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1

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

2

Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geology of the central part of Ethiopia exhibits a variety of rock types that can potentially be developed for construction stone production, of which the most wide spread and important one is the Termaber basalt. Even though some preliminary work is done on these rocks towards construction material application, it remains largely that this resource is untouched and needs further scientific characterization for the use in large scale industrial application. Basaltic rocks have been widely used in many parts of the world as concrete aggregate and dimension stone for various civil structures. The present research study was carried out for Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (around Debre Birhan). The main objective of the present research study was to assess the general suitability of the Termaber basalt to be used as coarse aggregate for concrete mix and/or to utilize it as cut stone at industrial level. Only choice made with full knowledge of the basic characteristics of the material, of its performance and durability against the foreseen solicitations will ensure the necessary quality of the stone work and thereby a possibility to reach its intended service life. In order to meet out the objective of the present study, data from both field and laboratory were collected and analyzed. The field data included geological investigations based on different methods and sample collection while the laboratory work included, uniaxial compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic elasticity modulus, bulk density, water absorption, specific gravity, open porosity, aggregate impact value, petrographic examination and XRF, aggregate crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion value, sodium sulfate soundness, X-ray diffraction and alkali silica reactivity tests. The field and laboratory data were compiled and compared together to reveal the engineering performance of the rock mass in terms of cut stone and coarse aggregates. The basaltic rock shows a variety of textural and mineralogical characteristics which could affect their physical and mechanical properties as well as their use as construction material. The compressive strength of the basaltic rock ranges from 130 MPa to 350 MPa, ultrasonic pulse velocity from 4000 m/s to 7000 m/s, open porosity from 0.33% to 3.08%, bulk density from 2.6 g/cm3 to 3.1 g/cm3, dynamic elasticity modulus from 64 GPa to 129 GPa, etc. The petrographic examination also indicated some deleterious constituents within the middle basaltic flow layers however; there are distinct flow layers which could be used as dimension stone and coarse aggregate for concrete and asphalt mix. The field investigation as well as the laboratory tests conducted indicated the high potential of the Termaber basalt formation to be used as construction material with further refining works. The study presented in this paper was carried out on basalts that are widespread in the central highland of Ethiopia and that comprise the major source of local crushed rock aggregates and building stone.

Engidasew, Tesfaye Asresahagne; Barbieri, Giulio

2014-11-01

3

Aggregate production: Fines generation during rock crushing M.S. Guimaraes a  

E-print Network

aggregate industry produces 1.1 billion tons of crushed stone per year with carbonates and granites equipment is used. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Crushed stone; Cubicity; Sand

Palomino, Angelica M.

4

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. 436.20 Section 436...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crushed Stone Subcategory § 436.20 Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. The provisions of...

2010-07-01

5

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. 436.20 Section 436...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crushed Stone Subcategory § 436.20 Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. The provisions of...

2011-07-01

6

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. 436.20 Section 436...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crushed Stone Subcategory § 436.20 Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory. The provisions of...

2012-07-01

7

Geo-Engineering Evaluation of Rock Masses for Crushed Rock and Cut Stones in Khartoum State, Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to find artificial coarse aggregates and cut stones around Khartoum. To meat the objectives of the study, data from both field and laboratory are collected. The field data includes geological investigations based on different methods and samples collection, whereas the laboratory tests consists of specific gravity, water absorption, impact value, crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion, soundness tests. The field and laboratory results were weighed and compiled together to reveal the engineering performance of the different rock masses in term of cut stone and crushed aggregates. The results show that most of the examined rock masses are suitable for crushing, building and dressed stones. For decorative slabs only foliated granite and syenite masses can be used.

Kheirelseed, E. E.; Ming, T. H.; Abdalla, S. B.

8

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES IN KRAFT PULP MILL AND CRUSHED STONE INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of fine particulate emissions from selected kraft pulp mill and stone crushing facilities is addressed. The principal devices considered are electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. Guidelines are provided for industrial personnel responsible for se...

9

Crystal aggregation in kidney stones; a polymer aggregation problem?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones most frequently form as aggregates of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with organic layers between them, and the organic layers contain principally proteins. The pathway leading to the formation of these crystal aggregates in affected people has not been identified, but stone forming patients are thought to have a defect in the structure or distribution of urinary proteins, which normally protect against stone formation. We have developed two polyelectrolyte models that will induce COM crystal aggregation in vitro, and both are consistent with possible urinary protein compositions. The first model was based on mixing polyanionic and polycationic proteins, in portions such that the combined protein charge is near zero. The second model was based on reducing the charge density on partially charged polyanionic proteins, specifically Tamm-Horsfall protein, the second most abundant protein in urine. Both models demonstrated polymer phase separation at solution conditions where COM crystal aggregation was observed. Correlation with data from other bulk crystallization measurements suggest that the anionic side chains form critical binding interactions with COM surfaces that are necessary along with the phase separation process to induce COM crystal aggregation.

Wesson, J.; Beshensky, A.; Viswanathan, P.; Zachowicz, W.; Kleinman, J.

2008-03-01

10

DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUSHED-STONE LAYER UNDER CYCLIC IMPACT LOADING FROM MICRO-MECHANICAL VIEW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Hanging sleepers', which have gaps between sleepers and ballast layer are often found in the neighborhood of rail joints or rugged surface rails. This suggests that differential settlement of the ballast layer is due to impact loading generated by the contact between running wheel and rugged surface rail. Then cyclic loading tests were performed on crushed-stone layer with two loading patterns, the one is a cyclic impact loading and the other one is cyclic 'standard' loading controlled at 1/10 loading velocity of the impact loading. It was shown that the crashed-stone layer deforms with volumetric expansion during every off-loading processes under the cyclic impact loading. This phenomena prevents crushed stone layer from forming stable grain columns, then the residual settlement under the cyclic impact loading is larger than that under the cyclic 'standard' loading. A simple mass-spring model simulates that two masses move in the opposite direction with increased frequency of harmonic excitation.

Kono, Akiko; Matsushima, Takashi

11

Occupational exposures to fibers and quartz at 19 crushed stone mining and milling operations.  

PubMed

From 1979 to 1982, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a cross-sectional exposure assessment and mortality study of selected crushed stone facilities in the United States. This study was undertaken in part to address concerns that asbestos exposures could be occurring in some crushed stone operations due to the presence of amphibole and serpentine minerals. The investigation was also designed to characterize exposures to crystalline silica and other mineral compounds. Nineteen crushed stone operations, mining limestone, granite, or traprock were surveyed to assess exposures to respirable and total dusts, mineral compounds including crystalline silica, asbestos, and mineral fibers. At the initiation of the study, crushed stone operations were selected from a Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) listing of the active industry in 1978. With the exception of requiring inclusion of the traprock operation in Maryland where asbestos fibers were initially discovered, a stratified sample of operations was randomly selected by rock type (granite, limestone, traprock, or sandstone). However, because of reluctance or refusal of some companies to participate and because of the closures of some of the selected operations, replacements were randomly selected. Some replacement selections were likewise replaced due to lack of cooperation from the companies. The studied sample included only 10 of the 27 randomly selected operations in the original sample. Asbestos fibers were detected at one traprock facility, the Maryland operation where asbestos was originally found. Measured personal exposures to fibers exceeded the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) for two out of 10 samples. All of the samples were below the MSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL), which was in effect at the time of the survey. However, due to the presence of nonasbestos mineral fibers in the environment, it could not be stated with certainty that all of the fibers counted by phase contrast microscopy were asbestos. A variety of silicate mineral fibers (other than those classified by NIOSH as asbestos) were detected in the traprock operations and at one granite operation. Crystalline silica was detected at 17 of the 19 surveyed crushed stone operations. Overexposures to crystalline silica were measured at 16 of the crushed stone operations; approximately one in seven personal-respirable dust samples (14%) exceeded the MSHA PEL for crystalline silica. Approximately 25% of the respirable dust samples exceeded the NIOSH REL for crystalline silica. Mill operators and mill laborers consistently had the highest and most frequent overexposures to crystalline silica. PMID:7611303

Kullman, G J; Greife, A L; Costello, J; Hearl, F J

1995-05-01

12

Influences of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes used for crushed stone production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the influence of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes. These sedimentary rocks make about 27 % of crushed stone market in the Czech Republic. Mainly in Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), greywackes represent almost exclusive high quality aggregate. The behaviour of greywackes varies, however, from quarry to quarry. In this study, we have selected the most important deposits that cover major lithological variation of local greywackes. Studied greywackes were analysed for their petrographic parameters quantitatively (using image analysis of thin sections). The pore space characteristics were determined by using fluorescent dye - epoxy resin impregnated specimens. The studied rocks are composed of subangular and angular quartz grains, lithoclasts (stable rocks: quartzites, and unstable rocks: phylites, metaphylites, siltstones, slates, greywackes, and less frequently acid eruptive rocks), feldspars (orthoclas, microcline, plagioclase), and detrital micas. Detrital and authigenic chlorite has been found as well. The matrix which represents the largest volume of rock-forming components contains a mixture of sericite, chlorite, clay minerals, cements, and clasts in aleuropelitic size. Based on the microscopic examination, all studied rock types were classified as greywacke with fine- to medium-grained massive rock fabric. Only specimen from B?lkovice has shown partly layered structure. Alteration of feldspars and unstable rock fragments represents common feature. Diagenetic features included pressure dissolution of quartz clasts and formation of siliceous and/or calcite cements. Based on the experimental study of technological performance of studied greywackes and its correlation to petrographic features, the average size of clasts and volume of matrix make the driving factors affecting the LA values. The LA values decrease with the increasing of volume of matrix (R = 0.61) and with decreasing average grain size (R = 0.44). The degree of sorting influences LA values as well; more graded greywackes tend to show higher LA values. Regarding PSV, its values increase with increasing volume of quartz clasts.

Prikryl, Richard; Cermak, Martin; Krutilova, Katerina

2014-05-01

13

Mortality of a cohort of U.S. workers employed in the crushed stone industry, 1940-1980.  

PubMed

The mortality of 3,246 males who had been employed 1 or more years during 1940-1980 at 20 crushed stone operations was evaluated for possible association between employment and death from lung cancer, pneumoconiosis, and other respiratory diseases. Four deaths were attributed to pneumoconiosis. Based on available work histories, at least two of these deaths were probably due to dust exposures in the crushed stone industry. Mortality attributed to pneumoconiosis and other nonmalignant respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive lung disease, was significantly increased overall (SMR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.21-3.05), and especially so for a subcohort of crushed stone workers that processed granite (SMR: 7.26; 95% CI: 1.97-18.59). With regard to lung cancer, overall SMRs were elevated (although not statistically significant). Analyzed by rock type, there was a significantly elevated lung cancer SMR among granite workers with at least 20 years latency (SMR: 3.35; 95% CI: 1.34-6.90). Although not definitive, results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to respirable silica dust is a risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:7611302

Costello, J; Castellan, R M; Swecker, G S; Kullman, G J

1995-05-01

14

Activity concentration of 222 Rn released from crushed granite stones of Iranian origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The activity concentration of 222Rn, emanated from crushed granite, has been determined by track technique using CR-39 plastic detectors. The crushed materials\\u000a were transferred to plastic containers, where several detectors were placed high above the level of the materials. The containers\\u000a were sealed and left for 185 days. The etcheda-tracks\\u000a were then counted under an optical microscope. The calibration factor

A. H. Ranjbar; H. Barghordar

2006-01-01

15

Gist of medicinal plants of Pakistan having ethnobotanical evidences to crush renal calculi (kidney stones).  

PubMed

Human civilization is facing the problem of kidney stones since ancient ages. Although mortality rate is not so high, yet it affects the victim's quality of life. The patient suffers from intense pain and many other symptoms modifying his life style and affecting his socioeconomic status. Many drugs and invasive methods have also been developed for the treatment, but these are highly costly and unaffordable for poor people and the rate of reoccurrence is also high. The use of medicinal plants is both affordable and effective in this respect. In this article, 35 medicinal plants of Pakistan origin and their crucial information have been enumerated in alphabetical order of plant's scientific name, family, place (distribution), part used, local name, habit, major constituents and references. It can also be seen that all parts are used for the treatment of kidney stones. Leaves represent 28% contribution, whole plants and seeds 12%, fruits and roots 11% contribution in this respect. Flowers contribute 8% in the treatment of kidney stone while branches, bark, bushes, buds, milk and shoots contribute only 3% in the removal of kidney stones. Habits of plants were also taken under consideration. It was noticed that herbs are the most useful life form in this regard which contributed 63% for the removal of kidney stone. Shrubs contributed 20%, trees 11% while bushes and weeds contributed 3% for the removal of kidney stones. PMID:24779189

Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Durr-e-Sabih; Ikram, Raja Muhammad; Hussain, Muhammad Sikandar; Khan, Muhammad Tajammal; Ahamad, Ghafoor; Karim, Sabiha; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

2014-01-01

16

Effects of Some Factors on the Strength and Stiffness of Crushed Concrete Aggregate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of consolidated drained triaxial compression (TC) tests were performed on a crushed concrete aggregate (CCA) compacted using three different levels of energy. A wide range of moulding water content, w, and two different confining pressures were employed. The compressive strength and stiffness of the tested CCA when highly compacted at water content close or slightly higher than the optimum value, w opt, were very high, higher than those of a typical natural well-graded gravelly soil having similar grading characteristics used as the backfill material of highest quality. The compressive strength and stiffness of the tested CCA was not highly sensitive to changes in w, in particular when w ? w opt, but it decreased sharply when w became lower than w opt. The strength and stiffness was very sensitive to compaction energy, therefore the degree of compaction. All the test results show that highly compacted CCA can be used as the backfill material for important civil engineering soil structures, such as retaining walls and bridge abutments, that need a high stability while allowing limited deformation.

Lovati, L.; Tatsuoka, F.; Tomita, Y.

17

To be published in NRMCA Concrete Technology Forum: Focus on Sustainable Development, 2008 Internal Curing with Crushed Returned Concrete Aggregates for High  

E-print Network

Curing with Crushed Returned Concrete Aggregates for High Performance Concrete Haejin Kim1 and Dale Bentz-6891; email: dale.bentz@nist.gov ABSTRACT High performance concrete (HPC) requires a low water

Bentz, Dale P.

18

SUBGRADE AGGREGATE, SPECIAL (Tollway) Effective: October 29, 2012  

E-print Network

be crushed stone, crushed blast furnace slag, crushed gravel, crushed reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP of objectionable deleterious material with a gradation as follows. 1. Crushed Stone, Crushed Blast Furnace Slag

19

Characterization of aggregate resistance to degradation in stone matrix asphalt mixtures  

E-print Network

: Medium L: Low L-: Very low To better analyze the influence of aggregate type in the stone skeleton of SMA, the same limestone screenings and filler were used in all the mixture designs. This allows a more direct examination of SMA performance...). Increased fine aggregate (minus 28 #200), filler and cellulose fiber are used to control this occurrence (3, 11). Hydrated lime is added to asphalt mixes as an anti-stripping agent to prevent the asphalt cement from separating from the aggregate...

Gatchalian, Dennis

2006-04-12

20

Mineral resource of the month: aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the two major types of natural aggregates, are among the most abundant and accessible natural resources on the planet. The earliest civilizations used aggregates for various purposes, mainly construction. Today aggregates provide the basic raw materials for the foundation of modern society.

Willett, Jason C.

2012-01-01

21

The assessment of particulate matter emitted from stone-crushing industry by correlating rock textures with particles generated after comminution and dispersed in air environment.  

PubMed

The generation and emission of particulate matter from abrasion industry are subjects of the pollution monitoring by multidisciplinary study involving earth sciences and engineering disciplines. This work investigates the correlation between textural properties of in situ rock with class size distribution and morphology of particles generated after rock comminution and particles emitted in the air. A special comminution-dust sampling architecture was realised. The combined use of scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser was considered in performing digital image analysis on both crushed products and airborne particles collected onto membrane filters. The results show that the size and morphology of crushed particles are linked to the petrographic rock properties. In particular, particles with fibrous morphology are prominent in rocks showing foliated textures where elongated minerals occurred, with implication for asbestos-bearing rocks. For what concerns the airborne particles, the results show that their aerodynamic diameters are independent of the crusher operating conditions. External parameters probably intervene in the distribution of the airborne particles emission, including the dynamic air fluxes, or environmental conditions. By applying mathematical models, the morphology and size range of airborne particles following the comminution processes can be predicted, and results has implication for pollutants contamination due to particulate matters emitted by crush stone industry. PMID:23292201

Belardi, Girolamo; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Plescia, Paolo; Passeri, Luciano

2013-07-01

22

Mineral of the month: aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

Tepordei, Valentin V.

2005-01-01

23

Formulation of production blasting criteria for the construction of a lime plant at a major crushed stone operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blast-monitoring program conducted at Chemical Lime Company's new lime calcining facility near St Genevieve, Missouri, USA is discussed. The purpose was to develop blasting criteria for the construction and operation of the lime plant within the quarry operated by Tower Rock Stone. Further, it was imperative to accommodate production requirements into the blasting criteria. The major concern was the

Paul Worsey; Scott G. Giltner; Terry Drechsler; Ron Ecklecamp; Ronnie Inman

1998-01-01

24

The effect of fly ash content and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-fabricated concrete interlocking blocks (PCIBs)  

E-print Network

The effect of fly ash content and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-fabricated concrete blocks Concrete waste Marble waste Fine aggregate Fly ash Waste management a b s t r a c t We studied the influence of fly ash content and replacement of crushed sand stone aggregate with concrete wastes and marble

North Texas, University of

25

Crushing Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners design a crushing test and discover that identifying and controlling the variables may be difficult. Although the crushing test will not give conclusive results, it is a good opportunity to discuss variables and why they are sometimes difficult to control. This crushing test is also a good example of how a particular test does not always give enough information to answer a question. This is a follow-up to the activity called "Curious Crystals," in which learners investigate crystals and their properties to identify an unknown crystal.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

26

A brief review of the construction aggregates market  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and/or construction sand and gravel. Aggregates have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of purposes - construction being the major use. As construction aggregates, crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the basic raw materials used to build the foundation for modern society. The widespread use of construction aggregates is the result of their general availability throughout the country and around the world along with their relatively low cost. Although construction aggregates have a low unit value, their widespread use makes them major contributors to, and indicators of, the economic well-being of the nation.

Willett, Jason Christopher

2012-01-01

27

A look at construction aggregates production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Construction aggregates are defined as the combination of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Aggregates are one of the most accessible natural resources on Earth and one of the fundamental building blocks of our society. They have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of applications that have increased in number and complexity with time and technological progress. Despite the relatively low but increasing unit value of its basic products, the construction aggregates industry is a major contributor to and an indicator of the economic well-being of the nation.

Willett, Jason Christopher

2009-01-01

28

Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

1980-01-01

29

Mechanisms of Stone Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed the general mechanisms involved in kidney stone formation, with reference to those composed of calcium oxalate\\u000a or phosphate, uric acid, and cystine. These processes include nucleation of individual crystals, aggregation or secondary\\u000a nucleation to produce small intrarenal multicrystalline aggregates, fixation within the kidney, and further aggregation and\\u000a secondary nucleation to produce the clinical stone. The factors regulating

Vishal N. Ratkalkar; Jack G. Kleinman

30

The Crushed Generation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, based largely on participant observation by a British 18-year-old schoolgirl, considers forces that crush creativity in teenagers, including pressures at school, at home, and by peers. The article shows how teenagers whose creativity has been crushed then humiliate and crush the creativity of other teenagers. Mentoring is seen as one…

Polaine, Laura

1995-01-01

31

Bladder stones  

MedlinePLUS

Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Bladder stones are most often caused by another urinary system problem, such as: Bladder diverticulum Enlarged prostate Neurogenic bladder ...

32

Car Crushed Under Building  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction....

2009-01-26

33

Ammonia Can Crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.

Ed Vitz; Daniel T. Haworth

1999-01-01

34

Ammonia Can Crush  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.

Vitz, Ed

1999-07-01

35

Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened proposal where the county will gain 745 acres of new open space land in exchange for 60 acres of current open space land adjacent to the quarry. The process involved collaborative efforts by all stakeholders and resulted in an outcome that balances the needs of society, the environment, and business.

Langer, William H.; Tucker, M.L.

2003-01-01

36

Kidney stones  

MedlinePLUS

... in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is the size ... are very sensitive to being stretched, and when stones form and distend it, the stretching can be ...

37

An empirical model for predicting flakiness in cone crushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental understanding of the factors influencing particle shape is of central importance for optimisation of the output quality from crushing plants for aggregate production. The literature reports that the wear on and setting of a cone crusher influence particle shape, The fact that wear on and the setting of a cone crusher influence particle shape is considered common knowledge

Magnus Bengtsson; C. Magnus Evertsson

2006-01-01

38

Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology—some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing—all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones—in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant—morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

2008-09-01

39

Renal Stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

2002-01-01

40

Dimension stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

Dolley, T.P.

2003-01-01

41

Stone Mountain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

2004-01-01

42

Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for living space has encroached on the sites of production; in other words, the act of production has engendered condemnation. Many other environmental problems that are associated with dust and noise and blasting from quarry and pit operations have been reduced through the efficient use of technology. Recycling concrete in buildings, bridges, and roads and asphaltic pavements will ultimately reduce the demand for virgin natural aggregate. The impact created by the large holes in the ground required for the mining of natural aggregate can be greatly reduced by planning their reclamation before mining begins. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

2002-01-01

43

Matrix stone.  

PubMed

Matrix stone is a rare form of renal calculi, and it is often difficult to make an exact preoperative diagnosis. To our knowledge, we reported the first case of matrix stones which received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for image study. They showed hypointense signal in T1-weighted images and slight hyperintense signal in T2-weighted images. No obvious contrast enhancement was found after gadolinium administration in T1-weighted images. Besides, postoperative study of computerized tomography (CT) for matrix stones also showed the characteristic of soft tissue densities by measuring the Hounsfield units. We think our experiences may provide some help for the diagnosis of matrix stones when someone encounters the same situation and may prevent overtreatment due to misdiagnosis as malignancy. PMID:14501375

Liu, Chia-Chu; Li, Ching-Chia; Shih, Ming-Chen; Chou, Yii-Her; Huang, Chun-Hsiung

2003-01-01

44

Social Signals--Mike's Crush  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review discusses the unique audiovisual-based curriculum "Mike's Crush", by Nancy Nowell, and briefly describes the autism spectrum and its associated challenges. The review explores the curriculum's noteworthy approach to teaching social skills and recommends it as helpful material for all educators, especially for those working with…

Mitelman, Stephanie; Kohorn, Olivia Von

2012-01-01

45

Artificial stone slab production using waste glass, stone fragments and vacuum vibratory compaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, waste glass and stone fragments from stone slab processing are recycled as raw materials for making artificial stone slabs using vibratory compaction in a vacuum environment. Waste glass powder (40%) and fine granite aggregates (60%) are mixed with unsaturated polymer resins (8%) as binder. Under compaction pressure of 14.7MPa, vibration frequency of 33.3Hz and vacuum condition at

Ming-Yu Lee; Chun-Han Ko; Fang-Chih Chang; Shang-Lien Lo; Jyh-Dong Lin; Ming-Yang Shan; Jeng-Ching Lee

2008-01-01

46

Kidney Stones in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Titles : Kidney Stones in Children Kidney Stones in Children On this page: What is a kidney stone? ... the ureters. [ Top ] Are kidney stones common in children? No exact information about the incidence of kidney ...

47

Ice crushing tests with variable structural flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

To learn more on ice crushing phenomena against a compliant stiffened plate structure, near full-scale ice crushing tests were conducted in Aker Arctic test basin with a 1:3 scaled model. The dimensions of the to be crushed ice sheet and the stiffened plate were chosen to present a full size ship or offshore structure steel plating which are designed to

Mauri Määttänen; Pieti Marjavaara; Sami Saarinen; Matti Laakso

2011-01-01

48

Characterisation of stone matrix asphalt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied conventional laboratory tests and advanced imaging techniques to experimentally verify the voids in coarse aggregate (VCA) method. Five stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures designed to have different coarse aggregate skeletons were investigated to establish relationships between the VCA ratio, microstructure parameters and the mechanical response of SMA. X-ray CT and image analysis techniques were utilised to non-destructively

Laith Tashman; Brian Pearson

2012-01-01

49

Characterisation of stone matrix asphalt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied conventional laboratory tests and advanced imaging techniques to experimentally verify the voids in coarse aggregate (VCA) method. Five stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures designed to have different coarse aggregate skeletons were investigated to establish relationships between the VCA ratio, microstructure parameters and the mechanical response of SMA. X-ray CT and image analysis techniques were utilised to non-destructively

Laith Tashman; Brian Pearson

2011-01-01

50

Dynamic Crush Characterization of Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the space shuttle return-to-flight preparations following the Columbia accident, finite element models were needed that could predict the threshold of critical damage to the orbiter's wing leading edge from ice debris impacts. Hence, an experimental program was initiated to provide crushing data from impacted ice for use in dynamic finite element material models. A high-speed drop tower was configured to capture force time histories of ice cylinders for impacts up to approximately 100 ft/s. At low velocity, the force-time history depended heavily on the internal crystalline structure of the ice. However, for velocities of 100 ft/s and above, the ice fractured on impact, behaved more like a fluid, and the subsequent force-time history curves were much less dependent on the internal crystalline structure.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Kellas, Sotiris

2006-01-01

51

Hyaluronan and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

Asselman, Marino

2008-09-01

52

Modeling Composite Laminate Crushing for Crash Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crash modeling of composite structures remains limited in application and has not been effectively demonstrated as a predictive tool. While the global response of composite structures may be well modeled, when composite structures act as energy-absorbing members through direct laminate crushing the modeling accuracy is greatly reduced. The most efficient composite energy absorbing structures, in terms of energy absorbed per unit mass, are those that absorb energy through a complex progressive crushing response in which fiber and matrix fractures on a small scale dominate the behavior. Such failure modes simultaneously include delamination of plies, failure of the matrix to produce fiber bundles, and subsequent failure of fiber bundles either in bending or in shear. In addition, the response may include the significant action of friction, both internally (between delaminated plies or fiber bundles) or externally (between the laminate and the crushing surface). A figure shows the crushing damage observed in a fiberglass composite tube specimen, illustrating the complexity of the response. To achieve a finite element model of such complex behavior is an extremely challenging problem. A practical crushing model based on detailed modeling of the physical mechanisms of crushing behavior is not expected in the foreseeable future. The present research describes attempts to model composite crushing behavior using a novel hybrid modeling procedure. Experimental testing is done is support of the modeling efforts, and a test specimen is developed to provide data for validating laminate crushing models.

Fleming, David C.; Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

53

Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the benefits to be gained by using a composite highway base course material consisting of recycled crushed concrete aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and a modest amount of reinforcing fibers. The primary objectives of this research were to (a) quantify the improvement that is obtained by adding fibers to a lean concrete composite (made from recycled aggregate and low quantities of Portland cement and/or fly ash), (b) evaluate the mechanical behavior of such a composite base course material under both static and repeated loads, and (c) utilize the laboratory-determined properties with a mechanistic design method to assess the potential advantages. The split tensile strength of a stabilized recycled aggregate base course material was found to be exponentially related to the compacted dry density of the mix. A lean mix containing 4% cement and 4% fly ash (by weight) develops sufficient unconfined compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths to be used as a high quality stabilized base course. The addition of 4% (by weight) of hooked-end steel fibers significantly enhances the post-peak load-deformation response of the composite in both indirect tension and static flexure. The flexural fatigue behavior of the 4% cement-4% fly ash mix is comparable to all commonly used stabilized materials, including regular concrete; the inclusion of 4% hooked-end fibers to this mix significantly improves its resistance to fatigue failure. The resilient moduli of stabilized recycled aggregate in flexure are comparable to the values obtained for traditional soil-cement mixes. In general, the fibers are effective in retarding the rate of fatigue damage accumulation, which is quantified in terms of a damage index defined by an energy-based approach. The thickness design curves for a stabilized recycled aggregate base course, as developed by using an elastic layer approach, is shown to be in close agreement with a theoretical model (based on Westergaard's assumptions for rigid pavements), which has been found to explain reasonably well the field behavior of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced concrete slabs on grade. Finally, a preliminary cost analysis demonstrated that the use of stabilized recycled aggregate instead of a standard crushed stone base course can result in a meaningful economic savings.

Sobhan, Khaled

54

Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation: Opportunities for the stone and cement industries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accelerated weathering of limestone appears to provide a low-tech, inexpensive, high-capacity, environmentally friendly CO2 mitigation method that could be applied to about 200 fossil fuel fired power plants and about eight cement plants located in coastal areas in the conterminous U.S. This approach could also help solve the problem of disposal of limestone waste fines in the crushed stone industry. Research and implementation of this technology will require new collaborative efforts among the crushed stone and cement industries, electric utilities, and the science and engineering communities.

Langer, William H.; San, Juan, A.; Rau, Greg H.; Caldeira, Ken

2009-01-01

55

Comparison of natural and manufactured fine aggregates in cement mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of cement mortars using manufactured fine aggregates produced by cone crushing or impact crushing has been compared to that of mortars prepared from a natural sand control-sample. Samples from both crusher products have been additionally subjected to classification for partial removal of fines, being also used in preparing mortars. Particle shape analyses indicated that material produced by impact

J. P. Gonçalves; L. M. Tavares; R. D. Toledo Filho; E. M. R. Fairbairn; E. R. Cunha

2007-01-01

56

Calcium oxalate monohydrate aggregation induced by aggregation of desialylated Tamm-Horsfall protein  

PubMed Central

Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is thought to protect against calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formation by inhibiting COM aggregation. Several studies reported that stone formers produce THP with reduced levels of glycosylation, particularly sialic acid levels, which leads to reduced negative charge. In this study, normal THP was treated with neuraminidase to remove sialic acid residues, confirmed by an isoelectric point shift to higher pH. COM aggregation assays revealed that desialylated THP (ds-THP) promoted COM aggregation, while normal THP inhibited aggregation. The appearance of protein aggregates in solutions at ds-THP concentrations ?1 µg/mL in 150 mM NaCl correlated with COM aggregation promotion, implying that ds-THP aggregation induced COM aggregation. The aggregation-promoting effect of the ds-THP was independent of pH above its isoelectric point, but was substantially reduced at low ionic strength, where protein aggregation was much reduced. COM aggregation promotion was maximized at a ds-THP to COM mass ratio of ~0.025, which can be explained by a model wherein partial COM surface coverage by ds-THP aggregates promotes crystal aggregation by bridging opposing COM surfaces, whereas higher surface coverage leads to repulsion between adsorbed ds-THP aggregates. Thus, desialylation of THP apparently abrogates a normal defensive action of THP by inducing protein aggregation, and subsequently COM aggregation, a condition that favors kidney stone formation. PMID:21229239

Viswanathan, Pragasam; Rimer, Jeffrey D.; Kolbach, Ann M.; Kleinman, Jack G.

2011-01-01

57

Stone Coalgebras Clemens Kupke  

E-print Network

Stone Coalgebras Clemens Kupke Alexander Kurz Yde Venema Abstract In this paper we argue that the category of Stone spaces forms an interesting base category for coalgebras, in particular, if one considers as Stone coalgebras in a natural way. This yields a duality between the category of modal algebras

Venema, Yde

58

Kidney Stones in Primary Hyperoxaluria: New Lessons Learnt  

PubMed Central

To investigate potential differences in stone composition with regard to the type of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH), and in relation to the patient’s medical therapy (treatment naïve patients versus those on preventive medication) we examined twelve kidney stones from ten PH I and six stones from four PH III patients. Unfortunately, no PH II stones were available for analysis. The study on this set of stones indicates a more diverse composition of PH stones than previously reported and a potential dynamic response of morphology and composition of calculi to treatment with crystallization inhibitors (citrate, magnesium) in PH I. Stones formed by PH I patients under treatment are more compact and consist predominantly of calcium-oxalate monohydrate (COM, whewellite), while calcium-oxalate dihydrate (COD, weddellite) is only rarely present. In contrast, the single stone available from a treatment naïve PH I patient as well as stones from PH III patients prior to and under treatment with alkali citrate contained a wide size range of aggregated COD crystals. No significant effects of the treatment were noted in PH III stones. In disagreement with findings from previous studies, stones from patients with primary hyperoxaluria did not exclusively consist of COM. Progressive replacement of COD by small COM crystals could be caused by prolonged stone growth and residence times in the urinary tract, eventually resulting in complete replacement of calcium-oxalate dihydrate by the monohydrate form. The noted difference to the naïve PH I stone may reflect a reduced growth rate in response to treatment. This pilot study highlights the importance of detailed stone diagnostics and could be of therapeutic relevance in calcium-oxalates urolithiasis, provided that the effects of treatment can be reproduced in subsequent larger studies. PMID:23940605

Jacob, Dorrit E.; Grohe, Bernd; Gessner, Michaela; Beck, Bodo B.; Hoppe, Bernd

2013-01-01

59

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

60

Pathogenesis of Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All stones share similar presenting symptoms, and urine supersaturation with respect to the mineral phase of the stone is essential for stone formation. However, recent studies using papillary biopsies of stone formers provide a view of the histology of renal crystal deposition which suggests that the early sequence of events leading to stone formation may differ depending on the type of stone and on the urine chemistry leading to supersaturation. Three general patterns of crystal deposition are seen: interstitial apatite plaque in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, which is the site of stone attachment; tubule deposition of apatite, seen in all calcium phosphate stone formers; and mixtures of apatite and another crystal phase, such as cystine or calcium oxalate, seen in patients with cystinuria or enteric hyperoxaluria. The presence of apatite crystal in either the interstitial or tubule compartment (and sometimes both) of the renal medulla in stone formers is the rule, and has implications for the initial steps of stone formation and the potential for renal injury.

Worcester, Elaine M.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.

2008-09-01

61

Geography of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurrence of stone walls in New England. Topics include what constitutes a stone wall province and three critical factors in the occurrence of stone walls: bedrock geology, glacial history, and land use history. Users can determine the type of stone wall in any given area by using the maps to determine its location, determine the type of bedrock, type of surface materials, and type of settlement history for that spot. Referring to the text of 'Exploring Stone Walls', they can determine which type of stone wall province contains those types of rock and surface process and read the description of what the most common type of stone walls should be in that area.

2012-02-02

62

Mutual Information for the Detection of Crush  

PubMed Central

Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organizers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that both the prediction and prevention of such conditions offer a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but often computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally “cheap” but subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of the onset of crush. PMID:22229055

Harding, Peter; Gwynne, Steve; Amos, Martyn

2011-01-01

63

Technology meets aggregate  

SciTech Connect

New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

Wilson, C.; Swan, C. [INNERT Co. (United States)

2007-07-01

64

Performance of concrete made with commercially produced coarse recycled concrete aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance tests have been carried out for fresh and hardened properties of concrete made with commercially produced coarse recycled concrete aggregate and natural fine sand. Test results indicate that the difference between the characteristics of fresh and hardened recycled aggregate concrete and natural aggregate concrete is perhaps relatively narrower than reported for laboratory-crushed recycled aggregate concrete mixtures. For concrete without

K. K. Sagoe-Crentsil; T. Brown; A. H. Taylor

2001-01-01

65

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC STONE-BY-STONE SURVEY AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE  

E-print Network

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC STONE-BY-STONE SURVEY AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE An Application on the Romanesque of stone-by-stone surveying in which formalised architectural knowledge is used as a prerequisite of historical architecture built from stone or brick, aiming at the three-dimensional and database treatment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

2013-12-20

67

Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete  

E-print Network

.ORG 4000 4500 5000 Control 4h 1d 7d Age of Slurry 28-dCompressiveS Reclaimers w/Gray Water Recycling WWW. NRMCA.ORG Gray Water Recycling Monitoring gray water Specific gravity Temperature Age Plumbing back1 Recycled Wash Water Crushed Returned Concrete National Concrete Consortium March 2012 Colin Lobo

68

More Rapid Edgewise Crush Test Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of paraffin wax to reinforce the loading edges of corrugated fiberboard edge-crush specimens requires that the specimens be reconditioned after waxing. The traditional practice employing a 24-h reconditioning period is a conservative approach based on the moisture response rate of corrugated containers. An interlaboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of re­ conditioning time on edgewise compressive

TJ Urbanik; AH Catlin; RC Lund

1993-01-01

69

Observing Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn why and how stone walls were built. A prior knowledge of New England colonists and the history of New England is helpful. After a directed reading and discussion, they will take a nature walk to an area where they can examine a stone wall. The students will then use notebook and pencil to sketch the wall and make observations of the stones, the plants growing nearby, and other materials they see around the wall.

70

Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush  

SciTech Connect

To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting {sup 35}S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative 'cytomatrix' proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with {sup 3}H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval.

McQuarrie, I.G.; Jacob, J.M. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))

1991-03-01

71

VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST WALL OF THE CRYSTALLIZER WING. FENESTRA WINDOWS IN CRUSHING MILL WALL. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

72

Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords: Hallandia gneiss, natural stones, historic stones, urban planning and building

Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

2013-04-01

73

6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, FACING SOUTH. REMAINS OF CONVEYOR BELT BETWEEN CRUSHING PLANT AND FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) SHOWN IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

74

Investigation of interparticle breakage as applied to cone crushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breakage of material in cone type gyratory crushers is traditionally regarded as relying upon single particle breakage. In the last ten years the emphasis has shifted with manufacturers trying to generate higher degrees of interparticle breakage. Increasing the degree of interparticle crushing is claimed to improve crushing efficiency and product shape.The current study uses form conditioned crushing tests (geometry

C. M. Evertsson; R. A. Bearman

1997-01-01

75

Description of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a list of key terms used to describe stone walls. The definitions for each term can be found in the corresponding chapter and section of the book 'Exploring Stone Walls'. Users can use the outline as a checklist, marking off the terms that best describe the wall they are investigating.

76

Stone Mountain in Context  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The colored square in this grayscale image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity highlights the location of Stone Mountain, located within the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop.

2004-01-01

77

STONE PAVEMENTS IN DESERTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone pavements are armored surfaces comprising intricate mosaics of coarse particles, usually only one or two stones thick, set on or in fine material. They occur widely in many unvegetated areas, and preeminently in hot deserts. Pavement studies in several deserts, and especially in Chile and California, suggest that: 1) deflation may be a relatively unimportant process of pavement formation;

RONALD U. COOKE

1970-01-01

78

Detecting Stepping Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

One widely-used technique by which network attackers attain anonymity and complicate their apprehension is by employing stepping stones: they launch attacks not from their own computer but from intermediary hosts that they previously compromised. We develop an effi- cient algorithm for detecting stepping stones by monitor- ing a site' s Internet access link. The algorithm is based on the distinctive

Vern Paxson

79

Kidney stone disease  

PubMed Central

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, and prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP); 10% of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate produced during infection with bacteria that possess the enzyme urease), 9% of uric acid (UA); and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stones. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. Here we focus on the mechanisms of pathogenesis involved in CaOx, CaP, UA, and cystine stone formation, including recent developments in our understanding of related changes in human kidney tissue and of underlying genetic causes, in addition to current therapeutics. PMID:16200192

Coe, Fredric L.; Evan, Andrew; Worcester, Elaine

2005-01-01

80

Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus  

SciTech Connect

Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

Casteel, K.

2009-04-15

81

Crushed-salt constitutive model update  

SciTech Connect

Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-01-01

82

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

83

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE END, STONE COLUMNS ON FOREBAY. DATE STONE REMOVED IN 1914, BUT BARN MAY HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED IN THE 1830s - Barn, Beidler Road, Upper Merion Township, King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

84

"Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Café in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

2014-05-01

85

Stone Representatie Stelling Marjon Blondeel  

E-print Network

Stone Representatie Stelling Marjon Blondeel 3de Bachelor Wiskunde Vrije Universiteit Brussel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6 Stone Representatie Stelling 25 6.1 Stone Representatie Stelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1 #12;Hoofdstuk 1 Inleiding In deze tekst wordt in detail een bewijs uiteengezet van de Stone

Einmahl, Uwe

86

A Generalized Approach for Kinematic Synthesis and Analysis of Alternate Mechanism for Stone Crusher Using Relative Velocity Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper alternate mechanism for design and analysis of small size stone crusher mechanism is discussed. The basic idea is to optimize the design of the crusher which would be best suited for stone which need crushing force of 3 Tons. Presently for reducing sizes of stones from 10cm x 10cm to 2.5cm x 2.5cm in quarries is laborious job and is done manually our approach is to design a best optimum mechanism for said conditions.

Joshi, Anjali J.; Modak, Jayant P.

2013-03-01

87

Skimming and Skipping Stones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

Humble, Steve

2007-01-01

88

Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles, links to books and other publications, and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

89

The Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural, and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles; links to books and other publications; and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

90

Roadstone aggregate: An intelligent opto-mechatronic product classifier for sizing and grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The British quarry industry produces 240 Mtonnes of aggregate per annum, consuming 3% of all U.K. generated electricity. Rigorous specifications exist for finished aggregate. Traditional control of Cone crushing plant relies on manual machine adjustment, resulting in poor performance and inconsistent product quality. A high speed 3D aggregate inspection and classification system is described here; a product sampling system directs

R. M. Parkin; D. W. Calkin; M. R. Jackson

1995-01-01

91

34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. NOTICE RAIL TIES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

92

Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators  

PubMed Central

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

2013-01-01

93

DIVISION 04 MASONRY 04720 CAST STONE  

E-print Network

DIVISION 04 ­ MASONRY _____________________________________________________________ 04720 CAST STONE A. Design Considerations 1. Cast stone shall comply with ASTM C1364, Standard Specification for Cast Stone. 2. Care must be taken in the design of individual units of cast stone, working within

94

Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

2009-01-01

95

64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY MILL FEEDS AT BOTTOM. MILL SOLUTION TANKS WERE TO THE LEFT (EAST) AND BARREN SOLUTION TANK TO THE RIGHT (WEST) OR THE CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

96

Urinary stones and Crohn's disease.  

PubMed

Urinary stones, renal and bladder, are common in the general population of the United States. The pathophysiology of Crohn's disease and therapeutic interventions can contribute to the development of kidney stones usually secondary to malabsorption. Knowledge of these effects is important when caring for patients with urinary stones and intestinal disease. PMID:16438252

Hanson, Karen

2005-12-01

97

When Stones Teach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

Lucier, Todd

2001-01-01

98

Observables I: Stone Spectra  

E-print Network

In this work we discuss the notion of observable - both quantum and classical - from a new point of view. In classical mechanics, an observable is represented as a function (measurable, continuous or smooth), whereas in (von Neumann's approach to) quantum physics, an observable is represented as a bonded selfadjoint operator on Hilbert space. We will show in part II of this work that there is a common structure behind these two different concepts. If $\\mathcal{R}$ is a von Neumann algebra, a selfadjoint element $A \\in \\mathcal{R}$ induces a continuous function $f_{A} : \\mathcal{Q}(\\mathcal{P(R)}) \\to \\mathbb{R}$ defined on the \\emph{Stone spectrum} $\\mathcal{Q}(\\mathcal{P(R)})$ of the lattice $\\mathcal{P(R)}$ of projections in $\\mathcal{R}$. The Stone spectrum $\\mathcal{Q}(\\mathbb{L})$ of a general lattice $\\mathbb{L}$ is the set of maximal dual ideals in $\\mathbb{L}$, equipped with a canonical topology. $\\mathcal{Q}(\\mathbb{L})$ coincides with Stone's construction if $\\mathbb{L}$ is a Boolean algebra (thereby ``Stone'') and is homeomorphic to the Gelfand spectrum of an abelian von Neumann algebra $\\mathcal{R}$ in case of $\\mathbb{L} = \\mathcal{P(R)}$ (thereby ``spectrum'').

Hans F. de Groote

2005-09-11

99

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has focused its future on exploration class missions including the goal of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. With these objectives, humans will experience an extended exposure to the harsh environment of microgravity and the associated negative effects on all the physiological systems of the body. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes to the urinary chemical composition during and after space flight. These changes are associated with an increased risk of renal stone formation. The development of a renal stone would have health consequences for the crewmember and negatively impact the success of the mission. As of January 2007, 15 known symptomatic medical events consistent with urinary calculi have been experienced by 13 U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts. Previous results from both MIR and Shuttle missions have demonstrated an increased risk for renal stone formation. These data have shown decreased urine volume, urinary pH and citrate levels and increased urinary calcium. Citrate, an important urinary inhibitor of calcium-containing renal stones binds with calcium in the urine, thereby reducing the amount of calcium available to form calcium oxalate stones. Urinary citrate also prevents calcium oxalate crystals from aggregating into larger crystals and into renal stones. In addition, citrate makes the urine less acidic which inhibits the development of uric acid stones. Potassium citrate supplementation has been successfully used to treat patients who have formed renal stones. The evaluation of potassium citrate as a countermeasure has been performed during the ISS Expeditions 3-6, 8, 11-13 and is currently in progress during the ISS Expedition 14 mission. Together with the assessment of stone risk and the evaluation of a countermeasure, this investigation provides an educational opportunity to all crewmembers. Individual urinary biochemical profiles are generated and the risk of stone formation is estimated. Increasing fluid intake is recommended to all crewmembers. These results can be used to lower the risk for stone formation through lifestyle, diet changes or therapeutic administration to minimize the risk for stone development. With human presence in microgravity a continuing presence and exploration class missions being planned, maintaining the health and welfare of all crewmembers is critical to the exploration of space.

Whitson, P. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Pietrzke, R. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M. A.; Hudson, E. K.

2007-01-01

100

Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained. In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnières stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

2012-04-01

101

\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crushed tile is an industrial waste that causes environmental pollution. Therefore the possible utilization of this material would reduce environmental pollution. The utilization of crushed tile as a coarse aggregate in concrete would have a positive effect on the economy. In concrete production, Portland cement, river sand, 4-32 mm in size crushed stone and crushed tile as coarse aggregates in

B. TOPÇU; M. CANBAZ

102

Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This children's book tells the story of a grandfather and his grandson who, as they examine and repair the stone walls that surround their family farm, learn about geology, history, and cultural anthropology. It is used as reading and reference material for many of the lessons in the curriculum. This item must be purchased; information on obtaining it is provided. A link to the book's publisher is also provided.

Thorson, Robert

103

Stone Nomenclature and History of Instrumentation for Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease has afflicted mankind for millennia. The oldest renal stone on record was described by Shattock in 1905\\u000a and was found in an Egyptian mummy in a tomb dating to approx 4400 bc (1). This 1.5-cm calciferous calculi lay beside the first lumbar vertebra. The description of urinary stones has been a process\\u000a of intense scientific investigation culminating

Viraj A. Master; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

104

SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

105

53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ACCESS STAIR TO FEED LEVEL; DUST COLLECTOR ON LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

106

45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR BIN FEED, LOWER CENTER, WITH STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR ELEVATOR SPLIT DISCHARGE (OXIDIZED/UNOXIDIZED) IN CENTER. CRUDE ORE BINS AND MACHINE SHOP BEYOND. NOTE TOP OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN IS BELOW TOP OF CRUDE ORE BINS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

107

Crushing tablets or opening capsules: many uncertainties, some established dangers.  

PubMed

For patients who have difficulty swallowing, a common solution is to crush tablets or open capsules. What are the consequences of this practice? We reviewed the main evidence available using the standard Prescrire methodology. The clinical consequences for the patient of crushing tablets or opening capsules can be serious: alteration of the drug's absorption can result in sometimes fatal overdose, or conversely underdosing, rendering the treatment ineffective. When it disrupts a drug's sustained-release properties, the active ingredient is no longer released and absorbed gradually, resulting in overdose. When a gastro-resistant layer is destroyed by crushing, underdosing is likely. The active ingredient released may degrade on contact with light, moisture or the food with which it is mixed for administration. The person who crushes the tablets or opens the capsules is exposed to drug particles, which may be carcinogenic, teratogenic or fetotoxic. They are sometimes allergenic. In practice, there are many drugs that should never be crushed or opened. Before crushing a tablet or opening a capsule, it is better to consider and research the impact it will have on the drug's effects. It is sometimes preferable to use a different dosage form, or a different active ingredient. PMID:25325120

2014-09-01

108

IAPRS, Vol. XXXIII, Amsterdam, 2000 A STONE-BY-STONE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEY USING ARCHITECTURAL  

E-print Network

IAPRS, Vol. XXXIII, Amsterdam, 2000 A STONE-BY-STONE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEY USING ARCHITECTURAL@mmsh.univ-aix.fr Working Group WG V / 5 KEY WORDS: architectural photogrammetry, stone-by-stone survey, knowledge of stone-by-stone surveying in which formalised architectural knowledge is used as a prerequisite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

109

Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi.

Pak, C.Y.C.

1987-01-01

110

From crystalluria to kidney stones, some physicochemical aspects of calcium nephrolithiasis.  

PubMed

Nephrolithiasis seems to be the result of crystal formation, aggregation and retention in the kidney during crystalluria. These processes have to occur within the short urinary transit time through the kidney being in the order of few minutes. Recently much work was done on rather qualitative aspects of nephrolithiasis like genetics, metabolism and morphology. In this review we try to provide some quantitative information on urinary supersaturation with respect to stone minerals, especially Ca oxalate (CaOx), on the formation and aggregation of CaOx crystals and on crystal retention in the kidney. The paper is centered on idiopathic Ca nephrolithiasis being the most frequent stone disease with only partially known pathogenesis. New aspects of the role of urinary macromolecules in stone formation and of the mechanism of crystal aggregation are provided. PMID:25374820

Baumann, Johannes M; Affolter, Beat

2014-11-01

111

From crystalluria to kidney stones, some physicochemical aspects of calcium nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Nephrolithiasis seems to be the result of crystal formation, aggregation and retention in the kidney during crystalluria. These processes have to occur within the short urinary transit time through the kidney being in the order of few minutes. Recently much work was done on rather qualitative aspects of nephrolithiasis like genetics, metabolism and morphology. In this review we try to provide some quantitative information on urinary supersaturation with respect to stone minerals, especially Ca oxalate (CaOx), on the formation and aggregation of CaOx crystals and on crystal retention in the kidney. The paper is centered on idiopathic Ca nephrolithiasis being the most frequent stone disease with only partially known pathogenesis. New aspects of the role of urinary macromolecules in stone formation and of the mechanism of crystal aggregation are provided. PMID:25374820

Baumann, Johannes M; Affolter, Beat

2014-01-01

112

Oliver stone's defense of JFK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oliver Stone and his film JFK were subjected to a scathing attack in the mainstream press. Stone, his direction of the film, his sources, and the conspiracy theory advanced by JFK were all subjected to harsh criticism. Nevertheless, his movie provoked renewed discussion and provoked calls for declassification of secret documents on the assassination. This essay addresses the question of

William L. Benoit; Dawn M. Nill

1998-01-01

113

Size dependent crush analysis of lithium orthosilicate pebbles  

E-print Network

Crushing strength of the breeder materials (lithium orthosilicate, $\\rm{Li_4SiO_4}$ or OSi) in the form of pebbles to be used for EU solid breeder concept is investigated. The pebbles are fabricated using a melt-spray method and hence a size variation in the pebbles produced is expected. The knowledge of the mechanical integrity (crush strength) of the pebbles is important for a successful design of breeder blanket. In this paper, we present the experimental results of the crush (failure) loads for spherical OSi pebbles of different diameters ranging from $250~\\mu$m to $800~\\mu$m. The ultimate failure load for each size shows a Weibull distribution. Furthermore, the mean crush load increases with increase in pebble diameter. It is also observed that the level of opacity of the pebble influences the crush load significantly. The experimental data presented in this paper and the associated analysis could possibly help us to develop a framework for simulating a crushable polydisperse pebble assembly using discrete element method.

Ratna Kumar Annabattula; Matthias Kolb; Yixiang Gan; Rolf Rolli; Marc Kamlah

2014-08-03

114

Mouse Model of Muscle Crush Injury of the Legs  

PubMed Central

Because crush injury to skeletal muscle is an important cause of morbidity in natural disaster and battlefield settings, a reproducible and refined animal model of muscle crush injury is needed. Both open and closed small-animal models of skeletal muscle crush injury are available but are limited by their need for surgical isolation of the muscle or by the adverse effect of fibular fracture, respectively. In the current study, we developed and validated a novel, noninvasive mouse model of lower-extremity muscle crush injury. Despite the closed nature of our model, gross evidence of muscle damage was evident in all mice and was verified microscopically through hematoxylin and eosin staining. The injury elicited both neutrophil and macrophage infiltration at 24 and 48 h after injury. The area percentage and mean antigen area of F4/80-positive macrophages were higher at 48 h than at 24 h after injury, and CD68-positive macrophage area percentage and mean antigen area differed significantly between injured and uninjured muscle. In addition, the incidence of fibular fracture was one third lower than that reported for an alternative noninvasive model. In conclusion, our model is a reproducible method for muscle crush injury in the mouse pelvic limb and is a refinement of previous models because of its decreased bone fractures and reduction of animal numbers. PMID:23759525

Dobek, Georgina L; Fulkerson, Nadia D; Nicholas, Jennifer; Schneider, Barbara St Pierre

2013-01-01

115

Mouse model of muscle crush injury of the legs.  

PubMed

Because crush injury to skeletal muscle is an important cause of morbidity in natural disaster and battlefield settings, a reproducible and refined animal model of muscle crush injury is needed. Both open and closed small-animal models of skeletal muscle crush injury are available but are limited by their need for surgical isolation of the muscle or by the adverse effect of fibular fracture, respectively. In the current study, we developed and validated a novel, noninvasive mouse model of lower-extremity muscle crush injury. Despite the closed nature of our model, gross evidence of muscle damage was evident in all mice and was verified microscopically through hematoxylin and eosin staining. The injury elicited both neutrophil and macrophage infiltration at 24 and 48 h after injury. The area percentage and mean antigen area of F4/80-positive macrophages were higher at 48 h than at 24 h after injury, and CD68-positive macrophage area percentage and mean antigen area differed significantly between injured and uninjured muscle. In addition, the incidence of fibular fracture was one third lower than that reported for an alternative noninvasive model. In conclusion, our model is a reproducible method for muscle crush injury in the mouse pelvic limb and is a refinement of previous models because of its decreased bone fractures and reduction of animal numbers. PMID:23759525

Dobek, Georgina L; Fulkerson, Nadia D; Nicholas, Jennifer; Schneider, Barbara St Pierre

2013-06-01

116

Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration ash in stone mastic asphalt mixture: Pavement performance and environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to the use of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate or mineral filler in stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixture. For saving natural rock and reusing solid waste, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) was used as part of coarse aggregate. And this makes SMA mixtures contain

Yongjie Xue; Haobo Hou; Shujing Zhu; Jin Zha

2009-01-01

117

Crushing virtual cigarettes reduces tobacco addiction and treatment discontinuation.  

PubMed

Pilot studies revealed promising results regarding crushing virtual cigarettes to reduce tobacco addiction. In this study, 91 regular smokers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions that differ only by the action performed in the virtual environment: crushing virtual cigarettes or grasping virtual balls. All participants also received minimal psychosocial support from nurses during each of 12 visits to the clinic. An affordable virtual reality system was used (eMagin HMD) with a virtual environment created by modifying a 3D game. Results revealed that crushing virtual cigarettes during 4 weekly sessions led to a statistically significant reduction in nicotine addiction (assessed with the Fagerström test), abstinence rate (confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide), and drop-out rate from the 12-week psychosocial minimal-support treatment program. Increased retention in the program is discussed as a potential explanation for treatment success, and hypotheses are raised about self-efficacy, motivation, and learning. PMID:19817561

Girard, Benoit; Turcotte, Vincent; Bouchard, Stéphane; Girard, Bruno

2009-10-01

118

Piedra Pajarilla: A candidate for nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource from Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piedra Pajarilla is a tourmaline bearing leucogranite outcropping at Martinamor, near Salamanca, Spain. It is part of the Hercynian granitic chain in the Spanish Central System. The stone received the local name "Piedra Pajarilla", meaning "Little Bird Stone" due to the shape of the many tourmaline aggregates that are the main visual feature of the rock. This local name has been extrapolated to every granitic stone used in the area, even if they differ significantly in mineralogy, and as recently tested in physical and mechanical properties as well. Here we present the nomination of Piedra Pajarilla as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used since Roman times in Salamanca (Spain) and since the Middle Ages in the construction of major historic buildings, including both the Old and New Cathedrals, and many additional churches, castles and walls in the Salamanca area. Salamancás historic city core has been granted UNESCO World Heritage status in 1988, and all associated buildings, monuments and pedestrian streets are constructed from original materials. One of utilised materials, Piedra Pajarilla, was quarried for centuries from the immediate area. It was also the preferred building stone of many internationally renowned architects of Spanish origin during the 18th and 19th centuries especially involved in reconstruction following the Lisbon earthquake. Although the associated quarries are no longer active, the Piedra Pajarilla quarry sites remain relatively undisturbed and accessible. A renewal of quarrying is consequently feasible if additional stone supplies are required for heritage restoration. Thus there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries in anticipation of such work. The importance of Salamanca as emblematic heritage makes the historic stone quarries worthwhile to preserve as well. At the same time, Piedra Pajarilla can be considered as the first of several natural stones that can contribute to the denomination of a "Global Heritage Stone Province", as a suite of associated stone resources have been utilised in the historical buildings of Salamanca.

Pereira, Dolores; Gimeno, Ana; del Barrio, Santiago

2013-04-01

119

Investigation of off-axis crush of conical composite frusta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crush of composite conical shells under off-axis loading has two unique features. First, the details of fiber reinforcement & interfaces, including changes along the height, add a level of complexity. This can be related to the complex crush processes in composite crush such as delamination, fiber and matrix rupture, interlaminar and intralaminar crack, fiber pull out, macro and micro buckling etc. Secondly, this off-axis loading is in itself a complex process causing interaction at a variety of levels between material, configuration and structure. The presence of offaxis loading makes the process of understanding and tailoring composite material crush more difficult. This research began with the experimental approach of the composite conical frusta under axial and off-axis loading for 3 different woven fabric sets, i.e., carbon, E-glass, and carbon/E-glass hybrid with vinylester resin. As results, the failure modes of crush process are investigated, from which the common trends of the crush are gleaned. Specific mechanisms are identified and are further elucidated through computational and analytical investigations. The analytical approach incorporates modeling of both geometrical and damage mechanism related aspects with emphasis on the two critical mechanisms of splaying/bending and folding. Based on identification of phenomena for off-axis loading, a methodology is proposed for future development of optimized material-configuration sets. The computational approach is used to further visualize and elucidate the sequence of damage mechanisms as a means of validating the results of the analytical design based methodology. It is shown that conical frusta are extremely effective for energy absorption and that unique mechanisms can be tailored to provide the desired response even under cases of off-axis loading.

Yang, Hyunjung

120

STONE PAVEMENTS IN DESERTS! RONALD U. COOKE  

E-print Network

STONE PAVEMENTS IN DESERTS! RONALD U. COOKE ABSTRACT. Stone pavenlents are armored surfaces compnsing intricate mosaics of coarse particles, usually only one or two stones thick, set on or in fine processes, nlay vary greatly from place to place. STONE pavements are defined as armored surfaces comprising

Ahmad, Sajjad

121

LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE BIN AREA. NOTE STEEL CUSTOM ORE CHUTES IN BACKGROUND. THE FARTHEST BINS WERE LAST USED FOR STORAGE OF BALL MILL BALLS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

122

167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

123

33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR IN CENTER. TEAM SUPERVISOR ROBERT W. GRZYWACZ ON LOWER LEVEL (LOCATION OF STEARNS-ROGER DRYER). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

124

47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. VIEW OF FEED LEVEL, CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FEED IS AT CENTER, WITH DRIVE GEAR. THE 16 INCH FINES FEED IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IS SLIGHTLY RIGHT OF CENTER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

125

52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

126

4. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers to extract latex from the sap during experiments to find native North American plant which would yield sufficiently high percentage of latex to produce natural rubber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

127

Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

2013-06-01

128

Energy considerations in compressive and impact crushing of rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cone crusher and a vertical shaft impact (VSI) crusher were operated in closed circuit to compare the performance of the two different crushing machines. The crushers were operated in closed circuit with a 9mm final screen aperture size. A comparison of capacity, size reduction and power draw shows that the VSI crusher is significantly more energy efficient than the

Mats Lindqvist

2008-01-01

129

Improved ureteral stone fragmentation catheter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catheter includes fiber optic viewer, more reliable ultrasonic probe, and better contact sensor. It is guided by four steering wires, and irrigation fluid is supplied through lumen to remove stone fragments.

Gammell, P. M.

1981-01-01

130

Kidney stones - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... vitamin C or fish oil. They may be harmful to you. If your doctor says you have calcium oxalate stones, you may also need to limit foods that are high in oxalate. These foods include: Fruits: rhubarb, currants, canned ...

131

Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

Evan, Andrew P.

2007-04-01

132

The Stepping Stone Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

Brumfitt, A.

133

Lunar stone saw  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

1988-01-01

134

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED SANDSTONE, QUARTZ, AND QUARTZITE, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed sandstone, quartz, and quartzite industry. Particulates are emitted from drilling, blasting, loading and unloading trucks, transport on unpaved roads, washing, crushing, screening, conveying, and stockpiling....

135

Particle Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic problem in marine biogeochemistry is understanding material and elemental distributions and fluxes in the oceans, and a key part of this problem is understanding the processes that affect particulate material in the ocean. Aggregation of particulate material is a primary process because it alters the transport properties of particulate material and provides a mechanism for transferring material from

Adrian B. Burd; George A. Jackson

2009-01-01

136

Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

137

The physical characteristics and usage patterns of stone axe and pounding hammers used by long-tailed macaques in the Andaman Sea region of Thailand.  

PubMed

Stone hammering in natural conditions has been extensively investigated in chimpanzees and bearded capuchins. In contrast, knowledge of stone tool use in wild Old World monkeys has been limited to anecdotal reports, despite having known for over 120 years that Macaca fascicularis aurea use stone tools to process shelled foods from intertidal zones on islands in the Andaman Sea. Our report is the first scientific investigation to look at the stone tools used by these macaques. We observed they were skilled tool users and used stone tools daily. They selected tools with differing qualities for differing food items, and appeared to use at least two types of stone tools. Pounding hammers were used to crush shellfish and nuts on anvils and axe hammers were used to pick or chip at oysters attached to boulders or trees. We found significant physical differences between these two tools. Tools at oyster beds were smaller and exhibited scarring patterns focused more often on the points, whereas tools found at anvils were larger and showed more scarring on the broader surfaces. We also observed grip differences between the two tool types. Lastly, macaques struck targets with axe hammers more rapidly and over a wider range of motion than with pounding hammers. Both our behavioral and lithic data support that axe hammers might be used with greater control and precision than pounding hammers. Hand-sized axe hammers were used for controlled chipping to crack attached oysters, and larger pounding hammers were used to crush nuts and unattached shellfish on anvils. In addition to stones, they also used hand-sized auger shells (Turritella attenuata) as picks to axe attached oysters. Pound hammering appears similar to the stone tools used by chimpanzees and capuchins, but axe hammering has not yet been documented in other nonhuman primates in natural conditions. PMID:19405083

Gumert, Michael D; Kluck, Marius; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

2009-07-01

138

INELASTIC WEB CRUSHING CAPACITY OF HIGH-STRENGTH-CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALLS  

E-print Network

. Unlike the approach of current design codes, rational assessment models show that web crushing strength the corresponding analytical and design principles for their design. Web crushing, or diagonal compression shear during design. However, in structural walls with well-confined boundary elements, web crushing shear

Hines, Eric

139

31. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST TO CORNER WHERE SAMPLING/CRUSHING ADDITIONS ABUT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST TO CORNER WHERE SAMPLING/CRUSHING ADDITIONS ABUT CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. INTACT BARREN SOLUTION TANK VISIBLE IN FRONT OF CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

140

Flexible ureteroscopic renal stone extraction during laparoscopic ureterolithotomy in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We describe laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy. We describe its efficacy through a laparoscopic port and a ureterotomy site in patients with large upper ureteral stone and small renal stones. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2012, we performed laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy in 11 patients who had upper ureteral and renal stones. The retroperitoneal approaches were used in all patients using 3–4 trocars. Results: All procedures were performed successfully without significant complications. Mean operative time was 78.5 minutes (range: 52–114 minutes). The mean size of ureteral stone was 19.91 mm (range: 15–25 mm). In addition, 25 renal stones (mean size 7.48 mm, range: 2–12 mm) were removed from 11 patients. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.5 days (range: 2–6 days). Conclusions: Laparoscopic ureterolithotomy with renal stone extraction using a stone basket under flexible ureteroscopy can be considered one of treatment modalities for patients with large upper ureteral stones accompanied by renal stones who are indicated in laparoscopic ureterolithotomy. PMID:25295127

You, Jae Hyung; Kim, Young Gon; Kim, Myung Ki

2014-01-01

141

Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies  

SciTech Connect

Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes /sup 85/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 141/Ce, /sup 152/Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 233/U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios.

Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

1980-01-01

142

Drained cavity expansion in sands exhibiting particle crushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of cylindrical and spherical cavities in sands is modelled using similarity solutions. The conventional Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and the state parameter sand behaviour model, which enables hardening-softening, are used in the analysis. The sand state is defined in terms of a new critical state line, designed to account for the three different modes of compressive deformation observed in sands across a wide range of stresses including particle rearrangement, particle crushing and pseudoelastic deformation. Solutions are generated for cavities expanded from zero and finite radii and are compared to those solutions where a conventional critical state line has been used. It is shown that for initial states typical of real quartz sand deposits, pseudoelastic deformation does not occur around an expanding cavity. Particle crushing does occur at these states and causes a reduction in the stress surrounding the cavity. This has major implications when using cavity expansion theory to interpret the cone penetration test and pressuremeter test.

Russell, A. R.; Khalili, N.

2002-04-01

143

Naik, Kraus, Chun Monterrey, Mexico, 2006 147  

E-print Network

of concrete. Three types of coarse aggregate were used in the concrete mixtures: crushed quartzite stone, semi autogenous shrinkage than the concrete made with crushed quartzite. Use of dolomitic limestone appears river gravel or quartzite as coarse aggregate. Use of crushed dolomitic limestone in concrete led

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

144

34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ADDITIONS. SHAFT OF PRIMARY THICKENER No. 1 AT CENTER, WITH PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT. INTACT THICKENER SURGE TANK IS JUST ABOVE AND TO THE RIGHT (NORTH). ALL FRAMING ABOVE SECONDARY THICKENERS No. 2, No. 3, AND No. 7 HAS COLLAPSED. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

145

43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ON TOP OF THE PLATFORM. OVERSIZE ORE IS FED BY CHUTE TO THE GYRATORY SECONDARY CRUSHER (MISSING) SITTING ON CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS TO LOWER RIGHT. UNDERSIZE ORE WAS FED BY THE LOWER CHUTE (CENTER LEFT) TO THE 24 INCH BELT CONVEYOR UNDER THE SECONDARY CRUSHER. THE DRYER ROOM IS BEYOND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

146

Absorption Of Crushing Energy In Square Composite Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes investigation of crash-energy-absorbing capabilities of square-cross-section tubes of two matrix/fiber composite materials. Both graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy tubes crushed in progressive and stable manner. Ratio between width of cross section and thickness of wall determined to affect energy-absorption significantly. As ratio decreases, energy-absorption capability increases non-linearly. Useful in building energy-absorbing composite structures.

Farley, Gary L.

1992-01-01

147

Current concepts for oil decontamination of crush injuries: a review.  

PubMed

This anecdotal, non-systematic review serves to explore the principles and methods of effective oil decontamination from cutaneous wounds, particularly crush injuries. The current expansion of the petroleum industry is necessary to meet increasing world demands for oil. Most stages of oil refining and applications involve significant injury risks, particularly for crush injuries that become contaminated with petroleum compounds. A literature review regarding a standard of care for effective cutaneous oil decontamination is lacking. Based on case reports, animal models, and in vitro studies identified in our expert opinion review, standard water and soap cleansing may not be an appropriate approach. Instead, the principle of 'like dissolves like' guides the use of lipophilic, petroleum-derived solvents to attract and subsequently dissolve the petroleum contaminant from the skin injury. Limitations include paucity of and dated literature sources regarding the topic as well as no models specifically addressing crush injuries. Our literature review found that oil decontamination of cutaneous injuries may be best accomplished with oil-based cleansers. Certainly, this topic has significant importance for the potentially carcinogenic petroleum compounds that pervade virtually every aspect of modern human life. PMID:24855490

Karimkhani, Chante; Amir, Mahsa; Dellavalle, Robert P; Ipaktchi, Kyros

2014-01-01

148

Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.  

PubMed

To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

2008-08-01

149

Optimal Policies for Aggregate Recycling from Decommissioned Forest Roads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective).

Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

2008-08-01

150

Use of Potassium Citrate to Reduce the Risk of Renal Stone Formation During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: NASA s Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA s objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre, in, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all inflight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hudson, E. K.

2008-01-01

151

Glycosaminoglycans content of stone matrix.  

PubMed

The role of urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lithogenesis is a topic of current interest in urologic research. One GAG, chondroitin sulfate, has previously been shown to inhibit calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has long been known that the chemical components of GAGs are present in the matrix of urinary concretions, but it has not been determined whether these components exist in free form or as constituents of GAG. This study was undertaken to determine whether GAGs are present in urinary stone matrices and, if so, to characterize them. Matrices of nine single urinary stones of various compositions and of three stone pools (calcium oxalate, magnesium ammonium phosphate) were isolated by exhaustive dialysis. The techniques of cellulose acetate electrophoresis, Alcian blue staining and enzymatic degradation were used to identify various GAGs. Material that stained Alcain blue was present in eleven of twelve samples. GAG was detected as this material in ten samples. The GAGs identified are heparan sulfate, hyaluronic acid and possibly keratan sulfate. The most prominent urinary GAG, chondroitin sulfate, was notably absent from urinary stone matrix. GAG seems to be incorporated into matrix on a selective basis. This finding may be due to differences in the affinities of different GAG species for the crystals which comprise the calculi. It has been proposed that the inhibitory activity of GAGs lies in their ability to bind to (and therefore block) the growth sites of crystals. It is apparent from this study that certain GAG species are incorporated into the structure of the stone and they may be intimately related to stone development and growth. PMID:3959234

Roberts, S D; Resnick, M I

1986-05-01

152

"Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

Geist, Janet Marie

2000-01-01

153

Kidney Stones in Children and Teens  

MedlinePLUS

... study done for another reason. How Is the Diagnosis Made? While the location and severity of the ... urine are suggestive of a kidney stone, the diagnosis rests on finding a stone in the urinary ...

154

Mechanical and thermal pretreatments of crushed tomatoes: effects on consistency and in vitro accessibility of lycopene.  

PubMed

The effects of mechanical and thermal treatments on the consistency and in vitro lycopene accessibility of crushed tomatoes were evaluated. Different crushing intensities and a subsequent heat treatment carried out as a heat shock (95 degrees C for 8 min) or a boiling step (100 degrees C for 20 min) were examined. Additional homogenization was compared with milder crushing regarding the effect on lycopene content and in vitro accessibility. Textural properties, polygalacturonase and pectinmethylesterase activity, pectin degree of methoxylation, lycopene content, and in vitro lycopene accessibility were evaluated. Microstructure was studied using both light and transmission electron microscopy. Crushing and subsequent heating affected the pectin degree of methoxylation and the consistency of the crushed tomatoes. The mechanical and thermal treatments did not affect the lycopene content to any great extent; however, in vitro accessibility seemed to improve with extensive crushing followed by heating. Crushing or homogenization in itself was not enough to increase in vitro lycopene accessibility. PMID:19895468

Tibäck, Evelina A; Svelander, Cecilia A; Colle, Ines J P; Altskär, Annika I; Alminger, Marie A G; Hendrickx, Marc E G; Ahrné, Lília M; Langton, Maud I B C

2009-09-01

155

Stone Pages: A Guide to European Megaliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the Stone Pages is a frequently updated site, available in English or Italian, that contains unique reports on megalithic and other archaeological stone sites in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Wales, and Ireland. Regular and high resolution photos, site maps, and evaluations are provided for court and passage tombs, cairns-crannogs, dolmens, and standing stones and stone circles. QTVR panoramic views of several sites are also available.

1996-01-01

156

Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of pediatric kidney stone has not yet been as rigorously defined as that of adult kidney stone disease. Herein,\\u000a we review our recent epidemiologic works characterizing pediatric stone disease using the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID).\\u000a Specifically we investigated the age and gender distribution of pediatric kidney stone disease, changes in disease prevalence\\u000a over time, and medical comorbidities associated

Brian R. Matlaga; Anthony J. Schaeffer; Thomas E. Novak; Bruce J. Trock

2010-01-01

157

Sinead Garrigan-Mattar Stone, Paper, Scissors  

E-print Network

Sin´ead Garrigan-Mattar Stone, Paper, Scissors i.m. Ondine - 20:8:03-12:03:04 You have not turned to stone and yet it is as stone that we must show you outward to the world. Naming you was not hard, we to stone. Here are the slips of paper where you lived your paper- life. They are too few. Birth certificate

Robertson, Stephen

158

Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor  

MedlinePLUS

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in your kidney. The kidney stone may be stuck in your ureter (the tube ... from your bladder to outside your body). A stone can block the flow of your urine and ...

159

The physics of stone skipping Lyderic Bocquet  

E-print Network

The physics of stone skipping Lyde´ric Bocquet De´partement de Physique des Mate´riaux, UMR CNRS 2002; accepted 16 September 2002 The motion of a stone skimming over a water surface is considered. A simplified description of the collisional process of the stone with water is proposed. The maximum number

Frey, Pascal

160

About Stone's notion of Spectrum Thierry Coquand  

E-print Network

About Stone's notion of Spectrum Thierry Coquand Introduction The goal of this paper is to analyse two remarkable notes by Stone [StoI, StoII]. Both de- scribe a compact space in term of some algebra if the formal approach can be connected to Stone's approach directly, without relying on points (or non

Coquand, Thierry

161

Effective Thermal Conductivity of Different Porous Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate the theoretical and experimental results of effective thermal conductivity of porous building stones. In the theoretical part of study, the mathematical model was developed for the calculation of effective thermal conductivity of porous stones. In this model, the random and complex geometric shape porous in stone was accepted as the cubic form, and

KAVAK AKPINAR

162

Cluster structure of anaerobic aggregates of an expanded granular sludge bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic properties and ultrastructure of mesophilic aggregates from a full-scale expanded granular sludge bed reactor treating brewery wastewater are described. The aggregates had a very high methanogenic activity on acetate (17.19 mmol of CH4\\/g of volatile suspended solids [VSS]?day or 1.1 g of CH4 chemical oxygen demand\\/g of VSS?day). Fluorescent in situ hybridization using 16S rRNA probes of crushed

G. Gonzalez-Gil; P. N. L. Lens; A. Van Aelst; H. Van As; A. I. Versprille; G. Lettinga

2001-01-01

163

Bladder stone causing renal failure.  

PubMed

We describe a 62-year-old man with a large bladder calculus causing bilateral ureteral obstruction. Diagnosis was delayed despite the patient's history of recurrent urinary infections. This case report illustrates the importance of radiological evaluation of patients presenting with recurrent urinary infections. To our knowledge, only three previous reports of bladder stone causing renal failure have been published. PMID:9322416

Sundaram, C P; Houshiar, A M; Reddy, P K

1997-09-01

164

Stepping Stones to Career Advancement  

E-print Network

for a number of reasons. Some are looking to improve their advancement opportunities and sharpen their decision-makingStepping Stones to Career Advancement CertificatePrograms CONTINUING AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION You realize continuing and professional education is important to your career development and advance- ment

California at Davis, University of

165

Petra: Lost City of Stone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Petra: Lost City of Stone exhibit, looks at this once flourishing city in the heart of the ancient Near East. Although the exhibit is now closed, the web site contains a wealth of information about Petra.

166

Thermophysical Properties of Stone Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophysical properties of the stone fruits plum, peach, and nectarine were modeled from experimental data as functions of moisture content. Samples were dried to preset moistures in a laboratory cabinet dryer, and the thermal conductivity, specific heat, apparent density, bulk density, and porosity of the fruit were determined. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were found to be linear

W. Phomkong; G. Srzednicki; R. H. Driscoll

2006-01-01

167

Utilization of ceramic waste as fine aggregate within Portland cement and fly ash concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research work was to investigate the feasibility of using ceramic waste and fly ash to produce mortar and concrete. Ceramic waste fragments obtained from local industry were crushed and sieved to produce fine aggregates. The measured concrete properties demonstrate that while workability was reduced with increasing ceramic waste content for Portland cement concrete and fly ash

Pincha Torkittikul; Arnon Chaipanich

2010-01-01

168

Influence of coarse aggregate size, shape and surface texture on rutting of hot mix asphalt concrete  

E-print Network

increased Hveem Stability, Marshall Stability and resistance to creep of hot mix asphalt concrete. The resilient modulus of the specimens was also enhanced by the increase in the amount of crushed aggregate in the mix at high temperatures (115'F). Fractal...

Yeggoni, Mohan

2012-06-07

169

Hot Mix Asphalt Using Light Weight Aggregate Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot mix asphalt concrete is produced by properly blending asphalt, coarse and fine aggregates in addition to filler at temperatures ranging from 80 to 165°C. This research is directed to study the effect of replacing the conventional aggregates by the recycled Light Weight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC) on the properties of the produced asphalt mix. The research studied the optimum asphalt content and the effect of some parameters on the properties of the recycled LWAC. The research included studying thirty-six Marshal Specimens lie in four main groups. Each group was made from crushed LWAC in addition to a comparison group used the pumice instead of the crushed LWAC. The LWAC mixes contained (0, 10, 15 and 20%) of silica powder content. The density, stability, flow, percentages of the air Voids in the Compacted Mixture (VTM), compacted mineral aggregate (VMA) and the Voids Filled by Asphalt (VFA) were investigated for all the studied specimens. The main conclusions drawn from the current research implies that the optimum percent of asphalt was 7.5% for the different percentages of silica powder ratios. The presence of voids in the light weight aggregates and the porosity of the obtained concrete affected largely the behavior of the obtained mix.

Awwad, Mohammad T.

170

Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models  

SciTech Connect

Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

1995-12-01

171

The effect of recycled concrete aggregate properties on the bond strength between RCA concrete and steel reinforcement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that replacing natural coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) has on concrete bond strength with reinforcing steel. Two sources of RCA were used along with one natural aggregate source. Numerous aggregate properties were measured for all aggregate sources. Two types of concrete mixture proportions were developed replacing 100% of the natural aggregate with RCA. The first type maintained the same water-cement ratios while the second type was designed to achieve the same compressive strengths. Beam-end specimens were tested to determine the relative bond strength of RCA and natural aggregate concrete. On average, natural aggregate concrete specimens had bond strengths that were 9 to 19% higher than the equivalent RCA specimens. Bond strength and the aggregate crushing value seemed to correlate well for all concrete types.

Butler, L., E-mail: L3Butler@uwaterloo.ca; West, J.S.; Tighe, S.L.

2011-10-15

172

Functional dissection of a eukaryotic dicistronic gene: transgenic stonedB, but not stonedA, restores normal synaptic properties to Drosophila stoned mutants.  

PubMed Central

The dicistronic Drosophila stoned mRNA produces two proteins, stonedA and stonedB, that are localized at nerve terminals. While the stoned locus is required for synaptic-vesicle cycling in neurons, distinct or overlapping synaptic functions of stonedA and stonedB have not been clearly identified. Potential functions of stoned products in nonneuronal cells remain entirely unexplored in vivo. Transgene-based analyses presented here demonstrate that exclusively neuronal expression of a dicistronic stoned cDNA is sufficient for rescue of defects observed in lethal and viable stoned mutants. Significantly, expression of a monocistronic stonedB trangene is sufficient for rescuing various phenotypic deficits of stoned mutants, including those in organismal viability, evoked transmitter release, and synaptotagmin retrieval from the plasma membrane. In contrast, a stonedA transgene does not alleviate any stoned mutant phenotype. Novel phenotypic analyses demonstrate that, in addition to regulation of presynaptic function, stoned is required for regulating normal growth and morphology of the motor terminal; however, this developmental function is also provided by a stonedB transgene. Our data, although most consistent with a hypothesis in which stonedA is a dispensable protein, are limited by the absence of a true null allele for stoned due to partial restoration of presynaptic stonedA by transgenically provided stonedB. Careful analysis of the effects of the monocistronic transgenes together and in isolation clearly reveals that the presence of presynaptic stonedA is dependent on stonedB. Together, our findings improve understanding of the functional relationship between stonedA and stonedB and elaborate significantly on the in vivo functions of stonins, recently discovered phylogenetically conserved stonedB homologs that represent a new family of "orphan" medium (mu) chains of adaptor complexes involved in vesicle formation. Data presented here also provide new insight into potential mechanisms that underlie translation and evolution of the dicistronic stoned mRNA. PMID:14504226

Estes, Patricia S; Jackson, Taryn C; Stimson, Daniel T; Sanyal, Subhabrata; Kelly, Leonard E; Ramaswami, Mani

2003-01-01

173

The sorption behaviour of caesium on Opalinus Clay: A comparison between intact and crushed material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of Cs on crushed and intact (non-crushed) Opalinus Clay (OPA) was studied. A Cs sorption isotherm was measured in a synthetic OPA pore water covering an equilibrium concentration (CCs,eq) range between 10?2M and 10?9M. The isotherms measured on crushed (<63?m) and intact OPA were in excellent agreement indicating that all sorption sites for Cs in intact OPA are

L. R. Van Loon; B. Baeyens; M. H. Bradbury

2009-01-01

174

Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly, so every visitor has a unique sound adventure. The experience is intensely engaging, playful and yet a little unsettling and provides a truly unique way to explore our scientific data and present geoscience research to the public. Crush-2 has featured in an exhibition on Sonic Interaction Design at the Norwegian Museum of Science, Technology and Medicine, Oslo, Norway (27 May - 21 August 2011) and forms part of a solo exhibition by Barrett at Galleri ROM, Oslo in fall 2011. Visitor feedback from the Museum exhibition suggests that users were initially attracted to the exhibit by its interactive 'hands-on' nature and dramatic sounds, but as they 'explored' the soundspace, became curious to ask questions about the underlying science. The concept of using sound rather than visual gives an unusual and therefore highly memorable experience. This science-art collaboration provides a novel and highly enjoyable way to present our work to the public - that is particularly attractive to youngsters. Visitors to this poster presentation will be able to explore the Crush-2 soundscape using a laptop and headphone interactive mode.

Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

2011-12-01

175

Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

2007-04-01

176

Maerz, N. H., and Zhou, W., 1999. Flat and elongated: Advances using digital image analysis. Center For Aggregates Research (ICAR) Seventh Annual Symposium Proceedings, Austin Texas, April 19-21, pp.  

E-print Network

testing standards Crushed stone, gravel and sand encompass the bulk of the materials used in highway, by ASTM standards, AASHTO standards, or Superpave guidelines. In most cases the methods of testing is well always been a time-consuming, tedious and labor-intensive process. Consequently, these types of tests

Maerz, Norbert H.

177

Flaked and Ground Stone Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analyses of stone tools are most often conducted to obtain provenance information or determine the time of site occupation.\\u000a As outlined in the following section, there is a long history of provenance studies of obsidian. Recent studies in South America\\u000a show geochronological techniques can aid in the discrimination of obsidian sources with similar composition. Although the\\u000a composition of chert is

Mary E. Malainey

178

Greco-Roman Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

2008-09-01

179

Case 205: renal stone ileus.  

PubMed

History An 80-year-old woman presented to the on-call surgical team with a 2-day history of abdominal distention and vomiting. Clinical examination revealed a distended tympanic abdomen with generalized tenderness but no evidence of peritoneal signs at physical examination. Relevant surgical history included previous intervention for renal stones, cholecystectomy, and cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities. Abdominal radiography was performed in the emergency department, and computed tomography (CT) was performed based on the radiographic findings. PMID:24761958

MacDonald, Lois S; Rumsby, Gill; Lapsia, Snehal

2014-05-01

180

The Matariki Stone of Rapanui  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

Hockey, T. A.

2005-12-01

181

Weathering of Stone Mountain Granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weathering of Stone Mountain Granite (adamellitc) forms kaolinite, endcllite, allophane and gibbsite of which kaolinite is the most stable. Bulk density ranges from 2.65 in fresh rock to a minimum of 1.48 in saprolite. It is a good index of weathering. Abrasion pH ranges from 5.0 in saprolite to 9.3 in fresh rock, and is direct)y related to bulk

1962-01-01

182

Having and being an other-sex crush during early adolescence.  

PubMed

This study examined other-sex crush experiences (both having and being perceived as an other-sex crush) among 544 young adolescents (mean age=12.74 years). Results indicated that 56% had at least one current other-sex crush, with little overlap between crushes, friends, and boyfriends/girlfriends. Significant associations between other-sex crush scores (scores reflecting the number of crush nominations received) and physical attractiveness, relational aggression, physical aggression, and popularity, as reported by same-sex and other-sex peers, were found. In addition, crush scores were (a) associated with same-sex likeability for boys (but not girls) and (b) uniquely related to peer nominations of popularity and physical attractiveness, as reported by other-sex peers. Neither having nor being perceived as an other-sex crush was uniquely related to loneliness. Taken together, the findings suggest that other-sex crushes are normative experiences during early adolescence that warrant further research attention. PMID:22240032

Bowker, Julie C; Spencer, Sarah V; Thomas, Katelyn K; Gyoerkoe, Elizabeth A

2012-04-01

183

Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.  

PubMed

Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. PMID:24945791

Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

2014-10-01

184

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

185

CECH-STONE REMAINDERS OF DISCRETE SPACES PETER NYIKOS  

E-print Network

CECH-STONE REMAINDERS OF DISCRETE SPACES PETER NYIKOS 1. Introduction The study of Cech-Stone to 1? 1001 ? Here 1 refers to the Cech-Stone remainder of a discrete space of cardinality 1. What to break with the usual American custom and use the expression "Cech-Stone" in place of "Stone

Nyikos, Peter J.

186

Bacteria can promote calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation.  

PubMed

Our previous report showed that uropathogenic bacteria, e.g., Escherichia coli, are commonly found inside the nidus of calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones and may play pivotal roles in stone genesis. The present study aimed to prove this new hypothesis by direct examining CaOx lithogenic activities of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. CaOx was crystallized in the absence (blank control) or presence of 10(5) CFU/ml E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Fragmented red blood cell membranes and intact red blood cells were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The crystal area and the number of aggregates were measured to initially screen for effects of bacteria on CaOx crystal growth and aggregation. The data revealed that all the bacteria tested dramatically increased the crystal area and number of crystal aggregates. Validation assays (spectrophotometric oxalate-depletion assay and an aggregation-sedimentation study) confirmed their promoting effects on both growth (20.17 ± 3.42, 17.55 ± 2.27, 16.37 ± 1.38, and 21.87 ± 0.85 % increase, respectively) and aggregation (57.45 ± 2.08, 51.06 ± 5.51, 55.32 ± 2.08, and 46.81 ± 3.61 % increase, respectively) of CaOx crystals. Also, these bacteria significantly enlarged CaOx aggregates, with the diameter greater than the luminal size of distal tubules, implying that tubular occlusion might occur. Moreover, these bacterial effects were dose-dependent and specific to intact viable bacteria, not intact dead or fragmented bacteria. In summary, intact viable E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and S. pneumoniae had significant promoting effects on CaOx crystal growth and aggregation. This functional evidence supported the hypothesis that various types of bacteria can induce or aggravate metabolic stone disease, particularly the CaOx type. PMID:23334195

Chutipongtanate, Somchai; Sutthimethakorn, Suchitra; Chiangjong, Wararat; Thongboonkerd, Visith

2013-03-01

187

77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...Stone National Wildlife Refuge, 44843 County Road 19, Odessa, MN 56276. In-Person Drop Off: You may drop off...

2012-05-09

188

Laparoscopic management of common bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We reviewed our experience with the management of common bile duct (CBD) stones in 100 consecutive patients treated laparoscopicaly\\u000a during the past 9 years (1990–1998) and evaluated the advantages, disadvantages, and feasibility of the treatment, to elucidate\\u000a reasonable therapeutic strategies for patients harboring CBD stones. We conclude that the most rational management of CBD\\u000a stones is that which is

Tatsuo Yamakawa; Shigeru Sakai; Zhuang-Bo Mu; German Pineres

2000-01-01

189

National Geographic: Stone Skipping Gets Scientific  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article in National Geographic tells us how and why the magic angle of 20 degrees allows for the most number of skips when skipping stones. How does the author know this? Well, a French scientist constructed a stone-skipping machine to find out the optimal speed, spin, and angle for the maximum number of bounces. Learn more about the physics of stone skipping in this article.

190

Adjunctive Therapy to Promote Stone Passage  

PubMed Central

The majority of individuals with nephrolithiasis have small ureteral stones that pass spontaneously. However, patients may experience severe pain during this process, which significantly alters their quality of life and may limit their vocational responsibilities. Therefore, measures to facilitate stone passage are uniformly embraced. We discuss methods to enhance spontaneous stone passage as well as the elimination of fragments generated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. PMID:16985812

Nuss, Geoffrey R; Rackley, Judson D; Assimos, Dean G

2005-01-01

191

Stone orientation affects the mechanism of failure in artificial kidney stones subject to shock waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro computed tomography (CT) imaging was used to follow the progressive development of cracks in artificial kidney stones. The artificial stones were made from U30 cement with a cylindrical shape (6.5 mm diameter and 8.5 mm long). The stones were held within a polypropylene vial in one of three orientations: vertical, horizontal, and angled at 45 deg. The stones were

Javier van Cauwelaert; Robin O. Cleveland

2003-01-01

192

Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

Not Available

1987-01-01

193

Utilization of recycled glass as aggregate in controlled low-strength material (CLSM)  

SciTech Connect

Incoming glass from curbside recycling programs is successfully being utilized as aggregate replacements. The colored glass that can not be used by local bottle manufacturers is crushed to a {1/2} in. (12.5 mm) material and used in various construction projects. The most successful use of processed glass aggregate (PGA) to date, has been in replacing up to 100% of the aggregate in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). It has proven to be successful and has gained acceptance by contractors in the Boulder, Colorado area.

Ohlheiser, T.R. [Western Mobile Denver Aggregate Div., CO (United States)

1998-10-01

194

Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives from said compositions  

DOEpatents

Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives of said compositions, and cementitious compositions and aggregates produced by said method, wherein fluidized bed combustion residue and pozzolanic material, such as pulverized coal combustion system fly ash, are incorporated in a cementitious mix. The mix is cast into desired shape and cured. If desired, the shape may then be crushed so as to result in a fluidized bed combustion residue-fly ash aggregate material or the shape may be used by itself.

Minnick, L. John (Box 271, Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462)

1981-01-01

195

Management of crush victims in mass disasters: highlights from recently published recommendations.  

PubMed

Crush syndrome is the second most common cause of death after earthquakes (the first most common is direct trauma). Many logistic problems with the treatment of patients with crush syndrome are due to chaotic disaster circumstances; consequently, medical and logistic recommendations on the treatment of crush victims are needed. In a joint initiative of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology and European Renal Best Practice, a work group of nephrologists, intensivists, surgeons, and logisticians with disaster experience or experts in guideline preparation collaborated to provide comprehensive information and recommendations on the management of crush casualties considering their occurrence with "epidemic" dimensions after mass disasters. The result is the monograph "Recommendations for the Management of Crush Victims in Mass Disasters", which may help provide effective health care to disaster victims with renal problems. This article discusses medical and logistic principles of the treatment of crush victims, both at the disaster field and on admission to hospitals, and guidance is described. The importance of early fluid administration even before extrication of the victims and avoidance of potassium-containing solutions during the treatment of crush victims is underlined. Also, the logistic problems in treating crush casualties are emphasized. The most important aspects of the recently published recommendations are highlighted. PMID:23024157

Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

2013-02-01

196

Coriander spice oil: effects of fruit crushing and distillation time on yield and composition.  

PubMed

Crushing intensity and distillation time were evaluated for their effects on the oil yield and composition of steam-distilled essential oil from fruits of Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum L. A comparison of oils produced by laboratory- and pilot-scale stills showed that the two still types gave comparable yields and oil composition. The laboratory still was then used to compare oil yields and compositions from fruits crushed at three different intensities, at intervals during a distillation period of 60 min. Both crushing intensity and distillation time had significant (P< 0.05) effects on the yield and composition of the oil. The maximum oil yield was less from the light-crushed fruits, but the rate of oil recovery was significantly P < 0.05) higher. From the light-crushed fruits, 95% of the maximum yield was extracted in 22.5 min compared with 32 and 39 min for the standard and heavy-crushed fruits, respectively. The effect of crushing intensity on oil composition was most pronounced on the low-boiling-point a-pinene and on the higher-boiling-point geranyl acetate. Crushing had little effect on linalool content, but distillation time could be manipulated to alter the linalool content of the oil. PMID:11305249

Smallfield, B M; van Klink, J W; Perry, N B; Dodds, K G

2001-01-01

197

Functional Recovery After Facial and Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To systematically record rat facial nerve re- covery following crush injury to the main trunk with re- spect to ocular and vibrissial function and to compare the rates of facial and sciatic nerve recovery from crush injury in the same animals. This serves as a means of vali- dating the functional parameters of facial nerve recov- ery against the

Tessa A. Hadlock; James Heaton; Mack Cheney; Susan E. Mackinnon

2005-01-01

198

Process for extracting oil and hydrocarbons from crushed solids using hydrogen rich syn gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent descrbes a thermal process for treating rushed hydrocarbonaceous solids to extract oils and hydrocarbons therefrom which comprises preheating the crushed hydrocarbonaceous solids to remove any residual water treating the preheated crushed hydrocarbonaceous solids with hot syn gas containing hydrogen at an elevated temperature and low pressure below 15 psi in the absence of water, removing the vaporized materials,

1988-01-01

199

Particle damage and exposure analysis in HPGR crushing of selected copper ores for column leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mining operations, jaw and gyratory crushers are generally used for primary crushing, and cone crushers are used for secondary crushing. During the past decade, however, high-pressure grinding rolls (HPGR) are being considered due to potential processing benefits such as energy savings, improved exposure\\/liberation and particle weakening. At this time there is no detailed quantification of particle damage and downstream

Phanindra Kodali; Nikhil Dhawan; Tolga Depci; C. L. Lin; Jan D. Miller

2011-01-01

200

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2014-04-01

201

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2013-04-01

202

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2011-04-01

203

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2010-04-01

204

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2012-04-01

205

Arches and Stones in Cognitive Architecture Reply to Comments  

E-print Network

Polo describes a bridge, stone by stone. "But which is the stone that supports the bridge?" Kublai Khan of the arch that they form." Kublai Khan remains silent, reflecting. Then he adds: "Why do you speak to me

Beer, Randall D.

206

Study Finds Kidney Stones Linked to Weakened Bones  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Study Finds Kidney Stones Linked to Weakened Bones People with the obstructions ... October 23, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Fractures Kidney Stones THURSDAY, Oct. 23, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Kidney stone ...

207

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from Stone House south side yard facing southeast. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

208

A Lion of a Stone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm.

This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

2004-01-01

209

First-aid treatments of crush injuries after earthquake: 2 special cases.  

PubMed

Hyperkalemia and acute renal failure are the life-threatening complications of crush injuries. Vigilant prehospital emergency care is vital to reduce the complications. We report and discuss 2 cases diagnosed as crush syndrome after earthquake, in order to illustrate the value of prehospital application of tourniquets to prevent hyperkalemia accompanying extremity crush injuries. The victim in case 1 died of hyperkalemia shortly after extrication without tourniquet. The prehospital tourniquet had been used to avoid uncontrollable hemorrhage and release of toxic metabolites into the circulation in case 2. Providers need to be fully aware of the risk of hyperkalemia in the field for patients with crush syndrome. Tourniquet application is strongly recommended in the prehospital setting for severe crush injuries. PMID:24534195

Zhang, Xia; Bai, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Qing

2014-07-01

210

6. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: STONE FLOOR, HOPPER, HORSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; SECOND FLOOR: STONE FLOOR, HOPPER, HORSE, AND HOOP ARRANGEMENTS, CRANE WITH RUNNER STONE - Lefferts Tide Mill, Huntington Harbor, Southdown Road, Huntington, Suffolk County, NY

211

Medical Management of Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of dietary and metabolic factors may contribute or cause stone formation in idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Dietary factors include a high intake of animal proteins, oxalate and sodium, and a low intake of fluids and potassium-containing citrus products. Some of the metabolic causes of stones are hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, gouty diathesis, hyperoxaluria, and hyperuricosuria. Dietary modification, to be applied

Charles Y. C. Pak

2004-01-01

212

STONE DUALITY, TOPOLOGICAL ALGEBRA, AND RECOGNITION  

E-print Network

STONE DUALITY, TOPOLOGICAL ALGEBRA, AND RECOGNITION MAI GEHRKE Abstract. Our main result is that any topological algebra based on a Boolean space is the extended Stone dual space of a certain associated Boolean algebra with additional operations. A particular case of this result is that the profinite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Gallstone Ileus following Endoscopic Stone Extraction  

PubMed Central

An 85-year-old woman was an outpatient treated at Tokyo Rosai Hospital for cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B. She had previously been diagnosed as having common bile duct stones, for which she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, as stone removal was unsuccessful, a plastic stent was placed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In October 2012, the stent was replaced endoscopically because she developed cholangitis due to stent occlusion. Seven days later, we performed ERCP to treat recurring cholangitis. During the procedure, the stone was successfully removed by a balloon catheter when cleaning the common bile duct. The next day, the patient developed abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and nausea and was diagnosed as having gallstone ileus based on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography findings of an incarcerated stone in the terminal ileum. Although colonoscopy was performed after inserting an ileus tube, no stone was visible. Subsequent CT imaging verified the disappearance of the incarcerated stone from the ileum, suggesting that the stone had been evacuated naturally via the transanal route. Although it is extremely rare for gallstone ileus to develop as a complication of ERCP, physicians should be aware of gallstone ileus and follow patients carefully, especially after removing huge stones. PMID:25328725

Wakui, Noritaka; Asai, Yasutsugu; Dan, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Yuki; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takahumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Nisinakagawa, Shuta; Kojima, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

214

Noise Control in Granite Stone Slicing Factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, the noise levels in Granite stone slicing factory are relatively higher than the accepted limits for occupational noise exposure. This study aimed to determine suitable and practical methods for controlling noise pollution in the factory. Three controlled areas were studied; (1) control at the noise source by reducing a vibration and friction of stone slicing machine; (2) control at

Banjarata Jolanun; Teerasak Tongparsan

215

Urinary citrate and renal stone disease: the preventive role of alkali citrate treatment.  

PubMed

Hypocitraturia or low urinary citrate excretion is a common feature in patients with nephrolithiasis, particularly in those with calcium stone disease. Citrate is a weak acid that is synthesized inside Krebs' cycle. It can also enter the body through dietary intake. Differences in intestinal handling, serum concentration as well as filtered load of citrate were not found between kidney stone formers and normal subjects. On the contrary, several metabolic abnormalities, such as metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia and starving, seem to influence the renal handling of citrate by inducing a decrease in the urinary citrate excretion. Hypocitraturia is defined as urinary citrate excretion lower than 320 mg/day. Literature data show a large prevalence of hypocitraturia in patients with nephrolithiasis, ranging from 8% up to 68.3%. The protective role of citrate is linked to several mechanisms; in fact citrate reduces urinary supersaturation of calcium salts by forming soluble complexes with calcium ions and by inhibiting crystal growth and aggregation. Furthermore, citrate increases the activity of some macromolecules in the urine (eg. Tamm-Horsfall protein) that inhibit calcium oxalate aggregation. Citrate seems able to reduce the expression of urinary osteopontin. A role of citrate in pathogenesis of metabolic bone diseases has been recently suggested and citrate measurement in urine has been proposed as a predictor of both bone mass loss and fracture risk. Idiopathic calcium stone disease, with or without hypocitraturia, can be treated with alkaline citrate, as well as other forms of nephrolithiasis and different pathological conditions. The therapy with potassium citrate, or magnesium potassium citrate, is commonly prescribed in clinical practice in order to increase urinary citrate and to reduce stone formation rates. Our data as well as those of the literature confirm that alkali citrate induces both an increase of protective urinay analytes (eg. citrate, potassium and pH) and a decrease of calcium oxalate supersaturation. Moreover, alkali treatment reduces the rate of stone recurrence and increases the clearance rates and dissolution of stone fragments. Last but not the least, an increasing number of papers pointed out the protective role of alkali citrate in preserving bone mass in stone formers as well as in healthy subjects with bone loss. Nevertheless, the evaluation of urinary citrate in patients with kidney stones and the treatment of these patients with alkali salts namely with potassium citrate are still scarce. PMID:19911682

Caudarella, Renata; Vescini, Fabio

2009-09-01

216

Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts' gain.

Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

217

Gall stone pulverisation strategy in patients treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and follow up results of maintenance treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.  

PubMed

Between November 1988 and July 1992 70 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESL) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; mean (SD) dose 11.2 (1.9) mg/kg/day). Fifty three patients have been followed for one year. One week after lithotripsy, 30.6% had completely eliminated all stone fragments from the gall bladder and one year later 93.9% were free of stones. Three factors were considered important in achieving these results. 'Pulverisation' of the stone--that is, its fragmentation into echogenic dust (crystalline aggregates, some few hundred mu in size) or particles similar to grains of sand, smaller than 1 mm in diameter, or both, is required. Secondly, dust and particles were rapidly eliminated, strongly suggesting a mechanical elimination process by physiological gall bladder contractions. Thirdly, there must be chemical dissolution with biliary acids. This therapeutic approach gave excellent results without causing any clinically relevant side effects. The first 20 patients who became free of stones after ESL were given oral bile acid maintenance treatment--300 mg/day of UDCA at bedtime, for two years. All were asymptomatic and none had suffered a recurrence after two years. In four patients, crystalline aggregates, detected in gall bladder bile by ultrasound, were subsequently dissolved between one and three months after resuming a full dose regimen of UDCA. PMID:8307431

Boscaini, M; Piccinni-Leopardi, M; Andreotti, F; Montori, A

1994-01-01

218

Gall stone pulverisation strategy in patients treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and follow up results of maintenance treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.  

PubMed Central

Between November 1988 and July 1992 70 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESL) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; mean (SD) dose 11.2 (1.9) mg/kg/day). Fifty three patients have been followed for one year. One week after lithotripsy, 30.6% had completely eliminated all stone fragments from the gall bladder and one year later 93.9% were free of stones. Three factors were considered important in achieving these results. 'Pulverisation' of the stone--that is, its fragmentation into echogenic dust (crystalline aggregates, some few hundred mu in size) or particles similar to grains of sand, smaller than 1 mm in diameter, or both, is required. Secondly, dust and particles were rapidly eliminated, strongly suggesting a mechanical elimination process by physiological gall bladder contractions. Thirdly, there must be chemical dissolution with biliary acids. This therapeutic approach gave excellent results without causing any clinically relevant side effects. The first 20 patients who became free of stones after ESL were given oral bile acid maintenance treatment--300 mg/day of UDCA at bedtime, for two years. All were asymptomatic and none had suffered a recurrence after two years. In four patients, crystalline aggregates, detected in gall bladder bile by ultrasound, were subsequently dissolved between one and three months after resuming a full dose regimen of UDCA. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8307431

Boscaini, M; Piccinni-Leopardi, M; Andreotti, F; Montori, A

1994-01-01

219

Modeling of crushed ore agglomeration for heap leach operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this dissertation is modeling of the evolution of size distribution in batch agglomeration drum. There has been no successful work on modeling of crushed ore agglomeration although the framework for population balance modeling of pelletization and granulation is readily available. In this study three different batch agglomeration drums were used to study the agglomeration kinetics of copper, gold and nickel ores. The agglomerate size distribution is inherently subject to random fluctuation due the very nature of the process. Yet, with careful experimentation and size analysis the evolution of size distribution can be followed. The population balance model employing the random coalesce model with a constant rate kernel was shown to work well in a micro and lab scale agglomerator experiments. In small drums agglomerates begin to break in a short time, whereas the growth is uniform in the lab scale drum. The experimental agglomerate size distributions exhibit self-preserving size spectra which confirms the applicability of coalescence rate based model. The same spectra became a useful fact for predicting the size distribution with an empirical model. Since moisture is a principal variable, the absolute deviation from optimum moisture was used as the primary variable in the empirical model. Having established a model for the size distribution, the next step was to delve into the internal constituents of each agglomerate size class. To this end, an experimental scheme known as dip test was devised. The outcome of the test was the size distribution of progeny particles which make up a given size class of agglomerate. The progeny size distribution was analyzed with a model that partitions the particles into a host and guest category. The ensuing partition coefficient is a valuable in determining how a particle in a size class participates in larger agglomerates. This dissertation lays out the fundamentals for applying the population balance concept to batch agglomeration, specifically crushed ore agglomeration. The experimental difficulties and how to overcome them are described. An empirical model that is readily useful for plant heap leach operations is shown in detail. The analysis of constituent particles within agglomerate size class is done with a partition model. The guest and host nature of particles, thus delineated, helps one to anticipate the nature of agglomerates that would be formed with a given ore size distribution. Thus, all aspects of batch agglomeration are addressed in this work.

Dhawan, Nikhil

220

Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. PMID:23439376

Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

2013-03-01

221

EDAX versus FTIR in mixed stones.  

PubMed

Mixed stones form a significant number of all urinary stones. Accurate analysis of individual areas of stones is fraught with uncertainties. Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis (SEM-EDAX) is a very important tool in assessing stone composition. The objective of this paper is to project the role of the combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX combination in achieving a total understanding of mixed stone morphology. Ten mixed urinary stones were washed and dried and the composition recognized by analysis of FTIR spectra by comparing with the spectra of pure components. Spectra for different layers were obtained. Then the stone samples were further studied by SEM-EDAX analysis. The findings of FTIR were correlated with SEM-EDAX and detailed data generated. Using SEM-EDAX, the spatial distribution of major and trace elements were studied to understand their initiation and formation. As much as 80% of the stones studied were mixtures of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) in various proportions. Quantitative evaluation of components was achieved through FTIR and SEM-EDAX analysis. It was possible to get an idea about the spatial distribution of molecules using SEM analysis. The composition of different areas was identified using EDAX. Analyzing with EDAX, it was possible to obtain the percentage of different elements present in a single sample. The study concludes that the most common mixed stone encountered in the study is a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate in a definite proportion. The combination identified not only the molecular species present in the calculus, but also the crystalline forms within chemical constituents. Using EDAX, the amount of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon present in the stone sample could be well understood. PMID:19536531

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Lekshmi, P R; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

2009-10-01

222

An Evaluation of Ethyl Silicate-Based Grouts for Weathered Silicate Stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Culturally significant monuments made of weathered siliceous stone often display sub-surface condition issues such as cracks and voids. These issues require grouts that are ideally compatible with the composition and properties of the substrate. Based on the successful application of ethyl silicates as consolidants in recent literature, this study examines possible formulation pathways for the development of a grout incorporating ethyl silicate. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTL) as a catalyst, silicone oil (PDMS), various grades of ground quartz, sepiolite, and hollow glass spheres were used in differing concentrations to create samples. These were visually and physically assessed on workability, separation, shrinkage, cracking, strength, and flexibility. Quantitative analysis was performed on selected formulations using UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy in coordination with a weight loss experiment to investigate kinetics, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Successful formulations tended to include oligomeric TEOS, crushed quartz of mixed grades, sepiolite powder, and PDMS, and show promise for future investigations.

Dolph, Brittany Helen

223

Segmented Aluminum Honeycomb Characteristics in T-Direction, Dynamic Crush Environments  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen segmented aluminum honeycomb samples (5 in. diameter and 1.5 in. height) have been crushed in an experimental configuration that uses a drop table impact machine. The 38.0 pcf bulk density samples are a unique segmented geometry that allows the samples to be crushed while maintaining a constant cross-sectional area. A crush weight of 175 lb was used to determine the rate sensitivity of the honeycomb's highest strength orientation, T-direction, in a dynamic environment of {approx}50 fps impact velocity. Experiments were conducted for two honeycomb manufacturers and at two temperatures, ambient and +165 F. Independent measurements of the crush force were made with a custom load cell and a force derived from acceleration measurements on the drop table using the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique with a Calibrated Force (SWAT-CAL). Normalized stress-strain curves for all thirteen experiments are included and have excellent repeatability. These data are strictly valid for material characteristics in the T orientation because the cross-sectional area of the honeycomb did not change during the crush. The dynamic crush data have a consistent increase in crush strength of {approximately}7--19% as compared to quasi-static data and suggest that dynamic performance may be inferred from static tests. An uncertainty analysis estimates the error in these data is {+-} 11%.

BATEMAN,VESTA I.; BROWN,FREDERICK A.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.; SWANSON,LLOYD H.

2000-08-23

224

Quasi-Uniform High Speed Foam Crush Testing Using a Guided Drop Mass Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple method for measuring the dynamic crush response of foam materials at various loading rates is described. The method utilizes a drop mass impact configuration with mass and impact velocity selected such that the crush speed remains approximately uniform during the entire sample crushing event. Instrumentation, data acquisition, and data processing techniques are presented, and limitations of the test method are discussed. The objective of the test method is to produce input data for dynamic finite element modeling involving crash and energy absorption characteristics of foam materials.

Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor); Kellas, Sotiris

2004-01-01

225

Acid rain stone test sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a part of the United States National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, Task Group G: Effects on Materials and Cultural Resources, which is chaired by Ray Herrmann, the National Park Service has established four test sites for 10-year testing of two kinds of dimension stone used in buildings and monuments. The four sites are (from south to north) Research Triangle Park near Raleigh, N.C. (activated May 25, 1984); the roof of the West End Branch of the Washington, D.C. Library (activated August 11, 1984); the Department of Energy Compound at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of Bell Telephone Laboratories near Chester, N.J. (activated June 5, 1984); and Huntington Wildlife Forest in the Adirondack Mountains, Newcomb, N.Y. (activated June 19, 1984).

Sherwood, Susan I.; Doe, Bruce R.

1984-04-01

226

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

227

Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

Angulo, E. D. (inventor)

1984-01-01

228

Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

2013-11-11

229

How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

2010-01-01

230

Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation opportunities for the stone and cement industries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large amounts of limestone fines coproduced during the processing of crushed limestone may be useful in the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is proposed as a low-tech method to capture and sequester CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants and other point-sources such as cement manufacturing. AWL reactants are readily available, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Waste CO 2 is hydrated with water to produce carbonic acid, which then reacts with and is neutralized by limestone fines, thus converting CO2 gas to dissolved calcium bicarbonate. AWL waste products can be disposed of in the ocean. Feasibility requires access to an inexpensive source of limestone and to seawater, thus limiting AWL facilities within about 10 km of the coastline. The majority of U.S. coastal power generating facilities are within economical transport distance of limestone resources. AWL presents opportunities for collaborative efforts among the crushed stone industry, electrical utilities, cement manufactures, and research scientists.

Langer, W. H.; Juan, C. A. S.; Rau, G. H.; Caldeira, K.

2009-01-01

231

Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

232

Natural Aggregate: A Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show provides an introduction to the production and uses of natural aggregate. Topics include some definitions, uses, and demand for aggregate. There is also information on its occurrence, mining, and production.

Langer, Bill

233

Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene  

PubMed Central

Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition. PMID:24963438

Ramdass, Michael J.

2014-01-01

234

[Kidney stone as a cardiovascular risk marker].  

PubMed

Most of the time, kidney stones are considered as minor, but painful events. However, several studies have recently shown an association between kidney stone and an increased cardio-vascular risk. We review here these studies and explore the underlying pathophysiological hypotheses. At the end, we propose that lithiasis should be considered as a red flag intervening early during life-time and allowing a check of cardiovascular risk factors and early preventive intervention. Such approach may be successful in reducing the incidence of cardio-vascular events in stone formers. PMID:25322624

Ernandez, Thomas; Bonny, Olivier

2014-09-10

235

On the bitopological nature of Stone duality M. Andrew Moshier  

E-print Network

On the bitopological nature of Stone duality Achim Jung M. Andrew Moshier December 4, 2006 Abstract Based on the theory of frames we introduce a Stone duality for bitopo- logical spaces. The central this general landscape a number of classical Stone- type dualities, namely, those of Stone for Boolean algebras

Jung, Achim

236

The Analysis of Stone Tool Procurement, Production, and Maintenance  

E-print Network

The Analysis of Stone Tool Procurement, Production, and Maintenance William Andrefsky Jr. Published stone tools and their production debris have made significant progress in understanding the relationship between stone tools and human organizational strategies. Stone tools are understood to be morphologically

Kohler, Tim A.

237

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP domains? (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP domains? (Extended Abstract) F. Alessi, P. Baldan, F. Honsell@dimi.uniud.it Abstract. In this paper we investigate the problem of \\partializing" Stone spaces by \\Sequence of Finite- urally related to the special category of Stone spaces 2-Stone by the functor MAX, which associates

Baldan, Paolo

238

A category of compositional domainmodels for separable Stone spaces #  

E-print Network

A category of compositional domain­models for separable Stone spaces # Fabio Alessi (+) , Paolo sat­ isfactory domain­models, i.e. ``partializations'', of separable Stone spaces (2­Stone spaces, which associates to each object of SFP M the Stone space of its maximal elements, is compositional

Alessi, Fabio

239

THE STONE REPRESENTATION THEOREM FOR BOOLEAN MATTHEW DIRKS  

E-print Network

THE STONE REPRESENTATION THEOREM FOR BOOLEAN ALGEBRAS MATTHEW DIRKS Abstract. The Stone Representation Theorem for Boolean Algebras, first proved by M. H. Stone in 1936 ([4]), states that every Boolean. Introduction 1 2. Boolean Algebras 1 3. Stone Representation Theorem for Boolean Algebras 5 Acknowledgments 8

May, J. Peter

240

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP domains ? (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

Partializing Stone Spaces using SFP domains ? (Extended Abstract) F. Alessi, P. Baldan, F. Honsell@dimi.uniud.it Abstract. In this paper we investigate the problem of ``partializing'' Stone spaces by ``Sequence of Finite is nat­ urally related to the special category of Stone spaces 2­Stone by the functor MAX, which

Honsell, Furio

241

Aggregates for road building from Apulia region quarries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apulia region is characterized by several quarries producing aggregates for road construction. A good knowledge of the technical behavior of aggregates is really important for the use. A laboratrory investigation has been developed in cooperation with Tecnoprove laboratory on 50 quarries from all over the Apulia region. Have been studied aggregates for road construction, avoiding weak rock quarry. The study has concerned unit weigth, compressive strength, wear and tear strength (Los Angeles test) and crushing strength. Tests have been made according to Italian rules for aggregates.Quarries from Foggia district were mainly located along the southern-western boundary of Gargano calcareous horst where back-reef limestone outcrop. Only two of the studied quarries were of alluvial deposits from the Appenine. The values of technical properties were quite interesting and also the variation coefficients have been really low witnessing that the material is quite homogeneous. Only a quarry, located really close to an important fault gave poor values. Quarries from Bari district dug limestone of the Mesozoic calcareous platform. The values of the compressive strength has been between 100 and 200 MPa, while the unit weight has beetween 26,5 and 25 kN/m3. Crushing coefficient values have been quite high. It due probably either to the corned shape of limestone aggregates or the fact that aggregates quarries are located where limestone are strongly tectonized. Quarries from Brindisi and Taranto districts even are oper in Mesozoic calcareous platform unit gave the worst values of compressive strength and other technical properties. The compressive strength was normally lower than 100 MPa. The Also crushing test and the Los Angeles test has given values quite poor. Compressive strength values of limestone are strongly variable, with an high coefficient of variation (more than 30%).Probably it is due to the fact that all the studied quarries are located along the boundary of the Apulian Mesozoic carbonatic platform where more severe are the effect of tectonics induced by the faults that have broken the platform. Quarries from Lecce district were dug in grey microcrystalline limestone. Although these limestone are strongly fissured and fractured the compressive strength value are quite high and also the results of Los Angeles tests and crushing strength tests are encouraging. Los Angeles tests has given values always lower than 25% with a minimum of 14.7%. For one of the quarry the medium values of the compressive strength has been higher that 300 MPa. Also the unit weight values have been quite high, normally higher that a 25 kN/m3.The study has shown that technical properties of the aggregates, manly calcareous, from different Apulian zone are really different. They are strongly conditioned by the tectonic more than by the lithology. Where the rock is strongly tectonized wear and tear and crushing strength decrease in a really strong way, much more than it was possible to suppose on the base of compressive strength. Compressive strength is quite variable from 50 and 300 MPa with a high value of variation coefficient. The highest values of strength have been obtained for dolomitic limestone of Southern Apulia (Salento), value really high for limestone.

Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

2013-04-01

242

Effect of acidosis on urine supersaturation and stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of acidosis on urine supersaturation and stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundWe have successively inbred over 45 generations a strain of rats to maximize urine calcium excretion. The rats now consistently excrete 8 to 10 times as much calcium as controls and uniformly form poorly crystalline calcium phosphate kidney stones. In humans with calcium nephrolithiasis, consumption of a

David A. Bushinsky; Marc D. Grynpas; John R. Asplin

2001-01-01

243

A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone  

PubMed Central

Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

2014-01-01

244

Priming effects in aggregate size fractions induced by glucose addition and grinding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely recognized that soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization can be accelerated (positive priming) or retarded (negative priming) by addition of easily available substrates to soil. SOM is a heterogeneous mixture, which contains numerous compounds with different degradability and turnover rates times. Nevertheless, so far, there is still lack of knowledge on identifying single fractions of the SOM as the source of C and N released by priming effects. The aim of this study was to determine the priming effect as related to different aggregate fractions, aggregate disruption and the amounts of substrate. In a 49 days incubation experiment, the soil samples were separated into three aggregate fractions (>2 mm, 2-0.25 mm and <0.25 mm), and with one sample left intact while the other were crushed. Then two concentrations of uniformly labeled 14C-glucose were added to the six aggregate fractions. The cumulative CO2 production was greater in the macroaggregates (> 0.25 mm) than in the microaggregates (< 0.25 mm) after 49 days incubation irrespective of glucose levels and aggregate grinding. This indicates the higher amount of easily degradable organic matter in macroaggregate versus microaggregate. Higher glucose addition increased the portion mineralization to CO2, but decreased the incorporation into microbial biomass for both intact and crushed aggregate fractions. Compared with the corresponding intact aggregate fraction, grinding resulted in increased glucose mineralization in macroaggregate. The priming effect increased as added glucose increased in all intact aggregate size, and highest priming effect was observed in >2 mm fraction. However, the magnitude of priming effect response to glucose addition depended on the aggregate size after grinding. This study demonstrates that substrate amounts, aggregate fractionation and grinding can have obvious impacts on priming effect, indicating important implications for understanding SOM cycling and stability.

Tian, Jing; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Pausch, Johanna; Kuzaykov, Yakov

2014-05-01

245

Recycled rubber, aggregate, and filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Transportation research record  

SciTech Connect

;Contents(Partial): Evaluation Systems for Crumb Rubber Modified Binders and Mixtures; Hot Mix Asphalt Rubber Applications in Virginia; Evaluation of Pyrolized Carbon Black from Scrap Tires as Additive in Hot Mix Asphalt; Use of Scrap Tire Chips in Asphaltic Membrane; Effects of Mineral Fillers on Properties of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures; and Quantitative Analysis of Aggregate Based on Hough Transform.

NONE

1996-12-31

246

Streaming potential measurements 1. Properties of the electrical double layer from crushed rock samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zeta potential has been inferred from streaming potential measurements with crushed rock samples as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration for various salts. The value obtained for crushed Fontainebleau sandstone at pH=5.7 and a KCl solution with a resistivity of 400 Omegam is -40+\\/-5mV, where the error is dominated by sample to sample variations. The sensitivity of the

Benoit Lorne; Frédéric Perrier; Jean-Philippe Avouac

1999-01-01

247

Axial crushing of thin-walled high-strength steel sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-static and dynamic axial crushing tests were performed on thin-walled square tubes and spot-welded top-hat sections made of high-strength steel grade DP800. The dynamic tests were conducted at velocities up to 15m\\/s with an impacting mass of 600kg in order to assess the crush behaviour, the deformation force and the energy absorption. Typical collapse modes developed in the sections and

V. Tarigopula; M. Langseth; O. S. Hopperstad; A. H. Clausen

2006-01-01

248

Process for extracting oil and hydrocarbons from crushed solids using hydrogen rich syn gas  

SciTech Connect

This patent descrbes a thermal process for treating rushed hydrocarbonaceous solids to extract oils and hydrocarbons therefrom which comprises preheating the crushed hydrocarbonaceous solids to remove any residual water treating the preheated crushed hydrocarbonaceous solids with hot syn gas containing hydrogen at an elevated temperature and low pressure below 15 psi in the absence of water, removing the vaporized materials, enriched syn gas and spent solids from the kiln, fractionating the vaporized materials and enriched syn gas into the desired fractions.

Smith, A.L.

1988-02-16

249

Speed and Temperature Effects in the Energy Absorption of Axially Crushed Composite Tubes  

E-print Network

Speed and Temperature Effects in the Energy Absorption of Axially Crushed Composite Tubes Quentin Paul Vianney FONTANA Emmanuel College University of Cambridge January 1990 This thesis is submitted in accordance with the regulations... are known to display viscoelastic behaviour and polymer composites are similarly sensitive to test speed and temperature. Energy absorption in tube crushing has been shown to be speed and temperature sensitive and the purpose of this project has been...

Fontana, Quentin, P V

1990-06-05

250

Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask`s top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer`s testing of the foam and to determine the foam`s stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask.

Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

1998-03-01

251

Kidney and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management  

MedlinePLUS

... may be necessary. ESWL ® is not the ideal treatment choice for all patients. Patients who are ... and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management Anatomical Drawings click images for a larger view Urology Care Foundation Impact ...

252

Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built numerous churches which today can be found in Brazil but also along the South American and African coasts. Currently the global market of Modern Dimension Stones Industry allows Portuguese Marbles to be present in buildings, architectural pieces and works of arts all over the World. Despite almost continuous mining activity in the region it's notice that there was no depletion of raw material, in fact almost every varieties of marble have enough reserves to sustain the mining activity is several hundreds of years. The Alentejo whitewashed houses are a hallmark of the unique landscape that can only have been developed by the availability of marbles to produce quicklime. In cities and villages, the built heritage based on the marble is very rich and is always present, meanwhile the surrounding countryside is marked by intense mining activity living side by side with rural industries, namely wheatfields, groves, orchards and vineyards; therefore the region has unique characteristics allowing the development of integrated industrial tourism routes. The Portuguese Marbles are a key factor for local sustainable development and it's leading the region to new opportunities of industrial, scientific and technological culture, pointing to a successful future.

Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

2013-04-01

253

Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

2014-03-01

254

The evolving epidemiology of stone disease  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving – not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends. PMID:24497682

Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

2014-01-01

255

Turning bread into stones: Our modern antimiracle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas turning stones into bread would have been an ancient miracle, turning bread into stones (i.e., hustling enough money or whatever else is needed to maintain an addiction) is seen as the modern antimiracle. A psychological model for treating addiction-related problems, developed by the author over a 16-yr period, is presented. The model employs exclusion therapy and combines therapeutic contracts,

Nicholas A. Cummings

1979-01-01

256

Adsorption of iron on crude olive stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of crude olive stones, a residue of the olive-oil industry, for the adsorption of iron present in the industrial wastewaters was studied. Olive stones were used directly and characterized by mercuric porosimetry. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was higher when the particles size (from <1 to 4.8mm) decreased. The percentage of iron adsorption increased from 30 to 70% when

Leopoldo Martínez Nieto; Saloua Ben Driss Alami; Gassan Hodaifa; Catherine Faur; Salvador Rodríguez; José A. Giménez; Javier Ochando

2010-01-01

257

Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

Moran, Michael E.

2007-04-01

258

Optimization of stone-quarry technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of the research projects of the Department of Process Engineering of the University of Miskolc the empirical breakage functions of several crushers (jaw, gyratory, cone and hammer crushers) were determined by measurements under operating or pilot-plant (laboratory) conditions. A method was developed to optimize the crushing technology. An appropriate computer algorithm was developed by the Department of

B. Csöke; S. Pethö; J. Földesi; L. Mészáros

1996-01-01

259

Lightweight aggregate production from claystone and shale in Bangladesh  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Muffle furnace tests were made on samples of clay, claystone, and shale collected in the Chittagong and Dacca areas of East Pakistan to determine their amenability to bloating for the commercial production of light-weight aggregate. Several areas, sampled in some detail, were selected for investigation because of their proximity to market, and accessibility to fuel and electricity. Muffle furnace tests show that the clay, claystone, and shale are natural bloaters at temperatures in the 1700? to 2200? F range, and do not require additives. The most desirable deposit, insofar as producing a strong aggregate is concerned, can be determined only by pilot-kiln testing and by crushing-strength tests made on concrete test cylinders. Reserves of suitable raw material are large in both the Chittagong and Dacca areas.

Parker, Norbert A.; Khan, M.A.

1976-01-01

260

Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

2013-04-01

261

Recovering industrial sludge-derived slag as fine aggregate.  

PubMed

This study presents the result of using melting to recover both industrial sludge slag (the main constituent of which is calcium fluoride) and water works sludge slag as fine aggregate in cement. The main characteristics of both slag and cement mortars were measured to evaluate the feasibility of using slag as aggregate. In this study, the slag replacement ratios were 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% (w/w), and the curing periods were 7, 28, and 90 days. Slag quality was determined according to the standards of fine aggregates in the ASTM specifications, and cement mortars with various slag replacement ratios were evaluated based on their compressive strength, and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The crushed slag produced in this study met the ASTM standards for fine aggregate, including gravity, unit weight, absorption, and grading, and the TCLP leached concentrations are far below existing limits, establishing the safety and suitability of slag as fine aggregate. The TCLP leached concentrations of slag and cement mortar were not significantly related to the replacement ratio, and declined with increasing curing period, revealing that the hydration strongly influenced metal leaching. The compressive strength test results of the cement mortars demonstrated that the optimal replacement ratio for maximizing compressive strength was 40%. This study also discussed the effects of replacement ratio and curing periods on cement mortars. PMID:15663310

Huang, Yi-Chin; Li, Kung-Cheh; Chiang, Hui-Hsien

2005-01-01

262

Kidney stone erosion by micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation and consequent kidney stone treatment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to reveal the potential of micro scale hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation for the use of kidney stone treatment. Hydrodynamically generated cavitating bubbles were targeted to the surfaces of 18 kidney stone samples made of calcium oxalate, and their destructive effects were exploited in order to remove kidney stones in in vitro experiments. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was used as the working fluid under bubbly cavitating conditions in a 0.75 cm long micro probe of 147 ?m inner diameter at 9790 kPa pressure. The surface of calcium oxalate type kidney stones were exposed to bubbly cavitation at room temperature for 5 to 30 min. The eroded kidney stones were visually analyzed with a high speed CCD camera and using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques. The experiments showed that at a cavitation number of 0.017, hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation device could successfully erode stones with an erosion rate of 0.31 mg/min. It was also observed that the targeted application of the erosion with micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation may even cause the fracture of the kidney stones within a short time of 30 min. The proposed treatment method has proven to be an efficient instrument for destroying kidney stones. PMID:22476893

Perk, Osman Yavuz; ?e?en, Muhsincan; Gozuacik, Devrim; Ko?ar, Ali

2012-09-01

263

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

264

Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats  

PubMed Central

Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI) plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size) even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy. PMID:24778886

Shu, Liang; Su, Jingjing; Jing, Lingyan; Huang, Ying; Di, Yu; Peng, Lichao; Liu, Jianren

2014-01-01

265

The Relation between Bone and Stone Formation  

PubMed Central

Hypercalciuria is the most common metabolic abnormality found in patients with calcium-containing kidney stones. Patients with hypercalciuria often excrete more calcium than they absorb, indicating a net loss of total body calcium. The source of this additional urine calcium is almost certainly the skeleton, the largest repository of calcium in the body. Hypercalciuric stone formers exhibit decreased bone mineral density (BMD) which is correlated with the increase in urine calcium excretion. The decreased BMD also correlates with an increase in markers of bone turnover, as well as increased fractures. In humans, it is difficult to determine the cause of the decreased BMD in hypercalciuric stone formers. To study the effect of hypercalciuria on bone we utilized our genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats which were developed through successive inbreeding of the most hypercalciuric Sprague-Dawley rats. GHS rats excrete significantly more urinary calcium than similarly fed controls and all the GHS rats form kidney stones while control rats do not. The hypercalciuria is due to a systemic dysregulation of calcium homeostasis, with increased intestinal calcium absorption, enhanced bone mineral resorption and decreased renal tubule calcium reabsorption associated with an increase in vitamin D receptors in all these target tissues. We recently found that GHS rats fed an ample calcium diet have reduced BMD and their bones are more fracture prone, indicating an intrinsic disorder of bone not secondary to diet. Using this model, we should better understand the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and stone formation in humans to ultimately improve bone health of patients with kidney stones. PMID:23247537

Krieger, Nancy S.; Bushinsky, David A.

2012-01-01

266

Diffusion Limited Aggregation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents the problem of growing aggregate structures one particle at a time through random processes. Such structures are seen throughout nature, through examples such as electrodeposition, dielectric breakdown, and snowflake Formation. The main algorithm for modeling these aggregate structures is diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). DLA models cover a wide range of phenomena and size sales, and variations range from lattice based models to models that allow free movement, models in multiple dimensions, and models that change how particles stick to the growing aggregate.

267

Cancer incidence among Danish stone workers.  

PubMed

The lung cancer incidence of 2071 Danish stone workers was followed for a 42-year period. The expected numbers of cancer cases were based on the incidence rates for all Danish men after adjustment for region, and the data were analyzed separately for skilled and unskilled stone workers. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was 200 (44 observed, 22.0 expected) for all skilled stone workers, 808 (7 observed, 0.9 expected) for skilled sandstone cutters in Copenhagen, 119 (8 observed, 6.5 expected) for skilled granite cutters in Bornholm, 181 (24 observed, 13.2 expected) for all unskilled stone workers, 246 (17 observed, 6.9 expected) for unskilled workers in the road and building material industry, and 111 (7 observed, 6.3 expected) for unskilled workers in the stonecutting industry. Smoking was unlikely alone to explain the excess risk, and the available data on levels of exposure in the Danish stone industry point to a possible dose-response relationship between exposure to respirable silica dust and the incidence of lung cancer. PMID:2772581

Guénel, P; Højberg, G; Lynge, E

1989-08-01

268

Laboratory Characterization of Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Dynamically Compacted Crushed Salt  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located at a depth of about 655 meters. The WIPP underground facility is located in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation. Access to the facility is provided through vertical shafts, which will be sealed after decommissioning to limit the release of hazardous waste from the repository and to limit flow into the facility. Because limited data are available to characterize the properties of dynamically compacted crushed salt, Sandia National Laboratories authorized RE/SPEC to perform additional tests on specimens of dynamically compacted crushed salt. These included shear consolidation creep, permeability, and constant strain-rate triaxial compression tests. A limited number of samples obtained from the large compacted mass were available for use in the testing program. Thus, additional tests were performed on samples that were prepared on a smaller scale device in the RE/SPEC laboratory using a dynamic-compaction procedure based on the full-scale construction technique. The laboratory results were expected to (1) illuminate the phenomenology of crushed-salt deformation behavior and (2) add test results to a small preexisting database for purposes of estimating parameters in a crushed-salt constitutive model. The candidate constitutive model for dynamically compacted crushed salt was refined in parallel with this laboratory testing.

Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

1999-02-01

269

RUSH and CRUSH: a rapid and conditional RNA interference method in mice.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach to phenocopy mutations in many organisms. Gold standard conventional knock-out mouse technology is labor- and time-intensive; however, off-target effects may confound transgenic RNAi approaches. Here, we describe a rapid method for conditional and reversible gene silencing in RNAi transgenic mouse models and embryonic stem (ES) cells. RUSH and CRUSH RNAi vectors were designed for reversible or conditional knockdown, respectively, demonstrated using targeted replacement in an engineered ROSA26(lacZ) ES cell line and wildtype V6.5 ES cells. RUSH was validated by reversible knockdown of Dnmt1 in vitro. Conditional mouse model production using CRUSH was expedited by deriving ES cell lines from Cre transgenic mouse strains (nestin, cTnnT, and Isl1) and generating all-ES G0 transgenic founders by tetraploid complementation. A control CRUSH(GFP) RNAi mouse strain showed quantitative knockdown of GFP fluorescence as observed in compound CRUSH(GFP) , Ds-Red Cre-reporter transgenic mice, and confirmed by Western blotting. The capability to turn RUSH and CRUSH alleles off or on using Cre recombinase enables this method to rapidly address questions of tissue-specificity and cell autonomy of gene function in development. PMID:24166816

Brown, Juliana R; Zetsche, Bernd; Jackson-Grusby, Laurie

2014-01-01

270

The spatiotemporal localization of JAM-C following sciatic nerve crush in adult rats  

PubMed Central

JAM-C is a junctional adhesion molecule, enriched at tight junctions on endothelial and epithelial cells, and also localized to Schwann cells at junctions between adjoining myelin end loops. The role of JAM-C following peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is currently unknown. We examined the localization of JAM-C after sciatic nerve crush injury in adult rats. JAM-C immunoreactivity was present in paranodes and incisures in sham surgery control nerve, but distal to the crush injury significantly decreased at three and 14 days. JAM-C was re-expressed at 28 days and, by 56 days, was significantly increased in the distal nerve compared to controls. In a 7-mm length of sciatic nerve sampled distal to the crush site, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive paranodes increased in the distal direction. Conversely, the densities of JAM-C immunoreactive incisures were highest immediately distal to the crush site and decreased in the more distal direction. Further analysis revealed a strong correlation between JAM-C localization and remyelination. Fifty-six days after crush injury, greater densities of JAM-C paranodes were seen compared to the nodal marker jacalin, suggesting that paranodal JAM-C precedes node formation. Our data are the first to demonstrate a potential role of JAM-C in remyelination after PNI. PMID:22950044

Avari, Parizad; Huang, Wenlong; Averill, Sharon; Colom, Bartomeu; Imhof, Beat A; Nourshargh, Sussan; Priestley, John V

2012-01-01

271

[A case of ammonium acid urate urinary stone].  

PubMed

We report a case of ammonium acid urate urinary stone. A 32-year-old woman with no past medical history presented with right back pain. The kidney-ureter-bladder X-ray and computed tomography revealed right ureteral and bilateral renal stones. The right ureteral stone was excreted spontaneously without treatment. The left renal stone was too large to be excreted and required extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). The analysis of the excreted stone revealed that it consisted of pure ammonium acid urate. Flakes of the left renal stone by ESWL were impacted in the left lower ureter and also rapidly grew in the left kidney. The right renal stone grew rapidly and right hydronephrosis developed due to the newly-formed right ureteral stone. As post-renal acute renal failure developed subsequently, ureteral stents were placed bilaterally. We finally treated the bilateral ureteral stone with transurethral ureterolithotripsy, the right renal stone with ESWL and the left renal stone with percutaneous nephrolithotripsy. During the course, dietary instruction was intervened for hyperuricemia. Although there were a few stones left after ESWL, they were halfway excreted without rapid growth of stones. PMID:19048938

Seike, Kensaku; Nishida, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Maeda, Shin-ichi

2008-10-01

272

76 FR 57087 - Stone Harbor Investment Partners LP, et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Release No. 29784; File No. 812-13931] Stone Harbor Investment Partners LP, et al.; Notice...certain financial instruments. Applicants: Stone Harbor Investment Partners LP (``Stone Harbor'') and Stone Harbor Investment...

2011-09-15

273

Kidney Stones: A Fetal Origins Hypothesis†  

PubMed Central

Kidney stones are common with a multifactorial aetiology involving dietary, environmental and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early life events, including low birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation and there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesise that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the aetiology of nephrolithiasis. PMID:23703881

Howles, Sarah A.; Edwards, Mark H.; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V.

2013-01-01

274

Selecting Devices for Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As intelligent devices become affordable and wireless in- frastructure becomes pervasive, the potential to combine, or aggregate, device functionality to provide a user with a better experience grows. Often, there will be multi- ple devices providing similar functionality that the user will have to choose from for the aggregation. This pa- per presents the design and prototype implementation of a

Rajnish Kumar; Vahe Poladian; Ira Greenberg; Alan Messer; Dejan S. Milojicic

2003-01-01

275

Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

276

A 17th Century Stone Inscription from Ura Village  

E-print Network

a square chorten or stupa of typical Bhutanese style from earlier centuries. Both the walls and stupa are constructed of traditional piled, whitewashed cemented stone with slate roof. At shoulder height along the wall is a continuous stone lintel...

Ardussi, John A

2004-01-01

277

3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING THE BUILDER AND YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHEAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

278

2. STONE ARCH BRIDGE. TIMBERS ON THE UPSTREAM FACE OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. STONE ARCH BRIDGE. TIMBERS ON THE UPSTREAM FACE OF THE PIER PROTECTED THE STONEWORK FROM DAMAGE FROM ICE FLOWS, BARGES, ETC. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

279

Will a Warmer Climate Mean More Kidney Stones?  

MedlinePLUS

... Preidt Thursday, July 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Climate Change Kidney Stones THURSDAY, July 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ... woe to the growing list of consequences of climate change: Kidney stones. A new study of American cities ...

280

Building Stones of Our Nation's Capital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The buildings of our Nation's Capital have been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building shows important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed. This United States Geological Survey (USGS) booklet describes the source and appearance of many of the stones found in Washington, D.C.'s monuments, memorials, statues, and buildings. The geologic setting of D.C. and acid rain effects on the Capital region are also discussed.

281

Elemental abundances in stone meteorites.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of abundances of Na, Al, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu by instrumental neutron activation analyses of 103 chondrites and 17 achondrites. Various sources of error in the method, including sampling errors, are discussed in detail. Examination of the patterns of coherence of the elements determined suggests the presence of effects of fractionation during condensation from the solar nebula of matter parental to chondrites. Such effects seem to be exhibited both in the abundances of lithophilic elements, perhaps being related to varied temperatures of accretion and in the abundances of those elements which would be affected by metal-silicate fractionation in the solar nebula. Atomic abundances relative to Si vary little in carbonaceous chondrites, suggesting that efficient mixing processes operated on these meteorites prior to or during their formation. It is suggested that, at present, no single class of carbonaceous chondrites is clearly more primitive than another. Carbonaceous and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites may represent aggregates of material accreted from the solar nebula at relatively low temperatures. The present data support a model of equilibration and minor mobilization of nonvolatile elements within small domains of chondrites after accretion. Such a model would be consistent with the petrologic types of Van Schmus and Wood (1967).

Schmitt, R. A.; Goles, G. G.; Osborn, T. W.; Smith, R. H.

1972-01-01

282

78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant...U.S. Mail: Big Stone NWR, 44843 County Road 19, Odessa, MN 56276. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Alice Hanley,...

2013-01-17

283

Relationship between common duct stones and Helicobacter pylori infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To investigate the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in patients with common duct stones and analyze the relationship between common duct stones and H pylori infection. METHODS: One hundred and five patients with common duct stones (experiment group) and 132 control subjects (control group) were in- cluded in the study. All the patients underwent electronic gastroscopy, rapid

Min Song; Jie Wu; Ping Wang; Xiao-Dong Huang; Heng Zhang; Dan Zheng; Yan Su Min Song; Song M; Wu J; Wang P; Huang XD; Zheng D

284

Carbonaceous particles and stone damage in a laboratory exposure system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between carbonaceous particles and stones used in historic buildings and monuments was investigated in a laboratory exposure system. Simulation experiments were carried out in a flow chamber where temperature, relative humidity, and SO2 concentration were controlled. Samples of carbonate stones (Carrara marble, Travertine, and Trani stone) were exposed for 150 days in air with 3 ppm of SO2

C. Sabbioni; G. Zappia; G. Gobbi

1996-01-01

285

Correlation of the gallbladder stone and tissue fluorescent images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent images of gallbladder stones, tissue and bile are obtained using a streak camera. A Match Spatial Filer (MSF) is made using a stone fluorescent image. The MSF is used to perform correlations with fluorescent tissue and bile image. A method for recognition of the stone and rejection of the tissue during the laser lithotripsy is proposed using the correlation outputs.

Kokaj, Jahja O.; Marafi, Mustafa A.; Makdisi, Yacob; Bhatia, Kuldip S.

2001-11-01

286

Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to…

Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

2013-01-01

287

8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE; ALSO SEEN IS THE CHUTE FROM THE TUN OF THE BURR STONES; HANGING IN THE BACKGROUND ARE THE MILL SAILS. - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

288

Boolean Algebras and Topological Spaces Duality and Stone Spaces  

E-print Network

Boolean Algebras and Topological Spaces Duality and Stone Spaces Representation theorems and examples Non-trivial dual notions Stone Duality and the Representation Theorem Matthew Gwynne 15th December 2008 Matthew Gwynne Stone Duality and the Representation Theorem #12;Boolean Algebras and Topological

Berger, Ulrich

289

The Logic of Stone Spaces John Harding and Guram Bezhanishvili  

E-print Network

The Logic of Stone Spaces John Harding and Guram Bezhanishvili New Mexico State University www no isolated points, then X generates CL. 2 / 17 #12;Aim For a Boolean algebra B with Stone space X. Lets look at some easy examples ... 6 / 17 #12;Easiest example For X the Stone space of B, when

Harding, John

290

Exploring Affective Technologies for the Classroom with the Subtle Stone  

E-print Network

Exploring Affective Technologies for the Classroom with the Subtle Stone Madeline Balaam Interact in the classroom might operate. This paper describes a study where 15 high school students used the Subtle Stone, learning, Subtle Stone, affective technologies ACM Classification Keywords K.3.1 Computer uses in education

Balaam, Madeline

291

Friends of Stone Laboratory The Ohio State University  

E-print Network

Friends of Stone Laboratory The Ohio State University 1314 Kinnear Rd. Columbus, OH 43212, outreach, and development programs at Stone Lab that will ultimately improve the Lake Erie ecosystem and enhance economic development. (241860) 2­6­2004 Friends of Stone Laboratory Fund Fund used by our support

292

Small Stone in Pool Preliminary Version --Comments Appreciated  

E-print Network

Small Stone in Pool Preliminary Version -- Comments Appreciated Samuel R. Buss Department; The Hunting of the Snark Lewis Carroll Abstract The Stone tautologies are known to have polynomial size resolution refutations and require exponential size regular refutations. We prove that the Stone tautologies

Kolodziejczyk, Leszek

293

Stone Fruit Carlos H. Crisosto, Susan Lurie, and Julio Retamales  

E-print Network

13 Stone Fruit Carlos H. Crisosto, Susan Lurie, and Julio Retamales CONTENTS 13.1 Introduction, with a limited postharvest life potential. Botanically, stone fruits are drupes. A drupe is a fleshy fruit) and a hard inner ovary wall that is highly lignified (endocarp), and is com- monly referred as a stone or pit

Crisosto, Carlos H.

294

Stone Coalgebras Clemens Kupke # Alexander Kurz + Yde Venema #  

E-print Network

Stone Coalgebras Clemens Kupke # Alexander Kurz + Yde Venema # Abstract In this paper we argue that the category of Stone spaces forms an interesting base category for coalgebras, in particular, if one considers as Stone coalgebras in a natural way. This yields a duality between the category of modal algebras

Amsterdam, University of

295

29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN, SHOWING THE MAKER'S MARK. STONE FROM THE GARFIELD COMPANY WERE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF BOTH THE BEEHIVE AND RECTANGULAR OVENS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

296

Stone Coalgebras Clemens Kupke Alexander Kurz yz Yde Venema x  

E-print Network

Stone Coalgebras Clemens Kupke #3; Alexander Kurz yz Yde Venema x October 31, 2003 Abstract We argue that the category of Stone spaces forms an interesting base category for coalgebras, in particular of modal logics, can be seen as Stone coalgebras in a natural way. This yields a duality between modal

Priestley, Hilary

297

ORIGINAL PAPER Stone marten (Martes foina) habitat in a Mediterranean  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Stone marten (Martes foina) habitat in a Mediterranean ecosystem: effects of scale if the same behavior is adopted by the stone marten, we used a combined data set of capture and radio to test if there were sex-specific differences in foraging and resting habitat use of stone martens

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

298

Stone duality and the recognisable languages over an algebra  

E-print Network

Stone duality and the recognisable languages over an algebra Mai Gehrke1 Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands Abstract. This is a theoretical paper giving the extended Stone du- ality a general result about profinite completion, namely, that it is the dual under extended Stone duality

Gehrke, Mai

299

Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing original cut stone masonry, concrete-encased nose on upstream end, portion of squared cut stone masonry south abutment, and portion of truss superstructure - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

300

~CECH-STONE REMAINDERS OF DISCRETE SPACES PETER NYIKOS  

E-print Network

~CECH-STONE REMAINDERS OF DISCRETE SPACES PETER NYIKOS 1.Introduction The study of ~Cech-Stone remainders has long been a major theme in set- theoretic to the ~Cech-Stone remainder of a discrete space of cardinali* *ty !1. What makes this problem all the more

Nyikos, Peter J.

301

Stone's code reveals Earth's processes August 27, 2013  

E-print Network

- 1 - Stone's code reveals Earth's processes August 27, 2013 � Return to homepage Coding for simulations to help capture carbon dioxide Although Los Alamos geophysicist Ian Stone studies his namesake gas that increases global warming. An evocative nature photographer, Stone is also a magazine art

302

The Swelling of Clays Within Stone Angela Wylykanowitz  

E-print Network

The Swelling of Clays Within Stone Angela Wylykanowitz REU Program Advisor: George Scherer #12;Overview I. Background - Origin of Stone - Effects of damage and surfactants II. Procedure III. Results IV. Conclusions #12;Where do the Stones Come From? Angkor Wat Aztec Ruins http

Petta, Jason

303

New Materials for Conservation of Stone Monuments in Latvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant part of Latvia's Cultural heritage is the stone Monuments, buildings, decorative stone portals and carvings preserved till nowadays in the comparatively better or worth condition. For the great part of the Monuments the local stone materials, such as dolomitic sandstone, calc-tufa and dolomite were used. For some objects the materials from other countries were imported, e.g. calcareous sandstone from

Inese Sidraba

304

Weathering Grade Classification of Granite Stone Monument Using Reflectance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone monument has been placed in field and exposed to rain and wind. This outdoor environment and air pollution induced weathering of stone monument. Weathering grade classification is necessary to manage and conserve stone monuments. Visual interpretation by geologist and laboratory experiments using specimens fallen off from the monument to avoid damage on the monument have been applied to classify

C. Hyun; T. Roh; M. Choi

2009-01-01

305

Renal stone epidemiology: A 25-year study in Rochester, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone epidemiology: A 25-year study in Rochester, Minnesota. There are no adequate studies of the incidence of urolithiasis in the United States, in spite of earlier claims that a “stone belt” exists in the southeastern section of the country. This report is the first description of the incidence and recurrence rates for symptomatic noninfected renal stones in a well-defined

Christopher M Johnson; David M Wilson; William M O'Fallon; Reza S Malek; Leonard T Kurland

1979-01-01

306

Strengthening buildings of stone masonry to resist earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone masonry buildings are common in many areas in the Alpine-Himalayan earthquake zone, and their failure in recent earthquakes has been the cause of many deaths. Poverty and lack of alternatives prevent the replacement of stone masonry with more ductile materials, but the brittleness of unreinforced stone masonry can be considerably reduced by the incorporation of horizontal lacings of timber

Robin Spence; Andrew Coburn

1992-01-01

307

An Update and Practical Guide to Renal Stone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone disease covers kidney and lower urinary tract stones caused by a variety of conditions, including metabolic and inherited disorders, and anatomical defects with or without chronic urinary infection. Most cases are idiopathic, in which there is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition, but where environmental and lifestyle factors play an important role. Indeed, it is becoming apparent that renal stone

Nikhil Johri; Bruce Cooper; William Robertson; Simon Choong; David Rickards; Robert Unwin

2010-01-01

308

The rhetorical structure of Oliver stone's JFK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oliver Stone's JFK is a mythopoetic discourse that functions as cinematic rhetoric. Through the lens of the Adamic Myth, the author examines the film as a metaphoric interpretation or parable of the human condition. Members of the viewing audience are invited to participate in this mythic structure by emulating the actions of the protagonist, thus becoming instruments of sociopolitical change.

Martin J. Medhurst

1993-01-01

309

Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Ureteroscopic Stone Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study shall settle the question whether a perioperative single shot prophylaxis in connection with a ureteroscopic stone removal has an influence on the rate of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs) and inflammable complications or not.Methods: 113 patients were included in this prospective randomized study. In 57 patients 250mg Levofloxacin p. o. was given approximately 60 prior ureteroscopy, 56

H.-J. Knopf; H.-J. Graff; H. Schulze

2003-01-01

310

Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

311

Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

Angulo, E. D.

1983-01-01

312

Environmental management of the stone cutting industry.  

PubMed

Environmental Management of the stone cutting industry in Hebron is required to reduce the industry's adverse impact on the downstream agricultural land and the adverse impact on the drinking water aquifers. This situation requires the implementation of an industrial wastewater management strategic approach and technology, within the available technical and financial resources. Ten pilot projects at different locations were built at Hebron to reduce or eliminate the incompatible discharge of the liquid and solid waste to the environment and improve the stone cutting industry's effluent quality. A review of existing practices and jar test experiments were used to optimize the water recycling and treatment facilities. The factors reviewed included influent pumping rates and cycles, selection of the optimal coagulant type and addition methods, control of the sludge recycling process, control over flow rates, control locations of influent and effluent, and sludge depth. Based on the optimized doses and Turbidity results, it was determined that the use of Fokland polymer with an optimal dose of 1.5mg/L could achieve the target turbidity levels. The completion of the pilot projects resulted in the elimination of stone cutting waste discharges and an improvement in the recycled effluent quality of 44-99%. This in turn reduced the long term operating costs for each participating firm. A full-scale project that includes all the stone cutting firms in Hebron industrial area is required. PMID:18248874

Nasserdine, Khaled; Mimi, Ziad; Bevan, Blair; Elian, Belal

2009-01-01

313

Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive…

Willerton, Chris

2010-01-01

314

Interviewing Disaffected Students with "Talking Stones"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Talking Stones" is an interview technique that is designed to support self advocacy, particularly for groups of disaffected school students whose views may be difficult to elicit. It has been developed and refined to incorporate a view of learners as active agents in their own learning and is compatible with reflective practice and a social…

Wearmouth, Janice

2007-01-01

315

Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

316

Search for fullerenes in stone meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of identifying fullerenes in stony meteorites became apparent from a paper given by Radicati de Brozolo. In this paper it was reported that fullerenes were present in the debris resulting from a collision between a micrometeoroid and an orbiting satellite. This fact generated sufficient curiosity to initiate a search for the presence of fullerenes in various stone meteorites.

M. Y. Oester; D. Kuechl; P. P. Sipiera; C. J. Welch

1994-01-01

317

Modeling and rendering of weathered stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes ap- pearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric ef- fects such as erosion and mineral dissolution. This paper presents an approach for the modeling and

Julie Dorsey; Alan Edelman; Henrik Wann Jensen; Justin Legakis; Hans Køhling Pedersen

1999-01-01

318

Soiling of building stones in urban environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the black soiling rate of building granite, marble and limestones in two urban environments with different climates.Specimens were placed horizontally, sheltered and unsheltered from rainfall. Colour changes were monitored. Changes in L? were utilised to determine the total darkening of the stones and their soiling rate and were compared by statistical analysis.Black soiling depended on the type

C. M Grossi; R. M Esbert; F D??az-Pache; F. J Alonso

2003-01-01

319

Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.  

PubMed

Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone. PMID:22614098

Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

2012-08-01

320

Natural radioactivity in ornamental stones: an approach to its study using stones from Iberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural stones are commonly used both for interior and exterior construction but due to their mineralogy, some rocks (e.g.,\\u000a granite) can generate a high amount of radon in the atmosphere. Several samples of commercial ornamental stones from Iberia\\u000a were analyzed for radon. A correlation between natural radioactivity, mineralogy and geochemistry provides a useful indication\\u000a of the possible hazards of using

Dolores Pereira Gómez; Luis Neves; Alcides Pereira; Carlos Gonzalez Neila

321

Rolling Stone Tally considered the bright ribbon, barely fifty centimetres wide, which stretched up to the Stone,  

E-print Network

1 Rolling Stone Tally considered the bright ribbon, barely fifty centimetres wide, which stretched up to the Stone, nearly ten thousand kilometres above here. Funny how, after five years living continued its slow rotation backwards unchecked, until the Stone was straight in front of her. Seen from

Johnson, Samuel

322

Stone scattering during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: role of renal anatomical characteristics.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the upper calyx-lower calyx infundibular (ULI) angle influences intrarenal stone migration during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with a solitary renal pelvis stone and significant hydronephrosis. 50 adult patients with a solitary renal pelvis stone larger than 20 mm were considered for PCNL with a pneumatic lithotriptor for stone fragmentation. Inclusion criteria were moderate to severe hydronephrosis and upper calyx infundibular width >10 mm, and access point was the lower calyx in all cases. The ULI angle as well as stone fragment migration from the renal pelvis toward the upper calyx was noted during the operation. To determine the "critical" angle above which the probability of stone migration would be increased significantly, receiver operating characteristic curve was used. Mean stone size was 33.8 ± 13.2 mm. In 23 patients (46 %) the stone migrated toward the upper calyx during stone fragmentation. Mean ULI angle was significantly wider in patients whose stone migrated (120.2 ± 20.5 versus 102.2 ± 21.4, P = 0.004, 99 % CI = 6.04-29.9). A ULI angle of 117.5° was the critical angle, above which the rate of stone migration rose significantly (P < 0.008). One-session stone-free rate was significantly higher in patients without stone migration (P = 0.03). In patients with a solitary renal pelvis stone and significant hydronephrosis, a wider ULI angle was associated with a greater likelihood of stone scattering which could potentially affect the outcome of PCNL with pneumatic lithotriptor. A cut-off angle of 117.5° was the critical angle, above which access via a calyx other than the lower calyx (example: middle or upper calyx) seems advisable. PMID:25026926

Aminsharifi, Alireza; Eslahi, Ali; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Mehrabi, Sasan

2014-10-01

323

Business models of information aggregators  

E-print Network

This thesis identifies the specific characteristics of information aggregators, and proposes nine business models appropriate for information aggregators. These nine models are: advertising, brokerage, subscription, ...

Hu, Jiangxia, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

324

Stone Comminution Correlates with the Average Peak Pressure Incident on a Stone during Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

PubMed Central

To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+(avg)) incident on the stone (D = 10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1,000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P+(avg) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P+(avg)) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. PMID:22935690

Smith, N.; Zhong, P.

2012-01-01

325

Stone comminution correlates with the average peak pressure incident on a stone during shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (R(h)=7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P(+(avg))) incident on the stone (D=10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P(+(avg)) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P(+(avg))) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. PMID:22935690

Smith, N; Zhong, P

2012-10-11

326

Ureteroscopy and stones: Current status and future expectations.  

PubMed

Urolithaisis is becoming an ever increasing urological, nephrological and primary care problem. With a lifetime prevalence approaching 10% and increasing morbidity due to stone disease, the role of ureteroscopy and stone removal is becoming more important. We discuss the current status of stone disease and review the ever increasing role that ureteroscopy has to play in its management. We discuss technological advances that have been made in stone management and give you an overview of when, how and why ureteroscopy is the most common treatment option for stone management. We touch on the role of robotic ureteroscopy and the future of ureteroscopy in the next 10 years. PMID:25374818

Wright, Anna E; Rukin, Nicholas J; Somani, Bhaskar K

2014-11-01

327

Ureteroscopy and stones: Current status and future expectations  

PubMed Central

Urolithaisis is becoming an ever increasing urological, nephrological and primary care problem. With a lifetime prevalence approaching 10% and increasing morbidity due to stone disease, the role of ureteroscopy and stone removal is becoming more important. We discuss the current status of stone disease and review the ever increasing role that ureteroscopy has to play in its management. We discuss technological advances that have been made in stone management and give you an overview of when, how and why ureteroscopy is the most common treatment option for stone management. We touch on the role of robotic ureteroscopy and the future of ureteroscopy in the next 10 years. PMID:25374818

Wright, Anna E; Rukin, Nicholas J; Somani, Bhaskar K

2014-01-01

328

Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The disadvantage, besides being more labour intensive than mineral mortars based on ZnCl, is that no specific recipes are yet developed for Lede stone and the result is thus dependent on the knowledge of the restorer. Both of the repair mortars have the problem that Lede stone changes its colour due to ageing while the mortar itself remains colour stable. This means that if the mortar colour was adapted for a resemblance at the moment of application, the colour difference between stone and mortar will increase in time. In this study, the compatibility of the different stone repair mortars with the Lede stone are tested. Further, a study was made whether the mortar recipes can be adapted for a better compatibility. In addition, the effect of glauconite addition in the mortar is studied to resolve the possibility of ageing of the mortar similar to the stone.

De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

2012-04-01

329

The geography of crushing: Variation in claw performance of the invasive crab Carcinus maenas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major claws of predatory, durophagous decapods are specialized structures that are routinely used to crush the armor of their prey. This task requires the generation of extremely strong forces, among the strongest forces measured for any animal in any activity. Laboratory studies have shown that claw strength in crabs can respond plastically to, and thereby potentially match, the strength

Graeme M. Taylor; Nusha Keyghobadi; Paul S. Schmidt

2009-01-01

330

Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Crush Strength of Cellulose Fiberboard Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Cane fiberboard is widely used as the impact absorption and thermal insulation material in overpacks for radioactive materials shipping package. The study described here investigated the properties of cane fiberboard assemblies under environmental conditions important to radioactive materials packaging applications. This study examines the effects of temperature and humidity on the crush strength of cane fiberboard assemblies.

Smith, A.C.

2002-02-07

331

Precision of reinnervation of original postsynaptic sites in frog muscle after a nerve crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Regenerating neuromuscular junctions in the cutaneous pectoris muscle of the frog were examined by light and electron microscopy up to three months after crushing the motor nerve. The aim was to determine the precision of reinnervation of the original synaptic sites. More than 95% of the original postsynaptic membrane is recovered by nerve terminals and little, if any, synaptic

M. S. Letinsky; K. H. Fischbeck; U. J. McMahan

1976-01-01

332

Journal of Neurocytology 29, 633643 (2000) Anatomical repair of nerve membranes in crushed  

E-print Network

mammalian spinal cord with polyethylene glycol R. SHI and R. B. BORGENS Institute for Applied Neurology-treated spinal cords. Using a dye exclusion test, in which horseradish peroxidase is imbibed by damaged axons, we is likely the basis for physiological recovery in crushed spinal cords. We discuss the clinical importance

Shi, Riyi

333

Dynamic crushing and energy absorption of regular, irregular and functionally graded cellular structures  

E-print Network

structures Honeycombs Energy absorption Functionally graded material a b s t r a c t The in-plane dynamic elastic-perfectly plastic material with constant and functionally graded density were estimated upDynamic crushing and energy absorption of regular, irregular and functionally graded cellular

Vaziri, Ashkan

334

A sensibility analysis of model selection in modeling the reactive transport of cesium in crushed granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a sensibility analysis of model selection in modeling the reactive transport of cesium in crushed granite through model calibration and validation. Based on some solid phase analysis data and kinetic batch experimental results, we hypothesized three two-site sorption models in the LEHGC reactive transport model to fit the breakthrough curves (BTCs) from the corresponding column experiments. The analysis

Hwai-Ping Cheng; Ming-Hsu Li; Samuel Li

2003-01-01

335

Simulation of Energy Absorption in Braided Composite Tubes through Axial Crushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling damage propagation and energy absorption in composite tubular structures under axial compression is a challenging task due to the complex nature of damage growth in composites. In this paper, our model (CODAM for COmposite DAMage), which is incorporated into LS-DYNA® as a user material model, is used to simulate the axial crushing response of braided composite tubes. Recent improvements

Carla McGregor; Reza Vaziri; Xinran Xiao

336

Functional recovery after facial nerve crush is delayed in severe combined immunodeficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the current study was to determine if T and B lymphocytes play a role in functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. The time course of behavioral recovery following facial nerve crush injury at the stylomastoid foramen was established in scid mice which lack functional T and B cells and reconstituted scid mice as compared to wild-type mice.

Craig J. Serpe; Julie E. Tetzlaff; Susanna Coers; Virginia M. Sanders; Kathryn J. Jones

2002-01-01

337

Uniaxial crushing of sandwich plates under air blast: Influence of mass distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by recent efforts to mitigate blast loading using energy-absorbing materials, this paper uses analytical and computational modeling to investigate the influence of mass distribution on the uniaxial crushing of cellular sandwich plates under air blast loading. In the analytical model, the cellular core is represented using a rigid, perfectly-plastic, locking idealization, as in previous studies, and the front and

Joseph A. Main; George A. Gazonas

2008-01-01

338

Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt  

SciTech Connect

Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

Brodsky, N.S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1994-03-01

339

A New Approach to Crushing 3-Manifold Triangulations Benjamin A. Burton  

E-print Network

A New Approach to Crushing 3-Manifold Triangulations Benjamin A. Burton School of Mathematics, normal surfaces, 0-efficiency 1. INTRODUCTION Algorithms in computational 3-manifold topology often is available at arXiv:1212.1441. Author's self-archived version Available from http

Burton, Benjamin

340

Visual simulation for granular rocks crush in virtual environment based on fractal geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new method is proposed for the simulation of rock crushing in virtual environment. The method can be described as a combination of a physical behavioral model with a phenomenological rock generator. The main modules of the solution consist of a Virtual Reality system, fractal geometric modeling, and physical control models. Virtual Reality and geometric modeling compose

Dianliang Wu; Yong Hu; Xiumin Fan

2009-01-01

341

Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

2014-09-01

342

Diversity in Protein Profiles of Individual Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

Calcium oxalate kidney stones contain low amounts of proteins, some of which have been implicated in progression or prevention of kidney stone formation. To gain insights into the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, we have characterized protein components of calcium oxalate kidney stones by proteomic approaches. Proteins extracted from kidney stones showed highly heterogeneous migration patterns in gel electrophoresis as reported. This was likely to be mainly due to proteolytic degradation and protein-protein crosslinking of Tamm-Horsfall protein and prothrombin. Protein profiles of calcium oxalate kidney stones were obtained by in-solution protease digestion followed by nanoLC-MALDI-tandem mass spectrometry, which resulted in identification of a total of 92 proteins in stones from 9 urolithiasis patients. Further analysis showed that protein species and their relative amounts were highly variable among individual stones. Although proteins such as prothrombin, osteopontin, calgranulin A and calgranulin B were found in most stones tested, some samples had high contents of prothrombin and osteopontin, while others had high contents of calgranulins. In addition, calgranulin-rich stones had various neutrophil-enriched proteins such as myeloperoxidase and lactotransferrin. These proteomic profiles of individual kidney stones suggest that multiple systems composed of different groups of proteins including leucocyte-derived ones are differently involved in pathogenesis of individual kidney stones depending on situations. PMID:23874695

Okumura, Nobuaki; Tsujihata, Masao; Momohara, Chikahiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Suto, Kouzou; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko; Takao, Toshifumi

2013-01-01

343

Temporal trends in the incidence of kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

Recent reports show an increased occurrence of kidney stone disease worldwide. To further evaluate and quantify this observation, we examined recent trends in the incidence of kidney stone disease in the adult population of Iceland over a 24-year period. Computerized databases of all major hospitals and medical imaging centers in Iceland were searched for International Classification of Diseases, radiologic and surgical procedure codes indicative of kidney stones in patients aged 18 years and older. The time trends in stone frequency of 5945 incident patients (63% men) were assessed by Poisson regression analysis. The majority of patients (90.5%) had symptomatic stone disease. The total incidence of kidney stones rose significantly from 108 per 100,000 in the first 5-year interval of the study to 138 per 100,000 in the last interval. The annual incidence of symptomatic stones did not increase significantly in either men or women. There was, however, a significant increase in the annual incidence of asymptomatic stones over time, from 7 to 24 per 100,000 for men and from 7 to 21 per 100,000 for women. The increase in the incidence of asymptomatic stones was only significant for women above 50 years of age and for men older than 40 years. Thus, we found a significant increase in the incidence of kidney stone disease resulting from increased detection of asymptomatic stones. This was largely due to a more frequent use of high-resolution imaging studies in older patients. PMID:22992468

Edvardsson, Vidar O; Indridason, Olafur S; Haraldsson, Gudjon; Kjartansson, Olafur; Palsson, Runolfur

2013-01-01

344

By-Products Utilization  

E-print Network

used: crushed quartzite stone, semi-crushed river gravel, and crushed dolomitic limestone. Use-crushed river gravel, and crushed quartzite stone. Later on, however, the drying shrinkage became similar

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

345

The effect of calcium modulating agents on peripheral nerve recovery after crush.  

PubMed

After a nerve injury, calcium concentration in the intra-nerve fiber drastically increases. The purpose of our study was to test an implantable micro-osmotic pump to deliver medications to accelerate calcium absorption, thereby greatly improving nerve regeneration. Twenty-four SD rats were divided into four groups of six each: (1) Sham control: crush injury to sciatic nerve only; (2) Crush injury with a Nifedipine pump; (3) Crush injury with a Calcitonin pump; (4) Crush injury with a Saline pump. Each rat's right sciatic nerve was crushed. The micro-osmotic pump was implanted in the neck, and the dripping tube was routed to the injured nerve. After four weeks of survival time, compound muscle action potential (CMAP), tetanic muscle force (TMF), myelinated nerve fiber area (NFA), nerve calcium concentration (NCC), and calcified spots (CS) were evaluated. The calcium absorption rate (CAR) was also determined. The order from highest to lowest recovery rate was Nifedipine>Calcitonin>Sham control>Saline. Differences among the groups were statistically significant (P<0.001, ANOVA test), and the difference between Nifedipine/Calcitonin and Saline/Sham control were all statistically significant (P<0.001, t-test). The correlation rate of NCC with CMAP/TMF and with NFA/CS and CAR were calculated to be 0.99 (all P<0.001, Pearson's Correlation). We conclude from this study that nerve regeneration strongly correlated with calcium absorption; our new data has shown greatly improved nerve functional recovery, and this can potentially be translated into clinical applications. PMID:23628158

Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Agresti, Michael; Logiudice, John; Yan, Yu-Hui; Wang, Ziyi; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S

2013-07-15

346

The effect of aquatic plant abundance on shell crushing resistance in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M; García de León, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

2012-01-01

347

Neonatal infraorbital nerve crush-induced CNS synaptic plasticity and functional recovery.  

PubMed

Infraorbital nerve (ION) transection in neonatal rats leads to disruption of whisker-specific neural patterns (barrelettes), conversion of functional synapses into silent synapses, and reactive gliosis in the brain stem trigeminal principal nucleus (PrV). Here we tested the hypothesis that neonatal peripheral nerve crush injuries permit better functional recovery of associated central nervous system (CNS) synaptic circuitry compared with nerve transection. We developed an in vitro whisker pad-trigeminal ganglion (TG)-brain stem preparation in neonatal rats and tested functional recovery in the PrV following ION crush. Intracellular recordings revealed that 68% of TG cells innervate the whisker pad. We used the proportion of whisker pad-innervating TG cells as an index of ION function. The ION function was blocked by ?64%, immediately after mechanical crush, then it recovered beginning after 3 days postinjury and was complete by 7 days. We used this reversible nerve-injury model to study peripheral nerve injury-induced CNS synaptic plasticity. In the PrV, the incidence of silent synapses increased to ?3.5 times of control value by 2-3 days postinjury and decreased to control levels by 5-7 days postinjury. Peripheral nerve injury-induced reaction of astrocytes and microglia in the PrV was also reversible. Neonatal ION crush disrupted barrelette formation, and functional recovery was not accompanied by de novo barrelette formation, most likely due to occurrence of recovery postcritical period (P3) for pattern formation. Our results suggest that nerve crush is more permissive for successful regeneration and reconnection (collectively referred to as "recovery" here) of the sensory inputs between the periphery and the brain stem. PMID:24478162

Lo, Fu-Sun; Zhao, Shuxin; Erzurumlu, Reha S

2014-04-01

348

When you throw a stone into water, you can see ring-like waves propagating away from the location where the stone hit the surface. The energy released  

E-print Network

Summary When you throw a stone into water, you can see ring-like waves propagating away from the location where the stone hit the surface. The energy released by the stone is carried away by the waves

van den Brink, Jeroen

349

In vitro studies on the role of glycosaminoglycans in crystallization intensity during infectious urinary stones formation.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis cause urinary tract infections which are recurrent and can lead to formation of urinary calculi. Both bacterial and the host factors are involved in the development of urolithiasis. To determine the impact of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the formation of P. mirabilis-induced urinary stones, we investigated the in vitro crystallization, aggregation and adhesion of crystals in the presence of GAGs naturally appearing in urine. Crystallization experiments were performed in synthetic urine infected with P. mirabilis in the presence of: hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate A, B and C (ChSA, ChSB, ChSC). The intensity of crystallization and aggregation were established by counting particles and phase-contrast microscopy. To analyze the adhesion of crystals, we used normal urothelium and (45)Ca isotope-labeled crystals. In the presence of ChSC, both the size of the crystals formed and their number were higher compared with the control. GAGs increased crystals adhesion to the cells, but only for ChSA this effect was significant. Chondroitin sulfates, which accelerate the first stages of infection-induced stones formation, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24164670

Torzewska, Agnieszka; Ró?alski, Antoni

2014-06-01

350

A Prototype Ultrasound Instrument To Size Stone Fragments During Ureteroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intraoperative tool to measure the size of kidney stones or stone fragments during ureteroscopy would help urologists assess if a fragment is small enough to be removed through the ureter or ureteral access sheath. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of a prototype ultrasound device used to measure in vitro stone fragments compared to caliper measurements. A 10-MHz, 10-french ultrasound transducer probe was used to send an ultrasound pulse and receive ultrasound reflections from the stone using two methods. In Method 1 the instrument was aligned over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through the stone. The time between reflections from the proximal and the distal surface of the stone were used along with the sound speed to calculate the stone size. Although the sound speed varied between stones, it was unlikely to be known during surgery and thus was estimated at 3000 m/s for calculations. In Method 2 the instrument was aligned partially over the stone and the ultrasound pulse traveled through water with a sound speed of 1481 m/s. Time was determined between the reflection from the proximal stone surface and the reflection from the tissue phantom on which the stone rested. Methods 1 and 2 were compared by linear regression to caliper measurements of the size of 19 human stones of 3 different stone types. Accuracy was measured by the difference of the mean ultrasound and mean caliper measurement and precision was measured as the standard deviation in the ultrasound measurements. For Method 1, the correlation between caliper-determined stone size and ultrasound-determined stone size was r2 = 0.71 (p<0.0001). In all but two stones accuracy and precision were less than 1 mm. For Method 2, the correlation was r2 = 0.99 (p<0.0001) and measurements were accurate and precise to within 0.25 mm. We conclude that the prototype device and either method measure stone size with good accuracy.

Sorensen, Mathew D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Bailey, Michael R.

2008-09-01

351

Incidence structures and Stone-Priestley duality  

E-print Network

We observe that if $R:=(I,\\rho, J)$ is an incidence We observe that if $R:=(I,\\rho, J)$ is an incidence structure, viewed as a matrix, then the topological closure of the set of columns is the Stone space of the Boolean algebra generated by the rows. As a consequence, we obtain that the topological closure of the collection of principal initial segments of a poset $P$ is the Stone space of the Boolean algebra $Tailalg (P)$ generated by the collection of principal final segments of $P$, the so-called {\\it tail-algebra of $P$}. Similar results concerning Priestley spaces and distributive lattices are given. A generalization to incidence structures valued by abstract algebras is considered.

Mohamed Bekkali; Maurice Pouzet; Driss Zhani

2006-01-06

352

Extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy for complicated bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Today, common bile duct stones are extracted endoscopically. After endoscopic sphincterotomy, nearly 90% of all stones can be removed with a Dormia basket or a mechanical lithotripter. Problems are encountered if there are larger stones or a duct stenosis. New conservative therapies do serve as an alternative to surgical intervention for those few patients in whom endoscopic measures have failed. Stone fragmentation can be achieved by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and remaining fragments can be removed endoscopically. So far, authors of most reports on the successful disintegration of common bile duct stones used the Dornier lithotripter. Stone localization is thus achieved with x-rays, and the shock waves are generated by an underwater spark discharge. We report on our experiences and results with extracorporeal piezoelectric shock wave lithotripsy (EPL) in 19 patients with complicated bile duct stones. With this lithotripter, stones are visualized by ultrasound, and shock waves are produced by a piezoelectric acoustic generator. Fragmentation was achieved in 84.2%, and complete stone removal in 78.9%. These results show that piezoelectric lithotripsy is also a useful method for the treatment of complicated bile duct stones, as has already been proved for the electrohydraulic- and electromagnetic-generated shock waves systems. However, the renunciation of general anesthesia and the need for analgesia or sedation in only 25% of the treatments render this lithotripter system attractive, especially for elderly and frail patients. PMID:1992634

Weber, J; Adamek, H E; Riemann, J F

1991-02-01

353

X-ray characterisation of bulk stones from the patina to the depth stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study on monumental limestone alteration is to characterise the superficial stone called patina where transformation processes due to air and water occur. We present results on stones from the Chambord castle, so Tuffeau limestone, from the Loire Valley. Three samples has been studied and compared in relationship with their position on the monument (outside or inside). In order to describe these samples, different techniques have been used : chemical analysis, optical microscopy. The three main phases are calcite (CaCO{3}), quartz and opal (SiO{2}), with various granulometry. X-ray diffraction has been performed on bulk samples. A special sample holder allows to analyse very thin zones, so to describe the mineralogical composition from the epidermis to the depth stone [1]. The stones are constituted of small crystallites which differ in dimension and orientation. This conducts to a semi-quantitative description. Protecting layer of the stone is associated to the rate of dissolution of calcite in patina zone.

Brunet-Imbault, B.; Rannou, I.; Muller, F.

2004-11-01

354

Towards the Rosetta Stone of planet formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transiting exoplanets (TEPs) observed just about 10 Myrs after formation of\\u000atheir host systems may serve as the Rosetta Stone for planet formation\\u000atheories. They would give strong constraints on several aspects of planet\\u000aformation, e.g. time-scales (planet formation would then be possible within 10\\u000aMyrs), the radius of the planet could indicate whether planets form by\\u000agravitational collapse (being

G. Maciejewski; R. Neuhaeuser; R. Errmann; M. Mugrauer; Ch. Adam; A. Berndt; T. Eisenbeiss; S. Fiedler; Ch. Ginski; M. Hohle; U. Kramm; C. Marka; M. Moualla; T. Pribulla; St. Raetz; T. Roell; T. O. B. Schmidt; M. Seeliger; I. Spaleniak; N. Tetzlaff; L. Trepl

2010-01-01

355

Minority shareholder claims foul at Stone & Webster  

SciTech Connect

An activist minority shareholder is trying to shake up the management of one of the industry`s oldest firms, New York City-based engineering-constructor Stone & Webster Inc., The shareholder has filed a lawsuit against the 105-year-old firm, claiming that it is understanding losses from construction activities and is using the voting rights of employee-owned stock to perpetuate current management to the detriment of all shareholders.

Krizan, W.G.

1994-05-09

356

Generation of hydrogen ions and hydrogen gas in quartz–water crushing experiments: an example of chemical processes in active faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the fundamental chemical processes of fluid–rock interaction during the pulverization of quartz grains in fault zones, quartz grains were crushed within pure water. The crushing experiments were performed batch style using a shaking apparatus. The crushing process induced a decrease in pH and an increase in hydrogen gas with increased shaking duration. The amount of hydrogen ions generated

K. Saruwatari; J. Kameda; H. Tanaka

2004-01-01

357

Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

Winkler, Erhard M.

1987-06-01

358

Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.  

PubMed

This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (?10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ?40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

2014-08-01

359

Recycling of construction debris as aggregate in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available substitutes for natural aggregate in many areas. This paper presents an overview of factors that affect recycled aggregate cost, availability, and engineering performance, and the results of a survey of business practices in the Mid-Atlantic region. For RAP, processing costs are less than those for virgin natural aggregate. Use of efficient asphalt pavement stripping technology, on-site reclamation, and linked two-way transport of asphalt debris and processed asphalt paving mix between asphalt mix plants and paving sites has led to extensive recycling of asphalt pavement in the Mid-Atlantic region of the US. Most of the sites that recycle asphalt pavement (RAP) are located in or near urban areas close to important transportation corridors. RPCC is a viable aggregate source in urban settings where unit costs for processed aggregate from RPCC and natural aggregate are comparable. Disposal fees charged at RPCC recycling sites help defray processing costs and the significantly lower tipping fees at recycling sites versus landfill disposal sites encourage recycling of construction debris as aggregate. Construction contractors and construction debris recycling centers, many of which have the ability to crush and process concrete debris at the job site, produce most RPCC. Production of RPCC aggregate from construction debris that is processed on site using portable equipment moved to the construction site eliminates transportation costs for aggregate and provides an economic incentive for RPCC use. Processing costs, quality and performance issues, and lack of large quantities where needed limit RPCC use. Most RPCC suppliers in the Mid-Atlantic area are located in counties with population densities greater than 400 people/km2 (1036 people/mile2) and that have high unit-value costs and limited local availability of natural aggregate. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Menzie, W.D.; Hyun, H.

2004-01-01

360

ligible role for these substances in the regu-lation of cystine stone formation.  

E-print Network

ligible role for these substances in the regu- lation of cystine stone formation. Collectively agent for the prevention of L-cystine kidney stones. This approach to stone prevention uses perspective this is a sufficient condition for pre- venting stone formation. L-cystine stone formers typically

Wriggers, Willy

361

DOI 10.1007/s11083-011-9224-2 Modal Logics of Stone Spaces  

E-print Network

Order DOI 10.1007/s11083-011-9224-2 Modal Logics of Stone Spaces Guram Bezhanishvili · John Harding metrizable Stone space and of each extremally disconnected Stone space. As a corollary, we obtain that S4 logic of each metrizable Stone space and of each extremally disconnected Stone space. In particular, we

Harding, John

362

[Strategy for defect coverage in extensive degloving and crush injuries of 4 fingers].  

PubMed

Severe crush injuries with avulsion require specific treatment strategies. Usually we find complete loss of soft tissue, nerves and vessels, where only tendons and parts of the phalanges are preserved. Primary reconstructive procedures are usually not possible due to the complexity of the injury with severely destroyed structures. Bone shortening should be avoided in order to maintain finger length and motion. Therefore, emergency soft-tissue coverage represents the first step. Later, sensibility and mechanical stability of the skin should be restored. In our clinic, seven patients with this injury pattern were treated. Three cases involved four finger crush-avulsion injuries. In all cases, we performed a primary soft-tissue coverage with a pedicled flap. In a second session, the skin areas of the first web space of both feet were transplanted as neurovascular flaps. With this strategy, a useful hand function could be restored. The functional results are described and advantages and disadvantages of various techniques discussed. PMID:11189897

Weinand, C; Prommersberger, K J; Hahn, P; Giunta, R E; Krimmer, H

2000-11-01

363

Acceleration of the regeneration of the crushed hypoglossal nerve by testosterone.  

PubMed

The effect of testosterone propionate (TP) on regeneration of the crushed hypoglossal nerve was studied in young adult rats. The TP treatment promoted axonal outgrowth as measured by an increase in the proportion of hypoglossal neurons labeled by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into the tongue at selected postlesion periods compared with that in controls. The result indicated that TP exerts its effect on regeneration primarily by increasing the metabolic activity in hormone target neurons. The somatotopic organization of the hypoglossal nucleus and its projection into the major nerve branches were unaltered subsequent to crush injury. The maintenance of specificity was attributed to the intact perineurial and endoneurial sheaths which guided regenerating fibers to their original targets. PMID:6840243

Yu, W H; Yu, M C

1983-05-01

364

Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

Coe, Fredric L.

2007-04-01

365

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of pancreatic duct stones and patient factors related to stone disintegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:\\u000a Background:   Stones in the main pancreatic duct (MPD) are difficult to remove by endoscopic devices alone in some patients who have chronic\\u000a pancreatitis. We treated these patients with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and analyzed the patient factors\\u000a related to disintegration. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:   Twenty-four patients were treated with ESWL alone or with combined endoscopic-ESWL to disintegrate or remove MPD stones.

Yasuyuki Karasawa; Shigeyuki Kawa; Yuji Aoki; Yasuhide Ochi; Hiroshi Unno; Kendo Kiyosawa; Tomofumi Watanabe

2002-01-01

366

Pulmonary Effects of IV Injection of Crushed Oral Tablets: "Excipient Lung Disease".  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. When crushed oral tablets are injected IV, their filler material (excipient) can induce a potentially fatal foreign-body reaction in pulmonary arterioles, presenting as dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension with centrilobular nodules on CT. We will describe the imaging and pathologic features of "excipient lung disease." CONCLUSION. The radiologist has a critical role in recognizing and reporting excipient lung disease because the referring clinician may be unaware of the patient's IV drug abuse. PMID:25341165

Nguyen, Vicky T; Chan, Elaine S; Chou, Shinn-Huey S; Godwin, J David; Fligner, Corinne L; Schmidt, Rodney A; Pipavath, Sudhakar N J

2014-11-01

367

The Crush and Spray: A patented design for herbicide application with less waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USDA Forest Service recently patented an equipment design to deliver herbicides more efficiently and cost-effectively. Towed by a standard all-terrain vehicle, the Crush and Spray can access out-of-the-way or wet locations. An adjustable roller first knocks down the unwanted plants. A low-set spray boom with wide angle sprayer nozzles then provides precise, close-to-the-ground application of herbicide along the length

2009-01-01

368

EFFECTS OF TREE CRUSHING ON BLACK BEAR PREDATION ON MOOSE CALVES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality of young moose calves (Alces alces gigas) was evaluated on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, during spring and early summer 1977 and 1978. Studies were conducted both inside and outside of a 461-ha browse-rehabilitated area (Willow Lake) where standing vegetation had been crushed with LeTourneau tree crushers in winter 1974-75. Uncrushed areas (con- trol) were regrowth of vegetation that was

CHARLES C. SCHWARTZ; ALBERT W. FRANZMANN

369

Evaluation of sodium bentonite and crushed basalt as waste package backfill materials  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary hydrothermal experiments were completed at 300/sup 0/C, 300 bars and 200/sup 0/C, 300 bars in the basalt/groundwater system to determine the chemical stability of crushed basalt. Analysis of solution data from the 300/sup 0/C experiments as a function of time and reaction products indicated that the primary reaction was the alteration of the basalt glass phase to illite and/or smectite clays and quartz. The establishment of steady state pH values of about 6, the apparent rapid occurrence of a highly reducing environment in the system, and an insignificant increase in the solution concentration of potentially corrosive aqueous species were observed. These data indicate that a waste package backfill containing a significant amount of crushed basalt will provide a near-field geochemical environment favorable to the chemical stability of metal canister materials. A preliminary experiment was also completed in the sodium bentonite/groundwater system at 300/sup 0/C, 300 bars. Analyses of the reacted solutions and solids show that bentonite remains essentially stable with only minor alterations to albite. Sorption data were generated on crushed basalt, secondary minerals in basalt, and sodium bentonite at 60 to 65/sup 0/C under oxic and anoxic conditions. These data indicate that Cs and Sr will be completely contained in a waste package backfill due to the formation of insoluble secondary minerals, ion exchange, and specific adsorption. Under reducing conditions, Np will be retained beyond 1000 yr and U and Pu will be retained under reducing conditions over 300 yr. An increase in retention time can be expected to occur with an increase in temperature. Theory, calculations, and a limited data base have been used to propose a reference waste package. The backfill component consisting of 25% sodium bentonite and 75% crushed basalt with an initial density of 2.1 g/cm/sup 3/ and a thickness of 0.152 m.

Wood, M.I.; Aden, G.D.; Lane, D.L.

1982-10-01

370

Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff  

SciTech Connect

A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m{sup 3} at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s to 6.6 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed.

Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Connolly, J.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-06-01

371

A quantitative morphological study of the recovery of cat lingual nerves after transection or crushing.  

PubMed Central

The morphological changes were examined proximal and distal to crush and transection injuries of the lingual/chorda tympani nerve. Under general anaesthesia the nerve was transected unilaterally in 6 adult cats and crushed with watchmakers forceps in 6 others. After 12 wk, again under general anaesthesia, the injured and contralateral (control) nerves were removed, fixed and embedded for histological examination. Sections were cut from sites proximal and distal to the injury and from a site equivalent to that of the injury on the control side. Using systematic randomised sampling techniques the number of nonmyelinated axons and the number and size of myelinated axons in each nerve at each location was estimated. In addition, the mean number of nonmyelinated axons in each Schwann cell unit was determined. The only significant difference between control and injured nerves proximal to either injury was a reduction in the number of myelinated axons in the chorda tympani after transection, and an increase in their mean size. This indicates a selective loss of smaller fibres and is consistent with the poor recovery of gustatory and thermosensitive fibres previously reported (Robinson, 1989). Distal to both types of injury there was an increase in the number of fascicles. The mean number of myelinated axons was reduced distal to a crush injury but unchanged distal to transection. The number of nonmyelinated axons distal to a transection injury was 5 times control counts and after a crush injury double. These findings suggest that sprouting persists 12 wk after both injuries but is much greater after transection. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8621327

Holland, G R; Robinson, P P; Smith, K G; Pehowich, E

1996-01-01

372

A quantitative morphological study of the recovery of cat lingual nerves after transection or crushing.  

PubMed

The morphological changes were examined proximal and distal to crush and transection injuries of the lingual/chorda tympani nerve. Under general anaesthesia the nerve was transected unilaterally in 6 adult cats and crushed with watchmakers forceps in 6 others. After 12 wk, again under general anaesthesia, the injured and contralateral (control) nerves were removed, fixed and embedded for histological examination. Sections were cut from sites proximal and distal to the injury and from a site equivalent to that of the injury on the control side. Using systematic randomised sampling techniques the number of nonmyelinated axons and the number and size of myelinated axons in each nerve at each location was estimated. In addition, the mean number of nonmyelinated axons in each Schwann cell unit was determined. The only significant difference between control and injured nerves proximal to either injury was a reduction in the number of myelinated axons in the chorda tympani after transection, and an increase in their mean size. This indicates a selective loss of smaller fibres and is consistent with the poor recovery of gustatory and thermosensitive fibres previously reported (Robinson, 1989). Distal to both types of injury there was an increase in the number of fascicles. The mean number of myelinated axons was reduced distal to a crush injury but unchanged distal to transection. The number of nonmyelinated axons distal to a transection injury was 5 times control counts and after a crush injury double. These findings suggest that sprouting persists 12 wk after both injuries but is much greater after transection. PMID:8621327

Holland, G R; Robinson, P P; Smith, K G; Pehowich, E

1996-04-01

373

Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as an effective therapy for muscle crush injury in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 accelerates the healing of a transected Achilles tendon and a transected quadriceps\\u000a muscle. It may also be of clinical relevance as a systemic and local peptide treatment for crush injury of a major muscle,\\u000a such as gastrocnemius muscle complex. BPC 157 is effective without a carrier, and it is presently undergoing trials for inflammatory\\u000a bowel

Tomislav Novinscak; Luka Brcic; Mario Staresinic; Ivana Jukic; Bozo Radic; Danira Pevec; Sandro Mise; Sanja Tomasovic; Iva Brcic; Tihomir Banic; Ana Jakir; Gojko Buljat; Tomislav Anic; Ivan Zoricic; Zeljko Romic; Sven Seiwerth; Predrag Sikiric

2008-01-01

374

Variability of protein content in calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones  

PubMed Central

Objectives Urinary stones are heterogeneous in their fragility to lithotripter shock waves. As a first step in gaining a better understanding of the role of matrix in stone fragility, we measured extractible protein in COM stones that were extensively characterized by micro-computed tomography (micro CT). Methods Stones were scanned using micro CT (Scanco mCT20, 34 ?m), and were ground and protein extracted using four methods: 0.25M EDTA, 2% SDS reducing buffer, 9M urea buffer, and 10% acetic acid. Protein was measured using NanoOrange. SDS extracts were also examined using polyacrylamide electrophoresis (PAGE). Results Extracted protein was highest with SDS or urea methods (0.28±0.13 and 0.24±0.11%, respectively), and lower using the EDTA method (0.17±0.05%, p<0.02). Acetic acid extracted little protein (0.006±0.002%, p<0.001). Individual stones were significantly different in extractability of protein by the different methods, and SDS-PAGE revealed different protein patterns for individual stones. Extracted protein did not correlate with x-ray lucent void percentage, which ranged from 0.06 to 2.8% of stone volume, nor with apatite content. Conclusions Extractible stone matrix protein differs for individual COM stones, and yield is dependent on the extraction method used. The presence of x-ray lucent voids or minor amounts of apatite in stones did not correlate with protein content. The amounts of protein recovered were 5 to 10 times lower than that reported by Boyce, showing that these methods extracted only a fraction of the protein bound up in the stones. The results suggest that none of the methods tested will be useful for helping to answer the question of whether matrix content differs among stones of differing fragility to lithotripter shock waves. PMID:16903815

Williams, James C.; Zarse, Chad A.; Jackson, Molly E.; Witzmann, Frank A.; McAteer, James A.

2006-01-01

375

Retained stones in the common bile duct: results of management.  

PubMed

Seventeen patients underwent treatment for retained common bile duct stones. In 7 patients the stones were removed via a T-tube tract using steerable catheters while 5 patients underwent ERCP and sphincterotomy and 5 underwent surgical re-exploration. Considering morbidity, mortality, success rate and patients' stay in the hospital, non-operative modalities should be the treatment of choice for retained common bile duct stones. PMID:8264083

Hameed, K; Azami, R; Jaffery, W; Hameed, T

1993-05-01

376

PLATELET PHAGOCYTOSIS AND AGGREGATION  

PubMed Central

The addition of latex particles to native (no anticoagulant) or citrated human platelet-rich plasma (PRP), or to a once-washed platelet suspension causes platelet aggregation. This aggregation is associated with phagocytosis of the latex particles by the platelets and appears to be due to release of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from the platelets. Adenosine and adenosine monophosphate, which are known to inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, also block that induced by latex. These compounds do not prevent the phagocytosis of latex particles by the platelet. The addition of iodoacetate and 2,4-dinitrophenol in appropriate concentrations to the PRP, prior to the addition of the latex, blocks platelet aggregation and phagocytosis. This is also true for the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). Platelets left in contact with latex for a sufficient period of time show loss of their granules. Leucocytes phagocytose both latex and platelets that had themselves phagocytosed latex. It is concluded that phagocytosis of latex particles by platelets resembles that by white cells, and that in both processes metabolic changes appear to be involved. PMID:4957257

Movat, Henry Z.; Weiser, William J.; Glynn, Michael F.; Mustard, James F.

1965-01-01

377

Erosion of dust aggregates  

E-print Network

Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 m/s and above. Though fractal aggregates as ...

Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm

2013-01-01

378

Nanoindentation of surfactant aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactants are important for a wide range of applications dealing with one-dimensional nanoscale materials, including dispersion of carbon nanotubes, as organic templates in mesoporous silica thin films, and for the fabrication of silica nanowires. There is therefore great interest in better understanding the structure and properties of surfactant aggregates at the solid–liquid interface. Here, classical molecular dynamics simulations with empirical

Patrick Y. Chiu; Kunal Shah; Susan B. Sinnott

2010-01-01

379

Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

1989-09-01

380

Diffusion Limited Aggregation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) algorithm models the growth of an object one particle at a time sticking in random places. This calculator computes DLA on a square, hexagonal, or octagonal lattice, and allows for the computation of fractal dimension by a box counting method.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

381

Aggregating time partitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitions of sequential data exist either per se or as a result of se- quence segmentation algorithms. It is often the case that the same timeline is partitioned in many different ways. For example, dif- ferent segmentation algorithms produce different partitions of the same underlying data points. In such cases, we are interested in producing an aggregate partition, i.e., a

Taneli Mielikäinen; Evimaria Terzi; Panayiotis Tsaparas

2006-01-01

382

Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated.

McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.

1981-12-01

383

The Christchurch Earthquake: Crush Injury, Neuropathic Pain, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

On February 22, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck Christchurch, New Zealand. The peak ground acceleration, a measure of the shaking or intensity of an earthquake, was one of the highest ever recorded worldwide. One hundred and eighty-five people lost their lives; many others were injured. Two cases both involving young women are presented; they sustained crush injuries to limbs after being trapped by falling debris and went on to develop severe neuropathic pain. This report examines the mechanisms of neuropathic pain in the setting of crush injury, the treatment modalities, and the association between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. These case reports highlight the fact that crush injury is relatively common during major earthquakes and that neuropathic pain is an important sequel of this. Post-traumatic stress disorder is common in earthquake survivors with a recognised association with chronic pain. Pain-related disability may increase as well. Issues such as chronic pain and physical disability should not be overlooked as attention focuses on disaster management and the treatment of life-threatening injuries. PMID:23956754

Shipton, Edward A.

2013-01-01

384

Carpal tunnel syndrome and the "double crush" hypothesis: a review and implications for chiropractic  

PubMed Central

Upton and McComas claimed that most patients with carpal tunnel syndrome not only have compressive lesions at the wrist, but also show evidence of damage to cervical nerve roots. This "double crush" hypothesis has gained some popularity among chiropractors because it seems to provide a rationale for adjusting the cervical spine in treating carpal tunnel syndrome. Here I examine use of the concept by chiropractors, summarize findings from the literature, and critique several studies aimed at supporting or refuting the hypothesis. Although the hypothesis also has been applied to nerve compressions other than those leading to carpal tunnel syndrome, this discussion mainly examines the original application – "double crush" involving both cervical spinal nerve roots and the carpal tunnel. I consider several categories: experiments to create double crush syndrome in animals, case reports, literature reviews, and alternatives to the original hypothesis. A significant percentage of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome also have neck pain or cervical nerve root compression, but the relationship has not been definitively explained. The original hypothesis remains controversial and is probably not valid, at least for sensory disturbances, in carpal tunnel syndrome. However, even if the original hypothesis is importantly flawed, evaluation of multiple sites still may be valuable. The chiropractic profession should develop theoretical models to relate cervical dysfunction to carpal tunnel syndrome, and might incorporate some alternatives to the original hypothesis. I intend this review as a starting point for practitioners, educators, and students wishing to advance chiropractic concepts in this area. PMID:18426564

Russell, Brent S

2008-01-01

385

Subthreshold continuous electrical stimulation facilitates functional recovery of facial nerve after crush injury in rabbit.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation (ES) with subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency impulses is a viable clinical method for improving functional recovery after facial nerve crush injury. In 10 rabbits, bilateral crush injuries were made on the facial nerve by compression for 30 s with mosquito forceps, causing complete facial paralysis. Subthreshold continuous direct current ES with 20-Hz square-wave pulses was applied to the proximal stump on one side for 4 weeks. Vibrissae movement returned significantly earlier on the ES side, with a less variable recovery time. Electrophysiologically, the stimulated side had a significantly shorter latency, longer duration, and faster conduction velocity. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the electrical stimulation also markedly decreased Wallerian degeneration. The average numbers of fluorescent, double-labeled nerve cells were significantly different between the ES and non-ES sides. This study shows that subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency ES immediately after a crush injury of the facial nerve results in earlier recovery of facial function and shorter overall recovery time. PMID:21254091

Kim, Jin; Han, Su Jin; Shin, Dong Hyun; Lee, Won-Sang; Choi, Jae Young

2011-02-01

386

Up-Regulation of HDAC4 is Associated with Schwann Cell Proliferation After Sciatic Nerve Crush.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), a member of the class IIa HDACs subfamily, has emerged as a critical regulator of cell growth, differentiation, and migration in various cell types. It was reported that HDAC4 stimulated colon cell proliferation via repression of p21. Also, HDAC4 contributes to platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, HDAC4 may play an important role in the regulation of neuronal differentiation and survival. However, the role of HDAC4 in the process of peripheral nervous system regeneration after injury remains virtually unknown. Herein, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of HDAC4 in a rat sciatic nerve crush model. We found that sciatic nerve crush induced up-regulated expression of HDAC4 in Schwann cells. Moreover, the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 exhibited a similar tendency with that of HDAC4. In cell cultures, we observed increased expression of HDAC4 during the process of TNF-?-induced Schwann cell proliferation, whereas the protein level of p21 was down-regulated. Interference of HDAC4 led to enhanced expression of p21 and impaired proliferation of Schwan cells. Taken together, our findings implicated that HDAC4 was up-regulated in the sciatic nerve after crush, which was associated with proliferation of Schwann cells. PMID:25103231

Liu, Yonghua; Liu, Yang; Nie, Xiaoke; Cao, Jianhua; Zhu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Zhongbing; Mao, Xingxing; Yan, Shixian; Ni, Yingjie; Wang, Youhua

2014-11-01

387

The christchurch earthquake: crush injury, neuropathic pain, and posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

On February 22, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck Christchurch, New Zealand. The peak ground acceleration, a measure of the shaking or intensity of an earthquake, was one of the highest ever recorded worldwide. One hundred and eighty-five people lost their lives; many others were injured. Two cases both involving young women are presented; they sustained crush injuries to limbs after being trapped by falling debris and went on to develop severe neuropathic pain. This report examines the mechanisms of neuropathic pain in the setting of crush injury, the treatment modalities, and the association between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. These case reports highlight the fact that crush injury is relatively common during major earthquakes and that neuropathic pain is an important sequel of this. Post-traumatic stress disorder is common in earthquake survivors with a recognised association with chronic pain. Pain-related disability may increase as well. Issues such as chronic pain and physical disability should not be overlooked as attention focuses on disaster management and the treatment of life-threatening injuries. PMID:23956754

Cammack, Frances; Shipton, Edward A

2013-01-01

388

Salidroside promotes peripheral nerve regeneration following crush injury to the sciatic nerve in rats.  

PubMed

Salidroside (SDS), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has been reported to be neuroprotective in vitro, which raises the possibility of using SDS as a neuroprotective agent after nerve injuries. In the present study, the possibly beneficial effect of SDS on promoting nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats was investigated. Rats with sciatic nerve crush injury were administered intraperitoneally daily with 5 or 10 mg/kg body weight of SDS for 4 weeks. Rats that received mecobalamin or saline were considered as a positive or a negative control, respectively. Morphometric analysis of regenerated nerves and Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracing was used to evaluate axonal regeneration, whereas walking track analysis, electrophysiological assessment, and histological appearance of target muscles were carried out to evaluate the recovery of motor function. The results showed that SDS achieved functionally successful nerve regeneration in the rat sciatic nerve crush injury model, indicating that SDS holds potential as a neuroprotective agent for peripheral nerve therapies. PMID:23358450

Sheng, Qing-Song; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yong-Guang

2013-03-27

389

Experimental and Modeling Studies of Crush, Puncture, and Perforation Scenarios in the Steven Impact Test  

SciTech Connect

The Steven test and associated modeling has greatly increased the fundamental knowledge of practical predictions of impact safety hazards for confined and unconfined explosive charges. Building on a database of initial work, experimental and modeling studies of crush, puncture, and perforation scenarios were investigated using the Steven impact test. The descriptions of crush, puncture, and perforation arose from safety scenarios represented by projectile designs that ''crush'' the energetic material or either ''puncture'' with a pinpoint nose or ''perforate'' the front cover with a transportation hook. As desired, these scenarios offer different aspects of the known mechanisms that control ignition: friction, shear and strain. Studies of aged and previously damaged HMX-based high explosives included the use of embedded carbon foil and carbon resistor gauges, high-speed cameras, and blast wave gauges to determine the pressure histories, time required for an explosive reaction, and the relative violence of those reactions, respectively. Various ignition processes were modeled as the initial reaction rate expression in the Ignition and Growth reaction rate equations. Good agreement with measured threshold velocities, pressure histories, and times to reaction was calculated for LX-04 impacted by several projectile geometries using a compression dependent ignition term and an elastic-plastic model with a reasonable yield strength for impact strain rates.

Vandersall, K S; Chidester, S K; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

2002-06-28

390

Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

1997-01-01

391

Posterior palatal seal adaptation: influence of a high expansion stone.  

PubMed

In this follow-up investigation, the ability of a new, high expansion stone to reduce acrylic resin denture base processing distortions was studied and compared with a previously reported investigation of bases processed on buff stone. Denture bases were processed by the continuous-injection and trial-pack techniques on flat vault palate casts and then trimmed and polished. Measurements were made at the posterior palatal border opening at 1 day and 1 week immersion in water (23 degrees C). Results showed that denture bases processed on high expansion stone had better posterior palatal seal adaptation compared with those processed on buff stone, independent of processing techniques. PMID:8736447

Sykora, O; Sutow, E J

1996-05-01

392

A giant bladder struvite stone in an adolescent boy.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old adolescent boy with a history of recurrent lower urinary tract infection presented with a complaint of lower abdominal pain. Renal ultrasonography revealed bilateral hydronephrosis and X-ray film revealed a huge pelvic mass measuring 10 × 8 × 6 cm which filled the whole bladder. Open cystolithotomy was performed and magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) stone weighing 420 g was removed. Although a bladder stone is not rare, in the present report, the composition and the huge size of the stone determined in an adolescent patient is an interesting clinical entity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest struvite stone reported in an adolescent patient. PMID:22146790

H?zl?, Fatih; Y?lmaz, Engin

2012-06-01

393

The Stone Wall Initiative: Grades 3-5 Curricula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum includes lessons and activities which are grounded in the children's book 'Stone Wall Secrets' as well as in New England's abundance of stone walls. Many students are familiar with stone walls in their neighborhoods and are afforded instances in which they may delve into essential questions regarding the walls, the stones they are made from, and the history associated with their construction. The curriculum includes a set of lessons with national content standard alignments for each one, accompanied by worksheets, a teacher's kit, a teacher's reference, links to related texts, and some sample student work.

394

Gall stones and chronic pancreatitis: the black box in between  

PubMed Central

The relation between gall stones and chronic pancreatitis is uncertain; there are differing opinions on this issue. Firstly, gall stones are the most common reason for acute pancreatitis, but it cannot cause chronic pancreatitis. Secondly, a connection between gall stones and chronic inflammation of the pancreas might exist. Numerous studies or investigations have shown that changes associated with chronic pancreatitis are common in gallstone patients. Although it seems that gall stones might be a cause of chronic pancreatitis according to these findings, clinical and experimental studies are still needed for confirmation, and further studies are required to determine the mechanisms involved. PMID:16597812

Yan, M-X; Li, Y-Q

2006-01-01

395

Stabilization of Proteins against Aggregation  

E-print Network

Proteins degrade in vitro by a variety of routes, the most common of which is aggregation. In order to develop protein formulations that will limit aggregation, researchers use heuristic, experimental screening procedures. ...

Baynes, Brian M.

396

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2014-01-01

397

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2012-01-01

398

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2013-01-01

399

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2011-01-01

400

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2011-01-01

401

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

...2014-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2014-01-01

402

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2012-01-01

403

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2013-01-01

404

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National...Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering sand, gravel,...

2013-07-01

405

Effect of Stone Coverage on Soil Erosion Auteur Seifeddine Jomaa 1  

E-print Network

ENAC / Effect of Stone Coverage on Soil Erosion Auteur Seifeddine Jomaa 1 conducted at different rainfall intensities and stone coverage (see Table 1 for more stones protect the soil from raindrop detachment, they retard the overland flow therefore

406

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

...Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National...Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering sand, gravel,...

2014-07-01

407

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National...Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering sand, gravel,...

2012-07-01

408

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2010-01-01

409

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644...Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

2011-07-01

410

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644...Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

2010-07-01

411

Plant Health Service Notice of the landing of stone material originating in China required by  

E-print Network

Chinese Stone Products ,CCN Codes 2514 (Slate) ,2515, (Marble) 2516 (Granite) ,6801 (Flagstones and 6802Plant Health Service Notice of the landing of stone material originating in China required by EU (Building stone) Importer Company/Agent Name *Contact Tel

412

Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

2013-04-01

413

George Chester Stone (1924-2013).  

PubMed

George Chester Stone was born February 21, 1924, and died on July 13, 2013. A quiet revolutionary, George was a founder of the field of health psychology. George played critical roles conceptualizing the field of health psychology, charting its bounds and potential, promulgating guidelines for training, founding the first doctoral program in health psychology, editing influential volumes defining the new field, launching the flagship journal for the field, and establishing a home for the field within APA. He was able to accomplish all this through his talent for working collaboratively. PMID:25046719

Adler, Nancy

2014-01-01

414

Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

Dolley, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

415

The increasing pediatric stone disease problem  

PubMed Central

While once thought to be relatively rare in developed nations, the prevalence of pediatric urolithiasis appears to be increasing, and a number of factors may be contributing to this increase. Many theories are plausible and such theories include the increasing childhood obesity epidemic, a changing sex predilection, climate change, alterations in dietary habits and improving diagnostic modalities. Yet, unlike adult patients, rigorous epidemiologic studies do not exist in pediatric populations. Thus, in the setting of an increasing prevalence of childhood stone disease, improved research is critical to the development of uniform strategies for pediatric urolithiasis management. PMID:21789094

Clayton, Douglass B.; Pope, John C.

2011-01-01

416

Exploring the building stones of downtown Seattle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most introductory geology students have experience identifying hand-sized rock samples in the lab, but never get to see bigger rock exposures outside the classroom. This activity includes takes students to downtown Seattle, where they observe the geology of the building stones within a few blocks of campus. The exercise exposes students to large, polished rock samples in an area where they are familiar, but might not have noticed the rocks before. For students on urban campuses or online geology classes with a limited amount of lab time this is a useful activity.

Gualtieri, Lyn

417

Stars and Stones on Emperor Elagabalus' Coins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several series of coins and medals issued under the reign of Roman Emperor Elagabalus (AD 218-222) refer to the ceremony of his entry in Rome, in which the baetyl of Emesa played a central role. This baetyl, a cone-shaped black stone of likely meteoritic origin, represents the solar divinity Baal, whose cult was introduced in Rome by Elagabalus. Worship of baetyls is common in ancient near-Eastern cultures, in which meteorites are believed to have a celestial origin, as opposed to the Aristotelian theory prevalent in the Roman culture at the epoch.

Comeron, F.

418

Premicellar aggregation of amphiphilic molecules: Aggregate lifetime and polydispersity  

E-print Network

A recently introduced thermodynamic model of amphiphilic molecules in solution has yielded, under certain realistic conditions, a significant presence of metastable aggregates well below the critical micelle concentration -- a phenomenon that has been reported also experimentally. The theory is extended in two directions pertaining to the experimental and technological relevance of such premicellar aggregates. (a) Combining the thermodynamic model with reaction rate theory, we calculate the lifetime of the metastable aggregates. (b) Aggregation number fluctuations are examined. We demonstrate that, over most of the metastable concentration range, the premicellar aggregates should have macroscopic lifetimes and small polydispersity.

Radina Hadgiivanova; Haim Diamant

2008-08-14

419

Premicellar aggregation of amphiphilic molecules: aggregate lifetime and polydispersity  

E-print Network

A recently introduced thermodynamic model of amphiphilic molecules in solution has yielded, under certain realistic conditions, a significant presence of metastable aggregates well below the critical micelle concentration -- a phenomenon that has been reported also experimentally. The theory is extended in two directions pertaining to the experimental and technological relevance of such premicellar aggregates. (a) Combining the thermodynamic model with reaction rate theory, we calculate the lifetime of the metastable aggregates. (b) Aggregation number fluctuations are examined. We demonstrate that, over most of the metastable concentration range, the premicellar aggregates should have macroscopic lifetimes and small polydispersity.

Hadgiivanova, Radina

2008-01-01

420

Epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability were established in 958 participants in the Northwick Park Heart Study. The main analyses were based on the dose of adenosine diphosphate at which primary aggregation occurred at half its maximum velocity. Aggregability increased with age in both sexes, was greater in whites than blacks (particularly among men), and tended to decrease with the

T W Meade; M V Vickers; S G Thompson; Y Stirling; A P Haines; G J Miller

1985-01-01

421

Database abstractions: aggregation and generalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of abstraction that are fundamentally important in database design and usage are defined. Aggregation is an abstraction which turns a relationship between objects into an aggregate object. Generalization is an abstraction which turns a class of objects into a generic object. It is suggested that all objects (individual, aggregate, generic) should be given uniform treatment in models of

John Miles Smith; Diane C. Pirog Smith

1977-01-01

422

High carbonate level of apatite in kidney stones underlines infection, but is it predictive?  

PubMed Central

The presence of infectious microorganisms in urinary stones is commonly inferred from stone composition, especially by the presence of struvite in a stone. The presence of highly carbonated apatite has also been proposed as a marker of the presence of bacteria within a stone. We retrospectively studied 368 patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and who also had culture results for both stone and urine. Urine culture showed no association with stone mineral content, but stone culture was more often positive in struvite containing stones (73% positive) and majority apatite stones (65%) than in other stone types (54%, lower than the others, P<0.02). In 51 patients in which the carbonate content of apatite could be measured, carbonate in the apatite was weakly predictive of positive stone culture with an optimal cutoff value of 13.5% carbonate (sensitivity 0.61, specificity 0.80). In positive cultures of stones (all mineral types combined), organisms that characteristically produce urease were present in 71% of the cases, with no difference in this proportion among different types of stone. In summary, the type of mineral in the stone was predictive of positive stone culture, but this correlation is imperfect, as over half of non-struvite, non-apatite stones were found to harbor culturable organisms. We conclude that mineral type is an inadequate predictor of whether a stone contains infectious organisms, and that stone culture is more likely to provide information useful to the management of patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. PMID:23881525

Englert, Kate M.; McAteer, James A.; Lingeman, James E.; Williams, James C.

2013-01-01

423

High carbonate level of apatite in kidney stones implies infection, but is it predictive?  

PubMed

The presence of infectious microorganisms in urinary stones is commonly inferred from stone composition, especially by the presence of struvite in a stone. The presence of highly carbonated apatite has also been proposed as a marker of the presence of bacteria within a stone. We retrospectively studied 368 patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and who also had culture results for both stone and urine. Urine culture showed no association with stone mineral content, but stone culture was more often positive in struvite-containing stones (73 % positive) and majority apatite stones (65 %) than in other stone types (54 %, lower than the others, P < 0.02). In 51 patients in whom the carbonate content of apatite could be measured, carbonate in the apatite was weakly predictive of positive stone culture with an optimal cutoff value of 13.5 % carbonate (sensitivity 0.61, specificity 0.80). In positive cultures of stones (all mineral types combined), organisms that characteristically produce urease were present in 71 % of the cases, with no difference in this proportion among different types of stone. In summary, the type of mineral in the stone was predictive of positive stone culture, but this correlation is imperfect, as over half of non-struvite, non-apatite stones were found to harbor culturable organisms. We conclude that mineral type is an inadequate predictor of whether a stone contains infectious organisms, and that stone culture is more likely to provide information useful to the management of patients undergoing PCNL. PMID:23881525

Englert, Kate M; McAteer, James A; Lingeman, James E; Williams, James C

2013-10-01

424

Management of renal stone disease in obese patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity represents an increasing burden to health care resources. Nephrolithiasis is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes and the consumption of diets rich in protein, fat and carbohydrates; this article addresses some of the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with stone formation in these patients. Management of stone disease can be more difficult in obese patients; even diagnosis can be problematic

Aleksandra Vujovic; Stephen Keoghane

2007-01-01

425

Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles grafted on stone surface.  

PubMed

Microbial colonization has a relevant impact on the deterioration of stone materials with consequences ranging from esthetic to physical and chemical changes. Avoiding microbial growth on cultural stones therefore represents a crucial aspect for their long-term conservation. The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively investigated in recent years, showing that they could be successfully applied as bactericidal coatings on surfaces of different materials. In this work, we investigated the ability of AgNPs grafted to Serena stone surfaces to inhibit bacterial viability. A silane derivative, which is commonly used for stone consolidation, and Bacillus subtilis were chosen as the grafting agent and the target bacterium, respectively. Results show that functionalized AgNPs bind to stone surface exhibiting a cluster disposition that is not affected by washing treatments. The antibacterial tests on stone samples revealed a 50 to 80 % reduction in cell viability, with the most effective AgNP concentration of 6.7 ?g/cm(2). To our knowledge, this is the first report on antimicrobial activity of AgNPs applied to a stone surface. The results suggest that AgNPs could be successfully used in the inhibition of microbial colonization of stone artworks. PMID:24151026

Bellissima, F; Bonini, M; Giorgi, R; Baglioni, P; Barresi, G; Mastromei, G; Perito, B

2014-12-01

426

DNA AND PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM WASHED EXPERIMENTAL STONE TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

DNA residues may preserve on ancient stone tools used to process animals. We studied 24 stone tools recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming. Nine tools that yielded DNA included five bifaces, two side scrapers, one end scraper, and one utilized flake. The...

427

Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

2007-02-01

428

Monte-Carlo Tree Search in Crazy Stone Remi Coulom  

E-print Network

Monte-Carlo Tree Search in Crazy Stone R´emi Coulom Universit´e Charles de Gaulle, INRIA, CNRS Introduction 2 Crazy Stone's Algorithm Principles of Monte-Carlo Evaluation Tree Search Patterns 3 Playing global understanding The Monte-Carlo Approach random playouts dynamic evaluation with global

Coulom, Rémi - Groupe de Recherche sur l'Apprentissage Automatique, Université Charles de Gaulle

429

Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district.  

PubMed

Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium. PMID:25033236

Aslin Shamema, A; Thanigai Arul, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

2015-01-01

430

A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

2014-01-01

431

Smartphone sensors for stone lithography authentication.  

PubMed

Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to "authenticate" non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

Spagnolo, Giuseppe Schirripa; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

2014-01-01

432

Coordination strategies used in stone knapping.  

PubMed

Stone tool-use and manufacture is seen as an important skill during the evolution of our species and recently there has been increased interest in the understanding of perceptual-motor abilities underlying this skill. This study provides further information with respect to the motor strategies used during stone knapping. Kinematics of the striking arm were recorded in expert and novice knappers while producing flakes of two different sizes. Using Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis, the results showed that knappers structure joint angle movements such that the hammer trajectory variability is minimized across trials, with experts displaying significantly smaller variability compared with novices. Principal component analysis further revealed that a single component captures the complexity of the strike and that the strike is governed by movements of the elbow and the wrist. Analysis of movement velocities indicated that both groups adjusted movement velocities according to flake size although experts used smaller hammer, wrist, and elbow velocities in both flake conditions compared with novices. The results suggest that while the gross striking movement is easy to replicate for a novice knapper, it requires prolonged training before a knapper becomes attuned to the finer details necessary for controlled flaking. PMID:23359287

Rein, Robert; Bril, Blandine; Nonaka, Tetsushi

2013-04-01

433

Primary Bile Duct Stones and Bacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

The results of this study suggest that infection with beta-glucuronidase active bacteria is the initial event in the nucleation of primary bile duct stones (PBDS). PBDS from five patients were morphologically fragile and “earthy” with alternating light and dark brown pigment layers with no evidence of a distinct central nucleus that may have been reminiscent of a different structure. Chemically, calcium bilirubinate and calcium palmitate were prominent throughout their structure. All bile duct biles had a positive culture and were always associated with at least one bacterial species which was beta-glucuronidase active. Moreover, fragments of PBDS nuclear areas had positive cultures that were comparable with those present in their individual bile duct bile. Microscopic examination of bile showed abundant precipitation of calcium bilirubinate granules in all samples. Thus, bile duct bile infection with beta-glucuronidase active bacteria (e.g. E. coli, C. perfringens) appears to be a key factor in PBDS pathogenesis, having a precursor role, rather than being a consequence. Bile stasis is likely to be a co-factor which must have a supportive role in subsequent stone growth. PMID:1467314

Sali, Avni

1992-01-01

434

Metallurgical effects on titanium by laser welding on dental stone.  

PubMed

It is not known for certain that dental stone components influence titanium welding. In this study, we investigated metallurgical problems caused by laser welding on dental stones using wrought commercial pure (CP) titanium. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiated a number of specimens' surfaces which were fixed on either a dental hard stone or a titanium plate. The metallurgical properties of the weld were evaluated using the Vickers hardness test, microstructure observation, fractured surface observation and quantitative analysis of oxygen and hydrogen. In the weld formed on the dental stone there was an increase in hardness, the existence of an acicular structure and a brittle fractured surface, and an increase in the oxygen and hydrogen concentrations compared with base metal. In the weld formed on the titanium plate, these changes were not observed. Therefore, it was demonstrated that laser welding on dental stones made the welds brittle. PMID:15005234

Fujioka, Sonosuke; Kakimoto, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Taro; Okazaki, Joji; Komasa, Yutaka

2003-12-01

435

Percutaneous Renal Stone Manipulation—A Nonoperative Alternative  

PubMed Central

Nephrostomy tube tracts, established operatively or percutaneously, can provide access to stones in the upper urinary tract. A variety of rigid or flexible urologic instruments can be used to percutaneously disintegrate or extract calculi, thus sparing a patient an operative procedure. This is most important in the case of high-risk patients, those previously operated upon or those who have active nephrolithiasis, in whom recurrent stones are prone to form. Our early experience in percutaneous renal stone disintegration and stone manipulation enabled us to remove most (in four patients) or all (again in four patients) calculi in nine patients. The procedure offers lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay and earlier return to employment than conventional operative stone procedures. Images PMID:6880184

Kahn, Robert I.

1983-01-01

436

Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates  

E-print Network

Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

2012-01-01

437

Determinants of Brushite Stone Formation: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The occurrence of brushite stones has increased during recent years. However, the pathogenic factors driving the development of brushite stones remain unclear. Methods Twenty-eight brushite stone formers and 28 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Anthropometric, clinical, 24 h urinary parameters and dietary intake from 7-day weighed food records were assessed. Results Pure brushite stones were present in 46% of patients, while calcium oxalate was the major secondary stone component. Urinary pH and oxalate excretion were significantly higher, whereas urinary citrate was lower in patients as compared to healthy controls. Despite lower dietary intake, urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher in brushite stone patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed pH>6.50 (OR 7.296; p?=?0.035), calcium>6.40 mmol/24 h (OR 25.213; p?=?0.001) and citrate excretion <2.600 mmol/24 h (OR 15.352; p?=?0.005) as urinary risk factors for brushite stone formation. A total of 56% of patients exhibited distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Urinary pH, calcium and citrate excretion did not significantly differ between patients with or without dRTA. Conclusions Hypercalciuria, a diminished citrate excretion and an elevated pH turned out to be the major urinary determinants of brushite stone formation. Interestingly, urinary phosphate was not associated with urolithiasis. The increased urinary oxalate excretion, possibly due to decreased calcium intake, promotes the risk of mixed stone formation with calcium oxalate. Neither dietary factors nor dRTA can account as cause for hypercalciuria, higher urinary pH and diminished citrate excretion. Further research is needed to define the role of dRTA in brushite stone formation and to evaluate the hypothesis of an acquired acidification defect. PMID:24265740

Siener, Roswitha; Netzer, Linda; Hesse, Albrecht

2013-01-01

438

Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

Kracht, Jonathan M.

439

Graven Lives of Hagar and Daisy: Images of Feminine Depression in Laurence's The Stone Angel and Shield's Stone Diaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian women's writing illustrates a pathology that, while not of nationalist origins, is gender-specific. Female characters in works such as the eerily similar Stone Diaries by Carol Shields, and The Stone Angel, by Margaret Laurence, suffer in fact, from feminine depression, an often debilitating condition which women today experience in epidemic proportions.\\u000aCurrent reseal\\

Carol Megan Davies

1998-01-01

440

Contrasting histopathology and crystal deposits in kidneys of idiopathic stone formers who produce hydroxy apatite, brushite, or calcium oxalate stones.  

PubMed

Our previous work has shown that stone formers who form calcium phosphate (CaP) stones that contain any brushite (BRSF) have a distinctive renal histopathology and surgical anatomy when compared with idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF). Here we report on another group of idiopathic CaP stone formers, those forming stone containing primarily hydroxyapatite, in order to clarify in what ways their pathology differs from BRSF and ICSF. Eleven hydroxyapatite stone formers (HASF) (2 males, 9 females) were studied using intra-operative digital photography and biopsy of papillary and cortical regions to measure tissue changes associated with stone formation. Our main finding is that HASF and BRSF differ significantly from each other and that both differ greatly from ICSF. Both BRSF and ICSF patients have significant levels of Randall's plaque compared with HASF. Intra-tubular deposit number is greater in HASF than BRSF and nonexistent in ICSF while deposit size is smaller in HASF than BRSF. Cortical pathology is distinctly greater in BRSF than HASF. Four attached stones were observed in HASF, three in 25 BRSF and 5-10 per ICSF patient. HASF and BRSF differ clinically in that both have higher average urine pH, supersaturation of CaP, and calcium excretion than ICSF. Our work suggests that HASF and BRSF are two distinct and separate diseases and both differ greatly from ICSF. PMID:24478243

Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Sommer, Andre J; Phillips, Carrie L; Williams, James C; Coe, Fredric L

2014-04-01

441

Assessment of a formulation designed to be crush-resistant in prescription opioid abusers  

PubMed Central

Background The extent of intranasal and intravenous prescription opioid abuse has led to the development of formulations that are difficult to crush. The purpose of the present studies was to examine whether experienced prescription opioid abusers (individuals who were using prescription opioids for non-medical purposes regardless of how they were obtained) were able to prepare a formulation of oxymorphone hydrochloride ER 40 mg designed to be crush-resistant (DCR) for intranasal (Study 1) or intravenous abuse (Study 2), utilizing a non-crush-resistant formulation of oxymorphone (40 mg; OXM) as a positive control. Methods No drug was administered in these studies. Participants were provided with DCR and OXM tablets in random order and asked to prepare them for abuse with tools/solutions that they had previously requested. The primary outcome for Study 1 was particle size distribution, and the primary outcome for Study 2 was percent yield of active drug in the extracts. Other descriptive variables were examined to better understand potential responses to these formulations. Results Fewer DCR than OXM particles were smaller than 1.705 mm (9.8% vs. 97.7%), and thus appropriate for analyses. Percent yield of active drug in extract was low and did not differ between the two formulations (DCR: 1.95%; OXM: 1.29%). Most participants were not willing to snort (92%) or inject (84%) the tampered products. Participants indicated that they found less relative value in the DCR than the OXM formulation across both studies. Conclusions Although there are safety issues associated with formulations that gel, these data suggest that the oxymorphone DCR formulations may be a promising technology for reducing opioid abuse. PMID:22721679

Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Jones, Jermaine D.; Manubay, Jeanne M.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Benedek, Irma H.; Comer, Sandra D.

2013-01-01

442

Selective batch crushing in the coal-preparation shop at OAO NTMK  

SciTech Connect

In September 2004, after reconstruction at OAO Nizhnetagil'skii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (NTMK), blast furnace 6 went into operation for the production of vanadium from hot metal. At the startup of furnace 6, besides optimising its composition; it was decided to restore selective crushing of the coal batch using pneumatic and mechanical separation in the third unit of the coal preparation shop. Additional increase in the mechanical strength of coke by 1.5-2.0% was predicted with a 0.5-1.0% decrease in wear.

N.A. Berkutov; Yu.V. Stepanov; P.V. Shtark; L.A. Makhortova; N.K. Popova; D.A. Koshkarov; N.V. Tsarev [OAO Nizhnetagil'skii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (NTMK)(Russian Federation)

2007-05-15

443

Pneumatic v electrokinetic lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral stones.  

PubMed

Recently, a new device (Combilith) for electrokinetic lithotripsy (EKL) has become available which is very similar to the well-known device for pneumatic (ballistic) lithotripsy (Swiss Lithoclast). The Lithoclast uses air pressure to push a projectile within the handpiece against the end of a metal probe, which is thereby accelerated and thrown like a jackhammer against the stone. In principle, the same stroking movement of a small metal probe is provided by EKL; the difference is that instead of a projectile, a magnetic core within the handpiece is accelerated by the electromagnetic principle. This paper compares the clinical efficacy and the features of the two devices. Testing the devices on a stone model, taking into account stone propulsion, the systems turned out to equally effective regarding stone disintegration. However, stone displacement was more pronounced with the Lithoclast applied on easily breaking stones. In a second experiment, an optoelectronic movement-measuring apparatus (Zimmer camera) was employed to measure the range and velocity of the movement of the probe tip without any contact. The linear acceleration velocity ranged from 5 to a maximum of 12.5 m/sec with both systems, but the maximum height of the stroke was 2.5 mm with the Lithoclast and 1 mm with EKL. After the initial break-up of soft stones, further impact of the probe tip against the stone resulted merely in propulsion; thus, the greater probe stroke height is the cause of the stone displacement. In a clinical trial, 22 ureteral stones were treated with the Lithoclast and 35 with the EKL. The two devices were equally effective in terms of stone disintegration and safety margin. Fixation using a Dormia basket was necessary in 12 cases (8 Lithoclast, 4 EKL). Although a difference in probe stroke height was noted when comparing pneumatic and electrokinetic lithotripsy, there were no clinically significant differences in the efficacy of stone fragmentation or stone-free rates. At the current time, EKL is less costly. PMID:9658292

Vorreuther, R; Klotz, T; Heidenreich, A; Nayal, W; Engelmann, U

1998-06-01

444

Aggregative combinatorics: An introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper,is an exploratory,introduction,to issues surrounding,the combinatorial,expressiv- ity and,computational,complexity,of weakly,aggregative,modal,logic (WAL) – the latter insofar as it relates to the former, but also more generally. We begin by showing how WAL allows us to define a natural,hierarchy,of (recognition) optimization,problems,not generally available in logics as strong,as K. In this respect we illustrate that an important,advantage,of the Ag- gregative Programme in

Tara Nicholson; Martin Allen

445

Inhibitors of stone formation in hypercalciuric children with and without stone disease.  

PubMed

The extretion of two inhibitors of urinary stone formation (citrate, magnesium) was evaluated in 71 hypercalciuric children and 50 controls. Patients were classified into two groups: 42 nonstone former (NSF), 22 boys and 20 girls, 3-14 years old, and 29 stone formers (SF), 18 boys and 11 girls, 2.5-18 years old. Our study was unable to show significant differences in magnesium and citrate urinary outputs between controls and patient groups. The Mg/Ca ratio was found significantly lower in hypercalcuric children than in controls (p less than 0.001), but not between NSF and SF patients. Our data demonstrated that both NSF and SF groups had a significantly lower citrate/Ca ratio than controls (p less than 0.001), also it was lower in SF than in NSF (p less than 0.05). We found no significant difference in citrate excretion between boys and girls neither in patients nor in controls. PMID:1499630

al-Qadreh, A; Athanasopoulou, H; Voskaki, I

1992-01-01

446

Stabilization of Submicron Calcium Oxalate Suspension by Chondroitin Sulfate C May Be an Efficient Protection from Stone Formation  

PubMed Central

The influences of chondroitin sulfate C (C6S) on size, aggregation, sedimentation, and Zeta potential of sub-micron calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystallites with mean sizes of about 330?nm were investigated using an X-ray diffractometer, nanoparticle size Zeta potential analyzer, ultraviolet spectrophotometer, and scanning electron microscope, after which the results were compared with those of micron-grade crystals. C6S inhibited the conversion of COD to COM and the aggregation of COM and COD crystallitesis; it also decreased their sedimentation rate, thus increasing their stability in aqueous solution. The smaller the size of the COD crystallites, the easier they can be converted to COM. The stability of sub-micron COD was worse than that of micron-grade crystals. C6S can inhibit the formation of calcium oxalate stones. PMID:24382950

Li, Jun-Jun; Xue, Jun-Fa; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2013-01-01

447

Stabilization of submicron calcium oxalate suspension by chondroitin sulfate C may be an efficient protection from stone formation.  

PubMed

The influences of chondroitin sulfate C (C6S) on size, aggregation, sedimentation, and Zeta potential of sub-micron calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystallites with mean sizes of about 330?nm were investigated using an X-ray diffractometer, nanoparticle size Zeta potential analyzer, ultraviolet spectrophotometer, and scanning electron microscope, after which the results were compared with those of micron-grade crystals. C6S inhibited the conversion of COD to COM and the aggregation of COM and COD crystallitesis; it also decreased their sedimentation rate, thus increasing their stability in aqueous solution. The smaller the size of the COD crystallites, the easier they can be converted to COM. The stability of sub-micron COD was worse than that of micron-grade crystals. C6S can inhibit the formation of calcium oxalate stones. PMID:24382950

Li, Jun-Jun; Xue, Jun-Fa; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2013-01-01

448

Crazy Stone wins First UEC Cup 1 Crazy Stone wins First UEC Cup  

E-print Network

in Amsterdam, took the third and first places. Hiroshi Yamashita rewrote Aya to use Monte-Carlo algorithms Program 1 2 3 4 5 S SOS SB MD 1 Crazy Stone + agou + GGMC + GNU + care + MoGo 5 18 18 12 2 Aya + GOGA + Eye + Coza + mart + Mayo - Aya 4 12 7 4 7 Shikousakugo + Cass + Igop + boon - MoGo - GNU 3 14 5 2 8

Coulom, Rémi - Groupe de Recherche sur l'Apprentissage Automatique, Université Charles de Gaulle

449

Range-Aggregate Queries Involving Geometric Aggregation Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we consider range-aggregate query problems wherein we wish to preprocess a set S of geometric objects such that given a query orthogonal range q, a certain aggregation function on the objects S? = S ? q can be answered efficiently. Range-aggregate version of point enclosure queries, 1-d segment intersection, 2-d orthogonal\\u000a segment intersection (with\\/without distance constraint) are

Saladi Rahul; Ananda Swarup Das; K. S. Rajan; Kannan Srinathan

2011-01-01

450

Impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in a large group of Austrian patients with urolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate retrospectively the impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in 253 patients with urolithiasis. Material and methods CT scans were performed in 253 patients with suspected urinary stone disease from 2008 to 2010 using CT–Scanner Siemens, SOMATOM, Sensation 64. One experienced radiologist (A.L) who was blinded to the chemical composition of the stones retrospectively reviewed images and analyzed data to determine the composition of the stones. The results were compared with the biochemical analysis results obtained by infrared spectroscopy (100 FTIR, PerkinElmer). Results 253 consecutive patients from 2008 to 2010 were included into analysis: 189 males, and 64 females. Mean age was 51.2. According to stone volume, stones were divided into 2 groups: 126 stones with volume of 4.3 mm or more, 127 stones with volume less than 4.3 mm. There was a significant relationship between stone volume and its CT attenuation only in stones with a volume 4.3 mm or more (p <0.05). Conclusions We failed to show a significant relationship between stone volume and its attenuations in Hounsfield units. We could not distinguish uric acid stones from non uric acid stones.

Patzak, Johanna; Lutfi, Andre; Pummer, Karl; Augustin, Herbert

2014-01-01

451

Experimental Study of the Possibility to Make a Mortar with Ternary Sand (Natural and Artificial Fine Aggregates)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experimental study investigates the possibility to make a mortar with a ternary sand (natural and artificial fine aggregates). This method is utilized to correct the particle size distribution of various sands used in mortar. For this investigation, three sands have been used: a dune sand (DS), a slag sand (SS), and brick sand (BS) at different proportions in mortar. After crushing, the artificial fine aggregate (blast furnace slag and waste brick fine aggregate) was sifted in order to use it as fine aggregate. The effect of the quality and grain size distribution of natural fine aggregate (i.e., DS) and artificial fine aggregates (i.e., SS and BS) on the physical properties of ternary sand confected (density, porosity, fineness modulus, equivalent sand, particle size distribution, water absorption) and properties of fresh and hardened mortar were analysed. In the same way for this study, the physical properties and chemical compositions of DS, SS, BS and cement were investigated. The results obtained show that the mechanical strength on mortar depends of the nature and particle size distribution of sand studied. The reuse of this recycled material (slag blast furnace and waste brick) in the industry would contribute to the protection of the environment. This study shows the potential of this method to make mortar with ternary sand (natural and artificial fine aggreagates) in order to improve the physical properties of sand. Utilising natural and artificial fine aggregates to produce quality mortar should yield significant environmental benefits.

Baali, L.; Naceri, A.; Rahmouni, Z.; Mehidi, M. W. Noui

452

Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?  

PubMed

Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions. PMID:22909910

Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

2012-01-01

453

Injury experience in stone mining, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

Not Available

1994-05-01

454

Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is everywhere evident. The ceilings of houses there are with artistic works and ornaments of different times. Houses are of balconies with balustrades, and from characteristic windows are hanging down flowers. Architecture feature of Medieval period, there are symbolised in most of houses and in Qafa e Pazarit ("Bazaar Pass"), where are crossed all roads of the ancient City. From the Fortress below your foots there are different parts of stone City. If you like to be astonished, please, get up to the Keculla Point and watch the Stone City, Drinos Valley, and Lunxheria Mountains! In Gjirokastra Region there are Antigonea Archaeological Park and Sofratika Amphitheatre. Gjirokastra has a very rich geoheritage and bioheritage such as: Viroi artesian spring, Skotini Cave, Cajupi Field Landscape etc. Since 1961, Gjirokastra was proclaimed Museum City under the protection, and on 2005 was included in UNESCO World Cultural Heritage.

Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

2013-04-01

455

Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation in the Inner Ear as a Result of an Slc26a4 Mutation*?  

PubMed Central

Calcium oxalate stone formation occurs under pathological conditions and accounts for more than 80% of all types of kidney stones. In the current study, we show for the first time that calcium oxalate stones are formed in the mouse inner ear of a genetic model for hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction in humans. The vestibular system within the inner ear is dependent on extracellular tiny calcium carbonate minerals for proper function. Thousands of these biominerals, known as otoconia, are associated with the utricle and saccule sensory maculae and are vital for mechanical stimulation of the sensory hair cells. We show that a missense mutation within the Slc26a4 gene abolishes the transport activity of its encoded protein, pendrin. As a consequence, dramatic changes in mineral composition, size, and shape occur within the utricle and saccule in a differential manner. Although abnormal giant carbonate minerals reside in the utricle at all ages, in the saccule, a gradual change in mineral composition leads to a formation of calcium oxalate in adult mice. By combining imaging and spectroscopy tools, we determined the profile of mineral composition and morphology at different time points. We propose a novel mechanism for the accumulation and aggregation of oxalate crystals in the inner ear. PMID:20442411

Dror, Amiel A.; Politi, Yael; Shahin, Hashem; Lenz, Danielle R.; Dossena, Silvia; Nofziger, Charity; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Paulmichl, Markus; Weiner, Steve; Avraham, Karen B.

2010-01-01

456

Symptomatic and silent gall stones in the community.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gall stone disease in a stratified random sample of 1896 British adults (72.2% of those approached) was established using real time ultrasound. The prevalence rose with age, except in women of 40-49 years, so that at 60-69 years, 22.4% of women and 11.5% of men had gall stones or had undergone cholecystectomy. The cholecystectomy rate of people with gall stone disease was higher in women than in men (43.5% v 24%, p less than 0.05). Very few subjects with gall stones had convincing biliary symptoms. In women, 10.4% had symptoms according to a questionnaire definition of biliary pain and 6.3% according to conventional history taking, while no men at all admitted to biliary pain. Nevertheless, cholecystectomy in men had nearly always been preceded by convincing biliary symptoms. The age at cholecystectomy was, on average, nine years less than the age at detection of silent gall stones in both sexes. It is concluded that either gall stones are especially prone to cause symptoms in younger people or that there are two kinds of cholelithiasis - symptomatic and silent. The lack of symptomatic gall stones in cross sectional surveys is probably due to their rapid diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2013429

Heaton, K W; Braddon, F E; Mountford, R A; Hughes, A O; Emmett, P M

1991-01-01

457

Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n?=?7), sham (n?=?25), and crush (n?=?25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ?T in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo