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1

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

2

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stone. Rock and stone that is crushed or broken prior to the extraction of a mineral are elsewhere covered. The processing of calcite, however, in conjunction with the processing of crushed and broken limestone or dolomite is included in this...

2010-07-01

3

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...stone. Rock and stone that is crushed or broken prior to the extraction of a mineral are elsewhere covered. The processing of calcite, however, in conjunction with the processing of crushed and broken limestone or dolomite is included in this...

2011-07-01

4

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...stone. Rock and stone that is crushed or broken prior to the extraction of a mineral are elsewhere covered. The processing of calcite, however, in conjunction with the processing of crushed and broken limestone or dolomite is included in this...

2013-07-01

5

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...stone. Rock and stone that is crushed or broken prior to the extraction of a mineral are elsewhere covered. The processing of calcite, however, in conjunction with the processing of crushed and broken limestone or dolomite is included in this...

2012-07-01

6

40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.  

...stone. Rock and stone that is crushed or broken prior to the extraction of a mineral are elsewhere covered. The processing of calcite, however, in conjunction with the processing of crushed and broken limestone or dolomite is included in this...

2014-07-01

7

Drying of lightweight concrete produced from crushed expanded clay aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

When crushed lightweight aggregates are used in lightweight aggregate concretes very small water amounts evaporate from the concrete even in a dry environment. It is shown that a large portion of the free batch water is absorbed into the pore structure of the crushed aggregates. The relative humidity in concrete pore structure diminishes faster than in normal weight aggregate comparison

T. Merikallio; R. Mannonen; V. Penttala

1996-01-01

8

Air pollution in stone crushing industry, and associated health effects.  

PubMed

Stone crushers are small scale industries in the unorganised sector. They provide basic material for road and building construction. They are highly labour intensive. The various unit operations involved in stone crushing viz., size reduction, size classification and transfer operations have the potential to emit process and fugitive dust. A detailed air pollution survey was conducted at Pammal, 26 km to the southwest of Chennai. High volume and respirable particulate samplers were deployed at seventeen locations to monitor SPM and PM10 levels in ambient air. The particle size analysis indicates high percentage of finer particles and silica content posing serious health problems to the people exposed for longer duration. Personal samplers were employed to quantify the total dust and respirable particulate fraction in the work environment, which was found significantly high, when compared to the occupational safety and health standards. Fine inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5) which has more associated human health problems was found high in the work place of stone crushers. Health survey viz., Pulmonary function test, blood sample test, general clinical evaluation was conducted to assess the extent of the damage caused to the workers. This study indicates that most of the people are having respiratory problems. The measurements show that good house keeping practice is essential for effective control of dust, in addition to National Productive Council's (NPC) measures. PMID:12395522

Sivacoumar, R; Jayabalou, R; Subrahmanyam, Y V; Jothikumar, N; Swarnalatha, S

2001-10-01

9

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PARTICULATE CONTROL DEVICES IN KRAFT PULP MILL AND CRUSHED STONE INDUSTRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Control of fine particulate emissions from selected kraft pulp mill and stone crushing facilities is addressed. The principal devices considered are electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers, and fabric filters. Guidelines are provided for industrial personnel responsible for se...

10

Effect of crushed ceramic and basaltic pumice as fine aggregates on concrete mortars properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the suitability of ceramic industrial wastes and huge amounts of basaltic pumice as a possible substitute for conventional crushed fine aggregates. Experiments were carried out to determine abrasion resistance, chloride penetration depths and the compressive strengths of concrete with crushed ceramic waste and basaltic pumice fine aggregates and to compare them with those of conventional concretes. Test

Hanifi Binici

2007-01-01

11

Influences of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes used for crushed stone production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the influence of petrographic parameters on technological properties of greywackes. These sedimentary rocks make about 27 % of crushed stone market in the Czech Republic. Mainly in Moravia (eastern part of the Czech Republic), greywackes represent almost exclusive high quality aggregate. The behaviour of greywackes varies, however, from quarry to quarry. In this study, we have selected the most important deposits that cover major lithological variation of local greywackes. Studied greywackes were analysed for their petrographic parameters quantitatively (using image analysis of thin sections). The pore space characteristics were determined by using fluorescent dye - epoxy resin impregnated specimens. The studied rocks are composed of subangular and angular quartz grains, lithoclasts (stable rocks: quartzites, and unstable rocks: phylites, metaphylites, siltstones, slates, greywackes, and less frequently acid eruptive rocks), feldspars (orthoclas, microcline, plagioclase), and detrital micas. Detrital and authigenic chlorite has been found as well. The matrix which represents the largest volume of rock-forming components contains a mixture of sericite, chlorite, clay minerals, cements, and clasts in aleuropelitic size. Based on the microscopic examination, all studied rock types were classified as greywacke with fine- to medium-grained massive rock fabric. Only specimen from B?lkovice has shown partly layered structure. Alteration of feldspars and unstable rock fragments represents common feature. Diagenetic features included pressure dissolution of quartz clasts and formation of siliceous and/or calcite cements. Based on the experimental study of technological performance of studied greywackes and its correlation to petrographic features, the average size of clasts and volume of matrix make the driving factors affecting the LA values. The LA values decrease with the increasing of volume of matrix (R = 0.61) and with decreasing average grain size (R = 0.44). The degree of sorting influences LA values as well; more graded greywackes tend to show higher LA values. Regarding PSV, its values increase with increasing volume of quartz clasts.

Prikryl, Richard; Cermak, Martin; Krutilova, Katerina

2014-05-01

12

Crushed cement concrete substitution for construction aggregates; a materials flow analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analysis of the substitution of crushed cement concrete for natural construction aggregates is performed by using a materials flow diagram that tracks all material flows into and out of the cement concrete portion of the products made with cement concrete: highways, roads, and buildings. Crushed cement concrete is only one of the materials flowing into these products, and the amount of crushed cement concrete substituted influences the amount of other materials in the flow. Factors such as availability and transportation costs, as well as physical properties, that can affect stability and finishability, influence whether crushed cement concrete or construction aggregates should be used or predominate for a particular end use.

Kelly, Thomas

1998-01-01

13

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Construction aggregates consist primarily of crushed stone and construction sand and gravel. Total estimated production of construction aggregates increased in 1999 by about 2% to 2.39 Gt (2.64 billion st) compared with 1998. This record production level continued an expansion that began in 1992. By commodities, crushed stone production increased 3.3%, while sand and gravel production increased by about 0.5%.

Langer, W.H.; Tepordei, V.V.; Bolen, W.P.

2000-01-01

14

Characterization of aggregate resistance to degradation in stone matrix asphalt mixtures  

E-print Network

Stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures rely on stone-on-stone contacts among particles to resist applied forces and permanent deformation. Aggregates in SMA should resist degradation (fracture and abrasion) under high stresses at the contact points...

Gatchalian, Dennis

2006-04-12

15

A study on the internal aggregate packing of stone mastic asphalt (SMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate quantification of aggregate properties is essential for a better understanding of their effect on an asphalt mixture. This is even more relevant for stone mastic asphalt (SMA) for which stone-to-stone contact forms the cornerstone of SMA load-carrying capacity, especially against rutting. A quantitative method based on volumetric properties such as voids in mineral aggregates and voids in coarse aggregate

Qiu Yunfeng; Lum Kit Meng

16

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

Tepordei, V.V.

1995-01-01

17

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The estimated production during 2000 of construction aggregates, crushed stone, and construction sand and gravel increased by about 2.6% to 2.7 Gt (3 billion st), compared with 1999. The expansion that started in 1992 continued with record production levels for the ninth consecutive year. By commodity, construction sand and gravel production increased by 4.5% to 1.16 Gt (1.28 billion st), while crushed stone production increased by 1.3% to 1.56 Gt (1.72 billion st).

Bolen, W.P.; Tepordei, V.V.

2001-01-01

18

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

Tepordei, V.V.

1994-01-01

19

Mineral resource of the month: aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crushed stone and construction sand and gravel, the two major types of natural aggregates, are among the most abundant and accessible natural resources on the planet. The earliest civilizations used aggregates for various purposes, mainly construction. Today aggregates provide the basic raw materials for the foundation of modern society.

Willett, Jason C.

2012-01-01

20

Mineral of the month: aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural aggregates, consisting of crushed stone, and sand and gravel, are a major contributor to economic health, and have an amazing variety of uses. Aggregates are among the most abundant mineral resources and are major basic raw materials used by construction, agriculture and other industries that employ complex chemical and metallurgical processes.

Tepordei, Valentin V.

2005-01-01

21

Utilization of steel slag as aggregates for stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steel slag is a byproduct making up a portion of 15–20% of iron output in an integrated steel mill. Most of them are deposited in slag storing yards and thus results in many serious environment problems in China. This paper aims to explore the feasibility of utilizing steel slag as aggregates in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures, and properties of

Shaopeng Wu; Yongjie Xue; Qunshan Ye; Yongchun Chen

2007-01-01

22

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. Production of construction aggregates such as crushed stone and construction sand and gravel showed a marginal increase in 1995. Most of the 1995 increases were due to funding for highway construction work. The major areas of concern to the industry included issues relating to wetlands classification and the classification of crystalline silica as a probable human carcinogen. Despite this, an increase in demand is anticipated for 1996.

Tepordei, V.V.

1996-01-01

23

Construction aggregates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Part of a special section on the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Production of construction aggregates increased by 4.6 percent in 1992. This increase was due, in part, to the increased funding for transportation and infrastructure projects. The U.S. produced about 1.05 Gt of crushed stone and an estimated 734 Mt of construction sand and gravel in 1992. Demand is expected to increase by about 5 percent in 1993.

Tepordei, V.V.

1993-01-01

24

Rolling Stones Down Potential Hills: Reshaping Gravitational Aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical N-body models adopting self-gravitating spherical particles have proven to have interesting properties and are very useful for describing some aspects of the expected behaviour of rubble-piles. In fact, particle interlocking can simulate a certain degree of shear strength (corresponding to a non-zero critical slope in the Mohr-Coulomb approach). At the same time, if the critical slope angle is exceeded for some reason (thus temporarily breaking the sphere packing) the shape of the body can readjust to a new equilibrium. Usually, this re-organisation produces a shape closer to the theoretical fluid equilibrium predicted by theory, at the corresponding angular momentum. We have recently compared this reshaping process of ellipsoidal gravitational aggregates to the field of potential energy associated with incompressible fluid shapes. The gradient of this field suggests the evolutionary track that a reshaping body undergoing a slow (quasi-stationary) modification should follow. The same applies to the gradient of the maximum slope present on the surface. The results show the overall tendency to readjust along the potential slope. However, other effects are at work, making the interpretation more complex - among them we can identify: the granularity of the shape model; the relative flatness of the potential field; and a certain anisotropy of the most compact spherical packings. The results offer an interesting insight into the detailed behaviour of this model, allowing us to characterize its applicability in more realistic situations, such as restructuring due to tidal forces, impact reshaping, or shape build-up during gravitational reaccumulation.

Tanga, Paolo; Comito, C.; Hestroffer, D.; Paolicchi, P.; Walsh, K.; Richardson, D. C.

2008-09-01

25

Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

1998-01-01

26

Crush Grinding  

SciTech Connect

Crush Grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. In this process, a precise profile of the desired product is formed on a tungsten carbide roll. This roll slowly transfers a mirror image of the profile onto the grinding surface of a wheel. The transfer rate of the profile is between 0.001 and 0.010 inches per minute. Crush grinding is desirable since it provides consistent surface finishes and thin walls at a high production rate. In addition, it generates very sharp fillet radii. However, crush grinding is a complex process since many variables affect the final product. Therefore, the process requires more attention and knowledge beyond basic metal removal practices. While the Kansas City Plant began using these machines in 1995, a formal study regarding crush grinding has not been conducted there. In addition, very little literature is available in the grinding industry regarding this process. As a result, new engineers at the Kansas City Plant must learn the process through trial and error. The purpose of this document is to address this literature deficit while specifically promoting a better understanding of the stem crush grinding process at the Kansas City Plant.

T. Q. Nguyen

2005-04-01

27

[Crush syndrome].  

PubMed

Crush injuries and crush syndrome are common after natural (e.g. earthquake, land-slide, tornadoes, tsunami) or man-made catastrophes (e.g. wars, terrorist attacks), in fact the history of this disease is well reported both in earthquake rescue reviews and in military literature. However, there are instances due to conventional causes, such as building collapses, road traffic accident, accident at work or altered level of consciousness after stroke or drug overdose. These situations of ''big or small'' catastrophes can occur at any time and anywhere, for this reason every clinician should be prepared to address issues of crush syndrome quickly and aggressively. The treatment has to manage and to predict clinical conditions before they present themselves. In particular, acute renal failure is one of the few life-threatening complications that can be reversed. This article reviews the various evidences and summarizes the treatment strategies available. Fundamental targets in crush syndrome management are early aggressive hydration, urine alkalinization and, when possible, forced diuresis. Since electrolyte imbalance may be fatal due to arrhythmias secondary to hyperkalemia (especially associated with hypocalcemia), it's necessary to correct these abnormalities using insulin-glucose solution and/or potassium binders, and if nevertheless serum potassium levels remain high this serious disease will necessitate dialysis, which is often a vital procedure. PMID:17641588

Scapellato, S; Maria, S; Castorina, G; Sciuto, G

2007-08-01

28

Kidney Stones  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

1980-01-01

29

[Muscle crush injury and crush syndrome].  

PubMed

Crush injury is defined as compression of extremities or other parts of the body that causes muscle breakdown (traumatic rhabdomyolysis). Systemic consequences of crush injuries are as follows: rhabdomyolysis, electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, hypovolemia, and acute renal failure. Crush injuries are important injuries in disaster situations: earthquakes, hurricanes, mining and road traffic accidents, war, collapse of buildings, etc. In this review article, there are discussed about epidemiology of crush syndrome, risk factors, pathophysiology (mechanisms of muscle cell injury, release of substances from injured muscles, other consequences of reperfusion), clinical features, differential diagnosis, investigations, complications (acute renal failure, hypovolemic shock, hyperkalemia, infection, compartment syndrome), approach to treatment (adequate rehydration, a forced mannitol-alkaline diuresis, intravenous fluids, management of hyperkalemia, wound care, hyperbaric oxygen, etc.), prognosis, the mortality rate and prevention (timely support may reduce morbidity and mortality). PMID:20944453

Reingardien?, Dagmara; Jodži?nien?, Liucija; Lažauskas, Robertas

2010-01-01

30

Urinary Stone Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is intriguing that despite marked abnormal urinary factors, most humans will not form stones. Alternatively, some patients\\u000a develop stones despite normal urinary composition. The key element, therefore, appears to be inhibition of the steps in calculogenesis\\u000a (nucleation, crystal growth, aggregation, and crystal\\/stone retention). Urolithiasis will not develop if any one of these\\u000a steps is blocked. Despite this simple fact,

Harrison M. Abrahams; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

31

Noble gases in ureilites released by crushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gases in two ureilites, Kenna and Allan Hills (ALH) 78019, were measured with two extraction methods: mechanical crushing in a vacuum and heating. Large amounts of noble gases were released by crushing, up to 26.5% of 132Xe from ALH 78019 relative to the bulk concentration. Isotopic ratios of the crush-released Ne of ALH 78019 resemble those of the trapped Ne components determined for some ureilites or terrestrial atmosphere, while the crush-released He and Ne from Kenna are mostly cosmogenic. The crush-released Xe of ALH 78019 and Kenna is similar in isotopic composition to Q gas, which indicates that the crush-released noble gases are indigenous and not caused by contamination from terrestrial atmosphere. In contrast to the similarities in isotopic composition with the bulk samples, light elements in the crush-released noble gases are depleted relative to Xe and distinct from those of each bulk sample. This depletion is prominent especially in the 20Ne/132Xe ratio of ALH 78019 and the 36Ar/132Xe ratio of Kenna. The values of measured 3He/ 21Ne for the gases released by crushing are significantly higher than those for heating-released gases. This suggests that host phases of the crush-released gases might be carbonaceous because cosmogenic Ne is produced mainly from elements with a mass number larger than Ne. Based on our optical microscopic observation, tabular-foliated graphite is the major carbon mineral in ALH 78019, while Kenna contains abundant polycrystalline graphite aggregates and diamonds along with minor foliated graphite. There are many inclusions at the edge and within the interior of olivine grains that are reduced by carbonaceous material. Gaps can be seen at the boundary between carbonaceous material and silicates. Considering these petrologic and noble gas features, we infer that possible host phases of crush-released noble gases are graphite, inclusions in reduction rims, and gaps between carbonaceous materials and silicates. The elemental ratios of noble gases released by crushing can be explained by fractionation, assuming that the starting noble gas composition is the same as that of amorphous carbon in ALH 78019. The crush-released noble gases are the minor part of trapped noble gases in ureilites but could be an important clue to the thermal history of the ureilite parent body. Further investigation is needed to identify the host phases of the crush-released noble gases.

Okazaki, R.; Nakamura, T.; Takaoka, N.; Nagao, K.

2003-05-01

32

Car Crushed Under Building  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction....

2009-01-26

33

Influence of coarse aggregate size, shape and surface texture on rutting of hot mix asphalt concrete  

E-print Network

mixture, seven different blends of aggregates were prepared using three types of aggregates: 1) Crushed River gravel, 2) Crushed limestone, 3) Uncrushed river gravel. These seven aggregate blends were used for preparation of test specimens throughout...

Yeggoni, Mohan

1993-01-01

34

Crushed Salt Constitutive Model  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

Callahan, G.D.

1999-02-01

35

Crush Test Abuse Stand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this system is to simulate an internal short on battery cells by causing deformation (a crushing force) in a cell without penetration. This is performed by activating a hydraulic cylinder on one side of a blast wall with a hydraulic pump located on the other. The operator can control the rate of the crush by monitoring a local pressure gauge connected to the hydraulic cylinder or a load cell digital display located at the hydraulic pump control area. The internal short simulated would be considered a worst-case scenario of a manufacturer fs defect. This is a catastrophic failure of a cell and could be a very destructive event. Fully charged cells are to have an internal short simulated at the center of the length of the cell (away from terminals). The crush can be performed with a .- to 1-in. (.0.6- to 2.5-cm) rod placed crossways to the cell axis, causing deformation of the cell without penetration. The OCV (open-circuit voltage) and temperature of the cells, as well as the pressure and crushing force, are recorded during the operation. Occurrence of an internal short accompanied by any visible physical changes such as venting, fires, or explosions is reported. Typical analytical data examined after the test would be plots of voltage, temperature, and pressure or force versus time. The rate of crushing force can be increased or decreased based on how fast the operator pumps the hydraulic pump. The size of cylinder used to compress the battery cell can be easily changed by adding larger or smaller fittings onto the end of the hydraulic cylinder based on the battery/cell size being tested. The cell is crushed remotely and videotaped, allowing the operator to closely monitor the situation from a safe distance.

Collins, Jacob; Jeevarajan, Judith; Salinas, Mike

2011-01-01

36

Properties of concrete blocks prepared with low grade recycled aggregates.  

PubMed

Low grade recycled aggregates obtained from a construction waste sorting facility were tested to assess the feasibility of using these in the production of concrete blocks. The characteristics of the sorted construction waste are significantly different from that of crushed concrete rubbles that are mostly derived from demolition waste streams. This is due to the presence of higher percentages of non-concrete components (e.g. >10% soil, brick, tiles etc.) in the sorted construction waste. In the study reported in this paper, three series of concrete block mixtures were prepared by using the low grade recycled aggregates to replace (i) natural coarse granite (10mm), and (ii) 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of crushed stone fine (crushed natural granite <5mm) in the concrete blocks. Test results on properties such as density, compressive strength, transverse strength and drying shrinkage as well as strength reduction after exposure to 800 degrees C are presented below. The results show that the soil content in the recycled fine aggregate was an important factor in affecting the properties of the blocks produced and the mechanical strength deceased with increasing low grade recycled fine aggregate content. But the higher soil content in the recycled aggregates reduced the reduction of compressive strength of the blocks after exposure to high temperature due probably to the formation of a new crystalline phase. The results show that the low grade recycled aggregates obtained from the construction waste sorting facility has potential to be used as aggregates for making non-structural pre-cast concrete blocks. PMID:19398196

Poon, Chi-Sun; Kou, Shi-cong; Wan, Hui-wen; Etxeberria, Miren

2009-08-01

37

Specification aggregate quarry expansion: a case study demonstrating sustainable management of natural aggregate resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many countries, provinces, territories, or states in the European Union, Australia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere have begun implementing sustainability programs, but most of those programs stop short of sustainable management of aggregate resources. Sustainable practices do not always have to be conducted under the title of sustainability. This case study describes how Lafarge, a large multinational construction materials supplier, implemented the principles of sustainability even though there was an absence of existing local government policies or procedures addressing sustainable resource management. Jefferson County, Colorado, USA, is one of three counties in the six-county Denver, Colorado, region that has potentially available sources of crushed stone. Crushed stone comprises 30 percent of the aggregate produced in the area and plays a major role in regional aggregate resource needs. Jefferson County is home to four of the five crushed stone operations in the Denver region. Lafarge operates one of those four quarries. Lafarge recently proposed to expand its reserves by exchanging company-owned land for existing dedicated open space land adjacent to their quarry but owned by Jefferson County. A similar proposal submitted about 10 years earlier had been denied. Contrary to the earlier proposal, which was predicated on public relations, the new proposal was predicated on public trust. Although not explicitly managed under the moniker of sustainability, Lafarge used basic management principles that embody the tenets of sustainability. To achieve the goals of sustainable aggregate management where no governmental policies existed, Lafarge not only assumed their role of being a responsible corporate and environmental member of the community, but also assumed the role of facilitator to encourage and enable other stakeholders to responsibly resolve legitimate concerns regarding the Lafarge quarry proposal. Lafarge successfully presented an enlightened proposal where the county will gain 745 acres of new open space land in exchange for 60 acres of current open space land adjacent to the quarry. The process involved collaborative efforts by all stakeholders and resulted in an outcome that balances the needs of society, the environment, and business.

Langer, William H.; Tucker, M.L.

2003-01-01

38

Renal Stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. The micrograph shows calcium oxalate crystals in urine. These small crystals can develop to form renal stones. Principal Investigator: Dr. Peggy Whitson, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

2002-01-01

39

The Effect of Stone Composition on the Efficacy of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery. Kidney Stones 1-3 cm in Diameter.  

PubMed

Purpose: The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of stone composition on the efficacy of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) with kidney stones of 1-3 cm, 1-2 cm and 2-3 cm in diameter. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 74 patients with kidney stones who underwent RIRS. The patients were divided into two groups based on stone composition: Group I (n = 47) (calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate) was the hard to fragment stone group and Group II (n = 27) (calcium oxalate dihydrate, magnesium ammonium phosphate and uric acid) was the easy to fragment stone group. 46 patients with kidney stones 1-2 cm in diameter were divided into Group A (n = 30) (smaller than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and Group B (n = 16) (smaller than 20 mm, easy to fragment stones). 28 patients with stones 2-3 cm in diameter were divided into Group C (n = 17) (larger than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and Group D (n = 11) (larger than 20 mm, easy-to-crush stones). Results: The stone clearance rates of Group I and Group II were 66.0% and 88.9%, respectively (P<0.05). The stone clearance rates of Group A and Group B were 73.3% and 100% (P<0.05). The stone clearance rates of Group C and Group D were 52.9% and 72.7%. Conclusion: Stone composition has a significant impact on the efficacy of RIRS in the treatment of 1-3 cm kidney stones. For 2-3 cm calcium oxalate dihydrate stones, uric acid stones and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones, the outcome of RIRS treatment was relatively good and RIRS is recommended. PMID:25458448

Xue, Yuquan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xiaojie; Chong, Tie

2014-12-01

40

Stone chewing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Picking stones up into the mouth and chewing them has been commonly reported in pigs and also in dogs. It has variously been described as play behavior, redirected foraging behavior or a stereotypic behavior. In pigs, stone chewing is often observed in sows housed on paddocks, and most frequently o...

41

2 Effects of pore collapse and grain crushing on 3 ultrasonic velocities and Vp/Vs  

E-print Network

2 Effects of pore collapse and grain crushing on 3 ultrasonic velocities and Vp/Vs 4 Je on ultrasonic velocities and 31 Vp/Vs, J. Geophys. Res., 112, XXXXXX, doi:10.1029/2005JB004005. 33 1 range of sands and sand- 48stones are generally interpreted in terms of a critical 49pressure P*, which

Fortin, Jérôme

42

[Crush syndrome in severe trauma].  

PubMed

Crush injury or traumatic rhabdomyolysis is caused by crushing of large muscule mass, usually of the femoral and gluteal compartment. Crush syndrome is general manifestation of crush injury with renal failure (ARF). ARF is caused by deposition of myoglobin in distal tubules. The concentration of serum creatin phosphokinase is an indicator of the extent of injured muscule. The serum concentration of myoglobin is an indicator of the extent of injured muscule and the main cause of development of crush syndrome. In a prospective study the concentration of myoglobin and CPK was measured in 81 patients with injuries of lower extremities and pelvis as a part of severe trauma. The increase of CPK concentration above 1000 U/L was measured in all patients. The increase of CPK concentration above 2000 U/L was measured in 78 (96.3%) patients. The increase of myoglobin concentration of >700 mcg/L was measured in 19 (23.5%) patients. In the group of 19 patients with CPK concentration of >2000 U/L and myoglobin concentration of >700 mcg/L crush syndrome developed in 6 (7.4%) patients with oliguria (urin output <50 ml/h) and the increase of serum potassium, phosphate and creatinine concentrations. The decrease of CPK and myoglobin concentrations was achieved in 5 patients during 10-12 days and 1 patient with associated craniocrebral injury died. PMID:18283895

Poznanovi?, Marija Rakari?; Sulen, Nina

2007-01-01

43

COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway Rolands Cepuritis, Norcem/NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF Aggregate production is a mining operation where no purification of the "ore" is necessary. Still it is extremely rare that an aggregate production plant is operating on the basis of zero-waste concept. This is since historically the fine crushed aggregate (particles with a size of less than 2, 4 or sometimes 8 mm) has been regarded as a by-product or waste of the more valuable coarse aggregate production. The reason is that the crushed coarse aggregates can easily replace coarse rounded natural stones in almost any concrete composition; while, the situation with the sand is different. The production of coarse aggregate normally yields fine fractions with rough surface texture, flaky or elongated particles an inadequate gradation. When such a material replaces smooth and rounded natural sand grains in a concrete mix, the result is usually poor and much more water and cement has to be used to achieve adequate concrete flow. The consequences are huge stockpiles of the crushed fine fractions that can't be sold (mass balance problems) for the aggregate producers, sustainability problems for the whole industry and environmental issues for society due to dumping and storing of the fine co-generated material. There have been attempts of utilising the material in concrete before; however, they have mostly ended up in failure. There have been attempts to adjust the crushed sand to the properties of the natural sand, which would still give a lot of waste, especially if the grading would have to be adjusted and the high amounts of fines abundantly present in the crushed sand would have to be removed. Another fundamental reason for failure has been that historically such attempts have mainly ended up in a research carried out by people (both industrial and academic) with aggregate background (= parties willing to find market for their crusher fines) providing only conclusions already well known by the engineers involved in concrete production. Due to the pressing situation with the left resources of the natural sand and gravel in Scandinavia, a new and different development approach has been recently attempted with the Concrete Innovation Center (COIN) in Norway. The centre is a research based innovation project that has brought together and served as a source of funding to facilitate the crucial interaction between the professionals from the different involved industries (quarrying machinery supplier, aggregate producers, concrete producers and concrete contractors) and the academic people from universities and research institutions, in order come up with a better crushed sand solution for the future. The concept under development has been a zero-waste technology for aggregate production, where instead of reducing the amount of the crushed fines their properties are rather engineered to crucially increase the overall performance of the sand in concrete. The project also involves collaboration with a state-of-the-art aggregate production plant where the new technology has already been implemented. The production process there is based on the new engineered sand concepts successfully supplying 100% all of the produced fractions to concrete and asphalt producers.

Cepuritis, Rolands; Willy Danielsen, Svein

2014-05-01

44

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in the Stone and Asphalt Industry  

E-print Network

Energy Efficiency Opportunities in the Stone and Asphalt Industry Satyen Moray Nathan Throop John Seryak Chris Schmidt Project Manger Project Engineer Project Engineer Project Engineer Chris Fisher Mark D’Antonio Project Engineer Vice... President of Engineering Energy & Resource Solutions, Inc. Haverhill, MA Abstract The highly energy-intensive stone mining and crushing industry, grouped with other mining industries, has been one of the focal sectors of the US Department of Energy...

Moray, S.; Throop, N.; Seryak, J.; Schmidt, C.; Fisher, C.; D'Antonio, M.

2006-01-01

45

Social Signals--Mike's Crush  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review discusses the unique audiovisual-based curriculum "Mike's Crush", by Nancy Nowell, and briefly describes the autism spectrum and its associated challenges. The review explores the curriculum's noteworthy approach to teaching social skills and recommends it as helpful material for all educators, especially for those working with…

Mitelman, Stephanie; Kohorn, Olivia Von

2012-01-01

46

Characterisation of stone matrix asphalt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied conventional laboratory tests and advanced imaging techniques to experimentally verify the voids in coarse aggregate (VCA) method. Five stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures designed to have different coarse aggregate skeletons were investigated to establish relationships between the VCA ratio, microstructure parameters and the mechanical response of SMA. X-ray CT and image analysis techniques were utilised to non-destructively

Laith Tashman; Brian Pearson

2012-01-01

47

Characterisation of stone matrix asphalt mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applied conventional laboratory tests and advanced imaging techniques to experimentally verify the voids in coarse aggregate (VCA) method. Five stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixtures designed to have different coarse aggregate skeletons were investigated to establish relationships between the VCA ratio, microstructure parameters and the mechanical response of SMA. X-ray CT and image analysis techniques were utilised to non-destructively

Laith Tashman; Brian Pearson

2011-01-01

48

Stone Sculptures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Models an art lesson for first- and second-grade students on the work of Andy Goldsworthy, who uses only natural objects in his sculptures. Asks students to create sculptures using only stones found on the playground. Describes student reactions to the activity. (DSK)

O'Hara-Kelly, Katie

1998-01-01

49

Research performed in cooperation with International Center for Aggregates Research and Aggregates Foundation for Technology, Research, and Education. Research Project Title: Role of Aggregate Characteristics on Resistance to Load in SMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

16. Abstract Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) mixtures rely on stone-on-stone contacts among particles to resist applied forces, and permanent deformation. Aggregates in SMA should resist degradation (fracture and abrasion) under high stresses at the contact points. This study utilizes conventional as well as advanced imaging techniques to evaluate aggregate characteristics, and their resistance to degradation. Aggregates from different sources and

Dennis Gatchalian; Eyad Masad; Arif Chowdhury; Dallas Little

50

Probabilistic prediction models for aggregate quarry siting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weights-of-evidence (WofE) and logistic regression techniques were used in a GIS framework to predict the spatial likelihood (prospectivity) of crushed-stone aggregate quarry development. The joint conditional probability models, based on geology, transportation network, and population density variables, were defined using quarry location and time of development data for the New England States, North Carolina, and South Carolina, USA. The Quarry Operation models describe the distribution of active aggregate quarries, independent of the date of opening. The New Quarry models describe the distribution of aggregate quarries when they open. Because of the small number of new quarries developed in the study areas during the last decade, independent New Quarry models have low parameter estimate reliability. The performance of parameter estimates derived for Quarry Operation models, defined by a larger number of active quarries in the study areas, were tested and evaluated to predict the spatial likelihood of new quarry development. Population density conditions at the time of new quarry development were used to modify the population density variable in the Quarry Operation models to apply to new quarry development sites. The Quarry Operation parameters derived for the New England study area, Carolina study area, and the combined New England and Carolina study areas were all similar in magnitude and relative strength. The Quarry Operation model parameters, using the modified population density variables, were found to be a good predictor of new quarry locations. Both the aggregate industry and the land management community can use the model approach to target areas for more detailed site evaluation for quarry location. The models can be revised easily to reflect actual or anticipated changes in transportation and population features. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2007.

Robinson, G.R., Jr.; Larkins, P.M.

2007-01-01

51

Hyaluronan and Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

Asselman, Marino

2008-09-01

52

Salivary duct stones  

MedlinePLUS

... remove the stone are: Massaging the gland with heat. The doctor or dentist may be able to push the stone out of the duct. In some cases, you may need surgery to cut out the stone. A newer treatment that uses shock waves to break the stone into small pieces ...

53

Kidney Stone ProgramKIDNEY STONE PROGRAM STEPHEN DRETLER, MD  

E-print Network

Kidney Stone ProgramKIDNEY STONE PROGRAM STEPHEN DRETLER, MD 617-726-3512 DIANNE SACCO, MD 617 Kidney Stone Program offers a multidisciplinary approach to treatment and management of kidney stones of patients with kidney stones. #12;NEPHROLITHIASIS: KIDNEY STONES: Kidney stones usually become symptomatic

Mootha, Vamsi K.

54

Dynamic Crush Characterization of Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the space shuttle return-to-flight preparations following the Columbia accident, finite element models were needed that could predict the threshold of critical damage to the orbiter's wing leading edge from ice debris impacts. Hence, an experimental program was initiated to provide crushing data from impacted ice for use in dynamic finite element material models. A high-speed drop tower was configured to capture force time histories of ice cylinders for impacts up to approximately 100 ft/s. At low velocity, the force-time history depended heavily on the internal crystalline structure of the ice. However, for velocities of 100 ft/s and above, the ice fractured on impact, behaved more like a fluid, and the subsequent force-time history curves were much less dependent on the internal crystalline structure.

Fasanella, Edwin L.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Kellas, Sotiris

2006-01-01

55

Role of organic matrix in urinary stone formation: an ultrastructural study of crystal matrix interface of calcium oxalate monohydrate stones.  

PubMed

Human calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) urinary stones were decalcified by treatment with a mixture of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution and Karnovsky's fixative after embedding in bactoagar. Decalcified stones were examined by light microscopy, and also by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Stones had distinct nuclei that were occupied by amorphous or apatitic calcium phosphate or aggregates of spherulitic COM crystals. EDTA insoluble matrix was ubiquitous in stones and consisted largely of finely matted fibrous material. It was organized in concentric laminations in the peripheral area of the stone but appeared highly disorganized in the stone center. Crystals were replaced by crystal ghosts. Organic matrix was present both inside the crystals and in the intercrystalline spaces. The study indicates a very close association between crystals and organic matrix. The relationship appears to begin early in crystal formation and persists throughout the formative and growth phases of the urinary stones. PMID:8510264

Khan, S R; Hackett, R L

1993-07-01

56

Modeling Composite Laminate Crushing for Crash Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crash modeling of composite structures remains limited in application and has not been effectively demonstrated as a predictive tool. While the global response of composite structures may be well modeled, when composite structures act as energy-absorbing members through direct laminate crushing the modeling accuracy is greatly reduced. The most efficient composite energy absorbing structures, in terms of energy absorbed per unit mass, are those that absorb energy through a complex progressive crushing response in which fiber and matrix fractures on a small scale dominate the behavior. Such failure modes simultaneously include delamination of plies, failure of the matrix to produce fiber bundles, and subsequent failure of fiber bundles either in bending or in shear. In addition, the response may include the significant action of friction, both internally (between delaminated plies or fiber bundles) or externally (between the laminate and the crushing surface). A figure shows the crushing damage observed in a fiberglass composite tube specimen, illustrating the complexity of the response. To achieve a finite element model of such complex behavior is an extremely challenging problem. A practical crushing model based on detailed modeling of the physical mechanisms of crushing behavior is not expected in the foreseeable future. The present research describes attempts to model composite crushing behavior using a novel hybrid modeling procedure. Experimental testing is done is support of the modeling efforts, and a test specimen is developed to provide data for validating laminate crushing models.

