulations to make the drugs crush resistant, a high degree of clinical suspicion is needed to evaluate and treat patients who present with unique findings after episodes of substance abuse, especially those related to tamper-resistant formulations. PMID:26112082

  8. Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is everywhere evident. The ceilings of houses there are with artistic works and ornaments of different times. Houses are of balconies with balustrades, and from characteristic windows are hanging down flowers. Architecture feature of Medieval period, there are symbolised in most of houses and in Qafa e Pazarit ("Bazaar Pass"), where are crossed all roads of the ancient City. From the Fortress below your foots there are different parts of stone City. If you like to be astonished, please, get up to the Keculla Point and watch the Stone City, Drinos Valley, and Lunxheria Mountains! In Gjirokastra Region there are Antigonea Archaeological Park and Sofratika Amphitheatre. Gjirokastra has a very rich geoheritage and bioheritage such as: Viroi artesian spring, Skotini Cave, Cajupi Field Landscape etc. Since 1961, Gjirokastra was proclaimed Museum City under the protection, and on 2005 was included in UNESCO World Cultural Heritage.

  9. Reproducing stone monument photosynthetic-based colonization under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ana Zélia; Laiz, Leonila; Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Dionísio, Amélia; Macedo, Maria Filomena; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2008-11-01

    In order to understand the biodeterioration process occurring on stone monuments, we analyzed the microbial communities involved in these processes and studied their ability to colonize stones under controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, a natural green biofilm from a limestone monument was cultivated, inoculated on stone probes of the same lithotype and incubated in a laboratory chamber. This incubation system, which exposes stone samples to intermittently sprinkling water, allowed the development of photosynthetic biofilms similar to those occurring on stone monuments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to evaluate the major microbial components of the laboratory biofilms. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, bacteria and fungi were identified by DNA-based molecular analysis targeting the 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The natural green biofilm was mainly composed by the Chlorophyta Chlorella, Stichococcus, and Trebouxia, and by Cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Leptolyngbya and Pleurocapsa. A number of bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were identified, as well as fungi from the Ascomycota. The laboratory colonization experiment on stone probes showed a colonization pattern similar to that occurring on stone monuments. The methodology described in this paper allowed to reproduce a colonization equivalent to the natural biodeteriorating process. PMID:18768211

  10. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed Central

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-01-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition. PMID:3926039

  11. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-07-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition. PMID:3926039

  12. Symptomatic and silent gall stones in the community.

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, K W; Braddon, F E; Mountford, R A; Hughes, A O; Emmett, P M

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of gall stone disease in a stratified random sample of 1896 British adults (72.2% of those approached) was established using real time ultrasound. The prevalence rose with age, except in women of 40-49 years, so that at 60-69 years, 22.4% of women and 11.5% of men had gall stones or had undergone cholecystectomy. The cholecystectomy rate of people with gall stone disease was higher in women than in men (43.5% v 24%, p less than 0.05). Very few subjects with gall stones had convincing biliary symptoms. In women, 10.4% had symptoms according to a questionnaire definition of biliary pain and 6.3% according to conventional history taking, while no men at all admitted to biliary pain. Nevertheless, cholecystectomy in men had nearly always been preceded by convincing biliary symptoms. The age at cholecystectomy was, on average, nine years less than the age at detection of silent gall stones in both sexes. It is concluded that either gall stones are especially prone to cause symptoms in younger people or that there are two kinds of cholelithiasis - symptomatic and silent. The lack of symptomatic gall stones in cross sectional surveys is probably due to their rapid diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2013429

  13. Kidney Stones and Cardiovascular Events: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, R. Todd; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Wiebe, Natasha; Bello, Aminu; Samuel, Susan; Klarenbach, Scott W.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are common in general clinical practice, and their prevalence is increasing. Kidney stone formers often have risk factors associated with atherosclerosis, but it is uncertain whether having a kidney stone is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events. This study sought to assess the association between one or more kidney stones and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular events. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Cohort study of 3,195,452 people aged≥18 years registered in the universal health care system in Alberta, Canada, between 1997 and 2009 (median follow-up of 11 years). People undergoing dialysis or with a kidney transplant at baseline were excluded. The primary outcome was the first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during follow-up. We also considered other cardiovascular events, including death due to coronary heart disease, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and stroke. Results In total, 25,532 (0.8%) participants had at least one kidney stone, and 91,465 (3%) individuals had at least one cardiovascular event during follow-up. Compared with people without kidney stones and after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and other potential confounders, people who had at least one kidney stone had a higher risk of subsequent AMI (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.30 to 1.51), PTCA/CABG (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.51 to 1.76), and stroke (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.42). The magnitude of the excess risk associated with a kidney stone appeared more pronounced for younger people than for older people (P<0.001) and for women than men (P=0.01). Conclusions The occurrence of a kidney stone is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events, including AMI, PTCA/CABG, and stroke. PMID:24311706

  14. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  15. Epidemiology of bladder stone of children: precipitating events.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B

    2016-04-01

    Urological surgery evolved from the ancient practice of removing primary bladder stones from young boys. Bladder stones, once ubiquitous, long ago disappeared from the developed world while pockets of disease still exist in developing countries. Two epidemiological studies identified as precipitating events of bladder stone formation the practice of substitutive carbohydrate feedings to newborns. In Southeast Asia, masticated rice is fed to newborns in stone-endemic villages while in England, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries pap or panada was used to hand-feed infants when breast milk was not available. Fresh milk from dairy animals was deemed preferable to pap. Lack of access to dairy cattle enhanced need for hand-feeding. In an epidemiological study, during mid-nineteenth century in England the prevalence of dairy cattle was inversely related to the prevalence of bladder stones. These epidemiological data relate stone formation to nutrition during the first few days or weeks of life. It is surmised that frequent use of or exclusive reliance on carbohydrate foods replacing milk feedings leads to a relative dietary deficiency in phosphates and the formation of insoluble urinary salts. Girls, with short, nontortuous urethras may pass much of the calculus debris without retaining nuclei in the bladder. In some males, stone nuclei are formed and retained. The growth of stones is determined thereafter by the net effect of depository and resorptive mechanisms operating over time distributing over many years the age that patients present for surgical stone removal. The role of early introduction of carbohydrate foods and reduced milk intake of neonates has not been incorporated into recommendations for feeding newborns in endemic countries nor comprehensively modeled in animals. PMID:26559057

  16. Decay and preservation of stone in modern environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauri, K. Lal

    1990-01-01

    Stone objects decay in all environments, but the modes of decay vary from one region to another. In the modern industrial countries acid deposition has accelerated the decay of stone. Many objects that survived centuries of weathering without serious damage have, in the present century, decomposed beyond recognition. The black crusts seen on stone structures mostly contain gypsum formed by SO2 reactions with calcareous minerals. These crusts exfoliate, destroying the sculptural form. Because of the absence of proven technology to treat and restore these objects, the caryatids at the Acropolis had to be moved indoors to save them from further disfiguration. In arid climates, the salts in stone and the meteorologic conditions combine to disrupt stone structures. The Great Sphinx at Giza is a prominent example of this mode of stone decay. In humid, tropical regions, such as in southern India, hydrolysis disrupts the mineral structure, causing rapid damage even to such durable stone as granite. The human effort to save the deteriorating structures has often aggravated the problem. The sandstone at the Legislative Building in Olympia, Washington has, because of the “protective” acrylic coating, suffered greater damage than the similar but unprotected sandstone at a nearby school building. It appears that proper management can greatly help to reduce the decay of the stone. A scientifically designed cleaning can inhibit the formation of crusts and the accumulation of efflorescences. The absence of the crusts and efflorescence and application of appropriate impregnants, which consolidate yet maintain the "breathability" of stone, may prolong the life of historic structures.

  17. Dynamics of fire ant aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennenbaum, Michael; Hu, David; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto

    Fire ant aggregations are an inherently active system. Each ant harvests its own energy and can convert it into motion. The motion of individual ants contributes non-trivially to the bulk material properties of the aggregation. We have measured some of these properties using plate-plate rheology, where the response to an applied external force or deformation is measured. In this talk, we will present data pertaining to the aggregation behavior in the absence of any external force. We quantify the aggregation dynamics by monitoring the rotation of the top plate and by measuring the normal force. We then compare the results with visualizations of 2D aggregations.

  18. Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Aravinda M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Lyme disease is caused by the tick-borne spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. It has been documented that B. burgdorferi form aggregates within ticks and during in vitro culture. However, Borrelia aggregates remain poorly characterized, and their functional significance is unknown. Here we have characterized Borrelia aggregates using microscopy and flow cytometry. Borrelia aggregation was temperature, pH, and growth phase dependent. Environmental conditions (high temperature, low pH, and high cell density) favorable for aggregation were similar to the conditions that increased the expression of B. burgdoferi genes, such as outer surface protein C (ospC), that are regulated by the RpoN/RpoS sigma factors. Experiments were conducted to determine if there is a relationship between aggregation and gene regulation through the RpoN/RpoS pathway. ospC Transcript levels were similar between aggregates and free cells. Moreover, no differences were observed in aggregate formation when null mutants of rpoS, rpoN, or ospC were compared to wild-type spirochetes. These results indicated that, despite the similar external signals that promoted aggregation and the RpoN/RpoS pathway, the two processes were not linked at the molecular level. The methods developed here to study B. burgdorferi aggregates will be useful for further studies on spirochete aggregates. PMID:19499997

  19. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  20. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stones with anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Komori, K; Arai, H; Gotoh, T; Imazu, T; Honda, M; Fujioka, H

    2000-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman had been suffering from bulimia and habitual vomiting for about 7 years and was incidentally found to have right renal stones by computed tomography. She was referred to our hospital for the treatment of these caluculi. On admission, she presented with hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis and was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Following successful removal by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy the stones were found to consist of pure ammonium urate. Since the urine of an anorexia nervosa patient tends to be rich in uric acid and ammonium, anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with ammonium urate urinary stones. PMID:11107533

  1. "Piedra Franca": the same name for many different natural stones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Dolores; Navarro, Rafael; Baltuille, Jose Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The Spanish name "Piedra Franca" refers to all the stones of sedimentary origin that have uniform coloration and easeof cutting/carving in order to obtain dimensional blocks for construction. The first references to this denomination occurred during medieval times, when builders had to choose the best materials to construct magnificent cathedrals. The largest volume of such natural stones were extracted from Caen, northern France, and historic records use the English term, "freestone", ie stone easy to cut, and to work by the masons dedicated to build cathedrals ("freemasons") in contrast to the "roughstone", hard stones worked by the hard hewers or "rough masons". The original French name referred to the limestones extracted at Caen, but over time, the original meaning expanded to include other natural stones with similar coloration and ease to carve. Notably this included many sandstones that were used in adjacent countries such as Spain. In the latter, although the most popular for its importance in architectural heritage is the Villamayor sandstone from Salamanca, other historically important natural stones are also known as "Piedra Franca" including the calcarenite from Santa Pudia (Granada), the limestone from Alava, the sandstone from Jaen and the sandstone from Cádiz. All of them were used in the construction of Spanish architectonic heritage and share similar exterior characteristics. In fact, several are known as golden stones. However when conservation and restoration of architectonic heritage is involved, the correct and original material should be used. The existence of national networks (e.g. CONSTRUROCK) and international task groups (e.g. IUGS Heritage Stone Task Group) can help to properly characterize, document, and differentiate between the varieties of "Piedra Franca" and they should be consulted by builders, architects and any other stone professsionals involved in such activities. An error in choosing the natural stone can result in significant damage to the architectonic heritage. The same issue that occurs with "Piedra Franca" also extends to other natural stones in Spain and around the world. This explains the importance of these networks and task groups. This work was sponsored by the ERASMUS Intensive Programme 2012-1-ES1-ERA10-54375 and it was done within the framework of the Heritage Stone Task Group and CONSTRUROCK activities.

  2. Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation in the Inner Ear as a Result of an Slc26a4 Mutation*♦

    PubMed Central

    Dror, Amiel A.; Politi, Yael; Shahin, Hashem; Lenz, Danielle R.; Dossena, Silvia; Nofziger, Charity; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Paulmichl, Markus; Weiner, Steve; Avraham, Karen B.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium oxalate stone formation occurs under pathological conditions and accounts for more than 80% of all types of kidney stones. In the current study, we show for the first time that calcium oxalate stones are formed in the mouse inner ear of a genetic model for hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction in humans. The vestibular system within the inner ear is dependent on extracellular tiny calcium carbonate minerals for proper function. Thousands of these biominerals, known as otoconia, are associated with the utricle and saccule sensory maculae and are vital for mechanical stimulation of the sensory hair cells. We show that a missense mutation within the Slc26a4 gene abolishes the transport activity of its encoded protein, pendrin. As a consequence, dramatic changes in mineral composition, size, and shape occur within the utricle and saccule in a differential manner. Although abnormal giant carbonate minerals reside in the utricle at all ages, in the saccule, a gradual change in mineral composition leads to a formation of calcium oxalate in adult mice. By combining imaging and spectroscopy tools, we determined the profile of mineral composition and morphology at different time points. We propose a novel mechanism for the accumulation and aggregation of oxalate crystals in the inner ear. PMID:20442411

  3. Development of a Laboratory Model of a Phototroph-Heterotroph Mixed-Species Biofilm at the Stone/Air Interface

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Federica; Pitts, Betsey; Lauchnor, Ellen; Cappitelli, Francesca; Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent scientific investigations have shed light on the ecological importance and physiological complexity of subaerial biofilms (SABs) inhabiting lithic surfaces. In the field of sustainable cultural heritage (CH) preservation, mechanistic approaches aimed at investigation of the spatiotemporal patterns of interactions between the biofilm, the stone, and the atmosphere are of outstanding importance. However, these interactions have proven difficult to explore with field experiments due to the inaccessibility of samples, the complexity of the ecosystem under investigation and the temporal resolution of the experiments. To overcome these limitations, we aimed at developing a unifying methodology to reproduce a fast-growing, phototroph-heterotroph mixed species biofilm at the stone/air interface. Our experiments underscore the ability of the dual-species SAB model to capture functional traits characteristic of biofilms inhabiting lithic substrate such as: (i) microcolonies of aggregated bacteria; (ii) network like structure following surface topography; (iii) cooperation between phototrophs and heterotrophs and cross feeding processes; (iv) ability to change the chemical parameters that characterize the microhabitats; (v) survival under desiccation and (vi) biocide tolerance. With its advantages in control, replication, range of different experimental scenarios and matches with the real ecosystem, the developed model system is a powerful tool to advance our mechanistic understanding of the stone-biofilm-atmosphere interplay in different environments. PMID:26635736

