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1

Operation and Maintenance of Particulate Control Devices in Kraft Pulp Mill and Crushed Stone Industries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Control of fine particulate emissions from selected kraft pulp mill and stone crushing facilities is addressed. The principal devices considered are electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. Guidelines are provided for industrial per...

M. F. Szabo R. W. Gerstle

1978-01-01

2

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES IN KRAFT PULP MILL AND CRUSHED STONE INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of fine particulate emissions from selected kraft pulp mill and stone crushing facilities is addressed. The principal devices considered are electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. Guidelines are provided for industrial personnel responsible for se...

3

Crystal aggregation in kidney stones; a polymer aggregation problem?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones most frequently form as aggregates of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with organic layers between them, and the organic layers contain principally proteins. The pathway leading to the formation of these crystal aggregates in affected people has not been identified, but stone forming patients are thought to have a defect in the structure or distribution of urinary proteins, which normally protect against stone formation. We have developed two polyelectrolyte models that will induce COM crystal aggregation in vitro, and both are consistent with possible urinary protein compositions. The first model was based on mixing polyanionic and polycationic proteins, in portions such that the combined protein charge is near zero. The second model was based on reducing the charge density on partially charged polyanionic proteins, specifically Tamm-Horsfall protein, the second most abundant protein in urine. Both models demonstrated polymer phase separation at solution conditions where COM crystal aggregation was observed. Correlation with data from other bulk crystallization measurements suggest that the anionic side chains form critical binding interactions with COM surfaces that are necessary along with the phase separation process to induce COM crystal aggregation.

Wesson, J.; Beshensky, A.; Viswanathan, P.; Zachowicz, W.; Kleinman, J.

2008-03-01

4

Exposure to particulate matter on an Indian stone-crushing site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives:A large number of labourers work in the stone-crushing industry in India. Many of these workers are also exposed to high levels of particulate matter in their homes from the use of biomass fuels. As part of our investigations to examine the health of these workers we characterised their exposure to respirable crystalline silica and a number of other particulate

S Semple; D A Green; G McAlpine; H Cowie; A Seaton

2008-01-01

5

Crushed cement concrete substitution for construction aggregates; a materials flow analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analysis of the substitution of crushed cement concrete for natural construction aggregates is performed by using a materials flow diagram that tracks all material flows into and out of the cement concrete portion of the products made with cement concrete: highways, roads, and buildings. Crushed cement concrete is only one of the materials flowing into these products, and the amount of crushed cement concrete substituted influences the amount of other materials in the flow. Factors such as availability and transportation costs, as well as physical properties, that can affect stability and finishability, influence whether crushed cement concrete or construction aggregates should be used or predominate for a particular end use.

Kelly, Thomas

1998-01-01

6

Exposure to respirable particulates and silica in and around the stone crushing units in central India.  

PubMed

Stone crushing unit workers suffer from particulate matters and respirable silica at work and in their residents nearby. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the area and personal exposure concentration of respirable particulate matters and silica in workplaces and in surrounding villages. PM(10), PM(4) and PM(2.5) were considered for unit area measurement and PM(4) and PM(2.5) were considered for personal exposure measurements. The ambient PM(10) and indoor respirable particulate sampling and analyses were carried out in two neighboring villages adjacent to a cluster of 100 stone crushing units in central India. The study was conducted in two years with varied seasons to provide baseline data on the existing particulate concentration with and without control intervention. Monitoring and analytical criteria were fulfilled according to the National Institute for Occupational safety and Health (NIOSH), USA protocol. The study reports the higher particulates and respirable silica with respect to the national and international guidelines in and around the study units. However, in nearby villages, the particulate concentrations and silica were comparatively less. An innovative dust abatement dry engineering control system was installed as a pilot work to reduce dust emission from the unit and the results afterward were found to be encouraging. PMID:21173527

Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Ramani, Raghunathan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Sadasivam, Arulselvan; Kumar, Pramod; Prasad, Shyam Narayan; Sambandam, Sankar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

2010-12-16

7

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

Langer, W. H.; Tepordei, V. V.; Bolen, W. P.

2000-01-01

8

Langaton pysaeytysjaerjestelmae asfaltti- ja kivimurskausasemien turvalaitteena. (Wireless stopping system as safety device on asphalt and stone crushing plants).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to develop a reliable wireless stopping system to be used as safety device on asphalt and stone crushing plants. A couple of commercial remote control systems were tested and it was founded out that they were not reliable ...

R. Tiusanen M. Kivipuro

1991-01-01

9

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...crushed or broken prior to the extraction of a mineral are elsewhere covered. The processing of calcite, however, in conjunction with the processing of crushed and broken limestone or dolomite is included in this...

2010-07-01

10

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...crushed or broken prior to the extraction of a mineral are elsewhere covered. The processing of calcite, however, in conjunction with the processing of crushed and broken limestone or dolomite is included in this...

2009-01-01

11

The Properties of Mortar Mixtures Blended with Natural, Crushed, and Recycled Fine Aggregates for Building Construction Materials  

SciTech Connect

In this research, the possible applicability of fine aggregates blended with natural, crushed, and recycled fine aggregate are discussed. The fresh and hardened properties of mortar using blended fine aggregates are monitored depending on various blending ratio of fine aggregates. Newly developed ternary diagram was also utilized for better interpretation of the data. It was found that air content increased and unit weight decreased as recycled fine aggregate content increased. With moisture type processing of recycled fine aggregate, the mortar flow was not negatively affected by increase in the recycled fine aggregate content. The ternary diagram is found to be an effective graphical presentation tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of mortar using blended fine aggregate.

Yu, Myoung-Youl; Lee, Jae-Yong; Chung, Chul-Woo

2012-01-12

12

An application of goal programming to production planning in the crushed stone industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems facing the aggragate stone industry in Zambia such as low capacity utilization, failure to meet customer requirements, unnecessarily high operating costs, poor inventory control practices, heavy borrowing and overall poor economic performance are as a result of subjective decision-making related to production planning. This is also true of the industry in nearly all member countries of the SADDC(Southern

E. C. K. Chanda

1990-01-01

13

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

Tepordei, V. V.

1995-01-01

14

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

Bolen, W. P.; Tepordei, V. V.

2001-01-01

15

Effects of Some Factors on the Strength and Stiffness of Crushed Concrete Aggregate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of consolidated drained triaxial compression (TC) tests were performed on a crushed concrete aggregate (CCA) compacted using three different levels of energy. A wide range of moulding water content, w, and two different confining pressures were employed. The compressive strength and stiffness of the tested CCA when highly compacted at water content close or slightly higher than the optimum value, w opt, were very high, higher than those of a typical natural well-graded gravelly soil having similar grading characteristics used as the backfill material of highest quality. The compressive strength and stiffness of the tested CCA was not highly sensitive to changes in w, in particular when w ? w opt, but it decreased sharply when w became lower than w opt. The strength and stiffness was very sensitive to compaction energy, therefore the degree of compaction. All the test results show that highly compacted CCA can be used as the backfill material for important civil engineering soil structures, such as retaining walls and bridge abutments, that need a high stability while allowing limited deformation.

Lovati, L.; Tatsuoka, F.; Tomita, Y.

16

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

Tepordei, V. V.

1994-01-01

17

The assessment of particulate matter emitted from stone-crushing industry by correlating rock textures with particles generated after comminution and dispersed in air environment.  

PubMed

The generation and emission of particulate matter from abrasion industry are subjects of the pollution monitoring by multidisciplinary study involving earth sciences and engineering disciplines. This work investigates the correlation between textural properties of in situ rock with class size distribution and morphology of particles generated after rock comminution and particles emitted in the air. A special comminution-dust sampling architecture was realised. The combined use of scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser was considered in performing digital image analysis on both crushed products and airborne particles collected onto membrane filters. The results show that the size and morphology of crushed particles are linked to the petrographic rock properties. In particular, particles with fibrous morphology are prominent in rocks showing foliated textures where elongated minerals occurred, with implication for asbestos-bearing rocks. For what concerns the airborne particles, the results show that their aerodynamic diameters are independent of the crusher operating conditions. External parameters probably intervene in the distribution of the airborne particles emission, including the dynamic air fluxes, or environmental conditions. By applying mathematical models, the morphology and size range of airborne particles following the comminution processes can be predicted, and results has implication for pollutants contamination due to particulate matters emitted by crush stone industry. PMID:23292201

Belardi, Girolamo; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Plescia, Paolo; Passeri, Luciano

2013-01-05

18

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

Nelson, T. I.; Bolen, W. P.

2007-01-01

19

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

Tepordei, V. V.

1996-01-01

20

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

Tepordei, V. V.

1993-01-01

21

Comparison of properties of steel slag and crushed limestone aggregate concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. This by-product that mainly consists of calcium carbonate is broken down to smaller sizes to be used as aggregates in asphalt and concrete. They are particularly useful in areas where good-quality aggregate is scarce. This research study was conducted to evaluate the

M Maslehuddin; Alfarabi M Sharif; M Shameem; M Ibrahim; M. S Barry

2003-01-01

22

Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react adversely when used as concrete aggregate. In areas where suitable natural aggregate is not available or accessible, it may become necessary to improve the quality of existing aggregate, to import aggregate from outside the area, or to substitute artificial aggregate for natural aggregate. In most cases, all of these alternatives add substantially to the cost of the final product. Even though an area may be blessed with an abundance of aggregate suitable for the intended purpose, existing land uses, zoning, or regulations may preclude commercial exploitation of the aggregate. This report also discusses the aggregate industry in general terms, including exploration, mining, and processing, as well as aggregate production rates. Proper long-range planning based on an understanding of the aggregate industry can help assure adequate supplies of aggregate.

Langer, William H.

1988-01-01

23

Prediction of properties of waste AAC aggregate concrete using artificial neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, waste crushed autoclaved aerated concrete aggregates are used as crushed stone in concrete production which have two different sizes in the range of (4–16) and (16–31.5)mm in diameter. Unit weight, cylindrical compressive strength and ultrasound pulse velocity of hardened concrete are determined experimentally for waste autoclaved aerated concrete aggregate concrete types and dynamic elasticity modulus of these

?lker Bekir Topçu; Mustafa Sar?demir

2007-01-01

24

A Laboratory Evaluation of the Influence of Crushed Stone, Aggregate Top Size and Binder Type on AETM Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study reports the findings of a laboratory investigation to determine the effect of selected parameters on asphalt emulsion treated mixtures (AETM). The modified Marshall method developed by Dr. Gadallah was used as the evaluation criteria throughout...

B. V. Saxton

1977-01-01

25

Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

1998-01-01

26

A brief review of the construction aggregates market  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and/or construction sand and gravel. Aggregates have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of purposes - construction being the major use. As construction aggregates, crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the basic raw materials used to build the foundation for modern society. The widespread use of construction aggregates is the result of their general availability throughout the country and around the world along with their relatively low cost. Although construction aggregates have a low unit value, their widespread use makes them major contributors to, and indicators of, the economic well-being of the nation.

Willett, Jason Christopher

2012-01-01

27

Crushing Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners design a crushing test and discover that identifying and controlling the variables may be difficult. Although the crushing test will not give conclusive results, it is a good opportunity to discuss variables and why they are sometimes difficult to control. This crushing test is also a good example of how a particular test does not always give enough information to answer a question. This is a follow-up to the activity called "Curious Crystals," in which learners investigate crystals and their properties to identify an unknown crystal.

Kessler, James H.; Galvan, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

28

Crush Grinding  

SciTech Connect

Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

T. Q. Nguyen

2005-04-01

29

Attraction of Carpophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) to synthetic aggregation pheromones and host-related coattractants in Australian stone fruit orchards: Beetle phenology and pheromone dose studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic aggregation pheromones ofCarpophilus hemipterus (L.) andCarpophilus mutilatus Erichson were field tested during a 10-month period in southern New South Wales stone fruit orchards to determineCarpophilus spp. phenology and the effect of two pheromone doses on attraction. Aggregation pheromones synergize the attraction of host volatiles toCarpophilus spp. Four major species,C. hemipterus, C. mutilatus, C. davidsoni Dobson andC. (Urophorus) humeralis (F.),

David G. James; Robert J. Bartelt; Richard J. Faulder

1994-01-01

30

A look at construction aggregates production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Construction aggregates are defined as the combination of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Aggregates are one of the most accessible natural resources on Earth and one of the fundamental building blocks of our society. They have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of applications that have increased in number and complexity with time and technological progress. Despite the relatively low but increasing unit value of its basic products, the construction aggregates industry is a major contributor to and an indicator of the economic well-being of the nation.

Willett, Jason Christopher

2009-01-01

31

[Crush syndrome].  

PubMed

Crush injuries and crush syndrome are common after natural (e.g. earthquake, land-slide, tornadoes, tsunami) or man-made catastrophes (e.g. wars, terrorist attacks), in fact the history of this disease is well reported both in earthquake rescue reviews and in military literature. However, there are instances due to conventional causes, such as building collapses, road traffic accident, accident at work or altered level of consciousness after stroke or drug overdose. These situations of ''big or small'' catastrophes can occur at any time and anywhere, for this reason every clinician should be prepared to address issues of crush syndrome quickly and aggressively. The treatment has to manage and to predict clinical conditions before they present themselves. In particular, acute renal failure is one of the few life-threatening complications that can be reversed. This article reviews the various evidences and summarizes the treatment strategies available. Fundamental targets in crush syndrome management are early aggressive hydration, urine alkalinization and, when possible, forced diuresis. Since electrolyte imbalance may be fatal due to arrhythmias secondary to hyperkalemia (especially associated with hypocalcemia), it's necessary to correct these abnormalities using insulin-glucose solution and/or potassium binders, and if nevertheless serum potassium levels remain high this serious disease will necessitate dialysis, which is often a vital procedure. PMID:17641588

Scapellato, S; Maria, S; Castorina, G; Sciuto, G

2007-08-01

32

Geologic and societal factors affecting the international oceanic transport of aggregate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregate, and together comprise approximately half the volume and tonnage of mined material in the United States. Natural aggregate is a bulky, heavy material without special or unique properties, and it is commonly used near its source of production to minimize haulage cost. However, remoteness is no longer an absolute disqualifier for the production of aggregate. Today interstate aggregate routinely is shipped hundreds of kilometers by rail and barge. In addition, during 1992, the United States imported 1,317,000 metric tons of aggregate from Canada and 1,531,000 metric tons from Mexico. A number of ports on the Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States receive imports of crushed stone from foreign sources for transport to various parts of the eastern United States. These areas either lack adequate supplies of aggregate or are augmenting their supplies because they have difficulties meeting current demand. These difficulties may include poor stone quality, environmental permitting problems, or transportation. Certain societal and geologic conditions of New York City and Philadelphia along the Atlantic Coast, and Tampa and New Orleans along the Gulf Coast, are discussed to demonstrate the different combinations of issues that contribute to the economic viability of importing crushed stone. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

Langer, W. H.

1995-01-01

33

Equivalency of Crushed Rock with Industrial By-Products and Geosynthetic-Reinforced Aggregates Used for Working Platforms During Pavement Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was conducted to define an equivalency criterion for five materials used for working platforms during pavement construction on a poor subgrade: conventional crushed rock (referred to as 'breaker run') and four alternatives (i.e. Grade 2 granular b...

C. H. Benson T. B. Edil B. F. Tanyu W. H. Kim

2005-01-01

34

Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7.

Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

1980-01-01

35

Mechanisms of Stone Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed the general mechanisms involved in kidney stone formation, with reference to those composed of calcium oxalate\\u000a or phosphate, uric acid, and cystine. These processes include nucleation of individual crystals, aggregation or secondary\\u000a nucleation to produce small intrarenal multicrystalline aggregates, fixation within the kidney, and further aggregation and\\u000a secondary nucleation to produce the clinical stone. The factors regulating

Vishal N. Ratkalkar; Jack G. Kleinman

36

Urinary Stone Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is intriguing that despite marked abnormal urinary factors, most humans will not form stones. Alternatively, some patients\\u000a develop stones despite normal urinary composition. The key element, therefore, appears to be inhibition of the steps in calculogenesis\\u000a (nucleation, crystal growth, aggregation, and crystal\\/stone retention). Urolithiasis will not develop if any one of these\\u000a steps is blocked. Despite this simple fact,

Harrison M. Abrahams; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

37

The fracture characteristics of crushed limestone sand concrete  

SciTech Connect

The use of crushed sand as a fine aggregate has rapidly increased due to a shortage of river sand. Accordingly, research on crushed sand concrete is required. In this research, the fracture characteristics of crushed limestone sand concrete were experimentally investigated through a wedge splitting test, and the results were compared with those of crushed granite sand concrete and river sand concrete. The strength of crushed limestone sand concrete was also investigated. It was shown that the fracture energy of concrete was little influenced by the type of fine aggregate. In addition, the fracture energy of crushed sand concrete was slightly higher than that of river sand concrete. This seems to be due to very fine sand (VFS) included in crushed sand, which tends to improve the cohesion between cement paste and aggregate. Also, the fracture energy was not proportionally increased with an increase of concrete strength. The characteristic length of crushed limestone sand concrete was almost the same as that of river sand concrete or crushed granite sand concrete. The characteristic length greatly decreased as the strength of concrete increased.

Kim, J.K.; Lee, C.S.; Park, C.K. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Eo, S.H. [Changwon National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-11-01

38

Recycled crushed glass in road work applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive suite of geotechnical laboratory tests was undertaken on samples of recycled crushed glass produced in Victoria, Australia. Three types of recycled glass sources were tested being coarse, medium and fine sized glass. Laboratory testing results indicated that medium and fine sized recycled glass sources exhibit geotechnical behavior similar to natural aggregates. Coarse recycled glass was however found to

M. M. Disfani; A. Arulrajah; M. W. Bo; R. Hankour

2011-01-01

39

Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 13/2012 1 Most stones are formed of calcium, a very common chemical in dairy products. Other ... decreasing the chances of stone formation. Patients with calcium stones should limit their intake of dairy products ...

40

Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.  

PubMed

Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks. PMID:19398196

Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

2009-04-26

41

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

42

Epidemiology and Incidence of Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stones are polycrystalline aggregates consisting of varying amounts of crystal and organic matrix components. Although\\u000a urolithiasis is inclusive of renal, ureteral, and bladder stones, the following discussion will pertain only to symptomatic\\u000a renal and ureteral stones, as they are the most common. The most common urinary stone types are calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate,\\u000a uric acid, struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate),

Joseph E. Dallera; Paramjit S. Chandhoke

43

Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened proposal where the county will gain 745 acres of new open space land in exchange for 60 acres of current open space land adjacent to the quarry. The process involved collaborative efforts by all stakeholders and resulted in an outcome that balances the needs of society, the environment, and business.

Langer, William H.; Tucker, M. L.

2003-01-01

44

[Calyceal stones].  

PubMed

The natural course of untreated, asymptomatic calyceal calculi has not yet been clearly defined regarding disease progression and risk of surgical interventions. The decision for an active treatment of calyceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the German (DGU) and European (EAU) Associations of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of calyceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate removal of stones is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone location and stone composition and can show remarkable differences. Minimally invasive procedures, such as percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of calyceal stones which have low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centres of excellence. PMID:23860670

Netsch, C; Gross, A J

2013-08-01

45

Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although state-of-the-art CT provides accurate sub millimeter details of the size and location of renal stones, current routine\\u000a clinical image analysis does not differentiate stone composition. This is particularly important in the case of uric acid\\u000a (UA) stones (?10% of cases), since urinary alkalinization can be prescribed to dissolve UA stones. Therefore, simple and reliable\\u000a differentiation of UA vs. non-UA

Andrew N. Primak; Terri J. Vrtiska; Mingliang Qu; Cynthia H. McCollough

46

Long-Term Performance of Stone Interlayer Pavement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation of long-term performance of an alternative flexible pavement design referred to here as stone interlayer pavement. This pavement design was introduced to reduce\\/defer reflective cracking experienced with soil-cement bases. The stone interlayer pavement consisted of a crushed limestone base on top of a cement-stabilized base. The performance of the stone interlayer pavement was compared to

Hani Titi; Masood Rasoulian; Mark Martinez; Byron Becnel; Gary Keel

2003-01-01

47

Dimension stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

Dolley, T. P.

2003-01-01

48

Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides a concise summary of the epidemiology, clinical significance, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and secondary\\u000a preventive, medical management of kidney stone disease. Specific emphasis is placed on the contribution of diet on kidney\\u000a stone risk and examples are given for potential dietary interventions to prevent kidney stones. Specific pharmacological therapies\\u000a with their corresponding pathophysiological mechanism of action are reviewed. A

Orfeas Liangos; Bertrand L. Jaber

49

The stones.  

PubMed

Various stones were examined by a combined electron microscopy. Morphological parameters of calcium oxalates and phosphates, struvite, urates, cystine, gypsum, siliceous deposits in urinary, prostatic and salivary calculi, and calcium carbonate in gallstones were defined. Study also disclosed that stones frequently contain organic crystals in addition to the organic matrix. Membranous cell debris was observed in the nuclei of small stones and were believed to be common nidus of various stones. In view of a very limited number of crystals occurring in human stones, which differ obviously in their habits and growth patterns, an expeditious identification of stone components is possible by scanning electron microscopy. SEM with x-ray analysis is a powerful tool for research and diagnosis of various stones. It is most suitable for the study of surface phenomena, such as crystal growth, detection of phenomena, such as crystal growth, detection of organic matrix and minor components of the stones, and is a wide open field for a further study. PMID:7184145

Kim, K M

1982-01-01

50

Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for living space has encroached on the sites of production; in other words, the act of production has engendered condemnation. Many other environmental problems that are associated with dust and noise and blasting from quarry and pit operations have been reduced through the efficient use of technology. Recycling concrete in buildings, bridges, and roads and asphaltic pavements will ultimately reduce the demand for virgin natural aggregate. The impact created by the large holes in the ground required for the mining of natural aggregate can be greatly reduced by planning their reclamation before mining begins. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Drew, L. J.; Langer, W. H.; Sachs, J. S.

2002-01-01

51

Kidney stones  

MedlinePLUS

... more common in men between age 20 - 30. Calcium can combine with other substances, such as oxalate (the most common substance), phosphate, or carbonate, to form the stone. Oxalate is present in ...

52

Floating Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN reference to Dr. Nordenskiold's communication re ``Floating Stones'' (No. 1577, vol. lxi.) it is a common thing to see grains of sand and small shells floating upon the waters of seas and estuaries, &c, when the surfaces are unagitated. The sand-grains must be dry; they are, therefore, only lifted and floated off by a rising tide after exposure to

Cecil Carus-Wilson

1900-01-01

53

Floating Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE correspondence on ``Floating Stones'' brings to my mind a phenomenon I often noticed about ten years ago, when my work caused me to spend a good deal of time on the upper reaches of the River Mersey, of patches of earth floating down the river on the surface of the water. This occurred during the early part of the

A. W. Brightmore

1900-01-01

54

Patio Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Technology Problem of the Week (tPoW) challenges students to count and extrapolate the number of paving stones tiling successive hexagonal rings in a patio tessellation. It links to the Java applet "Pattern Blocks." Solve and explain your solution; download hints and answer checks. Free registration is required.

Forum, The M.

1999-01-01

55

Recycled crushed glass in road work applications.  

PubMed

A comprehensive suite of geotechnical laboratory tests was undertaken on samples of recycled crushed glass produced in Victoria, Australia. Three types of recycled glass sources were tested being coarse, medium and fine sized glass. Laboratory testing results indicated that medium and fine sized recycled glass sources exhibit geotechnical behavior similar to natural aggregates. Coarse recycled glass was however found to be unsuitable for geotechnical engineering applications. Shear strength tests indicate that the fine and medium glass encompass shear strength parameters similar to that of natural sand and gravel mixtures comprising of angular particles. Environmental assessment tests indicated that the material meets the requirements of environmental protection authorities for fill material. The results were used to discuss potential usages of recycled glass as a construction material in geotechnical engineering applications particularly road works. PMID:21803560

Disfani, M M; Arulrajah, A; Bo, M W; Hankour, R

2011-07-30

56

Social Signals--Mike's Crush  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review discusses the unique audiovisual-based curriculum "Mike's Crush", by Nancy Nowell, and briefly describes the autism spectrum and its associated challenges. The review explores the curriculum's noteworthy approach to teaching social skills and recommends it as helpful material for all educators, especially for those working with…

Mitelman, Stephanie; Kohorn, Olivia Von

2012-01-01

57

21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed...

2013-04-01

58

Pathological changes in the thyroid gland in crush asphyxia.  

PubMed

To determine whether crush asphyxia may be associated with macro- and microscopic changes in the thyroid gland, four cases of death due to crush asphyxia were evaluated where the decedents (males aged 36, 37, 45, and 65 years respectively) suffered lethal chest compressions. The diagnosis of crush asphyxia in each case was suggested by the death scene description and confirmed by the finding of injuries to the torso, with marked congestion of the face, neck, and upper body associated with petechial and subconjunctival hemorrhages. In addition to other pathological findings, each decedent had intense congestion of their thyroid gland resulting in a dark/black appearance. Microscopically, stromal capillaries were engorged, with bulging of capillaries into the follicles. Rupture of these small vessels had created focal intrafollicular aggregates of erythrocytes within the colloid. As intense suffusion of the thyroid gland with blood in cases of crush asphyxia may impart an appearance of "black thyroid" this may be another feature of this condition to look for at autopsy, in addition to intrafollicular blood lakes on histology. PMID:23943304

Byard, Roger W

2013-08-13

59

The effects of crushing surface roughness on the crushing characteristics of composite tubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of crushing-surface roughness on the energy-absorption capability of graphite and glass-epoxy composite tubes were investigated. Fifty different combinations of fiber, matrix, and specimen ply orientation were evaluated. Two different crushing surface roughnesses were used in this investigation. Crushing surface significantly influences the energy-absorption capability only of tubes that crush in the lamina bending crushing mode; tubes that crush in other modes are not influenced because their lamina bundles do not slide against the crushing surface. Those tubes that crush in the lamina bending mode can achieve higher, lower, or no change in energy-absorption capability as crushing surface roughness increases. If the fiber failure strain of tubes that crush in the lamina bending crushing mode exceeds the matrix failure strain then the energy-absorption capability increases as crushing surface roughness increases. However, if the matrix failure strain exceeds the fiber failure strain then the energy-absorption capability increases as crushing surface roughness decreases. Energy-absorption capability is uninfluenced by crushing surface roughness for tubes that have equal fiber and matrix failure strains.

Farley, Gary L.; Wolterman, Richard L.; Kennedy, John M.

1992-07-01

60

Epidemiology of urinary stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stones are more common in men than in women. Stone formation in renal systems in one of the oldest and the most common form of crystal deposition. Population that consume diets rich in animal protein have a higher risk of stones than those with a more vegetarian diet. The risk of forming a stone is increased further by a high

G. Madhurambal; N. Prabha; S. Ponsadi Lakshmi; R. Valarmathi

2012-01-01

61

Addressing the crush of sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overall space information system involves sensing, processing, analyzing, and distributing space-acquired information. These systems may be partitioned into the spacecraft segment, the wideband space-to-ground communication segment, and the ground-based data analysis and distribution segment. The paper discusses NASA's advanced technology programs aimed at providing improved sensors and on-board data systems. Advances in charge-transfer devices, lasers, and microwave technologies will be responsible for major improvements in NASA's sensing and detection capabilities for future missions. These improvements will result in a future data crush that will amplify the data management problem.

Olstad, W. B.; Holcomb, L. B.; Rubin, B.

1980-05-01

62

Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the benefits to be gained by using a composite highway base course material consisting of recycled crushed concrete aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and a modest amount of reinforcing fibers. The primary objectives of this research were to (a) quantify the improvement that is obtained by adding fibers to a lean concrete composite (made from recycled aggregate and low quantities of Portland cement and/or fly ash), (b) evaluate the mechanical behavior of such a composite base course material under both static and repeated loads, and (c) utilize the laboratory-determined properties with a mechanistic design method to assess the potential advantages. The split tensile strength of a stabilized recycled aggregate base course material was found to be exponentially related to the compacted dry density of the mix. A lean mix containing 4% cement and 4% fly ash (by weight) develops sufficient unconfined compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths to be used as a high quality stabilized base course. The addition of 4% (by weight) of hooked-end steel fibers significantly enhances the post-peak load-deformation response of the composite in both indirect tension and static flexure. The flexural fatigue behavior of the 4% cement-4% fly ash mix is comparable to all commonly used stabilized materials, including regular concrete; the inclusion of 4% hooked-end fibers to this mix significantly improves its resistance to fatigue failure. The resilient moduli of stabilized recycled aggregate in flexure are comparable to the values obtained for traditional soil-cement mixes. In general, the fibers are effective in retarding the rate of fatigue damage accumulation, which is quantified in terms of a damage index defined by an energy-based approach. The thickness design curves for a stabilized recycled aggregate base course, as developed by using an elastic layer approach, is shown to be in close agreement with a theoretical model (based on Westergaard's assumptions for rigid pavements), which has been found to explain reasonably well the field behavior of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced concrete slabs on grade. Finally, a preliminary cost analysis demonstrated that the use of stabilized recycled aggregate instead of a standard crushed stone base course can result in a meaningful economic savings.

Sobhan, Khaled

63

Factors governing urinary tract stone disease.  

PubMed

Urinary stone formation depends on the degree of saturation of the urine with respect to potential stone-forming substances. Urine contains a range of electrolytes which ionise to different and variable degrees and which interact with one another in ways which influence their solubilities. These ionisations are themselves influenced by the pH of the urine which is another variable factor. Urinary organic molecules, which may or may not ionise and which may bear surface charges, also influence the solubility of the low molecular weight stone-constituents. Some other substances in the urine, such as glycosaminoglycans, can modify the ability of inorganic micro-crystals to aggregate and form stones. Environmental factors, other urinary tract pathology and genetic influences all predispose to urolithiasis, but many cases lack either an identifiable specific cause or the presence of recognisable risk factors. In the risk factor model of calcium stone formation there are pre-renal risk factors which lead to urinary risk factors and hence to the chemical risk factors of supersaturation and decreased ability to inhibit crystallisation. There are, in addition to these general factors which may act synergistically to produce urinary stones, several specific single enzyme defects which alter the urinary composition in such a way as to produce stones of a highly characteristic composition. PMID:2702116

Watts, R W

1989-07-01

64

Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL s experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages.

Feldman, Matthew R [ORNL

2011-01-01

65

Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation: Opportunities for the stone and cement industries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accelerated weathering of limestone appears to provide a low-tech, inexpensive, high-capacity, environmentally friendly CO2 mitigation method that could be applied to about 200 fossil fuel fired power plants and about eight cement plants located in coastal areas in the conterminous U.S. This approach could also help solve the problem of disposal of limestone waste fines in the crushed stone industry. Research and implementation of this technology will require new collaborative efforts among the crushed stone and cement industries, electric utilities, and the science and engineering communities.

Langer, William H.; San, Juan, A.; Rau, Greg H.; Caldeira, Ken

2009-01-01

66

Crushed salt reconsolidation at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long history of testing crushed salt as backfill for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program, but testing was typically done at 100 C or less. Future applications may involve backfilling crushed salt around heat-generating waste packages, where near-field temperatures could reach 250 C or hotter. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrostatic

David Joseph Holcomb; Daniel James Clayton; Moo Yul Lee; David R. Bronowski

2010-01-01

67

Kidney Stone Prevention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Idiopathic urinary bladder stone disease was studied in children living in Thailand, Pakistan, and Egypt. In Thailand the approach taken was to study subjects living in endemic and non-endemic stone areas to determine nutritional and biochemical differenc...

R. Van Reen

1979-01-01

68

Kidney stones and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Kidney stones are common and do not spare the pregnant population. Although a simple stone event is usually straightforward in the general population, it is complex during pregnancy. Acute nephrolithiasis is associated with a unique set of complications during pregnancy and, because of imaging limitations, diagnosis is challenging. Multidisciplinary care is the key in proper management decisions. The pathophysiology of kidney stone formation in the pregnant state is also unique. Herein, we discuss the complexity of kidney stones and pregnancy. PMID:23928391

Semins, Michelle J; Matlaga, Brian R

2013-05-01

69

Pediatric stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease is less common in children than adults. Although many aspects of pediatric stone disease are similar\\u000a to that of adults, there are unique concerns regarding the presentation, diagnosis, and management of stone disease in children.\\u000a We present a review of the increasing prevalence of pediatric stone disease, the diagnostic concerns specific to children,\\u000a recent results from pediatric

Stacy T. Tanaka; John C. Pope

2009-01-01

70

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED LIMESTONE, STATE OF THE ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed limestone industry. Crushed limestone plants emit particulates from drilling, blasting, transport on unpaved roads, crushing, screening, conveying, and stockpiling. The emission factor for total particulate f...

71

NIST Stone Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from The National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory, presents information about a wall constructed in 1948 of stone from thousands of quarries. The wall was built to test how well these stones perform when subjected to weathering. The site presents the existing data and pictures for each particular stone in the wall.

Razand, Jaime; Stutzman, Paul E.; Technology, National I.

72

Stone prevention: why so little progress?  