Fleming, David C.; Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

57

Miscellaneous Stone Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug-induced calculi and other rare stone types, such as ammonium acid urate or protein matrix stones, represent only about\\u000a 2% of all renal calculi. However, the chance to easily reverse stone formation risk by discontinuing the offending drug makes\\u000a identification of these entities important for clinicians. Additionally, study of these rare stone types contributes to understanding\\u000a the biochemistry of stone

James B. Cutrell; Robert F. Reilly

58

Percutaneous Stone Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter the method of percutaneous stone removal is reviewed in its entirety. The indications for percutaneous stone\\u000a removal in the age of shockwave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy are carefully reviewed: staghorn stones, obstruction and stones\\u000a (e.g., ureteropelvic junction obstruction and calyceal diverticula), renal anomalies (e.g., horseshoe kidney), stones with\\u000a difficult lower pole anatomy, and calculi that are extremely hard

Louis Eichel; Ralph V. Clayman

59

Management of Crush Syndrome Casualties after Disasters  

PubMed Central

After direct impact of the trauma, crush syndrome is the second most frequent cause of death after mass disasters. However, since crush syndrome is quite rare in daily practice, mistakes are frequent in the treatment of these cases. This paper summarizes the etiopathogenesis of traumatic rhabdomyolysis and of crush syndrome-based acute kidney injury. The clinical and laboratory features, prophylaxis, and treatment of crush cases are described as well. The importance of early and energetic fluid resuscitation is underlined for prophylaxis of acute kidney injury. Since there is chaos, and an overwhelming number of victims, logistic drawbacks create a specific problem in the treatment of crush victims after mass disasters. Potential solutions for logistic hurdles and disaster preparedness scenarios have also been provided in this review article. PMID:23908797

Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

2011-01-01

60

Measurement and quantification of aggregate thermal coefficient of expansion  

E-print Network

type Influenc of aggregate gradation CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . 42 Summary Effect of aggregate properties on concrete 42 Test method 43 Recommendations . REFERENCES. 44 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D APPENDIX E... 25 Figure 6. Measurement of CTE of aggregate sample 28 Figure 7. Crushed aggregate samples for SEM Figure 8. Schematic of SEM process Figure 9 Effect of CaO on the CTE of aggregate Figure 10 Effect of SIO~ on the CTE of aggregate Figure 11...

Chande, Gautam U

1997-01-01

61

Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation: Opportunities for the stone and cement industries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accelerated weathering of limestone appears to provide a low-tech, inexpensive, high-capacity, environmentally friendly CO2 mitigation method that could be applied to about 200 fossil fuel fired power plants and about eight cement plants located in coastal areas in the conterminous U.S. This approach could also help solve the problem of disposal of limestone waste fines in the crushed stone industry. Research and implementation of this technology will require new collaborative efforts among the crushed stone and cement industries, electric utilities, and the science and engineering communities.

Langer, William H.; San, Juan A.; Rau, Greg H.; Caldeira, Ken

2009-01-01

62

Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study evaluates the benefits to be gained by using a composite highway base course material consisting of recycled crushed concrete aggregate, portland cement, fly ash, and a modest amount of reinforcing fibers. The primary objectives of this research were to (a) quantify the improvement that is obtained by adding fibers to a lean concrete composite (made from recycled aggregate and low quantities of Portland cement and/or fly ash), (b) evaluate the mechanical behavior of such a composite base course material under both static and repeated loads, and (c) utilize the laboratory-determined properties with a mechanistic design method to assess the potential advantages. The split tensile strength of a stabilized recycled aggregate base course material was found to be exponentially related to the compacted dry density of the mix. A lean mix containing 4% cement and 4% fly ash (by weight) develops sufficient unconfined compressive, split tensile, and flexural strengths to be used as a high quality stabilized base course. The addition of 4% (by weight) of hooked-end steel fibers significantly enhances the post-peak load-deformation response of the composite in both indirect tension and static flexure. The flexural fatigue behavior of the 4% cement-4% fly ash mix is comparable to all commonly used stabilized materials, including regular concrete; the inclusion of 4% hooked-end fibers to this mix significantly improves its resistance to fatigue failure. The resilient moduli of stabilized recycled aggregate in flexure are comparable to the values obtained for traditional soil-cement mixes. In general, the fibers are effective in retarding the rate of fatigue damage accumulation, which is quantified in terms of a damage index defined by an energy-based approach. The thickness design curves for a stabilized recycled aggregate base course, as developed by using an elastic layer approach, is shown to be in close agreement with a theoretical model (based on Westergaard's assumptions for rigid pavements), which has been found to explain reasonably well the field behavior of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced concrete slabs on grade. Finally, a preliminary cost analysis demonstrated that the use of stabilized recycled aggregate instead of a standard crushed stone base course can result in a meaningful economic savings.

Sobhan, Khaled

63

Aluminum Honeycomb Characteristics in Dynamic Crush Environments  

SciTech Connect

Fifteen aluminum honeycomb cubes (3 in.) have been crushed in the Mechanical Shock Laboratory's drop table testing machines. This report summarizes shock experiments with honeycomb densities of 22.1 pcf and 38.0 pcf and with crush weights of 45 lb, 168 lb, and 268 lb. The honeycomb samples were crushed in all three orientations, W, L, and T. Most of the experiments were conducted at an impact velocity of {approx}40 fps, but higher velocities of up to 90 fps were used for selected experiments. Where possible, multiple experiments were conducted for a specific orientation and density of the honeycomb samples. All results are for Hexcel honeycomb except for one experiment with Alcore honeycomb and have been evaluated for validity. This report contains the raw acceleration data measured on the top of the drop table carriage, pictures of the crushed samples, and normalized force-displacement curves for all fifteen experiments. These data are not strictly valid for material characteristics in L and T orientations because the cross-sectional area of the honeycomb changed (split) during the crush. However, these are the best data available at this time. These dynamic crush data do suggest a significant increase in crush strength to 8000 psi ({approximately} 25-30% increase) over quasi-static values of {approximately}6000 psi for the 38.0 pcf Hexcel Honeycomb in the T-orientation. An uncertainty analysis is included and estimates the error in these data.

Bateman, Vesta I.; Swanson, Lloyd H.

1999-07-01

64

Experimental testing of hot mix asphalt mixture made of recycled aggregates.  

PubMed

The migration of population towards big cities generates rapid construction activities. These activities not only put pressure on natural resources but also produce construction, renovation and demolition waste. There is an urgent need to find out ways to handle this waste owing to growing environmental concerns. This can reduce pressure on natural resources as well. This paper presents the results of experimental studies which were carried out on hot mix asphalt mixture samples. These samples were manufactured by adding recycled aggregates (RA) with natural crushed stone aggregates (CSA). Three levels of addition of RA were considered in the presented studies. RA were obtained from both the concrete waste of construction, renovation and demolition activities and reclaimed asphalt pavement. Separate samples were manufactured with the coarse and fine aggregate fractions of both types of RA. Samples made with CSA were used as control specimens. The samples were prepared and tested using the Marshall method. The performance of the samples was investigated in terms of density-void and stability/flow analysis and was compared with the performance criteria as given by National Highway Authority for wearing course material in Pakistan. Based on this data optimum asphalt contents were determined. All the samples made by adding up to 50% RA conform to the specification requirements of wearing course material as given by National Highway Authority in terms of optimum asphalt contents, voids in mineral aggregates and stability/flow. A statistical analysis of variation of these samples confirmed that addition is also possible statistically. PMID:20483876

Rafi, Muhammad Masood; Qadir, Adnan; Siddiqui, Salman Hameed

2011-12-01

65

Honeycomb spacer crush stength test results  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses aluminum honeycomb spacers, which are used as an energy absorbent material in shipping packages for off site shipment of radioactive materials and which were ordered in two crush strengths, 1,000 psi and 2,000 psi for use in drop tests requested by the Packaging and Transportation group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the group as part of the shipping container rectification process. Both the vendor and the SRTC Materials Laboratory performed crush strength measurements on test samples made from the material used to fabricate the actual spacers. The measurements of crush strength made in the SRTC Materials Laboratory are within 100 psi of the measurements made by the manufacturer for all samples tested and all test measurements are within 10% of the specified crush strength, which is acceptable to the P&T group for the planned tests.

Leader, D.R.

1993-09-15

66

Characterizing large strain crush response of redwood  

SciTech Connect

Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most rudimentary information exists on its crush properties. The objectives of the study were to fill the information gap by collecting triaxial load-deformation data for redwood; to use these data to characterize redwood crush, assess current wood failure theories, provide developments toward a complete stress-strain theory for redwood; and to review the literature on strain-rate effects on redwood crush performance. The load-deformation responses of redwood at temperature conditions corresponding to ambient (70{degrees}F), 150{degrees}F, and {minus}20{degrees}F conditions were measured in approximately 100 confined compression tests for crush levels leading to material densification. Data analysis provided a more complete description of redwood crush performance and a basis for assessing proposed general orthotropic stress-strain relationships for redwood. A review of existing literature indicated that strain-rate effects cause at most a 20 percent increase in crush stress parallel to grain.

Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; McMurtry, W.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-12-01

67

NIST Stone Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from The National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire Research Laboratory, presents information about a wall constructed in 1948 of stone from thousands of quarries. The wall was built to test how well these stones perform when subjected to weathering. The site presents the existing data and pictures for each particular stone in the wall.

Razand, Jaime; Stutzman, Paul E.; Technology, National I.

68

History of Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief summary provides an overview of the creation, abandonment, and reclamation of stone walls in New England. Topics include the creation of matter and elements; the formation and erosion of rock to make stones; the harvesting and stacking of stones by humans to form the walls; and subsequent abandonment and reclamation by our modern culture.

69

Kidney Stones in Primary Hyperoxaluria: New Lessons Learnt  

PubMed Central

To investigate potential differences in stone composition with regard to the type of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH), and in relation to the patient’s medical therapy (treatment naïve patients versus those on preventive medication) we examined twelve kidney stones from ten PH I and six stones from four PH III patients. Unfortunately, no PH II stones were available for analysis. The study on this set of stones indicates a more diverse composition of PH stones than previously reported and a potential dynamic response of morphology and composition of calculi to treatment with crystallization inhibitors (citrate, magnesium) in PH I. Stones formed by PH I patients under treatment are more compact and consist predominantly of calcium-oxalate monohydrate (COM, whewellite), while calcium-oxalate dihydrate (COD, weddellite) is only rarely present. In contrast, the single stone available from a treatment naïve PH I patient as well as stones from PH III patients prior to and under treatment with alkali citrate contained a wide size range of aggregated COD crystals. No significant effects of the treatment were noted in PH III stones. In disagreement with findings from previous studies, stones from patients with primary hyperoxaluria did not exclusively consist of COM. Progressive replacement of COD by small COM crystals could be caused by prolonged stone growth and residence times in the urinary tract, eventually resulting in complete replacement of calcium-oxalate dihydrate by the monohydrate form. The noted difference to the naïve PH I stone may reflect a reduced growth rate in response to treatment. This pilot study highlights the importance of detailed stone diagnostics and could be of therapeutic relevance in calcium-oxalates urolithiasis, provided that the effects of treatment can be reproduced in subsequent larger studies. PMID:23940605

Jacob, Dorrit E.; Grohe, Bernd; Geßner, Michaela; Beck, Bodo B.; Hoppe, Bernd

2013-01-01

70

Study on characteristics of printed circuit board liberation and its crushed products.  

PubMed

Recycling printed circuit board waste (PCBW) waste is a hot issue of environmental protection and resource recycling. Mechanical and thermo-chemical methods are two traditional recycling processes for PCBW. In the present research, a two-step crushing process combined with a coarse-crushing step and a fine-pulverizing step was adopted, and then the crushed products were classified into seven different fractions with a standard sieve. The liberation situation and particle shape in different size fractions were observed. Properties of different size fractions, such as heating value, thermogravimetric, proximate, ultimate and chemical analysis were determined. The Rosin-Rammler model was applied to analyze the particle size distribution of crushed material. The results indicated that complete liberation of metals from the PCBW was achieved at a size less than 0.59 mm, but the nonmetal particle in the smaller-than-0.15 mm fraction is liable to aggregate. Copper was the most prominent metal in PCBW and mainly enriched in the 0.42-0.25 mm particle size. The Rosin-Rammler equation adequately fit particle size distribution data of crushed PCBW with a correlation coefficient of 0.9810. The results of heating value and proximate analysis revealed that the PCBW had a low heating value and high ash content. The combustion and pyrolysis process of PCBW was different and there was an obvious oxidation peak of Cu in combustion runs. PMID:22956523

Quan, Cui; Li, Aimin; Gao, Ningbo

2012-11-01

71

Stone Wall Classification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline provides a taxonomic classification of all types of stone walls, standing stones, pavements, monuments and other structures made of human-arranged stones. The hierarchy consists of domain (the broadest), class, family, type, subtype, and variant (the narrowest). Users can refer to the book 'Exploring Stone Walls' for the criteria used to distinguish one taxon of stone walls from another and for their descriptions. The ranks are sized and color-coded for convenience, and names that are commonly used are highlighted in boldface.

72

Crushed salt reconsolidation at elevated temperatures.  

SciTech Connect

There is a long history of testing crushed salt as backfill for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant program, but testing was typically done at 100 C or less. Future applications may involve backfilling crushed salt around heat-generating waste packages, where near-field temperatures could reach 250 C or hotter. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrostatic stress on run-of-mine salt at temperatures up to 250 C and pressures to 20 MPa. The results of these tests were compared with analogous modeling results. By comparing the modeling results at elevated temperatures to the experimental results, the adequacy of the current crushed salt reconsolidation model was evaluated. The model and experimental results both show an increase in the reconsolidation rate with temperature. The current crushed salt model predicts the experimental results well at a temperature of 100 C and matches the overall trends, but over-predicts the temperature dependence of the reconsolidation. Further development of the deformation mechanism activation energies would lead to a better prediction of the temperature dependence by the crushed salt reconsolidation model.

Holcomb, David Joseph; Clayton, Daniel James; Lee, Moo Yul; Bronowski, David R.

2010-06-01

73

Interactions of aqueous Cu 2+, Zn 2+ and Pb 2+ ions with crushed concrete fines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crushing of reclaimed concrete-based demolition waste to produce recycled aggregate gives rise to a large volume of cement-rich fine material for which market development would be beneficial. It was envisaged that this fine fraction may prove to be an effective sorbent for aqueous heavy metal species by virtue of its ion exchangeable phases and high pH.A batch sorption study

Nichola J. Coleman; William E. Lee; Ian J. Slipper

2005-01-01

74

Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

2013-12-20

75

Mutual Information for the Detection of Crush  

PubMed Central

Fatal crush conditions occur in crowds with tragic frequency. Event organizers and architects are often criticised for failing to consider the causes and implications of crush, but the reality is that both the prediction and prevention of such conditions offer a significant technical challenge. Full treatment of physical force within crowd simulations is precise but often computationally expensive; the more common method of human interpretation of results is computationally “cheap” but subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes an alternative method for the analysis of crowd behaviour, which uses information theory to measure crowd disorder. We show how this technique may be easily incorporated into an existing simulation framework, and validate it against an historical event. Our results show that this method offers an effective and efficient route towards automatic detection of the onset of crush. PMID:22229055

Harding, Peter; Gwynne, Steve; Amos, Martyn

2011-01-01

76

Managing caliceal stones.  

PubMed

The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence. PMID:24497690

Gross, Andreas J; Knipper, Sophie; Netsch, Christopher

2014-01-01

77

Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords: Hallandia gneiss, natural stones, historic stones, urban planning and building

Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

2013-04-01

78

Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... specific type of kidney stone include the following: Calcium Oxalate Stones reducing sodium reducing animal protein, such as ... with increased daily sodium consumption. People who form calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate stones should limit their intake ...

79

Technology meets aggregate  

SciTech Connect

New technology carried out at Tufts University and the University of Massachusetts on synthetic lightweight aggregate has created material from various qualities of fly ash from coal-fired power plants for use in different engineered applications. In pilot scale manufacturing tests an 'SLA' containing 80% fly ash and 20% mixed plastic waste from packaging was produced by 'dry blending' mixed plastic with high carbon fly ash. A trial run was completed to produce concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks at a full-scale facility. It has been shown that SLA can be used as a partial substitution of a traditional stone aggregate in hot asphalt mix. 1 fig., 2 photos.

Wilson, C.; Swan, C. [INNERT Co. (United States)

2007-07-01

80

8. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING SOUTHSOUTHWEST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

81

5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), SECOND FLOOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), SECOND FLOOR FACING EAST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

82

7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, FACING NORTH. REMAINS OF CONVEYOR BELT VISIBLE AT BOTTOM RIGHT. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

83

3. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING NORTH. HEADFRAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), FACING NORTH. HEADFRAME AND STORAGE TANKS (FEATURE 18) VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

84

Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush  

SciTech Connect

To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting {sup 35}S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative 'cytomatrix' proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with {sup 3}H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval.

McQuarrie, I.G.; Jacob, J.M. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA))

1991-03-01

85

Old Stone Field Marker  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is a stone field marker that marked boundaries for land ownership. In the early days of Land Office Recordings, this is one type of monument used. Trees, Posts, Iron Pipes and as shown stones were used to mark off land during the Land Rush days. Later, when mapping was being done, Brass Caps wi...

86

STONE PAVEMENTS IN DESERTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone pavements are armored surfaces comprising intricate mosaics of coarse particles, usually only one or two stones thick, set on or in fine material. They occur widely in many unvegetated areas, and preeminently in hot deserts. Pavement studies in several deserts, and especially in Chile and California, suggest that: 1) deflation may be a relatively unimportant process of pavement formation;

RONALD U. COOKE

1970-01-01

87

Kidney Stones in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... specific type of kidney stone include the following: Calcium Oxalate Stones reducing sodium reducing animal protein, such as ... fish getting enough calcium from food or taking calcium supplements with food avoiding foods high in oxalate, such as spinach, rhubarb, nuts, and wheat bran ...

88

Building Stone Walls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will learn to identify the distinguishing characteristics of a stone wall. They will first draw a picture of a stone wall from memory, then go outside to view and sketch a real wall. Following the field activity, they will construct models of walls using modeling clay. A recipe for the clay ('model magic') is provided.

89

Kidney stone disease  

PubMed Central

About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, and prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaP); 10% of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate produced during infection with bacteria that possess the enzyme urease), 9% of uric acid (UA); and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stones. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. Here we focus on the mechanisms of pathogenesis involved in CaOx, CaP, UA, and cystine stone formation, including recent developments in our understanding of related changes in human kidney tissue and of underlying genetic causes, in addition to current therapeutics. PMID:16200192

Coe, Fredric L.; Evan, Andrew; Worcester, Elaine

2005-01-01

90

6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19), GROUND LEVEL, FACING SOUTH. REMAINS OF CONVEYOR BELT BETWEEN CRUSHING PLANT AND FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) SHOWN IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

91

27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

2011-04-01

92

27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

2010-04-01

93

27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.  

...2014-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

2014-04-01

94

Investigating on possible use of Diyarbakir basalt waste in Stone Mastic Asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) improved for road construction which has been utilized in Europe and America for 40years is a rather new process in Turkey. SMA basically consists of 93–94% aggregate and mineral fillers, 6–7% bitumen and additives. Road and construction industry consume stone in large amounts. Stone used are obtained from nearby quarries and carried to the location where

Askeri Karaku?

2011-01-01

95

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

96

"Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Café in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

2014-05-01

97

Sandvik sharpens in-pit crushing focus  

SciTech Connect

Major mining equipment supplier Sandvik Mining and Construction has announced a full-fledged fully mobile crushing plant, the PF300. This is shaping up to be the decade's major addition to the large scale open-cut mining toolkit. The PF300 can be connected to a face conveyor by a loading bridge as well as by belt wagon or transfer conveyor. The article describes design features. 2 figs.

Casteel, K.

2009-04-15

98

Diet and Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... make changes to the amount of salt (sodium), calcium, oxalate, protein, citrate, potassium and fluid in your diet. ... I need to avoid foods high in oxalate? Calcium oxalate kidney stones are the leading type of kidney ...

99

Project Profile: David Stone  

E-print Network

Project Profile: David Stone IMBA Class of 2010 Company: Nivaria Location: Tenerife, Spain #12. In Tenerife, these types of language exchange message boards are impossible to find. So, I found an excellent

Almor, Amit

100

Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators  

PubMed Central

Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

2013-01-01

101

Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

2009-01-01

102

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

103

Interactions of aqueous Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ ions with crushed concrete fines.  

PubMed

The crushing of reclaimed concrete-based demolition waste to produce recycled aggregate gives rise to a large volume of cement-rich fine material for which market development would be beneficial. It was envisaged that this fine fraction may prove to be an effective sorbent for aqueous heavy metal species by virtue of its ion exchangeable phases and high pH. A batch sorption study confirmed that crushed concrete, in the particle size range 1-2 mm, successfully excluded Cu2+ (35 mg g(-1)), Zn2+ (33 mg g(-1)) and Pb2+ (37 mg g(-1)) from aqueous media. Subsequent distilled water leaching of the metal-laden concrete particles indicated that 1.9, 0.9 and 0.2% of the bound metals, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+, respectively, were readily soluble. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the removal of Cu2+ and Zn2+ arose from surface precipitation reactions, whereas, the principal mechanism of uptake of Pb2+ was found to be by diffusion into the cement matrix. The metal ion removal efficiency of crushed concrete fines is compared with those of other low cost sorbents and potential applications which may exploit this sorptive property are also discussed. PMID:15885423

Coleman, Nichola J; Lee, William E; Slipper, Ian J

2005-05-20

104

Having and Being an Other-Sex Crush during Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined other-sex crush experiences (both having and being perceived as an other-sex crush) among 544 young adolescents (mean age = 12.74 years). Results indicated that 56% had at least one current other-sex crush, with little overlap between crushes, friends, and boyfriends/girlfriends. Significant associations between other-sex crush

Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Gyoerkoe, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

105

Primary common bile duct stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary or stasis stones in the common duct are a distinct clinical, anatomical, and pathological entity. In the older patient with chills, fever, and jaundice, it is axiomatic that a primary or stasis stone will be found in a common duct that measures 20 mm or more in diameter. Furthermore, about 20% of such patients will not have stones in

John L. Madden

1978-01-01

106

Cystine Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by defects in renal and intestinal transport of dibasic amino acids\\u000a including cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine (1). The relative insolubility of cystine results in supersaturation of urine with cystine and recurrent stone formation, which\\u000a is the hallmark of the disease.

Bijan Shekarriz

107

Kidney Stones in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in the urine to become ... regular amount of dietary calcium and limit salt intake. A thiazide diuretic medication ... soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...

108

When Stones Teach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

Lucier, Todd

2001-01-01

109

1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF THE FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) ARE IN THE BACKGROUND ON LEFT. CONCRETE RESERVOIR (FEATURE 22) IS SHOWN AT THE RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTOGRAPH FACING SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

110

Crushing resistance of web girders in ship collision and grounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new theoretical model for the crushing of web girders under localized in-plane loads is proposed on the basis of a comparative study of existing simplified methods and analyses of the progressive deformation process of web girders. The model captures several features of the local crushing process of the girder which have not been accounted for by any of the

Lin Hong; Jørgen Amdahl

2008-01-01

111

The Big Crush: An Introduction to Materials Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lots of engineering thinking can be involved in crushing things. As an example, engineers spend a great deal of time designing crush-proof packaging for delicate equipment and packing materials for items that must be stored or shipped. This article presents an activity wherein students can begin to appreciate the technology behind the engineering.…

Roman, Harry T.

2011-01-01

112

Stone disease in kidney transplantation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate etiologic, diagnostic, and management aspects of stone disease in renal transplant recipients and donors. Calculi from five patients were analyzed. The immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus or cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids in all cases. The etiology of the stone disease was cadaveric donor-gifted in one patient and de novo stone formation after transplantation in two patients. Additionally, stone disease was found and treated in living related donors in two patients. The mean follow-up was 32.4 +/- 19.7 months. In the living related donors, stones were initially treated by ESWL. Pyelotomy at the back table during the transplantation was required in one of them. The patient with cadaver-gifted stone was also treated by ESWL. In patients with de novo stone formation after transplantation, the stones were related to urinary infections and foreign body double-j (JJ) stent. A small stone in one of these patients (de novo formation) passed spontaneously after removal of the foreign body. Endoscopical lithotripsy was performed in the other patient. Stones are more frequently transplanted with allografts than expected; therefore, preoperative imaging of the donor is important. ESWL is recommended for medium-sized calculi in transplant kidneys. JJ stent insertion before ESWL might be needed in stones larger than 10 mm. PMID:15013342

Yi?it, B; Aydin, C; Titiz, I; Berber, I; Sinano?lu, O; Altaca, G

2004-01-01

113

Mechanical analyses of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) disposal rooms backfilled with either crushed salt or crushed salt-bentonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical calculations of disposal room configurations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM are presented. Specifically, the behavior of either crushed salt or a crushed salt-bentonite mixture, when used as a backfill material in disposal rooms, is modeled in conjunction with the creep behavior of the surrounding intact salt. The backfill consolidation model developed at Sandia National

R. A. Wagner; G. D. Callahan; B. M. Butcher

1990-01-01

114

Solitary versus multiple cholesterol gallbladder stones. Mechanisms of formation and growth.  

PubMed

The development and growth pattern of solitary and multiple cholesterol gallbladder stones was defined using cholecystography in a prospective study of 48 patients whose initial cholecystograms indicated a stone-free gallbladder and who developed gallstones within the subsequent 5 years. Radiological observations performed over 365 patient-years were complemented by macroscopic examination, radiograms, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical analysis of gallstones from these and other patients obtained at cholecystectomy. Solitary gallstones were found to develop after a precursor phase of over 2 years during which free-floating crystal laminae of cholesterol formed. These laminae subsequently aggregated loosely and underwent external compaction and internal remodeling by movement of cholesterol molecules to form compact spheroids. A single lamina was observed to function as a nucleus for the development of a solitary stone shaped as an ellipsoid. About 10% of solitary stones were found to have a solitary pigment stone in their center. In contrast, multiple cholesterol gallstones formed without a precursor phase. Innumerable, very thin cholesterol crystals appeared which very abruptly aggregated to form spheres of up to 1 mm in diameter. Within 3 months a second aggregation took place in which these spheres colaesced to form mulberry stones. Mulberry stones in turn were transformed either to faceted stones (if many were present in the gallbladder) or to barrel stones (if few were present) over a period of 3 years. It is proposed that temporary occlusion of the cystic duct leads to supersaturation of bile with calcium bilirubinate and/or calcium carbonate which in turn promotes deposition of either or both of these calcium salts on the surface of single or multiple gallstones. For multiple gallstones, this process or the deposition of additional cholesterol crystals seals the gallstone surface and is followed by metamorphosis of the stone center. PMID:8353400

Wolpers, C; Hofmann, A F

1993-06-01

115

Stone Wall Secrets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This children's book tells the story of a grandfather and his grandson who, as they examine and repair the stone walls that surround their family farm, learn about geology, history, and cultural anthropology. It is used as reading and reference material for many of the lessons in the curriculum. This item must be purchased; information on obtaining it is provided. A link to the book's publisher is also provided.

Thorson, Robert

116

Prevention of Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years stone disease has become more widespread in developed countries. At present the prevalence is 5.2 and 15% of men and 6% of women are affected. The increase is linked to changes in lifestyle, eating patterns and obesity which has become very common. The ‘metabolic syndrome’ includes all the diseases, e.g. hypertension, lipid imbalances, type 2 diabetes mellitus,

M. Porena; P. Guiggi; C. Micheli

2007-01-01

117

Sticks and Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will play Sticks and Stones, a game based on the Apache game "Throw Sticks," which was played at multi-nation celebrations. Students will collect data, investigate the likelihood of various moves, and use basic ideas of expected value to determine the average number of turns needed to win a game. Students work with tree diagrams to see the probabilities in a new way. All teaching steps and game rules are illustrated.

Zordak, Samuel E.

2000-01-01

118

Pyrophosphate Transport and Stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1960's, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) has been known to inhibit apatite precipitation. Recent findings suggest that PPi plays a central role in the control of normal bone mineralization. Knockout mice have established the functional importance of PPi transmembrane transport, via the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. The molecular nature and transport function of ANKH are reviewed. PPi is present in urine and ANKH is expressed in the cortical collecting duct where PPi transport to both the tubular lumen and renal interstitium may occur. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cortical collecting duct cells grown on semi-permeable supports appears to upregulate apical ANKH expression, which we postulate may be a mechanism of stone inhibition during urinary concentration and supersaturation of calcium salts. Hypopyrophosphaturia may be a forgotten metabolic risk factor for stone formation and polymorphisms of the ANKH gene may underlie this defect. The physiological importance and clinical significance of PPi generation and transport in preventing idiopathic renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis now needs to be established.

Sayer, John A.; Carr, Georgina; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Simmons, Nicholas L.

2008-09-01

119

Stone Nomenclature and History of Instrumentation for Urinary Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary stone disease has afflicted mankind for millennia. The oldest renal stone on record was described by Shattock in 1905\\u000a and was found in an Egyptian mummy in a tomb dating to approx 4400 bc (1). This 1.5-cm calciferous calculi lay beside the first lumbar vertebra. The description of urinary stones has been a process\\u000a of intense scientific investigation culminating

Viraj A. Master; Maxwell V. Meng; Marshall L. Stoller

120

Noble gases released by vacuum crushing of EETA 79001 glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An EETA 79001 glass sample was crushed in a vacuum to observe the gases released. About 15 pct of the total gas concentrations were a mixture of a small amount of SPB-type gas with larger proportions of another air-like component. Less than 5 pct of the SPB gas was released by crushing, while 36-40 pct of the EETV (indigenous) gas was crush-released. The results are consistent with a siting of the EETV component in 10-100 micron vesicles seen in the glass. It is suggested that the SPB component is either in vesicles less than 6 microns in diameter or is primarily sited elsewhere.

Wiens, R. C.

1988-12-01

121

Calcium oxalate stone and gout.  

PubMed

Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P < 0.05), phosphorus (P < 0.05) and uric acid (P < 0.05) and urine calcium (P < 0.05), uric acid (P < 0.05) and oxalate (P < 0.05) were significantly variable in the different groups. The inhibitor citrate (P < 0.05) was also significantly variable. Multiple-range test showed that the promoters, namely serum calcium (P < 0.05) and urine uric acid (P < 0.05) were in a significantly higher range in the gouty patients, gouty uric acid stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P < 0.0001) was in the highest range in the gouty calcium oxalate or gouty uric acid stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P < 0.001) was significantly lower in the gouty, gouty uric acid and gouty calcium oxalate patients. Serum uric acid was highest in the non-stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease. PMID:19779706

Marickar, Y M Fazil

2009-12-01

122

Retrieval methods for urinary stones.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to assess the current status of the various modalities of available treatment for urinary stone disease in the Kerala scenario. A total of 300 patients who attended the stone clinic with urinary stone disease and had stones retrieved by different means were selected for the study. Their clinical symptoms, demographic profile, size, number and position of stones, metabolic profiles, retrieval modalities and end result of treatment in terms of stone clearance were assessed. Instances of failure, incomplete clearance and complication events were noted. Based on the experiences, a flowchart was created for appropriate decision-making in urinary stone management. The modalities of retrieval included nephrectomy, nephrolithotomy, pyelo-nephrolithotomy, extended pyelolithotomy, pyelolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, cystolithotomy, urethrolithotomy, ESWL, PCNL, URS, cystolithotripsy, urethrolithotripsy and spontaneous passage. The clearance rate of stone was maximum in open surgery. The extent of stone clearance by ESWL depended on various factors. PCNL was mostly limited by the difficulties in achieving puncture at the stone site. Availability of a variety of flexible nephroscopes also altered the success rate of the procedure. There were good success rates in pushing stones from the ureter to the pelvis followed by PCNL. In patients who had successful PCNL, postoperative morbidity was significantly reduced in terms of the number of days of hospitalization, time taken for return to work, absence of urinary leak, site infection, urinoma formation and urinary tract infection. URS was performed in many patients and stones retrieved. However, the indication for the procedure remains doubtful as the size of most of the stones thus retrieved was less than 6 mm. These would have passed out spontaneously or with chemotherapeutic support. URS, lithotripsy and basketting were confronted by upward migration of stones to the kidney, requiring further procedures for retrieval. Introduction of double J stents helped in relieving urinary obstruction, particularly in patients presenting with anuria, but retained stents, forgotten stents and failed stone retrieval were common following the procedure. The procedure of URS was simplified by the presence of dilated ureter in spontaneous stone passers or those with distal obstruction and proximal dilatation. It is concluded from the study that open surgery still remains the sheet anchor of treatment of urinary stones in many patients in Kerala. Newer lesser invasive procedures should be ethically selected. Decisions should be patient based, taking into consideration the economic feasibility for the procedure proposed. PMID:19834701

Marickar, Y M Fazil; Nair, Nandu; Varma, Gayathri; Salim, Abiya

2009-12-01

123

Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

124

8. VIEW OF CRUDE CRUSHING AND DRYING PLANT AT REFINING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF CRUDE CRUSHING AND DRYING PLANT AT REFINING MILL, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Clay Spur Bentonite Plant & Camp, Refining Mill, Clay Spur Siding on Burlington Northern Railroad, Osage, Weston County, WY

125

53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ACCESS STAIR TO FEED LEVEL; DUST COLLECTOR ON LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

126

Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

2013-04-01

127

The Systematic Classification of Gallbladder Stones  

PubMed Central

Background To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. Methodology A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. Principal Findings Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. Conclusion The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones. PMID:24124459

Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

2013-01-01

128

Compaction characteristics of crushed limestone using the Gyratory Testing Machine  

E-print Network

COMPACTION CHARACTERISITCS OP CRUSHED ZIMESTONE VS1NG THE GYRATORY TESTING MACHINE A Thesis Walter Herbert Parsons, III Approved as to style snd content bye air an o o ee a o Depar men May 196$ TABLE OP CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. REVIEW... Content Versus Unit Weight Relation- ship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2?i Effect of Gyratory Testing Machine Variables on the Unit Weight of Crushed Limestone . . 24. Other Pertinent Compaction Characteristics 29 V. DISCUSSION OP RESULTS Texas...

Parsons, Walter Herbert, III

2012-06-07

129

Modelling the size of the crushed zone around a blasthole  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model to predict the extent of crushing around a blasthole is presented. The model is based on the back-analysis of a comprehensive experimental program that included the direct measurement of the zone of crushing from 92 blasting tests on concrete blocks using two commercial explosives. The concrete blocks varied from low, medium to high strength and measured 1.5m

S Esen; I Onederra; H. A Bilgin

2003-01-01

130

45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR BIN FEED, LOWER CENTER, WITH STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR ELEVATOR SPLIT DISCHARGE (OXIDIZED/UNOXIDIZED) IN CENTER. CRUDE ORE BINS AND MACHINE SHOP BEYOND. NOTE TOP OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN IS BELOW TOP OF CRUDE ORE BINS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

131

The effect of blending granular aggregates of different origin on the strength of concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work correlates the resistance of concrete cores with the physical properties of the granular material forming it. A basic physical characterization is conducted, taking into account the origin of the grains involved in the concrete mixture; that is, if they come from natural degradation (natural granular aggregates) or from a grinding process (crushed granular aggregates). Apparent and real densities, shape factors, packing densities, and specific surface areas of the grains are measured. The results are discussed as a function of size and origin of the grains. Several mixtures are prepared following a standard protocol and using different ratios of natural and crushed aggregates. For each ratio, six cores are prepared and uniaxial compression tests are performed. A non-monotonic relation between the resistance of concrete and the percentage of crushed aggregate present in it is obtained, with an optimum ratio depending on the physical properties of the grains.

Médici, M. E.; Benegas, O. A.; Uñac, R. O.; Vidales, A. M.

2012-03-01

132

Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts, electron microscopy revealed intra- and extra-cellular needle-like crystal deposits, which were stainable with von Kossa stain and resemble calcospherules found in pathological calcification. Thus bacteria-mediated apatite formation takes place in aqueous environments, in humans and in geological sediments.

Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

1998-07-01

133

The effects of aggregate properties on lightweight concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study of the effects of several factors on the strength of lightweight aggregate concrete composites: aggregate strength, w\\/c ratio and the porosities of the interfacial zone and within the hardened cement paste. Concrete samples with three different water cement ratios (i.e. 0.4, 0.44, 0.48) were compared. The crushing strengths of three grades of expanded clay lightweight

Tommy Y. Lo; W. C. Tang; H. Z. Cui

2007-01-01

134

Utilisation of aggregate materials in road construction and bulk fill  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the UK, at present, the majority of aggregate materials, for all construction applications, are obtained from primary resources such as crushed rock and sand and gravel. Material extraction results in many adverse environmental impacts and utilisation consumes a finite natural resource. In the UK we also produce large quantities of waste and by-product materials, from industrial and domestic activities,

Annette R. Hill; Andrew R. Dawson; Michael Mundy

2001-01-01

135

Crushing tablets or opening capsules: many uncertainties, some established dangers.  

PubMed

For patients who have difficulty swallowing, a common solution is to crush tablets or open capsules. What are the consequences of this practice? We reviewed the main evidence available using the standard Prescrire methodology. The clinical consequences for the patient of crushing tablets or opening capsules can be serious: alteration of the drug's absorption can result in sometimes fatal overdose, or conversely underdosing, rendering the treatment ineffective. When it disrupts a drug's sustained-release properties, the active ingredient is no longer released and absorbed gradually, resulting in overdose. When a gastro-resistant layer is destroyed by crushing, underdosing is likely. The active ingredient released may degrade on contact with light, moisture or the food with which it is mixed for administration. The person who crushes the tablets or opens the capsules is exposed to drug particles, which may be carcinogenic, teratogenic or fetotoxic. They are sometimes allergenic. In practice, there are many drugs that should never be crushed or opened. Before crushing a tablet or opening a capsule, it is better to consider and research the impact it will have on the drug's effects. It is sometimes preferable to use a different dosage form, or a different active ingredient. PMID:25325120

2014-09-01

136

From crystalluria to kidney stones, some physicochemical aspects of calcium nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Nephrolithiasis seems to be the result of crystal formation, aggregation and retention in the kidney during crystalluria. These processes have to occur within the short urinary transit time through the kidney being in the order of few minutes. Recently much work was done on rather qualitative aspects of nephrolithiasis like genetics, metabolism and morphology. In this review we try to provide some quantitative information on urinary supersaturation with respect to stone minerals, especially Ca oxalate (CaOx), on the formation and aggregation of CaOx crystals and on crystal retention in the kidney. The paper is centered on idiopathic Ca nephrolithiasis being the most frequent stone disease with only partially known pathogenesis. New aspects of the role of urinary macromolecules in stone formation and of the mechanism of crystal aggregation are provided. PMID:25374820

Baumann, Johannes M; Affolter, Beat

2014-01-01

137

Our Modern Stone Age  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

Lowry, W. D.

138

Ultrasonic lithotripsy of bladder stones.  

PubMed

In the second half of 1985, 15 patients with 25 bladder stones were treated with Lutzeyer's Ultrasonic Lithotriptor. Of the patients 13 underwent additional operations, mostly transurethral resection of the prostate. The average duration of lithotripsy was 30.5 minutes. Some difficulties were experienced especially when drilling hard stones and as a complication late urethral bleeding occurred in one patient. PMID:3170106

Cetin, S; Ozgür, S; Yazicio?lu, A; Unsal, K; Ilker, Y

1988-01-01

139

Recumbent Stone Circles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

140

Scottish Short Stone Rows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

141

Outcome of simple use of mechanical lithotripsy of difficult common bile duct stones  

PubMed Central

AIM: The usual bile duct stone may be removed by means of Dormia basket or balloon catheter, and results are quite good. However, the degree of difficulty is increased when stones are larger. Studies on the subject reported many cases where mechanical lithotripsy is combined with a second technique, e.g., electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL), where stones are crushed using baby-mother scope electric shock. The extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) or laser lithotripsy also yields an excellent success rate of greater than 90%. However, the equipment for these techniques are very expensive; hence we opted for the simple mechanical lithotripsy and evaluated its performance. METHODS: During the period from August 1996 to December 2002, Mackay Memorial Hospital treated 304 patients suffering from difficult bile duct stones (stone >1.5 cm or stones that could not be removed by the ordinary Dormia basket or balloon catheter). These patients underwent endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) procedure, and stones were removed by means of the Olympus BML-4Q lithotripsy. A follow-up was conducted on the post-treatment conditions and complications of the patients. RESULTS: Out of the 304 patients, bile duct stones were successfully removed from 272 patients, a success rate of about 90%. The procedure failed in 32 patients, for whom surgery was needed. Out of the 272 successfully treated patients, 8 developed cholangitis, 21 developed pancreatitis, and 10 patients had delayed bleeding, and no patient died. Among these 272 successful removal cases, successful bile duct stone removal was achieved after the first lithotripsy in 211 patients, whereas 61 patients underwent multiple sessions of lithotripsy. As for the 61 patients that underwent multiple sessions of mechanical lithotripsy, 6 (9.8%) had post-procedure cholangitis, 12 (19.6%) had pancreatitis, and 9 patients (14.7%) had delayed bleeding. Compared with the 211 patients undergoing a single session of mechanical lithotripsy, 3 (1.4%) had cholangitis, 1 (0.4%) had delayed bleeding, and 7 patients (3.3%) had pancreatitis. Statistical deviation was present in post-procedure cholangitis, delayed bleeding, and pancreatitis of both groups. CONCLUSION: Mechanical bile stone lithotripsy on difficult bile duct stones could produce around 90% successful rate. Moreover, complications are minimal. This finding further confirms the significance of mechanical lithotripsy in the treatment of patients with difficult bile duct stones. PMID:15641153

Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Chu, Cheng-Hsin; Wang, Tsang-En; Chen, Ming-Jen; Lin, Ching-Chung

2005-01-01

142

Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration ash in stone mastic asphalt mixture: Pavement performance and environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to the use of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate or mineral filler in stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixture. For saving natural rock and reusing solid waste, basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) was used as part of coarse aggregate. And this makes SMA mixtures contain

Yongjie Xue; Haobo Hou; Shujing Zhu; Jin Zha

2009-01-01

143

Piedra Pajarilla: A candidate for nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource from Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piedra Pajarilla is a tourmaline bearing leucogranite outcropping at Martinamor, near Salamanca, Spain. It is part of the Hercynian granitic chain in the Spanish Central System. The stone received the local name "Piedra Pajarilla", meaning "Little Bird Stone" due to the shape of the many tourmaline aggregates that are the main visual feature of the rock. This local name has been extrapolated to every granitic stone used in the area, even if they differ significantly in mineralogy, and as recently tested in physical and mechanical properties as well. Here we present the nomination of Piedra Pajarilla as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used since Roman times in Salamanca (Spain) and since the Middle Ages in the construction of major historic buildings, including both the Old and New Cathedrals, and many additional churches, castles and walls in the Salamanca area. Salamancás historic city core has been granted UNESCO World Heritage status in 1988, and all associated buildings, monuments and pedestrian streets are constructed from original materials. One of utilised materials, Piedra Pajarilla, was quarried for centuries from the immediate area. It was also the preferred building stone of many internationally renowned architects of Spanish origin during the 18th and 19th centuries especially involved in reconstruction following the Lisbon earthquake. Although the associated quarries are no longer active, the Piedra Pajarilla quarry sites remain relatively undisturbed and accessible. A renewal of quarrying is consequently feasible if additional stone supplies are required for heritage restoration. Thus there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries in anticipation of such work. The importance of Salamanca as emblematic heritage makes the historic stone quarries worthwhile to preserve as well. At the same time, Piedra Pajarilla can be considered as the first of several natural stones that can contribute to the denomination of a "Global Heritage Stone Province", as a suite of associated stone resources have been utilised in the historical buildings of Salamanca.

Pereira, Dolores; Gimeno, Ana; del Barrio, Santiago

2013-04-01

144

Common Bile Duct Stones Detected After Cholecystectomy:Advancement into the Duodenum via the Percutaneous Route  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report our experience in the use of percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones detected in the post-cholecystectomy period. Methods: Forty-two patients in whom endoscopic cannulation and/or sphincterotomy had failed or could not be done due to several reasons underwent balloon dilatation of the ampulla of Vater and subsequent advancement of the stones via the percutaneous transhepatic route or T-tube tract. Results: The procedure was successful in 42 cases. In three patients, stones were crushed in the common bile duct and pushed as fragments into the duodenum. In all cases transient adverse effects were observed. There were no major complications. All cases were checked with ultrasonography for 6 months after the procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones is an effective method of treatment with a high success rate,low complication rate and shorter hospital stay. It may serve as an alternative method in cases where endoscopic removal of stones fails.

Ozcan, Nevzat, E-mail: nevzatcan@yahoo.com; Erdogan, Nuri [ErciyesUniversity Faculty of Medicine, 38039-Kayseri, Department of Radiology (Turkey); Baskol, Mevlut [Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, 38039-Kayseri, Department ofGastroenterology (Turkey)

2003-04-15

145

Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

146

Size dependent crush analysis of lithium orthosilicate pebbles  

E-print Network

Crushing strength of the breeder materials (lithium orthosilicate, $\\rm{Li_4SiO_4}$ or OSi) in the form of pebbles to be used for EU solid breeder concept is investigated. The pebbles are fabricated using a melt-spray method and hence a size variation in the pebbles produced is expected. The knowledge of the mechanical integrity (crush strength) of the pebbles is important for a successful design of breeder blanket. In this paper, we present the experimental results of the crush (failure) loads for spherical OSi pebbles of different diameters ranging from $250~\\mu$m to $800~\\mu$m. The ultimate failure load for each size shows a Weibull distribution. Furthermore, the mean crush load increases with increase in pebble diameter. It is also observed that the level of opacity of the pebble influences the crush load significantly. The experimental data presented in this paper and the associated analysis could possibly help us to develop a framework for simulating a crushable polydisperse pebble assembly using discrete element method.

Ratna Kumar Annabattula; Matthias Kolb; Yixiang Gan; Rolf Rolli; Marc Kamlah

2014-08-03

147

Rolling Stone Radio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rolling Stone Radio is a fun and interesting site that may represent the future of Internet radio. The site provides a number of streaming audio channels that can be listened to via RealNetworks' RealPlayer G2 combined with a customized, radio-like interface to the site. Each channel features a particular genre of music, and the interface displays the artist and song title during play. The sound quality ranges from acceptable to excellent, and the sound controls and channel selectors are easy-to-use. While the site borders on the exploitative in its advertising and ability to purchase music by clicking through the interface, it does combine some of the best ideas on the Internet into a seamless entertainment package. All downloadable components of this site are free but run only on Win95/98/NT.

148

Mechanisms of human kidney stone formation.  

PubMed

The precise mechanisms of kidney stone formation and growth are not completely known, even though human stone disease appears to be one of the oldest diseases known to medicine. With the advent of the new digital endoscope and detailed renal physiological studies performed on well phenotyped stone formers, substantial advances have been made in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the most common type of stone former, the idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former as well as nine other stone forming groups. The observations from our group on human stone formers and those of others on model systems have suggested four entirely different pathways for kidney stone formation. Calcium oxalate stone growth over sites of Randall's plaque appear to be the primary mode of stone formation for those patients with hypercalciuria. Overgrowths off the ends of Bellini duct plugs have been noted in most stone phenotypes, do they result in a clinical stone? Micro-lith formation does occur within the lumens of dilated inner medullary collecting ducts of cystinuric stone formers and appear to be confined to this space. Lastly, cystinuric stone formers also have numerous small, oval, smooth yellow appearing calyceal stones suggestive of formation in free solution. The scientific basis for each of these four modes of stone formation are reviewed and used to explore novel research opportunities. PMID:25108546

Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Coe, Fredric L; Williams, James; Lingeman, James E

2015-01-01

149

Cask crush pad analysis using detailed and simplified analysis methods  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Fluorinel and Storage Facility (FAST). This facility, located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is a US Department of Energy site. The basis for this study is an analysis by Uldrich and Hawkes. The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate various hypothetical cask drop orientations to ensure that the crush pad design was adequate and the cask deceleration at impact was less than 100 g. It is demonstrated herein that a large spent fuel shipping cask, when dropped onto a foam crush pad, can be analyzed by either hand methods or by sophisticated dynamic finite element analysis using computer codes such as ABAQUS. Results from the two methods are compared to evaluate accuracy of the simplified hand analysis approach.

Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

1997-12-31

150

A dynamic ball compression test for understanding rock crushing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During crushing, rock particles are subjected to complicated loading. It is desired to establish the relation between the loading and the fragmentation parameters for better understanding rock crushing mechanism. In this work, a split Hopkinson pressure bar system in combination with high speed cameras is utilized in the dynamic ball compression test, in which the spherical rock sample is adopted to avoid the shape effect. Using elasticity theory, the loading rate and the dynamic indirect tensile strength are first calculated. With the aid of the moment-trap technique and high speed cameras, the surface energy is determined for each sample. The relations between the loading rate and the fragmentation parameters, i.e., the number of fragments and the surface energy are established. The application of this method to a granitic rock shows that it is flexible and can be applied to the crushing study of generic brittle solids.

Huang, S.; Liu, H.; Xia, K.

2014-12-01

151

A dynamic ball compression test for understanding rock crushing.  

PubMed

During crushing, rock particles are subjected to complicated loading. It is desired to establish the relation between the loading and the fragmentation parameters for better understanding rock crushing mechanism. In this work, a split Hopkinson pressure bar system in combination with high speed cameras is utilized in the dynamic ball compression test, in which the spherical rock sample is adopted to avoid the shape effect. Using elasticity theory, the loading rate and the dynamic indirect tensile strength are first calculated. With the aid of the moment-trap technique and high speed cameras, the surface energy is determined for each sample. The relations between the loading rate and the fragmentation parameters, i.e., the number of fragments and the surface energy are established. The application of this method to a granitic rock shows that it is flexible and can be applied to the crushing study of generic brittle solids. PMID:25554304

Huang, S; Liu, H; Xia, K

2014-12-01

152

Crushing virtual cigarettes reduces tobacco addiction and treatment discontinuation.  

PubMed

Pilot studies revealed promising results regarding crushing virtual cigarettes to reduce tobacco addiction. In this study, 91 regular smokers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions that differ only by the action performed in the virtual environment: crushing virtual cigarettes or grasping virtual balls. All participants also received minimal psychosocial support from nurses during each of 12 visits to the clinic. An affordable virtual reality system was used (eMagin HMD) with a virtual environment created by modifying a 3D game. Results revealed that crushing virtual cigarettes during 4 weekly sessions led to a statistically significant reduction in nicotine addiction (assessed with the Fagerström test), abstinence rate (confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide), and drop-out rate from the 12-week psychosocial minimal-support treatment program. Increased retention in the program is discussed as a potential explanation for treatment success, and hypotheses are raised about self-efficacy, motivation, and learning. PMID:19817561

Girard, Benoit; Turcotte, Vincent; Bouchard, Stéphane; Girard, Bruno

2009-10-01

153

Continuous method of cleaning a slurry of crushed raw coal  

SciTech Connect

A crushed raw coal washing plant using a plurality of deflector-fitted centrifugal cyclones to produce a washed and dried mixture of clean coarse and fine coal, and fine coal alone, with means to remove refuse and means to recycle clean fine coal slurry byproduct into the raw crushed coal inlet. Each centrifugal cyclone of said system is fitted with an inlet line deflector and equalizer means to create laminar flow and gravity separation whereby low density (1.6 or less) washed coal escapes through a first outlet at the top and refuse drains out of a second outlet at the bottom of said cyclone.

Liller, D. I.

1980-08-12

154

Improved ureteral stone fragmentation catheter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catheter includes fiber optic viewer, more reliable ultrasonic probe, and better contact sensor. It is guided by four steering wires, and irrigation fluid is supplied through lumen to remove stone fragments.

Gammell, P. M.

1981-01-01

155

Kidney stones - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... you have calcium kidney stones: Eat less salt. Chinese and Mexican food, tomato juice, regular canned foods, ... leeks, summer squash, sweet potatoes, spinach, and tomato soup Drinks: tea and instant coffee Other foods: grits, ...

156

Melting and stone production using MSW incinerated ash.  

PubMed

Most of the municipal solid waste (MSW) in Japan is incinerated and the generated ash is landfilled. However, environmental pollution problems have increased and Japan has decreased final disposal sites for landfills. With the application of a melting system, the volume of incinerated ash can be reduced and the effective use of melted slag is being developed for use in civil engineering works. However, the low strength of melted slag as a vitreous structure has limited its effective use. As a solution for this deficiency, a technology to crystallize melted slag into higher strength produced stones was developed. With the joint cooperation of Chiba Prefecture and Kamagaya City, a demonstration plant for melting and stone production with a capacity of 4.8 tons of incinerator ash per day was constructed. The demonstration test was conducted from May 1998 to June 1999 with satisfactory results stated below. Long-term stable operation and performance of the plant have been confirmed and effective applications of produced stones have been demonstrated on a commercial scale. The results are as follows. 1. A stable, continuous operation and good quality produced stones have been confirmed by treating more than 750 tons of MSW incinerated ash. 2. More than 99.9% of dioxins contained in the incinerated ash were decomposed, and the concentration of dioxins in produced stones were less than the detection limit set by Japanese environmental standards. 3. Leaching values of hazardous heavy metals of produced stones sufficiently met the environmental standard on soil pollution of the Environment Agency with superior leaching behavior for the vitreous slag, thus confirming their safe applications. 4. The effective application of produced stones for aggregate was tested based on Japanese Industrial Standards and every figure of test results met the Japanese standard values. The use of produced stones as raw materials for permeable pavement blocks has been confirmed in commercial construction for a park in Chiba Prefecture. Asphalt use was also demonstrated by paving a commercial roadway in Kamagaya City. PMID:11280985

Nishida, K; Nagayoshi, Y; Ota, H; Nagasawa, H

2001-01-01

157

Simulation on particle crushing of tailings material under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With continuous increase of the high tailings dam, it has an important practical and theoretical significance to study the mechanical characteristics of the tailings material under high pressures. It is indicated that strength envelopes of the tailings material have a remarkable nonlinear characteristics through the triaxial test under high pressures. A further study stated that the particle crushing has a critical effect on the mechanical behavior of the tailings material. In order to quantitatively research its influence, the grain size distribution of the tailings material is analyzed for pre-and post-test and the particle crushing of the tailings material is measured. The particle flow code is employed to simulate and monitor the sample during testing. Firstly, a model which considers the particle crushing is built under the plane strain condition. Then, a series of biaxial numerical tests of the tailings specimen are simulated by using the model. It is found that the simulation result agrees with the triaxial test. Finally, a law between the particle crushing and strain of the tailings material under different confining pressures is obtained.

Liu, Hai-ming; Liu, Yi-ming; Yang, Chun-he; Cao, Jing

2013-06-01

158

4. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Interior. Apparatus used in crushing and processing plant fibers to extract latex from the sap during experiments to find native North American plant which would yield sufficiently high percentage of latex to produce natural rubber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

159

Detoxification of castor meal through reactive seed crushing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Non-edible oil crops, such as castor or jatropha, contain several toxic components. Post-harvest treatments should be used to reduce the risks associated with the possible dispersion of toxic compounds in the environment. A new processing technology named Reactive Seed Crushing was developed, which ...

160

LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE BIN AREA. NOTE STEEL CUSTOM ORE CHUTES IN BACKGROUND. THE FARTHEST BINS WERE LAST USED FOR STORAGE OF BALL MILL BALLS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

161

VIEW ALONG RAW MATERIAL CONVEYOR AT RIGHT WITH CRUSHED SHELL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW ALONG RAW MATERIAL CONVEYOR AT RIGHT WITH CRUSHED SHELL CONVEYOR ABOVE. ENGINE AND RADIATOR AT LOWER LEFT. - F. & H. Benning Company Oyster Mill, 14430 Solomons Island Road (moved from 1014 Benning Road, Galesville, Anne Arundel County, Maryland), Solomons, Calvert County, MD

162

The newly updated FMVSS 216 roof crush modelling and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that rollovers are more complicated than planar crashes and attributed injury mechanisms are still debated among original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), design engineers, safety experts, impact biomechanics specialists and research scholars at academic institutions. Two intertwining factors and their assumed interpretations have been at the core of these discourses, namely the roof crush strength versus the legislative

Q. Peng; E. C. Chirwa; Jikuang Yang

2012-01-01

163

The newly updated FMVSS 216 roof crush modelling and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no doubt that rollovers are more complicated than planar crashes and attributed injury mechanisms are still debated among original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), design engineers, safety experts, impact biomechanics specialists and research scholars at academic institutions. Two intertwining factors and their assumed interpretations have been at the core of these discourses, namely the roof crush strength versus the legislative

Q. Peng; E. C. Chirwa; Jikuang Yang

2011-01-01

164

167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

167. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

165

52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. VIEW OF DUST COLLECTOR AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. THE DUCTWORK TO TOP OF COLLECTOR (OPEN END, MIDDLE LEFT) CONNECTED TO HOODS OVER SYMONS SCREEN, ROD MILL, AND BAKER COOLER DISCHARGE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

166

1. Straighton view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Straight-on view looking S at sugar cane crushing machinery showing three-roll cane mill, single reduction gear, flywheel and steam engine. - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

167

Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

Marker, Brian

2014-05-01

168

Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh. PMID:16225049

Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

2005-01-01

169

49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 ...Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is...

2010-10-01

170

49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 ...Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is...

2013-10-01

171

49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 ...Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is...

2011-10-01

172

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED SANDSTONE, QUARTZ, AND QUARTZITE, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed sandstone, quartz, and quartzite industry. Particulates are emitted from drilling, blasting, loading and unloading trucks, transport on unpaved roads, washing, crushing, screening, conveying, and stockpiling....

173

INELASTIC WEB CRUSHING CAPACITY OF HIGH-STRENGTH-CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALLS  

E-print Network

. Unlike the approach of current design codes, rational assessment models show that web crushing strength the corresponding analytical and design principles for their design. Web crushing, or diagonal compression shear during design. However, in structural walls with well-confined boundary elements, web crushing shear

Hines, Eric

174

Regeneration of perivascular adrenergic innervation in rat tibial nerve after nerve crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrenergic innervation of blood vessels in the rat tibial nerve during degeneration and regeneration was studied using the formaldehyde-induced fluorescence method. The left sciatic nerve was crushed with suture threads to produce a 4-mm length of crushed nerve. At 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days after nerve crush, degenerative and regenerative changes in the nerve were verified

J. Koistinaho; K. C. Wadhwani; A. Balbo; S. I. Rapoport

1991-01-01

175

Stone Pages: A Guide to European Megaliths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Paola Arosio and Diego Meozzi, the Stone Pages is a frequently updated site, available in English or Italian, that contains unique reports on megalithic and other archaeological stone sites in England, Scotland, France, Italy, Wales, and Ireland. Regular and high resolution photos, site maps, and evaluations are provided for court and passage tombs, cairns-crannogs, dolmens, and standing stones and stone circles. QTVR panoramic views of several sites are also available.

1996-01-01

176

Absorption Of Crushing Energy In Square Composite Tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes investigation of crash-energy-absorbing capabilities of square-cross-section tubes of two matrix/fiber composite materials. Both graphite/epoxy and Kevlar/epoxy tubes crushed in progressive and stable manner. Ratio between width of cross section and thickness of wall determined to affect energy-absorption significantly. As ratio decreases, energy-absorption capability increases non-linearly. Useful in building energy-absorbing composite structures.

Farley, Gary L.

1992-01-01

177

Chronic Kidney Disease in Kidney Stone Formers  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent population studies have found symptomatic kidney stone formers to be at increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although kidney stones are not commonly identified as the primary cause of ESRD, they still may be important contributing factors. Paradoxically, CKD can be protective against forming kidney stones because of the substantial reduction in urine calcium excretion. Among stone formers, those with rare hereditary diseases (cystinuria, primary hyperoxaluria, Dent disease, and 2,8 dihydroxyadenine stones), recurrent urinary tract infections, struvite stones, hypertension, and diabetes seem to be at highest risk for CKD. The primary mechanism for CKD from kidney stones is usually attributed to an obstructive uropathy or pyelonephritis, but crystal plugs at the ducts of Bellini and parenchymal injury from shockwave lithotripsy may also contribute. The historical shift to less invasive surgical management of kidney stones has likely had a beneficial impact on the risk for CKD. Among potential kidney donors, past symptomatic kidney stones but not radiographic stones found on computed tomography scans were associated with albuminuria. Kidney stones detected by ultrasound screening have also been associated with CKD in the general population. Further studies that better classify CKD, better characterize stone formers, more thoroughly address potential confounding by comorbidities, and have active instead of passive follow-up to avoid detection bias are needed. PMID:21784825

Krambeck, Amy E.; Lieske, John C.

2011-01-01

178

Current concepts for oil decontamination of crush injuries: a review  

PubMed Central

This anecdotal, non-systematic review serves to explore the principles and methods of effective oil decontamination from cutaneous wounds, particularly crush injuries. The current expansion of the petroleum industry is necessary to meet increasing world demands for oil. Most stages of oil refining and applications involve significant injury risks, particularly for crush injuries that become contaminated with petroleum compounds. A literature review regarding a standard of care for effective cutaneous oil decontamination is lacking. Based on case reports, animal models, and in vitro studies identified in our expert opinion review, standard water and soap cleansing may not be an appropriate approach. Instead, the principle of ‘like dissolves like’ guides the use of lipophilic, petroleum-derived solvents to attract and subsequently dissolve the petroleum contaminant from the skin injury. Limitations include paucity of and dated literature sources regarding the topic as well as no models specifically addressing crush injuries. Our literature review found that oil decontamination of cutaneous injuries may be best accomplished with oil-based cleansers. Certainly, this topic has significant importance for the potentially carcinogenic petroleum compounds that pervade virtually every aspect of modern human life. PMID:24855490

2014-01-01

179

Evaluation of Fracture in Concrete with Recycled Aggregate by Acoustic Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research revealed fracture behavior of concrete in using recycled aggregates by Acoustic Emission as one of the Non-destructive Inspection. The phenomenon of acoustic emission (AE) is the propagation of elastic waves generated from a source, known as a micro-crack in an elastic material. There were taken to use low-treated recycled aggregate, crushed returned ready mixed concrete for aggregate and normal aggregate. Examination measured AE under the uniaxial compression test. The condition of load is repeated loading. As a result, fracture behavior due to low treated recycled aggregate was detected by AE. It is clarified that AE of concrete with low treated recycled aggregate appeared in low stress level. It has been understood that difference of aggregates becomes clear from Kaiser effect in repeated loading. In relation between RA value and average frequency, it has been understood the adhesion properties of the cement paste in recycled aggregate are appreciable.

Nishibata, Sayaka; Watanabe, Takeshi; Hashimoro, Chikanori; Kohno, Kiyoshi

180

Electrical stimulation impairs early functional recovery and accentuates skeletal muscle atrophy after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats.  

PubMed

Neuromuscular recovery after peripheral nerve lesion depends on the regeneration of severed axons that re-establish their functional connection with the denervated muscle. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on the neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injury in rats. Electrical stimulation was carried out on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle after sciatic nerve crush injury in a rat model. Six ES sessions were administered every other day starting from day 3 postinjury until the end of the experiment (day 14). The sciatic functional index was calculated. Muscle excitability, neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) expression, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) were accessed from TA muscle. Regenerated sciatic nerves were analyzed by light and confocal microscopy. Both treated (crush+ES) and untreated (crush) groups had their muscle weight and CSA decreased compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). Electrical stimulation accentuated muscle fiber atrophy more in the crush+ES than in the crush group (P < 0.05). N-CAM expression increased in both crush and crush+ES groups compared with the normal group (P < 0.05). Regenerated nerves revealed no difference between the crush and crush+ES groups. Nevertheless, functional recovery at day 14 post-injury was significantly lower in crush+ES group compared with the crush group. In addition, the crush+ES group had chronaxie values significantly higher on days 7 and 13 compared with the crush group, which indicates a decrease in muscle excitability in the crush+ES animals. The results of this study do not support a benefit of the tested protocol of ES during the period of motor nerve recovery following injury. PMID:20405500

Gigo-Benato, Davilene; Russo, Thiago Luiz; Geuna, Stefano; Domingues, Natalia Rezende Santa Rosa; Salvini, Tania Fátima; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

2010-05-01

181

The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability of composite material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy-absorption capability as a function of crushing speed was determined for Thornel 300/Fiberite 934 (Gr/E) and Kevlar-49/Fiberite 934 (K/E) composite material. Circular cross section tube specimens were crushed at quasi-static, 6 m/sec, and 12 m/sec speeds. Ply orientations of the tube specimens were (0/+ or - theta) sub 2 and (+ or - theta) sub 3 where theta=15, 45, and 75 degress. Based on the results of these tests the energy-absortion capability of Gr/E and K/E was determined to be a function of crushing speed. The crushing modes based on exterior appearance of the crushed tubes were unchanged for either material. However, the interlaminar crushing behavior changed with crushing speed.

Farley, Gary L.

1987-01-01

182

Development of a Procedure to Identify Aggregates for Bituminous Surfaces in Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate friction resistance is needed to prevent pavement slipperiness and to allow vehicles to stop in a reasonable distance. In stone mastic asphalt surfaces, friction resistance is mainly a function of the interaction between the aggregates exposed at the road surface and the vehicle tires. Performance of the aggregate is reduced over time by wear and polishing as a consequence

Douglas W. Bruner; Jung Chan Choi; Terry R. West

1996-01-01

183

Development of a Procedure to Identify Aggregates for Bituminous Surfaces in Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate friction resistance is needed to prevent pavement slipperiness allowing vehicles to stop in a reasonable distance. For stone mastic asphalt surfaces, friction resistance is mainly a function of the interaction between the aggregates exposed at the road surface and vehicle tires. Aggregate performance is reduced with time by wear and polishing as a consequence of vehicular traffic. In this

Terry R. West; Kyu H. Cho

2001-01-01

184

GROWTH HABITS IN STONE FRUITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit tree architecture is an increasingly important aspect of fruit production. Pomologists and fruit growers are looking to tree architecture as a way to address various production issues and increase profitability. Stone fruits, particularly peaches, have perhaps the widest range of described g...

185

atural gem-stone opals  

E-print Network

8 N atural gem- stone opals have long been sought after for their bright saturated colours. The study of opals reveals that the colour is produced by their internal structure causing diff- raction that gives rise to the very pure and intense colours so characteristic of opals. Colour generated

Steiner, Ullrich

186

Application of traditional cyclone with spray scrubber to remove airborne silica particles emitted from stone-crushing factories.  

PubMed

The traditional cyclone with spray scrubber was developed for the removal of airborne silica particles from local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The objective of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of this process for removing silica particles in LEV. After designing and installing a traditional cyclone and spray scrubber, air samples were obtained at the inlet and outlet of the apparatus. The mass of each collected sample was determined gravimetrically using EPA method. The efficiency of the cyclone with spray scrubber for the removal of dust particles from the LEV system was determined to be in the range of 92-99%. There was a high correlation between the inlet concentration of dust particles and the efficiency of the apparatus. The total pressure across the system was 772.17-1120.90 Pa. It was concluded that a traditional cyclone with a spray scrubber can effectively remove a very high percentage of the incoming silica particles from an LEV. The total pressure drop across the current process is less than the pressure drop across other treatment equipment, which means that our process can effectively remove silica particles while using less electricity than other processes. PMID:19672019

Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Ghorbani, Farshid; Mahjub, Hossien; Golbabei, Farideh; Aliabadi, Mohsan

2009-08-01

187

Management of ureteric stone in pediatric patients.  

PubMed

The management of ureteral stones in children is becoming more similar to that in adults. A number of factors must be taken into account when selecting one's choice of therapy for ureteral stone in children such as the size of the stone, its location, its composition, and urinary tract anatomy. Endoscopic lithotripsy in children has gradually become a major technique for the treatment of ureteral stones. The stone-free rate following urteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral stones has been reported in as high as 98.5-100%. The safety and efficacy of Holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy make it the intracorporeal lithotriptor of choice. Given its minimally invasive features, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a primary mode of treatment for the pediatric patients with reno-ureteral stones. Stone-free rates have been reported from 59% to 91% although some patients will require more than one treatment session for stone clearance. It appears that the first-line of therapy in the child with distal and mid-ureteral stones should be ureteroscopic lithotripsy. While ESWL is still widely considered the first-line therapy for proximal ureteral calculi, there is an increasing body of evidence that shows that endoscopic or ESWL are equally safe and efficacious in those clinical scenarios. Familiarity with the full spectrum of endourological techniques facilitates a minimally invasive approach to pediatric ureteral stones. PMID:21369391

Minevich, Eugene

2010-10-01

188

Hot Mix Asphalt Using Light Weight Aggregate Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot mix asphalt concrete is produced by properly blending asphalt, coarse and fine aggregates in addition to filler at temperatures ranging from 80 to 165°C. This research is directed to study the effect of replacing the conventional aggregates by the recycled Light Weight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC) on the properties of the produced asphalt mix. The research studied the optimum asphalt content and the effect of some parameters on the properties of the recycled LWAC. The research included studying thirty-six Marshal Specimens lie in four main groups. Each group was made from crushed LWAC in addition to a comparison group used the pumice instead of the crushed LWAC. The LWAC mixes contained (0, 10, 15 and 20%) of silica powder content. The density, stability, flow, percentages of the air Voids in the Compacted Mixture (VTM), compacted mineral aggregate (VMA) and the Voids Filled by Asphalt (VFA) were investigated for all the studied specimens. The main conclusions drawn from the current research implies that the optimum percent of asphalt was 7.5% for the different percentages of silica powder ratios. The presence of voids in the light weight aggregates and the porosity of the obtained concrete affected largely the behavior of the obtained mix.

Awwad, Mohammad T.

189

Particle aggregation.  

PubMed

A basic problem in marine biogeochemistry is understanding material and elemental distributions and fluxes in the oceans, and a key part of this problem is understanding the processes that affect particulate material in the ocean. Aggregation of particulate material is a primary process because it alters the transport properties of particulate material and provides a mechanism for transferring material from the dissolved into the particulate pools. Aggregation theory not only provides a framework for understanding these processes, but it also provides a means for making predictions and has been successfully used to predict maximum particle concentrations in the oceans and the fate of diatom blooms (including those from iron fertilization), the size spectra of particles in the oceans, and the size distributions of trace metals. Here we review the basic theory involved, summarize recent developments, and explore unresolved issues. PMID:21141030

Burd, Adrian B; Jackson, George A

2009-01-01

190

The effect of recycled concrete aggregate properties on the bond strength between RCA concrete and steel reinforcement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence that replacing natural coarse aggregate with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) has on concrete bond strength with reinforcing steel. Two sources of RCA were used along with one natural aggregate source. Numerous aggregate properties were measured for all aggregate sources. Two types of concrete mixture proportions were developed replacing 100% of the natural aggregate with RCA. The first type maintained the same water-cement ratios while the second type was designed to achieve the same compressive strengths. Beam-end specimens were tested to determine the relative bond strength of RCA and natural aggregate concrete. On average, natural aggregate concrete specimens had bond strengths that were 9 to 19% higher than the equivalent RCA specimens. Bond strength and the aggregate crushing value seemed to correlate well for all concrete types.

Butler, L., E-mail: L3Butler@uwaterloo.ca; West, J.S.; Tighe, S.L.

2011-10-15

191

Experimental Analysis and Modeling of the Crushing of Honeycomb Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the aeronautical field, sandwich structures are widely used for secondary structures like flaps or landing gear doors. The modeling of low velocity/low energy impact, which can lead to a decrease of the structure strength by 50%, remains a designer’s main problem. Since this type of impact has the same effect as quasi-static indentation, the study focuses on the behavior of honeycomb cores under compression. The crushing phenomenon has been well identified for years but its mechanism is not described explicitly and the model proposed may not satisfy industrial purposes. To understand the crushing mechanism, honeycomb test specimens made of Nomex™, aluminum alloy and paper were tested. During the crushing, a CCD camera showed that the cell walls buckled very quickly. The peak load recorded during tests corresponded to the buckling of the common edge of three honeycomb cells. Further tests on corner structures to simulate only one vertical edge of a honeycomb cell show a similar behavior. The different specimens exhibited similar load/displacement curves and the differences observed were only due to the behavior of the different materials. As a conclusion of this phenomenological study, the hypothesis that loads are mainly taken by the vertical edge can be made. So, a honeycomb core subjected to compression can be modeled by a grid of nonlinear springs. A simple analytical model was then developed and validated by tests on Nomex™ honeycomb core indented by different sized spherical indenters. A good correlation between theory and experiment was found. This result can be used to satisfactorily model using finite elements the indentation on a sandwich structure with a metallic or composite skin and honeycomb core.

Aminanda, Y.; Castanié, B.; Barrau, J.-J.; Thevenet, P.

2005-05-01

192

Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models  

SciTech Connect

Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

1995-12-01

193

Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

2007-04-01

194

Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words “Focused ultrasound” and “kidney stone”. All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease. PMID:25624572

Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S.

2015-01-01

195

Geology of Stone Mountain, Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual field trip to Stone Mountain Georgia includes both a narrative and photographs of such features as flow banding, tourmaline pods, and several types of xenoliths. Intrusive granite and diabase dikes are shown at both the east quarry and old route 78 locations where products of weathering such as saprolite, kaolinite, halloysite, and gibbsite reside. Photographs of an area of the east quarry taken six years apart show the progress of exfoliation. The site also has a list of references.

Pamela Gore

196

Greco-Roman Stone Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

2008-09-01

197

The Matariki Stone of Rapanui  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

Hockey, T. A.

2005-12-01

198

Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.  

PubMed

The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

1995-02-01

199

Recycling of stone cutting sludge in formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles.  

PubMed

This study examines the possibility for enhancing the use of stone cutting sludge waste in the production of building bricks and terrazzo tiles, which would reduce both the environmental impact and the production costs. Stone cutting wastes in the form of sludge is currently generated at several factories in Jordan. At the Samara factory, incorporation of the sludge in the batch formulations of bricks and terrazzo tiles was examined. The physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sludge were analyzed to identify the major components. Results indicated that the sludge generated from stone cutting could be used in producing concrete bricks. Mixtures of aggregates with added amounts of sludge were used successfully to produce non-load bearing bricks. Sludge was also used to produce terrazzo tiles and the results indicate that the transverse strength, water absorption and tile measurements, for all the taken samples, comply with Jordanian standards. The transverse strength decreased while water absorption increased as the sludge ratio increased. PMID:19837706

Al-Zboon, Kamel; Tahat, Montasser; Abu-Hamatteh, Ziad S H; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad S

2010-06-01

200

Recycling lead-based paint contaminated deconstructed masonry materials as aggregate for Portland cement concrete—A cost effective and environmental friendly approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four lead-based paint (LBP) contaminated deconstructed masonry materials (two types of concrete blocks and two types of clay bricks) were crushed and used to replace all natural aggregate in conventional concrete. To reduce cost, the crushed materials were neither sieved nor re-graded. After their physical properties and lead-leaching ability were characterized, these masonry materials were used for concrete with various

Jiong Hu; Kejin Wang; James A. Gaunt

2010-01-01

201

Potential crush loading of radioactive material packages in highway, rail and marine accidents. Regulatory report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential crush loads on radioactive material packages in highway, rail, and marine accidents. The study concluded that if allowance is made for small gaps between packages, the deflections produced by inertial crush are comparable (within 20%) of those produced by impact under the same accident conditions. Therefore an additional qualification test is not needed to ensure that the level of protection against crush is comparable to the current level of protection against impact. The study also evaluated potential crush loads in extremely severe transportation accidents. In highway accidents, the most severe crush environment is produced when a truck carrying several small, soft packages strikes a rigid barrier and the inertia of the aft packages crushes the front package. In railroad accidents, severe crush environments are produced when a railcar on which the packages are carried strikes a barrier or when the packages are pinned between two railcars after a derailment. Analysis of ship collisions showed that for packages carried by a containerized cargo ship struck by another ship, the probability of producing significant crush loads is small because most collisions occur at low velocities during maneuvering. The study suggested various types of package tests which would simulate severe crush loads in each mode of transport.

Colton, J.D.; Romander, C.M.

1980-10-01

202

Nature of the gases released from lunar rocks and soils upon crushing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of inorganic gases released from lunar basalts, breccias and soils by crushing have been performed in an apparatus which consists of a piston operating in a stream of purified He and a dual-column gas chromatograph equipped with He-ionization detectors. The apparatus eliminates the problem of adsorption of the released gases by fresh sample surfaces generated by crushing. Upper concentration levels for nitrogen, H2, CH4, O2 and other gases released from crushed basalts are reported. A direct correlation is established between the amount of nitrogen released from lunar soils by crushing and the lunar soil maturity indicator proposed by Morris (1976).

Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Andrawes, F. F.

1978-01-01

203

Stone symptoms and urinary deposits.  

PubMed

There is a general belief among the public and clinicians that urinary stone problem is always associated with symptoms like pain, dysuria and haematuria. Many patients stop medical treatment when they are symptom free and return with excruciating pain, dysuria and haematuria either alone or in combination. The objective of this study was to determine stone activity in an individual patient by assessing the urinary deposits at the time of the visit to the stone clinic and correlate with the presence or absence of symptoms at that time. 418 patients who attended the stone clinic in 2007 with proved urinary stone disease, including stone, colic and crystalluria, were studied. Presence or absence of symptoms at the time of presentation was recorded. Minimum of two samples of urine was collected (early morning and random) to assess the presence and extent (1-5) of urinary deposits namely red blood cells (RBC), pus cells (PC), calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD), uric acid and phosphate. The scores obtained were correlated with the presence or absence of symptoms by logistic regression. Of the 418 patients studied, 238 had symptoms and 180 had no symptoms. The total score of the deposits of patients with symptoms was 1,215 with a mean of 3.39 per patient against the score of 350 in the patients without symptoms with a mean of 2.99. This difference was not statistically significant. The total values and mean scores of the urinary deposits of all patients grouped together were RBC 561 (3.51), PC 434 (3.29), COM 177 (3.34), COD 237 (3.25), phosphate 113 (3.23) and uric acid 43 (1.95). Comparison of the total values and mean scores of the deposits of the patients with and without symptoms showed the variations as RBC 428 (3.51) versus 133 (3.5) PC 341 (3.38) versus 93 (3.0), COM 143 (3.25) versus 34 (3.78), COD 190 (3.88) versus 47 (1.96), phosphate 76 (3.3) versus 37 (3.1) and uric acid/ammonium urate 37 (1.95) versus 6 (2.0). Of these, the RBC, PC, uric acid and phosphates were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the presence of COD was significantly more in patients with symptoms (P < 0.05) and COM was significantly more in patients without symptoms (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the presence or absence of symptoms does not alter the presence and extent of urinary deposits significantly in the urinary stone patients. COD was more in symptomatic patients and COM was more in the asymptomatic patients. This contrast could be due to the morphology of the COD crystal which is dipyramidal and produces injury to urolthelium whereas COM is dumbbell shaped and produces lesser injury and lesser symptoms. PMID:19888570

Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

2010-02-01

204

Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

2009-06-01

205

Approach to the Adult Kidney Stone Former  

PubMed Central

Nephrolithiasis is a prevalent and costly condition with high recurrence rate. A medical evaluation to identify abnormalities responsible for nephrolithiasis and guide subsequent therapy has been advocated to reduce the risk of stone recurrence. The evaluation of kidney stone formers generally comprises an extensive medical history to identify metabolic, environmental, dietary and/or genetic factors contributing to stone formation. Imaging studies are utilized to evaluate and follow stone burden. Laboratory studies including stone composition analysis and serum and urinary chemistries are commonly obtained to further assess for any underlying systemic disorders, to detect environmental and metabolic processes contributing to stone disease, and to guide initial and follow-up dietary and pharmacological therapy. The nature and extent of such an evaluation is discussed in this review article. PMID:22654574

Maalouf, Naim

2012-01-01

206

[Ureteroscopy for upper urinary tract stones].  

PubMed

Indication for ureteroscopy of an upper urinary tract stone depends on the location and size of the stone. For small proximal ureteral stones, first-line treatment is extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESWL). For big or distal ureteral stones, ureteroscopy (URS) is the more efficient urological treatment. URS has a higher morbidity than ESWL. URS must be careful, urines must be sterile, and a renal safety wire is mandatory. Ideal intracorporeal lithotripsy means are ballistic energy or holmium laser. Ureteral drainage is not always needed in case of easy monobloc removal of a small non impacted stone. In other cases an ureteral drainage is safer. The Stone Free rate of URS is 65-90%. The risk of ureteral stenosis is 1%. PMID:19033053

Lechevallier, E; Saussine, C; Traxer, O

2008-12-01

207

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

208

Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.  

PubMed

Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. PMID:24945791

Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

2014-10-01

209

Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly, so every visitor has a unique sound adventure. The experience is intensely engaging, playful and yet a little unsettling and provides a truly unique way to explore our scientific data and present geoscience research to the public. Crush-2 has featured in an exhibition on Sonic Interaction Design at the Norwegian Museum of Science, Technology and Medicine, Oslo, Norway (27 May - 21 August 2011) and forms part of a solo exhibition by Barrett at Galleri ROM, Oslo in fall 2011. Visitor feedback from the Museum exhibition suggests that users were initially attracted to the exhibit by its interactive 'hands-on' nature and dramatic sounds, but as they 'explored' the soundspace, became curious to ask questions about the underlying science. The concept of using sound rather than visual gives an unusual and therefore highly memorable experience. This science-art collaboration provides a novel and highly enjoyable way to present our work to the public - that is particularly attractive to youngsters. Visitors to this poster presentation will be able to explore the Crush-2 soundscape using a laptop and headphone interactive mode.

Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

2011-12-01

210

Mechanical analyses of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) disposal rooms backfilled with either crushed salt or crushed salt-bentonite  

SciTech Connect

Numerical calculations of disposal room configurations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM are presented. Specifically, the behavior of either crushed salt or a crushed salt-bentonite mixture, when used as a backfill material in disposal rooms, is modeled in conjunction with the creep behavior of the surrounding intact salt. The backfill consolidation model developed at Sandia National Laboratories was implemented into the SPECTROM-32 finite element program. This model includes nonlinear elastic as well as deviatoric and volumetric creep components. Parameters for the models were determined from laboratory tests with deviatoric and hydrostatic loadings. The performance of the intact salt creep model previously implemented into SPECTROM-32 is well documented. Results from the SPECTROM-32 analyses were compared to a similar study conducted by Sandia National Laboratories using the SANCHO finite element program. The calculated deformations and stresses from the SPECTROM-32 and SANCHO analyses agree reasonably well despite differences in constitutive models and modeling methodology. These results provide estimates of the backfill consolidation through time. The trends in the backfill consolidation can then be used to estimate the permeability of the backfill and subsequent radionuclide transport. 4 figs.

Wagner, R.A.; Callahan, G.D. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA)); Butcher, B.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1990-01-01

211

Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global stone heritage.

Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

2013-04-01

212

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2010-04-01

213

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2011-04-01

214

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2013-04-01

215

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2012-04-01

216

25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.  

...INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone,...

2014-04-01

217

What I Need to Know about Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... on the type of kidney stone you had: Calcium Oxalate Stones reduce sodium reduce animal protein, such as ... Kidney stones are caused by high levels of calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus in the urine. You may have ...

218

Dynamic Crush Behaviors Of Aluminum Honeycomb Specimens Under Compression Dominant Inclined Loads  

SciTech Connect

The quasi-static and dynamic crush behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens under out-of-plane inclined loads are investigated by experiments. Different types of honeycomb specimens were designed for crush tests under pure compressive and inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction. A test fixture was designed for both quasi-static and dynamic crush tests under inclined loads. The results of the quasi-static crush tests indicate that the normal crush and shear strengths under inclined loads are consistent with the corresponding results under combined loads. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same. The trends of the normalized normal crush strengths under inclined loads for specimens with different in-plane orientation angles as functions of the impact velocity are very similar to each other. Based on the experimental results, a macroscopic yield criterion as a function of the impact velocity is proposed. The experimental results suggest that as the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state. The experimental results also show similar microscopic progressive folding mechanisms in honeycomb specimens under pure compressive and inclined loads. However, honeycomb specimens under inclined loads show inclined stacking patterns of folds due to the asymmetric location of horizontal plastic hinge lines.

Hong, Sung-tae; Pan, Jwo; Tyan, Tau; Prasad, Priya

2008-01-01

219

Potential crush loading of radioactive material packages in highway, rail and marine accidents. Regulatory report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential crush loads on radioactive material packages in highway, rail, and marine accidents. The study concluded that if allowance is made for small gaps between packages, the deflections produced by inertial crush are comparable (within 20%) of those produced by impact under the same accident conditions. Therefore an additional qualification test is

J. D. Colton; C. M. Romander

1980-01-01

220

Coriander spice oil: effects of fruit crushing and distillation time on yield and composition.  

PubMed

Crushing intensity and distillation time were evaluated for their effects on the oil yield and composition of steam-distilled essential oil from fruits of Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum L. A comparison of oils produced by laboratory- and pilot-scale stills showed that the two still types gave comparable yields and oil composition. The laboratory still was then used to compare oil yields and compositions from fruits crushed at three different intensities, at intervals during a distillation period of 60 min. Both crushing intensity and distillation time had significant (P< 0.05) effects on the yield and composition of the oil. The maximum oil yield was less from the light-crushed fruits, but the rate of oil recovery was significantly P < 0.05) higher. From the light-crushed fruits, 95% of the maximum yield was extracted in 22.5 min compared with 32 and 39 min for the standard and heavy-crushed fruits, respectively. The effect of crushing intensity on oil composition was most pronounced on the low-boiling-point a-pinene and on the higher-boiling-point geranyl acetate. Crushing had little effect on linalool content, but distillation time could be manipulated to alter the linalool content of the oil. PMID:11305249

Smallfield, B M; van Klink, J W; Perry, N B; Dodds, K G

2001-01-01

221

Environmental quality assurance system for use of crushed mineral demolition wastes in road constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annually 1 million tons of mineral demolition wastes, mainly consisting of concrete and bricks, is produced in Finland. In field studies the crushed materials have shown favourable geotechnical properties for use in road constructions. The test samples from two crushing plants were chemically characterised and the leaching behaviour was studied by using column, two-stage batch leaching and pH static tests.

M Wahlström; J Laine-Ylijoki; A Määttänen; T Luotojärvi; L Kivekäs

2000-01-01

222

The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability of composite tubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy-absorption capability as a function of crushing speed was determined for Thornel 300-Fiberite 934 (Gr-E) and Kevlar-49-Fiberite 934 (K-E) composite material. Circular cross section tube specimens were crushed at speeds ranging from 0.01 to 12 m/sec. Ply orientations of the tube specimens were (0/ +/- theta)2 and (+/- theta)2 where theta = 15, 45, and 75 deg. Based upon the results of these tests, the energy-absorption capability of Gr-E and K-E was determined to be a function of crushing speed. The magnitude of the effects of crushing speed on energy-absorption capability was determined to be a function of the mechanisms that control the crushing process. The effects of crushing speed on the energy-absorption capability is related to whether the mechanical response of the crushing mechanism that controls the crushing process is a function of strain rate. Energy-absorption capability of Gr-E and K-E tubes ranged between 0 and 35 percent and 20 and 45 percent, respectively, depending upon ply orientation.

Farley, Gary L.

1991-01-01

223

Calculation of density and permeability of compacted crushed salt within an engineered shaft sealing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crushed salt from the host Salado Formation is proposed as a sealing material in one component of a multicomponent seal system design for the shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a mined geological repository for storage and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The crushed salt will be compacted and placed at a density

M. Loken; W. Statham

1997-01-01

224

Functional Recovery After Facial and Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To systematically record rat facial nerve re- covery following crush injury to the main trunk with re- spect to ocular and vibrissial function and to compare the rates of facial and sciatic nerve recovery from crush injury in the same animals. This serves as a means of vali- dating the functional parameters of facial nerve recov- ery against the

Tessa A. Hadlock; James Heaton; Mack Cheney; Susan E. Mackinnon

2005-01-01

225

PHYSICS-BASED SOUND SYNTHESIS AND CONTROL: CRUSHING, WALKING AND RUNNING BY CRUMPLING SOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of ecological events (crushing, walking and running) have been considered. Their acoustic properties have been mod- eled following the physics-based approach. Starting from an ex- isting physically-based impact model, we superimposed to it the dynamic and temporal stochastic characteristics governing crush- ing events. The resulting model was triggered by control rules realizing typical walking and running time patterns.

Federico Fontana; Roberto Bresin

2003-01-01

226

Mass and heat transfer in crushed oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Studies of heat and mass transfer in packed beds, which disagree substantially in their findings, have nearly all been done with beds of regular particles of uniform size, whereas oil-shale retorting involves particles of diverse irregular shapes and sizes. The authors, in 349 runs, measured mass-transfer rates front naphthalene particles buried in packed beds by passing through air at room temperature. An exact catalog between convection of heat and mass makes it possible to infer heat-transfer coefficients from measured mass-transfer coefficients and fluid properties. Some beds consisted of spheres, naphthalene and inert, of the same, contrasting or distributed sizes. In some runs, naphthalene spheres were buried in beds of crushed shale, some in narrow screen ranges and others with a wide size range. In others, naphthalene lozenges of different shapes were buried in beds of crushed shale in various bed axis orientations. This technique permits calculation of the mass-transfer coefficient for each active particle in the bed rather than, as in most past studies, for the bed as a whole. The data are analyzed by the traditional correlation of Colburn j{sub D} vs. Reynolds number and by multiple regression of the mass-transfer coefficient on air rate, sizes of active and inert particles, void fraction, and temperature. Principal findings are: local Reynolds number should be based on the active-particle size, not the average for the whole bed; differences between shallow and deep beds are not appreciable; mass transfer is 26% faster for spheres and lozenges buried in shale than in all-sphere beds; orientation of lozenges in shale beds has little or no effect on mass-transfer rate; and for mass or heat transfer in shale beds, log(j{center_dot}{epsilon}) = {minus}0.0747 - 0.6344 log N{sub Re} + 0. 0592 log {sup 2} N{sub Re}.

Carley, J.F.; Ott, L.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Swecker, J.L. [Corning, Inc., Wilmington, NC (United States). Telecommunication Products Division] [Corning, Inc., Wilmington, NC (United States). Telecommunication Products Division

1995-03-01

227

Laboratory investigation of crushed salt consolidation and fracture healing  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory test program was conducted to investigate the consolidation behavior of crushed salt and fracture healing in natural and artificial salt. Crushed salt is proposed for use as backfill in a nuclear waste repository in salt. Artificial block salt is proposed for use in sealing a repository. Four consolidation tests were conducted in a hydrostatic pressure vessel at a maximum pressure of 2500 psi (17.2 MPa) and at room temperature. Three 1-month tests were conducted on salt obtained from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and one 2-month test was conducted on salt from Avery Island. Permeability was obtained using argon and either a steady-state or transient method. Initial porosities ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 and initial permeabilities from 2000 to 50,000 md. Final porosities and permeabilities ranged from 0.05 to 0.19 and from <10/sup -5/ md to 110 md, respectively. The lowest final porosity (0.05) and permeability (<10/sup -5/ md) were obtained in a 1-month test in which 2.3% moisture was added to the salt at the beginning of the test. The consolidation rate was much more rapid than in any of the dry salt tests. The fracture healing program included 20 permeability tests conducted on fractured and unfractured samples. The tests were conducted in a Hoek cell at hydrostatic pressures up to 3000 psi (20.6 MPa) with durations up to 8 days. For the natural rock salt tested, permeability was strongly dependent on confining pressure and time. The effect of confining pressure was much weaker in the artificial salt. In most cases the combined effects of time and pressure were to reduce the permeability of fractured samples to the same order of magnitude (or less) as the permeability measured prior to fracturing.

Not Available

1987-01-01

228

CO2 Laser Cutting of Calcareous Stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portugal is one of the major European producers of natural stones. In the last decade, transformation of stones has been privileged in most of the companies and the quantity of finished product for exportation increased with a major added value. New technologies and processes have been investigated. For example, CO2 laser has been used for cutting, marking, and drilling. The

R. M. Miranda; L. Quintino

2004-01-01

229

Noble Gases Released by Crushing from Happy Canyon E-Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Happy Canyon (HC) enstatite (E-) chondrite is an impact-melt breccia formed probably from the EL-chondrite parent body. We analyzed it (weighing 0.310 g) for crush-released noble gases. Considerable amounts of trapped Ar, Kr and Xe, and radiogenic 129Xe were released. Twelve percent of bulk Xe appeared by triplicate steps of crushing; one step of crushing consists of 100x pounding. The amounts of gases released at each step of crushing are essentially constant, suggesting that greater portions of trapped gases could be released by more extensive crushing. The isotopic ratio of Xe is approximately solar except for 129Xe. The 129Xe/132Xe ratio is 3.8, being constant at each step. Elemental ratios are largely fractionated compared to the bulk composition: 36Ar/84Kr/132Xe = 31.9/0.68/1.

Takaoka, N.; Nakamura, T.; Nagao, K.

1996-03-01

230

Gall stone pulverisation strategy in patients treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy and follow up results of maintenance treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.  

PubMed

Between November 1988 and July 1992 70 patients with radiolucent gall stones were treated with extracorporeal lithotripsy (ESL) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA; mean (SD) dose 11.2 (1.9) mg/kg/day). Fifty three patients have been followed for one year. One week after lithotripsy, 30.6% had completely eliminated all stone fragments from the gall bladder and one year later 93.9% were free of stones. Three factors were considered important in achieving these results. 'Pulverisation' of the stone--that is, its fragmentation into echogenic dust (crystalline aggregates, some few hundred mu in size) or particles similar to grains of sand, smaller than 1 mm in diameter, or both, is required. Secondly, dust and particles were rapidly eliminated, strongly suggesting a mechanical elimination process by physiological gall bladder contractions. Thirdly, there must be chemical dissolution with biliary acids. This therapeutic approach gave excellent results without causing any clinically relevant side effects. The first 20 patients who became free of stones after ESL were given oral bile acid maintenance treatment--300 mg/day of UDCA at bedtime, for two years. All were asymptomatic and none had suffered a recurrence after two years. In four patients, crystalline aggregates, detected in gall bladder bile by ultrasound, were subsequently dissolved between one and three months after resuming a full dose regimen of UDCA. PMID:8307431

Boscaini, M; Piccinni-Leopardi, M; Andreotti, F; Montori, A

1994-01-01

231

Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts' gain.

Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

232

An Evaluation of Ethyl Silicate-Based Grouts for Weathered Silicate Stones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Culturally significant monuments made of weathered siliceous stone often display sub-surface condition issues such as cracks and voids. These issues require grouts that are ideally compatible with the composition and properties of the substrate. Based on the successful application of ethyl silicates as consolidants in recent literature, this study examines possible formulation pathways for the development of a grout incorporating ethyl silicate. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTL) as a catalyst, silicone oil (PDMS), various grades of ground quartz, sepiolite, and hollow glass spheres were used in differing concentrations to create samples. These were visually and physically assessed on workability, separation, shrinkage, cracking, strength, and flexibility. Quantitative analysis was performed on selected formulations using UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy in coordination with a weight loss experiment to investigate kinetics, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Successful formulations tended to include oligomeric TEOS, crushed quartz of mixed grades, sepiolite powder, and PDMS, and show promise for future investigations.

Dolph, Brittany Helen

233

Waste plastic as a stabilizing additive in Stone Mastic Asphalt  

E-print Network

Abstract- The present study investigates the benefits of stabilizing the stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture in flexible pavement with shredded waste plastic. Conventional (without plastic) and the stabilized SMA mixtures were subjected to performance tests including Marshall Stability, tensile strength and compressive strength tests. Triaxial tests were also conducted with varying percentage bitumen by weight of mineral aggregate (6 % to 8%) and by varying percentage plastic by weight of mix (6 % to 12 % with an increment of 1%). Plastic content of 10 % by weight of bitumen is recommended for the improvement of the performance of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures. 10 % plastic content gives an increase in the stability, split tensile strength and compressive strength of about 64%, 18 % and 75% respectively compared to the conventional SMA mix. Triaxial test results show a 44 % increase in cohesion and 3 % decrease in angle of shearing resistance showing an increase in the shear strength. The drain down value decreases with an increase in plastic content and the value is only 0.09 % at 10 % plastic content and proves to be an effective stabilizing additive in SMA mixtures. Index Terms- Compressive strength Draindown,

Bindu C. S; Dr. K. S. Beena; Professor Division; Civil Engineering

234

Accelerated weathering of limestone for CO2 mitigation opportunities for the stone and cement industries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large amounts of limestone fines coproduced during the processing of crushed limestone may be useful in the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2). Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is proposed as a low-tech method to capture and sequester CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants and other point-sources such as cement manufacturing. AWL reactants are readily available, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Waste CO 2 is hydrated with water to produce carbonic acid, which then reacts with and is neutralized by limestone fines, thus converting CO2 gas to dissolved calcium bicarbonate. AWL waste products can be disposed of in the ocean. Feasibility requires access to an inexpensive source of limestone and to seawater, thus limiting AWL facilities within about 10 km of the coastline. The majority of U.S. coastal power generating facilities are within economical transport distance of limestone resources. AWL presents opportunities for collaborative efforts among the crushed stone industry, electrical utilities, cement manufactures, and research scientists.

Langer, W.H.; Juan, C.A.S.; Rau, G.H.; Caldeira, K.

2009-01-01

235

Written in Stone Earthquake Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This group of brief animations shows destructive phenomena related to earthquakes and provides some advice on mitigating their effects. The collection includes an animation of Rayleigh waves, showing the reverse elliptical motion that makes them especially damaging; a demonstration of the difference in wave propagation and amplitude between hard rock and unconsolidated sediment; and an animation showing the relationship between earthquake magnitude and fault movement on the San Andreas Fault. For homeowners, there are animations depicting an unsecured cripple wall and chimney failure, with suggestions for strengthening these components. There are also animations of fault movement that occurred during specific earthquakes, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1992 Landers earthquake, and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The animations were developed for the educational video "Written in Stone," a project funded by and developed for the California Seismic Safety Commission.

Jeff Sale, Edcenter S.

236

Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

Angulo, E. D. (inventor)

1984-01-01

237

Molecular Logic: Browsing Stepping Stones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Concord Consortium with support from the National Science Foundation, the goal of the Molecular Logic website is "to develop students' understanding of molecules, their interactions and the consequences of these interactions." The researchers and specialists in charge of the site have selected ten physical-chemical principles that underlie many biological processes. They call them "Molecular Stepping Stones", and the site includes entry-level model-based activities for each of these steps. Some of the steps have multiple parts, and visitors will note that each section includes an interactive activity and notes for teachers. Some of the subjects covered here include molecular folding, chemical reactions, and the structure and function in proteins.

238

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

239

Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad.

Uldrich, E.D.; Hawkes, B.D.

1998-04-01

240

Famous building stones of our Nation's capital  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

U.S. Geological Survey

2012-01-01

241

Multiple Urethral Stones Causing Penile Gangrene  

PubMed Central

Penile urethral stones are a rare occurrence resulting from a number of causes including migration of stones within the urinary tract, urethral strictures, meatal stenosis, and obstructing tumours such as adenomatous metaplasia of the uroepithelium, hypospadias, urethral diverticulum, and very rarely primary fossa navicularis calculi. We report the case of a 54-year-old male presenting with penile gangrene and sepsis resulting from impaction of multiple stones within the penile urethra. This paper summarises the topic and discusses the pathophysiology of this unusual condition. PMID:24963438

Ramdass, Michael J.

2014-01-01

242

Quasi-Uniform High Speed Foam Crush Testing Using a Guided Drop Mass Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relatively simple method for measuring the dynamic crush response of foam materials at various loading rates is described. The method utilizes a drop mass impact configuration with mass and impact velocity selected such that the crush speed remains approximately uniform during the entire sample crushing event. Instrumentation, data acquisition, and data processing techniques are presented, and limitations of the test method are discussed. The objective of the test method is to produce input data for dynamic finite element modeling involving crash and energy absorption characteristics of foam materials.

Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor); Kellas, Sotiris

2004-01-01

243

Superior palatability of crushed lercanidipine compared with amlodipine among children  

PubMed Central

AIMS To compare the taste of equivalent doses of pulverized amlodipine and lercanidipine, two calcium channel blockers, among children with kidney disease. METHODS Each child received a test dose of 1 mg of amlodipine besylate and 2 mg of lercanidipine in a single-blinded fashion. Children indicated their preference by pointing to the appropriate face on a visual analogue scale (VAS) that depicts five degrees of pleasure. RESULTS The VAS palatability score assigned to lercanidipine was higher than that assigned to amlodipine both in nine children 4–7 years of age (P < 0.005) and in 10 children 8–11 years of age (P < 0.005). The preference for lercanidipine was statistically significant in both girls (P < 0.02) and boys (P < 0.001) and in both children initially presented amlodipine (P < 0.005) and children initially presented lercanidipine (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS There is a lack of appropriate formulations for children prescribed drugs originally designed for adults, such as calcium channel blockers. Parents therefore crush available tablets and administer the medication mixed with solid food or a palatable drink. From the perspective of the child, the taste of pulverized lercanidipine is superior to that of pulverized amlodipine. PMID:20233185

Milani, Gregorio; Ragazzi, Monica; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Ramelli, Gian P; Rizzi, Mattia; Bianchetti, Mario G; Fossali, Emilio F

2010-01-01

244

Crushing cells in microfluidic channels and observing with optical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cell lysis device is developed. It is designed for miniaturing bio-analysis systems where cell lysing is needed to obtain intracellular materials for further analysis such as DNA identification. It consists of multi-electrode pairs to apply electric fields to cells. The method of electric field lysing is adopted because it can greatly simplify purifying steps for preparation of biological samples compared with conventional chemical methods. BHK21 cells are tested with the device and the lysis of BHK21 is observed with a microscope. The experimental observation suggests that BHK21 cells are lysed by the pulsed electric field. It takes inverted microscope as the main light path system, collects pictures with 3 Mega Pixel CCD camera and deals them with processing software of micro-digital image. The experiment shows that this optical testing system could automatically identify and count BHK21 in micro-windows. For crushing BHK21 cells, the most suitable voltage range and pulse width are 3V and 3ms.

Chen, Jianjun; Chai, Chenggang; Wang, Jun; Liao, Honghua; Han, Heyou; Yu, Jun

2008-12-01

245

Effect of acidosis on urine supersaturation and stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of acidosis on urine supersaturation and stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats.BackgroundWe have successively inbred over 45 generations a strain of rats to maximize urine calcium excretion. The rats now consistently excrete 8 to 10 times as much calcium as controls and uniformly form poorly crystalline calcium phosphate kidney stones. In humans with calcium nephrolithiasis, consumption of a

David A. Bushinsky; Marc D. Grynpas; John R. Asplin

2001-01-01

246

Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.5±1.4 mm compared with 9.9±2.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (p<0.05). On multivariate logistic analysis, stone size and time to ESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure.

Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

2015-01-01

247

Investigations on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Recycled Aggregate Self Compacting Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent years, construction and demolition waste management issues have attracted the attention from researchers around the world. In the present study, the potential usage of recycled aggregate obtained from crushed demolition waste for making self compacting concrete (SCC) was researched. The barriers in promoting the use of recycled material in new construction are also discussed. In addition, the results of an experimental study involving the use of recycled concrete aggregate as coarse aggregates for producing self-compacting concrete to study their flow and strength characteristics are also presented. Five series of mixture were prepared with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % coarse recycled aggregate adopting Nan Su's mix proportioning method. The fresh concrete properties were evaluated through the slump flow, J-ring and V-funnel tests. Compressive and tensile strengths were also determined. The results obtained showed that SCC could be successfully developed by incorporating recycled aggregates.

Revathi, P.; Selvi, R. S.; Velin, S. S.

2013-09-01

248

Microorganisms and Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms may have a role in the pathogenesis and prevention of kidney stones. The subjects of this review include nanobacteria, Oxalobacter formigenes, and lactic acid bacteria. Not reviewed here is the well-described role of infections of the urinary tract with Proteus species and other urease-producing organisms associated with struvite stone formation. Nanobacteria have been proposed to be very small (0.08–0.5

David S. Goldfarb

2004-01-01

249

In-plane uniaxial and biaxial crushing of a polycarbonate honeycomb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uniaxial and biaxial in-plane crushing of honeycomb is studied through a combination of experiments and analyses. The honeycomb has circular thin-walled polycarbonate cells in a hexagonal arrangement. Under displacement controlled uniaxial compression, the force-displacement response is characterized by three regimes of behavior. In the initial rising part of the response, the deformation is essentially uniform throughout the specimen. Following the load maximum, the deformation localizes in a narrow zone of cells. Collapse then propagates through the specimen while the load remains relatively constant until all the cells have collapsed at which point the load rises sharply. As a result of the rate dependence of the material, the initiation and propagation stresses increase as the rate of crushing of the honeycomb is increased. This crushing process was simulated numerically through the finite element method. The developed models properly address the nonlinearities due to geometry and contact. An elastic-power law viscoplastic constitutive rule is used to model the behavior of the polycarbonate. Results from analyses involving a characteristic cell and from full scale simulations of the experiments are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. Biaxial crushing was performed in a custom biaxial test facility. This facility is capable of crushing specimens in two orthogonal directions simultaneously to volume reductions of nearly 95%. Approximately square specimens were crushed between rigid platens at different biaxiality ratios by varying the two speeds of crushing. The onset of collapse involves localized instabilities as in the uniaxial crushing. However, the extent of the localized deformation varies with the biaxiality ratio. The prevalent mechanisms of collapse as well as the energy absorption capacity of the material also depend on this ratio. The highest energy is required when the specimens are crushed at the same rate in the two directions. Finite element simulations of the biaxial crushing were also performed. The models in these calculations were smaller than the specimens used in the experiments. As a result, the responses differ slightly in the initial stages of crushing, but for larger strains, the predictions agree well with the measurements. The calculated amounts of energy absorbed are in excellent agreement with the experiments. In addition, many of the modes of cell collapse seen in the experiment are reproduced in the simulations.

Papka, Scott Duane

250

Priming effects in aggregate size fractions induced by glucose addition and grinding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely recognized that soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization can be accelerated (positive priming) or retarded (negative priming) by addition of easily available substrates to soil. SOM is a heterogeneous mixture, which contains numerous compounds with different degradability and turnover rates times. Nevertheless, so far, there is still lack of knowledge on identifying single fractions of the SOM as the source of C and N released by priming effects. The aim of this study was to determine the priming effect as related to different aggregate fractions, aggregate disruption and the amounts of substrate. In a 49 days incubation experiment, the soil samples were separated into three aggregate fractions (>2 mm, 2-0.25 mm and <0.25 mm), and with one sample left intact while the other were crushed. Then two concentrations of uniformly labeled 14C-glucose were added to the six aggregate fractions. The cumulative CO2 production was greater in the macroaggregates (> 0.25 mm) than in the microaggregates (< 0.25 mm) after 49 days incubation irrespective of glucose levels and aggregate grinding. This indicates the higher amount of easily degradable organic matter in macroaggregate versus microaggregate. Higher glucose addition increased the portion mineralization to CO2, but decreased the incorporation into microbial biomass for both intact and crushed aggregate fractions. Compared with the corresponding intact aggregate fraction, grinding resulted in increased glucose mineralization in macroaggregate. The priming effect increased as added glucose increased in all intact aggregate size, and highest priming effect was observed in >2 mm fraction. However, the magnitude of priming effect response to glucose addition depended on the aggregate size after grinding. This study demonstrates that substrate amounts, aggregate fractionation and grinding can have obvious impacts on priming effect, indicating important implications for understanding SOM cycling and stability.

Tian, Jing; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Pausch, Johanna; Kuzaykov, Yakov

2014-05-01

251

Streaming potential measurements 1. Properties of the electrical double layer from crushed rock samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zeta potential has been inferred from streaming potential measurements with crushed rock samples as a function of pH and electrolyte concentration for various salts. The value obtained for crushed Fontainebleau sandstone at pH=5.7 and a KCl solution with a resistivity of 400 Omegam is -40+\\/-5mV, where the error is dominated by sample to sample variations. The sensitivity of the

Benoit Lorne; Frédéric Perrier; Jean-Philippe Avouac

1999-01-01

252

Analysis of a hypothetical dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask impacting a floor mounted crush pad  

SciTech Connect

A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of a hypothetically dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44-ft. deep cask unloading pool at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The 110-ton Large Cell Cask was assumed to be accidentally dropped onto the parapet of the unloading pool, causing the cask to tumble through the pool water and impact the floor mounted crush pad with the cask`s top corner. The crush pad contains rigid polyurethane foam, which was modeled in a separate computer analysis to simulate the manufacturer`s testing of the foam and to determine the foam`s stress and strain characteristics. This computer analysis verified that the foam was accurately represented in the analysis to follow. A detailed non-linear, dynamic finite element analysis was then performed on the crush pad and adjacent pool structure to assure that a drop of this massive cask does not result in unacceptable damage to the storage facility. Additionally, verification was made that the crush pad adequately protects the cask from severe impact loading. At impact, the cask has significant vertical, horizontal and rotational velocities. The crush pad absorbs much of the energy of the cask through plastic deformation during primary and secondary impacts. After the primary impact with the crush pad, the cask still has sufficient energy to rebound and rotate until it impacts the pool wall. An assessment is made of the damage to the crush pad and pool wall and of the impact loading on the cask.

Hawkes, B.D.; Uldrich, E.D.

1998-03-01

253

Changes in Expression of Aquaporin-4 and Aquaporin-9 in Optic Nerve after Crushing in Rats  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of AQP4 and AQP9 in the optic nerve after it is crushed. The left optic nerves of rats were either crushed (crushed group) or sham operated (sham group), and they were excised before, and at 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days later. Four optic nerves were pooled for each time point in both groups. The expression of AQP4 and AQP9 was determined by western blot analyses. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the spatial expression of AQP4, AQP9, and GFAP in the optic nerve. Optic nerve edema was determined by measuring the water content in the optic nerve. The barrier function of the optic nerve vessels was determined by the extravasated Evans blue dye on days 7 and 14. The results showed that the expression of AQP4 was increased on day 1 but the level was significantly lower than that in the sham group on days 4 and 7 (P<0.05). In contrast, the expression of AQP9 gradually increased, and the level was significantly higher than that in the sham group on days 7 and 14 (P<0.05, Tukey-Kramer). The down-regulation of AQP4 was associated with crush-induced optic nerve edema, and the water content of the nerve was significantly increased by 4.3% in the crushed optic nerve from that of the untouched fellow nerve on day 7. The expression of AQP4 and GFAP was reduced at the crushed site where AQP4-negative and AQP9-positive astrocytes were present. The barrier function was impaired at the crushed site on days 7 and 14, restrictedly where AQP4-negative and AQP9-positive astrocytes were present. The presence of AQP9-positive astrocytes at the crushed site may counteract the metabolic damage but this change did not fully compensate for the barrier function defect. PMID:25479407

Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Oku, Hidehiro; Horie, Taeko; Morishita, Seita; Tonari, Masahiro; Oku, Kazuma; Okubo, Akiko; Kida, Teruyo; Mimura, Masashi; Fukumoto, Masanori; Kojima, Shota; Takai, Shinji; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

2014-01-01

254

Adoption of quad bike crush prevention devices on Australian dairy farms.  

PubMed

Quad bikes (all-terrain vehicles) are the leading cause of nonintentional farm injury deaths in Australia. Approximately 50% result from rollovers of the vehicle, with death frequently due to crush injury/asphyxiation. Crush protection devices fitted to quads have been demonstrated to enhance safety. This exploratory study aimed to assess feedback from a small group of dairy farmers (N?=?11) that had crush protection devices fitted to their quads. A mixed-methods design was adopted consisting of pre- and post-intervention surveys in addition to focus groups/interviews for this exploratory study. Results indicate that the crush protection device was viewed positively by the majority of participants, with virtually no impact on the reported performance of the quad in terms of braking, steering, suspension, and getting on/off. The most problematic issue was some contact with overhead objects, although the majority reported no issues at all. Some issues were also identified with attaching trailers, carrying loads, and noise from rattling. The participants reported that the likely potential benefits of a crush protection device clearly outweighed these issues. Some 4 to 6 months following the study, 10 of the 11 farmers continued to have the crush protection device fitted to their quad. The major barrier to adoption was the manufacturers' resistance and negative public statements regarding the effectiveness of crush protection devices. Participants suggested that there are steps that can be taken to increase the uptake of crush protection devices by dairy farmers. Further lag in promoting these potentially life-saving devices will only add to the death and injury burden associated with quad bikes. PMID:24417528

Lower, Tony; Trotter, Mark

2014-01-01

255

Stepping stones in DNA sequencing  

PubMed Central

In recent years there have been tremendous advances in our ability to rapidly and cost-effectively sequence DNA. This has revolutionized the fields of genetics and biology, leading to a deeper understanding of the molecular events in life processes. The rapid technological advances have enormously expanded sequencing opportunities and applications, but also imposed strains and challenges on steps prior to sequencing and in the downstream process of handling and analysis of these massive amounts of sequence data. Traditionally, sequencing has been limited to small DNA fragments of approximately one thousand bases (derived from the organism's genome) due to issues in maintaining a high sequence quality and accuracy for longer read lengths. Although many technological breakthroughs have been made, currently the commercially available massively parallel sequencing methods have not been able to resolve this issue. However, recent announcements in nanopore sequencing hold the promise of removing this read-length limitation, enabling sequencing of larger intact DNA fragments. The ability to sequence longer intact DNA with high accuracy is a major stepping stone towards greatly simplifying the downstream analysis and increasing the power of sequencing compared to today. This review covers some of the technical advances in sequencing that have opened up new frontiers in genomics. PMID:22887891

Stranneheim, Henrik; Lundeberg, Joakim

2012-01-01

256

FOP: still turning into stone.  

PubMed

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare catastrophic genetic condition of extraskeletal (heterotopic) ossification. One in every two million people is affected worldwide, with no ethnic, racial, gender, or geographic predisposition. Most cases of FOP arise from a spontaneous missense mutation in the gene encoding bone morphogenic protein (BMP) type II receptor (ACVR1/ALK2). Affected individuals are normal at birth apart from malformed great toes. Onset of clinical symptoms is usually in the first decade of life, presenting with episodic emergence of painful rapidly appearing tumor-like soft tissue swellings (flare-ups). Heterotopic bone replaces the skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, and connective tissue at the site of the damage through a process of endochondral ossification, causing fixation of joints and permanent limitation of motion. Most affected individuals are confined to wheelchair in the third decade of life. Worldwide rate of misdiagnosis of FOP is very high; clinicians often fail to associate the two classic clinical features of FOP: rapidly developing soft tissue swellings and the abnormal great toes. The current case presents a previously undiagnosed 39-year-old FOP patient, sadly a victim of lack of clinical awareness of this rare condition. As a result of repetitive iatrogenic harm, he has tragically "turned into stone." PMID:24253442

Taslimi, Reza; Jafarpour, Saba; Hassanpour, Nahid

2015-02-01

257

COARSE AGGREGATE FOR COMPOSITE PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT Effective: January 30, 2012  

E-print Network

are in compliance with AASHTO Standard MP 16. (2) Coarse FRAP used for recycled coarse aggregate in concrete shall be Category 1 coarse FRAP processed and screened in accordance with the contract Tollway special provision for Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement. If the source of the coarse FRAP is stone matrix asphalt, the contractor shall

258

Recycled rubber, aggregate, and filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Transportation research record  

SciTech Connect

;Contents(Partial): Evaluation Systems for Crumb Rubber Modified Binders and Mixtures; Hot Mix Asphalt Rubber Applications in Virginia; Evaluation of Pyrolized Carbon Black from Scrap Tires as Additive in Hot Mix Asphalt; Use of Scrap Tire Chips in Asphaltic Membrane; Effects of Mineral Fillers on Properties of Stone Matrix Asphalt Mixtures; and Quantitative Analysis of Aggregate Based on Hough Transform.

NONE

1996-12-31

259

Management of 1-2 cm renal stones  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The preferred treatment of >1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone <2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise. PMID:24082440

Srivastava, Aneesh; Chipde, Saurabh S

2013-01-01

260

Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

1999-01-01

261

Medical and Dietary Therapy for Kidney Stone Prevention  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

Gul, Zeynep

2014-01-01

262

Thermodynamics of Protein Aggregation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amyloid protein aggregation characterizes many neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Creutz- feldt-Jakob disease. Evidence suggests that amyloid aggregates may share similar aggregation pathways, implying simulation of full-length amyloid proteins is not necessary for understanding amyloid formation. In this study we simulate GNNQQNY, the N-terminal prion-determining domain of the yeast protein Sup35 to investigate the thermodynamics of structural transitions during aggregation. We use a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics to investigate the association of 3-, 6-, and 12-chain GNNQQNY systems and we determine the aggregation pathway by studying aggregation states of GN- NQQNY. We find that the aggregation of the hydrophilic GNNQQNY sequence is mainly driven by H-bond formation, leading to the formation of /3-sheets from the very beginning of the assembly process. Condensation (aggregation) and ordering take place simultaneously, which is underpinned by the occurrence of a single heat capacity peak only.

Osborne, Kenneth L.; Barz, Bogdan; Bachmann, Michael; Strodel, Birgit

263

Universality in colloid aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE aggregation of colloidal particles is of fundamental importance in colloid science and its applications. The recent application of scaling concepts1,2 has resulted in a much deeper understanding of the structure of colloidal aggregates and the kinetics of their formation. Two distinct, limiting regimes of irreversible colloid aggregation have been identified3. Diffusion-limited colloid aggregation occurs when there is negligible repulsive

M. Y. Lin; H. M. Lindsay; D. A. Weitz; R. C. Ball; R. Klein; P. Meakin

1989-01-01

264

Effectiveness of Flexible Ureteroscopic Stone Removal for Treating Ureteral and Ipsilateral Renal Stones: A Single-Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of simultaneous flexible ureteroscopic removal of stones (URS) for ureteral and ipsilateral renal stones and to analyze the predictive factors for renal stone-free status. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent simultaneous flexible URS of ureteral and ipsilateral renal stones from January 2010 to May 2012. All operations used a flexible ureteroscope. We identified 74 cases of retrograde intrarenal surgery and 74 ureteral stones (74 patients). Stone-free status was respectively defined as no visible stones and clinically insignificant residual stones <3 mm on a postoperative image study. Predictive factors for stone-free status were evaluated. Results The immediate postoperative renal stone-free rate was 70%, which increased to 83% at 1 month after surgery. The immediate postoperative ureteral stone-free rate was 100%. Among all renal stones, 15 (20.3%) were separately located in the renal pelvis, 11 (14.8%) in the upper calyx, 15 (20.3%) in the mid calyx, and 33 (44.6%) in the lower calyx. The mean cumulative stone burden was 92.22±105.75 mm2. In a multivariate analysis, cumulative stone burden <100 mm2 was a significant predictive factor for postoperative renal stone-free status after 1 month (p<0.01). Conclusions Flexible URS can be considered simultaneously for both ureteral and renal stones in selected patients. Flexible URS is a favorable option that promises high stone-free status without significant complications for patients with a stone burden <100 mm2. PMID:23789046

Lee, Sang Hyup; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Myung, Soon Chul; Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou

2013-01-01

265

Reduced Renshaw Recurrent Inhibition after Neonatal Sciatic Nerve Crush in Rats  

PubMed Central

Renshaw recurrent inhibition (RI) plays an important gated role in spinal motion circuit. Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease in clinic. Our current research was designed to investigate the change of the recurrent inhibitory function in the spinal cord after the peripheral nerve crush injury in neonatal rat. Sciatic nerve crush was performed on 5-day-old rat puppies and the recurrent inhibition between lateral gastrocnemius-soleus (LG-S) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor pools was assessed by conditioning monosynaptic reflexes (MSR) elicited from the sectioned dorsal roots and recorded either from the LG-S and MG nerves by antidromic stimulation of the synergist muscle nerve. Our results demonstrated that the MSR recorded from both LG-S or MG nerves had larger amplitude and longer latency after neonatal sciatic nerve crush. The RI in both LG-S and MG motoneuron pools was significantly reduced to virtual loss (15–20% of the normal RI size) even after a long recovery period upto 30 weeks after nerve crush. Further, the degree of the RI reduction after tibial nerve crush was much less than that after sciatic nerve crush indicatig that the neuron-muscle disconnection time is vital to the recovery of the spinal neuronal circuit function during reinnervation. In addition, sciatic nerve crush injury did not cause any spinal motor neuron loss but severally damaged peripheral muscle structure and function. In conclusion, our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury during neonatal early development period would cause a more sever spinal cord inhibitory circuit damage, particularly to the Renshaw recurrent inhibition pathway, which might be the target of neuroregeneration therapy. PMID:24778886

Shu, Liang; Su, Jingjing; Jing, Lingyan; Huang, Ying; Di, Yu; Peng, Lichao; Liu, Jianren

2014-01-01

266

Universality in snowflake aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregation of ice crystals is a key process governing precipitation. Individual ice crystals exhibit considerable diversity of shape, and a wide range of physical processes could influence their aggregation; despite this we show that a simple computer model captures key features of aggregate shape and size distribution reported recently from cirrus clouds. The results prompt a new way to plot

C. D. Westbrook; R. C. Ball; P. R. Field; A. J. Heymsfield

2004-01-01

267

Lightweight aggregate production from claystone and shale in Bangladesh  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Muffle furnace tests were made on samples of clay, claystone, and shale collected in the Chittagong and Dacca areas of East Pakistan to determine their amenability to bloating for the commercial production of light-weight aggregate. Several areas, sampled in some detail, were selected for investigation because of their proximity to market, and accessibility to fuel and electricity. Muffle furnace tests show that the clay, claystone, and shale are natural bloaters at temperatures in the 1700? to 2200? F range, and do not require additives. The most desirable deposit, insofar as producing a strong aggregate is concerned, can be determined only by pilot-kiln testing and by crushing-strength tests made on concrete test cylinders. Reserves of suitable raw material are large in both the Chittagong and Dacca areas.

Parker, Norbert A.; Khan, M.A.

1976-01-01

268

Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. PMID:22466339

Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

2012-01-01

269

Kidney stones: a fetal origins hypothesis.  

PubMed

Kidney stones are common, with a multifactorial etiology involving dietary, environmental, and genetic factors. In addition, patients with nephrolithiasis are at greater risk of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, although the basis for this is not fully understood. All of these renal stone-associated conditions have also been linked with adverse early-life events, including low-birth weight, and it has been suggested that this developmental effect is due to excess exposure to maternal glucocorticoids in utero. This is proposed to result in long-term increased hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activation; there are mechanisms through which this effect could also promote urinary lithogenic potential. We therefore hypothesize that the association between renal stone disease and hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis may be related by a common pathway of programming in early life, which, if validated, would implicate the developmental origins hypothesis in the etiology of nephrolithiasis. PMID:23703881

Howles, Sarah A; Edwards, Mark H; Cooper, Cyrus; Thakker, Rajesh V

2013-12-01

270

Kidney stones are common after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Obesity, a risk factor for kidney stones and chronic kidney disease (CKD), is effectively treated with bariatric surgery. However, it is unclear whether surgery alters stone or CKD risk. To determine this we studied 762 Olmsted County, Minnesota residents who underwent bariatric surgery and matched them with equally obese control individuals who did not undergo surgery. The majority of bariatric patients underwent standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; 78%), with the remainder having more malabsorptive procedures (very long limb RYGB or biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch; 14%) or restrictive procedures (laparoscopic banding or sleeve gastrectomy; 7%). The mean age was 45 years with 80% being female. The mean preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 46.7?kg/m(2) for both cohorts. Rates of kidney stones were similar between surgery patients and controls at baseline, but new stone formation significantly increased in surgery patients (11.0%) compared with controls (4.3%) during 6.0 years of follow-up. After malabsorptive and standard surgery, the comorbidity-adjusted hazard ratio of incident stones was significantly increased to 4.15 and 2.13, respectively, but was not significantly changed for restrictive surgery. The risk of CKD significantly increased after the malabsorptive procedures (adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96). Thus, while RYGB and malabsorptive procedures are more effective for weight loss, both are associated with increased risk of stones, while malabsorptive procedures also increase CKD risk.Kidney International advance online publication, 29 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.352. PMID:25354237

Lieske, John C; Mehta, Ramila A; Milliner, Dawn S; Rule, Andrew D; Bergstralh, Eric J; Sarr, Michael G

2014-10-29

271

Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

272

2. STONE CABIN II FROM MIDNORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. STONE CABIN II FROM MID-NORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

273

1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE NORTH. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

274

2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

275

3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EASTNORTHEAST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

276

4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

277

Retention and growth of urinary stones: insights from imaging.  

PubMed

Recent work in nephrolithiasis has benefited from 2 special kinds of imaging: endoscopic study of patient kidneys with high-quality instruments, and examination of stones with microscopic computed tomography (micro CT). The combination of these has provided new evidence that there is more than 1 mechanism by which stones are retained in the kidney until they achieve sizes to be clinically relevant. This review describes what is known about the formation of stones on Randall's plaque, the formation of stones on ductal plugs and the ways in which stones may grow in free solution within the calyceal or pelvic spaces. Studies of urolithiasis need to recognize that any group of "stone formers" likely includes patients who differ fundamentally regarding which mechanism of stone formation is the primary route for their stones. Separation of patients on the basis of which mechanism (or combination of mechanisms) underlies their disease will be important for advancing research in the area of urolithiasis. PMID:22976521

Williams, James C; McAteer, James A

2013-01-01

278

Ultrasound stone localisation for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

An extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptor using an ultrasound scan head pantograph location system has been designed. The shock wave ellipsoid reflector position is adjusted to the stone with a computer assisted positioning device. Seven dogs with stones implanted into the renal pelvis were treated and stone fragmentation occurred in all cases. Subsequently, 45 patients with stones were treated. The stones ranged in size from 5 to 29 mm (mean 16). Radio-opaque as well as poorly opaque or radiolucent stones were treated and fragmentation was achieved in 85% of cases. An additional endoscopic procedure was performed in four cases. No fragmentation occurred in four patients. Further shock wave treatment was necessary in two patients who presented with stones larger than 2 cm. Both radio-opaque and poorly opaque stones can be treated with this system. Ultrasound localisation and the ellipsoid positioning device avoid the need for expensive fluoroscopic equipment and a hydraulic patient positioning system. PMID:3530361

Martin, X; Mestas, J L; Cathignol, D; Margonari, J; Dubernard, J M

1986-08-01

279

1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

280

3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

281

RENAL STONE RISK ASSESSMENT DURING SPACE SHUTTLE FLIGHTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation.

Peggy A. Whitson; Robert A. Pietrzyk; Charles Y. C. Pak

1997-01-01

282

Building Stones of Our Nation's Capital  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The buildings of our Nation's Capital have been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building shows important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed. This United States Geological Survey (USGS) booklet describes the source and appearance of many of the stones found in Washington, D.C.'s monuments, memorials, statues, and buildings. The geologic setting of D.C. and acid rain effects on the Capital region are also discussed.

283

A Quantum Rosetta Stone for Interferometry  

E-print Network

Heisenberg-limited measurement protocols can be used to gain an increase in measurement precision over classical protocols. Such measurements can be implemented using, e.g., optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers and Ramsey spectroscopes. We address the formal equivalence between the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the Ramsey spectroscope, and the discrete Fourier transform. Based on this equivalence we introduce the ``quantum Rosetta stone'', and we describe a projective-measurement scheme for generating the desired correlations between the interferometric input states in order to achieve Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. The Rosetta stone then tells us the same method should work in atom spectroscopy.

Hwang Lee; Pieter Kok; Jonathan P. Dowling

2002-02-23

284

Morphological differences in BMP-2-induced ectopic bone between solid and crushed hyaluronan hydrogel templates.  

PubMed

The possibility to affect bone formation by using crushed versus solid hydrogels as carriers for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was studied. Hydrogels, based on chemical crosslinking between hyaluronic acid and poly(vinyl alcohol) derivatives, were loaded with BMP-2 and hydroxyapatite. Crushed and solid forms of the gels were analyzed both in vitro via a release study using ¹²?I radioactive labeling of BMP-2, and in vivo in a subcutaneous ectopic bone model in rats. Dramatically different morphologies were observed for the ectopic bone formed in vivo in the two types of gels, even though virtually identical release profiles were observed in vitro. Solid hydrogels induced formation of a dense bone shell around non-degraded hydrogel, while crushed hydrogels demonstrated a uniform bone formation throughout the entire sample. These results suggest that by crushing the hydrogel, the construct's three-dimensional network becomes disrupted. This could expose unreacted functional groups, making the fragment's surfaces reactive and enable limited chemical fusion between the crushed hydrogel fragments, leading to similar in vitro release profiles. However, in vivo these interactions could be broken by enzymatic activity, creating a macroporous structure that allows easier cell infiltration, thus, facilitating bone formation. PMID:23392969

Hulsart-Billström, Gry; Piskounova, Sonya; Gedda, Lars; Andersson, Britt-Marie; Bergman, Kristoffer; Hilborn, Jöns; Larsson, Sune; Bowden, Tim

2013-05-01

285

A rodent model to advance the field treatment of crush muscle injury during earthquakes and other natural disasters.  

PubMed

Approximately 170 earthquakes of 6.0 or higher magnitude occur annually worldwide. Victims often suffer crush muscle injuries involving impaired blood flow to the affected muscle and damage to the muscle fiber membrane. Current rescue efforts are directed toward preventing acute kidney injury (AKI), which develops upon extrication and muscle reperfusion. But field-usable, muscle-specific interventions may promote muscle regeneration and prevent or minimize the pathologic changes of reperfusion. Although current rodent crush injury models involve reperfusion upon removal of the crush stimulus, an analysis of their methodological aspects is needed to ensure adequate simulation of the earthquake-related crush injury. The objectives of this systematic review are to (a) describe rodent crush muscle injury models, (b) discuss the benefits and limitations of these models, and (c) offer a recommendation for animal models that would increase our understanding of muscle recovery processes after an earthquake-induced crush muscle injury. The most commonly used rodent model uses a clamping or pressing crush stimulus directly applied to murine hindlimb muscle. This model has increased our understanding of muscle regeneration but its open approach does not adequately represent the earthquake-related crush injury. The model we recommend for developing field-usable, muscle-specific interventions is a closed approach that involves a nonclamping crush stimulus. Findings from studies employing this recommended model may have greater relevance for developing interventions that lessen the earthquake's devastating impact on individual and community health and quality of life, especially in developing countries. PMID:21821639

Speck, Kirsten; Schneider, Barbara St Pierre; Deashinta, Nadia

2013-01-01

286

Decay and preservation of stone in modern environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone objects decay in all environments, but the modes of decay vary from one region to another. In the modern industrial countries acid deposition has accelerated the decay of stone. Many objects that survived centuries of weathering without serious damage have, in the present century, decomposed beyond recognition. The black crusts seen on stone structures mostly contain gypsum formed by

K. Lal Gauri

1990-01-01

287

Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing original cut stone masonry, concrete-encased nose on upstream end, portion of squared cut stone masonry south abutment, and portion of truss superstructure - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

288

Gall stones in sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of gall stones was studied prospectively by abdominal ultrasound examination in 131 patients with sickle cell disease aged 10-65 years. Of 95 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease, 55 (58%) had gall stones or had had a cholecystectomy. Gall stones were present in four out of 24 (17%) patients with haemoglobin S + C disease and two out

L R Bond; S R Hatty; M E Horn; M Dick; H B Meire; A J Bellingham

1987-01-01

289

Urine Volume: Stone Risk Factor and Preventive Measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A high fluid intake is the oldest existing treatment for kidney stones, and, up until a few decades ago, it was the only preventive measure at the physician’s disposal for stone recurrences. Methods: Using the data available in literature and partly unpublished personal research, we examine the role of urine volume as a stone risk factor, its impact on

Loris Borghi; Tiziana Meschi; Tania Schianchi; Angelo Briganti; Angela Guerra; Franca Allegri; Almerico Novarini

1999-01-01

290

An Update and Practical Guide to Renal Stone Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal stone disease covers kidney and lower urinary tract stones caused by a variety of conditions, including metabolic and inherited disorders, and anatomical defects with or without chronic urinary infection. Most cases are idiopathic, in which there is undoubtedly a genetic predisposition, but where environmental and lifestyle factors play an important role. Indeed, it is becoming apparent that renal stone

Nikhil Johri; Bruce Cooper; William Robertson; Simon Choong; David Rickards; Robert Unwin

2010-01-01

291

Levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in 2 patients with crush syndrome after a mudslide.  

PubMed

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is one of the most promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. An increase in the level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is a good predictor of acute kidney injury and is associated with an increase in the serum level of creatinine. Two victims of a mudslide in Messina, Italy, initially had crush syndrome followed by development of acute kidney injury. The development of acute kidney injury is the second most common cause of death after large earthquakes and other natural disasters, but at the same time, crush-related acute kidney injury is one of the few life-threatening complications of crush injuries that can be reversed if diagnosed early and treated. In this case, measuring the level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin enabled early diagnosis of acute kidney injury and anticipation of the changes in levels of conventional markers such as creatinine. PMID:21885463

Donato, Valentina; Noto, Alberto; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Bolignano, Davide; Versaci, Antonio; David, Antonio; Spinelli, Francesco; Buemi, Michele

2011-09-01

292

Sphalerite 40Ar/ 39Ar progressive crushing and stepwise heating techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult to determine the mineralization ages of sulfide deposits because no suitable minerals can be selected for the traditional isotopic dating methods. The 40Ar/ 39Ar method rarely applies well to sulfide minerals because of their trace potassium content and strong radioactivity after irradiation. This preliminary study investigates the possibility of dating the hydrothermal sphalerites by 40Ar/ 39Ar using crushing and heating techniques. The 40Ar/ 39Ar crushing experiments of two sphalerite samples from the Fankou Lead-Zinc Deposit yield well-defined and concordant isochron ages of 265.8 ± 1.0 (1 ?) Ma and 269.7 ± 6.2 Ma corresponding to initial 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios of 290.7 ± 2.4 and 294.6 ± 8.1 respectively. The crushed powders of the later sphalerite yields, with stepwise heating, a flat age spectrum with 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau age of 267.2 ± 2.5 Ma, which define a good isochron with an age of 271.3 ± 5.4 Ma and initial 40Ar/ 36Ar ratio of 294.0 ± 1.7. This is the first report to distinguish secondary and primary fluid inclusions within sphalerite, to obtain their ages using the crushing technique, and to obtain good concordant ages both of fluid inclusions by crushing and heating of K-containing minerals. We expect progressive crushing and stepwise heating techniques will become an effective approach to 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the mineralization ages of hydrothermal sulfide deposits.

Qiu, Hua-Ning; Jiang, Ying-De

2007-04-01

293

Modeling and rendering of weathered stone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stone is widespread in its use as a building material and artistic medium. One of its most remarkable qualities is that it changes ap- pearance as it interacts with the environment. These changes are mainly confined to the surface but involve complex volumetric ef- fects such as erosion and mineral dissolution. This paper presents an approach for the modeling and

Julie Dorsey; Alan Edelman; Henrik Wann Jensen; Justin Legakis; Hans Køhling Pedersen

1999-01-01

294

Building Stones of the U.S.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By examining the NIST Stone wall via the Internet, students will determine the weathering rate of various rocks in the mid-Atlantic region. They will then pick a rock to use in building their "dream house" and justify their choice. Students should have a background in types of rocks.

Mckain, Keith

295

Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

Angulo, E. D.

1983-01-01

296

AEM/S ... Stepping Stone Bill Solitario  

E-print Network

AEM/S ... Stepping Stone To Stealth Bill Solitario Professor Systems Engineering September 04, 2003;ENABLES NEW TECHNOLOGY Embedded Sensors Planar Arrays Low Observable Ship Signatures SOLVES PROBLEMS Advanced Composite Mast on USS Radford Transition LPD 17 · Successful ONR Funded Advanced Technology

297

Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.  

PubMed

Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone. PMID:22614098

Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

2012-08-01

298

Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

299

Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

300

`Actualizing' Conditions for Innovation in Stone Knapping  

E-print Network

and been a part of how human technology progressed from the original case of stone knapping. Making, learning, foresight, at- tention, and sequencing (Schick & Toth 1993; Wynn & McGrew 1989). More advanced technologies may additionally require mental imagery, categorization, decision-making, evaluation, and spatial

Patel, Aniruddh D.

301

Percutaneous Salvage of Crushed Bilateral Aorto-Iliac Stents: Case Report  

SciTech Connect

There are multiple reports of externally deformed or crimped intravascular stents. Percutaneous salvage has been described in multiple anatomic locations including the carotid artery,coronary artery bypass grafts, and hemodialysis conduits. We report successful percutaneous salvage of severely crushed aortoiliac stents in a patient status post low anterior resection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy for rectal carcinoma. A review of the literature describing approaches to externally deformed stents in other anatomic regions, the limited experience with crushed iliac stents, and our technique is presented.

Soares, Gregory M.; Coiner, Leonard G.; Gunlock, Michael G. [Department of Radiology, WilfordHall Medical Center, 2200 Bergquist Drive, Suite 1, Lackland Air Force Base, TX 78236-5300 (United States); Hagino, Ryan T. [Department of Vascular Surgery, Wilford Hall Medical Center, 2200 Bergquist Drive, Suite 1, Lackland Air Force Base, TX 78236-5300 (United States)

2002-12-15

302

Characterization of the jet perforation crushed zone by SEM and image analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a method to measure porosity and permeability alteration of the crushed zone with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. A new phenomenon, shock metamorphism, was used to evaluate shock-wave penetration. Berea sandstone samples were prepared with a modification of the API recommended practice for test-sample preparation. Samples were perforated with low- and medium-penetration shaped charges. Analysis of the low-charge shot sample indicated an average porosity reduction of 25% and an average permeability reduction of 55% in the crushed zone. The sample shot with the medium-penetration shaped charge shoved planar-element shock metamorphism.

Asadi, M.; Preston, P.W. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States))

1994-06-01

303

Stone Comminution Correlates with the Average Peak Pressure Incident on a Stone during Shock Wave Lithotripsy  

PubMed Central

To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+(avg)) incident on the stone (D = 10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1,000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P+(avg) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P+(avg)) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. PMID:22935690

Smith, N.; Zhong, P.

2012-01-01

304

Stone comminution correlates with the average peak pressure incident on a stone during shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (R(h)=7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P(+(avg))) incident on the stone (D=10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P(+(avg)) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P(+(avg))) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. PMID:22935690

Smith, N; Zhong, P

2012-10-11

305

Vibroacoustography imaging of kidney stones in vitro.  

PubMed

Vibroacoustography (VA) is an ultrasound-based modality sensitive to stiffness and free from speckle and possesses some advantages over conventional ultrasound imaging in terms of image quality. The primary objective here is to show its feasibility in detecting/imaging kidney stones (KSs) in vitro . In VA, two intersecting ultrasound beams driven at two different frequencies f (1) and f (2), respectively, are focused within a freshly excised porcine kidney attached to a solid frame with elastic rubber bands, while the amplitude of the acoustic emission pressure field produced at the difference frequency ?f = | f(1) - f(2) | is detected by a low-frequency hydrophone. The received low-frequency signal is bandpass filtered and amplified, then digitized by a 14-bits/sample digitizer. The data are then recorded on a computer and processed numerically to construct the images. 2-D magnitude VA images are obtained at different depths within the kidney before and after stone implantation, showing kidney features and stones shapes. Experiments conducted in a water tank on a chalk sphere as well as a series of excised kidneys in which stones are artificially embedded show that all the implanted stones are detected at all chosen depths, when compared with an X-ray fluoroscopy taken to be the reference image. The resulting VA images, obtained from a nonionizing type of radiation (i.e., ultrasound waves) as compared to fluoroscopy, are speckle free unlike conventional ultrasound images. The results presented in this preliminary feasibility study show that VA allows imaging KSs in vitro, and provide the impetus to further develop and investigate VA imaging in a clinical setting for in vivo applications. PMID:21997246

Mitri, Farid G; Kinnick, Randall R

2012-01-01

306

Universality in snowflake aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregation of ice crystals is a key process governing precipitation.\\u000aIndividual ice crystals exhibit considerable diversity of shape, and a wide\\u000arange of physical processes could influence their aggregation; despite this we\\u000ashow that a simple computer model captures key features of aggregate shape and\\u000asize distribution reported recently from Cirrus clouds. The results prompt a\\u000anew way to plot

C. D. Westbrook; R. C. Ball; A. J. Heymsfield

2003-01-01

307

Diffusion Limited Aggregation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module presents the problem of growing aggregate structures one particle at a time through random processes. Such structures are seen throughout nature, through examples such as electrodeposition, dielectric breakdown, and snowflake Formation. The main algorithm for modeling these aggregate structures is diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA). DLA models cover a wide range of phenomena and size sales, and variations range from lattice based models to models that allow free movement, models in multiple dimensions, and models that change how particles stick to the growing aggregate.

308

A probabilistic mechanical model for prediction of aggregates’ size distribution effect on concrete compressive strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To predict aggregates' size distribution effect on the concrete compressive strength, a probabilistic mechanical model is proposed. Within this model, a Voronoi tessellation of a set of non-overlapping and rigid spherical aggregates is used to describe the concrete microstructure. Moreover, aggregates' diameters are defined as statistical variables and their size distribution function is identified to the experimental sieve curve. Then, an inter-aggregate failure criterion is proposed to describe the compressive-shear crushing of the hardened cement paste when concrete is subjected to uniaxial compression. Using a homogenization approach based on statistical homogenization and on geometrical simplifications, an analytical formula predicting the concrete compressive strength is obtained. This formula highlights the effects of cement paste strength and aggregates' size distribution and volume fraction on the concrete compressive strength. According to the proposed model, increasing the concrete strength for the same cement paste and the same aggregates' volume fraction is obtained by decreasing both aggregates' maximum size and the percentage of coarse aggregates. Finally, the validity of the model has been discussed through a comparison with experimental results (15 concrete compressive strengths ranging between 46 and 106 MPa) taken from literature and showing a good agreement with the model predictions.

Miled, Karim; Limam, Oualid; Sab, Karam

2012-06-01

309

Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

2014-09-01

310

Gall-stone dissolution and recurrence: are we being misled?  

PubMed Central

Oral cholecystography repeated at six-months intervals is the standard method for determining reduction in size of gall stones (partial success) and complete dissolution of stones (complete success). In a comparative study of oral cholecystography and cholecystosonography six out of 14 patients with gall stones achieving complete success by oral cholecystographic criteria had stones still detectable by ultrasonography. Repeat oral cholecystography in a further 11 patients receiving post-dissolution maintenance treatment detected stones in two, whereas ultrasonography detected stones in seven. In future complete dissolution of gall stones should be reported only if both oral cholecystography and ultrasonographic studies give negative results and the progress of patients receiving post-dissolution maintenance treatment is monitored by ultrasonography rather than serial oral cholecystography. PMID:6803946

Somerville, K W; Rose, D H; Bell, G D; Ellis, W R; Knapp, D R

1982-01-01

311

Gall-stone dissolution and recurrence: are we being misled?  

PubMed

Oral cholecystography repeated at six-months intervals is the standard method for determining reduction in size of gall stones (partial success) and complete dissolution of stones (complete success). In a comparative study of oral cholecystography and cholecystosonography six out of 14 patients with gall stones achieving complete success by oral cholecystographic criteria had stones still detectable by ultrasonography. Repeat oral cholecystography in a further 11 patients receiving post-dissolution maintenance treatment detected stones in two, whereas ultrasonography detected stones in seven. In future complete dissolution of gall stones should be reported only if both oral cholecystography and ultrasonographic studies give negative results and the progress of patients receiving post-dissolution maintenance treatment is monitored by ultrasonography rather than serial oral cholecystography. PMID:6803946

Somerville, K W; Rose, D H; Bell, G D; Ellis, W R; Knapp, D R

1982-05-01

312

Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using three sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10, 100, or 1,000 cfu/eggshell of S. Enteritidis...

313

Laparoscopic Stone Surgery With the Aid of Flexible Nephroscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the outcome of laparoscopic pyelo- and ureterolithotomies with the aid of flexible nephroscopy. Materials and Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in 71 patients with complex renal stones or large and impacted proximal ureteral stones. Patients underwent laparoscopic pyelo- or ureterolithotomies with or without the removal of small residual stones by use of flexible nephroscopy between July 2005 and July 2010. Operative success was defined as no residual stones in the intravenous pyelogram at 12 weeks postoperatively. Perioperative results and surgical outcomes were analyzed. Results The patients' mean age was 54.7±13.7 years, and 53 males (74.6%) and 18 females (25.4%) were included. The mean maximal stone size was 19.4±9.4 mm. A total of 47 cases were complex renal stones and 24 cases were impacted ureteral stones. Mean operative time was 139.0±63.7 minutes. Stones were completely removed in 61 cases (85.9%), and no further ancillary treatment was needed for clinically insignificant residual fragments in 7 cases (9.9%). For complex renal stones, the complete stone-free rate and clinically significant stone-free rate were 80.9% and 93.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of flexible nephroscopy for complex renal stones can reduce the risk of residual stones. A major complication occurred in one case, in which open conversion was performed. Conclusions Laparoscopic stone surgery is a safe and minimally invasive procedure with a high success rate, especially with the aid of flexible nephroscopy, and is not associated with procedure-specific complications. PMID:25045447

Jung, Jae Hyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Jeong, Hyeon; Son, Hwancheol; Woo, Seung Hyo; Kim, Dae Kyung; Min, Sun-Ho; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Hyeon-Hoe

2014-01-01

314

In vitro studies on the role of glycosaminoglycans in crystallization intensity during infectious urinary stones formation.  

PubMed

Proteus mirabilis cause urinary tract infections which are recurrent and can lead to formation of urinary calculi. Both bacterial and the host factors are involved in the development of urolithiasis. To determine the impact of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the formation of P. mirabilis-induced urinary stones, we investigated the in vitro crystallization, aggregation and adhesion of crystals in the presence of GAGs naturally appearing in urine. Crystallization experiments were performed in synthetic urine infected with P. mirabilis in the presence of: hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate A, B and C (ChSA, ChSB, ChSC). The intensity of crystallization and aggregation were established by counting particles and phase-contrast microscopy. To analyze the adhesion of crystals, we used normal urothelium and (45)Ca isotope-labeled crystals. In the presence of ChSC, both the size of the crystals formed and their number were higher compared with the control. GAGs increased crystals adhesion to the cells, but only for ChSA this effect was significant. Chondroitin sulfates, which accelerate the first stages of infection-induced stones formation, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious urolithiasis. PMID:24164670

Torzewska, Agnieszka; Ró?alski, Antoni

2014-06-01

315

Female stone disease: the changing trend.  

PubMed

This paper has attempted to assess the changes noted in the trends in the incidence and biochemical pattern of female urolithiasis patients during the period 1971-2008. A prospective descriptive clinical study was done on 8,590 stone patients belonging to both sexes treated at the urinary stone clinic. The incidence of stone disease among the two sexes was plotted. The various metabolic parameters including 24-h urine volume, urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, magnesium, creatinine and citrate, serum creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and magnesium and calculated parameter calcium:magnesium ratio were studied. The possible causes for the change in incidence of stone disease in the female sex were elucidated. Of the patients studied, 12.7% (1,091) were females. There was a definite increase in the incidence of female urolithiasis over the past 37 years (P < 0.001). There were significant variations in urine biochemical parameters. There was a definite increase in the excretion of urinary calcium over the years (P < 0.001). The excretion rate of oxalate in urine of females also increased steadily over the years (P < 0.001). The magnesium in urine of females reduced over the years (P < 0.001). Urinary citric acid has however shown an increase over the years (P < 0.001). Urinary excretion of phosphorus (P < 0.001) and urinary uric acid (P < 0.001) showed a decreasing trend. There was a considerable increase in the percentage of females with high calcium:magnesium ratio over the years (P < 0.001). There was a definite decrease in female patients with hypercalcemia over the years. Serum phosphorus and magnesium also increased significantly with the passage of time. Serum uric acid did not vary significantly through the years. The decrease in the excretion rate of magnesium which is inhibitory to stone genesis, together with the increased excretion of calcium and oxalate may have contributed to the increasing incidence of stone disease in females. This might be due to changes in living standards and dietary habits. PMID:19779708

Marickar, Y M Fazil; Vijay, Adarsh

2009-12-01

316

Crocin Enhanced Functional Recovery after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Crocin is a constituent of saffron and has many biological functions. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of crocin on sciatic nerve regeneration in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four rats were divided into 9 groups: groups 1-4 (intact + normal saline and intact + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively); group 5 (sham surgery + normal saline); groups 6-9 (crush + normal saline and crush + crocin at doses of 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, respectively). Normal saline and crocin were IP injected for 10 consecutive days after induction of a standard crush injury in left sciatic nerve. Footprints were obtained 1 day before and weekly after induction of nerve injury for evaluation of sciatic functional index (SFI). Blood samples were taken for evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histopathological changes of sciatic nerve were investigated by light microscopy. Results: Sciatic nerve crush-injured rats showed SFI values reduction, increased plasma MDA levels and produced Wallerian degeneration in sciatic nerve. Crocin at a dose of 5 mg/kg had no significant effects. At doses of 20 and 80 mg/kg, crocin accelerated the SFI recovery, decreased MDA levels and reduced Wallerian degeneration severity. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the neuroprotective effects afforded by crocin may be due in part to reduction of free radicals-induced toxic effects. PMID:23638296

Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Ahmadian, Elham; Hamidhoseyni, Abbas

2013-01-01

317

CONVERGENCE IN A MECHANICALLY COMPLEX PHENOTYPE: DETECTING STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIONS FOR CRUSHING IN CICHLID FISHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological convergence provides strong evidence that evolution is adaptive. However, putatively convergent morphology is often examined in two dimensions with no explicit model of function. In this study, we investigated structural and mechanical similarities of the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) in cichlid fish that have evolved the ability to crush hard-shelled molluscs. Using a novel phylogeny, we demonstrated molluscivory has

C. Darrin Hulsey; Richard J. Roberts; Angela S. P. Lin; Robert Guldberg; J. Todd Streelman

2008-01-01

318

EMISSIONS FROM THE CRUSHED GRANITE INDUSTRY: STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes a study of atmospheric emissions from the crushed granite industry. The potential environmental effect of this emission source was evaluated using source severity, defined as the ratio of the maximum time-averaged ground level concentration of a pollutant at...

319

Finite element modelling of the crushing response of composite sandwich panels with FRP tubular reinforcements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crushing response and the crash energy absorption characteristics of composite sandwich panels with internal fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) tubular reinforcements were investigated in the numerical simulation works described here using the LS-DYNA3D finite element code. Several models were developed in order to simulate a series of compressive tests performed at the National Technical University of Athens using composite sandwich

A. G. Mamalis; D. E. Manolakos; M. B. Ioannidis; D. P. Papapostolou

2006-01-01

320

Regeneration of perivascular adrenergic innervation in rat tibial nerve after nerve crush.  

PubMed

Adrenergic innervation of blood vessels in the rat tibial nerve during degeneration and regeneration was studied using the formaldehyde-induced fluorescence method. The left sciatic nerve was crushed with suture threads to produce a 4-mm length of crushed nerve. At 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days after nerve crush, degenerative and regenerative changes in the nerve were verified using light microscopy. At each time point, adrenergic innervation was examined in epi-perineurial whole mount and nerve cross-section preparations. One day after nerve crush, fluorescence of adrenergic nerve fibers in the endoneurium was absent. Fluorescent adrenergic nerve fibers reappeared in the endoneurium at day 56 and reached the control density by 84 days. In the epi-perineurium, adrenergic innervation of small and medium-size arterioles was absent at 3 days, in large arterioles at 7 days. At 56 days, all epi-perineurial arterioles were reinnervated by a faint, sparse adrenergic network, which reached the control density at 84 days. The results suggest that adrenergic innervation in the rat peripheral nerve is lost during nerve degeneration, but recovers when the nerve has regenerated. PMID:1713392

Koistinaho, J; Wadhwani, K C; Balbo, A; Rapoport, S I

1991-01-01

321

Precision of reinnervation of original postsynaptic sites in frog muscle after a nerve crush  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Regenerating neuromuscular junctions in the cutaneous pectoris muscle of the frog were examined by light and electron microscopy up to three months after crushing the motor nerve. The aim was to determine the precision of reinnervation of the original synaptic sites. More than 95% of the original postsynaptic membrane is recovered by nerve terminals and little, if any, synaptic

M. S. Letinsky; K. H. Fischbeck; U. J. McMahan

1976-01-01

322

Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt  

SciTech Connect

Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

Brodsky, N.S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1994-03-01

323

Experimental and modeling results for reconsolidation of crushed natural rock salt under varying physical conditions  

SciTech Connect

Mined salt from the underground facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project is a candidate material for use as backfill around the waste packages and in the underground openings during and after the operational phase. We have conducted a series of hydrostatic and triaxial compression experiments on the time-dependent compaction behavior of crushed salt under nominally dry, ``damp,`` (0.5-3 wt % added water), and brine-saturated conditions. Though the compaction of dry crushed salt is very show in the laboratory, damp salt is likely to compact as rapidly as the mine walls can converge. Drained tests on brine-saturated crushed salt indicate that, though effects associated with saturation do retard consolidation rates slightly, high fractional densities ({ge} 0.95) can still be obtained on laboratory time scales at pressures below lithostatic at the WIPP. Triaxial compression experiments indicate that small deviatoric stresses have little impact on consolidation rates. Micromechanical models for the compaction of dry and damp crushed salt, based on isostatic hot-pressing models, are discussed.

Zeuch, D.H.; Holcomb, D.J.

1991-11-01

324

Sealing performance assessments of bentonite and bentonite\\/crushed rock plugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bentonite and mixtures of bentonite and crushed rock are potential sealing materials for high level nuclear waste repositories. The materials have been used to form cap layers to reduce infiltration for mined waste tailings and can also be used to construct clay liners for municipal as well as industrial waste managements. American Colloid C\\/S granular dentonite and Apache Leap tuff

Ouyang; Shoung

1990-01-01

325

The role of brick pebbles and dust in conglomerates based on hydrated lime and crushed bricks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoenicians were probably the first ones to use mortars based on hydrated lime and crushed or dust bricks, followed by all other people who were in contact with them. The Romans employed those mortars any time they needed a rendering exposed to severe environment or a floor at a very humid ground level, in foundations where the water table was

G. Baronio; L. Binda; N. Lombardini

1997-01-01

326

Fabrication and crushing behavior of low density carbon fiber composite pyramidal truss structures  

E-print Network

Fabrication and crushing behavior of low density carbon fiber composite pyramidal truss structures online xxxx Keywords: Sandwich panel Mechanical properties Pyramidal truss Carbon fiber a b s t r a c t A new method for fabricating carbon fiber composite pyramidal truss cores was developed based

Vaziri, Ashkan

327

PLATELET PHAGOCYTOSIS AND AGGREGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of latex particles to native (no anticoagulant) or citratcd human platclct- rich plasma (PRP), or to a once-washed platelct suspension causes platelet aggregation. This aggregation is associated with phagocytosis of t'ae latex particles by the platelets and appcars to be due to release of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) from the platclets. Adenosinc and adenosine monophosphate, which are known to

HENRY Z. MOVAT; WILLIAM J. WEISER; MICHAEL F. GLYNN; JAMES F. MUSTARD

1965-01-01

328

The effect of aquatic plant abundance on shell crushing resistance in a freshwater snail.  

PubMed

Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M; García de León, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

2012-01-01

329

PBS-Nova: America's Stone Age Explorers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nova website asks the question: "Who were the first Americans, and where did they come from?" The site was designed to accompany a Nova program about America's Stone Age Explorers that aired on November 9, 2004. The site provides a transcript of the program; a brief article discussing the disappearance of many large mammals around 13,000 years ago; a photographic exhibit of 10 expertly-crafted stone Clovis tools from the Fenn Cache; a map that shows potential pre-Clovis sites in North America; and an interactive matching game that examines early human artifacts. The site also links to a brief, downloadable Teacher's Guide that includes a Program Overview, Classroom Activity, and Viewing Ideas.

330

Medical expulsive therapy for distal ureteral stones.  

PubMed

Although minimally invasive treatments for ureteral stones are efficacious, they are not free of complications and are associated with high cost. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has recently emerged as an alternative strategy for the initial management of small distal ureteral stones. A MEDLINE search was undertaken to evaluate all currently available data on efficacy and safety of MET therapy in such patients. The specific mechanism of action on the ureteral smooth muscle and the emerging evidence of the efficacy (defined as either an increase in expulsion rate or a decrease in time to expulsion) and low-risk profile suggest that alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) and calcium channel antagonists should be the initial medical treatment in patients amenable to conservative therapy. NSAIDs and anticholinergics have not shown efficacy as single agents or in combination with alpha-blockers or nifedipine. Corticosteroids may provide a small additive effect when combined with either alpha-blockers or nifedipine. PMID:19405549

Tzortzis, Vassilios; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Rioja, Jorge; Gravas, Stavros; Michel, Martin C; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

2009-01-01

331

Stones River Battlefield Historic Landscape Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Battle of Stones River (or the Battle of Murfreesboro as it referred to in the South), was fought between December 31, 1862 and January 2, 1863 in middle Tennessee. At the conclusion of this skirmish, the Union Army had repelled two intense Confederate attacks and it was a bit of an uplift after the Union's defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg. This fine collection from Middle Tennessee State University's Walker Library "documents the history of people, land use, and nature in the Stones River Battlefield area." The collection contains over 500 documents, including photographs, deeds to various land parcels, and so on. Visitors can browse the collection by names, deeds, and photographs, or they can also perform their own search. For anyone interested in rural geography, Tennessee history, and related matters this site will warrant several visits.

332

Kitkahahki Chipped Stone Technologies: A Comparative Study  

E-print Network

Materials Basalt: Basalt is a fine-grained mafic igneous rock that is always dark grey or black in color. In general, basaltic refers to ?all dense, dark colored, fine-grained, igneous or metamorphic stones having poor flaking qualities? (Ahler 1977.... Basalt also occurs in the Ozarks region of Missouri as intrusive dikes through older rhyolite and granite deposits (Ray 2007:71). Basalt is nonresponsive to ultraviolet light. Boone/Reed Springs Chert: Boone chert occurs in the Boone limestone...

Asher, Brendon Patrick

2009-06-11

333

Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

Winkler, Erhard M.

1987-06-01

334

Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.  

PubMed

Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most significant factors directly effecting the formation of stones are water, climate conditions, food rich in protein and rich in different chemicals. Moreover, some drugs and diseases might also help in developing other stones. PMID:18064405

Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

2008-10-01

335

Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash  

DOEpatents

Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

Boyle, Michael J. (Aston, PA)

1994-01-01

336

Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

2014-02-28

337

Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

2009-08-01

338

Is computed tomography a reliable indicator of stone solubility?  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to ascertain whether CT evaluated stone densiometry, prior to treatment, is able to identify patients with high likelihood of success with litholisis. Eight patients with single radiolucent stone (less than 15 mm diameter) in a functioning gallbladder that showed no reduction in size after 12 months treatment with UDCA (10 mg/Kg/day) were submitted to CT scan to determine stone densitometry. Seven patients still had a radiolucent stone after therapy; six out of seven stones showed densitometric values over 50 Hounsfield units, which we considered the upper normal limit for stones consisting of cholesterol. CT can be a useful tool to identify patients at high risk for oral dissolution therapy failure. PMID:2131937

Caroli, A; Del Favero, G; Di Mario, F; Spigariol, F; Naccarato, R

1990-04-01

339

Questioning the Link Between Stone Tool Standardization and Behavioral Modernity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For more than 20 years, it has been claimed that standardization is a ­feature of Upper Paleolithic retouched stone tools,\\u000a as compared to Middle Paleolithic ones, and reflects the stricter application of mental templates to stone tool-making (e.g.,\\u000a Mellars, Curr Anthropol 30:349–385, 1989a). More recently, this claim has been modified to include stone tool standardization\\u000a as a feature of modern

Gilliane F. Monnier; Kieran P. McNulty

340

Management of lower ureteric stones: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective To discuss the current concepts in lower ureteric stone management. Material and methods Between October 2008 and November 2010, 190 patients of both sexes and of different age groups with lower ureteric stones, underwent in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) (48 cases), ureterorenoscopy (URS) (120 cases) and open stone surgery (OSS) (22 cases). The patients’ clinical and radiological findings, as well as stone characteristics, were reviewed and correlated with the stone–free status. Results In the ESWL group, the operative time was 43.13 +22.5 min; the average number of sessions/patients was 1.5 sessions; the average number of SW/patients was 4500 SW/patients; the average energy was 16.5 kV; the average stone burden was 7.8/mm; the overall stone–free rate was 75% (36/48); and the average radiation exposure time was 3.5 min. In the URS group, the operative time was 49.21 +16.09 min; the average stone burden was 10.81mm; the overall stone–free rate was 97.5% (117/120); the average hospital stay was 3.99 days; and the average radiation exposure time was 0.75 min. In the OSS group, the operative time was 112.38 +37.1 min; the overall stone–free rate was 100% (22/22); and the average hospital stay was 9.74 days. Conclusion In the management of patients with lower ureteral stones, URS, SWL and OSS were considered acceptable treatment options. This recommendation was based on the stone–free results, morbidity and retreatment rates for each therapy. PMID:24757544

Morsi, Gamal A.M.; Beshir, Mansour S.M.; Soliman, Sheri S.; Galal, Hussein A.; Ortiz–Vanderdys, Cervando

2013-01-01

341

Deterioration and Repair Principles of Natural Stone Facades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary At the beginning of the 1900s a natural stone-clad external wall assembly consisted of a solid brick wall and self-supporting natural stone facing. The gap between the brick wall and the natural stone facing was filled with mortar which prevented ventilation from occurring. The interior face of the external wall was usually plastered level and the surface treated by

Jukka LAHDENSIVU

342

Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

Curhan, Gary C.

2007-04-01

343

Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash  

SciTech Connect

Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant availability and throughput capacity and to produce quality lightweight aggregate for use in commercial applications.

Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

2006-12-31

344

Recovery of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis from inoculated broiler hatching eggs using shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods.  

PubMed

This study compared the recovery of Salmonella from hatching eggs using 3 sampling methods (eggshell rinsing, eggshell crush following a previous rinse, and eggshell crush without previous rinse). Eggshells were drop-inoculated with approximately 10(1), 10(2), or 10(3) cfu/eggshell of Salmonella Enteritidis and allowed to dry at room temperature for 1 or 24 h. For the shell rinse groups, each inoculated egg was rinsed with buffered peptone water. These rinsed eggs were used for the shell crush with previous rinse groups, and each egg was aseptically cracked, the contents discarded, and the eggshell and membranes crushed with buffered peptone water. This same crush procedure was used for the shell crush without previous shell rinse eggs. The recovery of Salmonella 1 h after inoculation for shell rinse sampled eggs was 16% positive at 10(1), 49% at 10(2), and 93% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. For the shell crush with previous shell rinse, sampled egg recovery was 0% positive at 10(1), 3% at 10(2), and 17% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell. For the shell crush, sampled eggs had recovery of 23% positive at 10(1), 69% at 10(2), and 96% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. The recovery of Salmonella 24 h after inoculation for the shell rinse eggs was 3% positive at 10(1), 12% at 10(2), and 22% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; recovery for shell crush with previous shell rinse sampling was 2% positive at 10(1), 8% at 10(2), and 5% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge; and for the shell crush sampling recovery was 2% at 10(1), 32% at 10(2), and 42% at 10(3) cfu/eggshell challenge. Eggshell crush was a more sensitive (?10 percentage points) sampling method than eggshell rinse at both 1 and 24 h, but both methods were equally optimal when the inoculum was at 10(3) and samples were collected after 1 h. Waiting 24 h after inoculation to sample significantly lowered the recovery for both the shell rinse and shell crush sampling methods by ?40 percentage points. PMID:24931964

Webb, M L; Spickler, J L; Bourassa, D V; Cox, N A; Wilson, J L; Buhr, R J

2014-08-01

345

Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

346

Advances in the endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Extraction of common bile duct stones by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography generally involves biliary sphincterotomy, endoscopic papillary balloon dilation or a combination of both. Endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation after sphincterotomy has increased the safety of large stone extraction. Cholangioscopically directed electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy using single-operator mother-daughter systems or direct peroral cholangioscopy using ultraslim endoscopes are increasingly utilized for the management of refractory stones. In this Review, we focus on advances in endoscopic approaches and techniques, with a special emphasis on management strategies for 'difficult' common bile duct stones. PMID:24860928

Trikudanathan, Guru; Arain, Mustafa A; Attam, Rajeev; Freeman, Martin L

2014-09-01

347

A ? Structure and Aggregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of A? aggregates and the pathways of aggregation remains a challenging problem, although considerable progress has been made in\\u000a recent years. Exact register parallelism is emerging as a common structural motif for amyloid fibrils and may also represent\\u000a a key organizing principle for amyloid oligomers. Also, characterization of the interactions of A? with transition metals has opened up

Charles Glabe; Ashley I. Bush

348

Aggregating Governance Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

October 1999With the right method, aggregate indicators can provide useful estimates of basic governance concepts as well as measures of the imprecision of these aggregate estimates and their components.In recent years the growing interest of academics and policymakers in governance has been reflected in the proliferation of cross-country indices measuring various aspects of governance.Kaufmann, Kraay, and Zoido-Lobat?n explain how a

Pablo Zoido-Lobaton; Daniel Kaufmann

1999-01-01

349

L-carnitine alleviates sciatic nerve crush injury in rats: functional and electron microscopy assessments  

PubMed Central

Several studies have demonstrated that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats with diabetes mellitus. It is hypothesized that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve of rats. Rat sciatic nerve was crush injured by a forceps and exhibited degenerative changes. After intragastric administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg L-carnitine for 30 days, axon area, myelin sheath area, axon diameter, myelin sheath diameter, and numerical density of the myelinated axons of injured sciatic nerve were similar to normal, and the function of injured sciatic nerve also improved significantly. These findings suggest that L-carnitine exhibits neuroprotective effects on sciatic nerve crush injury in rats. PMID:25206754

Avsar, Ümmü Zeynep; Avsar, Umit; Aydin, Ali; Yayla, Muhammed; Ozturkkaragoz, Berna; Un, Harun; Saritemur, Murat; Mercantepe, Tolga

2014-01-01

350

A survey of natural aggregate properties and characteristics important in remote sensing and airborne geophysics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural aggregate is vital to the construction industry. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is abundant, new sources are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transportation costs, and environmental concerns. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics detect surface and near-surface phenomena, and may be useful for detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources; however, before a methodology for applying these techniques can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits. The distribution of potential aggregate sources is closely tied to local geologic history. Conventional exploration for natural aggregate deposits has been largely a ground-based operation, although aerial photographs and topographic maps have been extensively used to target possible deposits. Today, the exploration process also considers factors such as the availability of the land, space and water supply for processing, political and environmental factors, and distance from the market; exploration and planning cannot be separated. There are many physical properties and characteristics by which to judge aggregate material for specific applications; most of these properties and characteristics pertain only to individual aggregate particles. The application of remote sensing and airborne geophysical measurements to detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources, however, is based on intrinsic bulk physical properties and extrinsic characteristics of the deposits that can be directly measured, mathematically derived from measurement, or interpreted with remote sensing and geophysical data. ?? 1995 Oxford UniversityPress.

Knepper, D.H., Jr.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.

1995-01-01

351

Sivelestat improves outcome of crush injury by inhibiting high-mobility group box 1 in rats.  

PubMed

Severe crush injury is associated with high mortality because of resulting hyperkalemia in early phase and multiorgan dysfunction in later phase. In this study, we investigated the effects of sivelestat administration 1 h before reperfusion on the outcome of crush injury. Crush injury was induced by 6 h of direct compression to both hindlimbs of anesthetized rats with blocks weighing 3.5 kg each side, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups. In the control group, rats were infused with normal saline at 1 mL/kg per hour throughout the experiment without compression. Rats in the positive control group were compressed for 6 h, followed by fluid resuscitation initiated 1 h before release with normal saline. The infusion rate was increased from 1 to 10 mL/kg per hour and continued for 4 h. Rats in the treated group underwent the same procedures as in the positive control group, but sivelestat was added to normal saline (concentration was adjusted to infuse 10 mg/kg per hour) during fluid resuscitation (for 4 h). Treatment with sivelestat significantly improved survival rate with P = 0.032. This was accompanied by lower serum high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels after 3-h reperfusion, attenuated lung injury (assessed using hematoxylin-eosin stain), and suppression of HMGB1 expression in the lung and the liver. These results suggest that treatment with sivelestat improves the outcome of crush injury, likely by inhibiting HMGB1 in rats. PMID:23247125

Cuong, Nguyen The; Abe, Chikara; Binh, Nguyen Huy; Hara, Akira; Morita, Hironobu; Ogura, Shinji

2013-01-01

352

Sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock borehole plugs  

SciTech Connect

This study includes a systematic investigation of the sealing performance of bentonite and bentonite/crushed rock plugs. American Colloid C/S granular bentonite and crushed Apache Leap tuff have been mixed to prepare samples for laboratory flow testing. Bentonite weight percent and crushed tuff gradation are the major variables studied. The sealing performance assessments include high injection pressure flow tests, polyaxial flow tests, high temperature flow tests, and piping tests. The results indicate that a composition to yield a permeability lower than 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm/s would have at least 25% bentonite by weight mixed with well-graded crushed rock. Hydraulic properties of the mixture plugs may be highly anisotropic if significant particle segregation occurs during sample installation and compaction. Temperature has no significant effect on the sealing performance within the test range from room temperature to 600{degree}C. Piping damage to the sealing performance is small if the maximum hydraulic gradient does not exceed 120 and 280 for samples with a bentonite content of 25 and 35%, respectively. The hydraulic gradients above which flow of bentonite may take place are deemed critical. Analytical work includes the introduction of bentonite occupancy percentage and water content at saturation as two major parameters for plug design. A permeability model is developed for the prediction of permeability in clays, especially in view of the difficulties in obtaining this property experimentally. A piping model is derived based on plastic flow theory. This piping model permits the estimation of critical hydraulic gradients at which flow of bentonite takes place. The model can also be used to define the maximum allowable pore diameter of a protective filter layer.

Ouyang, S.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering

1992-07-01

353

Core Crush Mechanisms and Solutions in the Manufacturing of Sandwich Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core crush is a manufacturing defect occurred during the autoclave curing process of composite honeycomb sandwich structures.\\u000a It usually leads to costly part rejections since the defect is non-repairable. In addition, this problem has posted constraints\\u000a on aircraft engineers by limiting the ranges of core density and core thickness that could be used when designing these types\\u000a of structures. In

H. M. HSIAO; S. M. LEE; R. A. BUYNY

354

Protective effects of cerebrolysin in a rat model of optic nerve crush.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of cerebrolysin (Cbl) on optic nerves (ON) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in a rat model of ON crush. Rats received intravitreal injection of Cbl (n = 20), intra-ON injection of Cbl (n = 20), intraperitoneal injection (IPI) of Cbl (n = 20), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS; n = 20) every day for 2 weeks after ON crush injury. At 3 weeks post-trauma, RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold and visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials. Activities of microglia after insults were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of ED1 in the optic nerve. At 3 weeks postcrush, the densities of RGCs in the Cbl-IVI group (1125 ± 166/mm(2)) and in the Cbl-IPI treatment group (1328 ± 119/mm(2)) were significantly higher than those in the PBS group (641 ± 214/mm(2)). The flash visual-evoked potential measurements showed that latency of the P1 wave was significantly shorter in the Cbl-IVI- and Cbl-IPI-treated groups (105 ± 4 ms and 118 ± 26 ms, respectively) than in the PBS-treated group (170 ± 20 ms). However, only Cbl IPI treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of ED1-positive cells at the lesion sites of the ON (5 ± 2 cells/vs. 30 ± 4 cells/high-power field in control eyes). Treatment with intra-ON injection of Cbl was harmful to the optic nerve in the crush model. Systemic administration of Cbl had neuroprotective effects on RGC survival and visual function in the optic nerve crush model. PMID:24924838

Huang, Tzu-Lun; Huang, Sun-Ping; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Lin, Kung-Hung; Sheu, Min-Muh; Tsai, Rong-Kung

2014-07-01

355

Speed and Temperature Effects in the Energy Absorption of Axially Crushed Composite Tubes  

E-print Network

resin PET: polyethylene terephthalate PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) R: random glass mat, force, residual, universal gas constant, measure of line fit Rc: crush ratio RJ: resinjection S: constant SHPB: split Hopkinson pressure bar SMC: sheet... . Pneumatic bag shock absorbers also fall into this category. Once-only energy absorbers rely on structural collapse of a component to absorb energy. A good example of once only energy absorption is in the front and rear structures of cars. These are designed...

Fontana, Quentin, P V

1990-06-05

356

Residual sludge from dimensional stones: characterisation for their exploitation in civil and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual sludge coming from dimensional stones working plants (diamond framesaw and ganguesaw with abrasive shots processes) represents a problem for Stone Industries. In fact the cost connected to their landfilling amounts to more than 3% of operating costs of dimensional stone working plants. Furthermore their strict feature as waste to dump (CER code 010413) contrasts the EU principles of "resource preservation" and "waste recovery". The main problems related to their management are: size distribution (fine materials, potentially asphyxial), presence of heavy metals (due to the working processes) and TPH content (due to oil machines losses). Residual sludge, considered according to Italian Legislative Decree n.152/06, can be used, as waste, for environmental restoration of derelict land or in cement plants. It is also possible to think about their systematic treatment in consortium plats for the production of Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) or "New Products" (NP, eg. artificial loam, waterproofing materials, ....). The research evidences that, on the basis of a correct sludge management, treatment and characterization, economic and environmental benefits are possible (NP or SRM in spite of waste to dump). To individuate different applications of residual sludge in civil and environmental contexts, a geotechnical (size distribution, permeability, Atterberg limits, cohesion and friction angle evaluation, Proctor soil test) characterization was foreseen. The geotechnical tests were conducted on sludge as such and on three different mixes: - Mix 1 - Bentonite clay (5-10%) added to sludge a.s (90-95%); - Mix 2 - Sludge a.s. (90-80-70%) added to coarse materials coming from crushed dimensional stones (10-20-30%); - Mix 3 - Sludge a.s. (50-70%) mixed with sand, compost, natural loam (50-30% mixture of sand, compost, natural loam). The results obtained from the four sets of tests were fundamental to evaluate: - the characteristics of the original materials; - the chance to obtain new products for dumps waterproofing (Mix 1). In this case the permeability has to be at least 10-9 m/s; - the opportunity to use them for land rehabilitation and reclamation (fine and coarse materials to fill quarry or civil works pits - Mix2; artificial loam to use for quarry and civil works revegetation - Mix 3). In Mix 3 phytotoxicity tests have been performed in cooperation with Agricultural Dept. - University of Turin. In this case the "cradle to grave principle" would be applied: "waste" coming from dimensional stone working plants could return to quarries. The results coming from geotechnical tests are promising, but to exploit sludge mixtures in civil and environmental applications it is necessary to guarantee, by means of appropriate chemical analysis, that there are no problems connected to soil, water and air pollution (connected to heavy metals and TPH contents). Magnetic or hydrogravimetric separation can be performed to reduce heavy metal content, instead TPH decrement can be reached by mean of specific agronomic treatments (eg. Bioremediation). Several in situ tests will be performed to compare the laboratory results to the "pre-industrial" ones: the obtained results will be potentially useful to propose some integration to the present Italian legislation.

Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

2013-04-01

357

Low pretreatment gallbladder stone densities at computed tomography predict rapid stone clearance following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.  

PubMed

The importance of routine computer tomographic (CT) stone analysis in optimizing the therapeutic outcome after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) remains controversial. The aim of the present prospective study was to seek a correlation between CT findings and stone clearance rates after ESWL in 159 patients. One hundred fifty-nine symptomatic patients (116 females, 43 males) with solitary radiolucent gallbladder stones underwent CT for stone analysis before lithotripsy. In Group I (<50 HU, n=104), stone clearance was achieved in 55.8% of patients within 6.11+/- 6.95 months; in Group II (51-100 HU, n = 28), in 50.0% of patients within 11.2 +/- 10.3 months; in Group III (>100 HU, n = 27) in 29.7% of patients within 9.60 +/- 6.96 months. The mean follow-up period was 17.9 +/- 10.0 months. Patients in Group I showed a significantly higher rate of stone clearance than those in Groups II and III (p < 0.001) as well as a significantly shorter time for the achievement of total stone clearance than either of the other groups (p < 0.001). The authors conclude that CT stone analysis provides a more accurate method of selecting patients suitable for ESWL and may be of importance in predicting the expected length of time for achieving complete stone clearance. PMID:8919316

Kratzer, W; Mason, R A; Vogel, J; Beckh, K; Adler, G

1995-12-01

358

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2011-01-01

359

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2013-01-01

360

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2012-01-01

361

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2014-01-01

362

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2010-01-01

363

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2011-01-01

364

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2010-01-01

365

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2012-01-01

366

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2013-01-01

367

7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.  

...2014-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. 330...Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. ...areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone,...

2014-01-01

368

Effects of Oil Palm Shell Coarse Aggregate Species on High Strength Lightweight Concrete  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of oil palm shell (OPS) coarse aggregates on the properties of high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). Original and crushed OPS coarse aggregates of different species and age categories were investigated in this study. The research focused on two OPS species (dura and tenera), in which the coarse aggregates were taken from oil palm trees of the following age categories (3–5, 6–9, and 10–15 years old). The results showed that the workability and dry density of the oil palm shell concrete (OPSC) increase with an increase in age category of OPS species. The compressive strength of specimen CD3 increases significantly compared to specimen CT3 by 21.8%. The maximum achievable 28-day and 90-day compressive strength is 54 and 56?MPa, respectively, which is within the range for 10–15-year-old crushed dura OPS. The water absorption was determined to be within the range for good concrete for the different species of OPSC. In addition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) results showed that the OPS HSLWC attain good condition at the age of 3 days. PMID:24982946

Yew, Ming Kun; Bin Mahmud, Hilmi; Ang, Bee Chin; Yew, Ming Chian

2014-01-01

369

Effects of oil palm shell coarse aggregate species on high strength lightweight concrete.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of oil palm shell (OPS) coarse aggregates on the properties of high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). Original and crushed OPS coarse aggregates of different species and age categories were investigated in this study. The research focused on two OPS species (dura and tenera), in which the coarse aggregates were taken from oil palm trees of the following age categories (3-5, 6-9, and 10-15 years old). The results showed that the workability and dry density of the oil palm shell concrete (OPSC) increase with an increase in age category of OPS species. The compressive strength of specimen CD3 increases significantly compared to specimen CT3 by 21.8%. The maximum achievable 28-day and 90-day compressive strength is 54 and 56?MPa, respectively, which is within the range for 10-15-year-old crushed dura OPS. The water absorption was determined to be within the range for good concrete for the different species of OPSC. In addition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) results showed that the OPS HSLWC attain good condition at the age of 3 days. PMID:24982946

Yew, Ming Kun; Bin Mahmud, Hilmi; Ang, Bee Chin; Yew, Ming Chian

2014-01-01

370

Management of waste from stone processing industry.  

PubMed

Characteristics of waste generated in stone processing industries, impact of its current disposal practices and waste recycling potential were assessed by field studies. The physical and chemical characteristics of waste are comparable to construction materials like sand and cement. The environmental issues due to the disposal of waste including that on ambient air quality were identified at respective disposal sites. It was found that the waste can be used to replace about 60% of sand and 10% of cement in concrete. Similarly the waste can replace 40% of clay in clay bricks with affecting its compressive strength. PMID:18476374

Prasanna, K; Joseph, Kurian

2007-10-01

371

Raman spectroscopic documentation of Oligocene bladder stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of a fossil (30-35 million-year-old) urolith from Early Oligocene deposits in northeastern Colorado provides the earliest evidence for the antiquity of bladder stones. These are spherical objects with a layered phosphatic structure and a hollow center. Each layer is composed of parallel crystals oriented perpendicular to the surface. Macroscopic and microscopic examination and X-ray diffraction analysis, along with comparison with 1,000 contemporary uroliths, were used as evidence in the confirmation of this diagnosis. Raman microspectroscopy verified the presence of organic material between layers, confirming its biologic origin.

Rothschild, Bruce M.; Martin, Larry D.; Anderson, Brendan; Marshall, Alison Olcott; Marshall, Craig P.

2013-08-01

372

Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

Dolley, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

373

The Christchurch Earthquake: Crush Injury, Neuropathic Pain, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

PubMed Central

On February 22, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck Christchurch, New Zealand. The peak ground acceleration, a measure of the shaking or intensity of an earthquake, was one of the highest ever recorded worldwide. One hundred and eighty-five people lost their lives; many others were injured. Two cases both involving young women are presented; they sustained crush injuries to limbs after being trapped by falling debris and went on to develop severe neuropathic pain. This report examines the mechanisms of neuropathic pain in the setting of crush injury, the treatment modalities, and the association between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. These case reports highlight the fact that crush injury is relatively common during major earthquakes and that neuropathic pain is an important sequel of this. Post-traumatic stress disorder is common in earthquake survivors with a recognised association with chronic pain. Pain-related disability may increase as well. Issues such as chronic pain and physical disability should not be overlooked as attention focuses on disaster management and the treatment of life-threatening injuries. PMID:23956754

Shipton, Edward A.

2013-01-01

374

The christchurch earthquake: crush injury, neuropathic pain, and posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

On February 22, 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 struck Christchurch, New Zealand. The peak ground acceleration, a measure of the shaking or intensity of an earthquake, was one of the highest ever recorded worldwide. One hundred and eighty-five people lost their lives; many others were injured. Two cases both involving young women are presented; they sustained crush injuries to limbs after being trapped by falling debris and went on to develop severe neuropathic pain. This report examines the mechanisms of neuropathic pain in the setting of crush injury, the treatment modalities, and the association between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. These case reports highlight the fact that crush injury is relatively common during major earthquakes and that neuropathic pain is an important sequel of this. Post-traumatic stress disorder is common in earthquake survivors with a recognised association with chronic pain. Pain-related disability may increase as well. Issues such as chronic pain and physical disability should not be overlooked as attention focuses on disaster management and the treatment of life-threatening injuries. PMID:23956754

Cammack, Frances; Shipton, Edward A

2013-01-01

375

Subthreshold continuous electrical stimulation facilitates functional recovery of facial nerve after crush injury in rabbit.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation (ES) with subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency impulses is a viable clinical method for improving functional recovery after facial nerve crush injury. In 10 rabbits, bilateral crush injuries were made on the facial nerve by compression for 30 s with mosquito forceps, causing complete facial paralysis. Subthreshold continuous direct current ES with 20-Hz square-wave pulses was applied to the proximal stump on one side for 4 weeks. Vibrissae movement returned significantly earlier on the ES side, with a less variable recovery time. Electrophysiologically, the stimulated side had a significantly shorter latency, longer duration, and faster conduction velocity. Light and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the electrical stimulation also markedly decreased Wallerian degeneration. The average numbers of fluorescent, double-labeled nerve cells were significantly different between the ES and non-ES sides. This study shows that subthreshold, continuous, low-frequency ES immediately after a crush injury of the facial nerve results in earlier recovery of facial function and shorter overall recovery time. PMID:21254091

Kim, Jin; Han, Su Jin; Shin, Dong Hyun; Lee, Won-Sang; Choi, Jae Young

2011-02-01

376

Experimental and Modeling Studies of Crush, Puncture, and Perforation Scenarios in the Steven Impact Test  

SciTech Connect

The Steven test and associated modeling has greatly increased the fundamental knowledge of practical predictions of impact safety hazards for confined and unconfined explosive charges. Building on a database of initial work, experimental and modeling studies of crush, puncture, and perforation scenarios were investigated using the Steven impact test. The descriptions of crush, puncture, and perforation arose from safety scenarios represented by projectile designs that ''crush'' the energetic material or either ''puncture'' with a pinpoint nose or ''perforate'' the front cover with a transportation hook. As desired, these scenarios offer different aspects of the known mechanisms that control ignition: friction, shear and strain. Studies of aged and previously damaged HMX-based high explosives included the use of embedded carbon foil and carbon resistor gauges, high-speed cameras, and blast wave gauges to determine the pressure histories, time required for an explosive reaction, and the relative violence of those reactions, respectively. Various ignition processes were modeled as the initial reaction rate expression in the Ignition and Growth reaction rate equations. Good agreement with measured threshold velocities, pressure histories, and times to reaction was calculated for LX-04 impacted by several projectile geometries using a compression dependent ignition term and an elastic-plastic model with a reasonable yield strength for impact strain rates.

Vandersall, K S; Chidester, S K; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

2002-06-28

377

Temporal-spatial expressions of Spy1 in rat sciatic nerve after crush.  

PubMed

As a novel cell cycle protein, Spy1 enhances cell proliferation, promotes the G1/S transition as well as inhibits apoptosis in response to UV irradiation. Spy1 levels are tightly regulated during mammary development, and overexpression of Spy1 accelerates tumorigenesis in vivo. But little is known about the role of Spy1 in the pathological process of damage and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Here we established a rat sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model to examine the spatiotemporal expression of Spy1. Spy1 expression was elevated gradually after sciatic nerve crush and peaked at day 3. The alteration was due to the increased expression of Spy1 in axons and Schwann cells after SNC. Spy1 expression correlated closely with Schwann cells proliferation in sciatic nerve post injury. Furthermore, Spy1 largely localized in axons in the crushed segment, but rarely co-localized with GAP43. These findings suggested that Spy1 participated in the pathological process response to sciatic nerve injury and may be associated with Schwann cells proliferation and axons regeneration. PMID:23129232

Cao, Jianhua; Yang, Jiao; Wang, Youhua; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Zhengming; Cheng, Chun; Liu, Xiaojuan; Cheng, Xinghai; Long, Long; Gu, Xingxing

2013-03-01

378

Does tamsulosin change the management of proximally located ureteral stones?  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blocking agent on the spontaneous passage of proximal ureteral calculi < or =10 mm. 92 patients having single radio-opaque proximal ureteral stone < or =10 mm were randomized into two groups. Group 1 patients (n = 50) were followed with classical conservative approach and patients in Group 2 (n = 42) additionally received tamsulosin, 0.4 mg/day during 4 weeks follow-up. The stone passage rates, stone expulsion time, VAS score, change in colic episodes, and hospital re-admission rates for colicky pain were compared. The patients were furthermore stratified according to stone diameters <5 and 5-10 mm. The data of these subgroups were also compared. Stone expulsion rates showed statistically significant difference between tamsulosin receivers and non-receivers (35.7 vs 30%, p = 0.04). Time to stone expulsion period was also shortened in those receiving tamsulosin (8.4 +/- 3.3 vs 11.6 +/- 4.1 days, p = 0.015). Likewise, the mean VAS score and renal colic episodes during follow-up period were significantly diminished in Group 2 patients (4.5 +/- 2.3 vs 8.8 +/- 2.9, p < 0.01 and 66.6 vs 36%, p = 0.001, respectively). Among the stones <5 mm, tamsulosin receiving patients had higher spontaneous passage rate (71.4 vs 50%, p < 0.001). The prominent effect of tamsulosin on the 5-10 mm stones was the relocation of the stones to a more distal part of ureter (39.3 vs 18.7%, p = 0.001). Administration of tamsulosin in the medical management of proximal ureteral calculi can facilitate the spontaneous passage rate in the stone <5 mm and the relocation of the stones between 5 and 10 mm to more distal part of the ureter. PMID:20182703

Yencilek, Faruk; Erturhan, Sakip; Canguven, Onder; Koyuncu, Hakan; Erol, Bulent; Sarica, Kemal

2010-06-01

379

Fast aggregation of colloidal silica  

SciTech Connect

The aggregation kinetics of colloidal silica is highly dependent on conditions such as the {ital p}H and salt concentration. In this paper we investigate the aggregation of colloidal silica under conditions that promote rapid growth, contrasting our findings with earlier investigations of the slow growth of silica. A number of interesting effects are observed, including power-law growth of the mean aggregate radius, dependence of the aggregation rate on concentration and the chemical nature of the salt used, a reduced aggregate fractal dimension, fragmentation of the fast aggregates under changing solution conditions, and shear-induced restructuring of aggregates. Finally, we present evidence that the fractal dimension of aggregates is not strongly universal, but depends weakly on such factors as the solution concentration. We conclude that although the diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation model gives a good first-order description of rapid aggregation, real systems exhibit richer behavior that is not given to such a facile interpretation.

Martin, J.E.; Wilcoxon, J.P.; Schaefer, D.; Odinek, J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (USA))

1990-04-15

380

The pathological features and circumstances of death of lethal crush\\/traumatic asphyxia in adults—A 25-year study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 25-year retrospective study of cases of crush\\/traumatic asphyxia autopsied at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia from 1980 to 2004 was undertaken. A total of 79 cases of crush asphyxia was found consisting of 63 males (80%) and 16 females (20%). The age range of the males was 19–86 years (mean=41.8 years) and of the females was 19–75 years (mean=38.6

Roger W. Byard; Regula Wick; Ellie Simpson; John D. Gilbert

2006-01-01

381

Sonic hedgehog is Neuroprotective in the Cavernous Nerve with Crush Injury  

PubMed Central

Introduction The cavernous nerve (CN) is commonly injured during prostatectomy, resulting in erectile dysfunction (ED). Although peripheral nerves have a limited ability to regenerate, a return of function typically does not occur due to irreversible down stream morphological changes in the penis that result from CN injury. We have shown in previous studies that sonic hedgehog (SHH) is critical for CN regeneration and improves erectile function after crush injury. Aims Examine a new direction, to determine if SHH is neuroprotective to the pelvic ganglia (PG)/CN after crush injury. A secondary focus is to examine if SHH signaling decreases with age in the PG/CN. Methods Sprague Dawley rats underwent bilateral CN crush and SHH and glial fibrillary acidic protein were quantified by western analysis of the PG/CN (n=6 rats at each time point) at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14 days, and the apoptotic index was measured in the penis. SHH was quantified by western in the PG/CN with blockade of anterograde transport (n=4 rats) in comparison to mouse IgG (n=4 rats). If SHH is neuroprotective was examined at 4 (n=14 rats) and 7 days (n=16 rats) of treatment after CN crush. SHH protein was quantified in aging (P200-300, n=5 rats) PG/CN in comparison to normal adult (P115-120, n=3 rats) PG/CN. Main Outcome Measures SHH pathway was examined in PG via immunohistochemistry, in situ, western and TUNEL. Results SHH is neuroprotective in the PG/CN with injury. SHH localization in the PG/CN suggests SHH interaction in neuronal/glial signaling. SHH protein is significantly decreased in the PG/CN after crush injury and in the aged PG/CN. Signals from the PG are required to maintain SHH in the CN. Conclusions There is a window of opportunity immediately after nerve insult in which manipulation of SHH signaling in the nerve microenvironment can affect long-term regeneration outcome. PMID:22994531

Angeloni, Nicholas; Bond, Christopher W.; Harrington, Daniel; Stupp, Samuel; Podlasek, Carol A.

2012-01-01

382

[XRD, FTIR and thermoluminescence spectra of different types of urinary stones].  

PubMed

Using thermoluminescence spectrometer, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the chemical compositions of four types of kidney stones were investigated. They are calcium oxalate, uric acid, calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi (struvite). Experimental results showed that in the 305 cases of stones, calculi oxalate stones were found to account for 63%, uric acid stones 22%, calcium phosphate stones 8%, struvite 5%, and the stones with other compositions 2%. There were significant differences in the thermoluminescence spectra among the 4 types of urinary stones, which can provide an important basis for the clinic diagnosis of urinary stone types. PMID:22007431

Yang, Jin; He, Jie-Yu; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

2011-08-01

383

Monte-Carlo Tree Search in Crazy Stone Remi Coulom  

E-print Network

Monte-Carlo Tree Search in Crazy Stone R´emi Coulom Universit´e Charles de Gaulle, INRIA, CNRS Introduction 2 Crazy Stone's Algorithm Principles of Monte-Carlo Evaluation Tree Search Patterns 3 Playing global understanding The Monte-Carlo Approach random playouts dynamic evaluation with global

Coulom, Rémi - Groupe de Recherche sur l'Apprentissage Automatique, Université Charles de Gaulle

384

4. STONE CABIN II CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOUBLE THICK FEATURE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. STONE CABIN II CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOUBLE THICK FEATURE OF THE ROCK WALL. WALL PHOTOGRAPHED IS THE NORTHERNMOST WALL TAKEN FROM THE INTERIOR OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

385

Cosmogenic 3 He surface-exposure dating of stone pavements  

E-print Network

Cosmogenic 3 He surface-exposure dating of stone pavements: Implications for landscape evolution Mexico 87545 Chad T. Olinger ABSTRACT The formation of stone pavements, a ubiquitous gravel armor at the land surface in a time-transgressive manner. A newly proposed model for pavement evolution differs from

Ahmad, Sajjad

386

Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles grafted on stone surface.  

PubMed

Microbial colonization has a relevant impact on the deterioration of stone materials with consequences ranging from esthetic to physical and chemical changes. Avoiding microbial growth on cultural stones therefore represents a crucial aspect for their long-term conservation. The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively investigated in recent years, showing that they could be successfully applied as bactericidal coatings on surfaces of different materials. In this work, we investigated the ability of AgNPs grafted to Serena stone surfaces to inhibit bacterial viability. A silane derivative, which is commonly used for stone consolidation, and Bacillus subtilis were chosen as the grafting agent and the target bacterium, respectively. Results show that functionalized AgNPs bind to stone surface exhibiting a cluster disposition that is not affected by washing treatments. The antibacterial tests on stone samples revealed a 50 to 80 % reduction in cell viability, with the most effective AgNP concentration of 6.7 ?g/cm(2). To our knowledge, this is the first report on antimicrobial activity of AgNPs applied to a stone surface. The results suggest that AgNPs could be successfully used in the inhibition of microbial colonization of stone artworks. PMID:24151026

Bellissima, F; Bonini, M; Giorgi, R; Baglioni, P; Barresi, G; Mastromei, G; Perito, B

2014-12-01

387

Biodiversity of photosynthetic micro-organisms dwelling on stone monuments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical survey of literature data for the biodeteriogens acting on stone monuments was combined with the results of our investigations performed by traditional and biomolecular (ARDRA) methods. It was showed that the photosynthetic micro-organisms dwelling on stone monuments have a rather ample biodiversity, and this was also confirmed by our data on axenic cyanobacterial strains isolated from Italian monuments.

Luisa Tomaselli; Gioia Lamenti; Marco Bosco; Piero Tiano

2000-01-01

388

DNA AND PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM WASHED EXPERIMENTAL STONE TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

DNA residues may preserve on ancient stone tools used to process animals. We studied 24 stone tools recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming. Nine tools that yielded DNA included five bifaces, two side scrapers, one end scraper, and one utilized flake. The...

389

Optimum bile acid treatment for rapid gall stone dissolution.  

PubMed Central

To determine the optimum bile acid regimen for rapid gall stone dissolution, 48 gall stone patients were divided into four groups of 12 according to stone diameter and were randomly allocated to receive one of four treatment regimens: bedtime or mealtime chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA, 12 mg/kg/day) and bedtime or mealtime ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 12 mg/kg/day). An additional 10 patients treated with a combination of CDCA plus UDCA (each 6 mg/kg/day) at bedtime were matched with the 10 patients on bedtime CDCA and the 10 on bedtime UDCA. The gall stone dissolution rates at six and 12 months were determined by standardised oral cholecystography and expressed as the percentage reduction in the gall stone volume after treatment. The gall stone dissolution rate at six months was higher for UDCA than CDCA treatment (median 78% v 48%, p less than 0.01), and for bedtime than mealtime administration (69% v 39%, p less than 0.02). Both differences were greater for stones less than 8 mm diameter. The dissolution rate was faster for combination therapy than for CDCA alone at both six (82% v 36%, p less than 0.05) and 12 months (100% v 54%, p less than 0.05), but was not different from UDCA alone. We conclude that bile acid treatment should be confined to patients with small gall stones and that bedtime administration of combined UDCA and CDCA is likely to provide the most effective and safe combination. PMID:1568660

Jazrawi, R P; Pigozzi, M G; Galatola, G; Lanzini, A; Northfield, T C

1992-01-01

390

26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone facing on concrete box culvert. Stone facing appears on the headwall, tail wall, wingwalls, interior abutment wall and the pier. Looking northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

391

I.F. Stone: The Practice of Reporting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies four key emphases in life-long radical journalist I. F. Stone's approach to reporting: his strategic approach to documents, his commitment to history, his devotion to on-the-scene research, and his independence from sources. Considers limitations and adaptations of Stone's approach for the practice of reporting and for understanding the…

Lule, Jack

1995-01-01

392

Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

2015-01-01

393

The use of the chrysotile cement waste as the secondary aggregate for the concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results of research on the effective concrete with secondary chrysotile cement aggregate. One of the important problems of modern science of construction materials is the use of secondary resources for the production of construction materials, and a considerable part of them are the chrysotile cement waste and scrapped chrysotile cement products. The aim of presented research is the development of effective concrete for the production of foundation wall blocks with the use of crushed chrysotile cement products as a secondary aggregate. The main characteristics of the secondary chrysotile cement aggregate have been determined. The concrete with different compositions and with different content of secondary chrysotile cement rubble has been studied. The dependences of the strength and the specific strength of concrete with a constant W/C ratio and constant binder consumption on the consumption of the secondary aggregate have been obtained. It is stated that the introduction of secondary chrysotile cement aggregate does not significantly effect the water resistance and frost resistance of the concrete. It is shown that the variation of the fractions of secondary aggregates and the binder makes it possible to obtain the effective concrete with a wide range of strength values.

Semenov, V.; Pligina, A.; Rozovskaya, T.

2015-01-01

394

Synthetic lightweight aggregate from cool water slag: Bench-scale confirmation tests  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the potential for production of synthetic lightweight aggregate (SLA) from a Texaco coal gasification solid residue. The objective of the project was to develop a replacement for conventional lightweight aggregates typically derived from expanded clays and shales or natural lightweight aggregates. The sequence of tests performed to develop SLA from slag began with the crushing of samples of slag, followed by either extrusion or pelletization. The level of clay binder required for sufficient aggregate strength was evaluated. Using a tube furnace, expansion characteristics were studied as a function of temperature and residence time. Next, a large batch of SLA was produced in a muffle furnace and used to form concrete test cylinders. The unit weight of the resultant concrete was 105 lb/ft{sup 3}, with a compressive strength of 3100 psi, which meets the requirements specified in ASTM C 330 for lightweight aggregate of a comparable density. When the same sequence of tests was performed using a slag from which the bulk of the char had been removed, the concrete test cylinders showed an improved relationship between strength and density. Based on the results of bench-scale tests and the similarity to conventional LWA production, the conceptual design of an SLA processing plant was formulated. A comparative estimate of operating costs was prepared by analyzing data from plants using clays and shales to produce lightweight aggregates. 24 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs.

Choudhry, V.; Hadley, S.R. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (USA))

1990-05-01

395

Surgical management of bladder stones: literature review.  

PubMed

Bladder stones are rare and most cases occur in adult men with bladder outlet obstruction. Currently, there are few data on the best treatment of this disease. The aim of this review is to discuss some aspects of pathogenesis and treatment approaches for bladder lithiasis. A comprehensive search of the database of the "National Library of Medicine" /pubmed was conducted with the following key words and descriptors: "bladder" or "vesical" associated with "calculus", "stone" or "lithiasis", and "cistolithotripsy ". One hundred and seventy-one articles were identified. The articles were independently assessed by two reviewers with expertise in urolithiasis. They were included in the study when the results, complications and follow-up were clearly reported. In the end, 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several options for the treatment of bladder lithiasis are available, but no randomized trials comparing them. Different rates of calculus-free patients are described in each of them, as follows: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (75-100%), transurethral cistolithotripsy (63-100%), percutaneous cistolithotripsy (89-100%) and open surgery (100 %). The percutaneous approach has lower morbidity, with similar results to the transurethral treatment, while extracorporeal lithotripsy has the lowest rate of elimination of calculi and is reserved for patients at high surgical risk. PMID:23912371

Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Danilovic, Alexandre; Coelho, Rafael Ferreira; Srougi, Miguel

2013-01-01

396

Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication  

PubMed Central

Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

2014-01-01

397

Surgical Management of Stones: New Technology  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the surgical treatment of kidney stone disease has undergone tremendous advances, many of which were possible only as a result of improvements in surgical technology. Rigid intracorporeal lithotrites, the mainstay of percutaneous nephrolithotomy, are now available as combination ultrasonic and ballistic devices. These combination devices have been reported to clear a stone burden with much greater efficiency than devices that operate by either ultrasonic or ballistic energy alone. The laser is the most commonly used flexible lithotrite; advances in laser lithotripsy have led to improvements in the currently utilized Holmium laser platform, as well as the development of novel laser platforms such as Thulium and Erbium devices. Our understanding of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)has been improved over recent years as a consequence of basic science investigations. It is now recognized that there are certain maneuvers with SWL that the treating physician can do that will increase the likelihood of a successful outcome while minimizing the likelihood of adverse treatment-related events. PMID:19095207

Matlaga, Brian R.; Lingeman, James E.

2011-01-01

398

Prolonged Sleep under Stone Age Conditions  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: We report on a unique experiment designed to investigate the impact of prehistoric living conditions on sleep-wake behavior. Methods: A group of five healthy adults were assessed during life in a Stone Age-like settlement over two months. Results: The most notable finding was that nocturnal time in bed and estimated sleep time, as measured by actigraphy, markedly increased during the experimental period compared to the periods prior to and following the experiment. These increases were primarily driven by a phase-advance shift of sleep onset. Subjective assessments of health and functioning did not reveal any relevant changes across the study. Conclusions: Our observations provide further evidence for the long-held belief that the absence of modern living conditions is associated with an earlier sleep phase and prolonged sleep duration. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. Citation: Piosczyk H, Landmann N, Holz J, Feige B, Riemann D, Nissen C, Voderholzer U. Prolonged sleep under Stone Age conditions. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):719-722. PMID:25024647

Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

2014-01-01

399

A Cause of Renal Dysfunction: A Giant Bladder Stone  

PubMed Central

Bladder stones are frequently seen in elderly men and account for 5% of all urinary stones. They develop secondary to infravesical obstructions, such as prostatic hyperplasia and neurogenic bladder. A 56-year-old patient with frequent and painful urination, dysuria, and minor complaints of suprapubic pain was referred to our clinic. He was diagnosed with bladder stones by non-contrast abdominopelvic computerized tomography, kidney-ureter-bladder radiography, and urinary system ultrasonography. Cystolithotomy was applied on a giant stone measuring 11×6.5×10 cm that filled the intravesical cavity nearly completely. Here, we present this case of a giant bladder stone causing renal dysfunction within the context of findings in the literature. PMID:25610281

Ofluoglu, Yilmaz; Aydin, Hasan Riza; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Adanur, Senol; Ziypak, Tevfik

2013-01-01

400

Intravesical stone formation several years after hysterectomy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most bladder stones develop in patients with bladder outlet obstruction. Intravesical stone formation after surgery outside the urinary bladder is rare. Case presentation A 54-year-old Taiwanese woman with lower urinary tract symptoms following a hysterectomy 14 years ago presented to our hospital. The intravesical calculus had developed from non-absorbable sutures and hung on the dome of the urinary bladder. The stone and residuum of the suture were retrieved by performing an endoscopic procedure. Conclusions The presence of an intravesical stone should be suspected in patients with a history of hysterectomy who have symptoms in the lower urinary tract. A hanging stone on the dome of the urinary bladder implies that suture materials migrate into the urinary bladder. The complication can be prevented by the routine use of absorbable material and double-checking with cystoscopy. PMID:24088263

2013-01-01

401

Is retrograde flexible nephrolithotripsy feasible for calyceal diverticular stone?  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to manage the calyceal diverticular (CD) stone, several treatment options were applied but it is still a challenging condition of endourology. In this retrospective study, we aim to report the results of our patients with CD stones treated with retrograde flexible nephrolithotripsy (RFNL). A total of 47 patients (55 procedures) who underwent RFNL by a single surgeon for CD stones from January 2004 to March 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The demographic properties and initial complaints of those patients have been recorded along with their comorbidities and previous history of stone management. Moreover, the size and number of the stones, the duration of the surgery, fluoroscopy time, stone-free rate (SFR) and postoperative complications of the patients have been evaluated. The mean age was 41.8 years (range 16-71). Of the study population, 31 (65.9%) were male. Mean stone size was 21.1 (7-52) mm whereas in 3 (6.4%) of the cases the stones could not be reached. Mean duration of the surgery was 92.8 (57-163) min whereas mean fluoroscopy time was 35.9 (14-103) s. After 3 months of follow-up period, the SFR was 85.1%. No major complications occurred. RFNL with holmium laser and nitinol basket catheter application is a feasible and successful procedure in the management of CD stones. With its high success rates, low incidence of complications and minimal morbidity when compared with other treatment options, RFNL has the potential of becoming the preferred treatment option in the minimally invasive management of patients with CD stones. PMID:24916763

Erkurt, Bulent; Kiremit, Murat Can; Altay, Bulent; Guzelburc, Vahit; Soytas, Mustafa; Erdogan, Firat; Barisik, Cem Cahit; Albayrak, Selami

2014-08-01

402

Algal 'greening' and the conservation of stone heritage structures.  

PubMed

In humid, temperate climates, green algae can make a significant contribution to the deterioration of building stone, both through unsightly staining ('greening') and, possibly, physical and chemical transformations. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the deteriorative impact and spatial distribution of green algal biofilms, hindering attempts to model the influence of climate change on building conservation. To address this problem, we surveyed four sandstone heritage structures in Belfast, UK. Our research had two aims: 1) to investigate the relationships between greening and the deterioration of stone structures and 2) to assess the impacts of environmental factors on the distribution of green biofilms. We applied an array of analytical techniques to measure stone properties indicative of deterioration status (hardness, colour and permeability) and environmental conditions related to algal growth (surface and sub-surface moisture, temperature and surface texture). Our results indicated that stone hardness was highly variable but only weakly related to levels of greening. Stone that had been exposed for many years was, on average, darker and greener than new stone of the same type, but there was no correlation between greening and darkening. Stone permeability was higher on 'old', weathered stone but not consistently related to the incidence of greening. However, there was evidence to suggest that thick algal biofilms were capable of reducing the ingress of moisture. Greening was negatively correlated with point measurements of surface temperature, but not moisture or surface texture. Our findings suggested that greening had little impact on the physical integrity of stone; indeed the influence of algae on moisture regimes in stone may have a broadly bioprotective action. Furthermore, the relationship between moisture levels and greening is not straightforward and is likely to be heavily dependent upon temporal patterns in moisture regimes and other, unmeasured, factors such as nutrient supply. PMID:23178775

Cutler, Nick A; Viles, Heather A; Ahmad, Samin; McCabe, Stephen; Smith, Bernard J

2013-01-01

403

Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

Kracht, Jonathan M.

404

Berroqueña stone of Madrid (Spain). A traditional and contemporary building stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Alpedrete monzogranite to granodiorite pluton (350 km2) at 45 km north of the city of Madrid, there are several quarries of Berroqueña stone.This stone has been widely used as building stone in well-preserved and significant buildings of the central area of Spain, such as the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción in Alpedrete (16th century), Royal Palace and Alcalá Gate in Madrid (18th century). This building stone is used, both for new construction and restoration work, like headquarter of the Banco de España in Madrid (19th century) and its restoration (20th century). Alpedrete granite is compositionally classified as monzogranite. Petrographically, it is a medium (1-5 mm) grained subidiomorphic, and equigranular. This mineralogy consists chiefly of quartz (2-3 mm and 40-50% vol.), plagioclase (1-3 mm and 25-30% vol.), K-feldspar (microcline; 2-4 mm and 10-15% vol.) and biotite (1- 2 mm and 10-15% vol.). Its accessory minerals are cordierite, apatite, zircon and monazite. This grey granite has low amount of cracks, its open porosity (accessible to water) is 0,8 % and accessible to mercury is 0,50 %, with a diameter ranging mostly from 0.01 to 0.1 µm. Water absortion is 0,3%. Its bulk density is 2668 kg/m3 and its anisotropy grade (dM) is 6,5 %. its ultrasound propagation velocity (Vp) is 4626 m/s and microhardness of Knoop test 4544 Mpa. Pressure strenght ,and flexure strength 136.9 Mpa and 8.88 Mpa, respectiverly. Measurements obtained of petrophysical properties make this granite a high quality building material. Petrological and petrophysical characteristics of Berroqueña stone, with which have been used for many buildings from 16th century to present, provide a good answer to the decay agents, and therefore durability, possibility of differents finishes and good cleaning. Currently widely used in restoration and paving streets, outdoor tiling and funerary art. Acknowledgments: Special thanks are given to the Geomaterials (S2009/MAT 1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) Programmes, as well as the Complutense University of Madrid's research group on the alteration and conservation of heritage stone (921349) and RedLabPat (CEI-Moncloa).

Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; Varas Muriel, Ma José

2014-05-01

405

Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

Reddy, M.M.

1988-01-01

406

An Understanding of Renal Stone Development in a Mixed Oxalate–Phosphate System  

PubMed Central

The in vivo formation of calcium oxalate concretions having calcium phosphate nidi is simulated in an in vitro (37 °C, pH 6.0) dual constant composition (DCC) system undersaturated (?DCPD = ?0.330) with respect to brushite (DCPD, CaHPO4 · 2H2O) and slightly supersaturated (?COM = 0.328) with respect to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM, CaC2O4 · H2O). The brushite dissolution provides calcium ions that raise the COM supersaturation, which is heterogeneously nucleated either on or near the surface of the dissolving calcium phosphate crystals. The COM crystallites may then aggregate, simulating kidney stone formation. Interestingly, two intermediate phases, anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (monetite, CaHPO4) and calcium oxalate trihydrate (COT), are also detected by X-ray diffraction during this brushite–COM transformation. In support of clinical observations, the results of these studies demonstrate the participation of calcium phosphate phases in COM crystallization providing a possible physical chemical mechanism for kidney stone formation. PMID:18557638

Guan, Xiangying; Wang, Lijun; Dosen, Anja; Tang, Ruikang; Giese, Rossman F.; Giocondi, Jennifer L.; Orme, Christine A.; Hoyer, John R.; Nancollas, George H.

2009-01-01

407

Inhibitors of stone formation in hypercalciuric children with and without stone disease.  

PubMed

The extretion of two inhibitors of urinary stone formation (citrate, magnesium) was evaluated in 71 hypercalciuric children and 50 controls. Patients were classified into two groups: 42 nonstone former (NSF), 22 boys and 20 girls, 3-14 years old, and 29 stone formers (SF), 18 boys and 11 girls, 2.5-18 years old. Our study was unable to show significant differences in magnesium and citrate urinary outputs between controls and patient groups. The Mg/Ca ratio was found significantly lower in hypercalcuric children than in controls (p less than 0.001), but not between NSF and SF patients. Our data demonstrated that both NSF and SF groups had a significantly lower citrate/Ca ratio than controls (p less than 0.001), also it was lower in SF than in NSF (p less than 0.05). We found no significant difference in citrate excretion between boys and girls neither in patients nor in controls. PMID:1499630

al-Qadreh, A; Athanasopoulou, H; Voskaki, I

1992-01-01

408

Impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in a large group of Austrian patients with urolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate retrospectively the impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in 253 patients with urolithiasis. Material and methods CT scans were performed in 253 patients with suspected urinary stone disease from 2008 to 2010 using CT–Scanner Siemens, SOMATOM, Sensation 64. One experienced radiologist (A.L) who was blinded to the chemical composition of the stones retrospectively reviewed images and analyzed data to determine the composition of the stones. The results were compared with the biochemical analysis results obtained by infrared spectroscopy (100 FTIR, PerkinElmer). Results 253 consecutive patients from 2008 to 2010 were included into analysis: 189 males, and 64 females. Mean age was 51.2. According to stone volume, stones were divided into 2 groups: 126 stones with volume of 4.3 mm or more, 127 stones with volume less than 4.3 mm. There was a significant relationship between stone volume and its CT attenuation only in stones with a volume 4.3 mm or more (p <0.05). Conclusions We failed to show a significant relationship between stone volume and its attenuations in Hounsfield units. We could not distinguish uric acid stones from non uric acid stones. PMID:25247090

Patzak, Johanna; Lutfi, Andre; Pummer, Karl; Augustin, Herbert

2014-01-01

409

Erosion of dust aggregates  

E-print Network

Aims: The aim of this work is to gain a deeper insight into how much different aggregate types are affected by erosion. Especially, it is important to study the influence of the velocity of the impacting projectiles. We also want to provide models for dust growth in protoplanetary disks with simple recipes to account for erosion effects. Methods: To study the erosion of dust aggregates we employed a molecular dynamics approach that features a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains. For the first time, the model has been extended by introducing a new visco-elastic damping force which requires a proper calibration. Afterwards, different sample generation methods were used to cover a wide range of aggregate types. Results: The visco-elastic damping force introduced in this work turns out to be crucial to reproduce results obtained from laboratory experiments. After proper calibration, we find that erosion occurs for impact velocities of 5 m/s and above. Though fractal aggregates as ...

Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm

2013-01-01

410

Aggregates, broccoli and cauliflower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally grown structures with fractal characters like broccoli and cauliflower are discussed and compared with DLA-type aggregates. It is suggested that the branching density can be used to characterize the growth process and an experimental method to determine this parameter is proposed.

Grey, Francois; Kjems, Jørgen K.

1989-09-01

411

Aggregate Item Response Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A stochastic postulate is given for the multiple-item, successive-intervals scaling of populations. The logistic equivalent of this postulate provides an aggregate item response model in which a unidimensional submodel may be nested. Subtractive conjoint measurement of items and generalized least square methods are incorporated. (TJH)

Bechtel, Gordon G.; Ofir, Chezy

1988-01-01

412

Urinary Bladder Stone Complicating Ventriculovesical Shunt  

PubMed Central

The standard treatment for hydrocephalus is either a ventriculoperitoneal or a ventriculo-atrial shunt. However, these conventional shunts may be associated with considerable complications and high revision rates which make these familiar shunts inappropriate for a certain subset of patients. A rare complication is reported associated with an unusual procedure in a 42-year-old woman who had had a ventriculovesical shunt for four years. She presented with recurrent urinary tract infections, haematuria and urge incontinence, and was discovered to have a large vesical stone over the vesical end of the shunt. She was treated with open suprapubic cystolithotomy and the redirection of the shunt to the peritoneal cavity. The patient was followed up for 12 months postoperatively and remained free of any urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24516748

Ibrahim, Ahmed K.

2014-01-01

413

Injury experience in stone mining, 1989  

SciTech Connect

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

414

Injury experience in stone mining, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

Not Available

1994-05-01

415

Bile acid dissolution therapy of gallbladder stones.  

PubMed

Oral cholelitholytic bile acid therapy has become established treatment for selected patients with cholesterol gallstones. The treatment finds its clinical application both alone and in combination with ESWL. UDCA alone or, less commonly, a combination of this bile acid with CDCA is used. Optimal results can be expected only in carefully selected patients. Bile acid dissolution therapy is most successful in patients with radiolucent gallstones which are < or = 0.5 cm in diameter or are shown by OCG to be floating. Dissolution is seldom seen when the stones are > 1 cm in size. Cholelitholytic treatment in combination with ESWL yields optimal results in single radiolucent gallstones which are not greater than 2 cm. ESWL thus makes it possible to use medical treatment effectively in single 1-2 cm gallstones when bile acids alone would not be successful. Bile acid treatment is extremely safe, especially if UDCA is given without the addition of CDCA. PMID:1486209

Fromm, H; Malavolti, M

1992-11-01

416

Relief of heterogeneous symptoms after successful gall bladder stone lithotripsy and complete stone disappearance.  

PubMed Central

The symptoms of 100 patients with gall bladder stone disease were prospectively analysed before and after successful treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and oral bile acids. This is of considerable clinical interest because complaints after cholecystectomy persist in 21-47% of patients (postcholecystectomy syndrome). Before ESWL, 37 patients had unspecific abdominal symptoms (feeling of fullness and pressure, or slight pain, or both, in the right upper abdomen, flatulence, nausea, or food intolerance) and 63 patients had typical biliary symptoms (severe steady pain of more than 15 minutes and less than five hours duration in the right upper abdomen, in some cases radiating to the epigastrium or the back) either exclusively or with unspecific abdominal complaints. After becoming stone free, 72 of 100 patients lost the symptoms they had before treatment. All 28 patients with persisting symptoms had unspecific abdominal symptoms before treatment (exclusively unspecific symptoms and unspecific plus typical biliary symptoms). In contrast, patients with typical biliary symptoms before ESWL lost these in 95% of all cases. Although the anatomical structures are left intact after ESWL, the percentages of stone free patients with persisting symptoms are similar to those after cholecystectomy. PMID:8020812

Stölzel, U; Koszka, C; Wölfer, B; Kleine, U; Pommerien, W; Riecken, E O

1994-01-01

417

Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is everywhere evident. The ceilings of houses there are with artistic works and ornaments of different times. Houses are of balconies with balustrades, and from characteristic windows are hanging down flowers. Architecture feature of Medieval period, there are symbolised in most of houses and in Qafa e Pazarit ("Bazaar Pass"), where are crossed all roads of the ancient City. From the Fortress below your foots there are different parts of stone City. If you like to be astonished, please, get up to the Keculla Point and watch the Stone City, Drinos Valley, and Lunxheria Mountains! In Gjirokastra Region there are Antigonea Archaeological Park and Sofratika Amphitheatre. Gjirokastra has a very rich geoheritage and bioheritage such as: Viroi artesian spring, Skotini Cave, Cajupi Field Landscape etc. Since 1961, Gjirokastra was proclaimed Museum City under the protection, and on 2005 was included in UNESCO World Cultural Heritage.

Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

2013-04-01

418

Aggregating Predictions vs. Aggregating Features for Relational Classification  

E-print Network

Aggregating Predictions vs. Aggregating Features for Relational Classification Oliver Schulte.ca Abstract--Relational data classification is the problem of predicting a class label of a target entity of entities related to a target instance, or aggregating the probabilistic predictions based on the features

Schulte, Oliver

419

Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.  

PubMed

The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

2014-02-01

420

Recent advances in endoscopic management of difficult bile duct stones.  

PubMed

Endoscopic treatment is now recognized worldwide as the first-line treatment for bile duct stones. Endoscopic sphincterotomy combined with basket and/or balloon catheter is generally carried out for stone extraction. However, some stones are refractory to treatment under certain circumstances, necessitating additional/other therapeutic modalities. Large bile duct stones are typically treated by mechanical lithotripsy. However, if this fails, laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) is carried out under the guidance of conventional mother-baby cholangioscopy. More recently, direct cholangioscopy using an ultrathin gastroscope and the newly developed single-use cholangioscope system - the SpyGlass direct visualization system - are also used. In addition, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has also been used for stone fragmentation. Such fragmentation techniques are effective in cases with impacted stones, including Mirizzi syndrome. Most recently, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilationhas been introduced as an easy and effective technique for treating large and multiple stones. In cases of altered anatomy, it is often difficult to reach the papilla; in such cases, a percutaneous transhepatic approach, such as EHL or laser lithotripsy under percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy, can be a treatment option. Moreover, enteroscopy has recently been used to reach the papilla. Furthermore, an endoscopic ultrasound-guided procedure has been attempted most recently. In elderly patients and those with very poor general condition, biliary stenting only is sometimes carried out with or without giving subsequent dissolution agents. PMID:23650878

Yasuda, Ichiro; Itoi, Takao

2013-07-01

421

Symptomatic and silent gall stones in the community.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of gall stone disease in a stratified random sample of 1896 British adults (72.2% of those approached) was established using real time ultrasound. The prevalence rose with age, except in women of 40-49 years, so that at 60-69 years, 22.4% of women and 11.5% of men had gall stones or had undergone cholecystectomy. The cholecystectomy rate of people with gall stone disease was higher in women than in men (43.5% v 24%, p less than 0.05). Very few subjects with gall stones had convincing biliary symptoms. In women, 10.4% had symptoms according to a questionnaire definition of biliary pain and 6.3% according to conventional history taking, while no men at all admitted to biliary pain. Nevertheless, cholecystectomy in men had nearly always been preceded by convincing biliary symptoms. The age at cholecystectomy was, on average, nine years less than the age at detection of silent gall stones in both sexes. It is concluded that either gall stones are especially prone to cause symptoms in younger people or that there are two kinds of cholelithiasis - symptomatic and silent. The lack of symptomatic gall stones in cross sectional surveys is probably due to their rapid diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2013429

Heaton, K W; Braddon, F E; Mountford, R A; Hughes, A O; Emmett, P M

1991-01-01

422

Ureteropelvic obstruction and renal stones: etiology and treatment.  

PubMed

The simultaneous surgical management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with concomitant renal stones has evolved the last 20 years; hence, the ideal minimally invasive technique is still controversial. Laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic operations allow precise surgical maneuvers and were thought to simplify the reconstruction steps of the procedure, especially in the treatment of complex cases with large stones. The aim of this study was to summarize the available perioperative and functional outcomes of minimally invasive available techniques. A non-systematic review of the literature was performed using a free-text protocol in the MEDLINE database. The terms used were "ureteropelvic junction obstruction," "renal calculi" and "renal stones." Furthermore, other significant relevant studies cited in the reference lists of the selected papers were also evaluated in the structure of this review. Currently, available evidence suggests that both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted techniques offer excellent surgical solutions in the field of UPJO reconstruction and renal stones removal. In the hands of experienced surgeons, laparoscopic and robotic pyeloplasty with concomitant stone removal is a safe procedure with high stone-free rates and UPJ patency. Minimally invasive pyeloplasty should constitute the first choice of treatment for concomitant renal stones and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. PMID:25362543

Skolarikos, Andreas; Dellis, Andreas; Knoll, Thomas

2015-02-01

423

Kidney Stones and the Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Kidney stones lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with rare hereditary disorders (e.g., primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria), but it is unknown whether kidney stones are an important risk factor for CKD in the general population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Among Olmsted County, MN, residents, all stone formers (n = 4774) whose condition was diagnosed in 1986 through 2003 were matched 1:3 to control subjects (n = 12,975). Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, gout, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, coronary artery disease, heart failure, cerebral infarct, and peripheral vascular disease) were used to assess the risk for incident CKD defined as a clinical diagnosis (diagnostic codes), ESRD or death with CKD, sustained (>90 d) elevated serum creatinine (>1.3 mg/dl in men, >1.1 mg/dl in women), or sustained estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Results: During a mean of 8.6 yr of follow-up, stone formers were at increased risk for a clinical diagnosis of CKD, but an increased risk for ESRD or death with CKD was NS. Among patients with follow-up serum creatinine levels, stone formers were at increased risk for a sustained elevated serum creatinine and a sustained reduced GFR. Conclusions: Kidney stones are a risk factor for CKD, and studies are warranted to assess screening and preventive measures for CKD in stone formers. PMID:19339425

Rule, Andrew D.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Melton, L. Joseph; Li, Xujian; Weaver, Amy L.; Lieske, John C.

2009-01-01

424

Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population  

PubMed Central

The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

2014-01-01

425

Cholesterol Microlithiasis: Bacteriology, Gallbladder Bile and Stone Composition  

PubMed Central

It is not known whether microcalculi possess structural differences compared with larger stones or whether they represent simply an earlier stage in stone disease. We carried out a controlled study on 10 patients affected by gallbladder cholesterol microlithiasis (CM). In all patients, samples from all parts of the stones were studied by X-ray diffraction and by infrared spectrophotometry. Bile analysis was carried out to determine cholesterol, phospholipid and total bile acid content. The cholesterol saturation indices (C.S.I.) were calculated. In all samples, bacterial bile culture was carried out. The results were compared with those of 10 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy for large cholesterol stones, and for 10 patients who had undergone abdominal surgery but without biliary pathology. Patients in these latter groups were matched with the first according to sex and age. Microcalculi proved to be layered (nucleus and external layer) in only 2 cases and larger stones in 9; cholesterol was seen to be the principal crystalline component in all cases. Traces of bilirubin were found in 7 CM and in the nuclei of 5 larger stones. These results show that the structural composition of microcalculi is similar to that of the nucleus of larger stones. No substantial differences exist, however, between the two groups of patients regarding the other parameters taken into consideration. PMID:2487068

Gafa', Matteo; Longinotti, Ernesto; Carreras, Fabio; Pietra, Nicola; Peracchia, Anacleto; Dotti, Claudio; Cavalier, Simonetta

1989-01-01

426

Assessment of a formulation designed to be crush-resistant in prescription opioid abusers  

PubMed Central

Background The extent of intranasal and intravenous prescription opioid abuse has led to the development of formulations that are difficult to crush. The purpose of the present studies was to examine whether experienced prescription opioid abusers (individuals who were using prescription opioids for non-medical purposes regardless of how they were obtained) were able to prepare a formulation of oxymorphone hydrochloride ER 40 mg designed to be crush-resistant (DCR) for intranasal (Study 1) or intravenous abuse (Study 2), utilizing a non-crush-resistant formulation of oxymorphone (40 mg; OXM) as a positive control. Methods No drug was administered in these studies. Participants were provided with DCR and OXM tablets in random order and asked to prepare them for abuse with tools/solutions that they had previously requested. The primary outcome for Study 1 was particle size distribution, and the primary outcome for Study 2 was percent yield of active drug in the extracts. Other descriptive variables were examined to better understand potential responses to these formulations. Results Fewer DCR than OXM particles were smaller than 1.705 mm (9.8% vs. 97.7%), and thus appropriate for analyses. Percent yield of active drug in extract was low and did not differ between the two formulations (DCR: 1.95%; OXM: 1.29%). Most participants were not willing to snort (92%) or inject (84%) the tampered products. Participants indicated that they found less relative value in the DCR than the OXM formulation across both studies. Conclusions Although there are safety issues associated with formulations that gel, these data suggest that the oxymorphone DCR formulations may be a promising technology for reducing opioid abuse. PMID:22721679

Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Jones, Jermaine D.; Manubay, Jeanne M.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Benedek, Irma H.; Comer, Sandra D.

2013-01-01

427

Electron-optical microscopic study of incipient dental microdamage from experimental seed and bone crushing  

SciTech Connect

No living analogue exists for the hypothetical early hominid hard/tough-seed, coarse-root-eating, and bone-crushing masticatory adaptation. To investigate possible microdamage/microwear to dental enamel caused by such usage, puncture-crushing experiments were carried out on single human teeth, using an Instron compression apparatus on the following six test materials: Makapansgat Limeworks chert (e.g., taphonomy), fresh steer longbone, mongongo nuts, Grewia berries, Carob beans, and wild-onion bulbs. Pairs of extracted unworn third molars were utilized, with one tooth acting as the control. The teeth were mounted, ultrasonically cleaned, and two-stage replicas made with a vinyl polysiloxane elastomer and araldite epoxy resin. After Instron loading and materials failure (1.2-395.0 kg) the test items and the crowns were prepared for comparison with scanning electron microscopy and dispersive x-ray elemental analysis and mapping. The results revealed that although grit adhering to food item surfaces caused microscratches (0.1-1.0 micron wide) similar in appearance to those caused by opal phytoliths in grasses, the dicotyledonous seed coats per se were unable to score enamel. This suggests microscratch morphology alone may not provide a reliable indication of food type. In some cases puncture-crushing of bone and hard legumes produced a localized microfracture pattern (crazing with cracks less than or equal to 0.1-1.0 micron wide) that was readily distinguishable from the simulated taphonomic damage caused by chert fragments, suggesting only analysis of enamel mistaphonomic damage caused by chart fragments, suggesting analysis of enamel microfracture patterns may provide clues as to early hominid dietary adaptations.

Peters, C.R.

1982-03-01

428

Citicoline and lithium rescue retinal ganglion cells following partial optic nerve crush in the rat.  

PubMed

Citicoline and lithium (Li(-)) have been shown to support retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axon regeneration in vitro. Optic nerve crush (ONC) is a model of both brain axonal injury and certain aspects of the glaucomatous degeneration of RGC. We have used this model to quantify protection offered to RGC by these drugs and to determine whether their effects are mediated by enhanced expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Adult rats (6-12 per group) were subjected to ONC accompanied by a contralateral sham operation. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with either vehicle, citicoline sodium (1g/kg daily for up to 7 days and 300 mg/kg daily afterwards), lithium chloride (30 mg/kg daily), or both drugs combined. Fluorogold was injected bilaterally into superior colliculi 1, 5 or 19 days after ONC. Labeled cells were counted under a fluorescence microscope 2 days after tracer injection. In a separate set of experiments the effects of treatments on expression of Bcl-2 in retinas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In vehicle-treated animals there was a progressive decrease of RGC density after crush. This decrease was attenuated in citicoline-treated animals 1 week and 3 weeks after the crush. In the lithium-treated group protection was even more pronounced. In animals treated with both drugs RGC protection was similar to that achieved by lithium alone. Bcl-2 immunoreactivity was seen predominantly in retinal ganglion cells. Its increase was recorded in the lithium and citicoline group as well as in animals treated with the combination of both drugs. Both citicoline and lithium protect RGC and their axons in vivo against delayed degeneration triggered by the ONC. Retinoprotective action of both drugs may involve an increase in Bcl-2 expression. PMID:16876158

Schuettauf, Frank; Rejdak, Robert; Thaler, Sebastian; Bolz, Sylvia; Lehaci, Cristiana; Mankowska, Anna; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Junemann, Anselm; Zagorski, Zbigniew; Zrenner, Eberhart; Grieb, Pawel

2006-11-01

429

Decay and preservation of stone in modern environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stone objects decay in all environments, but the modes of decay vary from one region to another. In the modern industrial countries acid deposition has accelerated the decay of stone. Many objects that survived centuries of weathering without serious damage have, in the present century, decomposed beyond recognition. The black crusts seen on stone structures mostly contain gypsum formed by SO2 reactions with calcareous minerals. These crusts exfoliate, destroying the sculptural form. Because of the absence of proven technology to treat and restore these objects, the caryatids at the Acropolis had to be moved indoors to save them from further disfiguration. In arid climates, the salts in stone and the meteorologic conditions combine to disrupt stone structures. The Great Sphinx at Giza is a prominent example of this mode of stone decay. In humid, tropical regions, such as in southern India, hydrolysis disrupts the mineral structure, causing rapid damage even to such durable stone as granite. The human effort to save the deteriorating structures has often aggravated the problem. The sandstone at the Legislative Building in Olympia, Washington has, because of the “protective” acrylic coating, suffered greater damage than the similar but unprotected sandstone at a nearby school building. It appears that proper management can greatly help to reduce the decay of the stone. A scientifically designed cleaning can inhibit the formation of crusts and the accumulation of efflorescences. The absence of the crusts and efflorescence and application of appropriate impregnants, which consolidate yet maintain the "breathability" of stone, may prolong the life of historic structures.

Gauri, K. Lal

1990-01-01

430

Selective batch crushing in the coal-preparation shop at OAO NTMK  

SciTech Connect

In September 2004, after reconstruction at OAO Nizhnetagil'skii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (NTMK), blast furnace 6 went into operation for the production of vanadium from hot metal. At the startup of furnace 6, besides optimising its composition; it was decided to restore selective crushing of the coal batch using pneumatic and mechanical separation in the third unit of the coal preparation shop. Additional increase in the mechanical strength of coke by 1.5-2.0% was predicted with a 0.5-1.0% decrease in wear.

N.A. Berkutov; Yu.V. Stepanov; P.V. Shtark; L.A. Makhortova; N.K. Popova; D.A. Koshkarov; N.V. Tsarev [OAO Nizhnetagil'skii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (NTMK)(Russian Federation)

2007-05-15

431

Addressing the crush of sampling. [technology programs for space information systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall space information system involves sensing, processing, analyzing, and distributing space-acquired information. These systems may be partitioned into the spacecraft segment, the wideband space-to-ground communication segment, and the ground-based data analysis and distribution segment. The paper discusses NASA's advanced technology programs aimed at providing improved sensors and on-board data systems. Advances in charge-transfer devices, lasers, and microwave technologies will be responsible for major improvements in NASA's sensing and detection capabilities for future missions. These improvements will result in a future data crush that will amplify the data management problem.

Olstad, W. B.; Holcomb, L. B.; Rubin, B.

1980-01-01

432

"Piedra Franca": the same name for many different natural stones.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spanish name "Piedra Franca" refers to all the stones of sedimentary origin that have uniform coloration and easeof cutting/carving in order to obtain dimensional blocks for construction. The first references to this denomination occurred during medieval times, when builders had to choose the best materials to construct magnificent cathedrals. The largest volume of such natural stones were extracted from Caen, northern France, and historic records use the English term, "freestone", ie stone easy to cut, and to work by the masons dedicated to build cathedrals ("freemasons") in contrast to the "roughstone", hard stones worked by the hard hewers or "rough masons". The original French name referred to the limestones extracted at Caen, but over time, the original meaning expanded to include other natural stones with similar coloration and ease to carve. Notably this included many sandstones that were used in adjacent countries such as Spain. In the latter, although the most popular for its importance in architectural heritage is the Villamayor sandstone from Salamanca, other historically important natural stones are also known as "Piedra Franca" including the calcarenite from Santa Pudia (Granada), the limestone from Alava, the sandstone from Jaen and the sandstone from Cádiz. All of them were used in the construction of Spanish architectonic heritage and share similar exterior characteristics. In fact, several are known as golden stones. However when conservation and restoration of architectonic heritage is involved, the correct and original material should be used. The existence of national networks (e.g. CONSTRUROCK) and international task groups (e.g. IUGS Heritage Stone Task Group) can help to properly characterize, document, and differentiate between the varieties of "Piedra Franca" and they should be consulted by builders, architects and any other stone professsionals involved in such activities. An error in choosing the natural stone can result in significant damage to the architectonic heritage. The same issue that occurs with "Piedra Franca" also extends to other natural stones in Spain and around the world. This explains the importance of these networks and task groups. This work was sponsored by the ERASMUS Intensive Programme 2012-1-ES1-ERA10-54375 and it was done within the framework of the Heritage Stone Task Group and CONSTRUROCK activities.

Pereira, Dolores; Navarro, Rafael; Baltuille, Jose Manuel

2014-05-01

433

Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing  

SciTech Connect

Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

Kim, Young

2013-08-20

434

Stone anchors from the Mediterranean coasts of Anatolia, Turkey: underwater surveys and archaeometrical investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is mainly based on the expeditions and underwater study of stone anchors from the Cilician coast, Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology and the Ka? Uluburun wreck. The stone anchors found on the Cilician coast are very similar to eastern Mediterranean stone anchors with respect to shape and characteristics. The stone anchors from BMUA and KUW were examined by

Volkan Evrin; Gülay Öke; Asuman G Türkmenoglu; ?ahinde Demirci

2002-01-01

435

Premicellar aggregation of amphiphilic molecules: aggregate lifetime and polydispersity  

E-print Network

A recently introduced thermodynamic model of amphiphilic molecules in solution has yielded, under certain realistic conditions, a significant presence of metastable aggregates well below the critical micelle concentration -- a phenomenon that has been reported also experimentally. The theory is extended in two directions pertaining to the experimental and technological relevance of such premicellar aggregates. (a) Combining the thermodynamic model with reaction rate theory, we calculate the lifetime of the metastable aggregates. (b) Aggregation number fluctuations are examined. We demonstrate that, over most of the metastable concentration range, the premicellar aggregates should have macroscopic lifetimes and small polydispersity.

Hadgiivanova, Radina

2008-01-01

436

Premicellar aggregation of amphiphilic molecules: Aggregate lifetime and polydispersity  

E-print Network

A recently introduced thermodynamic model of amphiphilic molecules in solution has yielded, under certain realistic conditions, a significant presence of metastable aggregates well below the critical micelle concentration -- a phenomenon that has been reported also experimentally. The theory is extended in two directions pertaining to the experimental and technological relevance of such premicellar aggregates. (a) Combining the thermodynamic model with reaction rate theory, we calculate the lifetime of the metastable aggregates. (b) Aggregation number fluctuations are examined. We demonstrate that, over most of the metastable concentration range, the premicellar aggregates should have macroscopic lifetimes and small polydispersity.

Radina Hadgiivanova; Haim Diamant

2008-08-14

437

MASTER THESIS Federated Aggregated Search  

E-print Network

MASTER THESIS Federated Aggregated Search Andr´es Marenco Z´u~niga (s1155636) University of Twente Federated Aggregated Search by Andr´es Marenco Z´u~niga The traditional search engine paradigm has changed on the problem of creating an aggregated search engine which integrates federated collections in an uncooperative

Vellekoop, Michel

438

Reaction/Aggregation Clment Sire  

E-print Network

and chemistry Atoms diffusing on a surface and Diffusion Limited Aggregation Atomic clusters Chemical or even d· 4 for diffusion processes) Out of equilibrium reaction/aggregation processes can leadReaction/Aggregation Processes Clément Sire Laboratoire de Physique Théorique CNRS & Université

Giraud, Olivier

439

Database abstractions: aggregation and generalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of abstraction that are fundamentally important in database design and usage are defined. Aggregation is an abstraction which turns a relationship between objects into an aggregate object. Generalization is an abstraction which turns a class of objects into a generic object. It is suggested that all objects (individual, aggregate, generic) should be given uniform treatment in models of

John Miles Smith; Diane C. Pirog Smith

1977-01-01

440

Epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability were established in 958 participants in the Northwick Park Heart Study. The main analyses were based on the dose of adenosine diphosphate at which primary aggregation occurred at half its maximum velocity. Aggregability increased with age in both sexes, was greater in whites than blacks (particularly among men), and tended to decrease with the

T W Meade; M V Vickers; S G Thompson; Y Stirling; A P Haines; G J Miller

1985-01-01

441

Resilient aggregation in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies security for data aggregation in sensor networks. Current aggregation schemes were designed without security in mind and there are easy attacks against them. We examine several approaches for making these aggregation schemes more resilient against certain attacks, and we propose a mathematical framework for formally evaluating their security.

David Wagner

2004-01-01

442

Shape and Size of Microfine Aggregates: X-ray Microcomputed Tomgraphy vs. Laser Diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Microfine rock aggregates, formed naturally or in a crushing process, pass a No. 200 ASTM sieve, so have at least two orthogonal principal dimensions less than 75 {mu}m, the sieve opening size. In this paper, for the first time, we capture true 3-D shape and size data of several different types of microfine aggregates, using X-ray microcomputed tomography ({mu}CT) with a voxel size of 2 {mu}m. This information is used to generate shape analyses of various kinds. Particle size distributions are also generated from the {mu}CT data and quantitatively compared to the results of laser diffraction, which is the leading method for measuring particle size distributions of sub-millimeter size particles. By taking into account the actual particle shape, the differences between {mu}CT and laser diffraction can be qualitatively explained.

Erdogan,S.; Garboczi, E.; Fowler, D.

2007-01-01

443

Reversible Aggregation of Albumin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the interactions in synovial fluid involving the polyelectrolyte sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) and plasma proteins in their native state (albumin and globulins). Rheological measurements on synovial fluid show it to be highly viscoelastic and also rheopectic (stress increases with time in steady shear). Equilibrium dialysis confirms the findings of Ogston and Dubin that there is no association between NaHA and albumin at physiological pH and salt. What we find instead is a reversible aggregation of albumin, with an association energy of order 3kT and commensurate association lifetime of order microseconds. Certain anti-inflammatory drugs are shown to prevent this reversible aggregation. The implications of these findings for synovial fluid and blood rheology are discussed.

Colby, Ralph H.; Oates, Katherine M. N.; Krause, Wendy E.; Jones, Ronald L.

2004-03-01

444

Adsorption of sulfur hexafluoride onto crushed tuffs from the Yucca Mountain area, NYE County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory batch-type testing procedure was developed that provides a simple, rapid, and reproducible method to investigate the adsorptive capabilities of crushed materials for gaseous compounds. Several batch tests were conducted to test crushed samples of tuff, clinoptilolite, and gypsum cement for their retention of sulfur hexafluoride. For each sample tested, the surface area, distribution coefficient, and retention equation were determined. The surface areas of the samples decreased in the following order: Topopah Spring Tuff, UE-25 UZ No. 5; bedded tuff, clinoptilolite; Yucca Mountain Tuff; Topopah Spring Tuff, UE-25 UZ No. 4; Pah Canyon Tuff; gypsum cement; and Tiva Canyon Tuff. The distribution coefficients show that sulfur hexafluoride is readily adsorbed onto clinoptilolite, bedded tuff, and Topopah Spring Tuff, but that it does not appreciably adsorb onto gypsum cement, Tiva Canyon Tuff, or Pah Canyon Tuff. Retention equations, which were calculated as a function of the surface area of the tuffs, were similar for all but one (Tiva Canyon Tuff) of the tuffs. The similarity of the retention equations demonstrates that the surface area of a tuff is a good indicator of the sorptive capability of the tuff. The distribution coefficients and the surface areas of the tuffs show a correlation with the amount of zeolite in the tuff, providing evidence that zeolites are the principal mineral controlling the adsorption of sulfur hexafluoride.

Rattray, G.W.; Striegl, R.G.; Yang, I.C.

1995-12-31

445

The effect of cargo on the crush loading of RAM transportation packages in ship collisions  

SciTech Connect

Recent intercontinental radioactive material shipping campaigns have focused public and regulatory attention on the safety of transport of this material by ocean-going vessels. One major concern is the response of the vessel and onboard radioactive material (RAM) packages during a severe ship-to-ship collision. These collisions occur at velocities less than the velocity obtained in the Type B package regulatory impact event and the bow of the striking ship is less rigid than the unyielding target used in those tests (Ammerman and Daidola, 1996). This implies that ship impact is not a credible scenario for damaging the radioactive material packages during ship collisions. It is possible, however, for these collisions to generate significant amounts of crush force by the bow of the impacting ship overrunning the package. It is the aim of this paper to determine an upper bound on the magnitude of this crush force taking into account the strength of the radioactive material carrying vessel and any other cargo that may be stowed in the same hold as the radioactive material.

Radloff, H.D.; Ammerman, D.J.

1998-03-01

446

Swimming Exercise in the Acute or Late Phase after Sciatic Nerve Crush Accelerates Nerve Regeneration  

PubMed Central

There is no consensus about the best time to start exercise after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the sciatic nerves of rats that began to swim immediately after crush nerve injury (CS1), those that began to swim 14 days after injury (CS14), injured rats not submitted to swimming (C), and uninjured rats submitted to swimming (S). After 30 days the number of axons in CS1 and CS14 was lower than in C (P < 0.01). The diameter of axons and nerve fibers was larger in CS1 (P < 0.01) and CS14 (P < 0.05) than in C, and myelin sheath thickness was lower in all crushed groups (P < 0.05). There was no functional difference between CS1 and CS14 (P > 0.05). Swimming exercise applied during the acute or late phase of nerve injury accelerated nerve regeneration and synaptic elimination after axonotmesis, suggesting that exercise may be initiated immediately after injury. PMID:21876821

Teodori, Rosana Macher; Betini, Joice; de Oliveira, Larissa Salgado; Sobral, Luciane Lobato; Takeda, Sibele Yoko Mattozo; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima

2011-01-01

447

Calling by Domestic Piglets during Simulated Crushing and Isolation: A Signal of Need?  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow’s reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced “squeezing” on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Špinka, Marek; Tallet, Céline

2013-01-01

448

Influence of variables on the consolidation and unconfined compressive strength of crushed salt: Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Eight hydrostatic compression creep tests were performed on crushed salt specimens fabricated from Avery Island dome salt. Following the creep test, each specimen was tested in unconfined compression. The experiments were performed to assess the influence of the following four variables on the consolidation and unconfined strength of crushed salt: grain size distribution, temperature, time, and moisture content. The experiment design comprised a half-fraction factorial matrix at two levels. The levels of each variable investigated were grain size distribution, uniform-graded and well-graded (coefficient of uniformity of 1 and 8); temperature 25/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C; time, 3.5 x 10/sup 3/s and 950 x 10/sup 3/s (approximately 60 minutes and 11 days, respectively); and moisture content, dry and wet (85% relative humidity for 24 hours). The hydrostatic creep stress was 10 MPa. The unconfined compression tests were performed at an axial strain rate of 1 x 10/sup -5/s/sup -1/. Results show that the variables time and moisture content have the greatest influence on creep consolidation, while grain size distribution and, to a somewhat lesser degree, temperature have the greatest influence on total consolidation. Time and moisture content and the confounded two-factor interactions between either grain size distribution and time or temperature and moisture content have the greatest influence on unconfined strength. 7 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

Pfeifle, T.W.; Senseny, P.E.; Mellegard, K.D.

1987-01-01

449

Crush performance of redwood for developing design procedures for impact limiters  

SciTech Connect

Containers for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials incorporate redwood in impact limiters. Redwood is an excellent energy absorber, but only the most simplistic information exists on its crush properties. Tbe stress-strain interrelationship for any wood species subject to three-dimensional stresses is largely unknown for any all stress condition and wood behavior at both high strains and high strain-rates is known only in general terms. Both stress-strain and crush failure theories have been developed based only on uniaxial load tests. The anisotropy of wood adds an additional complexity to measuring wood response and developing suitable theories to describe it. A long history of wood utilization in the building industry has led to design procedures and property information related to simple uniaxial loadings that do not inflict damage to the wood. This lack of knowledge may be surprising for a material that has a long history of engineered use, but the result is difficulty in utilizing wood in more sophisticated designs such as impact limiters. This study provides a step toward filling the information gap on wood material response for high performance applications such as impact limiters.

Cramer, S.M.; Hermanson, J.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); McMurtry, W.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

450

The effect of memantine on functional recovery of the facial nerve after crush injury.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to establish whether memantine is an alternative and effective treatment on facial nerve recovery after crush injury, and also to analyze the effective doses of this promising agent. This is a randomized controlled animal study. 40 rats underwent crush injury to left main trunk of the facial nerve, and divided into 4 groups; (1) control (saline treated), (2) 5-mg/kg memantine, (3) 10-mg/kg memantine, and (4) 20-mg/kg memantine group. Facial nerve functions were evaluated by eye reflex, and whisker movement compared to the unaffected side. They were scored on a 3-point scale. On day 28, the rats were sacrificed, and the facial nerves were dissected. The paraffin sections were studied with caspase-3 immunostaining. According to statistical data, the recovery in Group 4 began significantly earlier than the other groups on the basis of restoring eye blink reflexes and whisker movement. Groups 2 and 3 showed faster recovery than Group 1 on the basis of whisker movement. The caspase-3 positive staining was rarely detected in all groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that Group 4 showed fewer apoptotic cells than other groups; this was statistically significant. However, the Mann-Whitney U test with the Bonferroni correction did not reveal any significant difference between the groups. In conclusion, this study revealed that memantine acted to restore facial nerve functions, and accelerate recovery after facial nerve injury by inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24659363

Topdag, Murat; Topdag, Deniz Ozlem; Ila, Kadri; Muezzinoglu, Bahar; Yaprak, Busra; Ozturk, Murat; Caliskan, Sebla; Iseri, Mete

2014-03-23

451

Changes in the Foxj1 expression of Schwann cells after sciatic nerve crush.  

PubMed

Foxj1 is a member of the Forkhead box family of transcription factors expressed in multiple tissues during development and a major regulator of cilia development. It was reported that Foxj1 has a significant up-regulation after traumatic brain injury and plays an important role in central nervous system injury and repair. However, its expression and function in the peripheral nervous system lesion are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of Foxj1 in a rat sciatic nerve crush model. After never injury, we observed that Foxj1 had a significant up-regulation from 1 day, peaked at day 3 and then gradually decreased to the normal level at 4 weeks. At its peak expression, Foxj1 expressed mainly in Schwann cells (SCs) of the distal sciatic nerve segment from injury, but had few co-localizations in axons. Besides, the peak expression of Foxj1 was in parallel with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and numerous SCs expressing Foxj1 were PCNA positive. Collectively, we hypothesized that peripheral nerve crush-induced up-regulation of Foxj1 in the sciatic nerve was associated with Schwann cells proliferation. PMID:23515839

Cao, Jianhua; Cheng, Xinghai; Zhou, Zhengming; Sun, Huiqing; Zhou, Feng; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yonghua; Cui, Gang

2013-08-01

452

Experimental and numerical investigation of flow phenomena innonisothermal, variably saturated bentonite/crushed rock mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock are being examined as components of the engineered barrier system in a geologic repository of high-level nuclear waste. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the thermal and unsaturated hydraulic properties of bentonite/crushed diorite mixtures. Water-retention curves were conventionally obtained from pressure cell and evaporation experiments. In addition, transient data from heating and gas injection experiments on laboratory columns were analyzed using inverse modeling techniques. Measured pressures, temperatures, and drained-water volumes were jointly inverted to estimate absolute permeability, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and capillary strength parameters. Simultaneous matching of all available data specifically the gas breakthrough at the top of the column proved difficult, pointing towards aspects of the experimental design and the conceptual model that need to be refined. The analysis of sensitivity coefficients and the correlation structure of the parameters revealed the importance of accurately capturing coupled thermal hydrological processes within the column as well as the details of the experimental apparatus, such as heat losses and storage of water and gas in the measuring burette. The parameters estimated using different experimental and analytical procedures were consistent with one another, providing backfill material properties useful for