  4. AB094. Upper urinary stone management in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaogang; Liu, Jihong; Ye, Zhangqun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To give an overview of the contemporary management for upper urinary stones in China. Methods Contemporary treatment methods, especially novel or developing modality with Chinese characteristics, for upper urinary stones in China has been reviewed and introduced. Results Urolithiasis is one of the most prevalent diseases in the urologic clinic and usually affects people aged 20 to 60 years. In recent years, the overall morbidity of urolithiasis in Chinese population has increased with a significant reduction of lower urinary stone and an increase of upper urinary stone. Upper urinary stone may induce more severe complications and have been considered to be the main cause of nephrectomy besides urinary tumor. The management of upper urinary stone can be challenging somehow. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is usually the first choice for patients with simple upper urinary stone sized 2 cm or less. Recent years, according to the mechanism of lithecbole by vibration and body position, some Chinese urologists have developed a novel machine, external physical vibration lithecbole (EPVL), which can facilitate removal of urinary stone after ESWL or endoscopic lithotripsy. The combination of EPVL therapy with ESWL or endoscopic lithotripsy significantly improves the stone-free rate. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is increasingly employed as a major modality for patients with large and complex upper urinary stone. The minimally invasive PCNL (mPCNL), which was performed with a miniature endoscope by way of a small size tract (12-20 F), could decrease morbidity, especially uncontrolled hemorrhage. However, its efficiency of removing stone fragments is lower. The Chinese urologists have modified PCNL technique by using an 8/9.8 F rigid ureteroscope through the 14-18 F percutaneous tract under the guidance of ultrasound or X-ray. The results from a series of studies demonstrate that Chinese mPCNL is a safe, feasible and efficient method for treating upper urinary stone with a low complication rate. With the development of technology, flexible ureteroscopy has become one of the main actors in clinical practice over the past several years. Flexible ureteroscopy can reach most parts of the kidney so that all stones can be removed or vaporised provided they are of an appropriate size and accessible. Moreover, flexible ureteroscopy is well tolerated and effective which allows us to obtain a high success rate, low morbidity, and a brief hospital stay. It could be the best option in managing the special patients with multiple intrarenal stones, stone-bearing caliceal diverticula, anticoagulated history, obesity, anomalous kidneys and pregnancy, which are not applicable for ESWL or PCNL. However, the flexible ureteroscopy is much more difficult to handle than the rigid ureteroscope. In addition, the flexible ureteroscope is expensive and easy to be damaged or broken, the treatment cost usually higher than ordinary treatment. In the past decades, some Chinese urologists and engineers have put in a great effort to design novel types of flexible ureteroscope which is cheaper and easier to operate. The integrated flexible and rigid ureteroscope is one of the new designed instruments of which the body is an ordinary rigid ureteroscope but have a flexible end. This novel device could be operated as easy as rigid ureteroscope and the end of ureteroscope could move flexiblely after its entry of the renal pelvis. Several different types of the Chinese flexible ureteroscope have completed the clinical trials and are going to be commercially available. Conclusions Generally, upper urinary stone is one of the most common diseases in urologic department in China and some novel treatment methods with Chinese characteristics has been developed. Each treatment method has advantages and disadvantages. The urologists’ choice of the treatment strategy should be made individually according to the properties of stone and the patient’s body condition.

  5. Balloon dilator versus telescopic metal dilators for tract dilatation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn stones and calyceal stones

    PubMed Central

    El-Shazly, Mohamed; Salem, Shady; Allam, Adel; Hathout, Badawy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the results of balloon dilatation (BD) vs. telescopic metal dilators (TMDs) in establishing the tract for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with calyceal stones or staghorn stones, but with no hydronephrosis. Patients and methods Data from selected patients over 4years were recorded retrospectively. Patients with complex staghorn stones, an undilated targeted calyx, or the stone filling the targeted calyx, were included in the study. In all, 97 patients were included, of 235 undergoing PCNL between March 2010 and March 2014, and were divided into two groups according to the technique of primary tract dilatation. Group A included patients who had BD and group B those treated using TMDs. Results In group A (BD, 55 patients) dilatation was successful in 34 (62%). The dilatation failed or there was a need for re-dilatation using TMD in 21 patients (38%). In one of these 21 patients the dilatation failed due to extravasation. In group B (TMD, 42 patients) dilatation was successful in 38 (90%) patients, with incomplete dilatation and a need for re-dilatation in four (10%) patients, and no failed procedures. Group A had a significantly higher failure rate than group B (P<0.001). Differences in operative duration, blood loss, stone-removal success rate and complication rate were statistically insignificant. Conclusion BD has a higher failure rate than TMD when establishing access for calyceal stones or staghorn stones that have little space around them. PMID:26413325

  6. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  7. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  8. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  9. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water jet renal stone dislodger system. 876.4650... stone dislodger system. (a) Identification. A water jet renal stone dislodger system is a device used...

  10. Influence of variables on the consolidation and unconfined compressive strength of crushed salt: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Senseny, P.E.; Mellegard, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    Eight hydrostatic compression creep tests were performed on crushed salt specimens fabricated from Avery Island dome salt. Following the creep test, each specimen was tested in unconfined compression. The experiments were performed to assess the influence of the following four variables on the consolidation and unconfined strength of crushed salt: grain size distribution, temperature, time, and moisture content. The experiment design comprised a half-fraction factorial matrix at two levels. The levels of each variable investigated were grain size distribution, uniform-graded and well-graded (coefficient of uniformity of 1 and 8); temperature 25/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C; time, 3.5 x 10/sup 3/s and 950 x 10/sup 3/s (approximately 60 minutes and 11 days, respectively); and moisture content, dry and wet (85% relative humidity for 24 hours). The hydrostatic creep stress was 10 MPa. The unconfined compression tests were performed at an axial strain rate of 1 x 10/sup -5/s/sup -1/. Results show that the variables time and moisture content have the greatest influence on creep consolidation, while grain size distribution and, to a somewhat lesser degree, temperature have the greatest influence on total consolidation. Time and moisture content and the confounded two-factor interactions between either grain size distribution and time or temperature and moisture content have the greatest influence on unconfined strength. 7 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Adsorption of sulfur hexafluoride onto crushed tuffs from the Yucca Mountain area, NYE County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Rattray, G.W.; Striegl, R.G.; Yang, I.C.

    1995-12-31

    A laboratory batch-type testing procedure was developed that provides a simple, rapid, and reproducible method to investigate the adsorptive capabilities of crushed materials for gaseous compounds. Several batch tests were conducted to test crushed samples of tuff, clinoptilolite, and gypsum cement for their retention of sulfur hexafluoride. For each sample tested, the surface area, distribution coefficient, and retention equation were determined. The surface areas of the samples decreased in the following order: Topopah Spring Tuff, UE-25 UZ No. 5; bedded tuff, clinoptilolite; Yucca Mountain Tuff; Topopah Spring Tuff, UE-25 UZ No. 4; Pah Canyon Tuff; gypsum cement; and Tiva Canyon Tuff. The distribution coefficients show that sulfur hexafluoride is readily adsorbed onto clinoptilolite, bedded tuff, and Topopah Spring Tuff, but that it does not appreciably adsorb onto gypsum cement, Tiva Canyon Tuff, or Pah Canyon Tuff. Retention equations, which were calculated as a function of the surface area of the tuffs, were similar for all but one (Tiva Canyon Tuff) of the tuffs. The similarity of the retention equations demonstrates that the surface area of a tuff is a good indicator of the sorptive capability of the tuff. The distribution coefficients and the surface areas of the tuffs show a correlation with the amount of zeolite in the tuff, providing evidence that zeolites are the principal mineral controlling the adsorption of sulfur hexafluoride.

  12. Involvement of upregulated SYF2 in Schwann cell differentiation and migration after sciatic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengming; Liu, Yang; Nie, Xiaoke; Cao, Jianhua; Zhu, Xiaojian; Yao, Li; Zhang, Weidong; Yu, Jiang; Wu, Gang; Liu, Yonghua; Yang, Huiguang

    2014-10-01

    SYF2 is a putative homolog of human p29 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It seems to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and cell cycle progression. Disruption of SYF2 leads to reduced α-tubulin expression and delayed nerve system development in zebrafish. Due to the potential of SYF2 in modulating microtubule dynamics in nervous system, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of SYF2 in a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model. We found that SNC resulted in a significant upregulation of SYF2 from 3 days to 1 week and subsequently returned to the normal level at 4 weeks. At its peak expression, SYF2 distributed predominantly in Schwann cells. In addition, upregulation of SYF2 was approximately in parallel with Oct-6, and numerous Schwann cells expressing SYF2 were Oct-6 positive. In vitro, we observed enhanced expression of SYF2 during the process of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-induced Schwann cell differentiation. SYF2-specific siRNA-transfected Schwann cells did not show significant morphological change in the process of Schwann cell differentiation. Also, we found shorter and disorganized microtubule structure and a decreased migration in SYF2-specific siRNA-transfected Schwann cells. Together, these findings indicated that the upregulation of SYF2 was associated with Schwann cell differentiation and migration following sciatic nerve crush. PMID:24962097

  13. Severe lower limb crush injury and the role of hyperbaric oxygen treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, Styliani; Kotsiou, Maria; Mesimeris, Theodore

    2014-12-01

    Open fractures with severe soft-tissue injury and critical local ischaemia of the lower limbs are usually difficult to treat and require a multidisciplinary approach. A 33-year-old Caucasian female with crush injury of the right foot (Gustillo IIIC) was admitted to hospital after a car accident. Despite surgical interventions, a persistent state of hypoxia was present because of the severe vessel injury, and amputation was suggested. Seventy-two hours after admission she was referred to the hyperbaric medicine unit for hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) to define the limits of viable tissues prior to amputation. After six sessions, clinical improvement was so obvious that the decision to amputate was rejected and she underwent a total of 32 HBOT in addition to frequent debridement and administration of antibiotics. After the HBOT course, she underwent successful surgical reconstruction with a vascularised cutaneous flap. Full healing was achieved. Given the fact that hyperbaric oxygen mechanisms of action target the pathophysiology of crush injuries it should be considered not only for the definition of viable tissue limits but also to enhance viability, even in the most serious situations. HBOT may prove a valuable supplement in the therapeutic armamentarium of these patients. PMID:25596839

  14. Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Teodori, Rosana Macher; Betini, Joice; de Oliveira, Larissa Salgado; Sobral, Luciane Lobato; Takeda, Sibele Yoko Mattozo; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P < 0.01). The diameter of axons and nerve fibers was larger in CS1 (P < 0.01) and CS14 (P < 0.05) than in C, and myelin sheath thickness was lower in all crushed groups (P < 0.05). There was no functional difference between CS1 and CS14 (P > 0.05). Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury. PMID:21876821

  15. Calling by Domestic Piglets during Simulated Crushing and Isolation: A Signal of Need?

    PubMed Central

    Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Špinka, Marek; Tallet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow’s reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced “squeezing” on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

  16. Successful Salvage of the Upper Limb After Crush Injury Requiring Nine Operations: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qingmin; Cai, Guoping; Liu, Dechang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xinchao

    2015-01-01

    Emergency treatment of amputation is one of the most frequently used therapeutic methods for patients with severe upper limb crush injury with a mangled extremity severity score (MESS) of more than 7. With the development of advanced surgical repair techniques and reconstructive technology, cases that once required amputation can now be salvaged with appropriate management, and some limb functions may also be reserved. A patient with a severe upper limb crush injury with a MESS score of 10 was treated in our hospital. The limb was salvaged after 9 surgeries over 10 months. The follow-up visits over the next 18 months post-injury showed that the shoulder joint functions were rated as “excellent” (90) according to the Neer score, the Harris hip evaluation (HHS) for elbow joint functions was “good” (80), and the patient was very satisfied with the overall therapeutic outcome. We conclude from the successful outcome of this extreme injury that salvage attempts should be the first management choice for upper limbs with complex injuries to save as much function as possible. Amputation should only be adopted when the injury is life-threatening or no more function can be saved. The level of evidence was V. PMID:25785341

  17. Dissolution of Intact, Divided and Crushed Circadin Tablets: Prolonged vs. Immediate Release of Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Hui Ming; Hauet Richer, Nathalie; Swedrowska, Magda; Ingham, Stephen; Tomlin, Stephen; Forbes, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Circadin 2 mg prolonged-release tablet is the only licensed melatonin product available in the UK. Circadin is indicated for patients with primary insomnia aged 55 and over, but is more widely used “off-label” to treat sleep disorders especially in the paediatric population. Children and older people often have difficulty swallowing tablets and dividing the tablet is sometimes required to ease administration. The aim of this study was to measure the release profile of melatonin from Circadin tablets when divided or crushed, and compare this with release from intact tablets. Dissolution testing was also performed for unlicensed melatonin products for comparison. Dissolution tests were performed using the pharmacopoeial paddle apparatus, with melatonin release analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin content, hardness, friability, and disintegration of the products were also evaluated. The prolonged release of melatonin from Circadin tablets was unlike that of any other product tested. When divided into halves, Circadin preserved most of the prolonged-release characteristic (f2 = 58), whereas quarter-cut and crushed tablet had a more immediate melatonin release profile. Circadin is significantly less expensive and should be preferred to unlicensed medicines which are not pharmaceutically equivalent and offer less quality assurance. PMID:26751472

  18. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss is Delayed Following Optic Nerve Crush in NLRP3 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Puyang, Zhen; Feng, Liang; Chen, Hui; Liang, Peiji; Troy, John B.; Liu, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome, a sensor for a variety of pathogen- and host-derived threats, consists of the adaptor ASC (Apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a Caspase Activation and Recruitment Domain (CARD)), pro-caspase-1, and NLRP3 (NOD-Like Receptor family Pyrin domain containing 3). NLRP3-induced neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of eye diseases, but it remains unclear whether activation of NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Here we examined NLRP3-induced neuroinflammation and RGC survival following partial optic nerve crush (pONC) injury. We showed that NLRP3 was up-regulated in retinal microglial cells following pONC, propagating from the injury site to the optic nerve head and finally the entire retina within one day. Activation of NLRP3-ASC inflammasome led to the up-regulation of caspase-1 and a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In NLRP3 knockout mice, up-regulation of ASC, caspase-1, and IL-1β were all reduced, and, importantly, RGC and axon loss was substantially delayed following pONC injury. The average survival time of RGCs in NLRP3 knockout mice was about one week longer than for control animals. Taken together, our study demonstrated that ablating the NLRP3 gene significantly reduced neuroinflammation and delayed RGC loss after optic nerve crush injury. PMID:26893104

  19. Crush performance of redwood for developing design procedures for impact limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1995-12-31

    Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most simplistic information exists on its crush properties. Tbe stress-strain interrelationship for any wood species subject to three-dimensional stresses is largely unknown for any all stress condition and wood behavior at both high strains and high strain-rates is known only in general terms. Both stress-strain and crush failure theories have been developed based only on uniaxial load tests. The anisotropy of wood adds an additional complexity to measuring wood response and developing suitable theories to describe it. A long history of wood utilization in the building industry has led to design procedures and property information related to simple uniaxial loadings that do not inflict damage to the wood. This lack of knowledge may be surprising for a material that has a long history of engineered use, but the result is difficulty in utilizing wood in more sophisticated designs such as impact limiters. This study provides a step toward filling the information gap on wood material response for high performance applications such as impact limiters.

  20. [Hemodynamic profile and serum cytokines in crush syndrome. Analogy with severe burns].

    PubMed

    Gueugniaud, P Y; Fabreguette, A; Perrin, C; Bertin-Maghit, M; Bouchard, C; Petit, P

    1996-03-16

    A 71-year-old woman remained under the rubble of her house for 4 hours after an accidental gas explosion. She suffered from a crush syndrome associating fractures, minor skin burns (< 10% body surface area), inhalation lung injury and moderate hypothermia (34 degrees C). In addition to local signs of compression of the lower limbs, the patient presented with hypovolemic shock and developed acute renal failure on day 3. We describe here the variations in hemodynamic and oxymetric parameters and cytokine response during the first post-injury week. A vasoplegic state resulting from low systemic vascular resistances with progressively increasing cardiac index, oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption closely followed the brief hypovolemic shock. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained below normal levels while interleukin-6 increased markedly with a major peak on day 2, in parallel with the drop in systemic vascular resistances. Interleukin-6 is a mediator of impairment in cell membrane function and a vasoconstriction inhibitor. Isolated increased interleukin-6 has been previously reported in severely burned patients suggesting a pathophysiological and hemodynamic similarity between crush syndrome and burn injury. PMID:8685194