PubMed

Despite intensive research the knowledge of stone pathogenesis, which is the basis of every rational stone metaphylaxis, has remained rather scanty. Epidemiology shows that stone formation in most patients is only a sporadic event, probably resulting from a coincidence of different factors. The hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria frequently found in calcium stone formers can be influenced therapeutically and, in affluent societies, seem to be the result of protein over-consumption. These four factors favour crystallization processes in urine. However, urine is normally protected from nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium minerals by crystallization inhibitors. In urine, crystallization of calcium oxalate can only be induced by an extreme supersaturation, a deficient inhibitor activity and promoters of crystallization. To form a stone, crystals have to be retained in the urinary collecting system. Two mechanisms of retention are discussed: large crystal aggregates trapped in collecting ducts of renal papillae, or a pre-existing calcification of the papilla (mainly calcium phosphate) that may be responsible for growth of an initially fixed particle to a concretion large enough to become symptomatic. An excessive oxalate intake combined with a low calcium consumption can produce marked hyperoxaluria. In the animal model, hyperoxaluria induces not only calcium oxalate crystallization but also papillary damage and incrustations. Hypercalciuria at a low pH favours the aggregation of calcium oxalate, and at a high pH the crystallization of calcium phosphate, a promoter of heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate. All these factors and further complex phenomena mentioned in this paper have to be taken in account to perform rational stone metaphylaxis. PMID:9631938

Baumann, J M

1998-01-01

73

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

74

Effects of material properties and crush conditions on the crush energy absorption of fiber composite rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crushing along the fiber axis of unidirectional E-glass fiber composite rods was examined to determine the effects of fiber volume fraction, fiber diameter, matrix compressive yield strength, crush rate, fiber surface treatment, and crush plate geometry. The volume specific energy absorption was found to increase with fiber content, fiber diameter, matrix yield strength, and crush rate. The crush load stability was found to be independent of fiber content and fiber diameter but not of matrix yield strength. The crush load became less stable as the yield strength increased. The crush behavior of specimens containing clean fibers was about the same as with sized fibers, but specimens with a release agent on the fiber surface crushed with less energy absorption that decreased even as the fiber content increased, but the crush load was more stable than with sized or clean fibers. The volume specific energy absorption was greater when the rod specimens were crushed against concave surfaces than against a flat plate. A relatively simple model was able to account for the dependence of the energy absorption on fiber volume fraction and matrix yield strength.

Tao, Wess H.; Robertson, Richard E.; Thornton, Peter H.

75

Technology meets aggregate  

SciTech Connect

New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

Wilson, C.; Swan, C. [INNERT Co. (United States)

2007-07-01

76

Honeycomb spacer crush stength test results  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses aluminum honeycomb spacers, which are used as an energy absorbent material in shipping packages for off site shipment of radioactive materials and which were ordered in two crush strengths, 1,000 psi and 2,000 psi for use in drop tests requested by the Packaging and Transportation group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the vendor and the SRTC Materials Laboratory performed crush strength measurements on test samples made from the material used to fabricate the actual spacers. The measurements of crush strength made in the SRTC Materials Laboratory are within 100 psi of the measurements made by the manufacturer for all samples tested and all test measurements are within 10% of the specified crush strength, which is acceptable to the P&T group for the planned tests.

Leader, D.R.

1993-09-15

77

Use of a crush-reducing device to decrease crushing of suckling piglets by sows.  

PubMed

Weanling pigs tend to avoid wind, and suckling piglets are thought to be more sensitive to wind than weanlings, owing to their thinner s.c. fat layer. We developed a crush-reducing device based on the anticipated behavior of suckling piglets toward wind and evaluated the performance of the device through field testing. The crush-reducing device consisted of six photo sensors, a controller, six solenoid valves, and an air compressor. In this study, 206 sows and their suckling piglets (Landrace xYorkshire) were investigated to ascertain the individual effects of several factors. Some of the newborn piglets were cross-fostered before the crush-reducing device was implemented. Litter weights were measured on d 0 and 4 to determine the influence of the crush-reducing device on the weights of suckling piglets. The crushing of suckling piglets by sows was affected by season (P < 0.01) and litter size (P < 0.05), but not by the parity of the sows; however, the number of crushed piglets per litter was less (P < 0.01) in the crush-reducing device group (0.05 +/- 0.02 crushed piglets/litter) than in the control group (0.23 +/- 0.04 crushed piglets/litter), regardless of litter size or season. The BW gain of suckling piglets did not differ between the control and the crush-reducing device groups. Based on these results, the crush-reducing device is expected to decrease the number of crushed piglets per litter without influencing the BW gain of suckling piglets, thereby greatly contributing to the productivity of pig breeders. PMID:15890817

Jeon, J H; Kim, D J; Han, J H; Yeon, S C; Bahng, S H; Myeong, B S; Chang, H H

2005-06-01

78

Difficult bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Bile duct stones are routinely removed at time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) after biliary sphincterotomy with standard balloon or basket extraction techniques. However, in approximately 10% to 15% of patients, bile duct stones may be difficult to remove due to challenging access to the bile duct (periampullary diverticulum, Billroth II anatomy, Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy), large (> 15 mm in diameter) bile duct stones, intrahepatic stones, or impacted stones in the bile duct or cystic duct. The initial approach to the removal of the difficult bile duct stone is to ensure adequate biliary sphincter orifice diameter with extension of biliary sphincterotomy or balloon dilation of the orifice. Mechanical lithotripsy is a readily available adjunct to standard stone extraction techniques and should be available in all ERCP units. If stone extraction fails with these maneuvers, two or more bile duct stents should be inserted, and ursodiol added to aid in duct decompression, stone fragmentation, and stone dissolution. Follow-up ERCP attempts to remove the difficult bile duct stones may be performed locally if expertise is available or alternatively referred to a tertiary center for advanced extracorporeal or intracorporeal fragmentation (mother-baby laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy) techniques. Nearly all patients with bile duct stones can be treated endoscopically if advanced techniques are utilized. For the rare patient who fails despite these efforts, surgical bile duct exploration, percutaneous approach to the bile duct, or long-term bile duct stenting should be discussed with the patient and family to identify the most appropriate therapeutic option. A thoughtful approach to each patient with difficult bile duct stones and a healthy awareness of the operator/endoscopy unit limitations is necessary to ensure the best patient outcomes. Consultation with a dedicated tertiary ERCP specialty center may be necessary. PMID:16539873

McHenry, Lee; Lehman, Glen

2006-04-01

79

Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood  

SciTech Connect

Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70{degrees}F), 150{degrees}F, and {minus}20{degrees}F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain.

Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; McMurtry, W.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-12-01

80

Performance of concrete made with commercially produced coarse recycled concrete aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance tests have been carried out for fresh and hardened properties of concrete made with commercially produced coarse recycled concrete aggregate and natural fine sand. Test results indicate that the difference between the characteristics of fresh and hardened recycled aggregate concrete and natural aggregate concrete is perhaps relatively narrower than reported for laboratory-crushed recycled aggregate concrete mixtures. For concrete without

K. K. Sagoe-Crentsil; T. Brown; A. H. Taylor

2001-01-01

81

Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords: Hallandia gneiss, natural stones, historic stones, urban planning and building

Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

2013-04-01

82

Effects of crushed glass cullet sizes, casting methods and pozzolanic materials on ASR of concrete blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of using different particle sizes of recycled glass, casting methods and pozzolanic materials in reducing the expansion due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) of concrete blocks prepared with the use of crushed glass as fine aggregate. In this work, 25×25×285mm mortar bar specimens were prepared using conventional wet-mixed and dry-mixed methods.

Gerry Lee; Tung-Chai Ling; Yuk-Lung Wong; Chi-Sun Poon

2011-01-01

83

American Stone Arrowheads  

Microsoft Academic Search

I AM glad to perceive that Dr. Abbott has called attention to the variations in form among North American stone arrowheads, although he cannot admit the correctness of some of the remarks I have incidentally made on this subject in my ``Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain.'' At the time when that work went to press, I was not in

John Evans

1872-01-01

84

Stones (papers, humans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The making and self-making of political subjects is a process that presupposes an engagement with both intellectual and tactile materials. One of these intellectual materials is ideology, which stains tactile objects, such as stones and paper, with the heft of its own meanings. Competing ideologies strive to control the meanings of objects. Such has been the case for stones as

Neni Panourgiá

2010-01-01

85

Stones (papers, humans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The making and self-making of political subjects is a process that presupposes an engagement with both intellectual and tactile materials. One of these intellectual materials is ideology, which stains tactile objects, such as stones and paper, with the heft of its own meanings. Competing ideologies strive to control the meanings of objects. Such has been the case for stones as

Neni Panourgiá

2010-01-01

86

Building Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn to identify the distinguishing characteristics of a stone wall. They will first draw a picture of a stone wall from memory, then go outside to view and sketch a real wall. Following the field activity, they will construct models of walls using modeling clay. A recipe for the clay ('model magic') is provided.

87

Detecting Stepping Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

One widely-used technique by which network attackers attain anonymity and complicate their apprehension is by employing stepping stones: they launch attacks not from their own computer but from intermediary hosts that they previously compromised. We develop an effi- cient algorithm for detecting stepping stones by monitor- ing a site' s Internet access link. The algorithm is based on the distinctive

Vern Paxson

88

Large protruding bladder stone.  

PubMed

We present a unique case of a large urinary bladder stone protruding through the external urethral meatus in a 77-year-old woman, which was causing acute urinary retention, complicated by bilateral hydronephrosis, and was removed under topical anesthesia in the emergency department. Epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation and management of urinary bladder stones are briefly discussed. PMID:22639885

Smrkolj, Spela; Sedlar, Ales; Smrkolj, Tomaz

2012-05-28

89

Mutual Information for the Detection of Crush  

PubMed Central

Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organizers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that both the prediction and prevention of such conditions offer a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but often computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally “cheap” but subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of the onset of crush.

Harding, Peter; Gwynne, Steve; Amos, Martyn

2011-01-01

90

Modulators of urinary stone formation.  

PubMed

Urine contains compounds that modulate the nucleation, growth and aggregation of crystals as well as their attachment to renal epithelial cells. These compounds may function to protect the kidneys against: 1, the possibility of crystallization in tubular fluid and urine, which are generally metastable with respect to calcium salts, 2, crystal retention within the kidneys thereby preventing stone formation and 3, possibly against plaque formation at the nephron basement membrane. Since oxalate is the most common stone type, the effect of various modulators on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization has been examined in greater details. Most of the inhibitory activity resides in macromolecules such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans while nucleation promotion activity is most likely sustained by membrane lipids. Nephrocalcin, Tamm-Horsfall protein, osteopontin, urinary prothrombin fragment 1, and bikunin are the most studied inhibitory proteins while chondroitin sulfate (CS), heparan sulfate (HS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) are the best studied glycosaminoglycans. Crystallization modulating macromolecules discussed here are also prominent in cell injury, inflammation and recovery. Renal epithelial cells on exposure to oxalate and CaOx crystals produce some of the inflammatory molecules such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) with no apparent role in crystal formation. In addition, macrophages surround the CaOx crystals present in the renal interstitium. These observations indicate a close relationship between inflammation and nephrolithiasis. PMID:14977559

Khan, Saeed R; Kok, Dirk J

2004-05-01

91

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE THE FOLLOWING: STONE BUTTRESS ON STONE END, STONE COLUMNS ON FOREBAY. DATE STONE REMOVED IN 1914, BUT BARN MAY HAVE BEEN CONSTRUCTED IN THE 1830s - Barn, Beidler Road, Upper Merion Township, King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

92

Factors affecting crystallization, dispersion, and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate in various urinary environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms for the formation of kidney stones are not well understood. One possible mechanism is the formation of aggregates in the nephron tubules of the kidneys. However, altering the urinary environment may be a method to help prevent the recurrence of the formation of kidney stones. The primary inorganic constituent found in kidney stones of North American patients is

Kimberly Gail Christmas

2001-01-01

93

Recovery of proprioceptive feedback from nerve crush  

PubMed Central

Abstract Sensorimotor functions are restored by peripheral nerve regeneration with greater success following injuries that crush rather than sever the nerve. Better recovery following nerve crush is commonly attributed to superior reconnection of regenerating axons with their original peripheral targets. The present study was designed to estimate the fraction of stretch reflex recovery attributable to functional recovery of regenerated spindle afferents. Recovery of the spindle afferent population was estimated from excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by muscle stretch (strEPSPs) in motoneurons. These events were measured in cats that were anaesthetized, so that recovery of spindle afferent function, including both muscle stretch encoding and monosynaptic transmission, could be separated from other factors that act centrally to influence muscle stretch-evoked excitation of motoneurons. Recovery of strEPSPs to 70% of normal specified the extent of overall functional recovery by the population spindle afferents that regained responsiveness to muscle stretch. In separate studies, we examined recovery of the stretch reflex in decerebrate cats, and found that it recovered to supranormal levels after nerve crush. The substantial disparity in recovery between strEPSPs and stretch reflex led us to conclude that factors in addition to recovery of spindle afferents make a large contribution in restoring the stretch reflex following nerve crush.

Prather, Jonathan F; Nardelli, Paul; Nakanishi, Stan T; Ross, Kyla T; Nichols, T Richard; Pinter, Martin J; Cope, Timothy C

2011-01-01

94

Prediction of Crushing Stress in Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple mathematical model for predicting the crushing stress of composite materials was derived and presented in this article. The present knowledge of fracture mechanics and strength of materials are used as the basis for the model. The fracture mechanics part of the analysis was based on energy release rate approach; the energy release rate, G, of the proposed model

S. Goh; H. Ku; S. L. Ang

2008-01-01

95

Infection-Related Kidney Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection and stones can be associated in two ways. Stone disease can occur due to infection by an organism that expresses\\u000a the urea-splitting enzyme urease (infection stones). Nephrolithiasis can also be complicated by urinary tract infection that\\u000a in turn was caused by obstruction of the urinary tract by a stone and\\/or colonization of a pre-existing stone, in both cases\\u000a by

Amy E. Krambeck; John C. Lieske

96

Retrieval methods for urinary stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to assess the current status of the various modalities of available treatment for urinary stone disease\\u000a in the Kerala scenario. A total of 300 patients who attended the stone clinic with urinary stone disease and had stones retrieved\\u000a by different means were selected for the study. Their clinical symptoms, demographic profile, size, number and position of\\u000a stones,

Y. M. Fazil Marickar; Nandu Nair; Gayathri Varma; Abiya Salim

2009-01-01

97

VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE CRUSHING MILL LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST WALL OF THE CRYSTALLIZER WING. FENESTRA WINDOWS IN CRUSHING MILL WALL. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

98

A Generalized Approach for Kinematic Synthesis and Analysis of Alternate Mechanism for Stone Crusher Using Relative Velocity Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper alternate mechanism for design and analysis of small size stone crusher mechanism is discussed. The basic idea is to optimize the design of the crusher which would be best suited for stone which need crushing force of 3 Tons. Presently for reducing sizes of stones from 10cm x 10cm to 2.5cm x 2.5cm in quarries is laborious job and is done manually our approach is to design a best optimum mechanism for said conditions.

Joshi, Anjali J.; Modak, Jayant P.

2013-03-01

99

Stone Wall Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stone Wall Initiative (SWI) promotes the appreciation, investigation, and conservation of stone walls in New England. SWI emphasizes the cultural, natural and aesthetic resources provided by historic walls, which are the closest thing New England has to classical ruins. Materials available at the site include news articles, links to books and other publications, and links to information on public presentations, school presentations, and field trips. For teachers, there are collaborative, field-tested curricula for students in primary and secondary grades, a reference book that provides background information, and information on a teacher's kit that contains specimens of stone found in walls, an identification card for the specimens, and materials for studying them. There is also information on threats to New England's stone walls and how to preserve them.

100

Stone-Kelly CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 2010-present Principal Investigator: Kelly Stone, MD, PhD Lead Associate Investigator: Joshua Milner, MD Protocol Title: Natural history of atopic ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

101

Skimming and Skipping Stones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

Humble, Steve

2007-01-01

102

Skimming and Skipping Stones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.|

Humble, Steve

2007-01-01

103

Urinary Tract Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the era of predynastic Egypt until the present day, kidney stones have perplexed patients and physicians alike. Although\\u000a since that time the methods for removing stones have advanced from the crudely barbaric to the highly sophisticated remedies\\u000a of today, the problem of how successfully to prevent their recurrence continues to challenge both surgeons and physicians.

William G. Robertson

104

Mechanical properties of crushed salt\\/bentonite blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary mechanical testing program has been conducted on crushed salt\\/bentonite blocks. These blocks are pototypes of blocks that may eventually be used to build engineered seals in drifts at the WIPP site. Three types of blocks were tested: pure crushed salt, crushed salt with bentonite binder, and pure bentonite. Simple uniaxial compression tests were performed. Axial displacement and lateral

W. H. Gerstle; A. K. Jones

1986-01-01

105

Potential of Using Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) for Thin Overlays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) has been used within the U.S. since 1991. To date almost all of the SMA mixes have had either a 12.5 or 19.0 mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS). These two NMASs have been predominant because they conform to information obt...

L. A. Cooley E. R. Brown

2003-01-01

106

Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators  

PubMed Central

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation.

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

2013-01-01

107

Study on the industrialization of building stones and industrial stone crafts - Study on the causes of stone contaminations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Causes of building stone contamination are acid rains in polluted areas, iron bearing minerals in stone itself, salts, sealants, cutting and grinding processes in stone factory and steel compounds structures such as stone anchors, bolts, rain culvert and ...

J. K. Hyun H. Y. Lee

1996-01-01

108

Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus  

SciTech Connect

Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

Casteel, K.

2009-04-15

109

Anal avulsion caused by abdominal crush injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the case of a pelvic and lower abdomen crushing trauma in 37-year-old male patient. The patient had an open lumbar\\u000a wound, laceration of the psoas muscle, pelvic fracture, a ruptured urogenital diaphragm, and extensive urogenital lacerations.\\u000a An emergency laparotomy was performed with debridment, urethral reconstruction, and osteosynthesis of the pubic bone. The\\u000a mobilization of the patient revealed a

G. Terrosu; A. Rossetto; E. Kocjancic; P. Rossitti; V. Bresadola

110

Crush Injury and Other Acute Traumatic Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crush injury and other acute traumatic ischemia are characterized by a vicious circle of ischemia, hypoxia, oedema, disturbed\\u000a microcirculation, and secondary ischemia in the border area of the tissue affected by the primary trauma. In hypoxic tissues\\u000a mechanisms of infection control and healing are impaired so that the risk of infection and wound healing problems are definitely\\u000a higher than after

Armin Kemmer

111

Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1998-02-01

112

Stone Consolidating Materials - A Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on types of stone consolidating materials, their performances, and uses are critically reviewed. Processes responsible for the deterioration of stone and criteria for selecting stone consolidants are also reviewed. The main function of stone c...

J. R. Clifton

1980-01-01

113

GR Kerr Stone Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GR Kerr Stone program simulates orbits of an object in the equatorial plane near a rotating black hole using the Kerr metric. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the gr_kerr_stone.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. The default is an object initially with an r value of 3.0 near a black hole with angular momentum parameter, J/M = 0.75. GR Kerr Stone is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of General Relativity. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or General Relativity.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario; Cox, Anne

2009-05-03

114

Heparin sulfate in the stone matrix and its inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization.  

PubMed

The nature of the soluble stone matrix and its possible role in urinary stone formation was studied. For this purpose we performed two-dimensional cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) which were contained in the soluble stone matrix, substances adsorbed onto calcium oxalate crystals in vitro (crystal surface binding substances, CSBS) and urinary macromolecules (UMMs). The main GAG in the soluble stone matrix and CSBS was found to be heparan sulfate, whereas the UMMs contained various GAGs usually seen in urine. An inhibition assay showed the soluble stone matrix to have the strongest inhibitory activity among these macromolecular substances when inhibitory activity was expressed in terms of uronic acid concentration. It is suggested that the main GAG in the soluble stone matrix consists of heparan sulfate, which has a strong inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation and constitutes part of the CSBS. PMID:8342253

Yamaguchi, S; Yoshioka, T; Utsunomiya, M; Koide, T; Osafune, M; Okuyama, A; Sonoda, T

1993-05-01

115

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

116

Management of calcium oxalate stones.  

PubMed

This article discusses the incidence and prevalence of calcium oxalate renal stones. Etiology and risk factors for all renal stone formation are reviewed. The evaluation, diagnostic procedures, and management for new and recurrent stone formation are detailed. Management includes long-term pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures for successful prevention or reduction in the frequency of recurrent stones. Specific patient education factors, patient and family psychological aspects, and referral resources are discussed. PMID:11154390

Hanson, K A

2001-01-01

117

Hybrid stepping stone detection method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stepping stone detection can be defined as a process to discover an intermediate host correlation that used by intruder. Most of the intruders cover their track by login into intermediate host first before execute the real attack. This intermediate hosts here known as stepping stone. This paper introduces a hybrid stepping stone detection method which combines the network-based and host-based

Mohd Nizam Omar; Lelyzar Siregar; Rahmat Budiarto

2008-01-01

118

Snowshill: Cotswold Stone Houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snowshill, pronounced “Snozill”, is a village located on “the edge” of the Cotswolds, a range of hills in England (This England, 148). The area is designated an Area of Natural Beauty (AONB), which is considered to be equivalent to the status of a National Park in the United States. The Cotswold area is known for it’s stone houses which are

Chet Smolski

1973-01-01

119

Imaging for kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging investigations play a vital role in the management of patients with kidney stones. The techniques available include plain x-ray of the abdomen, ultrasound scan, intravenous urogram, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, amongst others. All of these techniques have their own individual roles to play and also have limitations. CT has been establishing itself as the imaging technique

P. N. Rao

2004-01-01

120

In-plane dynamic crushing of honeycomb. Part I: crush band initiation and wave trapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the dynamics of crush band initiation and wave trapping that result from in-plane impact on a honeycomb are analysed using finite element simulations. The honeycomb structures were loaded in compression at the top surface with a prescribed velocity. Two different boundary conditions were considered; these produced an approximation to a state of uniaxial stress or uniaxial strain

A Hönig; W. J Stronge

2002-01-01

121

Solitary versus multiple cholesterol gallbladder stones. Mechanisms of formation and growth.  

PubMed

The development and growth pattern of solitary and multiple cholesterol gallbladder stones was defined using cholecystography in a prospective study of 48 patients whose initial cholecystograms indicated a stone-free gallbladder and who developed gallstones within the subsequent 5 years. Radiological observations performed over 365 patient-years were complemented by macroscopic examination, radiograms, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis of gallstones from these and other patients obtained at cholecystectomy. Solitary gallstones were found to develop after a precursor phase of over 2 years during which free-floating crystal laminae of cholesterol formed. These laminae subsequently aggregated loosely and underwent external compaction and internal remodeling by movement of cholesterol molecules to form compact spheroids. A single lamina was observed to function as a nucleus for the development of a solitary stone shaped as an ellipsoid. About 10% of solitary stones were found to have a solitary pigment stone in their center. In contrast, multiple cholesterol gallstones formed without a precursor phase. Innumerable, very thin cholesterol crystals appeared which very abruptly aggregated to form spheres of up to 1 mm in diameter. Within 3 months a second aggregation took place in which these spheres colaesced to form mulberry stones. Mulberry stones in turn were transformed either to faceted stones (if many were present in the gallbladder) or to barrel stones (if few were present) over a period of 3 years. It is proposed that temporary occlusion of the cystic duct leads to supersaturation of bile with calcium bilirubinate and/or calcium carbonate which in turn promotes deposition of either or both of these calcium salts on the surface of single or multiple gallstones. For multiple gallstones, this process or the deposition of additional cholesterol crystals seals the gallstone surface and is followed by metamorphosis of the stone center. PMID:8353400

Wolpers, C; Hofmann, A F

1993-06-01

122

Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained. In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnières stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

2012-04-01

123

Necromancing the stones.  

PubMed

Since its introduction 15 years ago extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a standard treatment for urinary stones. The author comments on the results of Adrian R. Levy and Maurice McGregor's study of the use of ESWL for urinary stones in Quebec (see pages 1729 to 1736 of this issue). The rapid increase in the use of ESWL that occurred in the first 2 years of the study points to the fact that the application of a new technology is often quickly expanded before thorough assessments of effectiveness and safety have been carried out. New technologies also lead to shifts in cost distribution that must be considered in cost analyses. The author argues that continuing research is needed to document the dissemination of new technologies and points to methodologic concerns that should be addressed to make such research as fruitful as possible. PMID:8529188

Goel, V

1995-12-15

124

Rolling Stone Rock Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Rolling Stone_ magazine and Magellan have teamed up to create this Internet rock resource directory. Whether you want to find out about an artist or a genre of music, obtain tickets for a show, or even gather information on starting your own music career, this site is an excellent starting point. Content for the site is contributed by _Rolling Stone_, but the structure is very similar to Magellan (discussed in the September 1, 1995 Scout Report). The Rock Guide consists of Internet resources that are categorized, reviewed, and rated. Users can browse by genre or search the directory. There are sections on artists, music genres, magazines, books, merchandise, musical instruction, the music business, performances, clubs, online chat and discussion and more.

1996-01-01

125

Complicated bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

2013-08-14

126

Sticks and Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will play Sticks and Stones, a game based on the Apache game "Throw Sticks," which was played at multi-nation celebrations. Students will collect data, investigate the likelihood of various moves, and use basic ideas of expected value to determine the average number of turns needed to win a game. Students work with tree diagrams to see the probabilities in a new way. All teaching steps and game rules are illustrated.

Zordak, Samuel E.

2000-01-01

127

Having and Being an Other-Sex Crush during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined other-sex crush experiences (both having and being perceived as an other-sex crush) among 544 young adolescents (mean age = 12.74 years). Results indicated that 56% had at least one current other-sex crush, with little overlap between crushes, friends, and boyfriends/girlfriends. Significant associations between other-sex crush

Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Gyoerkoe, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

128

Kidney stones during pregnancy: an investigation into stone composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney stones can be a source of considerable morbidity for pregnant women. Although there is a body of literature confirming\\u000a that different stone compositions predominate for different age and sex cohorts, there have been no similar reports characterizing\\u000a the nature of stone disease during pregnancy. We performed a multi-institutional study to define the composition of renal\\u000a calculi diagnosed during pregnancy.

Ashley E. Ross; Shelly Handa; James E. Lingeman; Brian R. Matlaga

2008-01-01

129

Stone Nomenclature and History of Instrumentation for Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease has afflicted mankind for millennia. The oldest renal stone on record was described by Shattock in 1905\\u000a and was found in an Egyptian mummy in a tomb dating to approx 4400 bc (1). This 1.5-cm calciferous calculi lay beside the first lumbar vertebra. The description of urinary stones has been a process\\u000a of intense scientific investigation culminating

Viraj A. Master; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

130

Effect of olive stoning on the volatile and phenolic composition of virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

Olive stoning during the virgin olive oil (VOO) mechanical extraction process was studied to show the effect on the phenolic and volatile composition of the oil. To study the impact of the constitutive parts of the fruit in the composition of olive pastes during processing, the phenolic compounds and several enzymatic activities such as polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and lipoxygenase (LPO) of the olive pulp, stone, and seed were also studied. The olive pulp showed large amounts of oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, and lignans, while the contribution of the stone and the seed in the overall phenolic composition of the fruit was very low. The occurrence of crushed stone in the pastes, during malaxation, increased the peroxidase activity in the pastes, reducing the phenolic concentration in VOO and, at the same time, modifying the composition of volatile compounds produced by the lipoxygenase pathway. The oil obtained from stoned olive pastes contained higher amounts of secoiridoid derivatives such as the dialdehydic forms of elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol and (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, respectively) and the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA) and, at the same time, did not show significant variations of lignans. The stoning process modified the volatile profile of VOO by increasing the C6 unsaturated aldehydes that are strictly related to the cut-grass sensory notes of the oil. PMID:17665928

Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Selvaggini, Roberto; Montedoro, GianFrancesco

2007-08-01

131

A Review of Natural Stone Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With increased interest in stone preservation, it is desirable to know what causes stone to decay, and what materials can be used to preserve stone. This review covers the following topics: causes of stone decay, including faults in the stone, salts, natu...

G. A. Sleater

1973-01-01

132

Bioavailability of Buprenorphine from Crushed and Whole Buprenorphine (Subutex) Tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Buprenorphine (Subutex) is the most abused opioid in Finland. In order to curb the abuse potential of this drug, many treatment centers and prisons crush Subutex tablets before administering them to patients. To date, there are no published studies comparing the efficacy and bioavailability of crushed and whole Subutex tablets. Methods: A total of 16 opioid-dependent patients stabilized on

Kaarlo Simojoki; Pirjo Lillsunde; Nicholas Lintzeris; Hannu Alho

2010-01-01

133

64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY MILL FEEDS AT BOTTOM. MILL SOLUTION TANKS WERE TO THE LEFT (EAST) AND BARREN SOLUTION TANK TO THE RIGHT (WEST) OR THE CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

134

Environmental Impacts Of Mining Natural Aggregate  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nearly every community in nearly every industrialized or industrializing country is dependent on aggregate resources (sand,\\u000a gravel, and stone) to build and maintain their infrastructure. Indeed, even agrarian communities depend on well-maintained\\u000a transportation systems to move produce to markets. Unfortunately, aggregate resources necessary to meet societal needs cannot\\u000a be developed without causing environmental impacts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Most environmental impacts associated with aggregate

William H. Langer; Belinda F. Arbogast

135

New Pathophysiological Aspects of Growth and Prevention of Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

Kidney stones probably grow during crystalluria by crystal sedimentation and aggregation (AGN) on stone surfaces. This process has to occur within urinary transit time (UT) through the kidney before crystals are washed out by diuresis. To get more information, we studied by spectrophotometry the formation and AGN of Ca oxalate (Ca Ox) crystals which were directly produced in urine of 30 stone patients and 30 controls by an oxalate (Ox) titration. Some tests were also performed after removing urinary macromolecules (UMs) by ultrafiltration. To induce rapid crystallization, high Ox additions (0.5–0.8?mM) were necessary. The most important finding was retardation of crystal AGN by UM. In urine of 63% of controls but only 33% of patients, no AGN was observed during an observation of 60 minutes (P < 0.05). Also growth and sedimentation rate of crystals were significantly reduced by UM. For stone metaphylaxis, especially for posttreatment residuals, avoiding dietary Ox excesses to prevent crystal formation in the kidney and increasing diuresis to wash out crystals before they aggregate are recommended.

Baumann, J. M.; Affolter, B.

2012-01-01

136

Uric acid stones and hyperuricosuria.  

PubMed

Recent work has highlighted the strong relationships among obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome as causes of low urinary pH. Low urinary pH in turn is the major urinary risk factor for uric acid stones. Unlike calcium stones, uric acid stones can be dissolved and easily prevented with adequate urinary alkalinization. Recognizing the relevant risk factors should lead to increased identification of these radiolucent stones. The cornerstone of therapy is raising urinary pH; xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitors should be used only when urinary alkalinization cannot be achieved. PMID:23089277

Mehta, Tapan H; Goldfarb, David S

2012-11-01

137

Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

2013-04-01

138

The Systematic Classification of Gallbladder Stones  

PubMed Central

Background To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. Methodology A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. Principal Findings Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. Conclusion The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones.

Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

2013-01-01

139

Effects of fine aggregate content on the mechanical properties of the compacted decomposed granitic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposed granitic soil is widely used as the subgrade material in Korea. The mechanical behavior of the soil can differ depending on the fine aggregate content of the soil. Due to particle crushing during loading and compaction, the soil may behave as either cohesive or cohesionless. In order to evaluate the effects of fine aggregate content on the mechanical properties

Daehyeon Kim; Myung Sagong; Yonghee Lee

2005-01-01

140

Renal stone disease: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiologic considerations; Physiochemistry of urinary stone formations; Nutritional aspects of stone disease; Prevention of recurrent nephrolithiasis; Struvite stones; and Contemporary approaches to removal of renal and ureteral calculi.

Pak, C.Y.C.

1987-01-01

141

Dissolution of pancreatic stones.  

PubMed

Chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) is the most clear-cut form of chronic pancreatitis. Till date, the common treatment of CCP has been directed toward discontinuation of alcohol consumption if the disease is associated closely with alcohol abuse, relief of pain, enzyme replacement, and the management of some complications like diabetes mellitus, cyst or abscess of the pancreas, malnutrition etc. In 1979, the research group for chronic pancreatitis in Japan proposed the therapeutic policy for this disease as illustrated in Fig. 1. A plausible new treatment is the dissolution of protein precipitates or calcified stones in pancreatic ducts by oral or intravenous administration of drugs. PMID:2219444

Noda, A

142

Novel ultrasound method to reposition kidney stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of surgical management of lower pole stones is principally dependent on stone fragmentation and residual stone\\u000a clearance. Choice of surgical method depends on stone size, yet all methods are subjected to post-surgical complications resulting\\u000a from residual stone fragments. Here we present a novel method and device to reposition kidney stones using ultrasound radiation\\u000a force delivered by focused ultrasound

Anup Shah; Neil R. Owen; Wei Lu; Bryan W. Cunitz; Peter J. Kaczkowski; Jonathan D. Harper; Michael R. Bailey; Lawrence A. Crum

2010-01-01

143

Epidemiology of urinary stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the epidemiological risk factors for calcium stone formation is shown in Table. 4. At present, the data would seem to support the hypothesis that calcium stone disease is a multi-factorial disorder for which no single underlying metabolic or environmental factor is uniquely responsible. That is not to say that certain epidemiological factors are unimportant in the genesis

W. G. Robertson

1990-01-01

144

Analysis of Crushing Response of Composite Crashworthy Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes quasi-static and dynamic tests to characterise the energy absorption properties of polymer composite crash energy absorbing segment elements under axial loads. Detailed computer tomography scans of failed specimens are used to identify local compression crush failure mechanisms at the crush front. The varied crushing morphology between the compression strain rates identified in this paper is observed to be due to the differences in the response modes and mechanical properties of the strain dependent epoxy matrix. The importance of understanding the role of strain rate effects in composite crash energy absorbing structures is highlighted in this paper.

David, Matthew; Johnson, Alastair F.; Voggenreiter, H.

2012-11-01

145

Analysis of Crushing Response of Composite Crashworthy Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes quasi-static and dynamic tests to characterise the energy absorption properties of polymer composite crash energy absorbing segment elements under axial loads. Detailed computer tomography scans of failed specimens are used to identify local compression crush failure mechanisms at the crush front. The varied crushing morphology between the compression strain rates identified in this paper is observed to be due to the differences in the response modes and mechanical properties of the strain dependent epoxy matrix. The importance of understanding the role of strain rate effects in composite crash energy absorbing structures is highlighted in this paper.

David, Matthew; Johnson, Alastair F.; Voggenreiter, H.

2013-10-01

146

Piedra Pajarilla: A candidate for nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource from Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piedra Pajarilla is a tourmaline bearing leucogranite outcropping at Martinamor, near Salamanca, Spain. It is part of the Hercynian granitic chain in the Spanish Central System. The stone received the local name "Piedra Pajarilla", meaning "Little Bird Stone" due to the shape of the many tourmaline aggregates that are the main visual feature of the rock. This local name has been extrapolated to every granitic stone used in the area, even if they differ significantly in mineralogy, and as recently tested in physical and mechanical properties as well. Here we present the nomination of Piedra Pajarilla as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used since Roman times in Salamanca (Spain) and since the Middle Ages in the construction of major historic buildings, including both the Old and New Cathedrals, and many additional churches, castles and walls in the Salamanca area. Salamancás historic city core has been granted UNESCO World Heritage status in 1988, and all associated buildings, monuments and pedestrian streets are constructed from original materials. One of utilised materials, Piedra Pajarilla, was quarried for centuries from the immediate area. It was also the preferred building stone of many internationally renowned architects of Spanish origin during the 18th and 19th centuries especially involved in reconstruction following the Lisbon earthquake. Although the associated quarries are no longer active, the Piedra Pajarilla quarry sites remain relatively undisturbed and accessible. A renewal of quarrying is consequently feasible if additional stone supplies are required for heritage restoration. Thus there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries in anticipation of such work. The importance of Salamanca as emblematic heritage makes the historic stone quarries worthwhile to preserve as well. At the same time, Piedra Pajarilla can be considered as the first of several natural stones that can contribute to the denomination of a "Global Heritage Stone Province", as a suite of associated stone resources have been utilised in the historical buildings of Salamanca.

Pereira, Dolores; Gimeno, Ana; del Barrio, Santiago

2013-04-01

147

Self-cementing properties of crushed demolished concrete in unbound layers: results from triaxial tests and field tests.  

PubMed

A 2-year study is underway to evaluate the expected growth in stiffness in layers of crushed concrete from demolished structures. This growth is said to be a result of self-cementing properties. The study consists of repeated load triaxial tests on manufactured specimens after different storing time together with falling weight deflectometer, FWD, measurements on test sections. Results so far show a clear increase with time in resilient modulus and in back-calculated layer modulus for all concrete materials. The increase is the largest in the first months and then diminishes. The field measurements show a more considerable growth in stiffness than the laboratory tests, with a doubled value two years after construction. Comparative investigations on natural aggregates, mostly crushed granite do not show any growth in stiffness, neither in the laboratory nor in the field. Consequences for the choice of design modulus are discussed. PMID:11280514

Arm, M

2001-01-01

148

45. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE REMAINS OF THE FERROMANGANESE CRUSHING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE REMAINS OF THE FERROMANGANESE CRUSHING, SCREENING, AND STORAGE FACILITIES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

149

SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SUGAR BIN WITH EAST WALL OF CRUSHING MILL TO ITS RIGHT. CONVEYOR FROM BOILING HOUSE ABOVE. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

150

53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ACCESS STAIR TO FEED LEVEL; DUST COLLECTOR ON LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

151

Common Bile Duct Stones Detected After Cholecystectomy:Advancement into the Duodenum via the Percutaneous Route  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report our experience in the use of percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones detected in the post-cholecystectomy period. Methods: Forty-two patients in whom endoscopic cannulation and/or sphincterotomy had failed or could not be done due to several reasons underwent balloon dilatation of the ampulla of Vater and subsequent advancement of the stones via the percutaneous transhepatic route or T-tube tract. Results: The procedure was successful in 42 cases. In three patients, stones were crushed in the common bile duct and pushed as fragments into the duodenum. In all cases transient adverse effects were observed. There were no major complications. All cases were checked with ultrasonography for 6 months after the procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones is an effective method of treatment with a high success rate,low complication rate and shorter hospital stay. It may serve as an alternative method in cases where endoscopic removal of stones fails.

Ozcan, Nevzat, E-mail: nevzatcan@yahoo.com; Erdogan, Nuri [ErciyesUniversity Faculty of Medicine, 38039-Kayseri, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Baskol, Mevlut [Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, 38039-Kayseri, Department ofGastroenterology (Turkey)

2003-04-15

152

45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR BIN FEED, LOWER CENTER, WITH STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR ELEVATOR SPLIT DISCHARGE (OXIDIZED/UNOXIDIZED) IN CENTER. CRUDE ORE BINS AND MACHINE SHOP BEYOND. NOTE TOP OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN IS BELOW TOP OF CRUDE ORE BINS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

153

The Crush Behavior of Pultruded Tubes at High Strain Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fiber diameter, trigger geometry and section geometry on the crush response of pultruded glass fiber reinforced plastic tubes, made with either polyester or vinyl ester resin, was determined at crush rates from 2.1 x 10-4 m\\/s to — 15 m\\/s. The rate dependence of the specific energy for the polyester resin tubes was positive, whereas that for

P. H. Thornton

1990-01-01

154

Subclavian crush syndrome and subcutaneous ICD in primary prevention patients.  

PubMed

Subclavian crush syndrome is a cause of transvenous lead failure resulting from an entrapment of a lead between the clavicle and the first rib. This image case typifies a 'scissor-like' mechanism, which is considered one of the main reasons for subclavian crush syndrome. The multidetector computer tomography images of this complication are rare and due to their three-dimensional nature offer important insights concerning its causes. PMID:23756403

Paiva, Luis; Providencia, Rui; Faustino, Ana; Nascimento, Jose

2013-06-10

155

Rolling Stone Radio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rolling Stone Radio is a fun and interesting site that may represent the future of Internet radio. The site provides a number of streaming audio channels that can be listened to via RealNetworks' RealPlayer G2 combined with a customized, radio-like interface to the site. Each channel features a particular genre of music, and the interface displays the artist and song title during play. The sound quality ranges from acceptable to excellent, and the sound controls and channel selectors are easy-to-use. While the site borders on the exploitative in its advertising and ability to purchase music by clicking through the interface, it does combine some of the best ideas on the Internet into a seamless entertainment package. All downloadable components of this site are free but run only on Win95/98/NT.

1999-01-01

156

Modeling of debris crushing during rock avalanche motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study of numerous rock avalanches (RA) worldwide revealed that most of them are characterized by intensive comminution of debris that forms lower/internal parts of RA deposits and, at the same time, by retention of structure of the source rock massifs in RA debris despite that had passed a long distance from its source zone. The latter results in formation of pseudo-stratified bodies with unmixed 'layers' of debris that can be traced for several kilometers. Such internal structure excludes turbulence during rapid motion of dry granular flow typical of RA. It differs significantly from the style of motion of debris flows, which include significant amount of fluid obligatorily. Since such combination of crushing and of crushed material unmixing is typical, it must be reproduced both by physical and by numerical models of RA motion pretending to be reliable. Simple physical experiments demonstrate that intensive undamped crushing with retention of the initial structure of the material during its crushing can be achieved under repeated static loading with shearing - combination of mechanical processes quite reliable during RA motion, while similar loading without shearing results in crushing that fades much faster. The undamped crushing could be achieved by repeated loading with forced mixing too but in this case the original structure of the affected material can not retain. It allows assumption that mechanism simulated - static loading combined with shearing really act during motion of large-scale rock avalanches.

Strom, Alexander; Pernik, Leonid

2013-04-01

157

Medical Prevention of Renal Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical treatment designed to prevent stone formation is important in idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, because of the high rate of stone recurrence. Several randomized trials have established the values of conservative and drug treatments. A high fluid intake alone has been reported to inhibit the recurrence of stone formation in single stone formers. In patients with recurrent disease, a significant

Charles Y. C. Pak

1999-01-01

158

Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

McGee, E. S.; Mossotti, V. G.

1992-01-01

159

Exposure to silica dust in the Danish stone industry.  

PubMed

Exposure to silica dust among Danish stone workers was assessed from data collected in 1948-1980. After 1970, the exposure level was given in milligrams per cubic-meter and an exposure index (concentration of respirable dust divided by the threshold limit value for quartz) was calculated. The median index was 2.1 for the road and building material industry and 0.6 for the stonecutting industry. Crushing showed a median index of 2.6, compared to 1.0 for drilling, 0.9 for sieving, and 0.5 for cutting. The median index for the road and building material industry was higher for Bornholm than for other parts of Denmark. The median index of the stonecutting industry was 1.0 for Copenhagen and 0.5 for other parts of Denmark, and no data were available for Bornholm. Before 1970, the exposure level was given in particles per cubic meter, and few data were available on quartz content. Crushing showed the highest exposure before 1970. PMID:2549615

Guénel, P; Breum, N O; Lynge, E

1989-04-01

160

Pattern of family history in stone patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic predisposition to urolithiasis is a much discussed topic. The objective of this paper is to identify the types of\\u000a family members of proved urinary stone patients, who have a history of urinary stone formation. The study population consisted\\u000a of 2,157 urinary stone patients interviewed in 2003–2007 in the urinary stone clinic. Family members with stone history were\\u000a classified as

Y. M. Fazil Marickar; Abiya Salim; Adarsh Vijay

2009-01-01

161

Evaluation of Stone Matrix Asphalt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents a study that evaluated the mixture properties and field performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures. The study included a review of European practices and initial U.S. experiences with SMA design and construction. SMA mixtures...

J. E. Shoenberger L. N. Godwin P. A. Gilbert L. N. Lynch

1997-01-01

162

Non-Axial Crushing of E-Glass\\/Polyester Pultruded Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of non-axial crushing, off-axis crushing and angled crushing, have been identified and significant differences found between the E-glass\\/polyester pultruded tubes crushed in these different configurations. Energy absorption for the two types of crushing was found also to vary significantly with the angle of inclination, with the difference being largest at high angles of inclination. Reasons for energy absorption

Michael J. Czaplicki; Richard E. Robertson; Peter H. Thornton

1990-01-01

163

Melting and stone production using MSW incinerated ash.  

PubMed

Most of the municipal solid waste (MSW) in Japan is incinerated and the generated ash is landfilled. However, environmental pollution problems have increased and Japan has decreased final disposal sites for landfills. With the application of a melting system, the volume of incinerated ash can be reduced and the effective use of melted slag is being developed for use in civil engineering works. However, the low strength of melted slag as a vitreous structure has limited its effective use. As a solution for this deficiency, a technology to crystallize melted slag into higher strength produced stones was developed. With the joint cooperation of Chiba Prefecture and Kamagaya City, a demonstration plant for melting and stone production with a capacity of 4.8 tons of incinerator ash per day was constructed. The demonstration test was conducted from May 1998 to June 1999 with satisfactory results stated below. Long-term stable operation and performance of the plant have been confirmed and effective applications of produced stones have been demonstrated on a commercial scale. The results are as follows. 1. A stable, continuous operation and good quality produced stones have been confirmed by treating more than 750 tons of MSW incinerated ash. 2. More than 99.9% of dioxins contained in the incinerated ash were decomposed, and the concentration of dioxins in produced stones were less than the detection limit set by Japanese environmental standards. 3. Leaching values of hazardous heavy metals of produced stones sufficiently met the environmental standard on soil pollution of the Environment Agency with superior leaching behavior for the vitreous slag, thus confirming their safe applications. 4. The effective application of produced stones for aggregate was tested based on Japanese Industrial Standards and every figure of test results met the Japanese standard values. The use of produced stones as raw materials for permeable pavement blocks has been confirmed in commercial construction for a park in Chiba Prefecture. Asphalt use was also demonstrated by paving a commercial roadway in Kamagaya City. PMID:11280985

Nishida, K; Nagayoshi, Y; Ota, H; Nagasawa, H

2001-01-01

164

The Stepping Stone Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education is a profession in its own right. It has its own parameters, passions and language. Having the responsibility both of educare and educere, education has a focus of delivering specific factual knowledge whilst drawing out the creative mind. Space Science is a special vehicle having the properties of both educare and educere. It has a magic and wonder that touches the very essence of an individual and his place in time and space; it offers the "wow" factor that all teachers strive for. Space Science is the wrapping paper for other elements in the curriculum, e.g. cross-curricula and skill-based activities, such as language development, creativity, etc. as well as the pure sciences which comprise of engineering, physics and other natural sciences from astronomy to chemistry to biology. Each of these spheres of influence are relevant from kindergarten to undergraduate studies and complement, and in addition support informal education in museums, science centers and the world of e-learning. ESA Science Education has devised the "Stepping Stone Approach" to maximize the greatest outreach to all education stakeholders in Europe. In this paper we illustrate how to best reach these target groups with very specific activities to trigger and sustain enthusiasm whilst supporting the pedagogical, subject content and skill-based needs of a prescribed curriculum.

Brumfitt, A.

165

Stabilization of Calcium Oxalate Suspension by Urinary Macromolecules, Probably an Efficient Protection from Stone Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Crystal aggregation (AGN) destabilizes crystal suspensions and during crystalluria probably favors crystal apposition to kidney calcifications and preexisting stones. We analyzed inhibition of AGN and stabilization of calcium oxalate suspensions by urinary macromolecules (UM), urine and solutions with urinary citrate concentration. Materials and Methods: Solutions of UM (UMS) were obtained by a hemofiltration procedure from urine of 6 healthy

J. M. Baumann; B. Affolter; U. Caprez; C. Clivaz; Z. Glück; R. Weber

2007-01-01

166

Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh. PMID:16225049

Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

167

Laser lithotripsy retropulsion varies with stone mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that retropulsion varies with stone size. METHODS: Stone phantoms of uniform cube dimensions were constructed and irradiated with Ho:YAG energy (0.5 J - 3.5 J). Displacement was measured. RESULTS: At any given pulse energy, retropulsion decreased as stone size increased, p<0.05. At any given stone size, retropulsion increased as pulse energy increased, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of low pulse energy at high repetition rate is appropriate for ureteral stones. For larger bladder and renal stones, retropulsion is minimal even with high pulse energies. More study is warranted.

Robinson, Michael E.; Teichman, Joel M. H.

168

Crushing virtual cigarettes reduces tobacco addiction and treatment discontinuation.  

PubMed

Pilot studies revealed promising results regarding crushing virtual cigarettes to reduce tobacco addiction. In this study, 91 regular smokers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions that differ only by the action performed in the virtual environment: crushing virtual cigarettes or grasping virtual balls. All participants also received minimal psychosocial support from nurses during each of 12 visits to the clinic. An affordable virtual reality system was used (eMagin HMD) with a virtual environment created by modifying a 3D game. Results revealed that crushing virtual cigarettes during 4 weekly sessions led to a statistically significant reduction in nicotine addiction (assessed with the Fagerström test), abstinence rate (confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide), and drop-out rate from the 12-week psychosocial minimal-support treatment program. Increased retention in the program is discussed as a potential explanation for treatment success, and hypotheses are raised about self-efficacy, motivation, and learning. PMID:19817561

Girard, Benoit; Turcotte, Vincent; Bouchard, Stéphane; Girard, Bruno

2009-10-01

169

Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach.

Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

1997-12-31

170

Determining the mechanisms for aerobic granulation from mixed seed of floccular and crushed granules in activated sludge wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Aerobic granulation is a novel and promising technology for wastewater treatment. However, long start-up periods required for the development of granules from floccular sludge, and the loss of biomass in this period leading to poor nutrient removal performance are key challenges. In a recent study the addition of crushed granules to a floccular sludge significantly reduced the start-up period, and also maintained the nutrient removal performance during granulation. In this study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the fast granulation from a mixture of floccular and granular sludges. Fluorescent microbead particles (4 ?m diameter) were successfully applied to differentially label the surfaces of floccular and crushed granular aggregates. Labelled flocs and crushed granules were added to a laboratory scale wastewater treatment reactor, and the granule formation process was monitored using confocal laser scanning microscopy over an 80 day period. Flocs were observed to attach to the surface of the seeding granules, resulting in reduced biomass washout during granulation. This mechanism not only reduces the granulation period, but also maintains the nutrient removal performance of the reactor. The results indicate that the granules acted as nuclei for floccular particle attachment, which accelerated granule formation. PMID:22153958

Verawaty, M; Pijuan, M; Yuan, Z; Bond, P L

2011-11-27

171

Investigation of off-axis crush of conical composite frusta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crush of composite conical shells under off-axis loading has two unique features. First, the details of fiber reinforcement & interfaces, including changes along the height, add a level of complexity. This can be related to the complex crush processes in composite crush such as delamination, fiber and matrix rupture, interlaminar and intralaminar crack, fiber pull out, macro and micro buckling etc. Secondly, this off-axis loading is in itself a complex process causing interaction at a variety of levels between material, configuration and structure. The presence of offaxis loading makes the process of understanding and tailoring composite material crush more difficult. This research began with the experimental approach of the composite conical frusta under axial and off-axis loading for 3 different woven fabric sets, i.e., carbon, E-glass, and carbon/E-glass hybrid with vinylester resin. As results, the failure modes of crush process are investigated, from which the common trends of the crush are gleaned. Specific mechanisms are identified and are further elucidated through computational and analytical investigations. The analytical approach incorporates modeling of both geometrical and damage mechanism related aspects with emphasis on the two critical mechanisms of splaying/bending and folding. Based on identification of phenomena for off-axis loading, a methodology is proposed for future development of optimized material-configuration sets. The computational approach is used to further visualize and elucidate the sequence of damage mechanisms as a means of validating the results of the analytical design based methodology. It is shown that conical frusta are extremely effective for energy absorption and that unique mechanisms can be tailored to provide the desired response even under cases of off-axis loading.

Yang, Hyunjung

172

In-pit movable crushing/conveying systems  

SciTech Connect

Many mature open pit mines throughout the world can probably achieve a marked reduction in overall mining costs by installing movable gyratory crushing and conveying systems within the pit. Truck haulage would be limited to transporting material for the short distance between the working face and the nearest crusher module. The work of elevating the materials is handled by belt conveyors which have much greater efficiency than haul trucks. The technology for this more economical method of crushing and transporting hard rock materials is available today and several forward-looking mines can be expected to install some variation of this system in the near future.

Almond, R.M.

1982-01-01

173

Continuous method of cleaning a slurry of crushed raw coal  

SciTech Connect

A crushed raw coal washing plant using a plurality of deflector-fitted centrifugal cyclones to produce a washed and dried mixture of clean coarse and fine coal, and fine coal alone, with means to remove refuse and means to recycle clean fine coal slurry byproduct into the raw crushed coal inlet. Each centrifugal cyclone of said system is fitted with an inlet line deflector and equalizer means to create laminar flow and gravity separation whereby low density (1.6 or less) washed coal escapes through a first outlet at the top and refuse drains out of a second outlet at the bottom of said cyclone.

Liller, D. I.

1980-08-12

174

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For utilizing waste stone and stone powder sludge generated from domestic quarry and cutting process of stone plates, the manufacturing technology of artificial stone plate as a building material was investigated. By introducing firing method and hydrothe...

C. K. Kim J. S. Sohn B. G. Kim Y. Sohn

1997-01-01

175

Effect of Phenolic Compounds from Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.leaves on Experimental kidney stones.  

PubMed

Kidney stone formation or Urolithiasis is a complex process that results from series of several physicochemical events including super-saturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention within the kidneys. Among the treatments include Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and drug treatment. Even this ESWL treatment may cause acute renal injury, decrease in renal function and increase in stone recurrence. In addition, persistent residual stone fragments and possibility of infection after ESWL represent a serious problem in the treatment of stones. Data from in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical trials reveal that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either alternative or an adjunct therapy in the management of Urolithiasis. Medicinal plants /natural products are more acceptable to the body because they promote the repair mechanism in natural way. Various plant species of the genus Bergenia, have been reported to posses antiurolithiatic property. Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl, is one the ingredient of reputed herbal formulation Cy stone for the treatment of kidney stones. In this study alcohol, butanol, ethyl acetate extracts and isolated phenolic compounds from the Ayurvedic and Unani herb, Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. leaves (Saxifragaceae) were evaluated for their potential to dissolve experimentally prepared kidney stones-calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, by an in-vitro model. Phenolic compound P(1) isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves, demonstrated highest dissolution of both stones when compared to test extracts at 10 mg concentration. However, it was more effective in dissolving calcium phosphate stones (67.74 %) than oxalate (36.95%). Reference standard-formulation Cystone was found to be more effective (48.48%) when compared to compound P(1). PMID:22557418

Byahatti, Vivek V; Pai, K Vasantkumar; D'Souza, Marina G

2010-07-01

176

Effect of Phenolic Compounds from Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb.leaves on Experimental kidney stones  

PubMed Central

Kidney stone formation or Urolithiasis is a complex process that results from series of several physicochemical events including super-saturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and retention within the kidneys. Among the treatments include Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and drug treatment. Even this ESWL treatment may cause acute renal injury, decrease in renal function and increase in stone recurrence. In addition, persistent residual stone fragments and possibility of infection after ESWL represent a serious problem in the treatment of stones. Data from in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical trials reveal that phytotherapeutic agents could be useful as either alternative or an adjunct therapy in the management of Urolithiasis. Medicinal plants /natural products are more acceptable to the body because they promote the repair mechanism in natural way. Various plant species of the genus Bergenia, have been reported to posses antiurolithiatic property. Bergenia ligulata (Wall.) Engl, is one the ingredient of reputed herbal formulation Cy stone for the treatment of kidney stones. In this study alcohol, butanol, ethyl acetate extracts and isolated phenolic compounds from the Ayurvedic and Unani herb, Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. leaves (Saxifragaceae) were evaluated for their potential to dissolve experimentally prepared kidney stones-calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, by an in-vitro model. Phenolic compound P1 isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves, demonstrated highest dissolution of both stones when compared to test extracts at 10 mg concentration. However, it was more effective in dissolving calcium phosphate stones (67.74 %) than oxalate (36.95%). Reference standard-formulation Cystone was found to be more effective (48.48%) when compared to compound P1.

Byahatti, Vivek V.; Pai, K. Vasantkumar; D'Souza, Marina G

2010-01-01

177

Glycosaminoglycans content of stone matrix.  

PubMed

The role of urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lithogenesis is a topic of current interest in urologic research. One GAG, chondroitin sulfate, has previously been shown to inhibit calcium oxalate crystal formation. It has long been known that the chemical components of GAGs are present in the matrix of urinary concretions, but it has not been determined whether these components exist in free form or as constituents of GAG. This study was undertaken to determine whether GAGs are present in urinary stone matrices and, if so, to characterize them. Matrices of nine single urinary stones of various compositions and of three stone pools (calcium oxalate, magnesium ammonium phosphate) were isolated by exhaustive dialysis. The techniques of cellulose acetate electrophoresis, Alcian blue staining and enzymatic degradation were used to identify various GAGs. Material that stained Alcain blue was present in eleven of twelve samples. GAG was detected as this material in ten samples. The GAGs identified are heparan sulfate, hyaluronic acid and possibly keratan sulfate. The most prominent urinary GAG, chondroitin sulfate, was notably absent from urinary stone matrix. GAG seems to be incorporated into matrix on a selective basis. This finding may be due to differences in the affinities of different GAG species for the crystals which comprise the calculi. It has been proposed that the inhibitory activity of GAGs lies in their ability to bind to (and therefore block) the growth sites of crystals. It is apparent from this study that certain GAG species are incorporated into the structure of the stone and they may be intimately related to stone development and growth. PMID:3959234

Roberts, S D; Resnick, M I

1986-05-01

178

Bioreceptivity of building stones: a review.  

PubMed

In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and will also provide useful information as regards selecting stones for the conservation of heritage monuments and construction of new buildings. Studies of the bioreceptivity of stone materials are reviewed here with the aim of providing a clear set of conclusions on the topic. Definitions of bioreceptivity are given, stone bioreceptivity experiments are described, and finally the stone properties related to bioreceptivity are discussed. We suggest that a standardized laboratory protocol for evaluating stone bioreceptivity and definition of a stone bioreceptivity index are required to enable creation of a database on the primary bioreceptivity of stone materials. PMID:22534363

Miller, A Z; Sanmartín, P; Pereira-Pardo, L; Dionísio, A; Saiz-Jimenez, C; Macedo, M F; Prieto, B

2012-04-24

179

Calcium Oxalate Stone Agglomeration Inhibition [tm] Reflects Renal Stone-Forming Activity.  

PubMed

Louisiana and other Gulf South states comprise a "Stone Belt" where calcium oxalate stone formers (CaOx SFs) are found at a high rate of approximately 5%. In these patients, the agglomeration of small stone crystals, which are visible in nearly all morning urine collections, forms stones that can become trapped in the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. Without therapy, about half of CaOx SFs repeatedly form kidney stones, which can cause excruciating pain that can be relieved by passage, fragmentation (lithotripsy), or surgical removal. The absence of stones in "normal" patients suggests that there are stone inhibitors in "normal" urines.At the Ochsner Renal Stone Clinic, 24-hour urine samples are collected by the patient and sent to the Ochsner Renal Stone Research Program where calcium oxalate stone agglomeration inhibition [tm] measurements are performed. Urine from healthy subjects and inactive stone formers has demonstrated strongly inhibited stone growth [tm] in contrast to urine from recurrent CaOx SFs. [tm] data from 1500 visits of 700 kidney stone patients have been used to evaluate the risk of recurrence in Ochsner's CaOx SF patients. These data have also been used to demonstrate the interactive roles of certain identified urinary stone-growth inhibitors, citrate and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), which can be manipulated with medication to diminish recurrent stone formation. Our goal is to offer patients both financial and pain relief by reducing their stones with optimized medication, using medical management to avoid costly treatments. PMID:21811395

Lindberg, J S; Cole, F E; Romani, W; Husserl, F E; Fuselier, H A; Kok, D J; Erwin, D T

2000-04-01

180

History of Stone Tool Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stone tools, which constitute the earliest record of human material culture, have fascinated scholars since archaeology was\\u000a in its infancy (e.g., Evans 1897; Leakey 1934:3; Roe 1970; Feder 1996:19-21). Early in modern archaeological research, prehistorians\\u000a were confronted with the difficulty of distinguishing actual prehistorically fashioned stone tools from look-alikes made by\\u000a natural forces, a situation that spawned a controversy over

George H. Odell

181

Stone Pages: A Guide to European Megaliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the Stone Pages is a frequently updated site, available in English or Italian, that contains unique reports on megalithic and other archaeological stone sites in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Wales, and Ireland. Regular and high resolution photos, site maps, and evaluations are provided for court and passage tombs, cairns-crannogs, dolmens, and standing stones and stone circles. QTVR panoramic views of several sites are also available.

1996-01-01

182

Crushing Strength of Aluminum Honeycomb with Thinning Cell Wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the crash safety of automobiles, various collision tests are performed by the auto industry. In the offset frontal collision test and the side collision test, the target is an aluminum honeycomb material which has thinning cell walls. In this study, based on the analyses of the shock absorption mechanism, a new crushing strength formula is proposed. First, load-displacement curves obtained from compression tests in quasi-static condition showed an almost linear relation between a thinning rate of cell walls and a crushing strength. Second, based on Wierzbicki's theory, a new formula was proposed, which can estimate a crushing strength of a honeycomb material with thinning wall. In addition, a correcting equation which considered an elastic deformation was also proposed. Third, parametric analyses were carried out with a FE model which can simulate a delamination between cell walls. The results obtained from the theory and FEM almost corresponded to each other for a wide range of the thinning rate. Fourth, impact tests were carried out, in which the weight was dropped freely at the speed used for the automobile tests. Those results almost agreed well with the sum of the theoretical crush strength and the inside air pressure.

Ogasawara, Nagahisa; Chiba, Norimasa; Kobayashi, Eiji; Kikuchi, Yuji

183

LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE BIN AREA. NOTE STEEL CUSTOM ORE CHUTES IN BACKGROUND. THE FARTHEST BINS WERE LAST USED FOR STORAGE OF BALL MILL BALLS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

184

In-pit movable crushing\\/conveying systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mature open pit mines throughout the world can probably achieve a marked reduction in overall mining costs by installing movable gyratory crushing and conveying systems within the pit. Truck haulage would be limited to transporting material for the short distance between the working face and the nearest crusher module. The work of elevating the materials is handled by belt

Almond

1982-01-01

185

Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

2013-06-01

186

Aortic rupture as a result of low velocity crush.  

PubMed Central

A case of aortic disruption in a 35 year old lorry driver is described. This occurred as a result of a low velocity crushing force. Clinicians should be aware that this mechanism of injury may result in aortic disruption as well as the more commonly mentioned severe deceleration force. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Reid, C; Livesey, S A; Egleston, C V

1999-01-01

187

Investigation of Sorption Properties in Crushed Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to hardening in autoclaves and mechanical processing of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) massive, the process of production of AAC unavoidably generates waste. Up to now, there were no ways for utilisation of this type of waste. The article deals with the adsorption effectiveness of crushed autoclaved aerated concrete waste (CAACW). It was established that the ability of CAACW to

Georgijus Sezemanas; Donatas Mikulskis; Modestas Kligys; Vytautas ?esnauskas

2012-01-01

188

33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. VIEW OF WEST WALL OF CRUSHING ADDITION FROM SOUTHWEST. STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR IN CENTER. TEAM SUPERVISOR ROBERT W. GRZYWACZ ON LOWER LEVEL (LOCATION OF STEARNS-ROGER DRYER). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

189

167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

190

52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

191

Modeling and Detecting Stepping-Stone Intrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Most network intruders launch their attacks through stepping- stones to reduce the risks of being discovered. To uncover such intrusions, one prevalent, challenging, and critical way is to compare an incoming connection with an outgoing connection to determine if a computer is used as stepping-stone. In this paper, we present four models to describe stepping-stone intrusion. We also propose

Yongzhong Zhang; Jianhua Yang; Chunming Ye

2009-01-01

192

Progress in Management of Ureteric Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most symptomatic urinary stones are found within the ureter. Depending on stone localisation and size, a substantial portion is able to pass the upper urinary tract spontaneously. This process may take days to weeks and the patient has to receive sufficient analgetic and spasmolytic medication. There is some evidence, that alpha-adrenoreceptor blockade supports expulsion of praevesical stones.Standard and least invasive

Thomas Knoll; Peter Alken; Maurice Stephan Michel

2005-01-01

193

Optimal Policies for Aggregate Recycling from Decommissioned Forest Roads  

Microsoft Academic Search

To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many\\u000a public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable.\\u000a Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible\\u000a to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road

Matthew Thompson; John Sessions

2008-01-01

194

Dissolution of Calcified Cholesterol Stones and of Brown and Black Pigment Stones of the Gallbladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of different solvents on cholesterol and pigment stones was investigated in vitro. Stone analysis was performed chemically, with infrared spectroscopy (IRS), scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-microanalysis (EDXA) and wave-length-dispersive X-microanalysis (WDXA). Each set of stones came from one source: eight human calcified cholesterol stones (CHS), eight fragments of bovine radiopaque Ca-bilirubinate stones (BBIL), and two complete BBIL. CHS

U. Leuschner; U. Wosiewitz; H. Baumgärtel; M. Leuschner; K. Iwamura; X. Klicic; H. Frenk

1981-01-01

195

Source Assessment: Crushed Sandstone, Quartz, and Quartzite, State-of-the-Art.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed sandstone, quartz, and quartzite industry. Particulates are emitted from drilling, blasting, loading and unloading trucks, transport on unpaved roads, washing, crushing, screening, co...

P. K. Chalekode T. R. Blackwood R. A. Wachter

1978-01-01

196

49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 ...Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is...

2012-10-01

197

Thermophysical Properties of Stone Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophysical properties of the stone fruits plum, peach, and nectarine were modeled from experimental data as functions of moisture content. Samples were dried to preset moistures in a laboratory cabinet dryer, and the thermal conductivity, specific heat, apparent density, bulk density, and porosity of the fruit were determined. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were found to be linear

W. Phomkong; G. Srzednicki; R. H. Driscoll

2006-01-01

198

ROOTSTOCK BREEDING FOR STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the last 20 years stone fruit rootstock development has begun shifting from seedling to clonal types, many of interspecific origin. Publicly funded breeding programs have produced most of these rootstocks due to the time, cost, and risk associated with their development; however, private indus...

199

Crush-failure modes of 2D triaxially braided hybrid composite tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six different hybrid types of two-dimensional (2D) triaxially braided composite tubes containing Kevlar and carbon fiber were designed to study their crush-failure modes and specific energy-absorption capabilities. Quasi-static axial compression was employed to investigate the effect of hybrid type on the crush-failure characteristics and energy-absorption mechanisms. The crushing appearance and failure modes in the crushing zone were examined by optical

C. H. Chiu; K.-H. Tsai; W. J. Huang

1999-01-01

200

On the axisymmetric progressive crushing of circular tubes under axial compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderately thick circular tubes under compression crush progressively by axisymmetric folding. The paper presents a combined experimental analytical study of the onset of collapse, its localization and the subsequent progressive folding. Results from four displacement controlled crushing experiments are presented on tubes of various radius-to-thickness ratios made of different metal alloys. The experimental results include the crushing response, careful measurements

F. C Bardi; H. D Yun; S Kyriakides

2003-01-01

201

31. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST TO CORNER WHERE SAMPLING/CRUSHING ADDITIONS ABUT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST TO CORNER WHERE SAMPLING/CRUSHING ADDITIONS ABUT CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. INTACT BARREN SOLUTION TANK VISIBLE IN FRONT OF CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

202

Risk Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Quantitative Risk Management (QRM) often starts with a vector of oneperiodprofit-and-loss random variables \\u000a X = (X1 , ¼<\\/font\\u000a>,Xd )¢<\\/font\\u000a>{\\\\bf{X}} = (X_1 , \\\\ldots ,X_d )'\\u000a defined on some probability space \\u000a \\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a(W<\\/font\\u000a>,Á<\\/font\\u000a>,\\\\mathbb P)(\\\\Omega ,\\\\Im ,\\\\mathbb P)\\u000a . Risk Aggregation concerns the study of the aggregate financial position \\u000a y<\\/font\\u000a>(X)\\\\psi ({\\\\bf{X}})\\u000a , for some measurable function \\u000a \\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000ay<\\/font\\u000a>:\\\\mathbb

Paul Embrechts; Giovanni Puccetti

203

Hot Mix Asphalt Using Light Weight Aggregate Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot mix asphalt concrete is produced by properly blending asphalt, coarse and fine aggregates in addition to filler at temperatures ranging from 80 to 165°C. This research is directed to study the effect of replacing the conventional aggregates by the recycled Light Weight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC) on the properties of the produced asphalt mix. The research studied the optimum asphalt content and the effect of some parameters on the properties of the recycled LWAC. The research included studying thirty-six Marshal Specimens lie in four main groups. Each group was made from crushed LWAC in addition to a comparison group used the pumice instead of the crushed LWAC. The LWAC mixes contained (0, 10, 15 and 20%) of silica powder content. The density, stability, flow, percentages of the air Voids in the Compacted Mixture (VTM), compacted mineral aggregate (VMA) and the Voids Filled by Asphalt (VFA) were investigated for all the studied specimens. The main conclusions drawn from the current research implies that the optimum percent of asphalt was 7.5% for the different percentages of silica powder ratios. The presence of voids in the light weight aggregates and the porosity of the obtained concrete affected largely the behavior of the obtained mix.

Awwad, Mohammad T.

204

Hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates under organic and conventional soil management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variation in hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates is an important factor affecting water storage and infiltration because the large inter-aggregate pores are dewatered first and the transport of water and solutes is influenced by the properties of the individual aggregates and contacts between them. A high mechanical stability of soil aggregates is fundamental for the maintenance of proper tilth and provides stable traction for farm implements, but limit root growth inside aggregates. The aggregate properties are largely influenced by soil management practices. Our objective was to compare the effects of organic and conventional soil management on hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil aggregates. Experimental fields subjected to long-term organic (14 years) and conventional managements were located on loamy soil at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation - National Research Institute in Pulawy, Poland. Soil samples were collected from two soil depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). After air-drying, two size fractions of soil aggregates (15-20 and 30-35 mm) were manually selected and kept in the dried state in a dessicator in order to provide the same boundary conditions. Following properties of the aggregates were determined: porosity (%) using standard wax method, cumulative infiltration Q (mm3 s-1) and sorptivity S (mm s -1/2) of water and ethanol using a tube with a sponge inserted at the tip, wettability (by comparison of sorptivity of water and ethanol) using repellency index R, crushing strength q (MPa) using strength testing device (Zwick/Roell) and calculated by Dexter's formula. All properties were determined in 15 replicates for each treatment, aggregates size and depth. Organic management decreased porosity of soil aggregates and ethanol infiltration. All aggregates revealed rather limited wettability (high repellency index). In most cases the aggregate wettability was lower under conventional than organic soil management. Crushing strength was higher for aggregates from organic managed field, especially for 30-35 mm aggregates.

Wójciga, A.; Ku?, J.; Turski, M.; Lipiec, J.

2009-04-01

205

The effect of recycled concrete aggregate properties on the bond strength between RCA concrete and steel reinforcement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that replacing natural coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) has on concrete bond strength with reinforcing steel. Two sources of RCA were used along with one natural aggregate source. Numerous aggregate properties were measured for all aggregate sources. Two types of concrete mixture proportions were developed replacing 100% of the natural aggregate with RCA. The first type maintained the same water-cement ratios while the second type was designed to achieve the same compressive strengths. Beam-end specimens were tested to determine the relative bond strength of RCA and natural aggregate concrete. On average, natural aggregate concrete specimens had bond strengths that were 9 to 19% higher than the equivalent RCA specimens. Bond strength and the aggregate crushing value seemed to correlate well for all concrete types.

Butler, L., E-mail: L3Butler@uwaterloo.ca; West, J.S.; Tighe, S.L.

2011-10-15

206

Drained cavity expansion in sands exhibiting particle crushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of cylindrical and spherical cavities in sands is modelled using similarity solutions. The conventional Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and the state parameter sand behaviour model, which enables hardening-softening, are used in the analysis. The sand state is defined in terms of a new critical state line, designed to account for the three different modes of compressive deformation observed in sands across a wide range of stresses including particle rearrangement, particle crushing and pseudoelastic deformation. Solutions are generated for cavities expanded from zero and finite radii and are compared to those solutions where a conventional critical state line has been used. It is shown that for initial states typical of real quartz sand deposits, pseudoelastic deformation does not occur around an expanding cavity. Particle crushing does occur at these states and causes a reduction in the stress surrounding the cavity. This has major implications when using cavity expansion theory to interpret the cone penetration test and pressuremeter test.

Russell, A. R.; Khalili, N.

2002-04-01

207

A More Dramatic Container to Crush by Atmospheric Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The familiar demonstration of collapsing a can by filling it with water vapor and then sealing it and allowing it to cool is improved by performing it with a 20-L steel solvent drum instead. This modification is significant because the steel drum is sufficiently sturdy to resist mechanical attempts to crush it. In contrast, the action of the atmosphere will dramatically collapse the drum almost completely.

Meyers, Robert D.; Yee, Gordon T.

1999-07-01

208

New crush test evaluates proppants under downhole conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a modified crush resistance procedure for testing proppant strength in an elevated temperature, aqueous (hot and wet) environment that better simulates downhole conditions. Frac sand, resin-coated sand, light-weigh ceramic, resin-coated ceramic and bauxite proppants were used in this study. Results indicate a dramatic increase in fines generated for all proppant types tested under the hot and wet

J. R. Colt; R. L. II Johnson; S. B. Smith; V. T. Smith

1995-01-01

209

A graded forceps crush spinal cord injury model in mice.  

PubMed

Given the rising availability and use of genetically modified animals in basic science research, it has become increasingly important to develop clinically relevant models for spinal cord injury (SCI) for use in mice. We developed a graded forceps crush model of SCI in mice that uses three different forceps with spacers of 0.25, 0.4, and 0.55 mm, to produce severe, moderate, and mild injuries, respectively. Briefly, each mouse was subjected to laminectomy of T5-T7, 15-second spinal cord crush using one of those forceps, behavioral assessments, and post-mortem neuroanatomical analyses. There were significant differences among the three injury severity groups on behavioral measures (Basso Mouse Score, footprint, and ladder analyses), demonstrating an increase in neurological deficits for groups with greater injury severity. Quantitative analysis of the lesion demonstrated that as injury severity increased, lesion size and GFAP negative area increased, and spared tissue, spinal cord cross-sectional area, spared grey matter and spared white matter decreased. These measures strongly correlated with the behavioral outcomes. Similar to other studies of SCI in mice, we report a dense laminin and fibronectin positive extracellular matrix in the lesion sites of injured mice, but unlike those previous studies, we also report the presence of numerous p75 positive Schwann cells in and around the lesion epicenter. These results provide evidence that the graded forceps crush model is an attractive alternative for the study of SCI and related therapeutic interventions. Because of its demonstrated consistency, ease of use, low cost, and clinical relevance, this graded forceps crush is an attractive alternative to the other mouse models of SCI currently available. PMID:18373484

Plemel, Jason R; Duncan, Greg; Chen, Kai-Wei K; Shannon, Casey; Park, Sophia; Sparling, Joseph S; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2008-04-01

210

Post-impact crush of hybrid braided composite tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of lateral impact simulating prior damage, on the progressive crush characteristics of 2D-braided composite tubes is investigated. The emphasis of the investigation is on hybridization through the combined use of carbon, glass and\\/or aramid yarns, as well as through changes in braid yarn yield, and the use of different braid patterns. It is shown that the use of

V. M. Karbhari; J. E. Haller; P. K. Falzon; I. Herszberg

1999-01-01

211

43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. INTERIOR VIEW, CRUSHING ADDITION. THE SYMONS VIBRATING SCREEN SITS ON TOP OF THE PLATFORM. OVERSIZE ORE IS FED BY CHUTE TO THE GYRATORY SECONDARY CRUSHER (MISSING) SITTING ON CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS TO LOWER RIGHT. UNDERSIZE ORE WAS FED BY THE LOWER CHUTE (CENTER LEFT) TO THE 24 INCH BELT CONVEYOR UNDER THE SECONDARY CRUSHER. THE DRYER ROOM IS BEYOND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

212

34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

34. VIEW FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN WEST TO THICKENER ADDITIONS. SHAFT OF PRIMARY THICKENER No. 1 AT CENTER, WITH PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 ABOVE AND TO THE LEFT. INTACT THICKENER SURGE TANK IS JUST ABOVE AND TO THE RIGHT (NORTH). ALL FRAMING ABOVE SECONDARY THICKENERS No. 2, No. 3, AND No. 7 HAS COLLAPSED. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

213

Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

2007-04-01

214

Triamterene and renal stone formation.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of triamterene (TA), and its metabolites parahydroxytriamterene (PHTA), and parahydroxytriamterene sulfate (PHTAS) on the nucleation and crystal growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), in supersaturated solution at 37C using a new constant composition technique. The spontaneous precipitation of COM is preceded by induction periods which decrease with increasing supersaturation. The addition of the triamterene seed materials substantially reduces there delay periods and induces the crystal growth of COM. Specific surface area and scanning electron microscopic results indicate that the seed materials act as sources for the heterogeneous nucleation of COM. In addition, the surface of the more crystalline PHTAS appears to offer sites from which COM crystals can develop as well formed rosettes. This evidence suggests that in addition to triamterene renal stone formation, TA and its metabolites may catalyze the precipitation of other stone forming minerals with which urines may be supersaturated. PMID:7062445

White, D J; Nancollas, G H

1982-03-01

215

Management of pediatric stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric and adult stone disease differs in both presentation and treatment. Children can present with a wide range of symptoms\\u000a varying from flank pain and hematuria to nonspecific symptoms such as irritability and nausea. Although ultrasonography and\\u000a plain radiographs can play a role in diagnosis and follow-up, the standard of care for a child who presents to the emergency\\u000a department

H. Serkan Dogan; Serdar Tekgul

2007-01-01

216

The Matariki Stone of Rapanui  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

Hockey, T. A.

2005-12-01

217

Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.  

PubMed

The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

1995-02-01

218

A Product of the Drosophila stoned Locus Regulates Neurotransmitter Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila stoned locus encodes two novel gene products termed stonedA and stonedB, which possess sequence motifs shared by proteins involved in intracellular vesicle traffic. A specific requirement for stoned in the synaptic vesicle cycle has been suggested by synthetic genetic interactions between stoned and shibire, a gene essential for synaptic vesicle recy- cling (Petrovich et al., 1993). A synaptic

Daniel T. Stimson; Patricia S. Estes; Michiko Smith; Leonard E. Kelly; Mani Ramaswami

1998-01-01

219

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the building stone industry, waste stone and stone power sludge that were occurred in the quarry and cutting process of stone plates are regarded as environmental pollution materials. So to activate the building stone industry and to make further profi...

C. K. Kim B. K. Kim J. S. Son

1995-01-01

220

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

221

Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

2009-06-01

222

Adjunctive Therapy to Promote Stone Passage  

PubMed Central

The majority of individuals with nephrolithiasis have small ureteral stones that pass spontaneously. However, patients may experience severe pain during this process, which significantly alters their quality of life and may limit their vocational responsibilities. Therefore, measures to facilitate stone passage are uniformly embraced. We discuss methods to enhance spontaneous stone passage as well as the elimination of fragments generated with extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.

Nuss, Geoffrey R; Rackley, Judson D; Assimos, Dean G

2005-01-01

223

National Geographic: Stone Skipping Gets Scientific  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article in National Geographic tells us how and why the magic angle of 20 degrees allows for the most number of skips when skipping stones. How does the author know this? Well, a French scientist constructed a stone-skipping machine to find out the optimal speed, spin, and angle for the maximum number of bounces. Learn more about the physics of stone skipping in this article.

224

PROFILE OF THE BRUSHITE STONE FORMER  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The incidence of brushite stones has increased over the last 3 decades. We report our experience with brushite stone forming patients. METHODS From 1996 to 2008 we identified 82 patients with brushite urinary calculi. After institutional review board approval a review of our prospectively collected database was performed. RESULTS There were 54(65.9%) males and 28(34.1%) females. Mean age was 44 years (4–84). Prior stone events were reported by 69(84.1%) patients with 54(78.3%) having received shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Bilateral calculi were present in 28(34.1%). Mean stone area was 29.2mm2(2–130). Surgery was performed in 80 patients including: 63(76.8%) percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), 8(9.8 %) ureteroscopy, 3(3.7%) SWL, 6(7.3%) ureteroscopy and PCNL. After primary and secondary procedures seventy-six(92.7%) were rendered stone-free. Metabolic urine studies were available in 45 patients. All demonstrated one or more abnormalities: hypercalciuria 38(80.9%), urine pH > 6.2 in 29(61.7%), urine volume <2 L in 27(57.4%), hypocitraturia 22(46.8%), hyperuricosuria 8(17%), and hyperoxaluria 5(10.6%). Recurrent stone events occurred in 31(37.8 %) patients at a mean of 33(2–118) months from treatment. CONCLUSION Brushite stone formers are a treatment challenge. Almost a third will present with bilateral stones and stone burden is sizeable. Nearly 80% of patients report a prior SWL and recurrent stone events occurred approximately 3 years after treatment. All brushite patients in this cohort had an underlying metabolic abnormality, specifically brushite stones should be heralded as a marker for hypercalciuria. Based on these data we recommend all brushite stone formers undergo 24-hour urine studies and have close long-term follow-up.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Handa, Shelly E.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

2011-01-01

225

Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease.BackgroundCross-sectional studies have shown that nephrolithiasis is more frequently found in hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects, but the pathogenic link between hypertension and stone disease is still not clear.MethodsBetween 1984 and 1991, we studied the baseline stone risk profile, including supersaturation of lithogenic salts, in 132 patients with stable essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure

Loris Borghi; Tiziana Meschi; Angela Guerra; Angelo Briganti; Tania Schianchi; Franca Allegri; Almerico Novarini

1999-01-01

226

Female stone disease: the changing trend  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis\\u000a patients during the period 1971–2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging\\u000a to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various

Y. M. Fazil Marickar; Adarsh Vijay

2009-01-01

227

Stomach stones in king penguin chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals that possess a gizzard swallow stones or sandy grit, supposedly to aid in the mechanical breakdown of food. While\\u000a this has been well documented in the literature, our study is the first to report the presence of stones in the gizzard of\\u000a king penguin chicks. We found stones, so called ‘gastroliths’, in the pyloric region of the gizzard,

David Beaune; Céline Le Bohec; Fabrice Lucas; Michel Gauthier-Clerc; Yvon Le Maho

2009-01-01

228

Effect of an Ultralight Metal Filler on the Torsional Crushing Behaviour of Thin-Walled Prismatic Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crush behaviour of empty and filled box columns undergoing torsional deformation is analyzed. Two distinct crushing states are observed in the plastic deformation, namely the initial torsional resistance and the stabilized torsional crushing mechanisms. The formulations for the crushing resistance of empty and filled columns are developed in terms of geometrical parameters and filler strength. The low density metal filling,

Sigit Santosa; Tomasz Wierzbicki

1997-01-01

229

Calcium oxalate stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium oxalate stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundOver 54 generations, we have successfully bred a strain of rats that maximizes urinary calcium excretion. The rats now consistently excrete 8 to 10 times as much calcium as controls, uniformly form poorly crystalline calcium phosphate kidney stones, and are termed genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rats. These rats were used to test

David A. Bushinsky; John R. Asplin; Marc D. Grynpas; Andrew P. Evan; Walter R. Parker; Kristen M. Alexander; Fredric L. Coe

2002-01-01

230

Urinary Risk Factors for Recurrent Calcium Stone Formation in Thai Stone Formers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To survey the urinary risk factors associated with recurrent calcium stone and the contribution of renal tubular acidosis to the prevalence of recurrent calcium stone formation in Thai recurrent stone formers. Material and Method: There were 86 consecutive recurrent calcium stone formers. Three-day dietary record, serum biochemical parameters, first morning urine pH, and two 24-hour urine collections were obtained

Wasana Stitchantrakul; Wachira Kochakarn; Chatuporn Ruangraksa; Somnuek Domrongkitchaiporn

2007-01-01

231

Recycling lead-based paint contaminated deconstructed masonry materials as aggregate for Portland cement concrete—A cost effective and environmental friendly approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four lead-based paint (LBP) contaminated deconstructed masonry materials (two types of concrete blocks and two types of clay bricks) were crushed and used to replace all natural aggregate in conventional concrete. To reduce cost, the crushed materials were neither sieved nor re-graded. After their physical properties and lead-leaching ability were characterized, these masonry materials were used for concrete with various

Jiong Hu; Kejin Wang; James A. Gaunt

2010-01-01

232

Management of stones in abnormal situations.  

PubMed

Stones in abnormal situations present a management conundrum to the urologist. Many of these situations are relatively rare and literature is scanty on the appropriate management. We review the current literature on the management of stones in the setting of pregnancy, calyceal diverticulum, urinary diversions, pelvic kidneys, transplant kidneys, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, horseshoe kidneys, and other renal anomalies. The aims of treatment are complete stone-free status. The modality of treatment should be individualized to the size and location of stone and type of abnormal situation confronted. PMID:23177637

Tan, Yung K; Cha, Doh Yoon; Gupta, Mantu

2013-02-01

233

A numerical approach to model and predict the energy absorption and crush mechanics within a long-fiber composite crush tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past research has conclusively shown that long fiber structural composites possess superior specific energy absorption characteristics as compared to steel and aluminum structures. However, destructive physical testing of composites is very costly and time consuming. As a result, numerical solutions are desirable as an alternative to experimental testing. Up until this point, very little numerical work has been successful in predicting the energy absorption of composite crush structures. This research investigates the ability to use commercially available numerical modeling tools to approximate the energy absorption capability of long-fiber composite crush tubes. This study is significant because it provides a preliminary analysis of the suitability of LS-DYNA to numerically characterize the crushing behavior of a dynamic axial impact crushing event. Composite crushing theory suggests that there are several crushing mechanisms occurring during a composite crush event. This research evaluates the capability and suitability of employing, LS-DYNA, to simulate the dynamic crush event of an E-glass/epoxy cylindrical tube. The model employed is the composite "progressive failure model", a much more limited failure model when compared to the experimental failure events which naturally occur. This numerical model employs (1) matrix cracking, (2) compression, and (3) fiber breakage failure modes only. The motivation for the work comes from the need to reduce the significant cost associated with experimental trials. This research chronicles some preliminary efforts to better understand the mechanics essential in pursuit of this goal. The immediate goal is to begin to provide deeper understanding of a composite crush event and ultimately create a viable alternative to destructive testing of composite crush tubes.

Pickett, Leon, Jr.

234

21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780...Test Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device...

2009-04-01

235

21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780...Test Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary calculi (stones) test system is a device...

2010-04-01

236

Study on the utilization of stone powder sludge (III).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was performed to activate the building stone industry by increasing the recycling amounts of waste resources and minimizing the generation of the environmental pollution materials. In order to utilize the waste stone and stone powder sludge gen...

C. K. Kim J. S. Sohn B. G. Kim

1996-01-01

237

Stone Preservatives: Methods of Laboratory Testing and Preliminary Performance Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although numerous materials have been proposed as preservatives for stone in historic buildings and monuments, their efficacy is difficult to establish. A laboratory research program of accelerated simulated stone decay was used to obtain data on stone pr...

G. A. Sleater

1977-01-01

238

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. View of Andrews Stone House garage northwest corner from Stone House south side yard facing southeast. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

239

Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global stone heritage.

Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

2013-04-01

240

Experimental Analysis and Modeling of the Crushing of Honeycomb Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aeronautical field, sandwich structures are widely used for secondary structures like flaps or landing gear doors. The modeling of low velocity/low energy impact, which can lead to a decrease of the structure strength by 50%, remains a designer’s main problem. Since this type of impact has the same effect as quasi-static indentation, the study focuses on the behavior of honeycomb cores under compression. The crushing phenomenon has been well identified for years but its mechanism is not described explicitly and the model proposed may not satisfy industrial purposes. To understand the crushing mechanism, honeycomb test specimens made of Nomex™, aluminum alloy and paper were tested. During the crushing, a CCD camera showed that the cell walls buckled very quickly. The peak load recorded during tests corresponded to the buckling of the common edge of three honeycomb cells. Further tests on corner structures to simulate only one vertical edge of a honeycomb cell show a similar behavior. The different specimens exhibited similar load/displacement curves and the differences observed were only due to the behavior of the different materials. As a conclusion of this phenomenological study, the hypothesis that loads are mainly taken by the vertical edge can be made. So, a honeycomb core subjected to compression can be modeled by a grid of nonlinear springs. A simple analytical model was then developed and validated by tests on Nomex™ honeycomb core indented by different sized spherical indenters. A good correlation between theory and experiment was found. This result can be used to satisfactorily model using finite elements the indentation on a sandwich structure with a metallic or composite skin and honeycomb core.

Aminanda, Y.; Castanié, B.; Barrau, J.-J.; Thevenet, P.

2005-05-01

241

Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models  

SciTech Connect

Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)] [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

1995-12-01

242

Bilateral popliteal artery injury from bumper crush injury.  

PubMed

Blunt trauma to the knee of sufficient force to result in knee dislocation or fracture is commonly associated with popliteal artery injury. The challenging problem of bilateral popliteal artery injury has been rarely reported. We describe a case of bilateral popliteal artery injury after bumper crush injury between two automobiles that illustrates a successful method of management. Expeditious revascularization with minimum ischemia time was obtained by using the posterior approach, rather than the conventional medial approach, allowing two surgical teams to work simultaneously. PMID:8637089

Tominaga, G T; Connolly, J E; Wilson, S E

1996-02-01

243

History of the crush syndrome: from the earthquakes of Messina, Sicily 1909 to Spitak, Armenia 1988.  

PubMed

Man-made or massive natural disasters may be followed by 'epidemics' of the muscle crush syndrome. The first descriptions of the crush syndrome were in the German-language literature following the earthquake of Messina in 1909 and World War II. On the threshold of World War II, the English-language literature was still unaware of the crush syndrome. During the London Blitz in 1940, Bywaters clearly delineated the pathogenesis of the crush syndrome and established guidelines for the management of casualties. The experience from the war in southern Lebanon in 1982 showed that early volume repletion can prevent acute renal failure in casualties with the crush syndrome. Following the major earthquake at Spitak in 1988, massive international relief effort helped to rescue and salvage many casualties. International preparedness contingency plans will increase the survival of future casualties suffering from crush injury. PMID:9189260

Better, O S

1997-01-01

244

Genetics of hypercalciuric stone forming diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a lifetime incidence of up to 12% in man and 6% in woman, nephrolithiasis is a major health problem worldwide. Approximately, 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium and hypercalciuria is found in up to 40% of stone-formers. Although the mechanisms resulting in precipitation and growth of calcium crystals in the urinary tract are multiple and not fully

O Devuyst; Y Pirson

2007-01-01

245

Solitary versus multiple cholesterol gallbladder stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and growth pattern of solitary and multiple cholesterol gallbladder stones was defined using cholecystography in a prospective study of 48 patients whose initial cholecystograms indicated a stone-free gallbladder and who developed gallstones within the subsequent 5 years. Radiological observations performed over 365 patient-years were complemented by macroscopic examination, radiograms, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis of gallstones from

C. Wolpers; A. F. Hofmann

1993-01-01

246

Detecting Stepping-Stone with Chaff Perturbations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attackers on the Internet like to indirectly launch network intrusions by using stepping-stones. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to decrease the packet bound by performing a transformation of packet difference of two streams of a host in order to distinguish stepping-stone connections. The adjustment is critical in the case of chaff perturbation by the intruder. Previous work

Han-ching Wu; Shou-hsuan Stephen Huang

2007-01-01

247

A boy with a large bladder stone.  

PubMed

Despite the frequent association of urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and urinary calculi, since vesicouretal reflux is induced by bladder stones, the coexistence of vesicoureteral reflux and bladder stones is rare. Because of its occurrence in children belonging to poor socioeconomic groups, it is believed to be a deficiency disorder. Most cases of bladder stones occur between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Common clinical presentations of bladder stones include urinary dribbling and enuresis, frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, pelvic pain and hematuria. We report the occurrence of a large bladder stone in a boy, who experienced intermittent Lower abdominal pain and urinary incontinence, both during the day and at night. He had been diagnosed with enuresis and treated in pediatric clinics for 1 year. Delayed diagnosis resulted in bladder stone formation. The stone was larger than 2.5cm and open vesicolithotomy was therefore selected as the best and safest treatment choice. His symptoms disappeared after surgery. Thorough metabolic and environmental evaluations of such cases are required on an individual basis. Bladder stones should be considered as a possible diagnosis in children presenting with urinary incontinence. PMID:19054922

Chow, Kuo-Shen; Chou, Chieh-Yuan

2008-08-01

248

Medical Management of Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of dietary and metabolic factors may contribute or cause stone formation in idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Dietary factors include a high intake of animal proteins, oxalate and sodium, and a low intake of fluids and potassium-containing citrus products. Some of the metabolic causes of stones are hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, gouty diathesis, hyperoxaluria, and hyperuricosuria. Dietary modification, to be applied

Charles Y. C. Pak

2004-01-01

249

Bilateral kidney stones with ureteropelvic junction obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background A 56-year-old male with bilateral flank pain was admitted following diagnosis of bilateral kidney stone disease. He had previously undergone four separate pyelolithotomy sessions (two per kidney), the latest being 14 years prior. At presentation the patient had two stones in the right kidney and seven in the left kidney. The right renal pelvis was dilated, indicating obstruction of

Yahya Murat U?ra?; Ali Güne?; Can Baydinç; Ahmet Soylu

2005-01-01

250

Factors governing urinary tract stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone formation depends on the degree of saturation of the urine with respect to potential stone-forming substances. Urine contains a range of electrolytes which ionise to different and variable degrees and which interact with one another in ways which influence their solubilities. These ionisations are themselves influenced by the pH of the urine which is another variable factor. Urinary

Richard W. E. Watts

1989-01-01

251

Urinary citrate and renal stone disease: the preventive role of alkali citrate treatment.  

PubMed

Hypocitraturia or low urinary citrate excretion is a common feature in patients with nephrolithiasis, particularly in those with calcium stone disease. Citrate is a weak acid that is synthesized inside Krebs' cycle. It can also enter the body through dietary intake. Differences in intestinal handling, serum concentration as well as filtered load of citrate were not found between kidney stone formers and normal subjects. On the contrary, several metabolic abnormalities, such as metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia and starving, seem to influence the renal handling of citrate by inducing a decrease in the urinary citrate excretion. Hypocitraturia is defined as urinary citrate excretion lower than 320 mg/day. Literature data show a large prevalence of hypocitraturia in patients with nephrolithiasis, ranging from 8% up to 68.3%. The protective role of citrate is linked to several mechanisms; in fact citrate reduces urinary supersaturation of calcium salts by forming soluble complexes with calcium ions and by inhibiting crystal growth and aggregation. Furthermore, citrate increases the activity of some macromolecules in the urine (eg. Tamm-Horsfall protein) that inhibit calcium oxalate aggregation. Citrate seems able to reduce the expression of urinary osteopontin. A role of citrate in pathogenesis of metabolic bone diseases has been recently suggested and citrate measurement in urine has been proposed as a predictor of both bone mass loss and fracture risk. Idiopathic calcium stone disease, with or without hypocitraturia, can be treated with alkaline citrate, as well as other forms of nephrolithiasis and different pathological conditions. The therapy with potassium citrate, or magnesium potassium citrate, is commonly prescribed in clinical practice in order to increase urinary citrate and to reduce stone formation rates. Our data as well as those of the literature confirm that alkali citrate induces both an increase of protective urinay analytes (eg. citrate, potassium and pH) and a decrease of calcium oxalate supersaturation. Moreover, alkali treatment reduces the rate of stone recurrence and increases the clearance rates and dissolution of stone fragments. Last but not the least, an increasing number of papers pointed out the protective role of alkali citrate in preserving bone mass in stone formers as well as in healthy subjects with bone loss. Nevertheless, the evaluation of urinary citrate in patients with kidney stones and the treatment of these patients with alkali salts namely with potassium citrate are still scarce. PMID:19911682

Caudarella, Renata; Vescini, Fabio

2009-09-01

252

Modeling Aggregates in FRBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the bibliographic environment, the term aggregate is used to describe a bibliographic entity formed by combining distinct bibliographic units together. Aggregates are a large and growing class of information resources—up to 20% of the bibliographic records in OCLC's WorldCat may represent aggregates. The Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report only briefly references aggregates. Difficulties and inconsistencies in the

Maja Žumer; Edward T. O’Neill

2012-01-01

253

Influence of crushing and additive irradiation procedures on EPR dosimetry of tooth enamel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the crushing and additive dose procedures used in EPR dosimetry of enamel on EPR signals with g-factors of 2.0045 and g?=2.0018, g||=1.9975 was studied. Eight fractions, ranging in size from <75?m to 2mm, were prepared from one tooth. Two cases were investigated: crushing of a non-irradiated sample and crushing of a previously irradiated sample (6Gy from a

S. V. Sholom; E. H. Haskell; R. B. Hayes; V. V. Chumak; G. H. Kenner

1998-01-01

254

Trigger Mechanisms of Progressive Crushing - Energy Absorption in Flat Plate Fiber-Reinforced Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made of flat plate chamfer-based, crush trigger mechanisms subjected to axial compression, for use with energy-absorbing Fiber reinforced composites. This paper will focus on the trigger mechanisms in flat panels made of Newport Nb321\\/7781 fiber composites. Progressive crushing can often be induced by initiating or triggering fracture at one end of the plate. Crushing initiates in

Sana Fazal Elyas; Kian Yip Tan; K. S. Raju

255

Crushing Strength of Fuel Kernels for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crushing strength of thorium oxide and thorium-uranium mixed oxide fuel kernels for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) was estimated by application of the Hertz theory of contact to the failure load obtained in a simple crushing test. The strength data were interpreted assuming the Weibull distribution. The crushing strength of the ThO2 kernels ranged from 1.7 to 1.9 GPa. The

Mitsuo AKABORI; Koreyuki SHIBA

1984-01-01

256

Effect of stone coverage on soil erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil surface coverage has a significant impact on water infiltration, runoff and soil erosion yields. In particular, surface stones protect the soils from raindrop detachment, they retard the overland flow therefore decreasing its sediment transport capacity, and they prevent surface sealing. Several physical and environmental factors control to what extent stones on the soil surface modify the erosion rates and the related hydrological response. Among the most important factors are the moisture content of the topsoil, stone size, emplacement, coverage density and soil texture. Owing to the different inter-related processes, there is ambiguity concerning the quantitative effect of stones, and process-based understanding is limited. Experiments were performed (i) to quantify how stone features affect sediment yields, (ii) to understand the local effect of isolated surface stones, that is, the changes of the soil particle size distribution in the vicinity of a stone and (iii) to determine how stones attenuate the development of surface sealing and in turn how this affects the local infiltration rate. A series of experiments using the EPFL 6-m × 2-m erosion flume were conducted at different rainfall intensities (28 and 74 mm h-1) and stone coverage (20 and 40%). The total sediment concentration, the concentration of the individual size classes and the flow discharge were measured. In order to analyze the measurements, the Hairsine and Rose (HR) erosion model was adapted to account for the shielding effect of the stone cover. This was done by suitably adjusting the parameters based on the area not covered by stones. It was found that the modified HR model predictions agreed well with the measured sediment concentrations especially for the long time behavior. Changes in the bulk density of the topsoil due to raindrop-induced compaction with and without stone protection revealed that the stones protect the upper soil surface against the structural seals resulting in negligible changes in the bulk density during the erosion event. Since the main process contributing to surface sealing development is the compaction due to the raindrop kinetic energy and associated physico-chemical changes, the protection provided by the stone cover is consistent with the area-averaging approach used in applying the HR model.

Jomaa, S.; Barry, D. A.; Heng, B. P.; Brovelli, A.; Sander, G. C.; Parlange, J.

2010-12-01

257

Urine citrate and renal stone disease.  

PubMed Central

Calcium stone disease is attributable to supersaturation of the urine with calcium and other salts, the presence of substances that promote crystallization and a deficiency of inhibitors of crystallization. Citrate is a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stone formation whose excretion is diminished in some patients with stone disease owing to idiopathic causes or secondary factors such as bowel disease and use of thiazides. The pH within the proximal tubule cells is an important determinant of citrate excretion. Multivariate analysis has shown that the urine concentrations of calcium and citrate are the most important factors in stone formation. In uncontrolled studies potassium citrate, which increases urinary citrate excretion, appears to be promising as a therapeutic agent for patients with stone disease and hypocitraturia refractory to other treatment. On the other hand, there are potential drawbacks to sodium alkali therapy, such as the precipitation of calcium phosphates.

Goldberg, H; Grass, L; Vogl, R; Rapoport, A; Oreopoulos, D G

1989-01-01

258

Potential crush loading of radioactive material packages in highway, rail and marine accidents. Regulatory report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential crush loads on radioactive material packages in highway, rail, and marine accidents. The study concluded that if allowance is made for small gaps between packages, the deflections produced by inertial crush are comparable (within 20%) of those produced by impact under the same accident conditions. Therefore an additional qualification test is not needed to ensure that the level of protection against crush is comparable to the current level of protection against impact. The study also evaluated potential crush loads in extremely severe transportation accidents. In highway accidents, the most severe crush environment is produced when a truck carrying several small, soft packages strikes a rigid barrier and the inertia of the aft packages crushes the front package. In railroad accidents, severe crush environments are produced when a railcar on which the packages are carried strikes a barrier or when the packages are pinned between two railcars after a derailment. Analysis of ship collisions showed that for packages carried by a containerized cargo ship struck by another ship, the probability of producing significant crush loads is small because most collisions occur at low velocities during maneuvering. The study suggested various types of package tests which would simulate severe crush loads in each mode of transport.

Colton, J.D.; Romander, C.M.

1980-10-01

259

Preparation-induced errors in EPR dosimetry of enamel: pre- and post-crushing sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Errors in dose estimation as a function of grain size for tooth enamel has been previously shown for beta irradiation after crushing. We tested the effect of gamma radiation applied to specimens before and after crushing. We extend the previous work in that we found that post-crushing irradiation altered the slope of the dose-response curve of the hydroxyapatite signal and produced a grain-size dependent offset. No changes in the slope of the dose-response curve were seen in enamel caps irradiated before crushing.

Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Radiobiology Div.

1996-01-01

260

Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. PMID:23439376

Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

2013-03-01

261

Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly, so every visitor has a unique sound adventure. The experience is intensely engaging, playful and yet a little unsettling and provides a truly unique way to explore our scientific data and present geoscience research to the public. Crush-2 has featured in an exhibition on Sonic Interaction Design at the Norwegian Museum of Science, Technology and Medicine, Oslo, Norway (27 May - 21 August 2011) and forms part of a solo exhibition by Barrett at Galleri ROM, Oslo in fall 2011. Visitor feedback from the Museum exhibition suggests that users were initially attracted to the exhibit by its interactive 'hands-on' nature and dramatic sounds, but as they 'explored' the soundspace, became curious to ask questions about the underlying science. The concept of using sound rather than visual gives an unusual and therefore highly memorable experience. This science-art collaboration provides a novel and highly enjoyable way to present our work to the public - that is particularly attractive to youngsters. Visitors to this poster presentation will be able to explore the Crush-2 soundscape using a laptop and headphone interactive mode.

Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

2011-12-01

262

Stone surface area determination techniques: a unifying concept of staghorn stone burden assessment.  

PubMed

The use of stone surface area measurements obtained from standard radiographs provides a more accurate and reproducible assessment of stone burden when reporting results and treatment recommendations for staghorn calculi. Techniques for determining stone surface area include use of graph paper, planimeter or computerized image analysis. The use of graph paper is inefficient while planimeters suffer from significant variation for areas less than 500 mm.2 (more than 5%). Computer image analysis is accurate, rapid and easiest to perform. Software programs compatible with microcomputers are readily available making assessment of stone surface area practical and inexpensive. Stone surface area showed close correlation to stone volume as measured by 3-dimensional computerized tomography (correlation coefficient 0.84, p = 0.005). Stone surface area determination enables more accurate reporting of treatment results and, thus, recommendations based upon stone burden. Comparison of data between institutions becomes more meaningful if stone surface area is used. Stone surface area also provides a useful basis to study and compare trends of treatment within a single institution. PMID:1507322

Lam, H S; Lingeman, J E; Russo, R; Chua, G T

1992-09-01

263

Bile acid composition in brown pigment stones.  

PubMed

The bile acids in brown pigment stones and gallbladder bile were fractionated into free acids, glycine and taurine conjugates, and sulfates using diethylaminohydroxypropyl Sephadex LH-20 (DEAP-LH-20) column chromatography and were quantitated by gas chromatography. Twenty-eight cases of brown pigment stones were studied and divided into two groups: those with and those without bacteria possessing bile acid-deconjugating activity. In the former, free bile acid amounted to 62 +/- 34% of the total bile acid, while in the latter, only 0.1% of total bile acid was free bile acid. The fraction of total bile acid made up of free bile acids was found to be consistently higher in brown pigment stones than in the corresponding bile, irrespective of the presence or absence of biliary infection. Free bile acid is present in negligible amounts in normal bile. Total bile acid concentration in the bile of patients with brown pigment stones was significantly less than that of controls (13 vs 50 mg/ml). Biliary infection is almost always present in cases with brown pigment stones. These findings suggest that bacterial infection is present at the initiation of brown pigment stone formation as well as during the period of ensuing stone growth. PMID:2295290

Akiyoshi, T; Nakayama, F

1990-01-01

264

Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation opportunities for the stone and cement industries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large amounts of limestone fines coproduced during the processing of crushed limestone may be useful in the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is proposed as a low-tech method to capture and sequester CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants and other point-sources such as cement manufacturing. AWL reactants are readily available, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Waste CO 2 is hydrated with water to produce carbonic acid, which then reacts with and is neutralized by limestone fines, thus converting CO2 gas to dissolved calcium bicarbonate. AWL waste products can be disposed of in the ocean. Feasibility requires access to an inexpensive source of limestone and to seawater, thus limiting AWL facilities within about 10 km of the coastline. The majority of U.S. coastal power generating facilities are within economical transport distance of limestone resources. AWL presents opportunities for collaborative efforts among the crushed stone industry, electrical utilities, cement manufactures, and research scientists.

Langer, W. H.; Juan, C. A. S.; Rau, G. H.; Caldeira, K.

2009-01-01

265

Recommendation for the management of crush victims in mass disasters.  

PubMed

"Recommendations for the management of crush victims in mass disasters" aims to assist medics, paramedics and rescue team members who provide care during disasters. Development of the recommendations followed an explicit process of literature review and, also internet and face-to-face discussions. The chapters cover medical and logistic measures, to be taken both at the disaster field and in the hospitals, to cope with the problems created by a catastrophe. Recommendations were based on retrospective analyses and case reports on past disasters, and also expert judgment or opinion. Since there are no randomized controlled trials, no GRADE approach was used to develop the recommendations, and no strengths of recommendations or levels of evidence are provided. PMID:22467763

Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

2012-04-01

266

Remote control continuous mining machine crushing accident data study  

SciTech Connect

A committee was formed to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents as part of US MSHA's efforts to reduce and eliminate these types of accidents. The committee was tasked with collecting, reviewing, and evaluating remote control accident data to identify significant factors that could possibly contribute to remote control accidents. The report identifies that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another (place changing). Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. 10 figs., 5 tabs., 7 apps.

NONE

2006-05-11

267

Scoping Model Calculations of the Reconsolidation of Crushed Salt in WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Shafts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Scoping model calculations show that crushed salt seal material can reconsolidate in a WIPP shaft to densities and permeabilities that are nearly equal to those for intact WIPP host rock salt. Crushed salt in the lower one-third of a WIPP shaft will meet ...

E. J. Nowak J. C. Stormont

1987-01-01

268

Effect of trapidil on the sciatic nerve with crush injury: a light microscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trapidil's therapeutic effect is shown in nervous tissue in ischemia and reperfusion injury, but any study on trapidil's effects on regeneration in the peripheric nervous system after crush injury is not encountered in the literature. In this study, 40 female albino wistar rats were used. The sciatic nerves were crushed for 20 seconds by a jeweler's forceps. A single dose

Zeliha Kurtoglu; Ahmet Hakan Ozturk; Celal Bagdatoglu; Aysegul Turac

269

PHYSICS-BASED SOUND SYNTHESIS AND CONTROL: CRUSHING, WALKING AND RUNNING BY CRUMPLING SOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of ecological events (crushing, walking and running) have been considered. Their acoustic properties have been mod- eled following the physics-based approach. Starting from an ex- isting physically-based impact model, we superimposed to it the dynamic and temporal stochastic characteristics governing crush- ing events. The resulting model was triggered by control rules realizing typical walking and running time patterns.

Federico Fontana; Roberto Bresin

2003-01-01

270

Dynamic Crush Behaviors Of Aluminum Honeycomb Specimens Under Compression Dominant Inclined Loads  

SciTech Connect

The quasi-static and dynamic crush behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens under out-of-plane inclined loads are investigated by experiments. Different types of honeycomb specimens were designed for crush tests under pure compressive and inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction. A test fixture was designed for both quasi-static and dynamic crush tests under inclined loads. The results of the quasi-static crush tests indicate that the normal crush and shear strengths under inclined loads are consistent with the corresponding results under combined loads. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same. The trends of the normalized normal crush strengths under inclined loads for specimens with different in-plane orientation angles as functions of the impact velocity are very similar to each other. Based on the experimental results, a macroscopic yield criterion as a function of the impact velocity is proposed. The experimental results suggest that as the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state. The experimental results also show similar microscopic progressive folding mechanisms in honeycomb specimens under pure compressive and inclined loads. However, honeycomb specimens under inclined loads show inclined stacking patterns of folds due to the asymmetric location of horizontal plastic hinge lines.

Hong, Sung-tae; Pan, Jwo; Tyan, Tau; Prasad, Priya

2008-01-01

271

Preparation-induced errors in EPR dosimetry of enamel: pre- and post-crushing sensitivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Errors in dose estimation as a function of grain size for tooth enamel has been previously shown for beta irradiation after crushing. We tested the effect of gamma radiation applied to specimens before and after crushing. We extend the previous work in th...

E. H. Haskell R. B. Hayes G. H. Kenner

1996-01-01

272

Coriander spice oil: effects of fruit crushing and distillation time on yield and composition.  

PubMed

Crushing intensity and distillation time were evaluated for their effects on the oil yield and composition of steam-distilled essential oil from fruits of Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum L. A comparison of oils produced by laboratory- and pilot-scale stills showed that the two still types gave comparable yields and oil composition. The laboratory still was then used to compare oil yields and compositions from fruits crushed at three different intensities, at intervals during a distillation period of 60 min. Both crushing intensity and distillation time had significant (P< 0.05) effects on the yield and composition of the oil. The maximum oil yield was less from the light-crushed fruits, but the rate of oil recovery was significantly P < 0.05) higher. From the light-crushed fruits, 95% of the maximum yield was extracted in 22.5 min compared with 32 and 39 min for the standard and heavy-crushed fruits, respectively. The effect of crushing intensity on oil composition was most pronounced on the low-boiling-point a-pinene and on the higher-boiling-point geranyl acetate. Crushing had little effect on linalool content, but distillation time could be manipulated to alter the linalool content of the oil. PMID:11305249

Smallfield, B M; van Klink, J W; Perry, N B; Dodds, K G

2001-01-01

273

Research on Fractal Mechanism of the Crushed Particle of Waste Printed Circuit Board  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste printed circuit board (PCB) is the most important part of Waste electronic and electric equipment (WEEE), and also one of the most arduous job to deal with because of its heterogeneity and high complexity. Crushing is the crucial process for the technology of recycling waste PCB, for chemical and bio-metallurgy methods, the process of crushing could have enough chance

Duan Chen-long; Zhao Yue-min; He Ya-qun; He Jing-feng; Wang Shuai

2010-01-01

274

INACCURATE REPORTING OF MINERAL COMPOSITION BY COMMERCIAL STONE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR INFECTION AND METABOLIC STONES  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of stone composition analysis by commercial laboratories. METHODS 25 human renal stones with infrared spectroscopy (IR) determined compositions were fragmented into aliquots and studied with micro-computed tomography (CT) to ensure fragment similarity. Representative fragments of each stone were submitted to 5 commercial stone laboratories for blinded analysis. RESULTS All laboratories agreed on composition for 6 pure stones. Of 4 stones known to contain struvite, only 2(50%) were identified as struvite by all laboratories. Struvite was reported as a component by some laboratories for 4 stones previously determined not to contain struvite. Overall, there was disagreement regarding struvite in 6(24%) stones. For 9 calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, all laboratories reported some mixture of CaOx, but the quantities of subtypes differed significantly among laboratories. In 6 apatite containing stones, apatite was missed by the laboratories in 20% of the samples. None of the laboratories identified atazanavir in a stone containing that antiviral drug. One laboratory reported protein in every sample, while all others reported it in only 1 sample. Nomenclature for apatite differed among laboratories, with one reporting apatite as carbonate apatite (CA) and never hydroxyapatite (HA), another never reporting CA and always reporting HA, and a third reporting CA as apatite with calcium carbonate. CONCLUSIONS Commercial laboratories reliably recognize pure calculi; however, variability in reporting of mixed calculi suggests a problem with accuracy of stone analysis results. Furthermore, there is a lack of standard nomenclature used by laboratories.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Khan, Naseem F.; Jackson, Molly E.; Lingeman, James E.; McAteer, James A; Williams, James C.

2011-01-01

275

Calcium phosphate supersaturation regulates stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium phosphate supersaturation regulates stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundHypercalciuria is the most common metabolic abnormality observed in patients with nephrolithiasis. Hypercalciuria raises urine supersaturation with respect to the solid phases of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate, leading to an enhanced probability for nucleation and growth of crystals into clinically significant stones. However, there is little direct proof that

David A Bushinsky; Walter R Parker; John R Asplin

2000-01-01

276

Biochemical relationship between urine composition and urinary stone formation in stone forming patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise relationship between urine composition and stone formation has not yet been completely understood. The object\\u000a of this work is to study some constituents of the urine in stone formers and normal subjects in a trial to correlate stone\\u000a formation with urine composition. Urinary levels of oxalic acid, uric acid and phosphate were elevated in oxalate, urate and\\u000a phosphate

A. F. Abdel-Aziz; A. El-Waseef; M. Abou El-Fotouh

1996-01-01

277

The Role of Urinary Kidney Stone Inhibitors and Promoters in the Pathogenesis of Calcium Containing Renal Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease is an ailment afflicting human kind for many centuries. It can affect up to a quarter the population in certain geographic areas and hence poses a significant health problem. Various aetiological factors have been attributed to stone formation – hereditary, dietary, geographical, infective etc. Approximately 85% of the stones in human are calcium stones comprising oxalate and

Doddametikurke Ramegowda Basavaraj; Chandra Shekhar Biyani; Anthony J. Browning; Jon J. Cartledge

2007-01-01

278

Brushite stone disease as a consequence of lithotripsy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of calcium phosphate (CaP) stone disease has increased over the last three decades; specifically, brushite stones\\u000a have been diagnosed and treated more frequently than in previous years. Brushite is a unique form of CaP, which in certain\\u000a patients can form into large symptomatic stones. Treatment of brushite stones can be difficult since the stones are resistant\\u000a to shock

Amy E. Krambeck; Shelly E. Handa; Andrew P. Evan; James E. Lingeman

2010-01-01

279

Crystal sedimentation and stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms of crystal collision being the first step of aggregation (AGN) were analyzed for calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM)\\u000a directly produced in urine. COM was produced by oxalate titration in urine of seven healthy men, in solutions of urinary macromolecules\\u000a and in buffered distilled water (control). Crystal formation and sedimentation were followed by a spectrophotometer and analyzed\\u000a by scanning electron microscopy.

Johannes Markus Baumann; Beat Affolter; Rolf Meyer

2010-01-01

280

Evaluation of Stone Column Stabilized Embankment Foundation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents construction procedures, monitors field performance, and make recommendations concerning the effectiveness and future use of a foundation improvement procedure using stone columns for stabilization. The effort was executed by use of f...

B. W. Meade D. L. Allen

1985-01-01

281

Injury Experience in Stone Mining, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1978. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classificati...

1979-01-01

282

Injury Experience in Stone Mining, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1982. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classificati...

1984-01-01

283

Injury Experience in Stone Mining, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1980. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work inju...

1981-01-01

284

Medical management of urinary stone disease.  

PubMed

A variety of dietary and metabolic factors may contribute or cause stone formation in idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Dietary factors include a high intake of animal proteins, oxalate and sodium, and a low intake of fluids and potassium-containing citrus products. Some of the metabolic causes of stones are hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, gouty diathesis, hyperoxaluria, and hyperuricosuria. Dietary modification, to be applied in all patients with stones includes a high fluid intake, restriction of oxalate and sodium, and balanced diet with animal proteins complemented by adequate intake of fruits and vegetables. When dietary modification is ineffective in controlling stone formation or in the presence of severe metabolic derangements, a pharmacologic intervention may be necessary. In a simple approach, thiazide or indapamide with potassium citrate is recommended for patients with hypercalciuria, and potassium citrate alone for the remaining normocalciuric subjects. PMID:15499203

Pak, Charles Y C

2004-01-01

285

Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the proceedings of the Conference on Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments, held in Washington, D.C., February 2-4, 1981. Included in the report are papers presented by scientists, preservation architects, engineers, ...

1982-01-01

286

Kidney and Ureteral Stones: Surgical Management  

MedlinePLUS

... you a head start about this potentially serious health hazard. What happens under normal conditions? The kidney performs ... chronic diarrhea, Crohn's disease, and gastric bypass surgery. Obesity is also an independent risk factor for stone ...

287

Protein aggregation and bioprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein aggregation is a common issue encountered during manufacture of biotherapeutics. It is possible to influence the amount\\u000a of aggregate produced during the cell culture and purification process by carefully controlling the environment (eg, media\\u000a components) and implementing appro-priate strategies to minimize the extent of aggregation. Steps to remove aggregates have\\u000a been successfully used at a manufacturing scale. Care should

Mary E. M. Cromwell; Eric Hilario; Fred Jacobson

2006-01-01

288

[The property changes of urine crystallites of calcium oxalate stone formers before and after taking medicine].  

PubMed

The property changes of urine crystallites of six cases of calcium oxalate stone formers before and after taking medicine were comparatively studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the urinary pH increases after taking medicine (before taking 5.87 +/- 0.51, after taking 6.23 +/- 0.74.) Before taking medicine the main components of urine crystallites were uric acid, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and biphosphate. The types and quantities of urine crystallites after taking medicine were less than that of before. The average size of urine crystallite before taking medicine was (579 +/- 326) nm, and it reduced to (404 +/- 338) nm after taking medicine. After taking medicine the zeta potential was also decreased to (-7.29 +/- 4.16) mV from (-4.28 +/- 2.55) mV. The decrease in zeta potential is beneficial to preventing urinary crystallites deposition. The edges and corners of urine crystallite were sharp with significant aggregation before taking medicine, while they became blunt and less aggregation after taking medicine. The analysis of the property changes of urine crystallites of calcium oxalate stone patients before and after taking medicine by using modern equipments has important clinical significance to the clinical prevention and treatment of urinary stones. PMID:22007430

Li, Jun-Jun; Hou, Shan-Hua; Xia, Zhi-Yue; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2011-08-01

289

Aggregates for road building from Apulia region quarries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apulia region is characterized by several quarries producing aggregates for road construction. A good knowledge of the technical behavior of aggregates is really important for the use. A laboratrory investigation has been developed in cooperation with Tecnoprove laboratory on 50 quarries from all over the Apulia region. Have been studied aggregates for road construction, avoiding weak rock quarry. The study has concerned unit weigth, compressive strength, wear and tear strength (Los Angeles test) and crushing strength. Tests have been made according to Italian rules for aggregates.Quarries from Foggia district were mainly located along the southern-western boundary of Gargano calcareous horst where back-reef limestone outcrop. Only two of the studied quarries were of alluvial deposits from the Appenine. The values of technical properties were quite interesting and also the variation coefficients have been really low witnessing that the material is quite homogeneous. Only a quarry, located really close to an important fault gave poor values. Quarries from Bari district dug limestone of the Mesozoic calcareous platform. The values of the compressive strength has been between 100 and 200 MPa, while the unit weight has beetween 26,5 and 25 kN/m3. Crushing coefficient values have been quite high. It due probably either to the corned shape of limestone aggregates or the fact that aggregates quarries are located where limestone are strongly tectonized. Quarries from Brindisi and Taranto districts even are oper in Mesozoic calcareous platform unit gave the worst values of compressive strength and other technical properties. The compressive strength was normally lower than 100 MPa. The Also crushing test and the Los Angeles test has given values quite poor. Compressive strength values of limestone are strongly variable, with an high coefficient of variation (more than 30%).Probably it is due to the fact that all the studied quarries are located along the boundary of the Apulian Mesozoic carbonatic platform where more severe are the effect of tectonics induced by the faults that have broken the platform. Quarries from Lecce district were dug in grey microcrystalline limestone. Although these limestone are strongly fissured and fractured the compressive strength value are quite high and also the results of Los Angeles tests and crushing strength tests are encouraging. Los Angeles tests has given values always lower than 25% with a minimum of 14.7%. For one of the quarry the medium values of the compressive strength has been higher that 300 MPa. Also the unit weight values have been quite high, normally higher that a 25 kN/m3.The study has shown that technical properties of the aggregates, manly calcareous, from different Apulian zone are really different. They are strongly conditioned by the tectonic more than by the lithology. Where the rock is strongly tectonized wear and tear and crushing strength decrease in a really strong way, much more than it was possible to suppose on the base of compressive strength. Compressive strength is quite variable from 50 and 300 MPa with a high value of variation coefficient. The highest values of strength have been obtained for dolomitic limestone of Southern Apulia (Salento), value really high for limestone.

Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

2013-04-01

290

Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built numerous churches which today can be found in Brazil but also along the South American and African coasts. Currently the global market of Modern Dimension Stones Industry allows Portuguese Marbles to be present in buildings, architectural pieces and works of arts all over the World. Despite almost continuous mining activity in the region it's notice that there was no depletion of raw material, in fact almost every varieties of marble have enough reserves to sustain the mining activity is several hundreds of years. The Alentejo whitewashed houses are a hallmark of the unique landscape that can only have been developed by the availability of marbles to produce quicklime. In cities and villages, the built heritage based on the marble is very rich and is always present, meanwhile the surrounding countryside is marked by intense mining activity living side by side with rural industries, namely wheatfields, groves, orchards and vineyards; therefore the region has unique characteristics allowing the development of integrated industrial tourism routes. The Portuguese Marbles are a key factor for local sustainable development and it's leading the region to new opportunities of industrial, scientific and technological culture, pointing to a successful future.

Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

2013-04-01

291

Urease inhibitor therapy in infected renal stones.  

PubMed

The strict dependence of struvite and carbonate apatite renal stones on the urease-producing germs confirm the need to combine bacterial urease inhibitor drugs with antibiotic treatment. Of the two antiurease drugs used the better results were obtained with acetohydroxamic acid, both for its minimum side effects and its more powerful urease-inhibitor capacity. Thus stone recurrence was avoided even in patients with urinary infection not responding to specific antibiotic treatment. PMID:7250161

Martelli, A; Buli, P; Cortecchia, V

1981-01-01

292

Stone duality and representation of stable domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the author studies the Stone duality and representation of L-domain w.r.t. stable functions. Two basic notions are introduced, one is D-semilattice and the other is semitopological system. The author first gives the representation of stable D-lattice, then establishes the representation theorem of L-domain and gives the Stone duality of L-domains w.r.t. stable functions in the scheme of

Yixiang Chen

1997-01-01

293

Microorganisms and Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms may have a role in the pathogenesis and prevention of kidney stones. The subjects of this review include nanobacteria, Oxalobacter formigenes, and lactic acid bacteria. Not reviewed here is the well-described role of infections of the urinary tract with Proteus species and other urease-producing organisms associated with struvite stone formation. Nanobacteria have been proposed to be very small (0.08–0.5

David S. Goldfarb

2004-01-01

294

Impact of dietary habits on stone incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in dietary habits and lifestyle are suggested to contribute markedly to the rise in the prevalence and incidence of\\u000a urolithiasis during the past decades. Insufficient fluid intake and diets rich in animal protein are considered to be important\\u000a determinants of stone formation. Overweight and associated dietary pattern additionally contribute to the increasing incidence\\u000a and prevalence of stone disease. Reduction

Roswitha Siener

2006-01-01

295

Instrumental removal of retained stones after choledochotomy.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread use of operative cholangiography and choledoschoscopy, stones are still left behind after exploration of the common bile duct. Reoperation is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. The use of a steerable catheter-basket technique has enabled stones to be removed from the biliary tract in the vast majority of cases without significant complications and has practically eliminated the need for further surgery. PMID:285706

Vellar, I D; Gilford, E; Incani, F; McCoy, J; Buls, J

1978-10-01

296

Generalized Aggregation Multilevel solver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a Generalized Aggregation Multilevel (GAM) solver, which automatically constructs nearly optimal auxiliary coarse models based on the information available in the source grid only. GAM solver is a hybrid solution scheme where approximation space of each aggregate (group of neighboring elements) is adaptively and automatically selected depending on the spectral characteristics of individual aggregates. Adaptive features include

J. Fish; V. Belsky

1997-01-01

297

Mathematical model describing erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Implications for blood viscosity changes in traumatic shock and crush syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory test, which is widespread in clinical practice, for assessing the inflammatory or acute response. This work addresses the theoretical and experimental investigation of sedimentation a single and multiple particles in homogeneous and heterogeneous (multiphase) medium, as it relates to their internal structure (aggregation of solid or deformed particles). Methods The equation system has been solved numerically. To choose finite analogs of derivatives we used the schemes of directional differences. Results (1) Our model takes into account the influence of the vessel wall on group aggregation of particles in tubes as well as the effects of rotation of particles, the constraint coefficient, and viscosity of a mixture as a function of the volume fraction. (2) This model can describe ESR as a function of the velocity of adhesion of erythrocytes; (3) Determination of the ESR is best conducted at certain time intervals, i.e. in a series of periods not exceeding 5 minutes each; (4) Differential diagnosis of various diseases by means of ESR should be performed using the aforementioned timed measurement of ESR; (5) An increase in blood viscosity during trauma results from an increase in rouleaux formation and the time-course method of ESR will be useful in patients with trauma, in particular, with traumatic shock and crush syndrome. Conclusion The mathematical model created in this study used the most fundamental differential equations that have ever been derived to estimate ESR. It may further our understanding of its complex mechanism.

Ismailov, Rovshan M; Shevchuk, Nikolai A; Khusanov, Higmat

2005-01-01

298

Catalysts for Stone Age innovations  

PubMed Central

Fossil and genetic evidence suggests the emergence of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) in sub-Saharan Africa some time between 200 and 100 thousand years (ka) ago. But the first traces of symbolic behavior—a trait unique to our species—are not found until many tens of millennia later, and include items such as engraved ochres and eggshells, tools made from bone, and personal ornaments made of shell beads. These behavioral indicators appear in concert with two innovative phases of Middle Stone Age technology, known as the Still Bay (SB) and Howieson's Poort (HP) industries, across a range of climatic and ecological zones in southern Africa. The SB and HP have recently been dated to about 72-71 ka and 65-60 ka, respectively, at sufficiently high resolution to investigate the possible causes and effects. A remarkable feature of these two industries is the spatial synchroneity of their start and end dates at archaeological sites spread across a region of two million square kilometers. What were the catalysts for the SB and HP, and what were the consequences? Both industries flourished at a time when tropical Africa had just entered a period of wetter and more stable conditions, and populations of hunter-gatherers were expanding rapidly throughout sub-Saharan Africa before contracting into geographically and genetically isolated communities. The SB and HP also immediately preceded the likely exit time of modern humans from Africa into southern Asia and across to Australia, which marked the beginning of the worldwide dispersal of our species. In this paper, we argue that environmental factors alone are insufficient to explain these two bursts of technological and behavioral innovation. Instead, we propose that the formation of social networks across southern Africa during periods of population expansion, and the disintegration of these networks during periods of population contraction, can explain the abrupt appearance and disappearance of the SB and HP, as well as the hiatus between them. But it will take improved chronologies for the key demographic events to determine if the emergence of innovative technology and symbolic behavior provided the stimulus for the expansion of hunter-gatherer populations (and their subsequent global dispersal), or if these Middle Stone Age innovations came into existence only after populations had expanded and geographically extensive social networks had developed.

Roberts, Richard G

2009-01-01

299

Uric acid stones following hepatic transplantation.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 52 year old man with a history of insulin-requiring diabetes and hepatitis B with cirrhosis who received an orthotopic liver transplant. One year later he developed renal colic and was found to have a 3 mm stone at the left ureterovesical junction. Numerous other stones formed and infrared spectroscopy analysis demonstrated all to be composed of 100% uric acid. Urine collections demonstrated a low urine pH of 5.1 without hyperuricosuria. His stones were effectively prevented with potassium citrate therapy. Few incidence data are available for uric acid stone occurrence in solid organ recipients. Calcineurin inhibitors are thought to often cause hyperuricemia on the basis of decreased urate excretion. However, this effect would not be expected to cause hyperuricosuria nor uric acid stones. This class of drugs may also be associated with low urine pH, perhaps on the basis of hypoaldosteronism, but the contribution of such a syndrome to uric acid stone formation is not established. PMID:15565437

Hwang, Mei-Tsuey; Goldfarb, David S

2004-11-25

300

[Non-surgical therapy of gall stones].  

PubMed

Currently, a remarkable selection of alternatives to cholecystectomy is available. These new techniques undoubtedly will expand management without laparotomy of both common bile duct and gallbladder disease. Endoscopic sphincterotomy with stone removal has gained wide acceptance for retained or recurrent common bile duct stones. Chenodiol and Ursodiol are save and effective agents, either alone or in combination for the medical dissolution of gallbladder stones in selected patients. Infusion of methyl tert-butyl ether, which is liquid at body temperature, via a catheter into the gallbladder allows rapid dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL), which has already revolutionized therapy of urolithiasis, has been introduced as another promising nonoperative treatment for selected patients with gallbladder stones. Again ESWL has been reported useful in patients with bile duct stones not amenable to manipulative, endoscopic measures. The choice of appropriate therapy for individual patients depends on different factors, i.e. medical condition of the patient, chemical composition of the stones and availability of lithotriptors, respectively. The appropriate therapy will depend on these factors and the patients preference. PMID:2047638

Münch, R

1991-05-14

301

Meridian Stones: for Form or for Function?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this investigation was to reveal the original intent and purpose of the creator of the ``Nantucket Meridian Stones'' - self taught astronomer and surveyor William Mitchell (the father of the first American female astronomer, Maria Mitchell). Throughout time, these two enigmatic stone obelisks in downtown Nantucket have been cloaked in controversial legends. We did not find any mention of these stones in the original diaries and journals of William Mitchell, or in the town's public documents (except for the written decision of the 1840 town meeting to allot money for the stones' erection). However, amongst several controversial articles on the stones in the local newspaper published during the 20th century, we found one (dated 1921) which gives the most plausible explanation: the meridian line defined by the stones was used by the local surveyors to keep track of the variation in the magnetic declination, the angle between the directions to the magnetic North and the true (geographical) North. This hypothesis will be compared with the existing information on the purpose and use of other historical meridian markers, both in America and Europe. This project was supported by Vassar College and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

Amory, L.; Boyce, P.; diCurcio, R.; Strelnitski, V.

2002-12-01

302

Protein aggregation and bioprocessing.  

PubMed

Protein aggregation is a common issue encountered during manufacture of biotherapeutics. It is possible to influence the amount of aggregate produced during the cell culture and purification process by carefully controlling the environment (eg, media components) and implementing appropriate strategies to minimize the extent of aggregation. Steps to remove aggregates have been successfully used at a manufacturing scale. Care should be taken when developing a process to monitor the compatibility of the equipment and process with the protein to ensure that potential aggregation is minimized. PMID:17025275

Cromwell, Mary E M; Hilario, Eric; Jacobson, Fred

2006-09-15

303

Stepping stones in DNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

In recent years there have been tremendous advances in our ability to rapidly and cost-effectively sequence DNA. This has revolutionized the fields of genetics and biology, leading to a deeper understanding of the molecular events in life processes. The rapid technological advances have enormously expanded sequencing opportunities and applications, but also imposed strains and challenges on steps prior to sequencing and in the downstream process of handling and analysis of these massive amounts of sequence data. Traditionally, sequencing has been limited to small DNA fragments of approximately one thousand bases (derived from the organism's genome) due to issues in maintaining a high sequence quality and accuracy for longer read lengths. Although many technological breakthroughs have been made, currently the commercially available massively parallel sequencing methods have not been able to resolve this issue. However, recent announcements in nanopore sequencing hold the promise of removing this read-length limitation, enabling sequencing of larger intact DNA fragments. The ability to sequence longer intact DNA with high accuracy is a major stepping stone towards greatly simplifying the downstream analysis and increasing the power of sequencing compared to today. This review covers some of the technical advances in sequencing that have opened up new frontiers in genomics.

Stranneheim, Henrik; Lundeberg, Joakim

2012-01-01

304

Management of 1-2 cm renal stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The preferred treatment of >1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone <2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise.

Srivastava, Aneesh; Chipde, Saurabh S

2013-01-01

305

Brushite Stone Disease as a Consequence of Lithotripsy?  

PubMed Central

The incidence of calcium phosphate (CaP) stone disease has increased over the last three decades; specifically, brushite stones are diagnosed and treated more frequently than in previous years. Brushite is a unique form of CaP, which in certain patients can form into large symptomatic stones. Treatment of brushite stones can be difficult since the stones are resistant to shock wave and ultrasonic lithotripsy, and often require ballistic fragmentation. Patients suffering from brushite stone disease are less likely to be rendered stone-free after surgical intervention and often experience stone recurrence despite maximal medical intervention. Studies have demonstrated an association between brushite stone disease and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) treatment. Some have theorized that many brushite stone formers started as routine calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers who sustained an injury to the nephron (such as SWL). The injury to the nephron leads to failure of urine acidification and eventual brushite stone formation. We explore the association between brushite stone disease and iatrogenic induced transformation of CaOx stone disease to brushite by reviewing the current literature.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Handa, Shelly E.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

2011-01-01

306

Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad.

Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

1998-04-01

307

Equation of state and crushing dynamics of low-density silica aerogels  

SciTech Connect

Shock compression of low-density silica aerogels reveals a rate process associated with the crushing dynamics of the aerogel structure. Embedded magnetic impulse velocity gauge (MIV) experiments have been accomplished on density 0.3 and 0.12 g/cm{sup 3} materials. The crushing rate has been determined for the low pressure ({approximately}0.1 to 0.2 GPa) regime, and equation of state (EOS) data have been required. The crushing rate increases with applied pressure in this low pressure region. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Rabie, R.; Dick, J.J.

1991-01-01

308

The characterization of strain, impurity content, and crush strength of synthetic diamond crystals  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the correlation of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of synthetic diamond crystals produced by high pressure, high temperature conditions. Microscopic properties were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, birefringence, and photoluminescence (PL). Macroscopic properties characterized included inclusion content and crush force. Raman measurements detected measurable stress shifts in only two samples. The PL measurements indicated an increased presence of the H3 center in areas of high strain. The absence of the H3 center and the presence of the N-V PL center was correlated to lower average crush force. A hierarchy has been developed that relates microscopic properties to average crush force. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

McCormick, T.L. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Jackson, W.E. [GE Superabrasives, 6325 Huntley Road, P.O. Box 568, Worthington, Ohio 43085 (United States); Nemanich, R.J. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States)

1997-01-01

309

A Composite Kidney Stone Phantom with Mechanical Properties Controllable Across the Range of Properties of Human Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

A novel composite kidney stone phantom has been developed. This stone phantom is producible with mechanical properties mimicking the range of tensile fracture strength and acoustic properties of human kidney stones and is an inorganic/organic composite material, as are natural kidney stones. Diametral compression testing was used to measure tensile fracture strength, which determines the acoustic comminution behavior of kidney stones. Ultrasound transmission tests were made to characterize the acoustic properties of these stone phantoms. Both the tensile fracture strength (controllable from 1 to ~ 5 MPa) and acoustic properties (CL = 2700 to 4400m/s and CT = 1600 – 2300 m/s) of these composite phantom stones match those of a wide variety of human kidney stones. These artificial stone phantoms should have wide utility in lithotripsy research.

Simmons, W. N.; Cocks, F. H.; Zhong, P.; Preminger, Glenn

2013-01-01

310

Crushing cells in microfluidic channels and observing with optical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cell lysis device is developed. It is designed for miniaturing bio-analysis systems where cell lysing is needed to obtain intracellular materials for further analysis such as DNA identification. It consists of multi-electrode pairs to apply electric fields to cells. The method of electric field lysing is adopted because it can greatly simplify purifying steps for preparation of biological samples compared with conventional chemical methods. BHK21 cells are tested with the device and the lysis of BHK21 is observed with a microscope. The experimental observation suggests that BHK21 cells are lysed by the pulsed electric field. It takes inverted microscope as the main light path system, collects pictures with 3 Mega Pixel CCD camera and deals them with processing software of micro-digital image. The experiment shows that this optical testing system could automatically identify and count BHK21 in micro-windows. For crushing BHK21 cells, the most suitable voltage range and pulse width are 3V and 3ms.

Chen, Jianjun; Chai, Chenggang; Wang, Jun; Liao, Honghua; Han, Heyou; Yu, Jun

2008-12-01

311

Superior palatability of crushed lercanidipine compared with amlodipine among children  

PubMed Central

AIMS To compare the taste of equivalent doses of pulverized amlodipine and lercanidipine, two calcium channel blockers, among children with kidney disease. METHODS Each child received a test dose of 1 mg of amlodipine besylate and 2 mg of lercanidipine in a single-blinded fashion. Children indicated their preference by pointing to the appropriate face on a visual analogue scale (VAS) that depicts five degrees of pleasure. RESULTS The VAS palatability score assigned to lercanidipine was higher than that assigned to amlodipine both in nine children 4–7 years of age (P < 0.005) and in 10 children 8–11 years of age (P < 0.005). The preference for lercanidipine was statistically significant in both girls (P < 0.02) and boys (P < 0.001) and in both children initially presented amlodipine (P < 0.005) and children initially presented lercanidipine (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS There is a lack of appropriate formulations for children prescribed drugs originally designed for adults, such as calcium channel blockers. Parents therefore crush available tablets and administer the medication mixed with solid food or a palatable drink. From the perspective of the child, the taste of pulverized lercanidipine is superior to that of pulverized amlodipine.

Milani, Gregorio; Ragazzi, Monica; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Ramelli, Gian P; Rizzi, Mattia; Bianchetti, Mario G; Fossali, Emilio F

2010-01-01

312

Progressive renal papillary calcification and ureteral stone formation in mice deficient for Tamm-Horsfall protein  

PubMed Central

Mammalian urine contains a range of macromolecule proteins that play critical roles in renal stone formation, among which Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is by far the most abundant. While THP is a potent inhibitor of crystal aggregation in vitro and its ablation in vivo predisposes one of the two existing mouse models to spontaneous intrarenal calcium crystallization, key controversies remain regarding the role of THP in nephrolithiasis. By carrying out a long-range follow-up of more than 250 THP-null mice and their wild-type controls, we demonstrate here that renal calcification is a highly consistent phenotype of the THP-null mice that is age and partially gene dosage dependent, but is gender and genetic background independent. Renal calcification in THP-null mice is progressive, and by 15 mo over 85% of all the THP-null mice develop spontaneous intrarenal crystals. The crystals consist primarily of calcium phosphate in the form of hydroxyapatite, are located more frequently in the interstitial space of the renal papillae than intratubularly, particularly in older animals, and lack accompanying inflammatory cell infiltration. The interstitial deposits of hydroxyapatite observed in THP-null mice bear strong resemblances to the renal crystals found in human kidneys bearing idiopathic calcium oxalate stones. Compared with 24-h urine from the wild-type mice, that of THP-null mice is supersaturated with brushite (calcium phosphate), a stone precursor, and has reduced urinary excretion of citrate, a stone inhibitor. While less frequent than renal calcinosis, renal pelvic and ureteral stones and hydronephrosis occur in the aged THP-null mice. These results provide direct in vivo evidence indicating that normal THP plays an important role in defending the urinary system against calcification and suggest that reduced expression and/or decreased function of THP could contribute to nephrolithiasis.

Liu, Yan; Mo, Lan; Goldfarb, David S.; Evan, Andrew P.; Liang, Fengxia; Khan, Saeed R.; Lieske, John C.

2010-01-01

313

Los Angeles: A tale of two stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare and contrast the mineralogy and petrology of the 2 stones of the extremely ferroan and Cr-poor martian meteorite, Los Angeles. The 2 stones are similar in many characteristics, strongly suggesting that they originated from a single flow or shallow intrusion. However, stone 2 is more ferroan and enriched in late-stage materials than its larger, and more widely studied, sibling. Stone 2 has a far higher abundance (~25 vol%) than stone 1 (10 vol%) of combined "opaques," meaning not only conventional opaque minerals but also, and more abundantly, fine-grained symplectitic intergrowths of fayalite + ferroan augite + silica (interpreted as pyroxferroite breakdown material, PBM). The bulk composition of the PBM is close to that of stoichiometric pyroxferroite, with roughly 45 wt% FeO. Extensive zonation within the pyroxenes of both stones is consistent with origin by closed-system fractional crystallization of the parent basaltic melt(s). However, the compositional and modal disparity between the two stones suggests that they formed in an environment where at least mild multi-cm-scale differentiation occurred. Probably, in both stones, crystallization began from similar melts with mg ~27-28 mol%, but during crystallization, significant migration of the melt component occurred, perhaps by crystal settling and/or filter pressing. Stone 2 acquired an enhanced proportion of residual melt and, thus, higher proportions of late-stage materials such as PBM, oxides, and phosphates. Within the PBM, clinopyroxene poikiloblastically encloses fayalite and silica. At least some of the PBM had already formed by decomposition of pyroxferroite before the major shock that caused the very scarce brecciation within Los Angeles. However, the low abundance of fractures within PBM, in comparison to pyroxene and some other minerals, may be an indication that the textures of PBM regions typically did not assume their final detailed configuration until after the last major shock. The steep slope of a pyroxene mg-Cr correlation suggests that igneous crystallization occurred at higher fO2 in Los Angeles than in otherwise similar shergottites such as QUE 94201, Shergotty, and Zagami.

Warren, Paul H.; Greenwood, James P.; Rubin, Alan E.

2004-01-01

314

Dissolution of human brown pigment biliary stones.  

PubMed

The chemical dissolution of human brown pigment stones was studied using various monophasic multicomponent solvents. Among the nine solutions tested for stone powder dissolution capacity, the two most active were retained for further analysis. The solvent containing 26 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate, 40 mM sodium deoxycholate, 10 mM monoolein and 30% dimethylsulfoxide was efficient for calcium and bilirubin solubilization. The other solvent containing dimethylsulfoxide/methyl tert-butyl ether (70:30) had a high capacity for dissolution of cholesterol and bilirubin. From in vitro stone dissolution experiments, we found that alternating treatment every 2 h with these two mixtures was more effective than using these solvents separately. Within 24 h, 90% of cholesterol, 80% of bilirubin, and 70% of calcium were dissolved. In vivo, we studied the dissolution of human stones surgically implanted in the gallbladder of 6 rabbits. Alternating perfusions with the solvents selected led to complete disappearance of stones within 16 h in 5 out of 6 cases. The residual histological toxicity in the gallbladder wall, 15 days after perfusion, was low and blood parameters did not differ from the normal values. PMID:2514227

Dai, K Y; Montet, J C; Zhao, X M; Amic, J; Montet, A M

1989-11-01

315

Cancer incidence among Danish stone workers.  

PubMed

The lung cancer incidence of 2071 Danish stone workers was followed for a 42-year period. The expected numbers of cancer cases were based on the incidence rates for all Danish men after adjustment for region, and the data were analyzed separately for skilled and unskilled stone workers. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was 200 (44 observed, 22.0 expected) for all skilled stone workers, 808 (7 observed, 0.9 expected) for skilled sandstone cutters in Copenhagen, 119 (8 observed, 6.5 expected) for skilled granite cutters in Bornholm, 181 (24 observed, 13.2 expected) for all unskilled stone workers, 246 (17 observed, 6.9 expected) for unskilled workers in the road and building material industry, and 111 (7 observed, 6.3 expected) for unskilled workers in the stonecutting industry. Smoking was unlikely alone to explain the excess risk, and the available data on levels of exposure in the Danish stone industry point to a possible dose-response relationship between exposure to respirable silica dust and the incidence of lung cancer. PMID:2772581

Guénel, P; Højberg, G; Lynge, E

1989-08-01

316

Structural Integrity of Shipping Containers for Radioactive Materials. Part VIII. Experimental Study of Crushing Impact.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resistance of lead-shielded, radioactive material containers to crushing when impacted on flat essentially unyielding surfaces was investigated experimentally with small, partial-cask models. Models of both cubic and cylindrical shape were tested with...

H. G. Clarke S. P. Carfagno

1968-01-01

317

49 CFR 393.132 - What are the rules for securing flattened or crushed vehicles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...synthetic webbing to secure flattened or crushed vehicles is prohibited except that such webbing may be used to connect wire rope or chain to anchor points on the commercial motor vehicle. However, the webbing (regardless of whether edge...

2012-10-01

318

49 CFR 393.132 - What are the rules for securing flattened or crushed vehicles?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Protection Against Shifting and Falling Cargo Specific Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.132 What are the rules for securing flattened or crushed vehicles? (a) Applicability. The...

2011-10-01

319

Proteome of melamine urinary bladder stones and implication for stone formation.  

PubMed

Melamine can cause urinary stones related to nephropathy of the kidney and hyperplasia or carcinoma of the bladder, but the mechanism of stone formation is not well understood. In this study, male rats were administered melamine for thirteen weeks to establish melamine bladder stone models and the stones were analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and western blot, respectively, for the composition and proteome, and to explore the implication of proteins for stone formation. The results showed bladder stones were composed of predominant melamine and a few amount of proteins. The proteins had a wide range of molecular weights and 1051 proteins were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) classification of the identified proteins showed most proteins were from injured cells, involved in various metabolic processes and had binding functions. Of the identified proteins, there were a few inflammatory proteins and urinary proteins. Physicochemical characteristics of the identified proteins showed that 67.1% proteins' isoelectric points (pI) value was below 7.0, 91.1% proteins' grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) scores were below 0 and nearly half of the proteins were stable. Our data indicated proteins might play an important role in melamine bladder stone formation. PMID:22688180

Liu, Jian-dong; Liu, Jian-jun; Yuan, Jian-hui; Tao, Gong-hua; Wu, De-sheng; Yang, Xi-fei; Yang, Lin-qing; Huang, Hai-yan; Zhou, Li; Xu, Xin-yun; Hu, Jun-jie; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

2012-06-09

320

Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options.

Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

2012-01-01

321

Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask`s top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer`s testing of the foam and to determine the foam`s stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask.

Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

1998-03-01

322

Comparing crushed recycled glass to silica sand for dual media filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of a pressure filter utilizing crushed glass as the filter media in a dual media anthracite-glass filter compared to a dual media anthracite-sand filter. In general, the particle removal capabilities of the crushed-glass filter were slightly poorer than those of a sand filter, as quantified in a field application in

Simon O. Rutledge; Graham A. Gagnon

2002-01-01

323

Axial crushing of thin-walled high-strength steel sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-static and dynamic axial crushing tests were performed on thin-walled square tubes and spot-welded top-hat sections made of high-strength steel grade DP800. The dynamic tests were conducted at velocities up to 15m\\/s with an impacting mass of 600kg in order to assess the crush behaviour, the deformation force and the energy absorption. Typical collapse modes developed in the sections and

V. Tarigopula; M. Langseth; O. S. Hopperstad; A. H. Clausen

2006-01-01

324

RENAL STONE RISK ASSESSMENT DURING SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation.

Peggy A. Whitson; Robert A. Pietrzyk; Charles Y. C. Pak

1997-01-01

325

4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

326

3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

327

1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE NORTH. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

328

1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

329

3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EASTNORTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

330

2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

331

2. STONE CABIN II FROM MIDNORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. STONE CABIN II FROM MID-NORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

332

4. View of Andrews Stone House southwest corner from east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. View of Andrews Stone House southwest corner from east side Harney County Road 201 facing northeast. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

333

3. View of Andrews Stone House west facade from west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of Andrews Stone House west facade from west side of Harney County Road 201 facing east. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

334

7. View of Andrews Stone House northwest corner from east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View of Andrews Stone House northwest corner from east side Harney Road County Road 201 facing southeast. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

335

5. View of Andrews Stone House southeast corner from backyard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View of Andrews Stone House southeast corner from backyard facing northwest. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

336

6. View of Andrews Stone House north facade from north ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. View of Andrews Stone House north facade from north side yard facing south. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

337

2. View of Andrews Stone House, outbuildings and setting from ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View of Andrews Stone House, outbuildings and setting from west side of Harney County Road 201 facing northeast. - Andrews Stone House, County Road 201, approximately 13 miles north of Highway 205 at Fields, Oregon, Andrews, Harney County, OR

338

Clinical implications of physicochemistry of stone formation.  

PubMed

Measuring crystallization processes for assessing the risk of stone formation or the effect of treatment on that risk. In summary, crystallization processes are involved in the risk for stone formation at several levels. Several tests are available for assessing if crystalization is disturbed. It is important to first establish for which part of the urinary tract the information is sought and then adapt the experimental conditions to that site [53]. This information helps in visualizing what is happening inside the urinary tract of a SF and what the treatment measures prescribed may do to change that situation. PMID:12474634

Kok, Dirk J

2002-12-01

339

Calculation of density and permeability of compacted crushed salt within an engineered shaft sealing system  

SciTech Connect

Crushed salt from the host Salado Formation is proposed as a sealing material in one component of a multicomponent seal system design for the shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a mined geological repository for storage and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The crushed salt will be compacted and placed at a density approaching 90% of the intact density of the host Salado salt. Creep closure of the shaft will further compact the crushed salt over time, thereby reducing the crushed-salt permeability from the initial state and creating an effective long-term seal. A structural model and a fluid flow model have been developed to provide an estimate of crushed-salt reconsolidation rate as a function of depth, time, and pore pressure. Model results are obtained in terms of crushed-salt permeability as a function of time and depth within the salt column. Model results indicate that average salt column permeability will be reduced to 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} m{sup 2} in about 100 years, which provides for an acceptable long-term seal component.

Loken, M. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Statham, W. [Intera Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1997-07-01

340

Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic  

PubMed Central

In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-à-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all the rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushed garlic. Consistent with these results, freshly crushed garlic group displayed significantly greater phosphorylation of anti-apoptotic ERK1/2 proteins, reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and reduced phosphorylation of proapoptotic p-38MAPK and JNK. Moreover, the survival signaling network consisting of Akt-FoxO1 was increased in the freshly crushed garlic treated hearts. Freshly crushed garlic, but not the processed garlic, showed enhanced redox signaling as evident by increased level of p65 subunit of NF?B, Nrf2 and enhanced GLUT 4, PPAR? and PPAR?. The results thus show that although both freshly crushed garlic and processed garlic provide cardioprotection; the former has additional cardioprotective properties presumably due to the presence of H2S.

Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K

2009-01-01

341

Efficacy of the lithotripsy in treating lower pole renal stones.  

PubMed

Use of extracorporeal lithotripsy is declining in North America and many European countries despite international guidelines advocating it as a first-line therapy. Traditionally, lithotripsy is thought to have poor efficacy at treating lower pole renal stones. We evaluated the success rates of lithotripsy for lower pole renal stones in our unit. 50 patients with lower pole kidney stones ?15 mm treated between 3/5/11 and 19/4/12 were included in the study. Patients received lithotripsy on a fixed-site Storz Modulith SLX F2 lithotripter according to a standard protocol. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs) ?3 mm at radiological follow-up. The mean stone size was 7.8 mm. The majority of stones (66 %) were between 5 and 10 mm. 28 % of stones were between 10 and 15 mm. For solitary lower pole stones complete stone clearance was achieved in 63 %. Total stone clearance including those with CIRFs was achieved in 81 % of patients. As expected, for those with multiple lower pole stones the success rates were lower: complete clearance was observed in 39 % and combined clearance including those with CIRFs was 56 %. Overall, complete stone clearance was observed in 54 % of patients and clearance with CIRFs was achieved in 72 % of patients. Success rate could not be attributed to age, stone size or gender. Our outcome data for the treatment of lower pole renal stones (?15 mm) compare favourably with the literature. With this level of stone clearance, a non-invasive, outpatient-based treatment like lithotripsy should remain the first-line treatment option for lower pole stones. Ureteroscopy must prove that it is significantly better either in terms of clinical outcome or patient satisfaction to justify replacing lithotripsy. PMID:23456210

Cui, Helen; Thomee, Eeke; Noble, Jeremy G; Reynard, John M; Turney, Benjamin W

2013-03-03

342

Gall stones in sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of gall stones was studied prospectively by abdominal ultrasound examination in 131 patients with sickle cell disease aged 10-65 years. Of 95 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, 55 (58%) had gall stones or had had a cholecystectomy. Gall stones were present in four out of 24 (17%) patients with haemoglobin S + C disease and two out

L R Bond; S R Hatty; M E Horn; M Dick; H B Meire; A J Bellingham

1987-01-01

343

29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN, SHOWING THE MAKER'S MARK. STONE FROM THE GARFIELD COMPANY WERE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF BOTH THE BEEHIVE AND RECTANGULAR OVENS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

344

Fluorescence lidar technique for the remote sensing of stone monuments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first investigation on the remote sensing of stone monuments by fluorescence lidar. The advantages of this technique are manifold and can lead to a fast, extensive and inexpensive control of the stone cultural heritage. The experiments were carried out in both the laboratory and the field, and include the survey of stones coming from different quarries,

Giovanna Cecchi; Luca Pantani; Valentina Raimondi; Luisa Tomaselli; Gioia Lamenti; Piero Tiano; Roberto Chiari

2000-01-01

345

A Selective History of the Stone-von Neumann Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The names of Stone and von Neumann are intertwined in what is now known as the Stone-von Neumann Theorem. We discuss the origins of this theorem, the contributions to it of Stone and von Neumann, the ways the theorem has been reformulated, and some of the varied mathematics that has grown out of it. At the end we discuss certain

Jonathan Rosenberg

346

Aggregations in Flatworms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a school project to investigate aggregations in flatworms which may be influenced by light intensity, temperature, and some form of chemical stimulus released by already aggregating flatworms. Such investigations could be adopted to suit many educational levels of science laboratory activities. (DS)

Liffen, C. L.; Hunter, M.

1980-01-01

347

Aggregates in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Great Britain the output of limestone, sandstone, igneous rock and sand and gravel, most of which is used for aggregate, amounted to 256 million tonnes (Mt) in 1972, valued at about Pound 235 M (ex-pit). More aggregates are produced than any other mineral product, exceeding the coal output of 122 Mt (1972) by a substantial margin, although the value

P. M. Harris; R. C. Thurrell; R. A. Healing; A. A. Archer

1974-01-01

348

Aggregates for Constraint Handling Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the Constraint Handling Rules language with ag- gregates such as sum, count, findall, and min. The proposed exten- sion features nested aggregate expressions over guarded conjunctions of constraints, a series of predened aggregates, and application-tailored user-dened aggregates. We formally dene the operational semantics of aggregates, and show how incremental aggregate computation facilitates ecien t implementations. Case studies demonstrate

Jon Sneyers; Peter Van Weert; Tom Schrijvers

349

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) for Massachusetts: Worker Killed When Crushed By Multiple Granite Slabs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On October 3, 2005, a 38-year-old male laborer/granite worker (the victim) was fatally injured when he became caught between five stone slabs and a stone table. At the time of the incident, the victim was retrieving a granite slab (from this point forward...

2006-01-01

350

Gall stone recurrence and its prevention: the British\\/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group's post-dissolution trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The British\\/Belgian Gall Stone Study Group (BBGSG) post-dissolution trial was a prospective, multicentre, randomised, double blind trial of: (i) low dose ursodeoxycholic acid, (ii) placebo, and (iii) a high fibre, low refined carbohydrate diet in the prevention of gall stone recurrence in patients with complete gall stone dissolution. Further aims included establishing the timing and frequency of recurrence and its

K A Hood; D Gleeson; D C Ruppin; R H Dowling

1993-01-01

351

Unravelling ground stone life histories> the spatial organization of stone tools and human activities at LN Makriyalos, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike previous studies of ground stone technology in the Greek Neolithic, this paper follows a more contextualised approach by looking at contexts of deposition of ground stone from Late Neolithic Makriyalos, Northern Greece. The patterns attested in the distribution of ground stone objects between domestic and communal areas will be discussed in terms of the spatial and social contexts of

Christina Tsoraki

352

Sarsen Stones of Stonehenge: How and by what route were the stones transported? What is the significance of their markings?  

PubMed

A route via Lockeridge and the Avon Valley, involving a slide down the chalk escarpment, is postulated for the sarsen stones of Stonehenge. The transportation problem would have been greatly simplified if the stones had been relayed from point to point over snow or slush during successive winters. Markings on the stones hitherto undescribed are interpreted. PMID:17830710

Hill, P A

1961-04-21

353

Footprints in Stone and Biology Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues surrounding the movie "Footprints in Stone," providing background information about the footprints. Notes that the rules for establishing knowledge in science are different from those in other fields, such as religion, and emphasizes the need for biology teachers to be aware of the tactics of creationists. (JM)

Lang, H. Murray

1984-01-01

354

Combined approach to impacted parotid stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article describes the use of combined endoscopic and ultrasound approach to locate and to extract impacted parotid stones, which cannot be retrieved by intraoral approach alone. Patients and Methods: A total of 12 parotid glands from 7 women and 5 men (age range, 35 to 62 years) with parotid sialoliths were treated with the combined method. Eleven of

Oded Nahlieli; Daniel London; Ami Zagury; Eli Eliav

2002-01-01

355

Modeling and rendering of weathered stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes ap- pearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric ef- fects such as erosion and mineral dissolution. This paper presents an approach for the modeling and

Julie Dorsey; Alan Edelman; Henrik Wann Jensen; Justin Legakis; Hans Køhling Pedersen

1999-01-01

356

Biomediated reinforcement of weathered calcareous stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new conservation treatment for the reinforcement of weathered monumental calcareous stones and sculptures, based on bioremediation application, is validated both in laboratory and in a field test site. It is necessary that the reinforcement is achieved without the introduction of material that would irreversibly change the work of art being conserved. To achieve this, calcite crystals

P. Tiano; E. Cantisani; I. Sutherland; J. M. Paget

2006-01-01

357

Modeling and rendering of weathered stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes appearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric effects such as erosion and mineral dissolution. This paper presents an approach for the modeling and rendering of

Julie Dorsey; Alan Edelman; Henrik Wann Jensen; Justin Legakis; Hans Kohling Pedersen

2006-01-01

358

Modeling and rendering of weathered stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes appearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric effects such as erosion and mineral dissolution. This paper presents an approach for the modeling and rendering of

Julie Dorsey; Alan Edelman; Henrik Wann Jensen; Justin Legakis; Hans Køhling Pedersen

2005-01-01

359

Interviewing Disaffected Students with "Talking Stones"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Talking Stones" is an interview technique that is designed to support self advocacy, particularly for groups of disaffected school students whose views may be difficult to elicit. It has been developed and refined to incorporate a view of learners as active agents in their own learning and is compatible with reflective practice and a social…

Wearmouth, Janice

2007-01-01

360

Building Stones of the U.S.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By examining the NIST Stone wall via the Internet, students will determine the weathering rate of various rocks in the mid-Atlantic region. They will then pick a rock to use in building their "dream house" and justify their choice. Students should have a background in types of rocks.

Mckain, Keith

361

Barton Warren Stone: An American Religious Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This biographical sketch of Barton Warren Stone, an early American advocate of the Restoration Movement, describes and interprets some of the innate and environmental factors that must have been to a large measure responsible for his leadership of what has been called the largest indigenous American religious movement. It details some of the…

Ulrey, Evan

362

Mössbauer analysis of iron in stone meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of resonant gamma rays by Fe 57 nuclei in stone meteorites produces patterns characteristic of the various iron compounds in the meteorite. By comparison with absorption patterns of terrestrial reference minerals, the meteoritic compounds may be identified and the relative amounts of iron in each mineral determined. The minerals identified in the Plainview meteorite were olivine and pyroxene

E. L. Sprenkel-Segel; S. S. Hanna

1964-01-01

363

Environmental management of the stone cutting industry.  

PubMed

Environmental Management of the stone cutting industry in Hebron is required to reduce the industry's adverse impact on the downstream agricultural land and the adverse impact on the drinking water aquifers. This situation requires the implementation of an industrial wastewater management strategic approach and technology, within the available technical and financial resources. Ten pilot projects at different locations were built at Hebron to reduce or eliminate the incompatible discharge of the liquid and solid waste to the environment and improve the stone cutting industry's effluent quality. A review of existing practices and jar test experiments were used to optimize the water recycling and treatment facilities. The factors reviewed included influent pumping rates and cycles, selection of the optimal coagulant type and addition methods, control of the sludge recycling process, control over flow rates, control locations of influent and effluent, and sludge depth. Based on the optimized doses and Turbidity results, it was determined that the use of Fokland polymer with an optimal dose of 1.5mg/L could achieve the target turbidity levels. The completion of the pilot projects resulted in the elimination of stone cutting waste discharges and an improvement in the recycled effluent quality of 44-99%. This in turn reduced the long term operating costs for each participating firm. A full-scale project that includes all the stone cutting firms in Hebron industrial area is required. PMID:18248874

Nasserdine, Khaled; Mimi, Ziad; Bevan, Blair; Elian, Belal

2008-01-14

364

The Dedekind Reals in Abstract Stone Duality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Stone Duality (ASD) is a direct axiomatisation of the spaces and maps in general topology, whereas the traditional and all other contemporary approaches treat spaces as sets (types, objects of a topos) with additional structure. ASD is presented as a -calculus, of which this paper provides a self-contained summary, the foundational background having been investigated in earlier work. This

Andrej Bauer; Paul Taylor

2005-01-01

365

Arabia: from craters to stone circles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabia Shield has a volcanic nature inside. A region of the Western Saudi\\u000aArabia is in fact covered with vast fields of lava known as harraat. These\\u000alands are spotted by many stone circles and other quite interesting\\u000aarchaeological remains of the Neolithic period, such as the \\

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

2010-01-01

366

Arabia: from craters to stone circles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabia Shield has a volcanic nature inside. A region of the Western Saudi Arabia is in fact covered with vast fields of lava known as harraat. These lands are spotted by many stone circles and other quite interesting archaeological remains of the Neolithic period, such as the \\

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

2010-01-01

367

The “Pietra Serena” stones of Brunelleschi's Cupola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brunelleschi conceived the Santa Maria del Fiore (Florence Cathedral) Cupola as a self-sustaining structure. To that purpose, he introducd new techniques and a selected use of building materials. The archives of the Opera del Duomo show that particular materials were chosen for specific uses, and in many instances the precise quarry where the stones had to come from was specified.

Massimo Coli; Chiara Tanini; Margaret Haines; Enrico Pandeli; Gabriele Pini; Federica Bencini

2008-01-01

368

Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.  

PubMed

Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone. PMID:22614098

Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

2012-05-22

369

Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... prone than women. Age is also a factor. The chance of getting a kidney stone rises as men enter their 40s and continues to rise into their 70s. For women, the risk peaks in their 50s. Each day, about ...

370

Calyceal stones: Fate of shock wave therapy with respect to stone localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective analysis the results of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment were evaluated in patients\\u000a with renal stones according to calyceal localization of treated stones.\\u000a \\u000a The 198 patients who underwent ESWL with the Dornier MPL 9000 were analyzed for success rate, complication rate, residual\\u000a fragments, regrowth and recurrence rates. Totally 210 calyceal calculi located in different portions of

A. Ko?ar; K. Türkölmez; K. Sarica; Y. Z. Müftüo?lu; O. Gö?ü?; K. Aydos

1998-01-01

371

Risk Factors for Stone Recurrence after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have demonstrated more than 30% of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients will experience a stone recurrence over a 20 year period. The goal of our study was to identify risk factors for stone recurrence after PCNL. Chart review identified 754 patients treated with PCNL for urolithiasis from March of 1983 to July 1984 at our institution. Of this cohort, 87 patients continued to receive medical care at our clinic and had been evaluated within the last 5 years. Of the 87 patients, 80 had recent radiographic imaging. Average follow-up was 19.2 years and 32 (40.0%) experienced at least 1 stone recurrence. There was no difference in preoperative BMI (p = 0.453) or change in BMI (p = 0.964) between patients that did and did not have a stone recurrence. Renal stone location (p = 0.605) and stone size (p = 0.238) were not predictive of recurrence. Patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stones were less likely to recur (38.7% vs. 41.6%, p = 0.004) and those with calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) were more likely to recur (31.1% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.006) compared to other compositions. Diabetes mellitus was not associated with recurrent stones (p = 0.810). Those patients with residual stones or fragments <3 mm were more likely to recur and to recur earlier than patients rendered entirely stone free at time of PCNL (p = 0.015). Stone recurrences were associated with the late development of renal insufficiency (25% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.002). In conclusion, stone composition, as well as the presence of residual fragments was associated with recurrent symptomatic stone events after PCNL. Recurrent stone events were significantly associated with the risk of developing renal insufficiency, further stressing the need for complete stone clearance at time of PCNL.

Krambeck, Amy E.; Rangel, Laureano J.; Leroy, Andrew J.; Patterson, David E.; Gettman, Matthew T.

2008-09-01

372

Effect of blind treatment on stone disease.  

PubMed

Most of the drugs administered to stone patients appear to be inappropriate and doing more harm than good to the patients. The objective of this paper is to identify the prevalence of blind chemotherapy among the stone patients and find out the real indication for the drugs administered. Patients who attended the stone clinic for the first time were interviewed to find out what drugs they had been taking before the attendance at the stone clinic. 350 patients consuming specific drugs relevant to stone formation at least for a period of 15 days were selected for a detailed assessment. The type of drug consumed, the dose, the duration, the side effects, compliance rate and effect on stone disease were assessed. The biochemical profile of the patients was assessed to identify the role of the therapeutic modalities utilised. Conclusions regarding the utility of drugs in the process of stone formation were made. The values were compared with those of patients not on medication and considering laboratory standards. Of the 350 patients studied, 96 patients were consuming potassium citrate in different doses, 50 were consuming allopurinol, 44 cystone, 27 potassium citrate + magnesium, 25 calcury, 24 rowatinex, 21 ayurvedic drugs, 17 dystone, 17 homeopathic medicines and 17 other drugs. The longest duration of compliance was for cystone-2.5 years. All other drugs were stopped by the patients themselves due to recurrence of symptoms. As much as 93% of the patients did not feel that there was any significant relief of symptoms. The side effects which prompted the patients to stop medicine were gastro intestinal upset, particularly with potassium citrate, rowatinex and potassium citrate + magnesium combination. The relevant biochemical changes noted were increased urinary citrate levels in patients consuming potassium citrate alone or in combination with magnesium. Serum uric acid was within normal limits in patients consuming allopurinol. Urine uric acid levels were also lower in patients on allopurinol. It is concluded that most of the drugs administered blindly were neither indicated nor beneficial for the patients. Metabolic correction has to be based on proper metabolic assessment. PMID:19997722

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

2009-12-08

373

Stone Comminution Correlates with the Average Peak Pressure Incident on a Stone during Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

PubMed Central

To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+(avg)) incident on the stone (D = 10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1,000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P+(avg) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P+(avg)) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters.

Smith, N.; Zhong, P.

2012-01-01

374

[Study on nano- and microcrystallites in the urines of calcium oxalate stone formers].  

PubMed

The crystallites in urine are related closely with the formation of urolithiasis. In the present paper the composition, morphology and Zeta potential of crystallites of twenty calcium oxalate stone formers were comparatively studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that calcium oxalate calculi usually coexisted with a little of uric acid, calcium phosphate, and magnesium ammonium phosphate. By contrast, the compositions of urine crystallites of the patients with calcium oxalate calculi were mainly uric acid, phosphate, calcium oxalate and so on. Most of them had sharp angularity with a particle size distribution ranging from tens of nanometers to tens of microns; and obvious aggregation was observed. The negative value of Zeta potential of urine crystallites in the twenty stone formers (average value -5.92 mV) was less than that in the twenty normal subjects (-12.9 mV). However, there was no obvious difference in the urine pH between stone formers (average pH 6.03) and normal subjects (average pH 5.92). The study on the relationship between urine crystallites and urinary calculi components will be helpful for finding out the causes of urolithiasis and providing an important basis for the scientific prevention methods and reasonable treatments in clinic. PMID:20827998

Huang, Zhi-jie; Li, Jun-jun; He, Jie-yu; Ouyang, Jian-ming

2010-07-01

375

Metabolic evaluation of first-time and recurrent stone formers.  

PubMed

Evaluation of stone formers should include careful attention to medications, past medical history, social history, family history, dietary evaluation, occupation, and laboratory evaluation. Laboratory evaluation requires at least serum chemistries and urinalysis. Twenty-four-hour urine collections are most appropriate for patients with recurrent stones or complex medical histories. However, these collections may be appropriate for some first-time stone formers, including those with comorbidities or large stones. Although twin studies demonstrate that heritability accounts for at least 50% of the kidney stone phenotype, the responsible genes are not clearly identified, and so genetic testing is rarely indicated. PMID:23177631

Goldfarb, David S; Arowojolu, Omotayo

2012-10-27

376

Pros and cons of the nonsurgical treatments for gallbladder stones.  

PubMed

Dissolution of gallbladder stones is usually possible if the cholesterol content of the stones is high. Oral treatment with chenodiol or ursodiol is least invasive, but also least effective and slow. methyl tert-butyl ether requires delivery by percutaneous transhepatic catheter, but is rapidly effective. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy enhances dissolution by oral bile acids, but is highly effective only for solitary stones less than or equal to 20 mm in diameter. Percutaneous cholecystostomy is most invasive, but effective regardless of stone composition. Stones will probably recur in 50 percent of patients with a patent cystic duct and intact gallbladder. PMID:2695446

Thistle, J L

1989-10-01

377

Vibroacoustography imaging of kidney stones in vitro.  

PubMed

Vibroacoustography (VA) is an ultrasound-based modality sensitive to stiffness and free from speckle and possesses some advantages over conventional ultrasound imaging in terms of image quality. The primary objective here is to show its feasibility in detecting/imaging kidney stones (KSs) in vitro . In VA, two intersecting ultrasound beams driven at two different frequencies f (1) and f (2), respectively, are focused within a freshly excised porcine kidney attached to a solid frame with elastic rubber bands, while the amplitude of the acoustic emission pressure field produced at the difference frequency ?f = | f(1) - f(2) | is detected by a low-frequency hydrophone. The received low-frequency signal is bandpass filtered and amplified, then digitized by a 14-bits/sample digitizer. The data are then recorded on a computer and processed numerically to construct the images. 2-D magnitude VA images are obtained at different depths within the kidney before and after stone implantation, showing kidney features and stones shapes. Experiments conducted in a water tank on a chalk sphere as well as a series of excised kidneys in which stones are artificially embedded show that all the implanted stones are detected at all chosen depths, when compared with an X-ray fluoroscopy taken to be the reference image. The resulting VA images, obtained from a nonionizing type of radiation (i.e., ultrasound waves) as compared to fluoroscopy, are speckle free unlike conventional ultrasound images. The results presented in this preliminary feasibility study show that VA allows imaging KSs in vitro, and provide the impetus to further develop and investigate VA imaging in a clinical setting for in vivo applications. PMID:21997246

Mitri, Farid G; Kinnick, Randall R

2011-10-13

378

Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The disadvantage, besides being more labour intensive than mineral mortars based on ZnCl, is that no specific recipes are yet developed for Lede stone and the result is thus dependent on the knowledge of the restorer. Both of the repair mortars have the problem that Lede stone changes its colour due to ageing while the mortar itself remains colour stable. This means that if the mortar colour was adapted for a resemblance at the moment of application, the colour difference between stone and mortar will increase in time. In this study, the compatibility of the different stone repair mortars with the Lede stone are tested. Further, a study was made whether the mortar recipes can be adapted for a better compatibility. In addition, the effect of glauconite addition in the mortar is studied to resolve the possibility of ageing of the mortar similar to the stone.

De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

2012-04-01

379

High urinary calcium excretion and genetic susceptibility to hypertension and kidney stone disease.  

PubMed

Increased urinary calcium excretion commonly is found in patients with hypertension and kidney stone disease (KSD). This study investigated the aggregation of hypertension and KSD in families of patients with KSD and hypercalciuria and explored whether obesity, excessive weight gain, and diabetes, commonly related conditions, also aggregate in these families. Consecutive patients with KSD, aged 18 to 50 yr, were recruited from a population-based Kidney Stone Center, and a 24-h urine sample was collected. The first-degree relatives of eligible patients (n = 333) and their spouse were interviewed by telephone to collect demographic and health information. Familial aggregation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) revealed significant associations between hypercalciuria in patients and hypertension (OR 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) and KSD (OR 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 3.5) in first-degree relatives, specifically in siblings. No significant associations were found in parents or spouses or in patients with hyperuricosuria. Similarly, no aggregation with other conditions was observed. In an independent study of siblings of hypercalciuric patients with KSD, the adjusted mean fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive siblings compared with normotensive siblings (0.60 +/- 0.32 versus 0.46 +/- 0.28 mmol/mmol; P < 0.05), and both sibling groups had significantly higher values than the unselected study participants (P < 0.001). Urinary sodium/creatinine and uric acid/creatinine ratios were not different among the groups. Although an environmental effect cannot be excluded fully, our findings suggest that the disturbance in calcium metabolism in hypertension and KSD has a genetic basis. PMID:16855017

Mente, Andrew; Honey, R John D' A; McLaughlin, John M; Bull, Shelley B; Logan, Alexander G

2006-07-19

380

A comparison of Stone Cone versus lidocaine jelly in the prevention of ureteral stone migration during ureteroscopic lithotripsy  

PubMed Central

Background: Intracorporeal lithotripsy modalities and stone removal devices have been created to facilitate endoscopic management of ureteral stones. These devices, along with improved techniques, have resulted in stone-free rates greater than 95% with low morbidity. However, problems remain that preclude consistent 100% stone-free rates with endoscopic treatment of ureteral calculi. Retrograde migration during ureteroscopic procedures remains a significant problem. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the Stone Cone device and instillation of lubricating lidocaine jelly as two methods to prevent retrograde stone migration during ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Patients and methods: This study included patients suffering from ureteral stones that were treated with intracorporeal lithotripsy using the pneumatic Lithoclast. These patients were divided into two groups. In group I, the Stone Cone device was used, while in group II, lidocaine jelly 2% concentration was used. Results: This study included 40 patients with a mean age of 38.6?±?9.3 years (20 patients in each group). There was no significant difference between the groups with regards to stone site, size or state of the upper urinary tract by excretory urography. The pneumatic Lithoclast allowed successful fragmentation of all calculi into small fragments. Upward stone migration did not occur in patients in the Stone Cone group, while in the lidocaine jelly group it occurred in three patients (15%). The operative time in the Stone Cone group ranged between 30 and 55?minutes (mean, 41.8?±?5.3), while in the lidocaine jelly group it ranged between 40 and 71?minutes (mean, 51.4?±?3.4), and this difference was statistically significant (p?Stone Cone is safe and efficient in preventing proximal stone migration during ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy. It maintained continuous ureteral access and demonstrated a statistically significant advantage over the lidocaine jelly in terms of proximal stone migration, operative time, and the need for auxiliary procedures.

Bastawisy, Mohamed; Gameel, Tarek; Radwan, Mohamed; Ramadan, Ahmed; Alkathiri, Mutie; Omar, Adel

2011-01-01

381

An ultrasound system to identify and characterize kidney stones.  

PubMed

Ultrasound imaging has tissue and blood imaging modes. This report describes development of a kidney stone imaging mode. Two plane pulses generate a B-mode image. Overlaid in color are regions of high decorrelation between the pulses. Our previous data [UMB, 39, 1026-1038 (2013)] indicate the pulses excite bubbles on the stone surface, which causes the decorrelation. As such this mode automatically identifies stones in the image while scanning at a high frame rate. Further in a control box placed on the stone, highly focused beams are scanned across the stone and a harmonic B-mode image is produced to sharpen the lateral resolution. This mode is used to refine the size and shape of the stone. The first mode is used to aid visualization of stones. Our team is also using it to target and track stones that move with respiration during shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and as an indicator of stone susceptibility to SWL since surface bubbles contribute to comminution. Improved stone sizing by the second mode aids treatment planning, and resolution of surface roughness is another indicator of stone fragility. [Work supported by NIH DK043881, NIH DK092197, and NSBRI through NASA NCC 9-58.]. PMID:24180891

Cunitz, Bryan W; Dunmire, Barbrina L; Sorensen, Mathew D; Hsi, Ryan; Lee, Franklin; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A; Harper, Jonathan D; Bailey, Michael

2013-11-01

382

Nucleation in premicellar aggregation.  

PubMed

The role of a nucleating agent (cholesterol) in the premicellar aggregation of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, Triton X-405 and Brij 35 has been investigated. The I(1)/I(3) ratios of pyrene in the solutions indicate that SLS is strongly nucleated by cholesterol, but the other detergents appear to be so to a lesser extent. However, quenching studies show that premicellar Brij 35 also forms nucleated aggregates that protect the probe from the quencher. Energy transfer data with Triton X-405 suggest that such aggregates have a more open structure than self-assembling ones and are more accessible to water. PMID:18965177

Loran, C P; Von Wandruszka, R

1991-05-01

383

Dissolution of gallbladder stones with methyl tert-butyl ether and stone recurrence: a European survey.  

PubMed

Since there are now several ways to treat symptomatic gallstone disease, one is able to select treatment on the basis of the patient's comfort, the practicability, effectiveness, and side effects of the technique, and the relative costs. In order to assess the present status of contact dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether with regard to these aspects, the present enquiry reports the data of 21 European hospitals. Eight hundred three patients were selected for contact litholysis of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether. Percutaneous transhepatic puncture of the gallbladder was performed under x-ray or ultrasound guidance. Dissolution rate, side effects, and treatment times of 268 patients from one single center were compared to those of 535 patients from the other 20 centers. Two hundred sixty-four patients were followed for five years to assess stone recurrence. Physicians were asked how they assessed the expenditure of the method, the discomfort to the patients, and the staffing situation. Patients were asked to indicate their acceptance on an analog scale. Puncture was successful in 761 (94.8%) patients. Prophylactic administration of antibiotics was not necessary. Stones were dissolved in 724 (95.1%) patients. In 315 (43.5%) sludge remained in the gallbladder. The most severe complication was bile leakage, which led 12 (1.6%) patients to have elective cholecystectomy. Toxic injuries due to the ether were not reported. Method-related lethality amounted to 0%, 30-day-lethality to 0.4%. Stone recurrence rate was about 40% in solitary stones and about 70% in multiple stones over five years. Patients with multiple stones developed recurrent stones almost twice as often as those with solitary stones. The probability of stone recurrence in patients with sludge in the gallbladder after catheter removal was not statistically significantly different from those without sludge. Seventy to 90% of the centers found the puncture to be simple and not distressing for patients and the relation between expenditure and therapeutic success to be acceptable. The acceptance of contact litholysis by the patients was excellent. Contact litholysis when applied by an experienced team provides real advantages in the treatment of gallstone disease. The method is technically simple, well accepted by the patients, and can be easily applied in community hospitals. Contact litholysis may be of particular value in patients who are not suitable for anesthesia or surgery. PMID:9590398

Hellstern, A; Leuschner, U; Benjaminov, A; Ackermann, H; Heine, T; Festi, D; Orsini, M; Roda, E; Northfield, T C; Jazrawi, R; Kurtz, W; Schmeck-Lindenau, H J; Stumpf, J; Eidsvoll, B E; Aadland, E; Lux, G; Boehnke, E; Wurbs, D; Delhaye, M; Cremer, M; Sinn, I; Höring, E; v Gaisberg, U; Neubrand, M; Paul, F

1998-05-01

384

Nephrocalcinosis in animal models with and without stones  

PubMed Central

Nephrocalcinosis is the deposition of calcium salts in renal parenchyma and can be intratubular or interstitial. Animal model studies indicate that intratubular nephrocalcinosis is a result of increased urinary supersaturation. Urinary supersaturation with respect to calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP) are generally achieved at different locations in the renal tubules. As a result experimental induction of hyperoxaluria in animals with CaP deposits does not lead to growth of CaOx over CaP. Interstitial nephrocalcinosis has been seen in mice with lack of crystallization modulators Tamm–Horsfall protein and osteopontin. Sodium phosphate co-transporter or sodiumhydrogen exchanger regulator factor-1 null mice also produced interstitial nephrocalcinosis. Crystals plug the tubules by aggregating and attaching to the luminal cell surface. Structural features of the renal tubules also play a role in crystal retention. The crystals plugging the terminal collecting ducts when exposed to the metastable pelvic urine may promote the formation of stone.

2010-01-01

385

Brimonidine protects against loss of Thy-1 promoter activation following optic nerve crush  

PubMed Central

Background The loss of RGCs expressing Thy-1 after optic nerve injury has an initial phase of rapid decline followed by a longer phase with slower reduction rate. This study used longitudinal retinal imaging of mice expressing cyan fluorescent protein under control of the Thy-1 promoter (Thy1-CFP mice) to determine how the ?2-adrenergic agonist brimonidine influences loss of Thy1 promoter activation. Methods Baseline images of the fluorescent retinal neurons in 30 Thy1-CFP mice were obtained using a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Next, brimonidine (100 ug/kg, IP) was administered either one time immediately after optic nerve crush, or immediately after optic nerve crush and then every 2 days for four weeks. A control group received a single saline injection immediately after optic nerve crush. All animals were imaged weekly for four weeks after optic nerve crush. Loss of fluorescent retinal neurons within specific retinal areas was determined by counting. Results At one week after optic nerve crush, the proportion of fluorescent retinal neurons retaining fluorescence was 44±7% of baseline in control mice, 51±6% after one brimonidine treatment, and 55±6% after brimonidine treatment every other day (P<0.05 for both brimonidine treatment groups compared to the control group). Subsequently, the number of fluorescent retinal neurons in the group that received one treatment differed insignificantly from the control group. In contrast, the number of fluorescent retinal neurons in the group that received repeated brimonidine treatments was greater than the control group by 28% at two weeks after crush and by 32% at three weeks after crush (P<0.05 at both time points). Rate analysis showed that brimonidine slowed the initial rate of fluorescent cell decline in the animals that received multiple treatments (P<0.05). Differences in the rate of loss among the treatment groups were insignificant after the second week. Conclusion Repeated brimonidine treatments protect against loss of fluorescence within fluorescent retinal neurons of Thy1-CFP mice after optic nerve crush. As most of fluorescent retinal neurons in this system are RGCs, these findings indicate that repeated brimonidine treatments may protect RGC health following optic nerve crush.

2013-01-01

386

The "Global Heritage Stone Resource": Past, Present and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation arose in 2007 as a suggested mechanism to enhance international recognition of famous dimension stones. There were also many aspects of dimension stone study that had no formal recognition in mainstream geology and which could be recognised in a formal geological sense via an internationally acceptable geological standard. Such a standard could also receive recognition by other professionals and the wider community. From the start, it was appreciated that active quarrying would an important aspect of the designation so a designation different to any other standard was needed. Also the project was linked to the long-established Commission C-10 Building Stone and Ornamental Rocks of the International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG C-10). Since 2007, the "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) proposal has evolved in both in stature and purpose due to an increasing number of interested international correspondents that were actively sought via conference participation. The "English Stone Forum" in particular was pursuing similar aims and was quick to advise that English dimension stone types were being recognised as having international, national or regional importance. Furthermore the proposed designation was suggested as to having significant value in safeguarding designated stone types whilst also providing a potential mechanism in preventing heritage stone replacement by cheap substitutes. During development it also became apparent that stone types having practical applications such as roofing slates and millstones or even stone types utilised by prehistoric man can also be recognised by the new designation. The heritage importance of architects was also recognised. Most importantly an international network evolved, primarily including geologists, that now seems to be the largest international grouping of dimension stone professionals. This has assisted the project to affiliate with the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) in 2011 as its Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG). The future is likely to hold further surprises. There could be benefits in establishing a permanent organisation or "Commission" within IUGS. There may also be value in preparing and maintaining an "International Guide to Heritage Stone Designation" that considers, not only those stone types that have international significance, but also those of national, regional and local importance. It is now considered that all dimension stone types may be considered a "potential heritage stone". Publications of all types that describe, discuss and promote nominated stone types will be beneficial. For good administration of the designation, the current HSTG "Terms of Reference" will likely require revision. For the immediate future, the major effort should focus on preparing and approving GHSR nominations. Over time the focus will likely move onto promoting community recognition of the designation, protecting recognised GHSRs and revising the existing heritage status of designated stones.

Cooper, Barry

2013-04-01

387

Crush Can Behaviour as an Energy Absorber in a Frontal Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presented is devoted to the investigation of a state-of-the-art technological solution for the design of a crush-can characterized by optimal energy absorbing properties. The work is focused on the theoretical background of the square tubes, circular tubes and inverbucktube performance under impact with the purpose of design of a novel optimized structure. The main system under consideration is based on the patent US 2008/0185851 A1 and includes a base flange with elongated crush boxes and back straps for stabilization of the crush boxes with the purpose of improvement of the energy-absorbing functionality. The modelling of this system is carried out applying both a theoretical approach and finite element analysis concentrating on the energy absorbing abilities of the crumple zones. The optimization process is validated under dynamic and quasi-static loading conditions whilst considering various modes of deformation and stress distribution along the tubular components. Energy absorbing behaviour of the crush-cans is studied concentrating on their geometrical properties and their diamond or concertina modes of deformation. Moreover, structures made of different materials, steel, aluminium and polymer composites are considered for the material effect analysis and optimization through their combination. Optimization of the crush-can behaviour is done within the limits of the frontal impact scenario with the purpose of improvement of the structural performance in the Euro NCAP tests.

Bhuyan, Atanu; Ganilova, Olga

2012-08-01

388

The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail  

PubMed Central

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures.

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; Garcia de Leon, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

2012-01-01

389

Laboratory Characterization of Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Dynamically Compacted Crushed Salt  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located at a depth of about 655 meters. The WIPP underground facility is located in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation. Access to the facility is provided through vertical shafts, which will be sealed after decommissioning to limit the release of hazardous waste from the repository and to limit flow into the facility. Because limited data are available to characterize the properties of dynamically compacted crushed salt, Sandia National Laboratories authorized RE/SPEC to perform additional tests on specimens of dynamically compacted crushed salt. These included shear consolidation creep, permeability, and constant strain-rate triaxial compression tests. A limited number of samples obtained from the large compacted mass were available for use in the testing program. Thus, additional tests were performed on samples that were prepared on a smaller scale device in the RE/SPEC laboratory using a dynamic-compaction procedure based on the full-scale construction technique. The laboratory results were expected to (1) illuminate the phenomenology of crushed-salt deformation behavior and (2) add test results to a small preexisting database for purposes of estimating parameters in a crushed-salt constitutive model. The candidate constitutive model for dynamically compacted crushed salt was refined in parallel with this laboratory testing.

Hansen, F.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

1999-02-01

390

Effects of carbon nanofibers on cell morphology, thermal conductivity and crush strength of carbon foam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon foam has excellent potential for aerospace applications where thermal management is critical. The open-cell architecture and thermally conductive cell walls are the key characteristics for heat management. Aerospace structures also demand enhanced mechanical properties. Carbon foams have modest crush strength. The objective of this dissertation was to improve both thermal conductivity and crush strength of carbon foams by introducing carbon nanofibers into the carbon foam. This dissertation reports on the effects of low volume fraction (up to 0.04) carbon nanofibers on foam structure, thermal conductivity and crush strength. The bulk density of the carbon foam increased linearly with the fiber volume fraction, reflecting the morphological changes in the cell structure. Thermal conductivity increased at low fiber volume fractions, but dropped significantly at higher fiber volume fractions. Crush strength increased linearly with fiber fraction for 10 mum length fibers, but decreased for the 100 mum length fibers. Analyses employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), petrography, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) illustrated the complex effects of the carbon nanofibers on the foam characteristics. Available models for thermal conductivity and crush strength have been extended to account for these effects incorporating cell structure and morphology (macro effect), presence of fibers (micro effect), and graphite crystal d spacing (nano effect). This research has shown that the nano-fibers have a complex role in the composite foam properties by affecting the structure at the macro, micro, and the nano levels.

Fawcett, William Edmond

391

Morphological differences in BMP-2-induced ectopic bone between solid and crushed hyaluronan hydrogel templates.  

PubMed

The possibility to affect bone formation by using crushed versus solid hydrogels as carriers for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was studied. Hydrogels, based on chemical crosslinking between hyaluronic acid and poly(vinyl alcohol) derivatives, were loaded with BMP-2 and hydroxyapatite. Crushed and solid forms of the gels were analyzed both in vitro via a release study using ¹²?I radioactive labeling of BMP-2, and in vivo in a subcutaneous ectopic bone model in rats. Dramatically different morphologies were observed for the ectopic bone formed in vivo in the two types of gels, even though virtually identical release profiles were observed in vitro. Solid hydrogels induced formation of a dense bone shell around non-degraded hydrogel, while crushed hydrogels demonstrated a uniform bone formation throughout the entire sample. These results suggest that by crushing the hydrogel, the construct's three-dimensional network becomes disrupted. This could expose unreacted functional groups, making the fragment's surfaces reactive and enable limited chemical fusion between the crushed hydrogel fragments, leading to similar in vitro release profiles. However, in vivo these interactions could be broken by enzymatic activity, creating a macroporous structure that allows easier cell infiltration, thus, facilitating bone formation. PMID:23392969

Hulsart-Billström, Gry; Piskounova, Sonya; Gedda, Lars; Andersson, Britt-Marie; Bergman, Kristoffer; Hilborn, Jöns; Larsson, Sune; Bowden, Tim

2013-02-08

392

Aggregation of ?-amyloid fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors study the folding and aggregation of six chains of the ?-amyloid fragment 16-22 using Monte Carlo simulations. While the isolated fragment prefers a helical form at room temperature, in the system of six interacting fragments one observes both parallel and antiparallel ? sheets below a crossover temperature Tx~420 K. The antiparallel sheets have lower energy and are therefore more stable. Above the nucleation temperature the aggregate quickly dissolves into widely separated, weakly interacting chains.

Meinke, Jan H.; Hansmann, Ulrich H. E.

2007-01-01

393

Characteristics of crushed rocks observed in drilled cores in landslide bodies located in accretionary complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of high-quality boring, which uses foam surfactants, has made it possible to examine the detailed geological constitution and structure of landslide bodies. However, geological information related to landslides has not been obtained appropriately even from undisturbed high-quality drilled cores. Moreover, it has been difficult to distinguish between rocks crushed by landslide movement and the fault breccia in accretionary complexes. We examined the detailed geology of high-quality drilled cores of landslide bodies on the Shimanto Belt and the Chichibu Belt. The fault breccia near the landslide bodies was found to exhibit planar fabrics while the crushed breccias in the landslide bodies showed a random fabric. We discovered that classifying the degree of crushing and inspecting the planar fabrics of rocks are effective in the geological determination of landslide bodies.

Wakizaka, Yasuhiko

2013-10-01

394

Levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in 2 patients with crush syndrome after a mudslide.  

PubMed

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is one of the most promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. An increase in the level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a good predictor of acute kidney injury and is associated with an increase in the serum level of creatinine. Two victims of a mudslide in Messina, Italy, initially had crush syndrome followed by development of acute kidney injury. The development of acute kidney injury is the second most common cause of death after large earthquakes and other natural disasters, but at the same time, crush-related acute kidney injury is one of the few life-threatening complications of crush injuries that can be reversed if diagnosed early and treated. In this case, measuring the level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin enabled early diagnosis of acute kidney injury and anticipation of the changes in levels of conventional markers such as creatinine. PMID:21885463

Donato, Valentina; Noto, Alberto; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Bolignano, Davide; Versaci, Antonio; David, Antonio; Spinelli, Francesco; Buemi, Michele

2011-09-01

395

Sphalerite 40Ar/39Ar progressive crushing and stepwise heating techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult to determine the mineralization ages of sulfide deposits because no suitable minerals can be selected for the traditional isotopic dating methods. The 40Ar/39Ar method rarely applies well to sulfide minerals because of their trace potassium content and strong radioactivity after irradiation. This preliminary study investigates the possibility of dating the hydrothermal sphalerites by 40Ar/39Ar using crushing and heating techniques. The 40Ar/39Ar crushing experiments of two sphalerite samples from the Fankou Lead Zinc Deposit yield well-defined and concordant isochron ages of 265.8 ± 1.0 (1?) Ma and 269.7 ± 6.2 Ma corresponding to initial 40Ar/36Ar ratios of 290.7 ± 2.4 and 294.6 ± 8.1 respectively. The crushed powders of the later sphalerite yields, with stepwise heating, a flat age spectrum with 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 267.2 ± 2.5 Ma, which define a good isochron with an age of 271.3 ± 5.4 Ma and initial 40Ar/36Ar ratio of 294.0 ± 1.7. This is the first report to distinguish secondary and primary fluid inclusions within sphalerite, to obtain their ages using the crushing technique, and to obtain good concordant ages both of fluid inclusions by crushing and heating of K-containing minerals. We expect progressive crushing and stepwise heating techniques will become an effective approach to 40Ar/39Ar dating of the mineralization ages of hydrothermal sulfide deposits.

Qiu, Hua-Ning; Jiang, Ying-De

2007-04-01

396

Stone Tools for Nut-Cracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chimpanzees at Bossou are known to have a rudimentary form of lithic technology. They use a pair of stones as hammer and anvil\\u000a to crack open the hard shell of oilpalm nuts (Elaeis guineensis) to consume the edible kernel within (Fig. 7.1). There are\\u000a many oil-palm trees in the foothills surrounding the village of Bossou. Nutcracking can be observed throughout

Tetsuro Matsuzawa

397

Medical Management of Common Bile Duct Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Common bile duct stones are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. An increasing number of surgical\\u000a and medical therapies are available to manage them, with different success rates reported. The various medical treatment strategies\\u000a were developed during the last decade, but these medical modalities should not be contemplated as a first-line alternative\\u000a of treatment. A consensus

Alvaro González-Koch; Flavio Nervi

1998-01-01

398

Nicander on stones and inorganic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of all references to stones, gems and natural materials contained in his two poems, as well as of the testimonies\\u000a by Greek and Latin authors, suggests that Nicander of Colophon (fl. 2nd century BC) cannot be forgotten when studying the development of mineral studies during antiquity. He is the main, if\\u000a not the only evidence remaining of the

Annibale Mottana

2006-01-01

399

FastStone Capture 5.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Screen capture software can be quite helpful and potential applications include looking at graphics for use in a report or just reviewing visual material later for other purposes. The latest version of FastStone Capture allows users to capture full screen rectangle regions, scrolling windows, and other objects. The application takes up a small amount of memory, and it also allows users to add comments to each captured image. This version is compatible with all computers running Windows 95 and newer.

2007-01-01

400

Predicting the Crushing Behavior of Axially Loaded Elliptical Composite Tubes Using Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research work, the artificial neural networks (ANN) technique is used in predicting the crushing behavior and energy absorption characteristics of axially-loaded glass fiber/epoxy composite elliptical tubes. Predictions are compared to actual experimental results obtained from the literature and are shown to be in good agreement. Effects of parameters such as network architecture, number of hidden layers and number of neurons per hidden layer are also considered. The study shows that ANN techniques can effectively be used to predict the crushing response and the energy absorption characteristics of elliptical composite tubes with various ellipticity ratios subjected to axial loading.

El Kadi, Hany

2008-11-01

401

The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of different waste materials for the production of lightweight aggregates has been studied. The following waste materials were investigated: silica sludge, superfluous clay in the quarry, waste glass, and residue from the polishing process of different types of stone. SiC and MnO2 were selected as foaming agents. Feldspar containing minerals and scrap glass were added in order to

V. Ducman; B. Mirti?

2009-01-01

402

Concurrent urinary tract infection and stone disease: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract stones and urinary tract infection are strongly associated. Infection is implicated as the cause of stones in about 15% of stone formers, and the development of infection can complicate the management of pre-existing stones. Left untreated, both situations can result in loss of kidney function, and can, on occasion, be life threatening. The underlying pathophysiology of infection stones

David Tolley; Ben Thomas

2008-01-01

403

Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash  

SciTech Connect

Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant availability and throughput capacity and to produce quality lightweight aggregate for use in commercial applications.

Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

2006-12-31

404

[Combined analyses of mixed urinary stones by XPS and XRD].  

PubMed

In order to seek the methods for the prevention and cure of urinary stones in Dongjiang valley in Guangdong province, the chemical constituents and morphology of six mixed urinary stones were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). All of the six stones consisted of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) and hydroxyapatite. Two of them contained little ammonium magnesium phosphate. As increasing the amount of phosphate in urinary stones, the amount of COM decreased and that of COD increased, which indicated that the sediment of phosphates in the stones can inhibit the transformation from high energy COD to low energy COM. Combining XPS and XRD methods, the compositions and phases of urinary stones can be obtained accurately. PMID:12961905

Ouyang, Jian-ming

2003-04-01

405

Marine Stone Columns to Prevent Earthquake Induced Soil Liquefaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ports and other near shore structures expanding, and regions previously not considered prone to earthquakes being re-classified\\u000a after recent earthquake events, ground improvement by stone columns is increasingly considered to improve loose or soft in situ soils. The Dry Bottom Feed Stone Column construction technique can be used under water if a double-lock stone delivery system\\u000a is attached to

Azm S. Al-Homoud; Wilhelm S. Degen

2006-01-01

406

Right renal stone on the trajectory of upper left ureter.  

PubMed

We report a 52-year-old woman with a right renal pelvic stone, mimicking a left upper ureteral stone in a kidney-ureter-bladder film. Computed tomography detected the exact anatomical location of the stone, which was not possible by intravenous urography and ultrasonography. In this study, we discuss diagnostic modalities of the urinary calculi in the light of the literature. PMID:16463144

Ceylan, Kadir; Arslan, Halil; Etlik, Omer; Bayrakli, Hasmet; Yilmaz, Yüksel

2006-02-07

407

Applying Signal Processing Technology to Stepping-Stone Intrusion Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most network intruders launch their attacks through stepping-stones to reduce the risks of being discovered. To uncover such intrusions, one prevalent, challenging, and critical way is to compare an incoming connection with an outgoing connection to determine if a computer is used as stepping-stone. In this paper, we present four models to describe stepping-stone intrusion. We also propose the idea

Yongzhong Zhang; Chunming Ye; Jianhua Yang

2008-01-01

408

Packet Fluctuation Approach For Stepping-Stone Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evade detection, network attackers usually launch intrusions through stepping-stones by building a long connection via\\u000a intermediary hosts. In order to detect long connection chains, we first need to identify whether a host has been used as a\\u000a stepping-stones. In this paper, we proposed the packet fluctuation approach to detect stepping-stones based on the range of\\u000a a random walk model.

Han-Ching Wu; Shou-Hsuan Stephen Huang

409

Factors Influencing the Course of Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the influence of previous stone formation, urine and stone composition on the further course of the disease in recurrent calcium stone formers without pharmacological treatment. Method: The course of the disease was analysed during a prospective follow-up period by means of Kaplan-Meier estimates. At the start of follow-up the patients were subgrouped with regard to their previous

Hans-Göran Tiselius

1999-01-01

410

In vitro comparison of different gall stone dissolution solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of gall bladder stones leaves residual fragments that need to be dissolved by chemical solvents. In this study we compared the in vitro dissolving capacity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mono-octanoin, limonene, and limonene\\/mono-octanoin (70%\\/30%). From nine sets of five human gall stones obtained at cholecystectomy, four stones were used for dissolution and the fifth was

H Vergunst; O T Terpstra; H G Nijs; G Steen

1991-01-01

411

Metabolic risk factors in children with kidney stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of metabolic risk factor in children with renal stone disease is the basis of medical treatment aimed at preventing\\u000a recurrent stone events and the growth of preexisting calculi. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the metabolic risk\\u000a factors and clinical and family histories of 90 children with kidney stone disease who had been referred to our institution\\u000a and

Francisco R. Spivacow; Armando L. Negri; Elisa E. del Valle; Irene Calviño; Erich Fradinger; José R. Zanchetta

2008-01-01

412

Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Lithotripsy of Kidney and Ureteric Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a routine therapy for the management of stone patients at our department. Till now ESWL has been performed on 1,000 patients. Although the indications for this noninvasive treatment have been expanded significantly, 90% of the patients have been stone free after treatment, 9.3% have small remaining stone particles, while only 0.7% have to be

E. Schmiedt; C. Chaussy

1984-01-01

413

Assessment of vehicle roof crush test protocols using FE models: inverted drop tests versus updated FMVSS No. 216  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inverted drop test is a dynamic roof crush test which is simple, realistic, reliable and easily implemented. It can produce repeatable roof impacts that can be used to compare one test run with another and has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity. However, practical full-scale vehicle roof crush tests are always very costly,

M. Mao; E. C. Chirwa; W. Wang

2006-01-01

414

Scoping model calculations of the reconsolidation of crushed salt in WIPP shafts. [Hand held computer code included  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scoping model calculations show that crushed salt seal material can reconsolidate in a WIPP shaft to densities and permeabilities that are nearly equal to those for intact WIPP host rock salt. Crushed salt in the lower one-third of a WIPP shaft will meet our criterion of acceptability for shaft sealing in less than 200 years. The extent of expected reconsolidation

E. J. Nowak; J. C. Stormont

1987-01-01

415

Effect of geometric parameters on the in-plane crushing behavior of honeycombs and honeycombs with facesheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aerospace field, use of honeycombs in energy absorbing applications is a very attractive concept since they are relatively low weight structures and their crushing behavior satisfies the requirements of ideal energy absorbing applications. This dissertation is about the utilization of honeycomb crushing in energy absorbing applications and maximizing their specific energy absorption (SEA) capacity by modifying their geometry. In-plane

Bilim Atli-Veltin

2009-01-01

416

Quantifying Dictyostelium discoideum Aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upon nutrient deprivation, the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum enter a developmental program causing them to aggregate into multicellular organisms. During this process cells sense and secrete chemical signals, often moving in a head-to-tail fashion called a `stream' as they assemble into larger entities. We measure Dictyostelium speed, shape, and directionality, both inside and outside of streams, and develop methods to distinguish group dynamics from behavior of individual cells. We observe an overall increase in speed during aggregation and a decrease in speed fluctuations once a cell joins a stream. Initial results indicate that when cells are in close proximity the trailing cells migrate specifically toward the backs of leading cells.

McCann, Colin; Kriebel, Paul; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

2008-03-01

417

Tracking protein aggregate interactions  

PubMed Central

Amyloid fibrils share a structural motif consisting of highly ordered ?-sheets aligned perpendicular to the fibril axis.1, 2 At each fibril end, ?-sheets provide a template for recruiting and converting monomers.3 Different amyloid fibrils often co-occur in the same individual, yet whether a protein aggregate aids or inhibits the assembly of a heterologous protein is unclear. In prion disease, diverse prion aggregate structures, known as strains, are thought to be the basis of disparate disease phenotypes in the same species expressing identical prion protein sequences.4–7 Here we explore the interactions reported to occur when two distinct prion strains occur together in the central nervous system.

Bartz, Jason C; Nilsson, K Peter R

2011-01-01

418

Vista overlook at Discovery View on Wawona Road. Note stone ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Vista overlook at Discovery View on Wawona Road. Note stone wall and interpretative plaques. Looking east - Wawona Road, Between South Entrance & Yosemite Valley, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

419

Stability of cholesterol gall stones after 165 years of burial.  

PubMed

A woman who died in 1837 was exhumed for the purposes of moving the grave to another location. During the excavation, small white deposits of stone were uncovered in the right abdominal region, inferior to the rib cage and superior to the ilium blade. These stones were analyzed for cholesterol, bilirubin, and calcium following solubilization using methyl tert-butyl ether as a solvent. The results of these clinical chemistry analyses showed that these stones consisted primarily of cholesterol. Under these particular soil conditions encountered in this case, cholesterol gall stones are stable for at least 165 years. PMID:12762537

Wu, Alan H B; Bellantoni, Nicholas F

2003-05-01

420

A giant bladder struvite stone in an adolescent boy.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old adolescent boy with a history of recurrent lower urinary tract infection presented with a complaint of lower abdominal pain. Renal ultrasonography revealed bilateral hydronephrosis and X-ray film revealed a huge pelvic mass measuring 10 × 8 × 6 cm which filled the whole bladder. Open cystolithotomy was performed and magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) stone weighing 420 g was removed. Although a bladder stone is not rare, in the present report, the composition and the huge size of the stone determined in an adolescent patient is an interesting clinical entity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest struvite stone reported in an adolescent patient. PMID:22146790

H?zl?, Fatih; Y?lmaz, Engin

2011-11-11

421

Recycling of construction debris as aggregate in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and portland cement concrete (RPCC) are abundant and available substitutes for natural aggregate in many areas. This paper presents an overview of factors that affect recycled aggregate cost, availability, and engineering performance, and the results of a survey of business practices in the Mid-Atlantic region. For RAP, processing costs are less than those for virgin natural aggregate. Use of efficient asphalt pavement stripping technology, on-site reclamation, and linked two-way transport of asphalt debris and processed asphalt paving mix between asphalt mix plants and paving sites has led to extensive recycling of asphalt pavement in the Mid-Atlantic region of the US. Most of the sites that recycle asphalt pavement (RAP) are located in or near urban areas close to important transportation corridors. RPCC is a viable aggregate source in urban settings where unit costs for processed aggregate from RPCC and natural aggregate are comparable. Disposal fees charged at RPCC recycling sites help defray processing costs and the significantly lower tipping fees at recycling sites versus landfill disposal sites encourage recycling of construction debris as aggregate. Construction contractors and construction debris recycling centers, many of which have the ability to crush and process concrete debris at the job site, produce most RPCC. Production of RPCC aggregate from construction debris that is processed on site using portable equipment moved to the construction site eliminates transportation costs for aggregate and provides an economic incentive for RPCC use. Processing costs, quality and performance issues, and lack of large quantities where needed limit RPCC use. Most RPCC suppliers in the Mid-Atlantic area are located in counties with population densities greater than 400 people/km2 (1036 people/mile2) and that have high unit-value costs and limited local availability of natural aggregate. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Robinson, Jr. , G. R.; Menzie, W. D.; Hyun, H.

2004-01-01

422

Compressive response of open cell foams Part II: Initiation and evolution of crushing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part II of this study is concerned with the understanding and modeling of the nonlinear aspects of the compressive response and crushing of open cell foam. The modeling is based on the anisotropic Kelvin foam developed in Part I assigned the same general geometric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the first knee observed in measured responses is associated with the

L. Gong; S. Kyriakides

2005-01-01

423

Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to...

E. D. Uldrich B. D. Hawkes

1998-01-01

424

Uniaxial crushing of sandwich plates under air blast: Influence of mass distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by recent efforts to mitigate blast loading using energy-absorbing materials, this paper uses analytical and computational modeling to investigate the influence of mass distribution on the uniaxial crushing of cellular sandwich plates under air blast loading. In the analytical model, the cellular core is represented using a rigid, perfectly-plastic, locking idealization, as in previous studies, and the front and

Joseph A. Main; George A. Gazonas

2008-01-01

425

Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt  

SciTech Connect

Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

Brodsky, N.S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1994-03-01

426

A constitutive model for granular materials with grain crushing and its application to a pyroclastic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constitutive model for granular materials is developed within the framework of strain-hardening elastoplasticity, aiming at describing some of the macroscopic effects of the degradation processes associated with grain crushing. The central assumption of the paper is that, upon loading, the frictional properties of the material are modified as a consequence of the changes in grain size distribution.The effects of

Manuela Cecconi; Antonio Desimone; Claudio Tamagnini; Giulia M. B. Viggiani

2002-01-01

427

Crushed Cotton Gin Compost Effects on Soil Biological Properties, Nutrient Leaching Losses, and Maize Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently interest in the use of industrial by-products to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers; however, most organic wastes contain relatively low N levels. Our objectives were to: (i) determine the effect of incorporating crushed cotton gin compost, with and without inorganic fertilizers, on soil biological properties during three maize crops (Zea mays L., cv. Tundra); (ii) study

M. Tejada; J. L. Gonzalez

2006-01-01

428

A numerical study on the axial crushing response of hybrid pultruded and ±45° braided tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive numerical investigation was carried out to evaluate the response and energy absorbing capacity of hybrid composite tubes made of unidirectional pultruded tube over wrapped with ±45° braided fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The numerical simulation characterized the crushing behaviors of these tubes subject to both quasi-static compression and axial dynamic impact loadings. Two types of braided FRP, glass and carbon

Haipeng Han; Farid Taheri; Neil Pegg; You Lu

2007-01-01

429

Crushing Behaviors and Energy Absorption Efficiency of Hybrid Pultruded and ±45° Braided Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical and experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the response and energy absorbing capacity of hybrid composite tubes made of unidirectional pultruded tube over wrapped with ±45° braided fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The numerical simulation characterized the crushing behaviors of these tubes subject to both quasi-static compression and axial dynamic impact loadings. Two types of FRP braids, that is,

Haipeng Han; Farid Taheri; Neil Pegg

2011-01-01

430

The crushing response of braided and CSM glass reinforced composite tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from an experimental and analytical study on the behavior of braided and continuous strand mat (CSM) glass fiber composite tubes under quasi-static crush conditions are presented. The composite tubes have an initiator plug introduced at one open end (chamfered) while the other end is clamped. This procedure causes the tube to `flare' outwards into fronds and results in the

Shu Ching Quek; Anthony M. Waas; Jennifer Hoffman; Venkatesh Agaram

2001-01-01

431

Changes in PAD patterns of group I muscle afferents after a peripheral nerve crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the anesthetized cat we have analyzed the changes in primary afferent depolarization (PAD) evoked in single muscle spindle and tendon organ afferents at different times after their axons were crushed in the periphery and allowed to regenerate. Medial gastrocnemius (MG) afferents were depolarized by stimulation of group I fibers in the posterior biceps and semitendinosus nerve (PBSt), as soon

M. Enríquez; I. Jiménez; P. Rudomin

1996-01-01

432

Equation of state and crushing dynamics of low-density silica aerogels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shock compression of low-density silica aerogels reveals a rate process associated with the crushing dynamics of the aerogel structure. Embedded magnetic impulse velocity gauge (MIV) experiments have been accomplished on density 0.3 and 0.12 g/cu cm mater...

R. Rabie J. J. Dick

1991-01-01

433

Improvements of Spiers model for compaction creep of crushed rock salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a number of improvements to the existing model for the process of compaction creep of rock salt developed by Spiers and co-workers. The process of compaction creep determines the behaviour of the seals of crushed rock salt, the last ...

A. D. Poley

1996-01-01

434

On the crushing response of composite sandwich panels subjected to edgewise compression: experimental  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work the compressive properties, collapse modes and crushing characteristics of various types of composite sandwich panels were investigated in a series of edgewise compression tests. The tested sandwich panels were constructed trying four types of polymer foam core (more specifically PMI foam, two grades of linear PVC foam and polyurethane foam) and two types of FRP faceplate

A. G. Mamalis; D. E. Manolakos; M. B. Ioannidis; D. P. Papapostolou

2005-01-01

435

Finite element modelling of the crushing response of composite sandwich panels with FRP tubular reinforcements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crushing response and the crash energy absorption characteristics of composite sandwich panels with internal fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) tubular reinforcements were investigated in the numerical simulation works described here using the LS-DYNA3D finite element code. Several models were developed in order to simulate a series of compressive tests performed at the National Technical University of Athens using composite sandwich

A. G. Mamalis; D. E. Manolakos; M. B. Ioannidis; D. P. Papapostolou

2006-01-01

436

Experimental investigation of strain rate effects on the crushing characteristics of composite sandwich panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the influence of strain rate on the collapse modes, the crushing mechanisms and the energy absorption characteristics of four types of composite sandwich panels was investigated in a series of impact and static in-plane tests. The tested sandwich specimens were formed combining two types of glass fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) faceplate laminates with three types of

A. G. Mamalis; D. P. Papapostolou

2010-01-01

437

On the modeling of crush behavior of a closed-cell aluminum foam structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crush behavior of a closed-cell aluminum foam is studied analytically and numerically. A new model of a truncated cube, which captures the basic folding mechanism of an array of cells, is developed. The model consists of a system of collapsing cruciform and pyramidal sections. Theoretical analysis is based on energy consideration in conjunction with the minimum principle in plasticity. The

Sigit Santosa; Tomasz Wierzbicki

1998-01-01

438

Sorption of copper(II) from aqueous solutions by cedar sawdust and crushed brick  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the aptitudes of cedar (Cedrus atlantica Manatti) sawdust and crushed brick to remove copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions were investigated. Kinetic results and equilibrium removal isotherms were determined. The influence of pH and ionic strength on the sorption of copper was also studied. The removal of copper by both sorbents increased with an increase in contact

Rabiaa Djeribi; Oualid Hamdaoui

2008-01-01

439

Crocin enhanced functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.  

PubMed

Objective(s): Crocin is a constituent of saffron and has many biological functions. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of crocin on sciatic nerve regeneration in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four rats were divided into 9 groups: groups 1-4 (intact + normal saline and intact + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively); group 5 (sham surgery + normal saline); groups 6-9 (crush + normal saline and crush + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively). Normal saline and crocin were IP injected for 10 consecutive days after induction of a standard crush injury in left sciatic nerve. Footprints were obtained 1 day before and weekly after induction of nerve injury for evaluation of sciatic functional index (SFI). Blood samples were taken for evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were investigated by light microscopy. Results: Sciatic nerve crush-injured rats showed SFI values reduction, increased plasma MDA levels and produced Wallerian degeneration in sciatic nerve. Crocin at a dose of 5 mg/kg had no significant effects. At doses of 20 and 80 mg/kg, crocin accelerated the SFI recovery, decreased MDA levels and reduced Wallerian degeneration severity. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the neuroprotective effects afforded by crocin may be due in part to reduction of free radicals-induced toxic effects. PMID:23638296

Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Ahmadian, Elham; Hamidhoseyni, Abbas

2013-01-01

440

Fast and slow rat muscles degenerate and regenerate differently after whole crush injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whole-crush injured rat skeletal muscle was used as a model to explore the regenerating potentialities of fast and slow muscles. Laminin was chosen to follow changes in basal lamina and desmin to visualize new muscular elements; they were revealed by immunofluorescence on cryostat sections of either fast (extensor digitorum longus) or slow (soleus) regenerating muscle. Soleus myolysis was rapid,

Yann Bassaglia; Jean Gautron

1995-01-01

441

Optic Nerve Crush: Axonal Responses in Wild-Type and bcl-2 Transgenic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal ganglion cells of transgenic mice overexpressing the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in neurons show a dramatic in- crease of survival rate after axotomy. We used this experimental system to test the regenerative potentials of central neurons after reduction of nonpermissive environmental factors. Sur- vival of retinal ganglion cells 1 month after intracranial crush of the optic nerve was found to

Sabrina Chierzi; Enrica Strettoi; Maria Cristina Cenni; Lamberto Maffei

1999-01-01

442

Using a Computer Animation To Improve Students' Conceptual Understanding of a Can-Crushing Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents several student responses to viewing a can-crushing demonstration in which a soda can containing a small amount of water was heated on a hot-plate to boil the water, removed from the heat, and sealed by inverting over a container of cold water. Students were given a quiz, made predictions, and explained what happened on a molecular…

Sanger, Michael J.; Phelps, Amy J.; Fienhold, Jason

2000-01-01

443

Quasi-static and dynamic crushing behaviors of aluminum and steel tubes with a cutout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tubular members are commonly used as an energy absorber in engineering structures and many such members have a cutout. In this study, the crushing behaviors of tubes with a cutout are characterized and the effects of cutout on the energy absorption capabilities of these tubes are quantified. Systematic parametric studies were carried out to study the effect of material properties,

Haipeng Han; Farid Taheri; Neil Pegg

2007-01-01

444

Functional recovery after facial nerve crush is delayed in severe combined immunodeficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the current study was to determine if T and B lymphocytes play a role in functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. The time course of behavioral recovery following facial nerve crush injury at the stylomastoid foramen was established in scid mice which lack functional T and B cells and reconstituted scid mice as compared to wild-type mice.

Craig J. Serpe; Julie E. Tetzlaff; Susanna Coers; Virginia M. Sanders; Kathryn J. Jones

2002-01-01

445

Precision of reinnervation of original postsynaptic sites in frog muscle after a nerve crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Regenerating neuromuscular junctions in the cutaneous pectoris muscle of the frog were examined by light and electron microscopy up to three months after crushing the motor nerve. The aim was to determine the precision of reinnervation of the original synaptic sites. More than 95% of the original postsynaptic membrane is recovered by nerve terminals and little, if any, synaptic

M. S. Letinsky; K. H. Fischbeck; U. J. McMahan

1976-01-01

446

Evaluation of urine composition and calcium salt crystallization properties in standardized volume-adjusted 12-h night urine from normal subjects and calcium oxalate stone formers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume of 12-h night urine from ten normal men (NM), ten normal women (NW) and 31 male calcium stone formers (SFM) was adjusted to 750 ml and analysed with respect to supersaturation with calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP), inhibition of CaOx crystal growth and aggregation, as well as the CaOx and CaP crystallization propensity. Concentrations of oxalate

Hanne Bek-Jensen; Hans-Göran Tiselius

1997-01-01

447

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505...Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior...

2013-07-01

448

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505...Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior...

2009-07-01

449

32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505...Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior...

2010-07-01

450

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2013-01-01

451

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330.302 Section 330...PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products §...

2013-01-01

452

Cystone® for 1 year did not change urine chemistry or decrease stone burden in cystine stone formers.  

PubMed

Cystine kidney stones frequently recur because inadequate prevention exists. We recruited documented recurrent cystine kidney stone formers (6 men, 4 women, 44 ± 17 years) into a 2-phased study to assess safety and effectiveness of Cystone®, a herbal treatment used to prevent and facilitate passage of cystine kidney stones. The first phase was a randomized double-blinded 12 weeks crossover study assessing the effect of Cystone® versus placebo (2 tablets BID) on urinary chemistries. The second phase was an open label 1 year study of Cystone® to determine if renal stone burden decreased, as assessed by quantitative and subjective assessment of CT. There was no statistically significant change of urinary composition from baseline short (6 weeks) or long (52 weeks) term on Cystone®, including volume (2525, 2611, 2730 ml), pH (6.7, 6.7, 7.05), and cystine excretion (2770, 2889, 4025 ?mol). Pre and post-CT was available in nine patients. Although seven kidneys lost stones spontaneously or surgically, overall stone burden increased in seven kidneys, was unchanged in nine, and fell in only two. Quantitative scoring increased in both the left and right kidneys (1602-1667 and 301-2064 volumetric units, respectively). Therefore, this study does not suggest that Cystone® has a favorable effect on urinary chemistries that could decrease cystine stone formation, nor does it appear to prevent stone growth or promote stone passage over a 1-year period. PMID:21161651

Erickson, Stephen B; Vrtiska, Terri J; Canzanello, Vincent J; Lieske, John C

2010-12-16

453

Metadata aggregation and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over three years ago, the Core Integration team of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) implemented a digital library based on metadata aggregation using Dublin Core and OAI- PMH. The initial expectation was that such low-barrier technologies would be relatively easy to automate and administer. While this architectural choice permitted rapid deployment of a production NSDL, our three years of

Carl Lagoze; Dean B. Krafft; Tim Cornwell; Naomi Dushay; Dean Eckstrom; John Saylor

2006-01-01

454

The Extraction of Aggregates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aggregates-rock fragments providing bulk, weight, bearing capacity and support strength in a wide variety of building and civil engineering works-are found in many locations in Ireland. They provide an essential input into the construction industry. But a...

K. Archer B. Grist R. Webb

1981-01-01

455

Aggregation and regional television  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines the implementation into regional Australian television of the policy known as equalisation. It places the implementation of the policy in context with significant developments since the introduction of regional television in Australia, and analyses h o w by 1997 the aggregation of services had affected individual television markets in four states. It also considers the effect of

Neryl East

1998-01-01

456

Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

1989-09-01

457

Diffusion Limited Aggregation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) algorithm models the growth of an object one particle at a time sticking in random places. This calculator computes DLA on a square, hexagonal, or octagonal lattice, and allows for the computation of fractal dimension by a box counting method.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

458

Aggregate Item Response Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A stochastic postulate is given for the multiple-item, successive-intervals scaling of populations. The logistic equivalent of this postulate provides an aggregate item response model in which a unidimensional submodel may be nested. Subtractive conjoint measurement of items and generalized least square methods are incorporated. (TJH)|

Bechtel, Gordon G.; Ofir, Chezy

1988-01-01

459

Effect of the crushing process on Raman analyses: consequences for the Mars 2018 mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The payload of the 2018 Mars mission will comprise a Raman spectrometer as part of its instrument suite. Analyses with this instrument will be made on crushed samples. The crushing process will cause loss of important structural context and could change the physical properties of the studied materials resulting in misinterpretation of the data. We therefore investigated the influence of granulometry on the Raman spectrum of various minerals and rocks using laboratory equipment and the RLS Raman instrument being developed for the Pasteur payload of the ExoMars mission. The aim was to determine what influence the crushing process could have on the correct identification of rocks and minerals and the detection of possible traces of life. Whatever the sample type, our study shows that the crushing process leads to a strong increase in the background level and to a decrease in the signal/noise ratio. Moreover, for certain minerals, the Raman spectra can be significantly modified: the peaks are shifted and broadened and new peaks can appear. Since mineral identification using Raman spectroscopy is made by comparison with database spectra, this kind of change could lead to misinterpretation of the spectra and thus must be taken into account during the in situ investigation. However, the results obtained with the ExoMars instrument showed that, probably due to its irradiance and resolution characteristics, these effects are relatively limited and most of the time not observed with the RLS instrument. Finally, the loss of texture associated with the crushing process is shown to complicate identification of rocks with subsequent consequences for the eventual detection and interpretation of past traces of life. But, on the other hand, it is shown that the mixing of the components in the powder could facilitate the detection of minor phases.

Foucher, Frédéric; Westall, Frances; Bost, Nicolas; Rull, Fernando; Lopez-Reyes, Guillermo; Rüßmann, Philipp

2012-07-01

460

The effect of aquatic plant abundance on shell crushing resistance in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M; García de León, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

2012-09-06

461

Does tamsulosin change the management of proximally located ureteral stones?  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blocking agent on the spontaneous passage of proximal ureteral calculi < or =10 mm. 92 patients having single radio-opaque proximal ureteral stone < or =10 mm were randomized into two groups. Group 1 patients (n = 50) were followed with classical conservative approach and patients in Group 2 (n = 42) additionally received tamsulosin, 0.4 mg/day during 4 weeks follow-up. The stone passage rates, stone expulsion time, VAS score, change in colic episodes, and hospital re-admission rates for colicky pain were compared. The patients were furthermore stratified according to stone diameters <5 and 5-10 mm. The data of these subgroups were also compared. Stone expulsion rates showed statistically significant difference between tamsulosin receivers and non-receivers (35.7 vs 30%, p = 0.04). Time to stone expulsion period was also shortened in those receiving tamsulosin (8.4 +/- 3.3 vs 11.6 +/- 4.1 days, p = 0.015). Likewise, the mean VAS score and renal colic episodes during follow-up period were significantly diminished in Group 2 patients (4.5 +/- 2.3 vs 8.8 +/- 2.9, p < 0.01 and 66.6 vs 36%, p = 0.001, respectively). Among the stones <5 mm, tamsulosin receiving patients had higher spontaneous passage rate (71.4 vs 50%, p < 0.001). The prominent effect of tamsulosin on the 5-10 mm stones was the relocation of the stones to a more distal part of ureter (39.3 vs 18.7%, p = 0.001). Administration of tamsulosin in the medical management of proximal ureteral calculi can facilitate the spontaneous passage rate in the stone <5 mm and the relocation of the stones between 5 and 10 mm to more distal part of the ureter. PMID:20182703

Yencilek, Faruk; Erturhan, Sakip; Canguven, Onder; Koyuncu, Hakan; Erol, Bulent; Sarica, Kemal

2010-02-25

462

Raman spectroscopic documentation of Oligocene bladder stone.  

PubMed

Discovery of a fossil (30-35 million-year-old) urolith from Early Oligocene deposits in northeastern Colorado provides the earliest evidence for the antiquity of bladder stones. These are spherical objects with a layered phosphatic structure and a hollow center. Each layer is composed of parallel crystals oriented perpendicular to the surface. Macroscopic and microscopic examination and X-ray diffraction analysis, along with comparison with 1,000 contemporary uroliths, were used as evidence in the confirmation of this diagnosis. Raman microspectroscopy verified the presence of organic material between layers, confirming its biologic origin. PMID:23812647

Rothschild, Bruce M; Martin, Larry D; Anderson, Brendan; Marshall, Alison Olcott; Marshall, Craig P

2013-06-30

463

Alternative management of complex renal stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The gold standard for treatment of large and complex renal stones is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). However, in patients\\u000a with significant comorbididties, this option may be suboptimal. We reviewed our experiences with ureterorenoscopy and Holmium\\u000a laser lithotripsy (UL) for the primary management of large and complex intrarenal calculi.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Forty-three patients with large (2 cm or greater in diameter) renal or

Millie Pevzner; Brian C. Stisser; Jordan Luskin; Jeffrey C. Yeamans; Marina Cheng-Lucey; John J. Pahira

464

Pollution-fueled `biodeterioration` threatens historic stone  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms appear to pose as great a threat to historic buildings, monuments, and statues as does acid precipitation, according to recent research findings. Air pollution from urban and industrial growth may be fueling these microbes and speeding the deterioration of venerated artworks and cultural treasures in many parts of the world - the Taj Mahal in India; the Acropolis and the Delos Sanctuary in Greece; stone Buddhas in Japan; cathedrals in Europe; and ancient temples in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Central America. This paper reports research being done in this field. 8 refs.

Young, P.

1996-05-01

465

Renal effects of percutaneous stone removal  

SciTech Connect

Preoperative and postoperative renography with 99mTechnetium-diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid was performed on 33 patients who were free of renal scarring, infection, and obstruction and who underwent percutaneous renal stone removal. Although there was a transient decrease in renal function postoperatively in some patients, statistically significant reductions in renal function occurred only in 1 patient with an arteriovenous malformation that was embolized and in 1 patient who had a postoperative ureteropelvic junction stricture. The creation of more than one nephrostomy tract did not affect the results. In the absence of serious complications, percutaneous nephrostomy does not have a significant effect on renal function.

Eshghi, M.; Schiff, R.G.; Smith, A.D.

1989-02-01

466

Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

2013-04-01

467

Significance of glycosaminoglycans for the formation of calcium oxalate stones.  

PubMed

Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are polysaccharide chains composed of repeating disaccharides of identical composition. Little is known about the mechanism of their excretion, but there is no doubt that urinary GAGs are degradation products of high molecular weight proteoglycans. Renal excretion takes place chiefly as glomerular filtration, and tubular reabsorption or secretion has not been demonstrated. Differences in the literature comparing GAG excretion in urolithiasis patients and healthy subjects are mainly attributable to methods of analysis and noncomparability of the investigation conditions. We found no differences between the two groups in several series. It is interesting to note that GAG excretion in men is significantly higher than in women, that a circadian rhythm of GAG concentration and excretion occurs in healthy subjects on a standardized diet, and that values are raised postprandially and at night. Seasonal course of GAG excretion curves is almost synchronous for men and women, irrespective of the absolute values, and GAG excretion in the spring and summer significantly exceeds that in winter months by up to 50%. All crystallization models cited demonstrate that GAG reduce the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. Inhibitors of crystal growth and aggregation act by blocking the growth sites. Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization is also attributed to direct binding of calcium to GAG. In the presence of urate ions, and favorable pH, the ability of chondroitin sulfate C to bind calcium may be impaired by as much as 31%. These measurements support the concept that urate ions interact with GAG in urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2008909

Hesse, A; Wuzel, H; Vahlensieck, W

1991-04-01

468

Synthetic lightweight aggregate from cool water slag: Bench-scale confirmation tests  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the potential for production of synthetic lightweight aggregate (SLA) from a Texaco coal gasification solid residue. The objective of the project was to develop a replacement for conventional lightweight aggregates typically derived from expanded clays and shales or natural lightweight aggregates. The sequence of tests performed to develop SLA from slag began with the crushing of samples of slag, followed by either extrusion or pelletization. The level of clay binder required for sufficient aggregate strength was evaluated. Using a tube furnace, expansion characteristics were studied as a function of temperature and residence time. Next, a large batch of SLA was produced in a muffle furnace and used to form concrete test cylinders. The unit weight of the resultant concrete was 105 lb/ft{sup 3}, with a compressive strength of 3100 psi, which meets the requirements specified in ASTM C 330 for lightweight aggregate of a comparable density. When the same sequence of tests was performed using a slag from which the bulk of the char had been removed, the concrete test cylinders showed an improved relationship between strength and density. Based on the results of bench-scale tests and the similarity to conventional LWA production, the conceptual design of an SLA processing plant was formulated. A comparative estimate of operating costs was prepared by analyzing data from plants using clays and shales to produce lightweight aggregates. 24 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs.

Choudhry, V.; Hadley, S.R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

469

[XRD, FTIR and thermoluminescence spectra of different types of urinary stones].  

PubMed

Using thermoluminescence spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the chemical compositions of four types of kidney stones were investigated. They are calcium oxalate, uric acid, calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi (struvite). Experimental results showed that in the 305 cases of stones, calculi oxalate stones were found to account for 63%, uric acid stones 22%, calcium phosphate stones 8%, struvite 5%, and the stones with other compositions 2%. There were significant differences in the thermoluminescence spectra among the 4 types of urinary stones, which can provide an important basis for the clinic diagnosis of urinary stone types. PMID:22007431

Yang, Jin; He, Jie-Yu; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2011-08-01

470

Optical fibre humidity sensor design for building stone condition monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and performance of a novel optical fibre relative humidity (RH) sensor device, based on fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs), but specifically developed for monitoring building stone deterioration. The performance of the sensor thus created was first assessed under experimental conditions of controlled wetting and drying cycles of limestone blocks, simulating conditions 'in-the-field' with actual building stone.

T. Sun; K. T. V. Grattan; B. J. Smith; S. Srinivasan; P. A. M. Basheer; H. A. Viles

2010-01-01

471

1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER AT NINTH STREET IN LOCKPORT. THE BRIDGE WAS BUILT ABOUT 1865. NOTE METAL CLAMP ON THE NEAR PIER AND THE 20TH CENTURY REINFORCED CONCRETE ADDITION. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL