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1

Regulation of crustacean molting and regeneration  

SciTech Connect

The regulation of molting and regeneration by two antagonistic hormones is discussed. The time course of ecdysteroid titers in crustacean tissues has been followed during molt and regeneration cycles. (ACR)

Skinner, D.M.; Graham, D.E.; Holland, C.A.; Soumoff, C.; Mykles, D.L.

1981-01-01

2

Physiological role of 3-hydroxykynurenine and xanthurenic acid upon crustacean molting.  

PubMed

Studies with crabs (Charybdis japonica) and crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) revealed that the tryptophan metabolites, 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine (3-OH-K) and xanthurenic acid (XA), common secretory products of the X-organ-sinus gland complex of eyestalks from several decapods, regulated the molting of crustaceans in species-nonspecific fashion. Injection of 3-OH-K to the eyestalk-ablated crayfish delayed the onset of the first molt and lengthened the interval between the first and second molts. These lines of evidence were in accord with previous accounts of the so-called "molt inhibiting hormone" (MIH) effect. Removal of eyestalks caused a change in the conversion capacity of exogenous 3-OH-K to XA in the hemolymph. The peak in transformation capacity was followed by a peak in the titer of 20-hydroxyecdysone or molting hormone. Moreover, the seasonal profiles of the XA and ecdysone titers in Charybdis japonica exhibited a staggered relationship in the tissues tested. The ratio of XA to 3-OH-K, which is expected to indicate the apparent 3-OH-Kase activity, fluctuated seasonally and locally. When the Y-organ with the adhering tissues (Y-organ complex or YOC) was incubated during the period of high XA titer, the YOC produced 100 times more ecdysone than before incubation. It is suggested that ecdysteroidogenesis in situ was suppressed during this period by XA, but incubation of the YOC lead to a dramatic acceleration in ecdysone synthesis by overriding this inhibitory effect. XA profoundly repressed ecdysteroidogenesis in the YOC culture. Thus, XA is the ecdysone biosynthesis inhibitor (EBI) and 3-OH-K the precursor in crustaceans. An interfering effect of XA to a biocatalyst cytochrome P-450 system was postulated for the inhibition mechanism of ecdysteroidogenesis. PMID:1772071

Naya, Y; Ohnishi, M; Ikeda, M; Miki, W; Nakanishi, K

1991-01-01

3

Exoskeleton anchoring to tendon cells and muscles in molting isopod crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Abstract Specialized mechanical connection between exoskeleton and underlying muscles in arthropods is a complex network of interconnected matrix constituents, junctions and associated cytoskeletal elements, which provides prominent mechanical attachment of the epidermis to the cuticle and transmits muscle tensions to the exoskeleton. This linkage involves anchoring of the complex extracellular matrix composing the cuticle to the apical membrane of tendon cells and linking of tendon cells to muscles basally. The ultrastructural arhitecture of these attachment complexes during molting is an important issue in relation to integument integrity maintenance in the course of cuticle replacement and in relation to movement ability. The aim of this work was to determine the ultrastructural organization of exoskeleton – muscles attachment complexes in the molting terrestrial isopod crustaceans, in the stage when integumental epithelium is covered by both, the newly forming cuticle and the old detached cuticle. We show that the old exoskeleton is extensively mechanically connected to the underlying epithelium in the regions of muscle attachment sites by massive arrays of fibers in adult premolt Ligia italica and in prehatching embryos and premolt marsupial mancas of Porcellio scaber. Fibers expand from the tendon cells, traverse the new cuticle and ecdysal space and protrude into the distal layers of the detached cuticle. They likely serve as final anchoring sites before exuviation and may be involved in animal movements in this stage. Tendon cells in the prehatching embryo and in marsupial mancas display a substantial apicobasally oriented transcellular arrays of microtubules, evidently engaged in myotendinous junctions and in apical anchoring of the cuticular matrix. The structural framework of musculoskeletal linkage is basically established in described intramarsupial developmental stages, suggesting its involvement in animal motility within the marsupium. PMID:22536098

Žnidarši?, Nada; Mrak, Polona; Tušek-Žnidari?, Magda; Štrus, Jasna

2012-01-01

4

MOLT-RELATED SUSCEPTIBILITY AND REGENERATIVE LIMB GROWTH AS SENSITIVE INDICATORS OF AQUATIC POLLUTANT TOXICITY TO CRUSTACEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study evaluated the comparative toxicity of various pollutants to intermolt and molting grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). Most of the tested materials (pentachlorophenol, tetrachlorophenols, trichlorophenols, methylenebis dichlorophenol, dibutyl phthalate, chromium, and dril...

5

Calcium homeostasis in crustaceans: subcellular Ca dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molting cycle of crustaceans, associated with renewal and remineralization of the cuticle, has emerged as a model system to study regulation of genes that code for Ca2+-transporting proteins, common to all eukaryotic cells. This article reviews state-of-the-art knowledge about how crustacean transporting epithelia (gills, hepatopancreas and antennal gland) effect mass transcellular movement of Ca2+ while preventing cytotoxicity. The current

M. G Wheatly; F. P Zanotto; M. G Hubbard

2002-01-01

6

Biomineralizations: insights and prospects from crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Abstract For growing, crustaceans have to molt cyclically because of the presence of a rigid exoskeleton. Most of the crustaceans harden their cuticle not only by sclerotization, like all the arthropods, but also by calcification. All the physiology of crustaceans, including the calcification process, is then linked to molting cycles. This means for these animals to find regularly a source of calcium ions quickly available just after ecdysis. The sources of calcium used are diverse, ranging from the environment where the animals live to endogenous calcium deposits cyclically elaborated by some of them. As a result, crustaceans are submitted to an important and energetically demanding calcium turnover throughout their life. The mineralization process occurs by precipitation of calcium carbonate within an organic matrix network of chitin-proteins fibers. Both crystalline and stabilized amorphous polymorphs of calcium carbonate are found in crustacean biominerals. Furthermore, Crustacea is the only phylum of animals able to elaborate and resorb periodically calcified structures. Notably for these two previous reasons, crustaceans are more and more extensively studied and considered as models of choice in the biomineralization research area. PMID:22536102

Luquet, Gilles

2012-01-01

7

Ciclo de muda y reproducción de la población del langostino Pleoticus muelleri (Crustacea, Penaeoidea) de Mar del Plata Molting cycle and reproduction in the population of the shrimp Pleoticus muelleri (Crustacea, Penaeoidea) from Mar del Plata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the molting cycle and gonadal maturation was investigated in the Pleoticus muelleri population from coastal waters of Mar del Plata, Argentina. The analysis of the molting activity revealed activity patterns that vary conspicuously with both the changes in shrimp reproductive status and the season. Males and females exhibited a molt synchronism and the intermolt lengthened during the

Ana Cristina Díaz; Ana María Petriella; Jorge L. Fenucci; CIC Pcia

8

The mechanism of sensory transduction in a mechanoreceptor. Functional stages in campaniform sensilla during the molting cycle  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the ultrastructural modifications that cockroach campaniform sensilla undergo at three major stages in the molting cycle and finds that the sensilla are physiological functional at all developmental stages leading to ecdysis. Late stage animals on the verge of ecdysis have two completely separate cuticles. The campaniform sensillum sends a 220-mum extension of the sensory process through a hole in its cap in the new (inner) cuticle across a fluid-filled molting space to its functional insertion in the cap in the old (outer) cuticle. Mechanical stimulation of the old cap excites the sensillum. The ultrastructural geometry of late stage sensilla, coupled with the observation they are physiolgically functional, supports the hypotheses (a) that sensory transduction occurs at the tip of the sensory process, and (b) that cap identation causes the cap cuticle to pinch the tip of the sensory process, thereby stimulating the sensillum. PMID:993271

1976-01-01

9

THE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CYCLE OF TESTICULAR DEVELOPMENT AND MOLT IN THE WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW, ZONOTRICHIA LE UCOPHR YS GAMBELII  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTP,CT.--Male White-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) held on 12-h days for 46.5 months failed to develop a postnuptial-type molt, although they underwent 2-4 cycles of testicular growth and regression. At an estimated 47 days (range 43-59 days) after transfer to 18-h days, all began an essentially normal postnuptial molt of the primary rerniges. The time elapsed between the loss of

DONALD S. FARNER; RICHARD S. DONHAM; MICHAEL C. MOORE; ROBERT A. LEWIS

10

MLT-10 Defines a Family of DUF644 and Proline-rich Repeat Proteins Involved in the Molting Cycle of Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The molting cycle of nematodes involves the periodic synthesis and removal of a collagen-rich exoskeleton, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we describe the mlt-10 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans, which emerged from a genetic screen for molting-defective mutants sensitized by low cholesterol. MLT-10 defines a large family of nematode-specific proteins comprised of DUF644 and tandem P-X2-L-(S/T)-P repeats. Conserved nuclear hormone receptors promote expression of the mlt-10 gene in the hypodermis whenever the exoskeleton is remade. Further, a MLT-10::mCherry fusion protein is released from the hypodermis to the surrounding matrices and fluids during molting. The fusion protein is also detected in strands near the surface of animals. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations of mlt-10 impede the removal of old cuticles. However, the substitution mutation mlt-10(mg364), which disrupts the proline-rich repeats, causes the most severe phenotype. Mutations of mlt-10 are also associated with abnormalities in the exoskeleton and improper development of the epidermis. Thus, mlt-10 encodes a secreted protein involved in three distinct but interconnected aspects of the molting cycle. We propose that the molting cycle of C. elegans involves the dynamic assembly and disassembly of MLT-10 and possibly the paralogs of MLT-10. PMID:20335506

Meli, Vijaykumar S.; Osuna, Beatriz; Ruvkun, Gary

2010-01-01

11

MLT-10 defines a family of DUF644 and proline-rich repeat proteins involved in the molting cycle of Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The molting cycle of nematodes involves the periodic synthesis and removal of a collagen-rich exoskeleton, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we describe the mlt-10 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans, which emerged from a genetic screen for molting-defective mutants sensitized by low cholesterol. MLT-10 defines a large family of nematode-specific proteins comprised of DUF644 and tandem P-X(2)-L-(S/T)-P repeats. Conserved nuclear hormone receptors promote expression of the mlt-10 gene in the hypodermis whenever the exoskeleton is remade. Further, a MLT-10::mCherry fusion protein is released from the hypodermis to the surrounding matrices and fluids during molting. The fusion protein is also detected in strands near the surface of animals. Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations of mlt-10 impede the removal of old cuticles. However, the substitution mutation mlt-10(mg364), which disrupts the proline-rich repeats, causes the most severe phenotype. Mutations of mlt-10 are also associated with abnormalities in the exoskeleton and improper development of the epidermis. Thus, mlt-10 encodes a secreted protein involved in three distinct but interconnected aspects of the molting cycle. We propose that the molting cycle of C. elegans involves the dynamic assembly and disassembly of MLT-10 and possibly the paralogs of MLT-10. PMID:20335506

Meli, Vijaykumar S; Osuna, Beatriz; Ruvkun, Gary; Frand, Alison R

2010-05-15

12

Intraspecific Deception by Bluffing: A Defense Strategy of Newly Molted Stomatopods (Arthropoda: Crustacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

After molting, stomatopods can be evicted easily from home cavities by conspecifics because these marine crustaceans lose temporarily their body armor and the use of their raptorial appendages. Some newly molted stomatopods defend their cavities with a meral spread display, a signal correlated with attack when used by animals between molts. The use of the meral spread display actually increases

Rick Steger; Roy L. Caldwell

1983-01-01

13

Depression of synaptic efficacy at intermolt in crayfish neuromuscular junctions by 20-hydroxyecdysone, a molting hormone.  

PubMed

This report demonstrates that ecdysteroids can reduce synaptic transmission at an intermolt stage of a crustacean tonic neuromuscular junction by acting at a presynaptic site. The steroid molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE), appears to act through a rapid, nongenomic mechanism that decreases the probability of synaptic vesicle release and reduces the number of release sites. Quantal analysis revealed that fewer vesicles were released for a given stimulus when 20-HE was present, and this in turn accounted for the reduced synaptic efficacy. Reduced synaptic efficacy produced smaller evoked postsynaptic currents and smaller excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) across the muscle fiber membrane. The reduction in EPSPs was observed among muscle fibers that were innervated by high- or low-output terminals. The behavior of crustaceans/crayfish during the molt cycle, when 20-HE is high, may be explained by the reduction in synaptic transmission. Crustaceans become quiescent during the premolt periods as do insects. The effects of 20-HE can be reversed with the application of the crustacean neuromodulator serotonin, which enhances synaptic transmission. PMID:9535959

Cooper, R L; Ruffner, M E

1998-04-01

14

Molting Mania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most children are unaware of the process of molting, the periodic shedding and replacement of part or all of a coat or an outer covering of an animal, but it is an animal characteristic they are sure to be interested in and should have the opportunity to observe. In this article, the author shares how she and her students observed various…

Arce, Christina

2006-01-01

15

Differential expression profiling of components associated with exoskeletal hardening in crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Background Exoskeletal hardening in crustaceans can be attributed to mineralization and sclerotization of the organic matrix. Glycoproteins have been implicated in the calcification process of many matrices. Sclerotization, on the other hand, is catalysed by phenoloxidases, which also play a role in melanization and the immunological response in arthropods. Custom cDNA microarrays from Portunus pelagicus were used to identify genes possibly associated with the activation pathways involved in these processes. Results Two genes potentially involved in the recognition of glycosylation, the C-type lectin receptor and the mannose-binding protein, were found to display molt cycle-related differential expression profiles. C-type lectin receptor up-regulation was found to coincide with periods associated with new uncalcified cuticle formation, while the up-regulation of mannose-binding protein occurred only in the post-molt stage, during which calcification takes place, implicating both in the regulation of calcification. Genes presumed to be involved in the phenoloxidase activation pathway that facilitates sclerotization also displayed molt cycle-related differential expression profiles. Members of the serine protease superfamily, trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like, were up-regulated in the intermolt stage when compared to post-molt, while trypsin-like was also up-regulated in pre-molt compared to ecdysis. Additionally, up-regulation in pre- and intermolt stages was observed by transcripts encoding other phenoloxidase activators including the putative antibacterial protein carcinin-like, and clotting protein precursor-like. Furthermore, hemocyanin, itself with phenoloxidase activity, displayed an identical expression pattern to that of the phenoloxidase activators, i.e. up-regulation in pre- and intermolt. Conclusion Cuticle hardening in crustaceans is a complex process that is precisely timed to occur in the post-molt stage of the molt cycle. We have identified differential expression patterns of several genes that are believed to be involved in biomineralization and sclerotization and propose possible regulatory mechanisms for these processes based on their expression profiles, such as the potential involvement of C-type lectin receptors and mannose binding protein in the regulation of calcification. PMID:19040762

Kuballa, Anna V; Elizur, Abigail

2008-01-01

16

crustaceans drawer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Crustaceans are arthropods with two pairs of antennae in front of the mouth, and one pair grinding or biting limbs (mandibles) behind the mouth. The group includes crabs, lobsters, shrimp and the extinct phyllocarids.

2001-03-01

17

Differential regulation of hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression by two putative molt-inhibiting hormones (MIH1/2) in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a peptide member of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family, is commonly considered as a negative regulator during the molt cycle in crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis of CHH family peptides in penaeidae shrimps suggested that there is no significant differentiation between MIH and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH, another peptide member of CHH family), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean vitellogenesis known. Thus, MIH may also play a role in regulating vitellogenesis. In this study, two previously reported putative MIHs (LivMIH1 and LivMIH2) in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and further confirmed by western blot. Regulation of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression by recombinant LivMIH1 and LivMIH2 challenge was performed by both in vitro hepatopancreatic primary cells culture and in vivo injection approaches. In in vitro primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 administration could improve the mRNA expression of VTG. In in vivo injection experiments, similarly, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 could stimulate hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression and induce ovary maturation. Our study may provide evidence for one isoform of MIH (MIH2 in L. vannamei) may serve as one of the mediators of the physiological progress of molting and vitellogenesis. Our study may also give new insight in CHH family peptides regulating reproduction in crustaceans, in particular penaeidae shrimps. PMID:25447412

Luo, Xing; Chen, Ting; Zhong, Ming; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lvping; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

2014-11-15

18

Overview on the sub-grouping of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) are an ever extending family of crustacean hormones mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, molt and reproduction. In this paper, we drew together 32 available CHH sequences, and applied the techniques of multiple sequence alignment, motif searching and amino acid conservation analysis to the characterization of the molecules independently of their biological function. The analysis clearly

C. Lacombe; P. Grève; G. Martin

1999-01-01

19

The lunar-tide cycle viewed by crustacean and mollusc gatherers in the State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil and their influence in collection attitudes  

PubMed Central

Traditional human communities have a wide knowledge of their environment. Collection of animals in estuarine and coastal areas are directly influenced by tidal cycles. The aim of this study is to evaluate the understanding of the tides associated with the lunar cycle held by people who gather crustaceans and molluscs in the State of Paraiba. The empirical knowledge of 20 crab gatherers and 30 mollusc gatherers was recorded through open interviews and structured questionnaires. The results showed that the gatherers have an accurate comprehension of tidal phenomenon based on their exploitation of natural resources, which perpetuates through generations. PMID:16393342

Nishida, Alberto K; Nordi, Nivaldo; Alves, Rômulo RN

2006-01-01

20

Effects of molting and environmental factors on trace metal body-burdens and hemocyanin concentrations in the American lobster, Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

Hemocyanin concentrations in the hemolymph of marine crustacea are dependent on the molt cycle and on environmental conditions. Studies in our laboratories have found that hemocyanin levels in blue crabs are reduced after ecdysis and under conditions of environmental stress (Engel, Brouwer, & McKenna, 1993. Hemocyanin concentrations in marine crustaceans as a function of environmental conditions. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 93, 233-244). We have extended those studies to include the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Hemolymph and digestive gland tissues from Long Island Sound lobsters were analyzed for hemocyanin, copper, and zinc during different stages of the molt cycle. Hemocyanin, copper and zinc in the hemolymph were highest in premolt stages (D1-D4), and lowest in the postecdysal papershell stages (B1-B2). Concomitantly, copper in digestive glands decreased significantly following ecdysis, but no significant changes in the metals bound to metallothionein (MT) were observed. Copper-MT was the predominant form throughout the molt cycle, presumably because lobsters were obtained from copper-contaminated areas. To examine the effects of environmental factors, intermolt lobsters were collected from locations of different environmental quality along the Atlantic coast, and were analyzed for hemocyanin and trace metals. In general, animals from areas with a history of contamination showed the highest hemocyanin concentrations. PMID:11570806

Engel, D W; Brouwer, M; Mercaldo-Allen, R

2001-09-01

21

The Life Cycle of the Parasitic Crustacean, Lernanthropus latis Yamaguti, 1954 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae), on Marine-Cultured Fish, Lates calcarifer, from Setiu Wetland, Terengganu  

PubMed Central

Parasitic crustaceans of Lernanthropus latis were isolated from the host, the seabass, Lates calcarifer, obtained from a cage culture in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu. The adult females with egg were kept alive in vials containing 20?mL of filtered seawater and incubated at 30°C. The eggs were monitored every hour and the hatching periods were recorded. Three developmental stages were observed, namely, nauplii I, nauplii II, and infective copepodid. The infective copepodids were then transferred into a tank containing 60 litres of seawater with 150 fingerlings for infection purpose. One fish was sacrificed every 24?hr to inspect the next developmental stage. As a result, six more stages were obtained within 298?hrs starting from the infection day. The stages were known as fixed copepodid I, fixed copepodid II, fixed copepodid III, fixed copepodid IV, preadult, and adult. Parasitic L. latis takes a 483?hr period to complete a life cycle. PMID:25574379

Abdul Khalid, Nur Qamarina; Shaharoum-Harrison, Faizah

2014-01-01

22

Biological polarized light reflectors in stomatopod crustaceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body parts that can reflect highly polarized light have been found in several species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). These polarized light reflectors can be grossly divided into two major types. The first type, usually red or pink in color to the human visual system, is located within an animal's cuticle. Reflectors of the second type, showing iridescent blue, are located beneath the exoskeleton and thus are unaffected by the molt cycle. We used reflection spectropolarimetry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the reflective properties and the structures that reflect highly polarized light in stomatopods. For the first type of reflector, the degree of polarization usually changes dramatically, from less than 20% to over 70%, with a change in viewing angle. TEM examination indicates that the polarization reflection is generated by multilayer thin-film interference. The second type of reflector, the blue colored ones, reflects highly polarized light to all viewing angles. However, these reflectors show a slight chromatic change with different viewing angles. TEM sections have revealed that streams of oval-shaped vesicles might be responsible for the production of the polarized light reflection. In all the reflectors we have examined so far, the reflected light is always maximally polarized at around 500 nm, which is close to the wavelength best transmitted by sea water. This suggests that the polarized light reflectors found in stomatopods are well adapted to the underwater environment. We also found that most reflectors produce polarized light with a horizontal e-vector. How these polarized light reflectors are used in stomatopod signaling remains unknown.

Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Cronin, Thomas W.; Caldwell, Roy L.; Marshall, Justin

2005-08-01

23

Survival of Female Harlequin Ducks During Wing Molt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival rates of waterfowl during wing molt have rarely been described, leading to uncertainty about the importance of this annual cycle stage for management. We quantified survival probability of 247 radiomarked female harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) during wing molt in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. The daily survival rate (DSR) was extremely high (DSR ¼ 0.999; 95% CI: 0.994- 1.000)

SAMUEL A. IVERSON; DANIEL ESLER

2007-01-01

24

Flux of 141 Ce through a euphausiid crustacean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the Mediterranean euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica in the cycling of radiocerium (141Ce) was examined. When uptake of 141Ce occurs directly from the water, a “dynamic” population equilibrium is reached at a concentration factor of about 250. Molting was responsible for up to 99% loss of total body burden at first molt, and about 45% of the remaining activity

S. W. Fowler; M. Heyraud; L. F. Small; G. Benayoun

1973-01-01

25

Flexibility and constraints in the molt schedule of long-distance migratory shorebirds: causes and consequences  

PubMed Central

Molt is a major component of the annual cycle of birds, the timing and extent of which can affect body condition, survival, and future reproductive success through carry-over effects. The way in which molt is fitted into the annual cycle seems to be a somewhat neglected area which is both of interest and of importance. Study of the causes of annual variation in the timing of molt and its potential consequence in long-distance migratory birds was examined using the Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea, as a model species. Using the maximum likelihood molt models of Underhill and Zucchini (1988, Ibis 130:358–372), the relationship between annual variability in the start dates of molt at the population level with conditions on the breeding area was explored. Adult males typically started early in years when temperature in June on the Arctic breeding grounds were high compared to cold years while adult females molted later in years of high breeding success and/or warm July temperature and vice versa. When molt started later, the duration was often shorter, indicating that late completion of molt might have fitness consequences, probably jeopardizing survival. Evidence of this was seen in the low body condition of birds in years when molt was completed late. The results indicate that these migratory shorebirds follow a fine-tuned annual life cycle, and disturbances at a certain stage can alter next biological events through carry-over effects. PMID:23919143

Barshep, Yahkat; Minton, Clive D T; Underhill, Les G; Erni, Birgit; Tomkovich, Pavel

2013-01-01

26

Flexibility and constraints in the molt schedule of long-distance migratory shorebirds: causes and consequences.  

PubMed

Molt is a major component of the annual cycle of birds, the timing and extent of which can affect body condition, survival, and future reproductive success through carry-over effects. The way in which molt is fitted into the annual cycle seems to be a somewhat neglected area which is both of interest and of importance. Study of the causes of annual variation in the timing of molt and its potential consequence in long-distance migratory birds was examined using the Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea, as a model species. Using the maximum likelihood molt models of Underhill and Zucchini (1988, Ibis 130:358-372), the relationship between annual variability in the start dates of molt at the population level with conditions on the breeding area was explored. Adult males typically started early in years when temperature in June on the Arctic breeding grounds were high compared to cold years while adult females molted later in years of high breeding success and/or warm July temperature and vice versa. When molt started later, the duration was often shorter, indicating that late completion of molt might have fitness consequences, probably jeopardizing survival. Evidence of this was seen in the low body condition of birds in years when molt was completed late. The results indicate that these migratory shorebirds follow a fine-tuned annual life cycle, and disturbances at a certain stage can alter next biological events through carry-over effects. PMID:23919143

Barshep, Yahkat; Minton, Clive D T; Underhill, Les G; Erni, Birgit; Tomkovich, Pavel

2013-07-01

27

Historical and current molting practices in the U.S. table egg industry.  

PubMed

Induced molting is a management practice used primarily by commercial egg producers to optimize the utilization of their layer flocks. Historically, flocks produced eggs for a laying cycle of 1 yr duration and then were sold. With induced molting, flocks are molted and returned to lay for additional laying periods, thereby spreading fixed costs over longer time and more units of production. It is estimated that today more than 75% of all flocks are molted as a part of a regular replacement program. The decision to molt or to operate an all-pullet program is based upon comparisons of flock performance and prices for replacement pullets, eggs, and feed. Justification for the use of molting, therefore, is in the higher total productivity of flocks, reduced costs associated with production, and reduced industry investments in breeder farms, rearing farms, and hatcheries. PMID:12817452

Bell, D D

2003-06-01

28

Reference: Biol. Bull., 153: 145-162. (August, 1977) COCKROACH MOLTING. II. THE NATURE OF REGENERATION-  

E-print Network

145 Reference: Biol. Bull., 153: 145-162. (August, 1977) COCKROACH MOLTING. II. THE NATURE of Ephestia (Pohley, 1965) or autotomy of cockroach legs (O'Farrell and Stock, 1953, 1954; Stock and O of the cockroach molting cycle interact with the regenerating limb (Penzlin, 1965). Although progress has been made

Kunkel, Joseph G.

29

Crustaceans of Southern Australia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing resource on the Crustaceans of Southern Australia is provided by Dr. Gary Poore of the Museum of Victoria. Hundreds of images offer a peak into the diverse and colorful underwaters of Australia; images are accompanied by concise text, offering solid introductory information on the biology of marine crustaceans. Users will find this a worthy educational tool to learn more about Australian crustaceans from barnacles to crabs, ghost shrimps to lobsters.

1998-01-01

30

Least squares estimation of avian molt rates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A straightforward least squares method of estimating the rate at which birds molt feathers is presented, suitable for birds captured more than once during the period of molt. The date of molt onset can also be estimated. The method is applied to male and female mourning doves.

Johnson, D.H.

1989-01-01

31

Molt regulation in green and red color morphs of the crab Carcinus maenas: gene expression of molt-inhibiting hormone signaling components.  

PubMed

In decapod crustaceans, regulation of molting is controlled by the X-organ/sinus gland complex in the eyestalks. The complex secretes molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), which suppresses production of ecdysteroids by the Y-organ (YO). MIH signaling involves nitric oxide and cGMP in the YO, which expresses nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). Molting can generally be induced by eyestalk ablation (ESA), which removes the primary source of MIH, or by multiple leg autotomy (MLA). In our work on Carcinus maenas, however, ESA has limited effects on hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and animals remain in intermolt at 7 days post-ESA, suggesting that adults are refractory to molt induction techniques. Consequently, the effects of ESA and MLA on molting and YO gene expression in C. maenas green and red color morphotypes were determined at intermediate (16 and 24 days) and long-term (~90 days) intervals. In intermediate-interval experiments, ESA of intermolt animals caused transient twofold to fourfold increases in hemolymph ecdysteroid titers during the first 2 weeks. In intermolt animals, long-term ESA increased hemolymph ecdysteroid titers fourfold to fivefold by 28 days post treatment, but there was no late premolt peak (>400 pg ?l(-1)) characteristic of late premolt animals and animals did not molt by 90 days post-ESA. There was no effect of ESA or MLA on the expression of Cm-elongation factor 2 (EF2), Cm-NOS, the beta subunit of GC-I (Cm-GC-I?), a membrane receptor GC (Cm-GC-II) and a soluble NO-insensitive GC (Cm-GC-III) in green morphs. Red morphs were affected by prolonged ESA and MLA treatments, as indicated by large decreases in Cm-EF2, Cm-GC-II and Cm-GC-III mRNA levels. ESA accelerated the transition of green morphs to the red phenotype in intermolt animals. ESA delayed molting in premolt green morphs, whereas intact and MLA animals molted by 30 days post treatment. There were significant effects on YO gene expression in intact animals: Cm-GC-I? mRNA increased during premolt and Cm-GC-III mRNA decreased during premolt and increased during postmolt. Cm-MIH transcripts were detected in eyestalk ganglia, the brain and the thoracic ganglion from green intermolt animals, suggesing that MIH in the brain and thoracic ganglion prevents molt induction in green ESA animals. PMID:24198255

Abuhagr, Ali M; Blindert, Jennifer L; Nimitkul, Sukkrit; Zander, Ian A; Labere, Stefan M; Chang, Sharon A; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2014-03-01

32

Crustaceans as a model for microgravity-induced muscle atrophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atrophy of skeletal muscles is a serious problem in a microgravity environment. It is hypothesized that the unloading of postural muscles, which no longer must resist gravity force, causes an accelerated breakdown of contractile proteins, resulting in a reduction in muscle mass and strength. A crustacean model using the land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, to assess the effects of spaceflight on protein metabolism is presented. The model is compared to a developmentally-regulated atrophy in which a premolt reduction in muscle mass allows the withdrawal of the large claws at molt. The biochemical mechanisms underlying protein breakdown involves both Ca^2+-dependent and multicatalytic proteolytic enzymes. Crustacean claw muscle can be used to determine the interactions between shortening and unloading at the molecular level.

Mykles, D. L.

33

Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod feeding on skin, mucus and blood from salmonid hosts. Initial analysis of EST sequences from pre adult and adult stages of L. salmonis revealed a large proportion of novel transcripts. In order to link unknown transcripts to biological functions we have combined EST sequencing and microarray analysis to characterize female salmon louse transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production. Results EST sequence analysis shows that 43% of the ESTs have no significant hits in GenBank. Sequenced ESTs assembled into 556 contigs and 1614 singletons and whenever homologous genes were identified no clear correlation with homologous genes from any specific animal group was evident. Sequence comparison of 27 L. salmonis proteins with homologous proteins in humans, zebrafish, insects and crustaceans revealed an almost identical sequence identity with all species. Microarray analysis of maturing female adult salmon lice revealed two major transcription patterns; up-regulation during the final molting followed by down regulation and female specific up regulation during post molting growth and egg production. For a third minor group of ESTs transcription decreased during molting from pre-adult II to immature adults. Genes regulated during molting typically gave hits with cuticula proteins whilst transcripts up regulated during post molting growth were female specific, including two vitellogenins. Conclusion The copepod L.salmonis contains high a level of novel genes. Among analyzed L.salmonis proteins, sequence identities with homologous proteins in crustaceans are no higher than to homologous proteins in humans. Three distinct processes, molting, post molting growth and egg production correlate with transcriptional regulation of three groups of transcripts; two including genes related to growth, one including genes related to egg production. The function of the regulated transcripts is discussed in relation to post molting morphological changes in adult female salmon louse. There is clear evidence that transcription of the major yolk proteins is not induced before some of the post molting growth of abdomen and the genital segment has occurred. A hallmark for the observed growth is transcription of many putative cuticula proteins prior to the size increase. PMID:18331648

Eichner, Christiane; Frost, Petter; Dysvik, Bjarte; Jonassen, Inge; Kristiansen, Bjørn; Nilsen, Frank

2008-01-01

34

Chronologically sampled flight feathers permits recognition of individual molt-migrants due to varying protein sources  

PubMed Central

This is a proof of concept paper based on chronological samples of growing feathers from geese thought to be molt-migrants. When molt-migrant birds initiate molt shortly after migrating to a new isoscape, isotope values measured along the length of their feathers should change continuously. To assess long-term changes and daily cycling in ?15N and ?13C values, we serially sampled a growing primary from three presumed molt-migrant geese. Two showed changing ?15N signatures along the length of their growing primary, indicating they were molt-migrants, while the third, presumably a resident, showed no change. We then resampled these feathers at closer intervals for evidence of the predicted diel cycle in the use of exogenous and endogenous protein for feather growth, generated by the diel feeding cycle of these geese. As predicted, a periodicity of ca. 24 h in ?15N values was found along the primary of the two equilibrating geese, but not in the other goose that was probably a resident. Our results demonstrate that chronological sampling along the length of individual primaries holds great potential for identifying individuals that are molt-migrants. PMID:25649835

Fox, Anthony D.; Daniel, Thomas; Kelly, Jeffrey F.

2015-01-01

35

Timing of molt of barn swallows is delayed in a rare Clock genotype.  

PubMed

Photoperiodic responses are major factors entraining circannual life-cycles, functioning to adaptively synchronize annual routines to seasonal fluctuations in ecological conditions. Photoperiodism in physiology and behaviour is enforced by genes, including the vertebrate Clock orthologues, which are associated, for example, with phenology of migration in fish and breeding in birds. However, the role of Clock in photoperiodic plumage molt processes is unknown. We analyzed variation in molt schedules in relation to Clock genotype, using the long-distance migratory barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) as a model and by identifying males and females using molecular sexing techniques. Consistently with previous studies, we found one very common (Q 7) and two rare (Q 6, Q 8) variants of a functionally significant Clock polyglutamine repeat. Molt schedules of primary wing feathers of swallows during their wintering period in Nigeria differed among Clock genotypes: rare (1.1%) Q 7/Q 8 heterozygotes had significantly delayed molt compared to the other genotypes. Molt schedules did not differ between males and females, and no differential association between molt and Clock in relation to sex emerged. The same rare Clock genotype that exhibited delayed breeding in Europe was here found to delay molt in Africa. Though based on a limited number of Q 7/Q 8 individuals from an otherwise very large sample, these novel results suggest that Clock is involved in the photoperiodic control of both molt and breeding, potentially also via reciprocal carry-over effects. If confirmed in species with higher Clock polymorphism, present results may have far-reaching consequences for the study of photoperiodic control of molt and expression of annual routines. PMID:23638351

Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Fasola, Mauro; Lardelli, Roberto; Micheloni, Pierfrancesco; Scandolara, Chiara; Rubolini, Diego; Gianfranceschi, Luca

2013-01-01

36

Timing of molt of barn swallows is delayed in a rare Clock genotype  

PubMed Central

Photoperiodic responses are major factors entraining circannual life-cycles, functioning to adaptively synchronize annual routines to seasonal fluctuations in ecological conditions. Photoperiodism in physiology and behaviour is enforced by genes, including the vertebrate Clock orthologues, which are associated, for example, with phenology of migration in fish and breeding in birds. However, the role of Clock in photoperiodic plumage molt processes is unknown. We analyzed variation in molt schedules in relation to Clock genotype, using the long-distance migratory barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) as a model and by identifying males and females using molecular sexing techniques. Consistently with previous studies, we found one very common (Q7) and two rare (Q6, Q8) variants of a functionally significant Clock polyglutamine repeat. Molt schedules of primary wing feathers of swallows during their wintering period in Nigeria differed among Clock genotypes: rare (1.1%) Q7/Q8 heterozygotes had significantly delayed molt compared to the other genotypes. Molt schedules did not differ between males and females, and no differential association between molt and Clock in relation to sex emerged. The same rare Clock genotype that exhibited delayed breeding in Europe was here found to delay molt in Africa. Though based on a limited number of Q7/Q8 individuals from an otherwise very large sample, these novel results suggest that Clock is involved in the photoperiodic control of both molt and breeding, potentially also via reciprocal carry-over effects. If confirmed in species with higher Clock polymorphism, present results may have far-reaching consequences for the study of photoperiodic control of molt and expression of annual routines. PMID:23638351

Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Fasola, Mauro; Lardelli, Roberto; Micheloni, Pierfrancesco; Scandolara, Chiara; Rubolini, Diego; Gianfranceschi, Luca

2013-01-01

37

Ontogeny of decapod crustacean hemocyanin: effects of temperature and nutrition  

E-print Network

Hemocyanin is present throughout the decapod crustacean’s life, usually as one-hexamer and two-hexamer oligomers. Hemocyanins of some decapod crustaceans undergo changes in subunit composition and oxygen affinity during development. Maternal hemocyanin is taken up from the hemolymph via endocytosis by the oocyte. Embryo hemocyanin differs in subunit composition from hemocyanin of oocyte and adult crab and may represent the onset of hemocyanin synthesis. Complex changes in expression of hemocyanin subunits occur through megalopa and early juvenile stages of the crab Cancer magister, culminating in the pattern of adult hemocyanin. The influences of food availability and temperature on development, growth and hemocyanin ontogeny in early juvenile C. magister have been studied. Crabs were raised in warm or cold sea water and fed high or low levels of food for 6 months. While intermolt period Summary was shorter in crabs fed high food levels, especially those raised in warm water, crabs reared in cold water with high food levels attained the largest sizes. Thus increased food availability affects growth more than increased temperature. Adult hemocyanin appeared at about the same number of weeks after the start of the experiment for crabs in the warm water/high food, warm water/low food and cold water/high food groups, even though warm water/low food crabs had molted fewer times. Crabs in the cold water/low food group expressed adult hemocyanin much later than the other groups. Molt stage and maturation from juvenile to adult are not absolutely coupled, and food availability has a greater influence than temperature on hemocyanin ontogeny.

Nora B. Terwilliger; Karen Dumler

2001-01-01

38

Identification of genes differentially expressed during larval molting and metamorphosis of Helicoverpa armigera  

PubMed Central

Background Larval molting and metamorphosis are important physiological processes in the life cycle of the holometabolous insect. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify genes differentially expressed during larval molting and metamorphosis. Results We performed SSH between tissues from a variety of developmental stages, including molting 5th and feeding 6th instar larvae, metamorphically committed and feeding 5th instar larvae, and feeding 5th instar and metamorphically committed larvae. One hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified and included 73 putative genes with similarity to known genes, and 27 unknown ESTs. SSH results were further characterized by dot blot, Northern blot, and RT-PCR. The expression levels of eleven genes were found to change during larval molting or metamorphosis, suggesting a functional role during these processes. Conclusion These results provide a new set of genes expressed specifically during larval molt or metamorphosis that are candidates for further studies into the regulatory mechanisms of those stage-specific genes during larval molt and metamorphosis PMID:17588272

Dong, Du-Juan; He, Hong-Juan; Chai, Lian-Qin; Jiang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

2007-01-01

39

Binding Proteins for an Ecdysone Metabolite in the Crustacean Hepatopancreas  

PubMed Central

When crustacean hepatopancreas is incubated in the presence of ?-3H]ecdysone of high specific activity and is then homogenized and centrifuged, a peak of protein-radioactivity is recovered after gel filtration of the 105,000 × g supernatant. Analysis of this peak by sucrose gradient centrifugation revealed the presence of two complexes of protein and labeled material (?11.5 S and 6.35 S). The same results were obtained in vivo. On standing at low ionic strength, the lighter component disappeared, suggesting that the heavier component is an aggregate of the lighter one. Chemical analysis of radioactive material in the complex revealed that it is not ?- or ?-ecdysone nor any previously described metabolite of the ecdysones. This new metabolite of ?-ecdysone is found mainly in the incubated hepatopancreas. Partial structures consistent with the analytical data are inferred for this metabolite. It is suggested that the metabolite may be active in the action of molting hormone. PMID:4502933

Gorell, Thomas A.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Siddall, John B.

1972-01-01

40

Instar growth and molt increments in Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) chalimus larvae.  

PubMed

The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an ectoparasitic copepod causing severe problems to the fish farming industry and to wild salmonids. Morphologically, all stages in the life cycle of L. salmonis have been described in detail based on successive samples from host populations. However, the rate of development differs between males and females as well as between individuals. It has therefore been difficult to observe development within stages, and this has led to a longstanding misinterpretation of the number of chalimus stages. Here samples of chalimi obtained for 12 consecutive days were observed daily in incubators. Chalimus 1 was able to molt in incubators only when fully grown and close to molting, whereas chalimus 2 was able to molt at about 60% of total instar growth. Total length instar growth was about 35% in both chalimus 1 and chalimus 2 and about equal among males and females; the cephalothorax increased by about 12% and the posterior body by about 80%. Instar growth was probably the main factor that led to the former belief that L. salmonis had four chalimus stages. Relative total length increase at molting was at the same order of magnitude as instar growth, but total length of females increased significantly more than that of males at molting. Consequently, a sexual size dimorphism was established upon molting to chalimus 2 and males were about 10% smaller than females. While growth by molting was mainly caused by cephalothorax increase, instar growth was mainly due to increase of the posterior body. The cephalothorax/total length ratio decreased from beginning to end of the instar phase suggesting that it may be used as an instar age marker. Male and female chalimus 2 can almost uniquely be identified by cephalothorax length. Chalimus 1 lasted between 5 and 6 days for males and between 6 and 7 days for females at 10°C. Chalimus 2 males lasted between 6 and 7 days and females between 7 and 8 days. PMID:25451218

Eichner, Christiane; Hamre, Lars Are; Nilsen, Frank

2015-02-01

41

Lunar-Rhythmic Molting in Laboratory Populations of the Noble Crayfish Astacus astacus (Crustacea, Astacidea): An Experimental Analysis  

PubMed Central

Juvenile noble crayfish, Astacusastacus (Crustacea, Astacidea) in the second year of age were kept in the laboratory for a twelve-month period under continuing “summer conditions” (LD 16:8, 19°C). Molting processes in this population could be synchronized by artificial moonlight cycles. Peaks of exuviations occurred at “new moons”. Males showed a slightly higher degree of synchronization than females. A phase-shift of the artificial lunar cycle in relation to the natural cycle resulted in a corresponding shift of the molting cycle. This clearly demonstrates that changes in the nocturnal light regime provide the primary external information for the lunar-monthly molting rhythm. There is a first indication that lunar photic stimuli do not act directly but as a zeitgeber which entrains an endogenous molting rhythm to the lunar cycle. Moreover, the results of the long-term experiments suggest that the hibernal resting period of A. astacus in the field (no molts between October and April) may also involve some endogenous programming. Continuing artificial summer conditions can delay but not completely suppress this resting period. The adaptive significance of the phenomena and how the findings may be applied to improve the management of crowded crayfish stocks are discussed. PMID:23840899

Franke, Robert; Hoerstgen-Schwark, Gabriele

2013-01-01

42

Cadmium inhibits molting of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense by reducing the hemolymph ecdysteroid content and the activities of chitinase and N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase in the epidermis.  

PubMed

Molting is an essential process during the growth of crustaceans, which is coordinated by ecdysteroids secreted by the Y-organ, molting inhibiting hormone secreted by the X-organ sinus-gland complex, as well as chitinase and N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase synthesized by the epidermis. Cadmium is one of the toxic metals in the aquatic environment. However, the endocrine effects of cadmium on the molting of freshwater crabs and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To investigate these, freshwater crabs (Sinopotamon henanense) were acutely exposed to 0, 7.25, 14.5 and 29mg/l Cd for 3, 4, 5days or in some experiments for 4days after eyestalk-ablation. The concentration of hemolymph ecdysone and the activities of the molting enzymes chitinase and NAG were measured. Histological changes in the epidermal tissues were documented. Our results showed that eyestalk ablation increased the ecdysteroid content as well as the activities of chitinase and NAG, which were inhibited by cadmium in a concentration-dependent manner; histological examinations demonstrated that eyestalk ablation produced storage particles in the epidermal tissues, which was also reduced by cadmium in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data suggest that cadmium disrupts endocrine function through inhibiting the secretion of ecdysteroids by the Y-organ and altering with the regulation of chitinase and NAG activity in the epidermis. This work provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the molting inhibition effect of cadmium on the crabs. PMID:25463647

Luo, Jixian; Pei, Sihui; Jing, Weixin; Zou, Enmin; Wang, Lan

2015-03-01

43

Crustacean oxi-reductases protein sequences derived from a functional genomic project potentially involved in ecdysteroid hormones metabolism - a starting point for function examination.  

PubMed

A transcriptomic assembly originated from hypodermis and Y organ of the crustacean Pontastacus leptodactylus is used here for in silico characterization of oxi-reductase enzymes potentially involved in the metabolism of ecdysteroid molting hormones. RNA samples were extracted from male Y organ and its neighboring hypodermis in all stages of the molt cycle. An equimolar RNA mix from all stages was sequenced using next generation sequencing technologies and de novo assembled, resulting with 74,877 unique contigs. These transcript sequences were annotated by examining their resemblance to all GenBank translated transcripts, determining their Gene Ontology terms and their characterizing domains. Based on the present knowledge of arthropod ecdysteroid metabolism and more generally on steroid metabolism in other taxa, transcripts potentially related to ecdysteroid metabolism were identified and their longest possible conceptual protein sequences were constructed in two stages, correct reading frame was deduced from BLASTX resemblances, followed by elongation of the protein sequence by identifying the correct translation frame of the original transcript. The analyzed genes belonged to several oxi-reductase superfamilies including the Rieske non heme iron oxygenases, cytochrome P450s, short-chained hydroxysteroid oxi-reductases, aldo/keto oxireductases, lamin B receptor/sterol reductases and glucose-methanol-cholin oxi-reductatses. A total of 68 proteins were characterized and the most probable participants in the ecdysteroid metabolism where indicated. The study provides transcript and protein structural information, a starting point for further functional studies, using a variety of gene-specific methods to demonstrate or disprove the roles of these proteins in relation to ecdysteroid metabolism in P. leptodactylus. PMID:24055302

Tom, Moshe; Manfrin, Chiara; Giulianini, Piero G; Pallavicini, Alberto

2013-12-01

44

Molt patterns and weight changes of the American woodcock  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of molt and changes in body weight of American Woodcock was conducted to better understand the summer and fall behavior of these birds and to indicate periods of physiological stress. The postnuptial molt of adults was a complete molt beginning in late June and ending by the middle of October. In contrast, the postjuvenal molt was a less intensive partial molt beginning in mid-July but also extending to the middle of October. Both male and female adult birds experienced weight loss in August during peak molt. Young birds gradually gained weight throughout the summer. Fat deposition was negatively correlated with molt while fall body weights were positively correlated with fat deposition. The data indicated that the majority of Maine woodcock are not physiologically prepared for migration until mid-October. Weights of adult males during the spring suggested that this is an important period of stress for these birds.

Owen, R.B.; Krohn, W.B.

1973-01-01

45

Depression of synaptic efficacy in high- and low-output Drosophila neuromuscular junctions by the molting hormone (20-HE).  

PubMed

The molt-related steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE), was applied to muscles 6 and 7 of third instar larval of Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junction preparations to examine if rapid, nongenomic responses could be observed as was shown recently to occur in crustacean neuromuscular junctions. At a dose of 10 microM, the excitatory junction potentials were reduced in amplitude within minutes. To elucidate the site of action of the hormone, focal-macropatch recordings of synaptic currents were obtained over the neuromuscular junctions. The results showed that the high-output (Is) and the low-output (Ib) motor nerve terminals, which innervate muscles 6 and 7, released fewer synaptic vesicles for each stimulation while exposed to 20-HE. Because the size and shape of synaptic currents from spontaneous releases did not change, the effects of the 20-HE are presynaptic. The rapid effects of this hormone may account in part for the quiescent behavior associated with molts among insects and crustaceans. PMID:10036278

Ruffner, M E; Cromarty, S I; Cooper, R L

1999-02-01

46

Hemolymph proteins in marine crustaceans  

PubMed Central

This study is done with the aim to bring together the various antimicrobial peptides that are present in the crustacean hemolymph and their sources along with its characteristics. Invertebrates lack immune systems that involve antigen-antibody reactions and do not have an immune memory, therefore most invertebrate species show no evidence of acquired immunity. Crustaceans possess an open circulatory system, where nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and cells are distributed in the hemolymph. They lack adaptive immune system and rely exclusively on their innate immune mechanisms that include both cellular and humoral responses. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins form an important means of host defense in eukaryotes. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have functions in inflammation, wound repair and regulation of the adaptive immune system. Over the past several years, many antimicrobial peptides have been found and characterized in crabs. PMID:23569958

Fredrick, W Sylvester; Ravichandran, S

2012-01-01

47

The King of Crustaceans: Lobsters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the north Atlantic, the American Lobster is the undisputed king of crustaceans. Itâs also a tremendously important commercial catch. While all the other fisheries are collapsing, why are lobsters resisting the trend? In this video, Jonathan goes out with a Maine lobsterman to learn why, and he dives down below to find the biggest lobsters he has ever seen. This segment won a New England Emmy Award! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2011-01-18

48

DEFINITIVE PREBASIC MOLT OF GRAY CATBIRDS AT TWO SITES IN NEW ENGLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the pattern and timing of prebasic molt in adult Gray Catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) at two New England sites: Block Island, Rhode Island (BIRI), and the Vermont Institute of Natural Science (VINS) in Woodstock, Vermont. Catbirds at VINS initiated molt earlier and molted at a significantly slower rate than catbirds at BIRI. Mean individual molt durations spanned approximately 54

Colleen Dwyer Heise; Christopher C. Rimmer

2000-01-01

49

Molt and taxonomy of red-breasted nuthatches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The postnuptial and postjuvenal molts of Red-breasted Nuthatches occur from middle June to late September. Some birds may be nearly finished with the complete molt before other individuals begin, so that specimens taken at any given time may differ by as much as two months in the age of their plumage. No characters useful in ageing birds after the completion of the autumn molt were found.....The proposed racial subdivision of Sitta canadensis was based on misleading evidence resulting from variation of plumage age in birds assumed to be seasonally comparable, sooting of birds in industrialized parts of the country, and variation in quality of prepared specimens.

Banks, R.C.

1970-01-01

50

Neural mechanism of optimal limb coordination in crustacean swimming.  

PubMed

A fundamental challenge in neuroscience is to understand how biologically salient motor behaviors emerge from properties of the underlying neural circuits. Crayfish, krill, prawns, lobsters, and other long-tailed crustaceans swim by rhythmically moving limbs called swimmerets. Over the entire biological range of animal size and paddling frequency, movements of adjacent swimmerets maintain an approximate quarter-period phase difference with the more posterior limbs leading the cycle. We use a computational fluid dynamics model to show that this frequency-invariant stroke pattern is the most effective and mechanically efficient paddling rhythm across the full range of biologically relevant Reynolds numbers in crustacean swimming. We then show that the organization of the neural circuit underlying swimmeret coordination provides a robust mechanism for generating this stroke pattern. Specifically, the wave-like limb coordination emerges robustly from a combination of the half-center structure of the local central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) that drive the movements of each limb, the asymmetric network topology of the connections between local CPGs, and the phase response properties of the local CPGs, which we measure experimentally. Thus, the crustacean swimmeret system serves as a concrete example in which the architecture of a neural circuit leads to optimal behavior in a robust manner. Furthermore, we consider all possible connection topologies between local CPGs and show that the natural connectivity pattern generates the biomechanically optimal stroke pattern most robustly. Given the high metabolic cost of crustacean swimming, our results suggest that natural selection has pushed the swimmeret neural circuit toward a connection topology that produces optimal behavior. PMID:25201976

Zhang, Calvin; Guy, Robert D; Mulloney, Brian; Zhang, Qinghai; Lewis, Timothy J

2014-09-23

51

California condor plumage and molt as field study aids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analysis is made of the reliability of plumage and molt characteristics of the California condor for estimating age and identifying individual birds. Neither character seems sufficiently reliable to use in more than a general way.

Wilbur, S.R.

1975-01-01

52

Neurobiology of the Crustacean Swimmeret System  

PubMed Central

The crustacean swimmeret system includes a distributed set of local circuits that individually control movements of one jointed limb. These modular local circuits occur in pairs in each segmental ganglion, and normally operate synchronously to produce smoothly coordinated cycles of limb movements on different body segments. The system presents exceptional opportunities for computational and experimental investigation of neural mechanisms of coordination because: a. The system will express in vitro the periodic motor pattern that normally drives cycles of swimmeret movements during forward swimming. b. The intersegmental neurons which encode information that is necessary and sufficient for normal coordination have been identified, and their activity can be recorded. c. The local commissural neurons that integrate this coordinating information and tune the phase of each swimmeret are known. d. The complete set of synaptic connections between coordinating neurons and these commissural neurons have been described. e. The synaptic connections onto each local pattern-generating circuit through which coordinating information tunes the circuit's phase have been discovered. These factors make possible for the first time a detailed, comprehensive cellular and synaptic explanation of how this neural circuit produces an effective, behaviorally-significant output. This paper is the first comprehensive review of the system's neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, its local and intersegmental circuitry, its transmitter pharmacology, its neuromodulatory control mechanisms, and its interactions with other motor systems. Each of these topics is covered in detail in an attempt to provide a complete review of the literature as a foundation for new research. The series of hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the system's properties are reviewed critically in the context of experimental tests of their validity. PMID:22270044

Mulloney, Brian; Smarandache-Wellmann, Carmen

2012-01-01

53

Changes in Timing, Duration, and Symmetry of Molt of Hawaiian Forest Birds  

PubMed Central

Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650–1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989–1999 and 2000–2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989–1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000–2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds. PMID:22279547

Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.

2012-01-01

54

Complex Population Responses to Food Resources in the Marine Crustacean Americamysis Bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

55

ALTERATIONS IN THE GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF POLLUTANT STRESS  

EPA Science Inventory

An estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) has been identified as one of the most sensitive members of the estuarine community to pollutant stress (for a review see Nimmo and Hamaker, 1982). n the majority of life-cycle toxicity tests using this planktonic estuarine crustacean, sublet...

56

Inverse Demographic Analysis of Compensatory Responses to Resource Limitation in the Mysid Crustacean Americamysis bahia  

EPA Science Inventory

Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

57

Topographical and typological comparison of the rodlike setae of ambulatory dactylopodites in decapod crustaceans  

SciTech Connect

The arrangement and external morphology of the rodlike setae and associated structures located on the dactylopodites of the walking legs of six species of decapod crustaceans are compared. The dactyls of littoral species, represented by the rock crab, Cancer antennarius, and the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, have dense tufts and bands of rodlike setae, as is typical of many decapods, and additionally only a few small plumed setae. The arrangement of setae on the dactyls of the recently discovered Galapagos vent crab. Bythograea thermydron, closely resembles that of C. antennarius. Rodlike and long plumed setae occur in about equal numbers on the dactyls of the pelagic anomuran, Pleuroncodes planipes. The dactyls having the fewest rodlike setae are those of the terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita perlatus, and those of the kelp crab, Pugettia producta, where flat setae typical of Majidae have replace most rodlike setae. The presence and structures of the terminal pores in rodlike setae vary intra- and interspecifically, possibly as a function of molt stage. Variations in some features of rodlike setae, such as tip acuity and presence of microsetae and surface sculpting, appear to be related to development. Serrated setae occur on the dactyls of megalopal P. producta but not in later stages. The topography and typolgy of setae located on the ambulatory dactyls of decapod crustaceans are considered in light of recent interest in using seta characteristics to determine the sensory functions of sensilla and to clarify the phylogeny of arthropod groups.

Hamilton, K.A.

1983-01-01

58

Expression of biologically active crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) of Penaeus monodon in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), and gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) are members of a major peptide family produced from the X-organ sinus gland complex in the eyestalk of crustaceans. This peptide family plays important roles in controlling several physiologic processes such as regulation of growth and reproduction. In this study the complementary DNA encoding a peptide related to the CHH/MIH/GIH family (so-called Pem-CMG) of the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon was successfully expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant Pem-CMG was secreted into the culture medium using the alpha-factor signal sequence; of Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala spacer peptide. The amino terminus of the recombinant Pem-CMG was correctly processed as evidenced by amino-terminal peptide sequencing. The recombinant Pem-CMG was purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromotography and used in a biological assay for CHH activity. The final yield of the recombinant Pem-CMG after purification was 260 micro g/L of the culture medium. Both crude and purified recombinant Pem-CMG produced from P. pastoris showed the ability to elevate the glucose level in the hemolymph of eyestalk-ablated P. monodon, which demonstrates that Pem-CMG peptide functions as hyperglycemic hormone in P. monodon. PMID:14719165

Treerattrakool, Supattra; Udomkit, Apinunt; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Sonthayanon, Burachai; Panyim, Sakol

2003-01-01

59

A molt timer is involved in the metamorphic molt in Manduca sexta larvae  

PubMed Central

Manduca sexta larvae are a model for growth control in insects, particularly for the demonstration of critical weight, a threshold weight that the larva must surpass before it can enter metamorphosis on a normal schedule, and the inhibitory action of juvenile hormone on this checkpoint. We examined the effects of nutrition on allatectomized (CAX) larvae that lack juvenile hormone to impose the critical weight checkpoint. Normal larvae respond to prolonged starvation at the start of the last larval stage, by extending their subsequent feeding period to ensure that they begin metamorphosis above critical weight. CAX larvae, by contrast, show no homeostatic adjustment to starvation but start metamorphosis 4 d after feeding onset, regardless of larval size or the state of development of their imaginal discs. By feeding starved CAX larvae for various durations, we found that feeding for only 12–24 h was sufficient to result in metamorphosis on day 4, regardless of further feeding or body size. Manipulation of diet composition showed that protein was the critical macronutrient to initiate this timing. This constant period between the start of feeding and the onset of metamorphosis suggests that larvae possess a molt timer that establishes a minimal time to metamorphosis. Ligation experiments indicate that a portion of the timing may occur in the prothoracic glands. This positive system that promotes molting and the negative control via the critical weight checkpoint provide antagonistic pathways that evolution can modify to adapt growth to the ecological needs of different insects. PMID:23852731

Suzuki, Yuichiro; Koyama, Takashi; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Riddiford, Lynn M.; Truman, James W.

2013-01-01

60

Artificial rain and cold wind act as stressors to captive molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).  

PubMed

Free-roaming animals continually cope with changes in their environment. One of the most unpredictable environmental phenomena is weather. Being able to respond to weather appropriately is crucial as it can be a threat to survival. The stress response, consisting of increases in heart rate and release of glucocorticoids, is an important mechanism by which animals cope with stressors. This study examined behavioral, heart rate, and corticosterone responses of captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to two aspects of weather mimicked under controlled conditions, a subtle (3 °C) decrease in temperature and a short, mild bout of rain. Both decreased temperature and exposure to rain elicited increases in heart rate and corticosterone in non-molting starlings. Molt is an important life history stage in birds that affects feather cover and may require a different response to weather-related stressors. We repeated the experiment in molting starlings and found increases in heart rate in response to rain and cold wind. However, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis was suppressed during molt, as molting starlings did not increase corticosterone release in response to either stimulus. These data suggest these stimuli induce increased allostatic load in starlings, and that animals may adjust their response depending on the life-history stage. PMID:23277223

de Bruijn, Robert; Romero, L Michael

2013-03-01

61

50 CFR 17.46 - Special rules-crustaceans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-crustaceans. 17.46 Section 17.46 Wildlife and Fisheries ...PLANTS Threatened Wildlife § 17.46 Special rules—crustaceans. (a) Madison Cave isopod (Antrolana lira...

2010-10-01

62

50 CFR 17.46 - Special rules-crustaceans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special rules-crustaceans. 17.46 Section 17.46 Wildlife and Fisheries ...PLANTS Threatened Wildlife § 17.46 Special rules—crustaceans. (a) Madison Cave isopod (Antrolana lira...

2011-10-01

63

VITELLOGENISIS AND IT'S ENDOCRINE CONTROL IN DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Vitellogenesis, the production of vitellin (major yolk protein), is controlled in decapod crustaceans by several hormones. With increasing efforts world-wide to successfully culture economically important crustaceans, such as shrimp, there is growing interest in attaining a bette...

64

Food Color Preferences of Molting House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in Relation to Sex and Plumage Coloration  

E-print Network

Food Color Preferences of Molting House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in Relation to Sex with drabber coloration. Here, we examine food color preferences in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus coloration during molt. We captured wild, molting juvenile house finches over 4 wk in late summer/ early fall

McGraw, Kevin J.

65

Identifiable Cells in the Crustacean Stomatogastric Ganglion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neural circuits rely on slight physiological differences between the component cells for proper function. When any circuit is analyzed, it is important to characterize the features that distinguish one cell type from another. This review describes the methods used to identify the neurons of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion.

Amber E Hudson (Georgia Institute of Technology)

2010-10-01

66

EFFECT OF DIFLUBENZURON ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Data are reported for tests exposing a small, estuarine crustacean, Mysidopsis bahia, to diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH-6040, (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea)) in flowing seawater. Tests were conducted in intermittent flows from a diluter or continuous flowing water i...

67

MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO INDUCED MOLTING IN LAYING HENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Induced molting in laying hens by feed withdrawal (FW) is a common practice in the U.S., which has led to public concern regarding their well-being, and there is a pressing need to evaluate physiological changes resulting from prolonged feed withdrawal (FW). A total of 168 hens from Hy-line W-92 li...

68

Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.  

PubMed

Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity. PMID:24581370

Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

2013-12-01

69

The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on thyroxine, estradiol, molt, and plumage characteristics in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius).  

PubMed

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on plumage characteristics and molt in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius. Several characteristics of plumage, including color and molt schedule, are modulated by hormonal signals and hence may be modified by endocrine-active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g., communication for mating or territorial defense) may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Captive American kestrels were fed Aroclor 1242 at 0, 6.0, and 60.0 ppm (n = 6 males and 6 females per treatment) mixed in their normal diet. Concentrations of plasma estradiol and thyroxine were measured weekly from the beginning of treatment. Measured plumage characteristics included width of the black subterminal band on the tail, color (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 to 800 nm. pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing, and timing of onset and duration of molt. Aroclor 1242 depressed plasma thyroxine. Plasma estradiol levels remained low due to the phase of the breeding cycle. Treatments did not disrupt the measured plumage characteristics. This may be due to timing or dose of exposure or to genetic factors. PMID:12109742

Quinn, Michael J; French, John B; McNabb, F M Anne; Ottinger, Mary Ann

2002-07-01

70

The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on thyroxine, estradiol, molt, and plumage characteristics in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on plumage characteristics and molt in the American kestrel, Falco sparverills. Several characteristics of plumage. including color and molt schedule, are modulated by hormonal signals and hence may be modified by endocrine-active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g. communication for mating or territorial defense) may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Captive American kestrels were fed Aroclor 1242 at 0. 6.0. and 60.0 ppm (n = 6 males and 6 females per treatment) mixed in their normal diet. Concentrations of plasma estradiol and thyroxine were measured weekly from the beginning of treatment. Measured plumage characteristics included width of the black subterminal band on the tail, color (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 to 800 min. pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing. and timing of onset and duration of molt. Aroclor 1242 depressed plasma thyroxine. Plasma estradiol levels remained low due to the phase of the breeding cycle. Treatments did not disrupt the measured plumage characteristics. This may be due to timing or dose of exposure or to genetic factors.

Quinn, M.J.; French, J.B.; McNabb, F.M.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

2002-01-01

71

Gene Silencing in Crustaceans: From Basic Research to Biotechnologies  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is gaining momentum for crustaceans, both in basic research and for commercial development. RNAi has proven instrumental in a growing number of crustacean species, revealing the functionality of novel crustacean genes essential among others to development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Extensive studies have also been done on silencing of viral transcripts in crustaceans, contributing to the understanding of the defense mechanisms of crustaceans and strategies employed by viruses to overcome these. The first practical use of gene silencing in aquaculture industry has been recently achieved, through manipulation of a crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland hormone. This review summarizes the advancements in the use of RNAi in crustaceans, and assesses the advantages of this method, as well as the current hurdles that hinder its large-scale practice. PMID:24705266

Sagi, Amir; Manor, Rivka; Ventura, Tomer

2013-01-01

72

Conserved behavioral and genetic mechanisms in the pre-hatching molt of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus  

PubMed Central

Background During development, juvenile nematodes undergo four molts. Although the number of molts appears to be constant within the Nematoda, the timing of the first molt can occur either before or after hatching. A previous study indicates that, as in some parasitic nematode lineages, a pre-hatching juvenile stage also exists in Diplogastrid nematodes. A detailed description of these sequence of events has yet to be shown for any single species. Findings To delineate the timing of the pre-hatching molt in the beetle-associated Pristionchus pacificus, we tracked individual mid-J1 stage worms inside the eggshell through the J1-J2 transition and hatching. We found that active movement ended 21 hours after egg-laying, followed by lethargus and hatching. We inferred that lethargus behavior represents the onset of the first molt, which precedes each post-hatching molt in C. elegans and P. pacificus. The onset of the J1-J2 molt was also marked by the upregulation of the P. pacificus molting marker Ppa-pnhr-1. We further corroborated the pre-hatching molt with the isolation of two genetic mutants that exhibited aberrant molting both inside the egg and after hatching, as characterized by protracted and often-aborted shedding of the old cuticle. Conclusion Our results describe in detail the pre-hatching juvenile molt in P. pacificus, provide strong visual evidence of a pre-hatching molt, and show support for common genetic mechanisms regulating molting in the pre-hatching and post-hatching developmental stages. Our findings support the hypothesis that the evolution of pre-hatching development in Diplogastrid nematodes is likely due to a heterochronic shift between the timing of the first molt and hatching. PMID:25276336

2014-01-01

73

Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

2013-12-01

74

The timing of wing molt in tundra swans: energetic and non-energetic constraints  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Date of wing molt initiation, based on the regression of tenth primary length on capture date, was calculated for breeding and nonbreeding Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) on the Colville River Delta, Alaska. Breeding females initiated wing molt significantly later than breeding males and nonbreeding males and females; the molt of breeding females was correlated with the date on which their eggs hatched. Breeding males did not differ significantly from nonbreeding males and females in the date of molt initiation. Timing of molt in breeding males and females was consistent with the views that females delay molt while replenishing energy spent on reproduction, but was also consistent with the breeding pair's need for primaries to defend territories and to defend and brood young. Other results, including an increase in an index of female body condition throughout most of the molt period, and a positive correlation between clutch size and female hatch-to-molt interval, were not predicted by the hypothesis that past energy expenditures constrain the timing of molt. Patterns of wing molt within and among other Northern Hemisphere geese and swans are also difficult to explain on the basis of energetics alone. For example, breeding females initiate molt before breeding males in many species. Also, there is extreme asynchrony between mates in two swan species; one of those species also exhibits variation in which sex initiates wing molt first. Both patterns suggest that asynchrony, per se, is important, probably to facilitate brood protection or territory defense. In Tundra Swans and other northern breeding geese and swans, the non-energetic demands of territory defense, brood defense, and brooding are probably important constraints on the timing of wing molt.

Earnst, S.L.

1992-01-01

75

The effects of storage time on vitelline membrane protein banding patterns and interior egg quality of eggs from non-molted and molted hens  

E-print Network

and stored (4°C) per experiment. Three eggs were evaluated on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 for eggs from pre-molted hens; and 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 for eggs from molted hens for changes in SDS-PAGE protein banding patterns. The yolk from each...

Kelley, Angela Jean

2004-09-30

76

Lake acidification: Effects on crustacean zooplankton populations  

SciTech Connect

The ranked acid sensitivities of six common crustacean zooplankton taxa were determined from a multilake field survey in Ontario and from laboratory bioassays. The two approaches gave the same ranking (from most to least sensitive): Daphnia galeata mendotae, Daphnia retrocurva, and Skistodiaptomus oregonensis > Diaphanosoma birgei > Mesocyclops edax > Bosmina longirostris. This finding suggests that acidification has caused the widespread damage which has been documented for the zooplankton of Ontario and northeastern US lakes. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Havens, K.E. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States)); Yan, N.D. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset (Canada)); Keller, W. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Sudbury (Canada))

1993-08-01

77

Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).

Bjerkeng, Bjorn

78

Demographic characteristics of molting black brant near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molting Brant in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska were studied from 1987 to 1992 using capture-mark-recapture techniques to determine origin, age and sex composition, return rates and site fidelity. Brant originated from 10 nesting colonies in Canada and Alaska. The captured birds were 76% adults and 57% males. Ninety-one percent of known-age recaptures were

Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

1996-01-01

79

Toxicity of cadmium to six species in two genera of crayfish and the effect of cadmium on molting success.  

PubMed

Nine acute (96-h) toxicity tests were conducted on six species of crayfish (Cambaridae). Six tests focused on adults, and three tests examined juveniles. Lethal concentration to 50% of a population (LC50) and lethal concentration to 10% of a population (LC10) values, respectively, for the adults of individual test species were as follows: Orconectes juvenilis, 2.44 and 0.623 mg Cd/L; Orconectes placidus, 0.487 and 0.092 mg Cd/L; Orconectes virilis, 3.30 and 0.947 mg Cd/L; Procambarus acutus, 0.368 and 0.048 mg Cd/L; Procambarus alleni, 3.07 and 0.386 mg Cd/L; and Procambarus clarkii, 2.66 and 0.486 mg Cd/L. The Orconectes LC50 genus mean acute value (GMAV) was 1.57 mg Cd/L, whereas the LC50 GMAV for Procambarus was 1.44 mg Cd/L. The LC10 GMAVs were 0.379 and 0.208 mg Cd/L, respectively. Family mean acute values (FMAVs) also were calculated for the Cambaridae using all species data (LC50, 1.51 mg Cd/L; LC10, 0.281 mg Cd/L). For tests with juvenile crayfish, the LC50 and LC10 values, respectively, were as follows: O. juvenilis, 0.060 and 0.014 mg Cd/L; O. placidus, 0.037 and 0.002 mg Cd/L; and P. clarkii, 0.624 and 0.283 mg Cd/L. The GMAVs were calculated for juvenile Orconectes (LC50, 0.047 mg Cd/L; LC10, 0.005 mg Cd/L). Additionally, FMAVs were calculated for juvenile crayfish (LC50, 0.111 mg Cd/L; LC10, 0.020 mg Cd/L). Crayfish sensitivity to Cd varied by a factor of nine among species tested as adults and by a factor of 17 among species tested as juveniles. Molting was a sensitive life stage for crayfish. Most individuals that molted shortly before or during exposure to Cd died, whereas all controls that molted in the adult assays survived. Because molting is a sensitive, recurring life-cycle event, molting individuals should be included in toxicological analysis despite some contrary recommendations. PMID:17373521

Wigginton, Andrew J; Birge, Wesley J

2007-03-01

80

ISOTOPIC EVALUATION OF INTERRUPTED MOLT IN NORTHERN BREEDING POPULATIONS OF THE LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5, Canada Abstract. The Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) breeds throughout North America and various populations apparently exhibit diverse molt strategies. However, molt in this species and how it may vary geographically is generally poorly known. We investigated molt sequence in 27 breeding Loggerhead Shrikes using stable hydrogen (dD) isotope analysis of

Guillermo E. Pérez; Keith A. Hobson

2006-01-01

81

LATITUDINAL VARIATION OF POSTNUPTIAL MOLT IN PACIFIC COAST WHITE-CROWNED SPARROWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duration of postnuptial molt in the White~crowned Sparrows of the Pacific Seaboard (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli and Z. l. pugetensis) decreases northward by an average of 2.6 days per degree of latitude between the southernmost (35.2øN, molt duration 83 days) and northernmost (48.9øN, 47 days) limits of the breeding range. Males begin molting earlier than females by as much as

L. RICHARD MEWALDT; JAMES R. KING

82

Changes in the blood and plasma volume of Harris' sparrows during postnuptial molt.  

PubMed

In captive Harris' sparrows (Zonotrichia querula), plasma and blood volume increased significantly during stages 2 and 3 of postnuptial molt, when extensive feather replacement was taking place in the wings, tail and body tracts. Erythrocyte number did not increase significantly until molt was essentially complete. Consequently the 6% mean maximum reduction in hematocrit that was observed during molt appeared to be largely the result of plasma volume expansion. This plasma volume expansion was not due to changes in the osmolality or concentration of proteins within the blood plasma since both decreased significantly during intense molt. PMID:2863078

deGraw, W A; Kern, M D

1985-01-01

83

Inexplicable Inefficiency of Avian Molt? Insights from an Opportunistically Breeding Arid-Zone Species, Lichenostomus penicillatus  

PubMed Central

The majority of bird species studied to date have molt schedules that are not concurrent with other energy demanding life history stages, an outcome assumed to arise from energetic trade-offs. Empirical studies reveal that molt is one of the most energetically demanding and perplexingly inefficient growth processes measured. Furthermore, small birds, which have the highest mass-specific basal metabolic rates (BMRm), have the highest costs of molt per gram of feathers produced. However, many small passerines, including white-plumed honeyeaters (WPHE; Lichenostomus penicillatus), breed in response to resource availability at any time of year, and do so without interrupting their annual molt. We examined the energetic cost of molt in WPHE by quantifying weekly changes in minimum resting metabolic rate (RMRmin) during a natural-molt period in 7 wild-caught birds. We also measured the energetic cost of feather replacement in a second group of WPHEs that we forced to replace an additional 25% of their plumage at the start of their natural molt period. Energy expenditure during natural molt revealed an energy conversion efficiency of just 6.9% (±0.57) close to values reported for similar-sized birds from more predictable north-temperate environments. Maximum increases in RMRmin during the molt of WPHE, at 82% (±5.59) above individual pre-molt levels, were some of the highest yet reported. Yet RMRmin maxima during molt were not coincident with the peak period of feather replacement in naturally molting or plucked birds. Given the tight relationship between molt efficiency and mass-specific metabolic rate in all species studied to date, regardless of life-history pattern (Efficiency (%) ?=?35.720•10?0.494BMRm; r2?=?0.944; p?=?<0.0001), there appears to be concomitant physiological costs entrained in the molt period that is not directly due to feather replacement. Despite these high total expenditures, the protracted molt period of WPHE significantly reduces these added costs on a daily basis. PMID:21311594

Hoye, Bethany J.; Buttemer, William A.

2011-01-01

84

Genomic identification of a putative circadian system in the cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex  

PubMed Central

Essentially nothing is known about the molecular underpinnings of crustacean circadian clocks. The genome of Daphnia pulex, the only crustacean genome available for public use, provides a unique resource for identifying putative circadian proteins in this species. Here, the Daphnia genome was mined for putative circadian protein genes using Drosophila melanogaster queries. The sequences of core clock (e.g. CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD, TIMELESS and CRYPTOCHROME 2), clock input (CRYPTOCHROME 1) and clock output (PIGMENT DISPERSING HORMONE RECEPTOR) proteins were deduced. Structural analyses and alignment of the Daphnia proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Comparisons of the Daphnia proteins with other sequences showed that they are, in most cases, more similar to homologs from other species, including vertebrates, than they are to those of Drosophila. The presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 and 2 in Daphnia suggests the organization of its clock may be more similar to that of the butterfly Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila (which possesses CRYPTOCHROME 1 but not CRYPTOCHROME 2). These data represent the first description of a putative circadian system from any crustacean, and provide a foundation for future molecular, anatomical and physiological investigations of circadian signaling in Daphnia. PMID:21798832

Tilden, Andrea R.; McCoole, Matthew D.; Harmon, Sarah M.; Baer, Kevin N.; Christie, Andrew E.

2011-01-01

85

Allometry of the Duration of Flight Feather Molt in Birds  

E-print Network

We used allometric scaling to explain why the regular replacement of the primary flight feathers requires disproportionately more time for large birds. Primary growth rate scales to mass (M) asM 0.171, whereas the summed length of the primaries scales almost twice as fast (M 0.316). The ratio of length (mm) to rate (mm/day), which would be the time needed to replace all the primaries one by one, increases as the 0.14 power of mass (M 0.316 /M 0.171 = M 0.145), illustrating why the time required to replace the primaries is so important to life history evolution in large birds. Smaller birds generally replace all their flight feathers annually, but larger birds that fly while renewing their primaries often extend the primary molt over two or more years. Most flying birds exhibit one of three fundamentally different modes of primary replacement, and the size distributions of birds associated with these replacement modes suggest that birds that replace their primaries in a single wave of molt cannot approach the size of the largest flying birds without first transitioning to a more complex mode of primary replacement. Finally, we propose two models that could account for the 1/6 power allometry between feather growth rate and body mass, both based on a length-to-surface relationship that transforms the linear, cylindrical growing region responsible for producing feather tissue into an essentially two-dimensional structure. These allometric relationships

Sievert Rohwer; Robert E. Ricklefs; Vanya G. Rohwer

2009-01-01

86

Breeding chronology, molt, and measurements of accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most northern goshawks completed laying eggs in April, while most Cooper's hawks completed their clutches in May with essentially no overlap. The sharp-shinned hawks laid in late May and June. Juvenile females represented 4% of the northern goshawk breeding population; 22% of the Cooper's hawk breeding population (highest reported for the species) and 60% of the sharp-shinned hawk breeding population, northern goshawks and Cooper's hawks in juvenal plumage generally nested later in the season, but not sharp-shinned hawks. Females of each species began molting first. Primaries were molted from the innermost outward in all species, but rectrix molt sequence was variable. Usually R1 was molted first. Primary molt of the 2 wings was usually synchronous; however, the rectrix molt was not as orderly. Arrested molt was observed in some individuals of all species; it probably has an energy-saving function. Wing chords of adult northern goshawks from Oregon were not different from Wisconsin fall migrants or birds from Alaska; however, rectrices were significantly shorter in Oregon than Wisconsin. Cooper's hawks nesting in Oregon were much smaller than those trapped in Wisconsin. Wing chords and rectrices were significantly shorter for both sexes, and, although weights were not directly comparable, Oregon Cooper's hawks also weighed much less. The limited number of sharp-shinned hawks measured precluded statistical analyses.

Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Fleming, T.L.

1985-01-01

87

The C. elegans gene pan-1 encodes novel transmembrane and cytoplasmic leucine-rich repeat proteins and promotes molting and the larva to adult transition  

PubMed Central

Background Extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) proteins are a highly diverse superfamily of membrane-associated or secreted proteins. In the membrane-associated eLRR proteins, the leucine-rich repeat motifs interact with the extracellular matrix and other ligands. Characterizing their functions in animal model systems is key to deciphering their activities in various developmental processes. Results In this study, we identify pan-1 as a critical regulator of C. elegans larval development. pan-1 encodes both transmembrane and cytoplasmic isoforms that vary in the presence and number of leucine-rich repeats. RNAi experiments reveal that pan-1 is required for developmental processes that occur during the mid to late larval stages. Specifically, pan-1 loss of function causes a late larval arrest with a failure to complete development of the gonad, vulva, and hypodermis. pan-1 is also required for early larval ecdysis and execution of the molting cycle at the adult molt. We also provide evidence that pan-1 functionally interacts with the heterochronic gene lin-29 during the molting process. Conclusions We show that PAN-1 is a critical regulator of larval development. Our data suggests that PAN-1 promotes developmental progression of multiple tissues during the transition from a larva to a reproductive adult. We further demonstrate that the activity of PAN-1 is complex with diverse roles in the regulation of animal development. PMID:23682709

2013-01-01

88

Physiological trade-offs in self-maintenance: plumage molt and stress physiology in birds.  

PubMed

Trade-offs between self-maintenance processes can affect life-history evolution. Integument replacement and the stress response both promote self-maintenance and affect survival in vertebrates. Relationships between the two processes have been studied most extensively in birds, where hormonal stress suppression is down regulated during molt in seasonal species, suggesting a resource-based trade-off between the two processes. The only species found to differ are the rock dove and Eurasian tree sparrow, at least one of which performs a very slow molt that may reduce resource demands during feather growth, permitting investment in the stress response. To test for the presence of a molt-stress response trade-off, we measured hormonal stress responsiveness during and outside molt in two additional species with extended molts, red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We found that both species maintain hormonal stress responsiveness during molt. Further, a comparative analysis of all available species revealed a strong relationship between molt duration and degree of hormonal suppression. Though our results support trade-off hypotheses, these data can also be explained by alternative hypotheses that have not been formally addressed in the literature. We found a strong relationship between stress suppression and seasonality of breeding and evidence suggesting that the degree of suppression may be either locally adaptable or plastic and responsive to local environmental conditions. We hypothesize that environmental unpredictability favors extended molt duration, which in turn allows for maintenance of the hormonal stress response, and discuss implications of a possible trade-off for the evolution of molt schedules. PMID:21795575

Cornelius, Jamie M; Perfito, Nicole; Zann, Richard; Breuner, Creagh W; Hahn, Thomas P

2011-08-15

89

Crustacean-derived biomimetic components and nanostructured composites.  

PubMed

Over millions of years, the crustacean exoskeleton has evolved into a rigid, tough, and complex cuticle that is used for structural support, mobility, protection of vital organs, and defense against predation. The crustacean cuticle is characterized by a hierarchically arranged chitin fiber scaffold, mineralized predominately by calcium carbonate and/or calcium phosphate. The structural organization of the mineral and organic within the cuticle occurs over multiple length scales, resulting in a strong and tough biological composite. Here, the ultrastructural details observed in three species of crustacean are reviewed: the American lobster (Homarus americanus), the edible crab (Cancer pagurus), and the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus). The Review concludes with a discussion of recent advances in the development of biomimetics with controlled organic scaffolding, mineralization, and the construction of nanoscale composites, inspired by the organization and formation of the crustacean cuticle. PMID:24833136

Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Herrera, Steven; Kisailus, David

2014-08-27

90

EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED SEAWATER ON DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS AND 'MULINIA' LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Eggs and larvae of decapod crustaceans and embryos of Mulinia lateralis were exposed to chlorinated seawater for varying periods in continuous flow systems. Mortality, developmental rate, and general behavior were recorded. Panopeus herbstii zoeae were more sensitive to chlorine-...

91

Several species of marine worms and crustaceans are routinely  

E-print Network

Several species of marine worms and crustaceans are routinely imported into California for use,000 blood worms from Maine; and 600,000 pileworms from Maine and Massachusetts. Laboratory experiments show

Smith, Jerome A.

92

Hox genes and study of Hox genes in crustacean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homeobox genes have been discovered in many species. These genes are known to play a major role in specifying regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis of animals from a wide range of phyla. The products of the homeotic genes are a set of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control elaborate developmental processes and specify cell fates in metazoans. Crustacean, presenting a variety of body plans not encountered in any other class or phylum of the Metazoa, has been shown to possess a single set of homologous Hox genes like insect. The ancestral crustacean Hox gene complex comprised ten genes: eight homologous to the hometic Hox genes and two related to nonhomeotic genes presented within the insect Hox complexes. The crustacean in particular exhibits an abundant diversity segment specialization and tagmosis. This morphological diversity relates to the Hox genes. In crustacean body plan, different Hox genes control different segments and tagmosis.

Hou, Lin; Chen, Zhijuan; Xu, Mingyu; Lin, Shengguo; Wang, Lu

2004-12-01

93

Comparative Sugar Transport by Crustacean Hepatopancreas and Intestine.  

E-print Network

??Glucose is transported in crustacean hepatopancreas and intestine by Na+-dependent co-transport, while Na+-dependent D-fructose influx has only been described for the hepatopancreas. It is still… (more)

Duka, Ada

2013-01-01

94

Significant fluctuations in ecdysteroid receptor gene (EcR) expression in relation to seasons of molt and reproduction in the grapsid crab, Metopograpsus messor (Brachyura: Decapoda).  

PubMed

Metopograpsus messor, a brachyuran crab inhabiting the estuaries of North Kerala (India), is a prolific breeder releasing approximately 14 to 16 broods a year. The present paper reports the sequence information on the DNA Binding Domain (C domain, DBD), linker (D domain) and Ligand Binding Domain (E domain, LBD) of M. messor ecdysteroid receptor (MmEcR) gene, the first grapsid brachyuran crab EcR examined. We have also measured MmEcR transcript levels in the ovary and the hepatopancreas throughout the annual cycle, with special reference to seasons of molt and reproduction. MmEcR expression in both the tissues is found to be at its peak (p<0.05) in late premolt crabs (January/May, molt/reproduction season); the expression levels are lowest (p <0.05) during June/July, when the females would neither molt nor reproduce (season for molt/reproduction repose). Intermediate levels of expression were found during the breeding season (August/December). Interestingly, this pattern of gene expression is in concordance with the fluctuating ecdysteroid levels of the hemolymph and Y organ secretory activity. The significant levels of fluctuation in the ovarian expression of MmEcR strongly suggest the ovary as a potential target for ecdysteroid action. A season-wise comparison of the gene expression reveals that ovarian MmEcR transcript levels are higher in breeding crabs (August/December) than the non-breeding animals (June/July), implicating a possible ecdysteroid role in reproduction in M. messor. PMID:25448252

Shyamal, Sharmishtha; Anilkumar, G; Bhaskaran, R; Doss, G P; Durica, D S

2014-11-13

95

Deception in Visual and Chemical Communication in Crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Deception in animal communication occurs when one animal causes another to respond to a condition that does not exist or to\\u000a fail to respond to one that does. Signals that bluff produce the first kind of error, behavior that hides causes the second,\\u000a and both are common in visual communication by crustaceans. In contrast, crustacean chemical communication may usually be

John H. Christy; Dan Rittschof

96

Allometry of the Duration of Flight Feather Molt in Birds  

PubMed Central

We used allometric scaling to explain why the regular replacement of the primary flight feathers requires disproportionately more time for large birds. Primary growth rate scales to mass (M) as M0.171, whereas the summed length of the primaries scales almost twice as fast (M0.316). The ratio of length (mm) to rate (mm/day), which would be the time needed to replace all the primaries one by one, increases as the 0.14 power of mass (M0.316/M0.171?=?M0.145), illustrating why the time required to replace the primaries is so important to life history evolution in large birds. Smaller birds generally replace all their flight feathers annually, but larger birds that fly while renewing their primaries often extend the primary molt over two or more years. Most flying birds exhibit one of three fundamentally different modes of primary replacement, and the size distributions of birds associated with these replacement modes suggest that birds that replace their primaries in a single wave of molt cannot approach the size of the largest flying birds without first transitioning to a more complex mode of primary replacement. Finally, we propose two models that could account for the 1/6 power allometry between feather growth rate and body mass, both based on a length-to-surface relationship that transforms the linear, cylindrical growing region responsible for producing feather tissue into an essentially two-dimensional structure. These allometric relationships offer a general explanation for flight feather replacement requiring disproportionately more time for large birds. PMID:19529759

Rohwer, Sievert; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Rohwer, Vanya G.; Copple, Michelle M.

2009-01-01

97

Effects of predictable and unpredictable food restriction on the stress response in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).  

PubMed

This study tested whether an ethologically relevant stressor, a three-week period of food restriction where food was unavailable for four hours a day, caused chronic stress in molting and non-molting captive European starlings. Although all birds increased weight during the Food Restriction period, only non-molting birds increased food intake. Morning baseline heart rates increased during the Food Restriction period and all birds showed a decrease in heart rate when food was absent from the cage. In non-molting birds, there were no differences in either baseline or stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) concentrations, whereas molting birds showed attenuated baseline CORT, stress-induced CORT, and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels over the Food Restriction period. Although several parameters, such as increased morning heart rate, are consistent with chronic stress, the majority of these data suggest that restricting food availability is not chronically stressful. Furthermore, making the timing of food removal less predictable by randomizing when food was removed during the day did not enhance any of the above responses, but did alter the frequency of maintenance and feeding behaviors. In conclusion, starlings appear resistant to developing symptoms of chronic stress from repeated food restriction. PMID:21801846

Bauer, Carolyn M; Glassman, Laura W; Cyr, Nicole E; Romero, L Michael

2011-11-01

98

Perferential loss of thin filaments during molt-induced atrophy in crab claw muscle  

SciTech Connect

The closer muscle of the claw of a land crab Gecarcinus lateralis consists of slow, or tonic, fibers that undergo a sequential atrophy and restoration during each molting cycle. We have examined the ultrastructural organization of claw fibers during the process of protein degradation that takes place in proecdysial muscle atrophy. The myofibrial cross-sectional area is reduced fourfold by dissolution of peripheral myofilaments and by focal erosion within the fibrila. As degradation continues, there is a preferential loss of thin filaments relative to thick filaments: (1) the average distance between thick filaments decreases from 59 to 45 nm, causing a 72% increase in packing density of thick filamets in cross section and (2) the relative numbers of thin and thick filaments decrease from an average ratio of 9:1 to 6:1. Despite these significant structural changes, the general organization of the arcomere is unaltered; the membrane surface density of the sacroplasmic reticulum and the A-band length remain unchanged. Although there is autophagy of some mitochondria, others retain their normal apperance, as do the nuclei. These data suggest that the specific degradation of contractile proteins in proecdysial atrophic muscle includes the differential breakdown of thin vesus thick filaments.

Mykles, D.L. (Univ. of Tennessee, Oak Ridge); Skinner, D.M.

1981-01-01

99

Migration and molt patterns of red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in Illinois  

E-print Network

Red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), are widespread in North America, but many aspects of their biology are poorly known. In an attempt to elucidate patterns of migration and molt in red bats, data were collected over...

Timm, Robert M.

1989-01-01

100

Trade-offs between molt and immune activity in two populations of house sparrows ( Passer domesticus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molt and immune defense are critical activities in which all birds must invest. Because each is costly, wild passerines may have to decrease their investment in one activity if they are to increase investments to others. Here, I studied such molt-immune trade-offs in one neotropical and one north-temperate population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus (L., 1758)). I included two populations

Lynn B. Martin II

2005-01-01

101

A simulation model of the response of molting Pacific black brant to helicopter disturbance  

E-print Network

A SIMULATION MODEL OF THE RESPONSE OF MOLTING PACIFIC BLACK BRANT TO HELICOPTER DISTURBANCE A Thesis by MARK WAYNE MILLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences A SIMULATION MODEL OF THE RESPONSE OF MOLTING PACIFIC BLACK BRANT TO HELICOPTER DISTURBANCE A Thesis MARK WAYNE MILLER Approved as to style and content by...

Miller, Mark Wayne

1991-01-01

102

BODY WEIGHT AND FEATHER GROWTH OF MALE BARROW'S GOLDENEYE DURING WING MOLT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the timing, duration, and rate of wing molt of male Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica). The mean daily change in primary feather length was 2.6%, which is consistent with rates re- ported for other waterfowl species. The mean length of the flightless period was 31 days (range: 27-34 days), excluding the pre-shedding interval. Wing molt extended from early July

Debbie van de Wetering; Fred Cooke

2000-01-01

103

Corticosterone inhibits feather growth: potential mechanism explaining seasonal down regulation of corticosterone during molt.  

PubMed

Corticosterone (CORT) is seasonally modulated in many passerines, with plasma CORT concentrations lowest during the prebasic molt when all feathers are replaced. To explain why, we proposed that the birds downregulate natural CORT release during molt in order to avoid CORT's degradative effects on proteins and its inhibition of protein synthesis. If CORT exerted these effects during molt, it could slow protein deposition during feather production and potentially result in a longer period of degraded flight performance. To test this hypothesis, either empty or CORT-filled silastic implants were inserted into captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) undergoing induced (feather replacement after plucking) and natural molts. We then measured the rate of feather re-growth by regularly measuring the length of primary, secondary, and tail feathers. CORT implanted birds showed a significantly decreased rate of feather growth compared to control animals. Basal CORT concentrations of induced molt and non-molting birds were also compared but no difference was noted. The results suggest a tradeoff; a complete set of new feathers may be more important to the survival of a bird than the ability of CORT to respond maximally to a stressor. PMID:16125989

Romero, L Michael; Strochlic, David; Wingfield, John C

2005-09-01

104

Abundance and distribution of the common eider in eastern North America during the molting season  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Like most other sea ducks, male common eiders (Somateria mollissima) concentrate in large groups to molt following the breeding season. Although Maine conducted surveys in the 1980s, little was known of eider molting sites in Atlantic Canada until recently, when surveys and research conducted in Quebec, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nova Scotia and Maine revealed a number of important molting sites. Sites vary in importance from a few hundred males to tens of thousands. Important sites include the western and southern coastal areas of Anticosti island (40,000 birds), Baie des Milles Vaches (9,000) in Quebec, southwestern Nova Scotia (40,000), Petit Manan Island archipelago (7,000), and Metinic Island archipelago (10,000) in Maine. Molting eider surveys conducted in Maine during the early 1980s and in the St. Lawrence in 2003-2004 revealed large flock sizes, commonly over 2,000 birds, in consistent locations annually. An estimated 40,000 males molt in Nova Scotia and 28,400 in Maine (1981 data). Surveys indicate that important sites are used consistently between years and that local movements occur. Recoveries from banded birds suggest that eiders breeding on the lower North Shore of the St. Lawrence, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and even Newfoundland appear to concentrate at the Petit Manan site in Maine. They also suggest inter annual movements between the Nova Scotia and Petit Manan sites. Greater understanding of the relationships between breeding, wintering, and molting sites will facilitate management of this heavily exploited sea duck.

Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Allen, B.; McAuley, D.; Milton, G.R.; Gililand, S.

2005-01-01

105

Calcium movements in single crustacean muscle fibres  

PubMed Central

1. Internal microinjection of the Ca-sensitive photoprotein aequorin or the isotope 45Ca have been used to assess Ca movements in single muscle fibres from the barnacle Balanus nubilus and the crab Maia squinado. 2. Progressive isosomotic replacement of external Na by Li, choline, sucrose or Tris was associated with a rapid increase in the level of light emission from internally injected aequorin. This response was dependent upon the presence of external Ca. The light output was maximal for Na concentrations < 50 mM in the replaced salines, while Na concentrations > 350 mM produced no apparent increase in the resting light emission. 3. If the Ca concentration in the external saline was altered, no effect was observed in Na replaced salines when the Ca concentration was < 1 mM, but maximal effects were observed at concentrations of Ca of ca. 100 mM. 4. The increased light emission from aequorin in Na-replaced salines was substantially inhibited by 1 mM-La3+ applied externally, but not by N-ethyl maleimide (NEM), propanolol or D-600. 5. Following microinjection of 45Ca and 2 hr equilibration, the residual efflux of Ca was shown to be sensitive to the removal of external Ca and Na, the extent of each component being variable. 6. The Na-sensitive Ca efflux was partially inhibited by external La3+ (1 mM), but not by high concentrations of Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ or Co2+. It was stimulated by NEM and ethacrynic acid, which was considered to be due to an indirect effect upon the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 7. It is concluded that Ca movements in these single crustacean muscle fibres involve Na gradients and a Ca: Ca exchange and from the relative insensitivity of Ca movements to various inhibitors, in contrast to the Mg system, it seems that there may be two independent modes for divalent cation transport in this preparation. PMID:4436825

Ashley, C. C.; Ellory, J. C.; Hainaut, K.

1974-01-01

106

Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylura strongylura  

PubMed Central

Abstract Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoa frontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropus tylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodes lacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochus bellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasilus coleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylura strongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylura strongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoa frontalis, 252 Lernanthropus tylosuri, 31 Caligodes lacinatus, 24 Bomolochus bellones and 32 Dermoergasilus coleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropus tylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

2014-01-01

107

Haste Makes Waste: Accelerated Molt Adversely Affects the Expression of Melanin-Based and Depigmented Plumage Ornaments in House Sparrows  

PubMed Central

Background Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt. PMID:21151981

Vágási, Csongor I.; Pap, Péter L.; Barta, Zoltán

2010-01-01

108

19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...  

...Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans...Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans...including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or...

2014-04-01

109

19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans...Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans...including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or...

2012-04-01

110

19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans...Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans...including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or...

2010-04-01

111

19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans...Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans...including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or...

2013-04-01

112

19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans...Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans...including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or...

2011-04-01

113

Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) as a Modulator of Aggression in Crustacean Decapods  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1) ‘control pairs’ (CP, n?=?8): both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS); (2) ‘reinforced pairs’ (RP, n?=?9): the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3) ‘inverted pairs’ (IP, n?=?9): the opposite of (2). We found that, independently of the crayfish’s prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i) the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii) higher glycemic levels, and (iii) lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans. PMID:23166815

Aquiloni, Laura; Giulianini, Piero G.; Mosco, Alessandro; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Ferrero, Enrico; Gherardi, Francesca

2012-01-01

114

Evidence for wing molt and breeding site fidelity in King Eiders  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fidelity of King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) to breeding and wing molt sites was examined using satellite telemetry data obtained opportunistically when battery life of transmitters provided locations in a second year. Consecutive breeding locations were obtained for eleven female and 23 male King Eiders. All females exhibited breeding site fidelity by returning to sites within 15 km of first year breeding areas on the North Slope of Alaska. Breeding locations of males in a subsequent year were located on average >1000 km from their prior breeding sites and were primarily outside Alaska, on the coasts of Russia and Canada. Second-year wing molt locations were obtained for two female and six male King Eiders. Wing molt sites of males were located 6.2 ?? 3.1 km apart on average in successive years, while female wing molt locations averaged almost 50 km apart. Our results demonstrate site fidelity of female King Eiders to a breeding area on the North Slope of Alaska, document the dispersal of male King Eiders between breeding seasons, and present the first evidence for wing molt site fidelity in males.

Phillips, L.M.; Powell, A.N.

2006-01-01

115

Development of a dihydroartemisinin-resistant Molt-4 leukemia cell line.  

PubMed

Artemisinin generates cytotoxic free radicals when it reacts with iron. Its toxicity is more selective toward cancer cells because cancer cells contain a higher level of intracellular-free iron. We previously reported that dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an active metabolite of artemisinin, has selective cytotoxicity toward Molt-4 human lymphoblastoid cells. A concern is whether cancer cells could develop resistance to DHA after repeated administration, thus limiting its therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we developed a DHA-resistant Molt-4 cell line (RTN) by exposing Molt-4 cells to gradually increasing concentrations of DHA in vitro. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of DHA for RTN cells is 7.1-times higher than that of Molt-4 cells. RTN cells have a higher growth rate than Molt-4 cells. In addition, we investigated the toxicities of two more potent synthetic artemisinin compounds, artemisinin dimer-alcohol and artemisinin-tagged holotransferrin toward RTN cells; RTN cells showed no significant cross-resistance to these compounds. PMID:24922643

Park, Jungsoo; Lai, Henry C; Singh, Mallika; Sasaki, Tomikazu; Singh, Narendra P

2014-06-01

116

Proteomic analysis of MOLT-4 cells treated by valproic acid.  

PubMed

The effect of valproic acid (VA) on protein expression in human T-lymphocytic leukemia cells MOLT-4 was studied. VA is an inhibitor of histonedeacetylases and has a potential use as antitumor agent in leukemia treatment. The authors in this work prove that 4 h long incubation with 2 mmol/l VA causes phosphorylation of histone H2A.X and its colocalization with 53BP1 in nuclear foci. Their co-localization is typical for DSB signaling machinery. These foci were detected in cells after 4 h exposure without increase of Annexin V positive apoptotic cells. Slight increase in apoptosis (Annexin V positivity) after 24 h is accompanied by more intensive increase in phosphorylation of H2A.X and also by formation of nuclear foci containing gammaH2A.X and 53BP1. Treatment of cells with 2 mmol/l VA resulted in induction of apoptosis affecting about 30% of cells after incubation for 72 h. The changes in protein expression were examined after cell incubation with 2 mmol/l VA for 4 h. Proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and quantified using image evaluation system. Those exhibiting significant VA-induced abundance alterations were identified by mass spectrometry. Changes in expression of 22 proteins were detected, of which 15 proteins were down-regulated. Proteomic analysis resulted in successful identification of three proteins involving alfa-tubulin 3, tubulin-specific chaperone and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucloprotein F. Expression of seven proteins was up-regulated, including heterogeneous nuclear ribonucloprotein A/B. Identified proteins are related to microtubular system and hnRNP family. Suppression of microtubular proteins and changes of balance among hnRNPs can contribute to proliferation arrest and apoptosis induction. PMID:17426928

Vávrová, Jirina; Janovská, Sylva; Rezácová, Martina; Hernychová, Lenka; Tichá, Zuzana; Vokurková, Doris; Záskodová, Darina; Lukásová, Emilie

2007-09-01

117

MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC

DeSante, David F.

118

MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2014 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2014 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC

DeSante, David F.

119

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

DeSante, David F.

120

MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC

DeSante, David F.

121

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

DeSante, David F.

122

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

DeSante, David F.

123

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

DeSante, David F.

124

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull S Feather NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

DeSante, David F.

125

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

DeSante, David F.

126

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP  

E-print Network

MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull BANDER'S INITIALS CODE BAND NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR

DeSante, David F.

127

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling genes in decapod crustaceans: cloning and tissue expression of mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and p70 S6 kinase in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.  

PubMed

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls global translation of mRNA into protein by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase (S6K) and eIF4E-binding protein-1. Akt and Rheb, a GTP-binding protein, regulate mTOR protein kinase activity. Molting in crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids synthesized by a pair of molting glands, or Y-organs (YOs), located in the cephalothorax. During premolt, the YOs hypertrophy and increase production of ecdysteroids. Rapamycin (1?M) inhibited ecdysteroid secretion in Carcinus maenas and Gecarcinus lateralis YOs in vitro, indicating that ecdysteroidogenesis requires mTOR-dependent protein synthesis. The effects of molting on the expression of four key mTOR signaling genes (mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and S6K) in the YO was investigated. Partial cDNAs encoding green crab (C. maenas) mTOR (4031bp), Akt (855bp), and S6K (918bp) were obtained from expressed sequence tags. Identity/similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence of the C. maenas cDNAs to human orthologs were 72%/81% for Cm-mTOR, 58%/73% for Cm-Akt, and 77%/88% for Cm-S6K. mTOR, Akt, S6K, and elongation factor 2 (EF2) in C. maenas and blackback land crab (G. lateralis) were expressed in all tissues examined. The two species differed in the effects of molting on gene expression in the YO. In G. lateralis, Gl-mTOR, Gl-Akt, and Gl-EF2 mRNA levels were increased during premolt. By contrast, molting had no effect on the expression of Cm-mTOR, Cm-Akt, Cm-S6K, Cm-Rheb, and Cm-EF2. These data suggest that YO activation during premolt involves up regulation of mTOR signaling genes in G. lateralis, but is not required in C. maenas. PMID:24269559

Abuhagr, Ali M; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2014-02-01

128

Changes in the Lake Superior Crustacean Zooplankton Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined crustacean zooplankton densities at five locations in two regions of Lake Superior during a time period that spanned two decades, for three years in the early 1970's and again for three years in the early 1990's. We used coupled multivariate and univariate analyses to find whether the zooplankton community had changed over these decades, and to determine if

Jason Link; James H. Selgeby; Robert E. Keen

2004-01-01

129

Non-visual functions of crustacean eyestalk ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ablation experiments demonstrated that in several crustacean groups, the proximal eyestalk ganglia are important in a variety of behavior patterns:1.Chemical elicitation of feeding via the antennules is altered in lobsters, hermit crabs, and some brachyuran crabs by bilateral eyestalk ablation; the ablation of one antennule and the contralateral eyestalk is effective in lobsters and hermit crabs;2.increased chewing of inedible

Brian A. Hazlett

1971-01-01

130

Assessing Stress and Predicting Mortality in Economically Significant Crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing animal stress and mortality associated with bycatch and discard in fishing, aquaculture, and live-market trade depends upon improvements in fishing gear and the practices employed in capture, holding, handling, and transport. Several approaches have been used to evaluate the likely mortality of commercially important crustaceans: (1) assess external injuries assuming a direct relationship to mortality, (2) extrapolate from direct

Allan W. Stoner

2012-01-01

131

Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Crustaceans1  

E-print Network

FA-115 Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Crustaceans1 Deborah B. Pouder, Eric W of pictorial guides that is designed to assist in the identification of common freshwater fish parasites. The publications included in this series are: · Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Sessile Ciliates

Watson, Craig A.

132

Expression of otd orthologs in the amphipod crustacean, Parhyale hawaiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arthropod head is a complex metameric structure. In insects, orthodenticle (otd) functions as a ‘head gap gene’ and plays a significant role in patterning and development of the anterior head ectoderm, the protocerebrum, and the ventral midline. In this study, we characterize the structure and developmental deployment of two otd paralogs in the amphipod crustacean, Parhyale hawaiensis. Photd1 is

William E. Browne; Bernhard G. M. Schmid; Ernst A. Wimmer; Mark Q. Martindale

2006-01-01

133

Myogenic Heartbeat in the Primitive Crustacean Triops longicaudatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacemaker mechanisms in the heart of the primitive crustacean Triops longicaudatus were examined electrophysiologically. The heart is tubular and the heart wall consists of a single layer of myocardial cells. No nerve cells were found in the heart, either with methylene blue vital staining or by light microscopy of serial sec- tions. The heart beats rhythmically at a frequency of

HIROSHI YAMAGISHI; HITOSHI ANDOT; TOSHIKI MAKIOKA

1997-01-01

134

Role of cholesterol synthesis and esterification in the growth of CEM and MOLT4 lymphoblastic cells.  

PubMed Central

CEM and MOLT4 are human T-cell lines isolated from patients with acute cell leukaemia. In culture they show important differences in cholesterol metabolism, CEM being less efficient at synthesizing cholesterol and having a lower activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMGCoA) reductase. To investigate further the relationship between regulation of intracellular cholesterol metabolism at various steps and rate of cell growth, cholesterol synthesis, esterification and efflux were evaluated in CEM and MOLT4 cells at different times during exponential and stationary growth in vitro. It was shown that, although CEM cells have a lower rate of cholesterol synthesis, they grow at a faster rate than MOLT4 cells. However, CEM cells exhibit an increased capacity to esterify cholesterol associated with a decreased efflux of newly synthesized cholesterol into the medium. These results provide evidence for an association between the capability to synthesize and retain cell cholesterol esters and the growth rate potential. PMID:9032443

Dessi, S; Batetta, B; Pani, A; Spano, O; Sanna, F; Putzolu, M; Bonatesta, R; Piras, S; Pani, P

1997-01-01

135

THE RELATION OF THE THYROID AND THE HYPOPHYSIS TO THE MOLTING PROCESS IN THE LIZARD, HEMIDACTYLUS BROOKII  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molting of the epidermis occurs with great regularity in many groups of lizards. In the Amphibia, where this periodicity is less regular, the thyroid has been shown to play an important role in the process (Adams, Richards, and Kuder, 1930). Complete cessation of molt has been reported in the common European lizard, Lacerta, fol lowing thyroidectomy (Drzewicki, 1928). Since

G. K. NOBLE; HELEN T. BRADLEY

136

MOTIVATION OF HENS TO OBTAIN FEED DURING A MOLT INDUCED BY EITHER FEED WITHDRAWAL, WHEAT MIDDLINGS OR MELENGESTROL ACETATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditionally, molting had been done by withdrawing feed, which leads to weight loss and increased mortality. Public criticism of feed withdrawal, based on the perception that it inhumanely increases hunger, has led the industry to ban the practice. Thus far, alternatives result in poor post-molt p...

137

Temporal, Spatial, and Annual Variation in the Occurrence of Molt-Migrant Passerines in the Mexican Monsoon Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults of several species of western North American passerines are known to migrate to the Mexican monsoon region to undergo molt from July to October before continuing migration to their wintering grounds in the neotropics, but little is known about the biology and habitat requirements of these birds on their molting grounds. Therefore we established 13 banding stations during the

Peter Pyle; Wade A. Leitner; Lydia Lozano-Angulo; Fermín Avilez-Teran; Heather Swanson; Eduardo Gómez Limón; Mary K. Chambers

2009-01-01

138

Effect of lighting program and nutrition on reproductive performance of molted single comb White Leghorn hens.  

PubMed

Two adjoining rooms in a light-tight, fan-ventilated, insulated house were used for a study involving 320 Single Comb White Leghorn hens, 60 wk of age, placed two per cage. These hens were subjected to an induced molt which compared two lighting programs, two molt rations, two levels of total sulfur amino acids (TSAA), and two levels of ascorbic acid (AA) in a factorial arrangement. There were four treatments. Treatment 1 compared the Washington lighting program (WSU), consisting of an 8-h light photoperiod for 28 days beginning 7 days before fast with the North Carolina program (NCSU), consisting of a 24-h light photoperiod for 7 days prior to fast followed by 12 h light/day for 21 days. After 28 days, light duration was increased to 16 h/day in stages for both programs. Treatment 2 consisted of feeding cracked corn (CC) or 16% protein molt ration (MR) for 2 weeks: Treatment 3, feeding of 14% layer mash with either .60% or .65% TSAA; and Treatment 4, addition of either 0 or 50 ppm AA to the 14% layer mash. After molting, egg production was increased in the NCSU lighting program and .65% TSAA treatments. Feed conversion was improved by the NCSU lighting treatment. Deaths were fewer in diets with 50 ppm AA. Egg weight, specific gravity, and shell weight were not affected by any treatment. A significant light X molt diet interaction occurred due to better performance of MR birds compared with CC birds in the NCSU lighting program, whereas on the WSU lighting program, CC produced better performance. These data indicated that combining features of various molt programs may not produce optimum results. PMID:3684852

Andrews, D K; Berry, W D; Brake, J

1987-08-01

139

TESTOSTERONE AND AVIAN LIFE HISTORIES: EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTALLY ELEVATED TESTOSTERONE ON PREBASIC MOLT AND SURVIVAL IN MALE DARK-EYED JUNCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) that breed in Virginia begin their prebasic molt after breeding has ended, usually in August. Almost all males caught in late October have completed the molt. In 1989, we obtained anecdotal evidence that males whose testosterone (T) we maintained at artificially elevated levels beyond the end of the breeding season postponed or suppressed prebasic molt.

VAL NOLAN; CHARLES ZIEGENFUS; DANIEL P. CULLEN; C. RAY CHANDLER

140

Short-term oscillations in avian molt intensity: Evidence from the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From a year-long study of molt in the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, we recorded 2069 contour feathers replaced in 137 d (6 May-19 September). Very few contour feathers were lost outside this period. From precise daily counts of feathers lost, and using time series analysis, we identified short-term fluctuations (i.e., 19-d subcycles) around a midsummer peak (i.e., a left-skewed normal distribution). Because these subcycles have never before been reported and because the physiological basis for many aspects of avian molt is poorly known, we offer only hypothetical explanations for the controls responsible for the subcycles. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.; Kery, M.; Redpath, S.M.

2006-01-01

141

Ionizing radiation sensitizes leukemic MOLT-4 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

One of perspective approaches in treatment of hematological malignancies is activation of death receptors for TRAIL. However, leukemia cells studied to date have shown variable susceptibility to TRAIL. Our study demonstrates that cells of acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 are resistant to TRAIL and that ionizing radiation in the therapeutically achievable dose of 1 Gy sensitizes TRAIL-resistant cells MOLT-4 to the TRAIL-induced apoptosis by increase in death receptors for TRAIL DR5. When TRAIL is applied after the irradiation in the time of increased DR5 positivity more efficient cell killing is achieved. PMID:18998361

Rezácová, Martina; Vávrová, Jirina; Vokurková, Doris

2008-01-01

142

Short-term oscillations in avian molt intensity: evidence from the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From a year-long study of molt in the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, we recorded 2069 contour feathers replaced in 137 d (6 May-19 September). Very few contour feathers were lost outside this period. From precise daily counts of feathers lost, and using time series analysis, we identified short-term fluctuations (i.e., 19-d subcycles) around a midsummer peak (i.e., a left-skewed normal distribution). Because these subcycles have never before been reported and because the physiological basis for many aspects of avian molt is poorly known, we offer only hypothetical explanations for the controls responsible for the subcycles.

Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.; Kery, M.; Redpath, S.M.

2006-01-01

143

Haste Makes Waste but Condition Matters: Molt Rate–Feather Quality Trade-Off in a Sedentary Songbird  

PubMed Central

Background The trade-off between current and residual reproductive values is central to life history theory, although the possible mechanisms underlying this trade-off are largely unknown. The ‘molt constraint’ hypothesis suggests that molt and plumage functionality are compromised by the preceding breeding event, yet this candidate mechanism remains insufficiently explored. Methodology/Principal Findings The seasonal change in photoperiod was manipulated to accelerate the molt rate. This treatment simulates the case of naturally late-breeding birds. House sparrows Passer domesticus experiencing accelerated molt developed shorter flight feathers with more fault bars and body feathers with supposedly lower insulation capacity (i.e. shorter, smaller, with a higher barbule density and fewer plumulaceous barbs). However, the wing, tail and primary feather lengths were shorter in fast-molting birds if they had an inferior body condition, which has been largely overlooked in previous studies. The rachis width of flight feathers was not affected by the treatment, but it was still condition-dependent. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that sedentary birds might face evolutionary costs because of the molt rate–feather quality conflict. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that (1) molt rate affects several aspects of body feathers as well as flight feathers and (2) the costly effects of rapid molt are condition-specific. We conclude that molt rate and its association with feather quality might be a major mediator of life history trade-offs. Our findings also suggest a novel advantage of early breeding, i.e. the facilitation of slower molt and the condition-dependent regulation of feather growth. PMID:22808221

Vágási, Csongor I.; Pap, Péter L.; Vincze, Orsolya; Benk?, Zoltán; Marton, Attila; Barta, Zoltán

2012-01-01

144

Changes in immunocompetence and other physiological measures during molt in Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested one of the foundational hypotheses of the field of ecological immunology: that it is difficult for animals to simultaneously carry out two or more especially demanding physiological processes at optimal levels because of energy needs or other factors that cause tradeoffs among competing components of life history. We investigated possible effects of molt (a costly life-history stage that

Vincenzo A. Ellis; Loren Merrill; John C. Wingfield; Adrian L. O'Loghlen; Stephen I. Rothstein

2012-01-01

145

Entomogenous fungus Nomuraea rileyi inhibits host insect molting by C22-oxidizing inactivation of hemolymph ecdysteroids.  

PubMed

The entomogenous fungus Nomuraea rileyi reportedly secretes a proteinaceous substance inhibiting larval molt and metamorphosis in the silkworm Bombyx mori. We studied the possibility that N. rileyi controls B. mori development by inactivating hemolymph molting hormone, ecdysteroids. Incubation of ecdysone (E) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in fungal-conditioned medium resulted in their rapid modification into products with longer retention times in reverse-phase HPLC. Each modified product from E and 20E was purified by HPLC, and identified by NMR as 22-dehydroecdysone and 22-dehydro-20-hydroxyecdysone. Some other ecdysteroids with a hydroxyl group at position C22 were also modified. Injection of the fungal-conditioned medium into Bombyx mori larvae in the mid-4th instar inhibited larval molt but induced precocious pupal metamorphosis, and its injection into 5th instar larvae just after gut purge blocked pupal metamorphosis. In hemolymph of injected larvae, E and 20E disappeared and, in turn, 22-dehydroecdysone and 22-dehydro-20-hydroxyecdysone accumulated. These results indicate that N. rileyi secretes a specific enzyme that oxidizes the hydroxyl group at position C22 of hemolymph ecdysteroids and prevents molting in B. mori larvae. PMID:12489132

Kiuchi, Makoto; Yasui, Hiroe; Hayasaka, Shoji; Kamimura, Manabu

2003-01-01

146

Carotenoid-based plumage coloration and aggression during molt in male house finches  

E-print Network

Carotenoid-based plumage coloration and aggression during molt in male house finches Kevin J. Mc than or dominant to those with drab or small color patches. Male House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus and in winter. One hypothesis for this `negatively correlated handicap' is that drab male house finches, being

McGraw, Kevin J.

147

Reference: Biol. Bull., 148: 259-273. (April 1975) COCKROACH MOLTING. I. TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION OF  

E-print Network

Reference: Biol. Bull., 148: 259-273. (April 1975) 259 COCKROACH MOLTING. I. TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION an approach to the study of cockroach development using feeding (Kunkel, 1966) and regeneration (O'Farrell and Stock, 1953) as extrinsically controllable cues for regulating the development of cockroach cultures

Kunkel, Joseph G.

148

Dietary mercury exposure causes decreased escape takeoff flight performance and increased molt rate in European starlings  

E-print Network

Dietary mercury exposure causes decreased escape takeoff flight performance and increased molt rate 2014 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 Abstract Mercury is a widespread and persistent that forage from primarily terrestrial sources have shown evidence of bioaccumula- tion of mercury, but little

Swaddle, John

149

COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Selection of Molting and Pupation Sites by Coleomegilla maculata  

E-print Network

of suitable microhabitats. We hypothesized that larvae of the lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata lengi larvae. In contrast, 90% of the larvae left the plant to pupate. Second, third, and fourth instars of pupae and newly molted larvae to lacewing larvae depended on plant microsite

Lucas, Ã?ric

150

Annual survival and site fidelity of Steller's eiders molting along the Alaska Peninsula  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) molting and wintering along the Alaska Peninsula have declined since the 1960's. We captured and marked a large sample of Steller's eiders molting in 2 lagoons along the Alaska Peninsula between 1975-97. We used mark-recapture analysis techniques to estimate annual survival and movement probabilities within and among lagoons for male and female eiders. Estimates of annual survival (??SE) were 0.899 ?? 0.032 for females and 0.765 ?? 0.044 for males. Both sexes showed high rates of fidelity to specific molting locations (>95%) within lagoons; yet we found no evidence that annual probability of survival differed among groups molting in different locations either within or among lagoons. We found weak evidence that annual survival decreased between the periods 1975-81 and 1991-97. The lower survival of males compared to females is unusual for waterfowl and may result in a female-biased sex ratio. We conclude that a decrease in adult survival may have initiated the long-term population decline. Further, a shortage of males may be limiting reproductive potential.

Flint, P.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Dau, C.P.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

2000-01-01

151

Annual survival and site fidelity of Stellar's Eiders molting along the Alaska Peninsula  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Populations of Steller?s eiders (Polysticta stelleri) molting and wintering along the Alaska Peninsula have declined since the 1960's. We captured and marked a large sample of Steller's eiders molting in 2 lagoons along the Alaska Peninsula between 1975-97. We used mark-recapture analysis techniques to estimate annual survival and movement probabilities within and among lagoons for male and female eiders. Estimates of annual survival (?SE) were 0.899 ? 0.032 for females and 0.765 ? 0.044 for males. Both sexes showed high rates of fidelity to specific molting locations (>95%) within lagoons; yet we found no evidence that annual probability of survival differed among groups molting in different locations either within or among lagoons. We found weak evidence that annual survival decreased between the periods 1975-81 and 1991-97. The lower survival of males compared to females is unusual for waterfowl and may result in a female-biased sex ratio. We conclude that a decrease in adult survival may have initiated the long-term population decline. Further, a shortage of males may be limiting reproductive potential.

Flint, P.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Dau, C.P.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.

2000-01-01

152

IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOLTING HORMONE OF THE SWEEET POTATO (BEMISIA TABACI) AND GREENHOUSE (TRIALEURODES VAPORARIORUM) WHITEFLY.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In order to identify the whitefly molting hormone, whole body extracts of mature 4th instar and newly formed pharate adult Bemisia tabaci (Strain B) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum were prepared and subjected to reverse phase HPLC. Ecdysteroid content of fractions was determined by enzymeimmunoassay....

153

Behavioral responses of laying hens to different alfalfa-layer ration combinations fed during molting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several dietary alternatives to feed withdrawal have been proposed to induce a molt in laying hens. This study compared the behavior of laying hens on an alfalfa crumble diet (ALC) to hens which were either full-fed (FF) or hens which had feed withdrawn (FW) during a 9 day trial. Each treatment co...

154

Molt Migration in Relation to Breeding Success in Greater Snow Geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe summer migratory movements by female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) breeding on Bylot Island, Nunavut. We followed 121 radio-collared females between 1997 and 2001 to determine the frequency and timing of their departure from the colony in relation to breeding status, nesting success, and molting chronology. We found that 90% (n = 51) of non-breeders (no nest

ERIC T. REED; JOËL BÊTY; JULIEN MAINGUY; GILLES GAUTHIER; JEAN-FRANÇOIS GIROUX

2003-01-01

155

Depression of Synaptic Efficacy at Intermolt in Crayfish Neuromuscular Junctions by 20-Hydroxyecdysone, a Molting Hormone  

E-print Network

, but these mechanisms are excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) across the muscle fiber not fully understood. There is an indication that the molt- membrane. The reduction in EPSPs was observed among muscle related hormone may in the size of the excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) recorded in the muscle. To determine if During

Cooper, Robin L.

156

Demecology in the Cambrian: synchronized molting in arthropods from the Burgess Shale  

PubMed Central

Background The Burgess Shale is well known for its preservation of a diverse soft-bodied biota dating from the Cambrian period (Series 3, Stage 5). While previous paleoecological studies have focused on particular species (autecology) or entire paleocommunities (synecology), studies on the ecology of populations (demecology) of Burgess Shale organisms have remained mainly anecdotal. Results Here, we present evidence for mass molting events in two unrelated arthropods from the Burgess Shale Walcott Quarry, Canadaspis perfecta and a megacheiran referred to as Alalcomenaeus sp. Conclusions These findings suggest that the triggers for such supposed synchronized molting appeared early on during the Cambrian radiation, and synchronized molting in the Cambrian may have had similar functions in the past as it does today. In addition, the finding of numerous juvenile Alalcomenaeus sp. molts associated with the putative alga Dictyophycus suggests a possible nursery habitat. In this nursery habitat a population of this animal might have found a more protected environment in which to spend critical developmental phases, as do many modern species today. PMID:23721223

2013-01-01

157

Effects of ovariectomy on long-day-induced premigratory fat deposition, plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and prolactin, and molt in white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii.  

PubMed

Long days initiate the hyperphagia, fat deposition, and nocturnal restlessness, characteristic of the vernal migratory state in white-crowned sparrows. Ovariectomy, when performed in November, but not when performed in January, prevented induction by long days (20L:4D) of vernal fat deposition, whereas autumnal fat deposition was not affected. This is consistent with results obtained previously with males. Very high plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) after photostimulation of ovariectomized females did not interfere with fat deposition. During fat deposition, levels of prolactin were not different from short-day levels and similar in ovariectomized and control females. However, ovariectomy performed in November suppressed the maximum levels of prolactin produced by long-day stimulation and inhibited or disturbed postnuptial molt. These effects were absent when ovariectomy was performed in January. Long-day-induced prolactin levels were higher when birds were photostimulated during a later phase of the annual cycle. It is suggested that castration does not interfere with long-day-induced vernal fat deposition via reduced secretion of prolactin in the absence of ovarian hormones or via supernormal secretion of LH, but that vernal fat deposition, prolactin secretion, and postnuptial molt require the presence of ovarian hormones prior to photostimulation. Autumnal migratory fat deposition, which is part of the cluster of events associated with photorefractoriness, has no requirement for gonadal hormones. PMID:3192064

Schwabl, H; Schwabl-Benzinger, I; Goldsmith, A R; Farner, D S

1988-09-01

158

Phylogenetic position of the pentastomida and [pan]crustacean relationships  

SciTech Connect

Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda, however the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete, or nearly complete, mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus), and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans likely related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacos tracans and insects.

Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

2004-01-31

159

Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic.  

PubMed

For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative.We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

2005-06-22

160

Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic  

PubMed Central

For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

2005-01-01

161

Horizontal transfer of transposons between and within crustaceans and insects  

PubMed Central

Background Horizontal transfer of transposable elements (HTT) is increasingly appreciated as an important source of genome and species evolution in eukaryotes. However, our understanding of HTT dynamics is still poor in eukaryotes because the diversity of species for which whole genome sequences are available is biased and does not reflect the global eukaryote diversity. Results In this study we characterized two Mariner transposable elements (TEs) in the genome of several terrestrial crustacean isopods, a group of animals particularly underrepresented in genome databases. The two elements have a patchy distribution in the arthropod tree and they are highly similar (>93% over the entire length of the element) to insect TEs (Diptera and Hymenoptera), some of which were previously described in Ceratitis rosa (Crmar2) and Drosophila biarmipes (Mariner-5_Dbi). In addition, phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of TE versus orthologous gene distances at various phylogenetic levels revealed that the taxonomic distribution of the two elements is incompatible with vertical inheritance. Conclusions We conclude that the two Mariner TEs each underwent at least three HTT events. Both elements were transferred once between isopod crustaceans and insects and at least once between isopod crustacean species. Crmar2 was also transferred between tephritid and drosophilid flies and Mariner-5 underwent HT between hymenopterans and dipterans. We demonstrate that these various HTTs took place recently (most likely within the last 3 million years), and propose iridoviruses and/or Wolbachia endosymbionts as potential vectors of these transfers. PMID:24472097

2014-01-01

162

76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA838 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

2011-12-12

163

The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences for Stomatopod Crustaceans: Implications for Phylogeny  

SciTech Connect

We report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of stomatopods and compare their features to each other and to those of other crustaceans. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding sequences were used to explore relationships within the Stomatopoda, within the malacostracan crustaceans, and among crustaceans and insects. Although these analyses support the monophyly of both Malacostraca and, within it, Stomatopoda, it also confirms the view of a paraphyletic Crustacea, with Malacostraca being more closely related to insects than to the branchiopod crustaceans.

Swinstrom, Kirsten; Caldwell, Roy; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

2005-09-07

164

75 FR 55360 - In the Matter of Mattingly Testing Services, Inc. Molt, MT; Order Revoking License (Effective...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...licensee facilities in Molt and Billings, Montana. The license further authorizes the possession of natural or depleted uranium, as solid metal, for shielding in radiography equipment. On the same date this Order (EA-10-100) is...

2010-09-10

165

Gamma-radiation-induced ATM-dependent signalling in human T-lymphocyte leukemic cells, MOLT-4.  

PubMed

ATM kinase (ATM) is essential for activation of cell cycle check points and DNA repair in response to ionizing radiation (IR). In this work we studied the molecular mechanisms regulating DNA repair and cell death in human T-lymphocyte leukemic cells, MOLT-4. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow-cytometric detection of annexin V. Early apoptotic cells were determined as sub-G1 cells and late apoptotic cells were determined as APO2.7-positive ones. Proteins involved in ATM signalling pathway were analysed by Western-blotting. We observed a rapid (0.5 h) phosphorylation of ATM declining after 6 h after irradiation by all the doses studied (1.5, 3.0, and 7.5 Gy). Checkpoint kinase-2 (Chk-2) was also phosphorylated after 0.5 h but its phosphorylated form persisted 4, 2, and 1 h after the doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 7.5 Gy, respectively. The amount of p53 protein and its form phosphorylated on Ser-392 increased 1 h after irradiation (1-10 Gy). The lethal dose of 7.5 Gy caused an immediate induction and phosphorylation of p53 after 0.5 h post-irradiation. At the time of phosphorylation of p53, we found simultaneous phosphorylation of the oncoprotein Mdm2 on Ser-166. Neither ATM nor its downstream targets showed a dose-dependent response after 1 h when irradiated by the doses of 1-10 Gy. MOLT-4 cells were very sensitive to the effect of IR. Even low doses, such as 1.5 Gy, induced apoptosis 16 h after irradiation (evaluated according to the cleavage of nuclear lamin B to a 48-kDa fragment). IR-induced molecular signalling after exposure to all the tested doses was triggered by rapid phosphorylation of ATM and Chk-2. Subsequent induction of p53 protein and its phosphorylation was accompanied by concomitant phosphorylation of its negative regulator, oncoprotein Mdm2, and followed by induction of apoptosis. PMID:17565390

Tichý, Ales; Záskodová, Darina; Rezácová, Martina; Vávrová, Jirina; Vokurková, Doris; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Vilasová, Zdena; Cerman, Jaroslav; Osterreicher, Jan

2007-01-01

166

Using body mass dynamics to examine long-term habitat shifts of arctic-molting geese: evidence for ecological change  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1976 onward, molting brant geese (Branta bernicla) within the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Alaska, shifted from inland, freshwater lakes toward coastal wetlands. Two hypotheses\\u000a explained this redistribution: (1) ecological change: redistribution of molting brant reflects improvements in coastal foraging\\u000a habitats, which have undergone a succession toward salt-tolerant plants due to increased coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion\\u000a as induced by

Tyler L. Lewis; Paul L. Flint; Dirk V. Derksen; Joel A. Schmutz; Eric J. Taylor; Karen S. Bollinger

167

Perqu noms n'hi hagi un,... hi pintes molt. Oficina de Cooperaci al Desenvolupament i Solidaritat  

E-print Network

1 Perquè només n'hi hagi un,... hi pintes molt. #12;2 Oficina de Cooperació al Desenvolupament i Dipòsit legal: #12;3 Perquè només n'hi hagi un,... hi pintes molt. Sumari Oficina de Cooperació al privats, per induir i fomentar estratègies de desenvolupa- ment humà i sostenible i donar-hi suport. La

Oro, Daniel

168

Mitochondrial malic enzyme from crustacean and fish muscle.  

PubMed

1. In contrast to mammalian skeletal muscle mitochondria, the only substrate that crustacean and fish mitochondria oxidize at a high rate is malate. 2. The mitochondria isolated from muscles of fish and crayfish exhibit a high activity of malic enzyme. 3. Assuming that malic enzyme is responsible for the conversion of malate to pyruvate in animal muscle, it could be expected that the mitochondria which possess high activity of this enzyme should oxidize malate very rapidly when oxygen is available. 4. Some properties of different molecular forms of malic enzyme are reviewed. PMID:3293896

Skorkowski, E F

1988-01-01

169

Larval Culture of Tachypleus gigas and Its Molting Behavior Under Laboratory Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Horseshoe crab populations along the northeast coast of India are under threat due to degradation of the breeding beaches.\\u000a To augment the trend, attempts were made to culture the larvae of Tachypleus gigas and study its growth rate by enhancing the molting pattern in the laboratory condition. Trilobites of T. gigas were cultured on a controlled diet of brine shrimp

J. K. Mishra

170

Developmental expression of Manduca shade, the P450 mediating the final step in molting hormone synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecdysone 20-monooxygenase (E20MO; 20-hydroxylase) is the enzyme that mediates the conversion of ecdysone (E) to the active insect molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which coordinates developmental progression. We report the identification and developmental expression of the Halloween gene shade (shd; CYP314A1) that encodes the E20MO in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Manduca Shd (MsShd) mediates the conversion of E to

Kim F. Rewitz; Robert Rybczynski; James T. Warren; Lawrence I. Gilbert

2006-01-01

171

Expression and regulation of avian cathepsin L in the oviduct during molting.  

PubMed

Cathepsins (CTSs) are peptidases that have biological roles in degrading extracellular matrix, catabolism of intracellular proteins, and processing of pro-hormones. Of these, cathepsin L (CTSL) is closely associated with morphological changes in reproductive organs required for proper function in mammals, including humans and mice, but little is known about CTSL in avian species. In the present study, the expression of CTSL was investigated in the oviduct of hens during regression and recrudescence in response to molting. Our results revealed that expression of CTSL mRNA increased (P<0.001) when the oviduct underwent regression during the molting period in hens. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemial analyses detected CTSL mRNA and protein predominantly in the luminal (LE) and glandular epithelia (GE) during regression of the oviduct, but not during regeneration of the oviduct. Expression of CTSL decreased in the oviduct of chicks treated with diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen agonist). Furthermore, we discovered four miRNAs including miR-23b, miR-551, miR-1464 and miR-1803 that regulate expression of the CTSL gene at the post-transcriptional level, which suggests that CTSL mRNA can be regulated by specific miRNAs via 3'-UTR in chickens. Results of the present research suggest that estrogen regulates expression of CTSL during regression of the oviduct during molting and that down-regulation of CTSL is likely a prerequisite for the normal regeneration of oviductal tissues following molting in laying hens. PMID:24859254

Bae, Seung-Min; Lim, Whasun; Jeong, Wooyoung; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

2014-08-01

172

Effects of a new molt-inducing insecticide, tebufenozide, on zooplankton communities in lake enclosures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potent ecdysone agonist, tebufenozide, has recently been developed as a molt-inducing insecticide to control defoliating lepidopterans. As part of continuing research efforts to assess the effectiveness and environmental safety of this material for insect pest management in Canadian forests, tebufenozide (RH-5992-2F) was applied to large lake enclosures and the effects on zooplankton communities were evaluated. There were significant treatment

David P. Kreutzweiser; David R. Thomas

1995-01-01

173

NHR-23 dependent collagen and hedgehog-related genes required for molting  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} NHR-23 is a critical regulator of nematode development and molting. {yields} The manuscript characterizes the loss-of-function phenotype of an nhr-23 mutant. {yields} Whole genome expression analysis identifies new potential targets of NHR-23. {yields} Hedgehog-related genes are identified as NHR-23 dependent genes. {yields} New link between sterol mediated signaling and regulation by NHR-23 is found. -- Abstract: NHR-23, a conserved member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, is required for normal development in Caenorhabditis elegans where it plays a critical role in growth and molting. In a search for NHR-23 dependent genes, we performed whole genome comparative expression microarrays on both control and nhr-23 inhibited synchronized larvae. Genes that decreased in response to nhr-23 RNAi included several collagen genes. Unexpectedly, several hedgehog-related genes were also down-regulated after nhr-23 RNAi. A homozygous nhr-23 deletion allele was used to confirm the RNAi knockdown phenotypes and the changes in gene expression. Our results indicate that NHR-23 is a critical co-regulator of functionally linked genes involved in growth and molting and reveal evolutionary parallels among the ecdysozoa.

Kouns, Nathaniel A.; Nakielna, Johana; Behensky, Frantisek [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Krause, Michael W. [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kostrouch, Zdenek [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Kostrouchova, Marta, E-mail: marta.kostrouchova@lf1.cuni.cz [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

2011-10-07

174

Vitellogenin synthesis in the fat body of the marine crustacean Isopoda, Idotea balthica basteri, during vitellogenesis  

E-print Network

Vitellogenin synthesis in the fat body of the marine crustacean Isopoda, Idotea balthica basteri. This paper investigates vitellogenin synthesis in the fat body of the female marine crustacean Isopoda of the samples was treated with an antiserum against vitellogenin and the antigen-antibody complex counted

Boyer, Edmond

175

The Dscam Homologue of the Crustacean Daphnia Is Diversified by Alternative Splicing Like in Insects  

E-print Network

The Dscam Homologue of the Crustacean Daphnia Is Diversified by Alternative Splicing Like, and evolutionary aspects of a Dscam homolog in 2 species of the crustacean Daphnia. The Dscam of Daphnia generates's Dscam. In Daphnia, we detected exon usage variability in both the brain and hemocytes (the effector

Obbard, Darren

176

Aminergic Modulation of the Myogenic Heart in the Branchiopod Crustacean Triops longicaudatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

S —Although crustaceans typically have a neurogenic heart, the primitive crustacean Triops longicaudatus has a myogenic heart with the heartbeat arising from the endogenous rhythmic activity of the myocardium. In the present investigation, the effects of six biogenic amines, epinephrine, norepineph- rine, dopamine, octopamine, serotonin and histamine, on the myogenic heart of T. longicaudatus were examined. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and

Hiroshi Yamagishi

2003-01-01

177

Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic  

PubMed Central

Recent molecular analyses indicate that crustaceans and hexapods form a clade (Pancrustacea or Tetraconata), but relationships among its constituent lineages, including monophyly of crustaceans, are controversial. Our phylogenetic analysis of three protein-coding nuclear genes from 62 arthropods and lobopods (Onychophora and Tardigrada) demonstrates that Hexapoda is most closely related to the crustaceans Branchiopoda (fairy shrimp, water fleas, etc.) and Cephalocarida+Remipedia, thereby making hexapods terrestrial crustaceans and the traditionally defined Crustacea paraphyletic. Additional findings are that Malacostraca (crabs, isopods, etc.) unites with Cirripedia (barnacles, etc.) and they, in turn, with Copepoda, making the traditional crustacean class Maxillopoda paraphyletic. Ostracoda (seed shrimp)—either all or a subgroup—is associated with Branchiura (fish lice) and likely to be basal to all other pancrustaceans. A Bayesian statistical (non-clock) estimate of divergence times suggests a Precambrian origin for Pancrustacea (600 Myr ago or more), which precedes the first unambiguous arthropod fossils by over 60 Myr. PMID:15734694

Regier, Jerome C.; Shultz, Jeffrey W.; Kambic, Robert E.

2005-01-01

178

Discovery and Functional Study of a Novel Crustacean Tachykinin Neuropeptide  

PubMed Central

Tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) refers to a large and structurally diverse family of neuropeptides found in vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. These peptides have various important physiological functions, from regulating stress in mammals to exciting the gastric mill (food chewing) and pyloric (food filtering) rhythm in the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of decapod crustaceans. Here, a novel TRP, which we named CalsTRP (Callinectes sapidus TRP), YPSGFLGMRamide (m/z 1026.52), was identified and de novo sequenced using a multifaceted mass spectrometry-based platform in both the central nervous system (CNS) and STNS of C. sapidus. We also found, using isotopic formaldehyde labeling, that CalsTRP in the C. sapidus brain and commissural ganglion (CoG) was up-regulated after food intake, suggesting that TRPs in the CNS and STNS are involved in regulating feeding in Callinectes. Using imaging mass spectrometry, we determined that the previously identified CabTRP Ia (APSGFLGMRamide) and CalsTRP were colocalized in the C. sapidus brain. Lastly, our electrophysiological studies show that bath-applied CalsTRP and CabTRP Ia each activate the pyloric and gastric mill rhythms in C. sapidus, as shown previously for pyloric rhythm activation by CabTRP Ia in the crab Cancer borealis. In summary, the newly identified CalsTRP joins CabTRP Ia as a TRP family member in the decapod crustacean nervous system, whose actions include regulating feeding behavior. PMID:22247794

2011-01-01

179

Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a 'primate-like' awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

Marshall, N J; Land, M F; Cronin, T W

2014-01-01

180

Null point of discrimination in crustacean polarisation vision.  

PubMed

The polarisation of light is used by many species of cephalopods and crustaceans to discriminate objects or to communicate. Most visual systems with this ability, such as that of the fiddler crab, include receptors with photopigments that are oriented horizontally and vertically relative to the outside world. Photoreceptors in such an orthogonal array are maximally sensitive to polarised light with the same fixed e-vector orientation. Using opponent neural connections, this two-channel system may produce a single value of polarisation contrast and, consequently, it may suffer from null points of discrimination. Stomatopod crustaceans use a different system for polarisation vision, comprising at least four types of polarisation-sensitive photoreceptor arranged at 0, 45, 90 and 135 deg relative to each other, in conjunction with extensive rotational eye movements. This anatomical arrangement should not suffer from equivalent null points of discrimination. To test whether these two systems were vulnerable to null points, we presented the fiddler crab Uca heteropleura and the stomatopod Haptosquilla trispinosa with polarised looming stimuli on a modified LCD monitor. The fiddler crab was less sensitive to differences in the degree of polarised light when the e-vector was at -45 deg than when the e-vector was horizontal. In comparison, stomatopods showed no difference in sensitivity between the two stimulus types. The results suggest that fiddler crabs suffer from a null point of sensitivity, while stomatopods do not. PMID:24737768

How, Martin J; Christy, John; Roberts, Nicholas W; Marshall, N Justin

2014-07-15

181

C. elegans NIMA-related kinases NEKL-2 and NEKL-3 are required for the completion of molting.  

PubMed

Caenorhabditis elegans molting is a process during which the apical extracellular matrix of the epidermis, the cuticle, is remodeled through a process of degradation and re-synthesis. Using a genetic approach, we identified nekl-3 as essential for the completion of molting. NEKL-3 is highly similar to the mammalian NEK kinase family members NEK6 and NEK7. Animals homozygous for a hypomorphic mutation in nekl-3, sv3, had a novel molting defect in which the central body region, but not the head or tail, was unable to shed the old cuticle. In contrast, a null mutation in nekl-3, gk506, led to complete enclosure within the old cuticle. nekl-2, which is most similar to mammalian NEK8, was also essential for molting. Mosaic analyses demonstrated that NEKL-2 and NEKL-3 were specifically required within the large epidermal syncytium, hyp7, to facilitate molting. Consistent with this, NEKL-2 and NEKL-3 were expressed at the apical surface of hyp7 where they localized to small spheres or tubular structures. Inhibition of nekl-2, but not nekl-3, led to the mislocalization of LRP-1/megalin, a cell surface receptor for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-binding proteins. In addition, nekl-2 inhibition led to the mislocalization of several other endosome-associated proteins. Notably, LRP-1 acts within hyp7 to facilitate completion of molting, suggesting at least one mechanism by which NEKL-2 may influence molting. Notably, our studies failed to reveal a requirement for NEKL-2 or NEKL-3 in cell division, a function reported for several mammalian NEKs including NEK6 and NEK7. Our findings provide the first genetic and in vivo evidence for a role of NEK family members in endocytosis, which may be evolutionarily conserved. PMID:25523392

Yochem, John; Lažeti?, Vladimir; Bell, Leslie; Chen, Lihsia; Fay, David

2015-02-15

182

Activation of protein kinase C induces differentiation in the human T-lymphoblastic cell line MOLT-3.  

PubMed Central

We attempted to determine whether or not activation of calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) is associated with the induction of differentiation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in the human T-lymphoblastic cell line MOLT-3. PKC activities were assayed in MOLT-3 and its five subclones resistant to TPA-induced cell differentiation. The cytosolic PKC activities of TPA-resistant subclones were 36-53% of that of the parental MOLT-3 cells. TPA treatment led to a rapid decrease in PKC activities in the cytosol, together with a concomitant increase in PKC activities in the particulate fraction, in both MOLT-3 and a TPA-resistant subclone. Thus, translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the membrane occurred following treatment with TPA, in both cell lines. However, the amount of PKC translocated from the cytosol to particulate fraction for 60 min in a TPA-resistant subclone was about 20% of that of the parental MOLT-3 cells. These findings suggest that the quantity of cytosolic PKC activity and the extent of translocation may relate to responses to TPA-induced cell differentiation in this T-cell line. PMID:2803911

Yamauchi, Y.; Nagasawa, K.; Mayumi, T.; Horiuchi, T.; Niho, Y.

1989-01-01

183

Interactions between the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and cyclic AMP signaling pathways regulate larval molting in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

Larval molting in Drosophila, as in other insects, is initiated by the coordinated release of the steroid hormone ecdysone, in response to neural signals, at precise stages during development. In this study we have analyzed, using genetic and molecular methods, the roles played by two major signaling pathways in the regulation of larval molting in Drosophila. Previous studies have shown that mutants for the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor gene (itpr) are larval lethals. In addition they exhibit delays in molting that can be rescued by exogenous feeding of 20-hydroxyecdysone. Here we show that mutants for adenylate cyclase (rut) synergize, during larval molting, with itpr mutant alleles, indicating that both cAMP and InsP(3) signaling pathways function in this process. The two pathways act in parallel to affect molting, as judged by phenotypes obtained through expression of dominant negative and dominant active forms of protein kinase A (PKA) in tissues that normally express the InsP(3) receptor. Furthermore, our studies predict the existence of feedback inhibition through protein kinase A on the InsP(3) receptor by increased levels of 20-hydroxyecdysone. PMID:11333238

Venkatesh, K; Siddhartha, G; Joshi, R; Patel, S; Hasan, G

2001-01-01

184

Multiple forms of calcium-dependent proteinase in crustacean muscle  

SciTech Connect

Four calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) activities in lobster muscles have been resolved by high performance liquid chromatography. These activities differ in molecular weight and net charge. Though optimum activity occurred at high (5 and 10 mM) calcium at pH 6.8, the enzymes differ in activation at lower calcium concentrations. Only one of the CDPs is active at 100 ..mu..M calcium; none are active at 10 ..mu..M and below. Although all four CDPs are inhibited by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors leupeptin, E-64, and iodoacetamide, they show a differential response to the aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin and the serine proteinase inhibitor PMSF. In contrast to CDPs from vertebrate tissues, crustacean muscles contain multiple forms that require calcium at millimolar levels. 17 refs., 6 figs.

Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

1986-01-01

185

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF FAST AND SLOW CRUSTACEAN MUSCLES  

PubMed Central

Known phasic and tonic muscle fibers of the crab Cancer magister were studied by electron microscopy. Phasic fibers have sarcomeres about 4.5 µ long, small polygonal myofibrils, and a well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. The thick myofilaments, disposed in hexagonal array, are each surrounded by six thin filaments. The tonic fibers have a sarcomere length of about 12 µ, larger myofibrils, a poorly developed sarcoplasmic reticulum, and a disorderly array of myofilaments. Each thick myofilament is surrounded by 10–12 thin filaments. The same morphological type of slow muscle has been found in the crustaceans, Macrocyclops albidus, Cypridopsis vidua, and Balanus cariosus, in each case in an anatomical location consistent with tonic action. A search of the literature indicates that this type of muscle is found in all classes of arthropods and is confined to visceral and postural muscles or specializations of these. PMID:6061726

Fahrenbach, Wolf H.

1967-01-01

186

Arthropod phylogeny revisited, with a focus on crustacean relationships.  

PubMed

Higher-level arthropod phylogenetics is an intensely active field of research, not least as a result of the hegemony of molecular data. However, not all areas of arthropod phylogenetics have so far received equal attention. The application of molecular data to infer a comprehensive phylogeny of Crustacea is still in its infancy, and several emerging results are conspicuously at odds with morphology-based studies. In this study, we present a series of molecular phylogenetic analyses of 88 arthropods, including 57 crustaceans, representing all the major lineages, with Onychophora and Tardigrada as outgroups. Our analyses are based on published and new sequences for two mitochondrial markers, 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and the nuclear ribosomal gene 18S rDNA. We designed our phylogenetic analyses to assess the effects of different strategies of sequence alignment, alignment masking, nucleotide coding, and model settings. Our comparisons show that alignment optimization of ribosomal markers based on secondary structure information can have a radical impact on phylogenetic reconstruction. Trees based on optimized alignments recover monophyletic Arthropoda (excluding Onychophora), Pancrustacea, Malacostraca, Insecta, Myriapoda and Chelicerata, while Maxillopoda and Hexapoda emerge as paraphyletic groups. Our results are unable to resolve the highest-level relationships within Arthropoda, and none of our trees supports the monophyly of Myriochelata or Mandibulata. We discuss our results in the context of both the methodological variations between different analyses, and of recently proposed phylogenetic hypotheses. This article offers a preliminary attempt to incorporate the large diversity of crustaceans into a single molecular phylogenetic analysis, assessing the robustness of phylogenetic relationships under varying analysis parameters. It throws into sharp relief the relative strengths and shortcomings of the combined molecular data for assessing this challenging phylogenetic problem, and thereby provides useful pointers for future studies. PMID:19854296

Koenemann, Stefan; Jenner, Ronald A; Hoenemann, Mario; Stemme, Torben; von Reumont, Björn M

2010-01-01

187

Recrudescence Mechanisms and Gene Expression Profile of the Reproductive Tracts from Chickens during the Molting Period  

PubMed Central

The reproductive system of chickens undergoes dynamic morphological and functional tissue remodeling during the molting period. The present study identified global gene expression profiles following oviductal tissue regression and regeneration in laying hens in which molting was induced by feeding high levels of zinc in the diet. During the molting and recrudescence processes, progressive morphological and physiological changes included regression and re-growth of reproductive organs and fluctuations in concentrations of testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and corticosterone in blood. The cDNA microarray analysis of oviductal tissues revealed the biological significance of gene expression-based modulation in oviductal tissue during its remodeling. Based on the gene expression profiles, expression patterns of selected genes such as, TF, ANGPTL3, p20K, PTN, AvBD11 and SERPINB3 exhibited similar patterns in expression with gradual decreases during regression of the oviduct and sequential increases during resurrection of the functional oviduct. Also, miR-1689* inhibited expression of Sp1, while miR-17-3p, miR-22* and miR-1764 inhibited expression of STAT1. Similarly, chicken miR-1562 and miR-138 reduced the expression of ANGPTL3 and p20K, respectively. These results suggest that these differentially regulated genes are closely correlated with the molecular mechanism(s) for development and tissue remodeling of the avian female reproductive tract, and that miRNA-mediated regulation of key genes likely contributes to remodeling of the avian reproductive tract by controlling expression of those genes post-transcriptionally. The discovered global gene profiles provide new molecular candidates responsible for regulating morphological and functional recrudescence of the avian reproductive tract, and provide novel insights into understanding the remodeling process at the genomic and epigenomic levels. PMID:24098561

Ahn, Suzie E.; Lim, Chul-Hong; Lee, Jin-Young; Bae, Seung-Min; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Song, Gwonhwa

2013-01-01

188

Duodenal calcium uptake, femur ash, and eggshell quality decline with age and increase following molt.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the decline in eggshell quality over time during egg production, and its improvement after molting, paralleled the rate of calcium uptake by the duodenum of the laying hen. In vitro duodenal calcium uptake rate and femur ash (percentage of femur weight) were determined at 37, 45, 51, 58, 68, and 72 wk of age. Percentage shell and shell thickness (millimeters) were determined at 22, 29, 36, 44, 50, 57, and 71 wk of age. Molt was induced at 63 wk of age. Three commercial strains DeKalb XL-Link, ISA/Babcock B-300V, and Hy-Line W-36 were compared. There were no differences in duodenal calcium uptake rate among strains. There was a significant decline (P < .01) in duodenal calcium uptake from 408 pmol/mg tissue per min at 37 wk of age to 329 pmol/mg per min at 58 wk of age. Femur ash decreased (P < .01) from 50.8% at 37 wk of age to 47.6% at 58 wk of age. Percentage shell and shell thickness declined (P < .01) from 9.79% and .403 mm at 22 wk of age to 8.88% and .373 mm at 57 wk of age, respectively. After the induced molt, duodenal calcium uptake increased (P < .01) to 402 pmol/mg tissue per min, and percentage shell and shell thickness increased (P < .01) to 10.23% and .389 mm, respectively. Duodenal calcium uptake increased immediately postmolt, whereas femur ash did not increase until 72 wk of age (P < .01). PMID:7816734

al-Batshan, H A; Scheideler, S E; Black, B L; Garlich, J D; Anderson, K E

1994-10-01

189

[The infradian rhythm in changes of thyroxine level and related periodicity of feather replacement during the molting in passerine birds].  

PubMed

In the course of 15 days, the thyroxine and corticosterone level was measured daily in blood serum of molting starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, by use of enzyme immunodetection method. Revealed are three-day rhythm in changes of thyroxine level and four-day one in changes of corticosterone level, both rhythms being synchronized in different birds. A beginning of growth of new oar feathers coincides with maximum thyroxine concentration in blood serum and also demonstrates a three-day period. In free-living passerine birds (Passer montamus, Parus major, Chloris chloris) a three-day rhythm is found in the dynamics of feather replacement. This rhythm is manifested synchronously in the studied species that differ in timing of post-nuptial molting. Established is the synchronous manifestation of three-day rhythm in changes of thyroxine level and feather replacement during molting in different passerine species and different birds of the same species. PMID:25438569

Diatroptov, M E

2013-01-01

190

[The infradian rhythm in changes of thyroxine level and related periodicity of feather replacement during the molting in passerine birds].  

PubMed

In the course of 15 days, the thyroxine and corticosterone level was measured daily in blood serum of molting starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, by use of enzyme immunodetection method. Revealed are three-day rhythm in changes of thyroxine level and four-day one in changes of corticosterone level, both rhythms being synchronized in different birds. A beginning of growth of new oar feathers coincides with maximum thyroxine concentration in blood serum and also demonstrates a three-day period. In free-living passerine birds (Passer montamus, Parus major, Chloris chloris) a three-day rhythm is found in the dynamics of feather replacement. This rhythm is manifested synchronously in the studied species that differ in timing of post-nuptial molting. Established is the synchronous manifestation of three-day rhythm in changes of thyroxine level and feather replacement during molting in different passerine species and different birds of the same species. PMID:25508100

2013-01-01

191

Molting in Salmonella enteritidis-challenged laying hens fed alfalfa crumbles. I. Salmonella enteritidis colonization and virulence gene hilA response  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to examine microbial population shifts and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) responses in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)-challenged molted and non-molted hens fed different dietary regimens. Fifteen Salmonella-free single comb Leghorn hen...

192

Size Dimorphism, Molt Status, and Body Mass Variation of Prairie Falcons Nesting in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds face challenges in how they allocate energy during the reproductive season. Most temperate zone species do not breed and molt at the same time, presumably because of the high energy demands of these two activities (Espie et al. 1996 and citations therein). However, representatives of at least four raptor genera are known to molt during the nesting season (Schmutz

Karen Steenhof; James O. McKinley; Cheryl R. Dykstra

2006-01-01

193

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH, AND BEHAVIOR Effects of High Zinc Diets Using Zinc Propionate on Molt Induction, Organs, and Postmolt Egg Production and Quality in Laying Hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the ability of an alternative salt form of 1% Zn, Zn propionate, to induce molt in 66-wk-old hens. The hens were ran- domly assigned to 4 treatment groups of 27 or 28 birds each: a) molted conventionally by feed withdrawal, b) 1% Zn as Zn acetate, c) 1% Zn as Zn propionate, or d)

S. Y. Park; S. G. Birkhold; L. F. Kubena; D. J. Nisbet; S. C. Ricke

194

MELENGESTROL ACETATE AS AN EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO INDUCE A DECLINE IN EGG PRODUCTION AND REVERSIBLE REGRESSION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT IN LAYING HENS II. EFFECTS ON POST MOLT EGG QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Inducing hens to molt increases egg quality, egg production and extends the productive life of the hens. Molting is normally accomplished by feed withdrawal, which has received criticism, and alternatives described thus far have resulted in poor post-molt performance. Previous studies have shown t...

195

POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLINS: A MOLECULAR APPROACH TO REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

To fully elucidate the action of crustacean hormones, or their agonists, on reproduction and vitellogenesis it has become increasingly important to develop sensitive assays that indicate a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on easily measured endpoints. Because of the relative abun...

196

76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

2011-01-26

197

78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

2013-02-08

198

POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLINS: A MOLECULAR APPROACH TO REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY.  

EPA Science Inventory

To fully elucidate the action of crustacean hormones, or their agonists, on vitellogenesis and reproduction, it has become increasingly important to develop sensitive assays that indicate a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on easily measured endpoints. Because of the relative ab...

199

Maximal horizontal flight performance of hummingbirds: effects of body mass and molt.  

PubMed

Hovering and fast forward flapping represent two strenuous types of flight that differ in aerodynamic power requirement. Maximal capabilities of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) in hovering and forward flight were compared under varying body mass and wing area. The capability to hover in low-density gas mixtures was adversely affected by body mass, whereas the capability to fly in a wind tunnel did not show any adverse mass effect. Molting birds that lost primary flight feathers and reduced wing area also displayed mass loss and loss of aerodynamic power and flight speed. This suggests that maximal flight speed is insensitive to short-term perturbations of body mass but that molting is stressful and reduces the birds' speed and capacity for chase and escape. Hummingbirds' flight behavior in confined space was also investigated. Birds reduced their speeds flying through a narrow tube to approximately one-fifth of that in the wind tunnel and did not display differences under varying body mass and wing area. Hence, performance in the flight tube was submaximal and did not correlate with performance variation in the wind tunnel. For ruby-throated hummingbirds, both maximal mass-specific aerodynamic power derived from hovering performance in low-density air media and maximal flight velocity measured in the wind tunnel were invariant with body mass. PMID:10068617

Chai, P; Altshuler, D L; Stephens, D B; Dillon, M E

1999-01-01

200

Biodegradation of the chitin-protein complex in crustacean cuticle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between weeks 1 and 2. After 8 weeks tyrosine, tryptophan and valine are the most prominent amino acid moieties, showing their resistance to degradation. The presence of cyclic ketones in the pyrolysates indicates that mucopolysaccharides or other bound non-chitinous carbohydrates are also resistant to decay. There is no evidence of structural degradation of chitin prior to 8 weeks when FTIR revealed a reduction in chitin-specific bands. The chemical changes are paralleled by structural changes in the cuticle, which becomes an increasingly open structure consisting of loose chitinous fibres. The rapid rate of decay in the experiments suggests that where chitin and protein are preserved in fossil cuticles degradation must have been inhibited.Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between weeks 1 and 2. After 8 weeks tyrosine, tryptophan and valine are the most prominent amino acid moieties, showing their resistance to degradation. The presence of cyclic ketones in the pyrolysates indicates that mucopolysaccharides or other bound non-chitinous carbohydrates are also resistant to decay. There is no evidence of structural degradation of chitin prior to 8 weeks when FTIR revealed a reduction in chitin-specific bands. The chemical changes are paralleled by structural changes in the cuticle, which becomes an increasingly open structure consisting of loose chitinous fibres. The rapid rate of decay in the experiments suggests, that where chitin and protein are preserved in fossil cuticles degradation must have been inhibited.

Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, M.; Hof, C.H.J.; Bierstedt, A.; Flannery, M.B.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Evershed, R.P.

1998-01-01

201

Global Diversity of Marine Isopods (Except Asellota and Crustacean Symbionts)  

PubMed Central

The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10–1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the bathyal and abyssal Antarctic than Arctic GOODS provinces, and more from the larger Pacific than Atlantic oceans. Two areas with many species known are the New Zealand-Kermadec and the Northern North Pacific provinces. Deep hard substrates such as found on seamounts and the slopes are underrepresented in samples. This, the documented numbers of undescribed species in recent collections and probable cryptic species suggest a large as yet undocumented fauna, potentially an order of magnitude greater than presently known. PMID:22952700

Poore, Gary C. B.; Bruce, Niel L.

2012-01-01

202

MTPA: a crustacean metallothionein that affects hepatopancreatic mitochondrial functions.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins are cysteine-rich proteins, with a high capacity to bind metallic ions, and for which a precise biological role has not been established. Here we investigated the effects of MTPA, a metallothionein from the lobster Panulirus argus, on mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ROS production. An HPLC-RP-ESI-MS analysis of recombinant MTPA showed that despite its extra Cys, MTPA binds 6 Zn2+ per molecule akin to other crustacean metallothioneins with 18 Cys. The extra Cys is not involved in zinc binding, since its side-chain would be oriented to the outside of the molecule according to a preliminary model of the tridimensional structure of MTPA. MTPA-Zn2+(6) is imported into the hepatopancreatic mitochondria intermembrane space and inhibits mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increasing thereby ROS production. Nevertheless, the stimulation of ROS production by MT-bound Zn2+ is weaker compared to equivalent amounts of free Zn2+, suggesting that MTPA protects against oxidative stress. This constitutes the first report on metallothioneins effects on mitochondrial function in invertebrates and agrees with the results described for mammals, suggesting a connection between metallothioneins and energy metabolism. PMID:17889825

Moltó, Eduardo; Bonzón-Kulichenko, Elena; Gallardo, Nilda; Andrés, Antonio

2007-11-01

203

Photosensitive neurogenic heart of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica  

PubMed Central

The heart of animals is regulated through the central nervous system in response to external sensory stimuli. We found, however, that the adult neurogenic heart of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica has photosensitivity. The beat frequency of the isolated heart decreased in response to a light stimulus. Magnitude of the response was stimulus intensity dependent and the heartbeat frequency decreased to less than 80% of the dark value during illumination of the white light with an intensity of 6.0?mW?cm?2. The spectral sensitivity curve of the heart photoresponse peaked at a wavelength around 520?nm. In response to 530?nm monochromatic light, the relationship between light intensity and response magnitude was linear and the threshold intensity was 7.26×1012?quanta?cm?2?s?1. Bursting activity of the cardiac ganglion, which is located in the heart and acts as the cardiac pacemaker deceased in frequency in response to illumination by white light. This fact suggests that the heart photoresponse of L. exotica results from the photosensitivity of the cardiac ganglion neurons. The photoresponse of the heart therefore contributes to regulation of cardiac output in addition to other regulatory systems. PMID:16959646

Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hariyama, Takahiko; Takano, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Hiroshi

2006-01-01

204

Four parasitic Crustacean species from marine fishes of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to present a preliminary knowledge of the parasitic copepods of marine fish of Turkey. In this study, four parasitic crustaceans were reported from five different fish species found in Turkish seas: Lepeophtheirus europaensis (Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988) was found on the gills of the European flounder, Platichtys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Pleuronectidae); Nerocila bivittata (Risso, 1816) on caudal peduncles of east Atlantic peacock wrasse, Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Labridae); Ceratothoa oestroides (Risso, 1826), on the mouth base of European pilchard, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) (Clupeidae); Anilocra physodes (Linnaeus, 1758), on the body surface of gilthead seabreams, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 (Sparidae) and on horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Carangidae). Also, a list of the parasitic copepods previously reported from marine fishes of Turkey since 1931 is given, with a new report of the host species, the localities where they were collected and the corresponding authors. At the present time, 23 parasitic copepods have been recorded from 25 host fish of Turkish coasts. Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988 was reported for the first time in Turkish coastal waters. PMID:17471420

Oguz, Mehmet Cemal; Oktener, Ahmet

2007-01-01

205

Immunological cell and serum metabolite response of sixty-week old commercial laying hens to an alfalfa meal molt diet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The practice of inducing molt in commercial poultry involves light restriction, feed removal, and limiting water for five to fourteen days. Many animal welfare groups are concerned about this issue due to the stresses that feed and water deprivation cause. With this in mind, alternative diets have...

206

The relationship between circulating ecdysteroids and chela allometry in male tanner crabs: Evidence for a terminal molt in the genus Chionoecetes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whether male Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi, undergo a terminal molt associated with a change in claw allometry has long been debated. We measured molting hormone levels in captured male C. bairdi to assess the potential for molting. We plotted a frequency histogram of chela height to carapace width ratios and found a bimodal distribution of crabs with a ratio of approximately 0.18 separating the two modes. Male crabs with a ratio less than 0.18 were classified as "small-clawed" (SC) while crabs with a ratio greater than 0.18 were classified as "large-clawed" (LC). Circulating molting hormones between SC and LC crabs were compared. Significantly lower ecdysteroid levels were found in LC crabs, indicating that this morphotype had negligible potential for molting. Circulating ecdysteroids were measured in SC males of different shell conditions (soft, new, old, and very old) and no significant differences were found. This research suggests that the molt to LC morphology is a terminal molt. The results from this study have important implications for fisheries management because sub-legal LC males will not recruit into the fishery and removal of larger males may have long term effects on population size structure.

Tamone, S.L.; Taggart, S.J.; Andrews, A.G.; Mondragon, J.; Nielsen, J.K.

2007-01-01

207

Dietary mercury exposure causes decreased escape takeoff flight performance and increased molt rate in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).  

PubMed

Mercury is a widespread and persistent environmental contaminant that occurs in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Recently, songbirds that forage from primarily terrestrial sources have shown evidence of bioaccumulation of mercury, but little research has assessed the effects of mercury on their health and fitness. There are many indications that mercury negatively affects neurological functioning, bioenergetics, and behavior through a variety of mechanisms and in a wide array of avian taxa. Effective flight is crucial to avian fitness and feather molt is an energetically expensive life history trait. Therefore, we investigated whether mercury exposure influenced flight performance and molt in a common songbird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Specifically, we dosed the diet of captive starlings with methylmercury cysteine at 0.0, 0.75, or 1.5 ?g/g wet weight and recorded changes in flight performance after 1 year of dietary mercury exposure. We also recorded the annual molt of wing feathers. We found that individuals dosed with mercury exhibited decreased escape takeoff flight performance compared with controls and blood mercury was also correlated with an increased rate of molt, which can reduce flight performance and thermoregulatory ability. This study reveals two novel endpoints, flight performance and molt, that may be affected by dietary mercury exposure. These findings suggest a potential impact on wild songbirds exposed to mercury levels comparable to the high dosage levels in the present study. Any decrease in flight efficiency could reduce fitness due to a direct impact on survival during predation events or by decreased efficiency in other critical activities (such as foraging or migration) that require efficient flight. PMID:25030113

Carlson, Jenna R; Cristol, Daniel; Swaddle, John P

2014-10-01

208

Fine scale movements and habitat use of black brant during the flightless Wing Molt in Arctic Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) migrate annually to the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA), Alaska, to undergo the flightless wing molt on tundra lakes and wetlands. GPS transmitters were attached to Brant over two summers (2007?????"2008) to examine patterns of movement and habitat use of molting Brant, including variation by habitat type, year and body mass. Molting Brant were located an average of 31 ??1 m (SE) from shore and this distance did not vary across any of the explanatory variables. Brant moved an average of 123 ??3 m hr-1 while flightless. Movement rates varied by year, averaging 22 ??12 m hr-1 faster in 2008, and across habitat types, averaging 22 ??13 m hr-1 faster in inland versus coastal and estuarine habitats. Two kernel home ranges were estimated: entire home range, which encompassed the complete 95% probability contour, and shoreline home range, which included only shoreline areas used by molting Brant. Entire home range (x bar = 15.1 ??2.2 km2) was negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that heavier individuals have more body reserves to contribute to feather growth and thereby require less food and smaller home ranges. Conversely, shoreline home range (x bar = 4.3 ??0.6 km2) did not vary by body mass, but rather by habitat type, being larger in estuarine habitats. The complex shorelines and numerous deltaic islands of estuarine habitats offer more shoreline per area than either coastal or inland habitats. Brant appear to have limited ability to adjust their home range size or forage further from shore in response to variable food resources across years or habitats, instead altering their movement rate. Given this apparent lack of behavioral flexibility, Brant may be sensitive to development-related disturbances or habitat losses at molt sites in the TLSA.

Lewis, T.L.; Flint, P.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Schmutz, J.A.

2011-01-01

209

Phylogenetic evidence for a single long-lived clade of crustacean cyclic parthenogens and its implications for the evolution of sex  

PubMed Central

The short-term advantages of sexual reproduction are unclear, but the existence of groups that are capable of producing either meiotic or ameiotic eggs (cyclic parthenogenesis, CP) might indicate that short-term advantages to sex exist. Alternatively, CP might be an unstable transitory stage between asexuality and sex, or a phylogenetically favoured life cycle (i.e. clade selection). The extensive knowledge of breeding systems and population genetics in branchiopod crustaceans makes them a useful group to test phylogenetic predictions of these hypotheses. Several proponents favour the hypothesis that CP has evolved multiple times in five orders of branchiopod crustaceans. We inferred the first robust branchiopod phylogeny from nuclear rRNA sequence (SSU and LSU), morphology, and complex rRNA stem–loop structures to assess the phylogenetic distribution of cyclic parthenogenesis. The sequence-based, structural rRNA and total evidence phylogenies are concordant and suggest that cyclic parthenogenesis arose once in the branchiopods, that this clade is long-lived (at least since the Permian), and that it has radiated extensively into nearly every aqueous habitat without reverting to strict sexuality and only rarely transforming to strict asexuality. These results are consistent with the clade selection hypothesis but inconsistent with the predictions of the hypothesis that CP is a transitory stage that leads to strict sexual reproduction. The evidence also indicates that clade selection for CP is a viable alternative explanation for the maintenance of sex in CP life cycles.

Taylor, D. J.; Crease, T. J.; Brown, W. M.

1999-01-01

210

Population variation in isotopic composition of shorebird feathers: Implications for determining molting grounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope analyses have revolutionized the study of migratory connectivity. However, as with all tools, their limitations must be understood in order to derive the maximum benefit of a particular application. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of stable isotopes of C, N, H, O and S for assigning known-origin feathers to the molting sites of migrant shorebird species wintering and breeding in Argentina. Specific objectives were to: 1) compare the efficacy of the technique for studying shorebird species with different migration patterns, life histories and habitat-use patterns; 2) evaluate the grouping of species with similar migration and habitat use patterns in a single analysis to potentially improve prediction accuracy; and 3) evaluate the potential gains in prediction accuracy that might be achieved from using multiple stable isotopes. The efficacy of stable isotope ratios to determine origin was found to vary with species. While one species (White-rumped Sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis) had high levels of accuracy assigning samples to known origin (91% of samples correctly assigned), another (Collared Plover, Charadrius collaris) showed low levels of accuracy (52% of samples correctly assigned). Intra-individual variability may account for this difference in efficacy. The prediction model for three species with similar migration and habitat-use patterns performed poorly compared with the model for just one of the species (71% versus 91% of samples correctly assigned). Thus, combining multiple sympatric species may not improve model prediction accuracy. Increasing the number of stable isotopes in the analyses increased the accuracy of assigning shorebirds to their molting origin, but the best combination - involving a subset of all the isotopes analyzed - varied among species.

Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Bucher, E.H.; Rye, R.O.; Landis, G.

2009-01-01

211

Ensuring crustacean product quality in the post-harvest phase.  

PubMed

Recent studies of the fisheries for the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), have illustrated the negative effects of pathogens and of the physiological stresses of capture processes on the exploitation of live animals and their products, and have identified mitigating measures. Firstly, having established that trawl capture of N. norvegicus is highly stressful, but that these animals have powerful physiological mechanisms of recovery, procedures for on-board recovery of animals destined for vivier transport to distant European markets have been implemented commercially, with significant improvements in survival rates. Such procedures also mitigate against the initiation of a stress-induced muscle necrosis. Secondly, measurements of post-mortem autolytic and spoilage processes have identified the existence of a post-capture 'handling window' of several hours which allows the whole or tailed products to be preserved, by icing or freezing, without detriment to quality. Commercial consortia of Scottish fishermen are exploiting this opportunity to extend product shelf-life by freezing at sea within this handling window. Thirdly, the well-documented infections of Scottish N. norvegicus populations by the dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. not only provide examples of pathogen-induced mortality, but also have effects on post-harvest products including vivier transport losses and changes in post-mortem degradation leading to earlier organoleptic rejection. Under commercial conditions these effects can be mitigated by post-capture visual screening, but only during the periods of peak patent infection when parasitised animals are visually identifiable. Wider implementation of such mitigating procedures during the harvesting of wild-caught crustaceans will contribute to a more sustainable exploitation of these valuable marine resources. PMID:22433999

Neil, Douglas M

2012-06-01

212

Scale-dependent analysis of an otter-crustacean system in Argentinean Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern river otter or ‘huillin’, Lontra provocax, is an endangered species endemic of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina and Chile. It feeds almost exclusively on the genera of macro-crustacea: Aegla and Sammastacus. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of food availability on the huillin’s distribution using a scale-dependent analysis of crustacean and otter distributions. We compared the distributions of otters and macro-crustaceans along a north-south regional gradient, between river basins of northern Patagonia, in an altitudinal gradient within a river basin, and between habitat types within a lake. We investigated the distribution of otters by sign surveys along lake shores, river banks and marine coasts, and of crustaceans using surveys in the water, undigested remains in mink ( Mustela vison) scats, presence of external skeletons at the waterside and through interviews with local people. Our results show that there were heterogeneities in the distributions of macro-crustaceans at four scales and these were generally reflected in the distributions of freshwater otters. We conclude that the main factor limiting the distributions of L. provocax in freshwater environments is the availability of macro-crustaceans. This paper shows how scale-dependent type analyses of population distribution serves as a method for identifying key environmental factors for species for which the use of long-term demographies is unfeasible.

Cassini, Marcelo H.; Fasola, Laura; Chehébar, Claudio; MacDonald, David W.

2009-05-01

213

The eyes of a tiny 'Orsten' crustacean - a compound eye at receptor level?  

PubMed

Among the oldest fossil crustaceans are those of the Late Cambrian (Furongian 499 ± 0.3-488.3 ± 1.7 Ma) of Västergötland, central Sweden and the lower Ordovician (Tremadocian 488.3 and 478.6 Ma) of the island of ?land. These are three-dimensionally preserved in nodules from the so called 'stinkstone' ('Orsten') limestone. 'Orsten'-like fossils represent tiny, often meiobenthic organsisms (Haug, Maas, & Waloszek, 2009) smaller than 2mm, which mainly were arthropods, especially crustaceans close to the stemline. As a result of phosphatisation, hairs, bristles and even cellular structures up to 0.3 ?m are preserved (Walossek, 1993), especially compound eyes, as typical for all visually orientated crustaceans (Schoenemann et al., 2011). We show a miniscule prototype of a compound eye (?40 ?m) in a small crustacean, which lived almost half a billion years ago. The eye is close to but comfortably established above being limited in its resolving power by diffraction, but it is too small to be an apposition eye, normally regarded as the basal form of all compound eyes, as is found in bees, dragonflies, crustaceans and many other arthropods still living today. The facets of this compound eye are ?8 ?m in size, the surface structure indicates the relicts of a tiny lens covering each facet. In order to work functionally and to ensure that that diffraction and waveguide problems were avoided, it seems reasonable to suppose that the compound eye consisted of visual units, each with a single photoreceptor cell directly below a weak lens for capturing and slightly focusing the light. The entire unit has a diameter similar to that of a normal sensory cell as found in compound eyes. Thus, the early compound eye analysed here may be interpreted as a prototype representing the earliest stages of the evolution of crustacean compound eyes. PMID:23123806

Schoenemann, Brigitte

2013-01-14

214

Corticosterone stress response and plasma metabolite levels during breeding and molt in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush ( Hylocichla mustelina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many birds face energetic trade-offs between different life history stages, such as reproductive effort, feather molt and the non-breeding period. Little is known about how physiological measures of condition (corticosterone, plasma metabolites) in free-living birds change from nesting stages to the post-breeding molt period or whether this is influenced by prior reproductive effort. We evaluated whether corticosterone (CORT) and plasma

Tyler Done; Elizabeth A. Gow; Bridget J. M. Stutchbury

2011-01-01

215

Molting-associated suppression of symbiont population and up-regulation of antimicrobial activity in the midgut symbiotic organ of the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis.  

PubMed

The majority of insects possess symbiotic bacteria. Since symbiont titers can affect host phenotypes of biological importance, host insects are expected to evolve some mechanisms for regulating symbiont population. Here we report that, in the Riptortus-Burkholderia gut symbiosis, titers of the beneficial symbiont transiently decrease at the pre-molt stages in host development. This molting-associated suppression of the symbiont population is coincident with the increase of antimicrobial activity in the symbiotic midgut, which is observed in both symbiotic and aposymbiotic insects. Two genes, pyrrhocoricin-like antimicrobial peptide and c-type lysozyme, exhibit significantly increased expression in the symbiotic midgut at the pre-molt stages. These results suggest that the molting-associated up-regulation of antimicrobial activity in the symbiotic midgut represents a physiological mechanism of the host insect to regulate symbiosis, which is presumably for defending molting insects against injury and infection and/or for allocating symbiont-derived energy and resources to host molting. PMID:24201132

Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Han, Sang Heum; Kim, Chan-Hee; Jo, Yong Hun; Futahashi, Ryo; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel

2014-03-01

216

Cytotoxicity of dihydroartemisinin toward Molt-4 cells attenuated by N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone and deferoxamine.  

PubMed

Derivatives of artemisinin, a compound extracted from the wormwood Artemisia annua L, have potent anticancer properties. The anticancer mechanisms of artemisinin derivatives have not been fully-elucidated. We hypothesize that the cytotoxicity of these compounds is due to the free radicals formed by interaction of their endoperoxide moiety with intracellular iron in cancer cells. The effects of N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN), a spin-trap free radical scavenger, and deferoxamine (DX), an iron chelating agent, on the in vitro cytotoxicity of dihyroartemisinin (DHA) toward Molt-4 human T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells were investigated in the present study. Dihydroartemisinin effectively killed Molt-4 cells in vitro. Its cytotoxicity was significantly attenuated by PBN and DX. Based on the data of our present and previous studies, we conclude that one anticancer mechanism of dihydroartemisinin is the formation of toxic-free radicals via an iron-mediated process. PMID:24123007

Chan, Ho Wing; Singh, Narendra P; Lai, Henry C

2013-10-01

217

DNA damage in Molt4 T-lymphoblastoid cells exposed to cellular telephone radiofrequency fields in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molt-4 T-lymphoblastoid cells have been exposed to pulsed signals at cellular telephone frequencies of 813.5625 MHz (iDEN® signal) and 836.55 MHz (TDMA signal). These studies were performed at low SAR (average=2.4 and 24 ?W g?1 for iDEN® and 2.6 and 26 ?W g?1 for TDMA) in studies designed to look for athermal RF effects. The alkaline comet, or single cell

Jerry L. Phillips; Oleg Ivaschuk; Tamako Ishida-Jones; Robert A. Jones; Mary Campbell-Beachler; Wendy Haggren

1998-01-01

218

Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: interspecific competition or ecological change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska have changed in size\\u000a and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of\\u000a greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada

Paul L. Flint; Edward J. Mallek; Rodney J. King; Joel A. Schmutz; Karen S. Bollinger; Dirk V. Derksen

2008-01-01

219

High fiber low energy diet for molt induction in laying hens: the impact of alfalfa on physiology, immunology and behavior  

E-print Network

HIGH FIBER LOW ENERGY DIET FOR MOLT INDUCTION IN LAYING HENS: THE IMPACT OF ALFALFA ON PHYSIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR A Dissertation by CLAUDIA SHARENE DUNKLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... ON PHYSIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR A Dissertation by CLAUDIA SHARENE DUNKLEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY...

Dunkley, Claudia Sharene

2009-05-15

220

Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in Mycteria leucocephala Pennant 1769: molted feathers as successful DNA source.  

PubMed

DNA from molted feathers is being increasingly used for genetic studies on birds. However, the DNA obtained from such non-invasive sources is often not of enough quantity and quality for isolation of new microsatellite markers. The present study examined the potential of shed feathers of near threatened Painted Stork as a source of its DNA for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. Thirty-one shed feathers of varying conditions ('good' and 'deteriorated') and sizes ('large', 'intermediate' and 'small') collected in a north Indian population were used to isolate DNA by a standard isopropanol method and 11 microsatellite markers already developed in the Wood Stork were screened for amplification. Nine plucked feathers from two dead Painted Storks were also used to compare the DNA yield and amplification success. The DNA yield of feathers varied significantly in relation to the calamus size and condition. Among molted feathers, 'good' and 'large' samples provided more DNA than 'deteriorated' and 'small' ones, respectively. 'Large' plucked feathers yielded more DNA than 'large' molted feathers. DNA was almost degraded in all the samples and ratio of absorbance at 260/280 nm varied from 1.0 to 1.8, indicating impurity in many samples. Independent of DNA yields, all microsatellites were cross-amplified in all kinds of feathers, with > 80% success in different feather categories. It is concluded that the shed feathers can be successfully used to isolate DNA in the Painted Stork and for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. PMID:25345251

Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Mustafa, Mohd; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Urfi, Abdul Jamil

2014-10-01

221

Mechanisms of population genetic heterogeneity among molting common mergansers on Kodiak Island, Alaska: implications for assessments of migratory connectivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantifying population genetic heterogeneity within nonbreeding aggregations can inform our understanding of patterns of site fidelity, migratory connectivity, and gene flow between breeding and nonbreeding areas. However, characterizing mechanisms that contribute to heterogeneity, such as migration and dispersal, is required before site fidelity and migratory connectivity can be assessed accurately. We studied nonbreeding groups of Common Mergansers (Mergus merganser) molting on Kodiak Island, Alaska, from 2005 to 2007, using banding data to assess rates of recapture, mitochondrial (mt) DNA to determine natal area, and nuclear microsatellite genotypes to assess dispersal. Using baseline information from differentiated mtDNA haplogroups across North America, we were able to assign individuals to natal regions and document population genetic heterogeneity within and among molting groups. Band-recovery and DNA data suggest that both migration from and dispersal among natal areas contribute to admixed groups of males molting on Kodiak Island. A lack of differentiation in the Common Merganser's nuclear, bi-parentally inherited DNA, observed across North America, implies that dispersal can mislead genetic assessments of migratory connectivity and assignments of nonbreeding individuals to breeding areas. Thus multiple and independent data types are required to account for such behaviors before accurate assessments of migratory connectivity can be made.

Pearce, John M.; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Maryanski, Nate

2009-01-01

222

Vertical and temporal distribution of pelagic decapod crustaceans over the shelf-break and middle slope in two contrasting zones around Mallorca (western Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pelagic decapod crustacean fauna of two different zones (Sóller and Cabrera) with different hydrographic dynamics and oligotrophy levels was studied around Mallorca (western Mediterranean), the latter with a higher degree of oligotrophy than the former. Samples were taken with a Pelagic Trawl and an IKMT in the upper 600 m of the water column, targeting larger and middle-sized nektonic species, respectively. Fourteen species were collected: five dendrobranchiate shrimps, eight caridean shrimps and one scyllarid lobster. Some species were restricted to the shelf-break: Chlorotocus crassicornis and Plesionika heterocarpus. Others were exclusive of the middle slope: Pasiphaea multidentata, and Sergia robusta. Pasiphaea sivado and Gennadas elegans occurred in all pelagic strata. Multivariate analyses showed several distinct assemblages related to bathymetry and sampling depth. No significant differences were found concerning zone or sampled seasons. Bathymetrically, Deep Scattering Layers showed the highest diversity. No decapod crustaceans occurred in epipelagic daytime samples. The pelagic decapod community sampled was structured by both the geomorphology (and associated hydrographic characteristics over the shelf-break) and the influence of light in the water column. Size analysis showed species-specific patterns concerning size/age movements into the water column throughout the day-night cycle.

Simão, Daniela S.; Torres, Asvin P.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Abelló, Pere

2014-10-01

223

Absence of preserved glucosamine and amino acids in fossil crustacean exoskeletons  

SciTech Connect

No glucosamine and only traces of amino acids were detected in kerogen prepared from fossil crustacean exoskeletons. The elemental C/N ratios of the kerogen samples were above 20, indicating that most of the organic nitrogen was eliminated from the chitin biopolymer during diagenesis. The results contradict earlier reports of the stability of chitin during fossilization.

Schimmelmann, A.; Krause, R.G.F.; DeNiro, M.J.

1988-01-01

224

Diurnal rhythms in the synthesis and release of haemolymph proteins in the crustacean Isopoda,  

E-print Network

, Porcellio dilatatus (Brandt), with special reference to vitellogenin M. GOHAR Catherine SOUTY, J. L. PICAUD of vitellogenin in the crustacean Isopoda, Porcellio dilatatus, were maximal during premolt. At that time, diurnal variations occurred in the haemolymph protein level and in the synthesis and release of vitellogenin

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Wolbachia infection in crustaceans: novel hosts and potential routes for horizontal transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five percent of isopods are estimated to be infected by Wolbachia ,a n intracellular maternally inherited a-Proteobacterium. Previous studies have indicated that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia strains may occur, although the mechanisms are unclear. The wsp gene was sequenced from 17 Wolbachia strains harboured by crustacean host species and three from their associated predators and parasites. Two major clades of

R. C ORDAUX; A. M ICHEL-SALZAT; D. B OUCHON

2001-01-01

226

DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVITY OF CHEMICAL FRACTIONS OF LIQUID WASTES USING FRESHWATER AND SALTWATER ALGAE AND CRUSTACEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method is described for analysis of complex industrial and municipal wastes. The method uses chemical fractionation and subfractionation combined with laboratory toxicity tests on marine and freshwater algae and crustaceans to determine toxicity of whole waste and to identify i...

227

Insect protein as a partial replacement of fishmeal in the diets of juvenile fish and crustaceans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter represents a review of the published literature to determine if insect protein is an important supplement to - or even a replacement for - fishmeal in diets for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Fishmeal is becoming a finite resource. This chapter highlights areas of opportunity for produc...

228

Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone, a possible endocrine regulator of ecdysis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta  

E-print Network

ecdysis because (i) its endocrine system is well characterized, (ii) it has identifiable cells fromCrustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone, a possible endocrine regulator of ecdysis in the tobacco hornworm State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 Fig. 3: Paired endocrine cells of the Third thoracic ganglia

Fuse, Megumi

229

MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Verslycke, Tim A., Nancy Fockedey, Charles L. McKenney, Jr., Stephen D. Roast, Malcolm B. Jones, Jan Mees and Colin R. Janssen. 2004. Mysid Crustaceans as Potential Test Organisms for the Evaluation of Environmental Endocrine Disruption: A Review. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(5):12...

230

Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus  

E-print Network

Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus Meredith E. Protasa and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals to be involved in pigmen- tation, eye, and appendage development, was used to identify loci of large effect

Patel, Nipam H.

231

Differences in enzyme activities between two species of Hematodinium, parasitic dinoflagellates of crustaceans  

E-print Network

of crustaceans H.J. Small a,c,*, J.D. Shields c , D.M. Neil a , A.C. Taylor a , G.H. Coombs b a Division nor- vegicus from the West Coast of Scotland (Field et al., 1992) and the Irish Sea (Briggs and Mc

232

Regulation of rotifer densities by crustacean zooplankton in an oligotrophic montane lake in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the relative demographic effects of predation and competition for food in rotifers during spring and summer in an oligotrophic lake, predator and competitor densities and food supplies were experimentally altered inside large enclosures. Abundances of rotifer species were positively correlated with experimental densities of fourth instar Chaoborus trivittatus larvae, a major crustacean predator in 1976. Experimental alteration of

William E. Neill

1984-01-01

233

Accumulation of migratory micronekton crustaceans over the upper slope and submarine canyons of the northwestern Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of migratory micronekton crustaceans in the axis and in the vicinity of three submarine canyons off the Mediterranean coast of France was investigated. Some species accumulated on the upper slope and in canyon heads. The fauna consisted mainly of two pelagic communities: (i) epipelagic, mesopelagic and infrapelagic oceanic fauna (hyperiids, euphausiids), which were advected to shelf waters during

Claude Macquart-Moulin; G. Patriti

1996-01-01

234

DETERMINATION OF LETHAL DISSOLVED OXYGEN LEVELS FOR SELECTED MARINE AND ESTUARINE FISHES, CRUSTACEANS AND A BIVALVE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, w...

235

Ontogenesis, gender, and molting influence the venom yield in the spider Coremiocnemis tropix (Araneae, Theraphosidae)  

PubMed Central

The demand for spider venom increases along with the growing popularity of venoms-based research. A deeper understanding of factors that influence the venom yield in spiders would therefore be of interest to both commercial venom suppliers and research facilities. The present study addresses the influence of several factors on the venom yield by systematically analyzing the data obtained from 1773 electrical milkings of the Australian theraphosid spider Coremiocnemis tropix. Gender and ontogenesis were found to cause a major effect on the venom yield, as adult female C. tropix yielded significantly more venom than adult males. During ontogenesis, the venom yield increased with increasing size of the spiders. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the venom yield during the 50-day time interval preceding a molt was found. On the other hand, extended milking intervals (up to 449 days) and different states of nutrition (as an indication of how well the spider was fed) did not significantly affect the venom yield. Overall, the present findings suggest that venom production in spiders is carefully balanced between the demand for venom and the energy costs associated with its production. It can therefore be concluded that, in line with the venom optimization hypothesis, venom is a precious resource for spiders, which have implemented control mechanisms to ensure economical venom production and usage. PMID:21544186

Herzig, Volker

2010-01-01

236

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.  

PubMed

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dalvin, Sussie T; Bron, James E; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

237

A sperm-plasma ?-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase interacting with a Chitinolytic ?-N-Acetyl-D-hexosaminidase in insect molting fluid.  

PubMed

Insects require molting fluids to shed the old cuticle during molting. ?-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase, known as Hex1, together with various chitinases, is responsible for degrading the chitin component of the old cuticle. This study showed that another ?-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase, termed OfHex3, interacted with Hex1 and functioned in the molting fluid, although the homolog of OfHex3 was known as a sperm-plasma enzyme functioning in egg-sperm recognition. OfHex3 is an enzyme cloned from the insect Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, which is one of the most destructive pests of maize. The enzymatic activity analysis indicated that OfHex3 was able to degrade chitooligosaccharides, but at a lower rate than that of OfHex1. Because OfHex3 did not have substrate inhibition, we deduced that the presence of OfHex3 might help OfHex1 relieve substrate inhibition during chitin degradation during molting. The expression patterns of OfHex3 during O. furnacalis development were studied by real-time PCR as well as western blot. The results showed that both gene transcription and protein translation levels of OfHex3 were up-regulated during larval-larval molting. The tissue-specific expression pattern analysis indicated that OfHex3 was mostly localized in the fat body and testis. All these data further supported that Hex3 was involved in molting as well as in fertilization. This study may help to understand the complexity of cuticle degradation during insect molting, and may provide a possible target for pest control. PMID:23951233

Qu, Mingbo; Liu, Tian; Chen, Peng; Yang, Qing

2013-01-01

238

Corticosterone stress response and plasma metabolite levels during breeding and molt in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina).  

PubMed

Many birds face energetic trade-offs between different life history stages, such as reproductive effort, feather molt and the non-breeding period. Little is known about how physiological measures of condition (corticosterone, plasma metabolites) in free-living birds change from nesting stages to the post-breeding molt period or whether this is influenced by prior reproductive effort. We evaluated whether corticosterone (CORT) and plasma metabolite levels vary with date, nest stage and sex in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We also tested whether (1) baseline CORT levels early in the season were predictive of subsequent reproductive success and (2) whether prior reproductive effort influenced CORT levels and blood metabolites during molt. Baseline CORT levels decreased with date during both the incubation stage and nestling stage, but did not vary significantly across stage of breeding season. Stress-induced CORT declined with date during incubation and varied significantly across breeding stage, with lower levels during feather molt. Profiles of the metabolites of ?-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, and triglyceride did not vary significantly with date or breeding stage. Only triglycerides varied significantly with sex, with females having higher levels than males. Reproductive output was highly variable (0-10 fledglings per season) but baseline CORT levels in females during the first incubation period of the season was not related to subsequent reproductive output. Prior reproductive effort, measured as the cumulative number of young hatched during the breeding season, was positively related to stress-induced CORT during molt. High reproductive effort in wood thrush appears to have physiological carry-over effects into the molt period which could potentially affect rate of molt and preparation for fall migration. PMID:21255575

Done, Tyler; Gow, Elizabeth A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

2011-04-01

239

CHANGES IN NUCLEIC ACIDS OVER THE MOLT CYCLE IN RELATION TO FOOD AVAILABILITY AND TEMPERATURE IN HOMARUS AMERICANUS POSTLARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Postlarval lobsters Homarus americanus Milne Edwards hatched from three females collected in 1989 fr m Block Island Sound, Rhode Island were reared individually in the laboratory under nine treatment combinations of temperature (15, 18 and 200C) and feeding(starved, low ration, a...

240

USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-152. 1995. 99 Molts and Plumages in the Annual Cycle of the  

E-print Network

of the Marbled Murrelet Harry R. Carter1 Janet L. Stein2 at sea have usually lumped all murrelets together juveniles at sea in the late summer and early fall to indirectly determine breeding success. These efforts the late summer and early fall. This method, based on current knowledge, will require modification as new

Standiford, Richard B.

241

Effect of withdrawing long days from male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): implications for understanding thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we withdrew thyroid hormones by thyroidectomy before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation and showed that male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) are programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by or before Week 3 on long days. In this corollary study, we withdrew long days before or after the control circuits had been programmed. After 1 day to 4 wk on long days, groups of thyroid-intact males were returned to short days until Week 7, when they were moved to constant light and evaluated for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt. Long-day controls held 7 wk on long days showed robust testicular growth through Week 6 and then spontaneous testicular regression. Testes of short-day controls and of males photostimulated for 1 day remained small. In all other groups, photostimulation induced testicular growth, which gave way to regression during exposure to short days. Long-day controls tested photorefractory at Week 7 and initiated molt by Week 10. All other groups tested photosensitive and did not molt. Our demonstration that long days are required for expression of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroid-intact male tree sparrows previously programmed for these events suggests that long days create a milieu that is permissive for expression. PMID:9472917

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1998-01-01

242

Toxicity of a new molt-inducing insecticide (RH-5992) to aquatic macroinvertebrates.  

PubMed

The molt-inducing insecticide RH-5992, a potent ecdysone agonist, is being evaluated for potential use in forestry to control defoliating lepidopterans. The possible adverse effects of RH-5992 on nontarget aquatic organisms were studied in two test systems. Acute lethal effects were determined for one aquatic amphipod and 11 species of aquatic insects in laboratory flowthrough toxicity tests. Lethal and behavioral effects (drift response) on the amphipod and 8 species of stream insects were also evaluated under natural environmental conditions and more realistic exposure regimens in outdoor stream channels. There were no significant effects on drift or survival of the test species exposed to RH-5992 at the maximum test concentration of 3.5 mg/liter (100x the worst-case expected environmental concentration) in laboratory toxicity tests and stream channel treatments. Mortality of the amphipod Gammarus sp. in one toxicity test was considered an artifact, because there was no significant mortality in subsequent tests at concentrations up to 7.0 mg/liter, or in stream channels treated at 3.5 mg/liter. Yellow birch leaves were sprayed with RH-5992 at a rate of 50 g/ha and tested for residual toxic effects on two species of shredding invertebrates in the outdoor stream channels. There was no feeding inhibition or lethal effect on either test species resulting from consumption of the contaminated foliage. The candidate insecticide RH-5992 does not appear to pose undue risk of direct adverse effects to aquatic macroinvertebrates, particularly in water bodies where residues are likely to be short lived following aerial applications (e.g., lotic systems). PMID:7523064

Kreutzweiser, D P; Capell, S S; Wainio-Keizer, K L; Eichenberg, D C

1994-06-01

243

Biological Surface Coating and Molting Inhibition as Mechanisms of TiO2 Nanoparticle Toxicity in Daphnia magna  

PubMed Central

The production and use of nanoparticles (NP) has steadily increased within the last decade; however, knowledge about risks of NP to human health and ecosystems is still scarce. Common knowledge concerning NP effects on freshwater organisms is largely limited to standard short-term (?48 h) toxicity tests, which lack both NP fate characterization and an understanding of the mechanisms underlying toxicity. Employing slightly longer exposure times (72 to 96 h), we found that suspensions of nanosized (?100 nm initial mean diameter) titanium dioxide (nTiO2) led to toxicity in Daphnia magna at nominal concentrations of 3.8 (72-h EC50) and 0.73 mg/L (96-h EC50). However, nTiO2 disappeared quickly from the ISO-medium water phase, resulting in toxicity levels as low as 0.24 mg/L (96-h EC50) based on measured concentrations. Moreover, we showed that nTiO2 (?100 nm) is significantly more toxic than non-nanosized TiO2 (?200 nm) prepared from the same stock suspension. Most importantly, we hypothesized a mechanistic chain of events for nTiO2 toxicity in D. magna that involves the coating of the organism surface with nTiO2 combined with a molting disruption. Neonate D. magna (?6 h) exposed to 2 mg/L nTiO2 exhibited a “biological surface coating” that disappeared within 36 h, during which the first molting was successfully managed by 100% of the exposed organisms. Continued exposure up to 96 h led to a renewed formation of the surface coating and significantly reduced the molting rate to 10%, resulting in 90% mortality. Because coating of aquatic organisms by manmade NP might be ubiquitous in nature, this form of physical NP toxicity might result in widespread negative impacts on environmental health. PMID:21647422

Dabrunz, André; Duester, Lars; Prasse, Carsten; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki; Schilde, Carsten; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Schulz, Ralf

2011-01-01

244

Is defect in phosphorylation of Nbs1 responsible for high radiosensitivity of T-lymphocyte leukemia cells MOLT-4?  

PubMed

Mutations in NBS1 gene are related to higher occurrence of malignancies. In this work we studied response of T-lymphocyte leukemia cells MOLT-4 to ionizing radiation. We detected IRIF (ionizing radiation forming foci) containing histone gammaH2A.X, protein 53BP1, and Nbs1, which were formed around double-strand breaks of DNA. We found dose-dependent increase in foci number (colocalization of gammaH2A.X and 53BP1) and gammaH2A.X amount (integral optical density) 1h after irradiation. After the dose of 1.5 Gy the number of foci decreases with time, but 72 h after irradiation 9% of live cells still contained big foci around unrepaired DNA damage. Western blot method revealed massive phosphorylation of H2A.X during apoptosis induction, 6-24 h after irradiation by the doses 1.5 and 3 Gy. Cells with apoptotic morphology showed strong phosphorylation of H2A.X, but it was not accompanied by 53BP1. 1h after irradiation by the lethal doses 5 and 10 Gy we detected by Western blot a decrease in repair proteins Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1. While phosphorylation of H2A.X 1h after irradiation was detected by both confocal microscopy and Western blot, phosphorylation of Nbs1 on serine 343 was not detectable in MOLT-4 cells. Despite functional ATM and p53 the phosphorylation of Nbs1 on serine 343 was impaired in these cells, and might be responsible for high radiosensitivity of MOLT-4 cells. PMID:18262646

Rezácová, Martina; Tichý, Ales; Vávrová, Jirina; Vokurková, Doris; Lukásová, Emílie

2008-08-01

245

Genes involved in thoracic exoskeleton formation during the pupal-to-adult molt in a social insect model, Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

Background The insect exoskeleton provides shape, waterproofing, and locomotion via attached somatic muscles. The exoskeleton is renewed during molting, a process regulated by ecdysteroid hormones. The holometabolous pupa transforms into an adult during the imaginal molt, when the epidermis synthe3sizes the definitive exoskeleton that then differentiates progressively. An important issue in insect development concerns how the exoskeletal regions are constructed to provide their morphological, physiological and mechanical functions. We used whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays to screen for genes involved in exoskeletal formation in the honeybee thoracic dorsum. Our analysis included three sampling times during the pupal-to-adult molt, i.e., before, during and after the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis that triggers synthesis of the adult exoskeleton. Results Gene ontology annotation based on orthologous relationships with Drosophila melanogaster genes placed the honeybee differentially expressed genes (DEGs) into distinct categories of Biological Process and Molecular Function, depending on developmental time, revealing the functional elements required for adult exoskeleton formation. Of the 1,253 unique DEGs, 547 were upregulated in the thoracic dorsum after apolysis, suggesting induction by the ecdysteroid pulse. The upregulated gene set included 20 of the 47 cuticular protein (CP) genes that were previously identified in the honeybee genome, and three novel putative CP genes that do not belong to a known CP family. In situ hybridization showed that two of the novel genes were abundantly expressed in the epidermis during adult exoskeleton formation, strongly implicating them as genuine CP genes. Conserved sequence motifs identified the CP genes as members of the CPR, Tweedle, Apidermin, CPF, CPLCP1 and Analogous-to-Peritrophins families. Furthermore, 28 of the 36 muscle-related DEGs were upregulated during the de novo formation of striated fibers attached to the exoskeleton. A search for cis-regulatory motifs in the 5?-untranslated region of the DEGs revealed potential binding sites for known transcription factors. Construction of a regulatory network showed that various upregulated CP- and muscle-related genes (15 and 21 genes, respectively) share common elements, suggesting co-regulation during thoracic exoskeleton formation. Conclusions These findings help reveal molecular aspects of rigid thoracic exoskeleton formation during the ecdysteroid-coordinated pupal-to-adult molt in the honeybee. PMID:23981317

2013-01-01

246

Gamma irradiation results in phosphorylation of p53 at serine-392 in human T-lymphocyte leukaemia cell line MOLT-4.  

PubMed

Exposure of human leukaemia MOLT-4 cells to ionizing irradiation led to apoptosis, which was detected by flow cytometric analysis and degradation of the nuclear lamina. The multiple signalling pathways triggered by either membrane or DNA damage play a critical role in radiation-induced apoptosis. The response to DNA damage is typically associated with the p53 protein accumulation. In this study, we proved that the transcriptionally active p53 variant occurs in the MOLT-4 cells and its abundance alteration is triggered in the gamma-irradiated cell population concomitantly with phosphorylation at both the serine-392 and serine-15 residues. The p21 upregulation followed the p53 phosphorylation process in irradiated MOLT-4 cells. PMID:14680293

Szkanderová, S; Vávrová, J; Rézacová, M; Vokurková, D; Pavlová, S; Smardová, J; Stulík, J

2003-01-01

247

Transboundary movement of shrimp viruses in crustaceans and their products: a special risk?  

PubMed

Shrimp and shrimp products form the most valuable internationally traded fisheries commodity, and the volumes are huge, estimated to be about 3.6 million tonnes. However, despite the existence under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and the activities of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), viral shrimp epizootics have spread and continue to spread, affecting world production. Though most attention has focussed on the movement of live shrimp product, the spread of new and emerging diseases through other crustaceans and their nonviable products is of increasing concern. The risks associated with the unrestricted movement of nonviable product will be outlined and measures that can be taken to mitigate the risk are discussed. Ultimately, for crustacean diseases, the paradigm under which the OIE has operated for the past 80 years needs to change. PMID:22434004

Jones, Brian

2012-06-01

248

Selfing in a malacostracan crustacean: why a tanaidacean but not decapods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crustacean class Malacostraca, with over 22,000 species, includes commercially important members, such as crabs, shrimps, and lobsters. A few simultaneous hermaphrodites are known in this group, but self-fertilization was unknown. Here we show, through microscopy and breeding experiments, that the simultaneously hermaphroditic malacostracan Apseudes sp. (order Tanaidacea) can self-fertilize; individuals reared in isolation become hermaphroditic via a male-like phase and produce eggs that develop into fertile adults. Although selfing occurs in crustaceans like the Branchiopoda, in which simultaneous hermaphrodites have the sex ducts united, in decapods the separation of gonadal ducts and gonopores, specialized mating organs, and complex mating behavior appear to have constrained the evolution of selfing. In contrast, in most tanaidaceans, sperm is released externally by a male and reaches the eggs in the female brood pouch, where fertilization occurs. This mode of fertilization permitted Apseudes sp. to achieve selfing without large modifications in morphology or behavior.

Kakui, Keiichi; Hiruta, Chizue

2013-09-01

249

Crustaceans from bitumen clast in Carboniferous glacial diamictite extend fossil record of copepods.  

PubMed

Copepod crustaceans are extremely abundant but, because of their small size and fragility, they fossilize poorly. Their fossil record consists of one Cretaceous (c. 115?Ma) parasite and a few Miocene (c. 14?Ma) fossils. In this paper, we describe abundant crustacean fragments, including copepods, from a single bitumen clast in a glacial diamictite of late Carboniferous age (c. 303?Ma) from eastern Oman. Geochemistry identifies the source of the bitumen as an oilfield some 100-300?km to the southwest, which is consistent with an ice flow direction from glacial striae. The bitumen likely originated as an oil seep into a subglacial lake. This find extends the fossil record of copepods by some 188?Ma, and of free-living forms by 289?Ma. The copepods include evidence of the extant family Canthocamptidae, believed to have colonized fresh water in Pangaea during Carboniferous times. PMID:20975721

Selden, Paul A; Huys, Rony; Stephenson, Michael H; Heward, Alan P; Taylor, Paul N

2010-01-01

250

Effects of Pollutants on Olfactory Mediated Behaviors in Fish and Crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Streams, lakes and the sea are the final sinks of various pollutants which means that aquatic organisms are exposed to many\\u000a different chemicals present in the ambient water. Several studies demonstrate that these pollutants may interfere with chemoreception\\u000a of aquatic animals. Many aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates depend on chemical senses for their survival and reproduction.\\u000a In fish and crustaceans, olfactory

K. Håkan Olsén

251

Effects of black widow spider venom and latrocrustatoxin on crustacean nerve cells: Electrophysiological and ultrastructural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Black widow spider venom (BWSV), or crustacean-specific toxin purified from it (named latrocrustatoxin, LCT) were lethal for the crayfish.2.2. Distortions in the EMG and motor activity pattern after LCT injection indicated venom effects on the crayfish nervous system.3.3. In the isolated ventral nerve cord, transient activation of the “silent” interneurons and motoneurons occurred after BWSV or LCT application.4.4. In

Yuri M. Burmistrov; Zhanna P. Shuranova; Nina I. Artiukhina

1997-01-01

252

Partial sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Daphnia pulex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4062-nucleotide (nt) fragment of the mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Daphnia pulex was sequenced and found to contain the complete genes for eight tRNAs and five proteins (ATP6, ATP8, COII, COIII, ND3) and\\u000a the partial sequence of COI. In combination with data described previously, approximately 50% of the D. pulex mitochondrial genome has been sequenced. The gene order in

Teresa J. Crease; Thomas J. Little

1997-01-01

253

The Neural and Behavioral Basis of Chemical Communication in Terrestrial Crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Within Crustacea, representatives of at least five major taxa have succeeded in the transition from an aquatic to a fully\\u000a terrestrial lifestyle: Isopoda, Amphipoda, Astacida, Anomura, and Brachyura. Land-living crustaceans are fascinating animals\\u000a that during a very limited time period at an evolutionary time scale have adapted to a number of diverse terrestrial habitats\\u000a in which they have become highly

Bill S. Hansson; Steffen Harzsch; Markus Knaden; Marcus Stensmyr

254

Amino acid sequence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the shore crab, Carcinus maenas.  

PubMed

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) was isolated from sinus glands of Carcinus maenas, and its primary structure was determined by manual microsequencing, using the DABITC-PITC double-coupling method. The neurohormone consists of 72 amino acid residues (8524 Da). Three disulfide bridges are present and both the N- and C-terminus are blocked. CHH does not show significant sequence homology to any known peptide hormone or protein. PMID:2792364

Kegel, G; Reichwein, B; Weese, S; Gaus, G; Peter-Katalini?, J; Keller, R

1989-09-11

255

Reproduction recovery of the crustacean Daphnia magna after chronic exposure to ibuprofen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, the pharmaceutical ibuprofen (IB), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, primarily functions by reversibly inhibiting\\u000a the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway in the synthesis of eicosanoids (e.g. prostaglandins). Previous studies suggest that IB may\\u000a act in a similar manner to interrupt production of eicosanoids reducing reproduction in the model crustacean Daphnia magna. On this basis withdrawal of IB should lead to the

Yuya Hayashi; Lars-Henrik Heckmann; Amanda Callaghan; Richard M. Sibly

2008-01-01

256

An Incoming Flood on a Cryptic Stage: Understanding Alien Crustacean Invasions in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite being both an ancient center of trade and now one of the world’s busiest ports, few marine invasions, and no alien\\u000a marine or estuarine crustaceans, are reported from Singapore. This study proposes that a large number of alien species in\\u000a Singapore specifically, and in Southeast Asia in general, may be overlooked, due to our lack of historical knowledge of

Darren C. J. Yeo; James T. Carlton; Serena L. M. Teo; Peter K. L. Ng

257

Decreased expression of nucleophosmin/B23 increases drug sensitivity of adriamycin-resistant Molt-4 leukemia cells through mdr-1 regulation and Akt/mTOR signaling.  

PubMed

Nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM) is a nuclear protein with prosurvival and ribosomal RNA processing functions. However, the potential role of NPM involved in drug-resistance in leukemia has not been investigated clearly. In this study, we generated an adriamycin (ADM)-resistant lymphoblastic cell line Molt-4/ADR (MAR) by stepwise induction. Cell proliferation, sensitivity to chemotherapy agents and expressions of drug resistance related molecules were assessed. The IC50 of Molt-4 cells were 0.58±0.11?mol/L and MAR cells were 22.56±1.94?mol/L, meaning MAR cells were 38.63 fold resistant to Molt-4 cells. Furthermore, MAR cells gained an expression of mdr-1 (P-gp) and a higher expression of NPM compared to Molt-4 cells. Knockdown of NPM by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed the viability of both Molt-4 and MAR cells. After NPM RNAi, the IC50 of MAR and Molt-4 cells were 3.83±0.38?mol/L and 0.19±0.02?mol/L respectively. Both of them revealed an increase of drug sensitivity with down-regulation of mdr-1 and Akt/mTOR signaling. Knockdown of mdr-1 could also reverse the drug resistance, with no change in NPM expression. It could be concluded that knockdown of NPM reversed the drug resistance by down-regulating P-gp and Akt/mTOR signal pathway, indicating that NPM may serve as a potential modulator in drug resistance. PMID:25457413

Wang, Lingyan; Chen, Buyuan; Lin, Minhui; Cao, Yanqin; Chen, Yingyu; Chen, Xinji; Liu, Tingbo; Hu, Jianda

2015-03-01

258

Metal toxicity, uptake and bioaccumulation in aquatic invertebrates--modelling zinc in crustaceans.  

PubMed

We use published data on the different patterns of the bioaccumulation of zinc by three crustaceans, the caridean decapod Palaemon elegans, the amphipod Orchestia gammarellus and the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite, to construct comparative biodynamic models of the bioaccumulation of zinc into metabolically available and detoxified components of accumulated zinc in each crustacean under both field and laboratory toxicity test conditions. We then link these bioaccumulation models to the onset of toxic effects on exposure of the crustaceans to high dissolved zinc bioavailabilities, using the tenets that toxicity effects are related to the total uptake rate of the toxic metal, and that toxicity is not usually dependent on the total accumulated metal concentration but always on the concentration of accumulated metal that is metabolically available. We dismiss the general concept that there is a critical accumulated body concentration of a metal in an invertebrate at which toxicity ensues, except under specific circumstances involving a rare lack of storage detoxification of accumulated metal. We thus propose a theoretical framework that can be extended to other metals and other aquatic invertebrates (indeed other animals) to explain the variation in the relationship between bioaccumulated body concentrations and toxicity, and subsequently to predict this relationship in many other species for which we have bioaccumulation modelling data. PMID:21872557

Rainbow, P S; Luoma, S N

2011-10-01

259

Hiding opaque eyes in transparent organisms: a potential role for larval eyeshine in stomatopod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Opaque screening pigments are a fundamental requisite for preserving resolution in image-forming eyes. Possession of any type of image-forming eye in a transparent, pelagic animal will thus undermine the ability of that animal to be invisible in the water column. Transparent, pelagic animals must therefore deal with the trade-off between the ability to see and the ability of other animals to see them. Stomatopod larvae, like many transparent crustaceans, possess specialized optics in their compound eyes that minimize the volume of the opaque retina. Though the volumes of these retinas are reduced, their opacity remains conspicuous to an observer. The light reflected from structures overlying the retinas of stomatopod crustacean larval eyes, referred to here as eyeshine, is hypothesized to further reduce the visibility of opaque retinas. Blue or green wavelengths of light are most strongly reflected in stomatopod larval eyeshine, suggesting a putative spectral matching to the light environment against which the larval eyes are viewed. We tested the efficacy of stomatopod crustacean larval eyeshine as an ocular camouflaging mechanism by photographing larvae in their natural light environment and analysing the contrast of eyes with the background light. To test for spectral matching between stomatopod larval eyeshine and the background light environment, we characterized the spectrum of eyeshine and calculated its performance using radiometric measurements collected at the time of each photographic series. These results are the first to demonstrate an operative mirror camouflage matched in both spectrum and radiance to the pelagic background light environment. PMID:25232197

Feller, K D; Cronin, T W

2014-09-15

260

Aminergic modulation of the myogenic heart in the branchiopod crustacean Triops longicaudatus.  

PubMed

Although crustaceans typically have a neurogenic heart, the primitive crustacean Triops longicaudatus has a myogenic heart with the heartbeat arising from the endogenous rhythmic activity of the myocardium. In the present investigation, the effects of six biogenic amines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, octopamine, serotonin and histamine, on the myogenic heart of T. longicaudatus were examined. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and octopamine accelerated the heartbeat, increasing both the frequency and amplitude of the action potential of the myocardium in a concentration dependent manner. The ability of epinephrine and norepinephrine to produce the acceleratory effects was more potent than that of dopamine and octopamine; the threshold concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine were approximately 10(-10) M and those of dopamine and octopamine approximately 10(-7) M. Serotonin weakly inhibited the heartbeat, decreasing both the frequency and amplitude of the myocardial action potential in a concentration dependent manner with a threshold concentration of approximately 10(-6) M. Histamine exhibited no effect on the heartbeat. The results provide the first evidence for direct effects of amines on the crustacean myocardium and suggest neurohormonal regulation of the myogenic heart in T. longicaudatus. PMID:12867712

Yamagishi, Hiroshi

2003-07-01

261

Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska have changed in size and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis and/or B. hutchinsii) are stable with little indication of distributional shifts. The lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) population is proportionally small, but increasing rapidly. Coastline erosion of the Beaufort Sea has altered tundra habitats by allowing saltwater intrusion, which has resulted in shifts in composition of forage plant species. We propose two alternative hypotheses for the observed shift in black brant distribution. Ecological change may have altered optimal foraging habitats for molting birds, or alternatively, interspecific competition between black brant and greater white-fronted geese may be excluding black brant from preferred habitats. Regardless of the causative mechanism, the observed shifts in species distributions are an important consideration for future resource planning. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

Flint, P.L.; Mallek, E.J.; King, R.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

2008-01-01

262

Effects of Novel Dinuclear Cisplatinum(II) Complexes on the Electrical Properties of Human Molt-4 Leukemia Cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of cisplatin and novel dinuclear platinum(II) complexes on the membrane electrical properties and lipid peroxidation levels of the Molt-4 human leukemia cell line. Changes in cell function may affect the basal electrical surface properties of cell membranes. These changes can be detected using electrokinetic measurements. Surface charge densities of Molt-4 cells were measured as a function of pH. A four-component equilibrium model was used to describe the interaction between the ions in solution and on cell membrane surfaces. Agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical charge variation curves of the leukemia cells at pH 2.5-9. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring levels of 8-iso-prostaglandine F2? [isoprostanes]. Acid and base functional group concentrations and average association constants with hydroxyl ions were smaller in cisplatin- or dinuclear platinum(II) complex-treated leukemia cell membranes compared to those in untreated cancer cells, and the average association constants with hydrogen ions were higher. Levels of lipid peroxidation products in cisplatin- or dinuclear platinum(II) complex-treated leukemia cell were higher than those found in untreated cancer cells. PMID:25399303

Dobrzy?ska, Izabela; Skrzydlewska, El?bieta; Figaszewski, Zbigniew A

2014-11-16

263

Reconstituted proteolipid vesicles prepared from Mycoplasma fermentans membranes are able to bind and fuse with Molt-3 cells.  

PubMed

We describe and characterize reconstituted proteolipid vesicles (rPLV) prepared from solubilized Mycoplasma fermentans membranes and studied their binding to and fusion with host Molt-3 cells. The rPLV were prepared following membrane solubilization by Triton X-100 and detergent removal by SM-2 resin beads. The vesicles thus obtained had a rather uniform diameter of about 1 microm and were sealed as monitored by measuring in an assay that measures the quenching by sodium dithionite of a hydrophobic fluorescent probe incorporated into the rPLV membrane. The rPLV adhered to Molt-3 cells and, based on measurements of lipid mixing, fused with the host cells at a similar rate and to about the same extent as intact M. fermentans. Preliminary experiments showed that a chimeric protein, GnRH-PE66, could be encapsulated within these rPLV, opening the way to develop a system for the transfer of high-molecular weight soluble molecules, encapsulated in the rPLV, to target eukaryotic cells. PMID:16941241

Rechnitzer, Hagai; Rottem, Shlomo

2006-10-01

264

De novo assembly and characterization of a maternal and developmental transcriptome for the emerging model crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis  

PubMed Central

Background Arthropods are the most diverse animal phylum, but their genomic resources are relatively few. While the genome of the branchiopod Daphnia pulex is now available, no other large-scale crustacean genomic resources are available for comparison. In particular, genomic resources are lacking for the most tractable laboratory model of crustacean development, the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis. Insight into shared and divergent characters of crustacean genomes will facilitate interpretation of future developmental, biomedical, and ecological research using crustacean models. Results To generate a transcriptome enriched for maternally provided and zygotically transcribed developmental genes, we created cDNA from ovaries and embryos of P. hawaiensis. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we sequenced over 1.1 billion bases of this cDNA, and assembled them de novo to create, to our knowledge, the second largest crustacean genomic resource to date. We found an unusually high proportion of C2H2 zinc finger-containing transcripts, as has also been reported for the genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Consistent with previous reports, we detected trans-spliced transcripts, but found that they did not noticeably impact transcriptome assembly. Our assembly products yielded 19,067 unique BLAST hits against nr (E-value cutoff e-10). These included over 400 predicted transcripts with significant similarity to D. pulex sequences but not to sequences of any other animal. Annotation of several hundred genes revealed P. hawaiensis homologues of genes involved in development, gametogenesis, and a majority of the members of six major conserved metazoan signaling pathways. Conclusions The amphipod P. hawaiensis has higher transcript complexity than known insect transcriptomes, and trans-splicing does not appear to be a major contributor to this complexity. We discuss the importance of a reliable comparative genomic framework within which to consider findings from new crustacean models such as D. pulex and P. hawaiensis, as well as the need for development of further substantial crustacean genomic resources. PMID:22118449

2011-01-01

265

Thermochemical cycles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermochemical production of hydrogen is described along with the HYDRGN computer program which attempts to rate the various thermochemical cycles. Specific thermochemical cycles discussed include: iron sulfur cycle; iron chloride cycle; and hybrid sulfuric acid cycle.

Funk, J. E.; Soliman, M. A.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Cox, K. E.; Lawson, D.

1975-01-01

266

Larval ecology and synchronous reproduction of two crustacean species : Semibalanus balanoides in New England, USA and Gecarcinus quadratus in Veraguas, Panama  

E-print Network

The environmental cues for synchronous reproduction were investigated for two highly abundant, ecologically important crustacean species: the temperate acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, and the tropical terrestrial ...

Gyory, Joanna

2011-01-01

267

RELATIONSHIP OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TETRACYCLINES TO THEIR ABILITY TO BLOCK THE L3 TO L4 MOLT OF THE HUMAN FILARIAL PARASITE BRUGIA MALAYI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori cause a human disease known as lymphatic filariasis, which afflicts approximately 120 million people worldwide. These organisms are known to contain endosymbiotic bacteria (Wolbachia) that are related to rickettsiae. It has been previously reported that tetracycline blocks the L3 to L4 molt of the filarial parasite B. malayi, and suggested

T. V. RAJAN

268

Patterns of use and distribution of king eiders and black scoters during the annual cycle in northeastern Bristol Bay, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northeastern Bristol Bay, Alaska, which includes three large estuaries, is used by multiple sea duck species during the annual\\u000a cycle. Limited aerial surveys indicate that this area supports tens of thousands of king eiders and black scoters during spring\\u000a migration and the autumn molt. Existing satellite telemetry data were used to assess the temporal patterns of habitat use\\u000a and spatial

J. L. Schamber; P. L. Flint; A. N. Powell

2010-01-01

269

Temporal and spatial habitat preferences and biotic interactions between mosquito larvae and antagonistic crustaceans in the field.  

PubMed

Investigations on natural antagonists of mosquito larvae found that micro-crustaceans (e.g., Cladocera) control mosquito populations under experimental conditions. However, their relevance for mosquito control under field situations remains widely unclear because important information about habitat preferences and time of occurrence of crustaceans and mosquito larvae are still missing. In order to fill this knowledge gap, a field study was undertaken in different wetland areas of Saxony, Germany, in different habitats (i.e., grassland, forest, and reed-covered wetlands). We found negative interactions between larvae of Ae. vexans and predatory Cyclopoida (Crustacean: Copepoda), which both were dominant during the first two weeks of hydroperiod, at ponds located at grassland habitats. Larvae of Cx. pipiens were spatially associated with competing Cladocera, but they colonized ponds more rapidly. Populations of Cladocera established from the third week of hydroperiod and prevented Cx. pipiens colonization thereafter. Ostracoda were highly abundant during the whole hydroperiod, but their presence was restricted to habitats of reed-covered wetland at one geographical area. Mosquito larvae hardly occurred at those ponds. In general, we found that ponds at the reed-covered wetlands provided better conditions for the initial development of crustaceans and hence, mosquito larval colonization was strongly inhibited. Grassland habitat, in contrast, favored early development of mosquito larvae. This study showed that micro-crustaceans are relevant for mosquito management but their impact on mosquito larvae varies between species and depends on environmental conditions. PMID:24820562

Kroeger, Iris; Liess, Matthias; Duquesne, Sabine

2014-06-01

270

Abundance of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) in the fjords of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, during the peak molting period  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ringed seal (Pusa hispida) abundance in Spitsbergen, Svalbard, was estimated during the peak molting period via aerial, digital photographic surveys. A total of 9,145 images, covering 41.7%?100% of the total fast-ice cover (1,496 km2) of 18 different fjords and bays, were inspected for the presence of ringed seals. A total of 1,708 seals were counted, and when accounting for ice areas that were not covered by images, a total of 3,254 (95% CI: 3,071?3,449) ringed seals were estimated to be hauled out during the surveys. Extensive behavioral data from radio-tagged ringed seals (collected in a companion study) from one of the highest density fjords during the molting period were used to create a model that predicts the proportion of seals hauled out on any given date, time of day, and under various meteorological conditions. Applying this model to the count data from each fjord, we estimated that a total of 7,585 (95% CI: 6,332-9,085) ringed seals were present in the surveyed area during the peak molting period. Data on interannual variability in ringed seal abundance suggested higher numbers of seals in Van Keulenfjorden in 2002 compared to 2003, while other fjords with very stable ice cover showed no statistical differences. Poor ice conditions in general in 2002 probably resulted in seals from a wide area coming to Van Keulenfjorden (a large fjord with stable ice in 2002). The total estimated number of ringed seals present in the study area at the time of the survey must be regarded as a population index, or at least a minimum estimate for the area, because it does not account for individuals leaving and arriving, which might account for a considerable number of animals. The same situation is likely the case for many other studies reporting aerial census data for ringed seals. To achieve accurate estimates of population sizes from aerial surveys, more extensive knowledge of ringed seal behavior will be required.

Krafft, B.A.; Kovacs, K.M.; Andersen, M.; Aars, J.; Lydersen, C.; Ergon, T.; Haug, T.

2006-01-01

271

The effect of mushroom and pokeweed extract on salmonella, egg production, and weight loss in molting hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of mushroom and pokeweed extract alone or in combination with alfalfa meal on Salmonella spp. population, egg production, and weight loss in laying hens during a 10-d molting period. The trial used 54 active laying hens approximately 77 wk of age that were naturally infected with Salmonella spp. The layers were subjected to 1 of 9 treatment groups, replicated 3 times with 2 hens per replicate cage. The treatment conditions were as follows: 1) full-fed + H(2)0 (FFW), 2) full-fed + mushroom (FFM), 3) full-fed + pokeweed (FFP), 4) nonfed + H(2)0 (NFW), 5) nonfed + mushroom (NFM), 6) nonfed + pokeweed (NFP), 7) full-fed alfalfa meal + H(2)0 (FFAW), 8) full-fed alfalfa meal + mushroom (FFAM), and 9) full-fed alfalfa meal + poke-weed (FFAP). The results showed that the base-10 logarithm values of Salmonella from the ceca significantly increased (P molting hens and induce a comparable molt with feed withdrawal. PMID:19038799

Willis, W L; Goktepe, I; Isikhuemhen, O S; Reed, M; King, K; Murray, C

2008-12-01

272

Chemoreceptors of crustaceans: similarities to receptors for neuroactive substances in internal tissues.  

PubMed Central

A description is given of crustacean chemosensory systems and the neurophysiological procedures used to study them. Their response properties and tuning characteristics are discussed. A review is then provided of specific crustacean chemoreceptors that are stimulated selectively by either purine nucleotides, taurine, glutamate, or glycine, all of which have neuroactive properties in internal tissues. Two distinctly different types of purinergic chemoreceptors occur on the antennules of the spiny lobster. P1-like chemoreceptors have a potency sequence of AMP greater than ADP greater than ATP greater than adenosine and show a strict structural requirement for the ribose phosphate moiety. P2-like chemoreceptors have a potency sequence of ATP greater than ADP greater than AMP or adenosine and show a broad sensitivity to nucleotide triphosphates with modifications in both the purine and ribose phosphate moieties. Sensilla containing the dendrites of chemosensory neurons also possess an ectonucleotidase(s) that inactivates excitatory nucleotides to yield adenosine which is subsequently internalized by a sensillar uptake system. Narrowly tuned taurinergic chemoreceptors are present on both the antennules and legs of lobsters. Although taurine itself is the most effective stimulant, the taurine analogs hypotaurine and beta-alanine are also very excitatory. Structure-activity studies indicate these chemoreceptors have marked similarities to taurine-sensitive systems in internal tissues of vertebrates. By contrast, comparative studies of glutamatergic chemoreceptors on the legs of lobsters indicate response spectra different from those of the glutamate receptors in lobster neuromuscular junctions and the three classes of excitatory amino acid receptors identified internally in vertebrates. Crustacean chemoreceptors for glycine, ecdysteroids, and pyridine are also described. The hypothesis that receptors for internal neuroactive agents may have originally evolved as external chemoreceptors of primitive aquatic organisms is discussed. PMID:3297662

Carr, W E; Ache, B W; Gleeson, R A

1987-01-01

273

High-definition de novo sequencing of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)-family neuropeptides.  

PubMed

A complete understanding of the biological functions of large signaling peptides (>4 kDa) requires comprehensive characterization of their amino acid sequences and post-translational modifications, which presents significant analytical challenges. In the past decade, there has been great success with mass spectrometry-based de novo sequencing of small neuropeptides. However, these approaches are less applicable to larger neuropeptides because of the inefficient fragmentation of peptides larger than 4 kDa and their lower endogenous abundance. The conventional proteomics approach focuses on large-scale determination of protein identities via database searching, lacking the ability for in-depth elucidation of individual amino acid residues. Here, we present a multifaceted MS approach for identification and characterization of large crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)-family neuropeptides, a class of peptide hormones that play central roles in the regulation of many important physiological processes of crustaceans. Six crustacean CHH-family neuropeptides (8-9.5 kDa), including two novel peptides with extensive disulfide linkages and PTMs, were fully sequenced without reference to genomic databases. High-definition de novo sequencing was achieved by a combination of bottom-up, off-line top-down, and on-line top-down tandem MS methods. Statistical evaluation indicated that these methods provided complementary information for sequence interpretation and increased the local identification confidence of each amino acid. Further investigations by MALDI imaging MS mapped the spatial distribution and colocalization patterns of various CHH-family neuropeptides in the neuroendocrine organs, revealing that two CHH-subfamilies are involved in distinct signaling pathways. PMID:23028060

Jia, Chenxi; Hui, Limei; Cao, Weifeng; Lietz, Christopher B; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Chen, Ruibing; Catherman, Adam D; Thomas, Paul M; Ge, Ying; Kelleher, Neil L; Li, Lingjun

2012-12-01

274

High-definition De Novo Sequencing of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH)-family Neuropeptides*  

PubMed Central

A complete understanding of the biological functions of large signaling peptides (>4 kDa) requires comprehensive characterization of their amino acid sequences and post-translational modifications, which presents significant analytical challenges. In the past decade, there has been great success with mass spectrometry-based de novo sequencing of small neuropeptides. However, these approaches are less applicable to larger neuropeptides because of the inefficient fragmentation of peptides larger than 4 kDa and their lower endogenous abundance. The conventional proteomics approach focuses on large-scale determination of protein identities via database searching, lacking the ability for in-depth elucidation of individual amino acid residues. Here, we present a multifaceted MS approach for identification and characterization of large crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)-family neuropeptides, a class of peptide hormones that play central roles in the regulation of many important physiological processes of crustaceans. Six crustacean CHH-family neuropeptides (8–9.5 kDa), including two novel peptides with extensive disulfide linkages and PTMs, were fully sequenced without reference to genomic databases. High-definition de novo sequencing was achieved by a combination of bottom-up, off-line top-down, and on-line top-down tandem MS methods. Statistical evaluation indicated that these methods provided complementary information for sequence interpretation and increased the local identification confidence of each amino acid. Further investigations by MALDI imaging MS mapped the spatial distribution and colocalization patterns of various CHH-family neuropeptides in the neuroendocrine organs, revealing that two CHH-subfamilies are involved in distinct signaling pathways. PMID:23028060

Jia, Chenxi; Hui, Limei; Cao, Weifeng; Lietz, Christopher B.; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Chen, Ruibing; Catherman, Adam D.; Thomas, Paul M.; Ge, Ying; Kelleher, Neil L.; Li, Lingjun

2012-01-01

275

Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.  

PubMed

The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on a model crustacean brine shrimp, which will increase the risk of juvenile brine shrimp and possibly also other crustaceans, as important live feeds for aquaculture being introduced in the ecosystem especially the marine food webs. PMID:25555807

Zheng, Chao-Qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-Li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-Jian; Liu, Hai-Peng

2015-03-01

276

Role of gonadal and adrenal steroids and thyroid hormones in the regulation of molting in domestic goose.  

PubMed

Plasma levels of testosterone (T), 17-?-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), corticosterone (B), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were monitored during postnuptial and the prenuptial molt in domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus) in both sexes. 1. At the beginning of postnuptial molt (when the old, worn dawny-, and cover feathers' loss starts) in ganders, the levels of T, E2, P4 decrease while DHEA and B significantly increase. The elevated levels of T4 and low T3 concentrations characteristic of the last phase of the reproduction, remain unchanged. In layers, similar changes were observed, however, B decreases. 2. In the early phase of outgrowth of wing and cover feathers, plasma levels of T, E2 and P4 are low. Elevated B, DHEA and T4 concentrations decrease in ganders, while in layers DHEA increases and B and T4 levels remain unchanged. T3 increases in both sexes. 3. The subsequent intensive outgrowth period of wing- and cover feathers both in ganders and in layers is characterized by very low levels of T, E2, DHEA and T4, but P4 increased, and T3 concentration remain high. 4. At the end of postnuptial molt - when the outgrowth of dawny, cover-, and wing feathers stops - very low T, E2, P4, DHEA and T4 levels and and high T3 plasma levels were found in both sexes. Fast increase of plasma B was detected in ganders, while in geese, B concentration remain high. 5. During prenuptial molting (outgrowth of contour and tail feathers) low E2, P4 and T4, increasing T and DHEA, but very high T3 and B plasma concentration were measured in ganders. In layers, very low T, E2, P4, DHEA and T4 levels, and very high B and T3 levels were found. 6. At the beginning of the fall-winter sexual repose (postmolting stage) T, E2, P4, DHEA and T4 levels increase, T3 and B declines in both sexes. 7. In the subsequent phase of fall-winter period (preparatory stage) there is a further increase in T, P4 and T4, a fast increase of B and a decrease of E2, DHEA and T3 in ganders. In layers, T, P4 and DHEA decrease, B increases and the T4 and T3 do not change. 8. At the beginning of reproduction high T level, unchanged DHEA, slightly declined P4, and decreased E2, T4, T3 and a strong decline of B concentrations occur in ganders. In layers, T is further increased, E2 and P4 shows high levels, and, at the same time DHEA and T3 remain unchanged, while B and T4 decrease. PMID:21388915

Péczely, P; Bogenfürst, F; Kulcsár, Margit; Polgár, Bea

2011-03-01

277

Threshold Level of p53 Required for the Induction of Apoptosis in X-Irradiated MOLT-4 Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the threshold level for the initiation of apoptosis by studying the quantitative aspect of p53 response to DNA damage in individual cells, to better understand the process in X-ray-induced p53-dependent apoptosis. Methods and Materials: Time-sequential changes in p53 protein level were obtained for X-irradiated MOLT-4 cells using flow cytometry and analyzed. Results: The changes in the cellular frequency distribution pattern of p53 content could be divided into two parts at a certain p53 level. The p53 vs. side-scatter in flow cytometry showed the sequential changes of p53 increase followed by an increase in cell death. On the basis of these results we determined a threshold level of p53 for the initiation of apoptosis. The level was estimated to be (1.08 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup 5} molecules per cell, which was approximately threefold higher than the mean content of control cells. The minimum times for p53 level to reach this threshold level were independent of X-ray dose and 1.4-1.6 h. The times for the signal transduction from the p53 accumulation to disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and cell death were 1.6, 2.1, and 2.8 h, respectively. Conclusions: The threshold level of p53 for the initiation of apoptosis and the time sequence in the course of apoptotic events were determined in X-irradiated MOLT-4 cells.

Nakano, Hisako [Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: nakano@rinshoken.or.jp; Yonekawa, Hiromichi [Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, Kunio [Department of Laboratory Animal Science, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Hyogo (Japan)

2007-07-01

278

Transcriptome Analysis of Integument Differentially Expressed Genes in the Pigment Mutant (quail) during Molting of Silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q) mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao). Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes) were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes) were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation. PMID:24718369

Cheng, Tingcai; Li, Qiongyan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Xia, Qingyou

2014-01-01

279

Digestive Enzymes of the Crustaceans Munida and Their Application in Cheese Manufacturing: A Review  

PubMed Central

Crustaceans Munida (fam. Galatheideae, ord. Decapodi) were fished in the Southern Adriatic Sea and their proteolytic activities were characterized and tested for potential application in cheese manufacturing. Enzymes extracted from whole crustaceans, mainly serine proteases, showed high caseinolytic and moderate clotting activities. Analysis by 2D zymography of the digestive enzymes extracted from Munida hepatopancreas, showed the presence of several isotrypsin- and isochymotrypsin-like enzymes in the range of 20–34 kDa and 4.1–5.8 pI. Moreover, specific enzymatic assays showed the presence of aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases A and B. Overall, optimum activity was achieved at pH 7.5 and 40–45 °C. Caseinolytic activity, determined both spectrophotometrically and by SDS gel electrophoresis, indicated higher activity on ?-casein than on ?-casein. Miniature cheddar-type cheeses and Pecorino-type cheeses were manufactured by adding starter, rennet and Munida extracts to milk. Reverse-phase HPLC and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry showed a more complex pattern of proteolytic products in cheeses made using Munida instead of chymosin. Munida extracts were found to degrade the chymosin-derived ?-casein fragment f193–209, one of the peptides associated with bitterness in cheese. In conclusion, Munida digestive enzymes represent a promising tool for development of new cheese products and shorten cheese ripening when used either alone or in addition to calf rennet. PMID:21822412

Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riccio, Paolo

2011-01-01

280

Digestive enzymes of the crustaceans Munida and their application in cheese manufacturing: a review.  

PubMed

Crustaceans Munida (fam. Galatheideae, ord. Decapodi) were fished in the Southern Adriatic Sea and their proteolytic activities were characterized and tested for potential application in cheese manufacturing. Enzymes extracted from whole crustaceans, mainly serine proteases, showed high caseinolytic and moderate clotting activities. Analysis by 2D zymography of the digestive enzymes extracted from Munida hepatopancreas, showed the presence of several isotrypsin- and isochymotrypsin-like enzymes in the range of 20-34 kDa and 4.1-5.8 pI. Moreover, specific enzymatic assays showed the presence of aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases A and B. Overall, optimum activity was achieved at pH 7.5 and 40-45 °C. Caseinolytic activity, determined both spectrophotometrically and by SDS gel electrophoresis, indicated higher activity on ?-casein than on ?-casein. Miniature cheddar-type cheeses and Pecorino-type cheeses were manufactured by adding starter, rennet and Munida extracts to milk. Reverse-phase HPLC and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry showed a more complex pattern of proteolytic products in cheeses made using Munida instead of chymosin. Munida extracts were found to degrade the chymosin-derived ?-casein fragment f193-209, one of the peptides associated with bitterness in cheese. In conclusion, Munida digestive enzymes represent a promising tool for development of new cheese products and shorten cheese ripening when used either alone or in addition to calf rennet. PMID:21822412

Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riccio, Paolo

2011-01-01

281

Interaction investigations of crustacean ?-GBP recognition toward pathogenic microbial cell membrane and stimulate upon prophenoloxidase activation.  

PubMed

In invertebrates, crustaceans' immune system consists of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) instead of immunoglobulin's, which involves in the microbial recognition and initiates the protein-ligand interaction between hosts and pathogens. In the present study, PRRs namely ?-1,3 glucan binding protein (?-GBP) from mangrove crab Episesarma tetragonum and its interactions with the pathogens such as bacterial and fungal outer membrane proteins (OMP) were investigated through microbial aggregation and computational interaction studies. Molecular recognition and microbial aggregation results of Episesarma tetragonum ?-GBP showed the specific binding affinity toward the fungal ?-1,3 glucan molecule when compared to other bacterial ligands. Because of this microbial recognition, prophenoloxidase activity was enhanced and triggers the innate immunity inside the host animal. Our findings disclose the role of ?-GBP in molecular recognition, host-pathogen interaction through microbial aggregation, and docking analysis. In vitro results were concurred with the in silico docking, and molecular dynamics simulation analysis. This study would be helpful to understand the molecular mechanism of ?-GBP and update the current knowledge on the PRRs of crustaceans. PMID:24591174

Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

2014-04-01

282

Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone. PMID:23364944

DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H

2014-10-01

283

Mass spectrometric elucidation of the neuropeptidome of a crustacean neuroendocrine organ.  

PubMed

The blue crab Callinectes sapidus has been used as an experimental model organism for the study of regulation of cardiac activity and other physiological processes. Moreover, it is an economically and ecologically important crustacean species. However, there was no previous report on the characterization of its neuropeptidome. To fill in this gap, we employed multiple sample preparation methods including direct tissue profiling, crude tissue extraction and tissue extract fractionation by HPLC to obtain a complete description of the neuropeptidome of C. sapidus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) and MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF were utilized initially to obtain a quick snapshot of the neuropeptide profile, and subsequently nanoflow liquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) tandem MS analysis of neuropeptide extracts was conducted for de novo sequencing. Simultaneously, the pericardial organ (PO) tissue extract was labeled by a novel N,N-dimethylated leucine (DiLeu) reagent, offering enhanced fragmentation efficiency of peptides. In total, 130 peptide sequences belonging to 11 known neuropeptide families including orcomyotropin, pyrokinin, allatostatin A (AST-A), allatostatin B (AST-B), FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), and orcokinin were identified. Among these 130 sequences, 44 are novel peptides and 86 are previously identified. Overall, our results lay the groundwork for future physiological studies of neuropeptides in C. sapidus and other crustaceans. PMID:22627023

Hui, Limei; Xiang, Feng; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Li, Lingjun

2012-08-01

284

Myocardial Depolarizing Response to Glutamate in the Myogenic Heart of the Branchiopod Crustacean Triops longicaudatus.  

PubMed

Fine structure of the heart and the effects on the heartbeat of some transmitter candidates in crustacean cardioregulatory system were examined in the myogenic heart of the branchiopod crustacean Triops longicaudatus. Electron microscopy revealed that, in each myocardial cell, myofibrils are confined in the part facing the epicardium and intercalated disks are present between the myofibrillar regions of adjacent myocardial cells. No neural elements were found in the heart, suggesting lack of extrinsic cardioregulatory nerves from the central nervous system. Gamma aminobutyric acid and acetylcholine produced no detect-able changes in the myogenic activity of the heart at concentrations up to 10(-3) M, respectively. Glutamate induced a depolarizing membrane response in the cardiac muscle with a threshold concentration of approximately 1x10(-5) M. The amplitude of the depolarizing response was concetration-dependent and saturated at approximately 1x10(-4) M. The myogenic activity of the heart increased in frequency with glutamate of less than approximately 3x10(-5) M. With higher dose of glutamate, action potential adaptation occurred in the cardiac muscle and the heart exhibited a systolic arrest. PMID:18494569

Yamagishi, H; Ando, Y; Matsuzaki, O

2000-01-01

285

Genetic Evidence Confirms Polygamous Mating System in a Crustacean Parasite with Multiple Hosts  

PubMed Central

Mating systems are diverse in animals, notably in crustaceans, but can be inferred from a limited set of parameters. Baeza and Thiel (2007) proposed a model predicting mating systems of symbiotic crustaceans with three host characteristics and the risk of predation. These authors proposed five mating systems, ranging from monogamy to polygynandry (where multiple mating occurs for both genders). Using microsatellite loci, we tested the putatively mating system of the ectoparasite crab Dissodactylus primitivus. We determined the mating frequencies of males and females, parentage assignment (COLONY & GERUD software) as well as the contents of female spermathecae. Our results are globally consistent with the model of Baeza and Thiel and showed, together with previous aquarium experiments, that this ectoparasite evolved a polygamous mating system where males and females move between hosts for mate search. Parentage analyses revealed that polyandry is frequent and concerns more than 60% of clutches, with clutches being fertilized by up to 6 different fathers. Polygyny is supported by the detection of eight males having sired two different broods. We also detected a significant paternity skew in 92% of the multipaternal broods. Moreover, this skew is probably higher than the estimation from the brood because additional alleles were detected in most of spermathecae. This high skew could be explained by several factors as sperm competition or cryptic female choice. Our genetic data, combined with previous anatomic analyses, provide consistent arguments to suggest sperm precedence in D. primitivus. PMID:24609105

Jossart, Quentin; Wattier, Rémi A.; Kastally, Chedly; Aron, Serge; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Rigaud, Thierry

2014-01-01

286

Genetic evidence confirms polygamous mating system in a crustacean parasite with multiple hosts.  

PubMed

Mating systems are diverse in animals, notably in crustaceans, but can be inferred from a limited set of parameters. Baeza and Thiel (2007) proposed a model predicting mating systems of symbiotic crustaceans with three host characteristics and the risk of predation. These authors proposed five mating systems, ranging from monogamy to polygynandry (where multiple mating occurs for both genders). Using microsatellite loci, we tested the putatively mating system of the ectoparasite crab Dissodactylus primitivus. We determined the mating frequencies of males and females, parentage assignment (COLONY & GERUD software) as well as the contents of female spermathecae. Our results are globally consistent with the model of Baeza and Thiel and showed, together with previous aquarium experiments, that this ectoparasite evolved a polygamous mating system where males and females move between hosts for mate search. Parentage analyses revealed that polyandry is frequent and concerns more than 60% of clutches, with clutches being fertilized by up to 6 different fathers. Polygyny is supported by the detection of eight males having sired two different broods. We also detected a significant paternity skew in 92% of the multipaternal broods. Moreover, this skew is probably higher than the estimation from the brood because additional alleles were detected in most of spermathecae. This high skew could be explained by several factors as sperm competition or cryptic female choice. Our genetic data, combined with previous anatomic analyses, provide consistent arguments to suggest sperm precedence in D. primitivus. PMID:24609105

Jossart, Quentin; Wattier, Rémi A; Kastally, Chedly; Aron, Serge; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Rigaud, Thierry

2014-01-01

287

Tubular localization of silent calcium channels in crustacean skeletal muscle fibers.  

PubMed

Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) in the superficial abdominal flexor muscle of the crustacean Atya lanipes appears to be mediated by a local control mechanism similar to that of vertebrate cardiac muscle, but with an unusually high gain. Thus, Ca2+ influx increases sufficiently the local concentration of Ca2+ in the immediate vicinity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels to trigger the highly amplified release of Ca2+ required for contraction, but is too low to generate a macroscopic inward current (i.e., the Ca2+ channels are silent). To determine the localization of the silent Ca2+ Channels, the mechanical, electrophysiological and ultrastructural properties of the muscle were examined before and after formamide treatment, a procedure that produces the disruption of transverse tubules of striated muscle. We found that tubular disruption decreased tension generation by about 90%; reduced inward current (measured as Vmax, the maximum rate of rise of Sr2+ action potentials) by about 80%; and decreased membrane capacitance by about 77%. The results suggest that ca. 80% of the silent Ca2+ channels are located in the tubular system. Thus, these studies provide further evidence to support the local control mechanism of CICR in crustacean skeletal muscle. PMID:12416723

Monterrubio, J; Ortiz, G; Orkand, P M; Zuazaga, C

2002-01-01

288

crustaceans drawer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Holothurians are animals, related to other echinoderms by their 5-way pseudosymmetry and body composed of calcitic plates. They are not widely known to most people, and when they are, they are called "sea cucumbers."

2001-03-21

289

Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the comparative strategies of accumulation under standardised laboratory conditions of the essential metals zinc and copper, and the non-essential metal cadmium by three crustaceans of different taxa; vizPalaemon elegans Rathke (Malacostraca: Eucarida: Decapoda),Echinogammarus pirloti (Sexton & Spooner) (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda) and the barnacleElminius modestus Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

P. S. Rainbow; S. L. White

1989-01-01

290

Are Cirripedia hopeful monsters? Cytogenetic approach and evidence for a Hox gene cluster in the cirripede crustacean Sacculina carcini  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “hopeful monster” has haunted evolutionary thinking since Richard Goldschmidt coined the phrase in 1933. The phrase is directly related to genetic mechanisms in development and evolution. Cirripedes are peculiar crustaceans in that they all lack abdomens as adults. In a previous study aimed at describing the repertoire of Hox genes of the Cirripedia, we failed to isolate the abdominal-A

Élodie Géant; Emmanuèle Mouchel-Vielh; Jean-Pierre Coutanceau; Catherine Ozouf-Costaz; Jean S. Deutsch

2006-01-01

291

USE OF OYSTER HABITAT BY REEF-RESIDENT FISHES AND DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

Habitat suitability of oyster reefs for fishes and decapod crustaceans was examined monthly at three sites in the lower Caloosahatchee Estuary. At each site, 1-m2 lift nets containing approximately 5 liters (volume displacement) of oyster clumps were deployed for a period of two ...

292

INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON HABITAT UTILIZATION OF OYSTER REEFS BY RESIDENT FISHES AND DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA.  

EPA Science Inventory

A spatiotemporal comparison of habitat suitability of oyster reefs for fishes and decapod crustaceans was conducted for the lower Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida. Lift nets (1-m2) containing 5 liters (volume displacement) of oyster clusters were deployed monthly at three sites al...

293

Evidence for a cost of immunity when the crustacean Daphnia magna is exposed to the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The deployment of the immune system has the obvious potential to ameliorate infection outcomes, but immune responses can also harm hosts by either damaging host tissues or monopolizing resources, leading to enhanced mortality. To gain insight into such a 'cost of immunity' when the crustacean Daphnia magna is challenged with the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa , we measured survivorship

TOM J. LITTLE; STUART C. KILLICK

2007-01-01

294

The effect of a pathogen epidemic on the genetic structure and reproductive strategy of the crustacean Daphnia magna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-parasite coevolution is potentially of great importance in producing and maintaining biological diversity. However, there is a lack of evidence for parasites directly driving genetic change. We examined the impact of an epidemic of the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa on a natural population of the crustacean Daphnia magna through the use of molecular markers (allozymes) and laboratory experiments to determine the

Suzanne E. Mitchell; Andrew F. Read; Tom J. Little

2004-01-01

295

Limb development in a primitive crustacean, Triops longicaudatus: subdivision of the early limb bud gives rise to multibranched limbs.  

PubMed

Recent advances in developmental genetics of Drosophila have uncovered some of the key molecules involved in the positioning and outgrowth of the leg primordia. Although expression patterns of these molecules have been analyzed in several arthropod species, broad comparisons of mechanisms of limb development among arthropods remain somewhat speculative since no detailed studies of limb development exist for crustaceans, the postulated sister group of insects. As a basis for such comparisons, we analysed limb development in a primitive branchiopod crustacean, Triops longicaudatus. Adults have a series of similar limbs with eight branches or lobes that project from the main shaft. Phalloidin staining of developing limbs buds shows the distal epithelial ridge of the early limb bud exhibits eight folds that extend in a dorsal ventral (D/V) arc across the body. These initial folds subsequently form the eight lobes of the adult limb. This study demonstrates that, in a primitive crustacean, branched limbs do not arise via sequential splitting. Current models of limb development based on Drosophila do not provide a mechanism for establishing eight branches along the D/V axis of a segment. Although the events that position limbs on a body segment appear to be conserved between insects and crustaceans, mechanisms of limb branching may not. PMID:24173518

Williams, T A; Müller, G B

1996-11-01

296

Rock Cycle: Cycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Rocks SciPack. It explores the variables that contribute to rock transformation and the continuous processes of rock formation that constitute the rock cycle. The rock cycle provides an example of the transfer of energy and mass in the Earth system. Earth is a closed system containing essentially a fixed amount of each element. Movement of matter is driven by the Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and is often accompanied by changes in the physical and chemical properties of the matter. Minerals are made, dissolved, and remade--on the Earth's surface, in the oceans, and in the hot, high-pressure layers beneath the crust. The total amount of material stays the same as its forms change. Learning Outcomes:? Recognize the formation and transformation processes as part of a continuing cycle.? Identify that while the form and location of different rocks change over time, the amount of material and the distribution among the elements remains constant.? Explain the different processes or paths that each type of rock may take in the rock cycle.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

297

LTR-Retrotransposons in R. exoculata and Other Crustaceans: The Outstanding Success of GalEa-Like Copia Elements  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a great impact on genome structure and stability. They can contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution among several genomes is an essential condition to study their dynamics and to better understand their role in species evolution. LTR-retrotransposons have been reported in many diverse eukaryote species, describing a ubiquitous distribution. Given their abundance, diversity and their extended ranges in C-values, environment and life styles, crustaceans are a great taxon to investigate the genomic component of adaptation and its possible relationships with TEs. However, crustaceans have been greatly underrepresented in transposable element studies. Using both degenerate PCR and in silico approaches, we have identified 35 Copia and 46 Gypsy families in 15 and 18 crustacean species, respectively. In particular, we characterized several full-length elements from the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata that is listed as a model organism from hydrothermal vents. Phylogenic analyses show that Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons likely present two opposite dynamics within crustaceans. The Gypsy elements appear relatively frequent and diverse whereas Copia are much more homogeneous, as 29 of them belong to the single GalEa clade, and species- or lineage-dependent. Our results also support the hypothesis of the Copia retrotransposon scarcity in metazoans compared to Gypsy elements. In such a context, the GalEa-like elements present an outstanding wide distribution among eukaryotes, from fishes to red algae, and can be even highly predominant within a large taxon, such as Malacostraca. Their distribution among crustaceans suggests a dynamics that follows a “domino days spreading” branching process in which successive amplifications may interact positively. PMID:23469217

Esnault, Caroline; Graça, Paula; Higuet, Dominique; Bonnivard, Eric

2013-01-01

298

Trehalose and vitreous states: desiccation tolerance of dormant stages of the crustaceans Triops and Daphnia.  

PubMed

Several aquatic organisms are able to withstand extreme desiccation in at least one of their life stages. This is commonly known as "anhydrobiosis." It was often thought that to tolerate such a desiccated state required high amounts of compatible solutes such as the nonreducing disaccharide trehalose, which protects cellular structures by water replacement and glass formation. Trehalose levels of dormant eggs and cysts of five freshwater crustaceans (Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Triops longicaudatus, Triops cancriformis, and Triops australiensis) were observed in different states of hydration and dehydration. Although trehalose was detected in all species, the concentration was under 0.5% of the dry weight (0.05 ?g/?g protein), and no change between the different states was observed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements indicated that dried cysts of all Triops species were in a glassy state, supporting the vitrification hypothesis. No indication for a vitreous state was found in dried resting eggs of Daphnia. PMID:21460525

Hengherr, S; Heyer, A G; Brümmer, F; Schill, R O

2011-01-01

299

Life histories and abundance of crustacean zooplankton in the outlet of Lake Superior, 1971-72  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In sampling throughout a year, at about 3-wk intervals, of the crustacean zooplankton discharged from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River, 30 species were collected, including three not previously recorded for the lake: the copepod Cyclops strenuus, and the cladocerans Alona costata and Alonella acutirostris. Five copepods, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, Diaptomus ashlandi, D. sicilis, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Senecella calanoides were present in the plankton throughout the year while three other copepods, Diaptomus minutus, Epischura lacustris, and Mesocyclops edax, along with all cladocerans, were present only during summer and fall. Five species of copepods, Diaptomus sicilis, D. minutus, Limnocalanus macrurus, Senecella calanoides, and Epischura lacustris produced a single generation annually; three other copepods and all cladocerans produced two or more generations. All species breed 1-3 mo later in Lake Superior than in lakes Michigan and Erie.

Selgeby, James H.

1975-01-01

300

Effects of sewage-impacted sediment on reproduction in the benthic crustacean Leptocheirus plumulosus.  

PubMed

Several organic contaminants in sewage effluent have been shown to elicit an estrogenic response in juvenile fish. Comparatively little emphasis has been placed on assessing these effects in marine invertebrates, particularly benthic organisms inhabiting sediment where lipophilic contaminants tend to persist. The present study examined reproductive effects in the benthic crustacean Leptocheirus plumulosus exposed to sewage-impacted sediment from Jamaica Bay, New York. Data from chronic 28-day tests showed a 50% reduction in the average number of young (juveniles + embryos) produced per surviving female in exposures to sediment from Jamaica Bay (JB). Nonylphenol ethoxylate ('NPEO) concentrations at this site were measured at 44.2 microg/g dw, concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than reference site concentrations in central Long Island Sound (CLIS). Dose-response studies with nonylphenol (NP) amended reference sediment, however, did not significantly affect reproduction suggesting that other contaminants may have contributed to the effects observed. PMID:12408626

Zulkosky, A M; Ferguson, P L; McElroy, A E

2002-01-01

301

Ciliate Epibionts Associated with Crustacean Zooplankton in German Lakes: Distribution, Motility, and Bacterivory  

PubMed Central

Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and re-attachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from 1 to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5?min, and 98% detached within 30?min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60?min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120?min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate?1?h?1 and 24.33??l ciliate?1?h?1, respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations. PMID:22783247

Bickel, Samantha L.; Tang, Kam W.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

2012-01-01

302

Long-term Lethal Toxicity Test with the Crustacean Artemia franciscana  

PubMed Central

Our research activities target the use of biological methods for the evaluation of environmental quality, with particular reference to saltwater/brackish water and sediment. The choice of biological indicators must be based on reliable scientific knowledge and, possibly, on the availability of standardized procedures. In this article, we present a standardized protocol that used the marine crustacean Artemia to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals and/or of marine environmental matrices. Scientists propose that the brine shrimp (Artemia) is a suitable candidate for the development of a standard bioassay for worldwide utilization. A number of papers have been published on the toxic effects of various chemicals and toxicants on brine shrimp (Artemia). The major advantage of this crustacean for toxicity studies is the overall availability of the dry cysts; these can be immediately used in testing and difficult cultivation is not demanded1,2. Cyst-based toxicity assays are cheap, continuously available, simple and reliable and are thus an important answer to routine needs of toxicity screening, for industrial monitoring requirements or for regulatory purposes3. The proposed method involves the mortality as an endpoint. The numbers of survivors were counted and percentage of deaths were calculated. Larvae were considered dead if they did not exhibit any internal or external movement during several seconds of observation4. This procedure was standardized testing a reference substance (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate); some results are reported in this work. This article accompanies a video that describes the performance of procedural toxicity testing, showing all the steps related to the protocol. PMID:22525984

Manfra, Loredana; Savorelli, Federica; Pisapia, Marco; Magaletti, Erika; Cicero, Anna Maria

2012-01-01

303

The biological effects of antidepressants on the molluscs and crustaceans: a review.  

PubMed

Antidepressants are among the most commonly detected human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Since their mode of action is by modulating the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, aquatic invertebrates who possess transporters and receptors sensitive to activation by these pharmaceuticals are potentially affected by them. We review the various types of antidepressants, their occurrence and concentrations in aquatic environments, and the actions of neurohormones modulated by antidepressants in molluscs and crustaceans. Recent studies on the effects of antidepressants on these two important groups show that molluscan reproductive and locomotory systems are affected by antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations. In particular, antidepressants affect spawning and larval release in bivalves and disrupt locomotion and reduce fecundity in snails. In crustaceans, antidepressants affect freshwater amphipod activity patterns, marine amphipod photo- and geotactic behavior, crayfish aggression, and daphnid reproduction and development. We note with interest the occurrence of non-monotonic dose responses curves in many studies on effects of antidepressants on aquatic animals, often with effects at low concentrations, but not at higher concentrations, and we suggest future experiments consider testing a broader range of concentrations. Furthermore, we consider invertebrate immune responses, genomic and transcriptomic sequencing of invertebrate genes, and the ever-present and overwhelming question of how contaminant mixtures could affect the action of neurohormones as topics for future study. In addressing the question, if antidepressants affect aquatic invertebrates at concentrations currently found in the environment, there is strong evidence to suggest the answer is yes. Furthermore, the examples highlighted in this review provide compelling evidence that the effects could be quite multifaceted across a variety of biological systems. PMID:24374179

Fong, Peter P; Ford, Alex T

2014-06-01

304

The Global Diversity of Parasitic Isopods Associated with Crustacean Hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea)  

PubMed Central

Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans) are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ?7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species) and intermediate (pelagic copepod) host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species), with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species), East Asian Sea (120 species), and Central Indian Ocean (44 species). The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts) are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species) followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively). Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids) exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species) with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts) show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species) and North East Atlantic (8 species). Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago) hold a wealth of undescribed species, reflecting our knowledge of host diversity patterns. PMID:22558143

Williams, Jason D.; Boyko, Christopher B.

2012-01-01

305

Putative Pacemakers in the Eyestalk and Brain of the Crayfish Procambarus clarkii Show Circadian Oscillations in Levels of mRNA for Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone  

PubMed Central

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress. PMID:24391849

Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; Loredo-Ranjel, Rosaura; Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa

2013-01-01

306

Influence of Molting and Starvation on Digestive Enzyme Activities and Energy Storage in Gammarus fossarum  

PubMed Central

Among the many biological responses studied in ecotoxicology, energy-based biomarkers such as digestive enzyme activities and energy reserves appear to be useful predictive tools for detecting physiological disturbances in organisms. However, the use of these biological responses as biomarkers could be limited by the effects of confounding factors (biotic and abiotic) and physiological processes, such as the reproductive cycle. Thus, the optimal use of these biomarkers will be facilitated by understanding the effects of these factors on the energy metabolism of the sentinel species being studied. We considered abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity) in a previous study, whereas the present study investigated the effects of gender, the female reproductive stage, and food availability on the digestive enzyme activities and energy storage of Gammarus fossarum. The results indicated that, during the female reproductive cycle, the activities of digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase, and trypsin) decreased significantly, whereas the levels of reserves (proteins, lipids, and sugar) increased until the last premolt stage. Restricted food diets only led to decreased amylase activities in both sexes. Food starvation also induced a decrease in the energy outcomes in females, whereas there were no effects in males. In general, the biochemical (digestive enzyme activities) and physiological (energy reserves) responses were more stable in males than in females. These results support the use of males fed ad libitum to limit the effects of confounding factors when using these energy biomarkers in Gammarus fossarum during biomonitoring programs. PMID:24788197

Charron, Laetitia; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud; Coulaud, Romain; Jaffal, Ali; Gaillet, Véronique; Dedourge-Geffard, Odile; Geffard, Alain

2014-01-01

307

Safety testing of tebufenozide, a new molt-inducing insecticide, for effects on nontarget forest soil invertebrates.  

PubMed

Tebufenozide, a new molt-inducing insecticide that mimics the action of ecdysone, is being considered for use to control defoliating lepidoptera in forests in Canada. Soil microcosms, employing substrates and species from the ecosystems in which spraying is likely to occur, were used to evaluate the effects of this compound on soil invertebrates. The forest earthworm (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny) and four species of Collembola (Folsomia candida Willem, F. nivalis (Packard), Onychiurus parvicornis Mills, and Hypogastrura pannosa Macnamara) were tested. Survival, growth, and reproduction (cocoon production and viability) in the forest earthworm D. octaedra were not affected by exposure to tebufenozide at concentrations up to and including 100x expected environmental concentration (EEC; equivalent to the operational spray rate; 70 g/ha) in leaf litter over a 10-week period. Similarly, population growth over 8-10 weeks in the four species of soil Collembola in LFH material contaminated with tebufenozide at 100x EEC was not affected. Based on the results of these (limited) tests, it therefore appears that, under normal operational conditions, tebufenozide should not pose a hazard to soil invertebrates. The selection of appropriate test species and systems for forestry applications is discussed. PMID:8744924

Addison, J A

1996-02-01

308

Carbon Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of energy cycles by learning about the carbon cycle. They learn how carbon atoms travel through the geological (ancient) carbon cycle and the biological/physical carbon cycle. They consider how human activities disturb the carbon cycle by emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. They discuss how engineers and scientists are working to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Lastly, students consider how they can help the world through simple energy conservation measures.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

309

Impact of heat processing on the detection of the major shellfish allergen tropomyosin in crustaceans and molluscs using specific monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

The major heat-stable shellfish allergen, tropomyosin, demonstrates immunological cross-reactivity, making specific differentiation of crustaceans and molluscs for food labelling very difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies in differential detection of shellfish-derived tropomyosin in 11 crustacean and 7 mollusc species, and to study the impact of heating on its detection. Cross-reactive tropomyosin was detected in all crustacean species, with partial detection in molluscs: mussels, scallops and snails but none in oyster, octopus and squid. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that heating of shellfish has a profound effect on tropomyosin detection. This was evident by the enhanced recognition of multiple tropomyosin variants in the analysed shellfish species. Specific monoclonal antibodies, targetting the N-terminal region of tropomyosin, must therefore be developed to differentiate tropomyosins in crustaceans and molluscs. This can help in correct food labelling practices and thus protection of consumers. PMID:23993581

Kamath, Sandip D; Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Komoda, Toshikazu; Lopata, Andreas L

2013-12-15

310

Fishes and decapod crustaceans of Cape Cod eelgrass meadows: Species composition, seasonal abundance patterns and comparison with unvegetated substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bimonthly trawl samples from eelgrass and nearby unvegetated areas on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, showed greater species richness\\u000a in eelgrass meadows relative to unvegetated areas, and greater summer abundance in vegetation for decapod crustaceans and\\u000a fishes. The composition of eelgrass-associated decapods and fishes was dominated by cold-water taxa and was strikingly different\\u000a from that of the better studied eelgrass meadows of

K. L. Heck; K. W. Able; M. P. Fahay; C. T. Roman

1989-01-01

311

[Localization of crustaceans--fish parasites and nose capsules as the habitat of the genus Salmincola (Podoplea: Lernaeopodidae) mesoparasites].  

PubMed

Copepoda parasitica of Baikal fishes (16 species) is divided into 7 groups according to their localization: parasites of the gill apparatus, gill covers, gill and buccal cavities, nasal fossa, cutaneous covering, and fins. It was proposed to separate nasal fossa parasites as the special ecological group ofmesoparasites. Typical speciemens of the group include crustaceans Salmincola longimanus complex--parasites of grayling and cisco fishes consist of three species (S. longimanus, S. svetlanovi, S. lavaretus) and one subspecies (S. longimanus sibirica). PMID:24455872

Pronin, N M; Burdukovskaia, T G

2013-01-01

312

Limb development in a primitive crustacean, Triops longicaudatus : subdivision of the early limb bud gives rise to multibranched limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in developmental genetics of Drosophila have uncovered some of the key molecules involved in the positioning and outgrowth of the leg primordia. Although expression\\u000a patterns of these molecules have been analyzed in several arthropod species, broad comparisons of mechanisms of limb development\\u000a among arthropods remain somewhat speculative since no detailed studies of limb development exist for crustaceans, the

T. A. Williams; Gerd B. Müller

1996-01-01

313

Silent calcium channels in skeletal muscle fibers of the crustacean Atya lanipes.  

PubMed

The superficial (tonic) abdominal flexor muscles of Atya lanipes do not generate Ca(2+) action potentials when depolarized and have no detectable inward Ca(2+) current. These fibers, however, are strictly dependent on Ca(2+) influx for contraction, suggesting that they depend on Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release for contractile activation. The nature of the communication between Ca(2+) channels in the sarcolemmal/tubular membrane and Ca(2+) release channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in this crustacean muscle was investigated. The effects of dihydropyridines on tension generation and the passive electrical response were examined in current-clamped fibers: Bay K 8644 enhanced tension about 100% but did not alter the passive electrical response; nifedipine inhibited tension by about 70%. Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) action potentials could be elicited in Ca(2+)-free solutions. The spikes generated by these divalent cations were abolished by nifedipine. As the Sr(2+) or Ba(2+) concentrations were increased, the amplitudes of the action potentials and their maximum rate of rise, V(max), increased and tended towards saturation. Three-microelectrode voltage-clamp experiments showed that even at high (138 mm) extracellular Ca(2+) concentration the channels were silent, i.e., no inward Ca(2+) current was detected. In Ca(2+)-free solutions, inward currents carried by 138 mm Sr(2+) or Ba(2+) were observed. The currents activated at voltages above -40 mV and peaked at about 0 mV. This voltage-activation profile and the sensitivity of the channels to dihydropyridines indicate that they resemble L-type Ca(2+) channels. Peak inward current density values were low, ca. -33 microA/cm(2) for Sr(2+) and -14 microA/cm(2) for Ba(2+), suggesting that Ca(2+) channels are present at a very low density. It is concluded that Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release in this crustacean muscle operates with an unusually high gain: Ca(2+) influx through the silent Ca(2+) channels is too low to generate a macroscopic inward current, but increases sufficiently the local concentration of Ca(2+) in the immediate vicinity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channels to trigger the highly amplified release of Ca(2+) required for tension generation. PMID:10612687

Monterrubio, J; Lizardi, L; Zuazaga, C

2000-01-01

314

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash animation about the rock cycle is suitable for a review or overview in an introductory level Physical Geology class. It includes animations, photos, and descriptions involving rock types and processes in the rock cycle.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

315

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to demonstrate the principle of conservation of mass through the rock cycle. When students create the model, the various parts and processes in the rock cycle are reinforced for them.

School, Maryland V.

316

Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive animation focuses on the carbon cycle and includes embedded videos and captioned images to provide greater clarification and detail of the cycle than would be available by a single static visual alone.

Sciencelearn

317

Seeing double: visual physiology of double-retina eye ontogeny in stomatopod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Stomatopod eye development is unusual among crustaceans. Just prior to metamorphosis, an adult retina and associated neuro-processing structures emerge adjacent to the existing material in the larval compound eye. Depending on the species, the duration of this double-retina eye can range from a few hours to several days. Although this developmental process occurs in all stomatopod species observed to date, the retinal physiology and extent to which each retina contributes to the animal's visual sensitivity during this transition phase is unknown. We investigated the visual physiology of stomatopod double retinas using microspectrophotometry and electroretinogram recordings from different developmental stages of the Western Atlantic species Squilla empusa. Though microspectrophotometry data were inconclusive, we found robust ERG responses in both larval and adult retinas at all sampled time points indicating that the adult retina responds to light from the very onset of its emergence. We also found evidence of an increase in the response dynamics with ontogeny as well as an increase in sensitivity of retinal tissue during the double-retina phase relative to single retinas. These data provide an initial investigation into the ontogeny of vision during stomatopod double-retina eye development. PMID:25471793

Feller, Kathryn D; Cohen, Jonathan H; Cronin, Thomas W

2015-03-01

318

A Successful Crayfish Invader Is Capable of Facultative Parthenogenesis: A Novel Reproductive Mode in Decapod Crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions are impacting biota worldwide, and explaining why some taxa tend to become invasive is of major scientific interest. North American crayfish species, particularly of the family Cambaridae, are prominent invaders in freshwaters, defying the “tens rule” which states that only a minority of species introduced to new regions become established, and only a minority of those become invasive and pests. So far, success of cambarid invaders has largely been attributed to rapid maturation, high reproductive output, aggressiveness, and tolerance to pollution. We provide experimental evidence that females of one cambarid species particularly widespread in Europe, the spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, are capable of facultative parthenogenesis. Such reproductive mode has never before been recognized in decapods, the most diverse crustacean order. As shown by analysis of seven microsatellite loci, crayfish females kept physically separated from males produced genetically homogeneous offspring identical with maternal individuals; this suggests they reproduced by apomixis, unlike those females which mated with males and had a diverse offspring. Further research is needed to clarify what environmental conditions are necessary for a switch to parthenogenesis in O. limosus, and what role it plays in natural crayfish populations. However, if such reproductive plasticity is present in other cambarid crayfish species, it may contribute to the overwhelming invasive success of this group. PMID:21655282

Bu?i?, Miloš; Hulák, Martin; Kouba, Antonín

2011-01-01

319

Functional characterization of a putative disaccharide membrane transporter in crustacean intestine.  

PubMed

Transepithelial absorption of dietary sucrose in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, was investigated by mounting an intestine in a perfusion chamber to characterize mucosal to serosal (MS) (14)C-sucrose transport. These fluxes were measured by adding varying concentrations of (14)C-sucrose to the perfusate and monitoring their appearance in the bathing solution. Transepithelial (14)C-sucrose transport was the combination of a hyperbolic function of luminal concentration, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and apparent diffusion. The kinetic constants of the putative sucrose transporter were K M  = 20.50 ± 6.00 µM and J max = 1.81 ± 0.50 pmol/cm(2) × min. Phloridzin, an inhibitor of Na(+)-dependent mucosal glucose transport, decreased MS (14)C-sucrose transport. Decreased MS (14)C-sucrose transport also occurred in the presence of luminal trehalose, a disaccharide containing D-glucose moieties. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) identified the chemical nature of radioactively labeled sugars in the bath following transepithelial transport. TLC revealed (14)C-sucrose was transported across the intestine largely intact with no (14)C-glucose or (14)C-fructose appearing in the serosal bath or luminal perfusate. Only 13 % of bath radioactivity was volatile metabolites. Results suggest that disaccharide sugars can be transported intact across crustacean intestine and support the occurrence of a functional disaccharide membrane transporter. PMID:25416426

Likely, Rasheda; Johnson, Eric; Ahearn, Gregory A

2014-11-22

320

Sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles. [Homarus americanus  

SciTech Connect

Purified brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas using differential centrifugation and Mg{sup +2} precipitation techniques. Uptake of 0.1 mM {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} was stimulated by pre-loading vesicles with Cl{sup {minus}} leading to a transient accumulation of isotope more than twice that at equilibrium. Pre-loading with HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} or gluconate had no effect on sulfate uptake. No stimulation of {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} was observed in the presence of inwardly directed Na{sup +} or tetramethylammonium{sup +} gradients. Uptake of the divalent anion was strongly stimulated by inwardly directed proton gradients (pH{sub o} < pH{sub i}) and markedly inhibited by outwardly directed proton gradients (pH{sub o} > pH{sub i}). {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}/Cl{sup {minus}} exchange was enhanced by imposing a transmembrane inside positive K{sup +} diffusion potential and inhibited by a membrane potential of the opposite polarity (K{sup +}/valinomycin). Results suggest the presence of a proton-dependent, electrogenic anion antiport mechanism in BBMV isolated from the crustacean hepatopancreas.

Gerencser, G.A.; Cattey, M.A; Ahearn, G.A. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States) Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

1990-02-26

321

Radiation induced effects on viability and antioxidant enzymes of crustaceans from different habitats.  

PubMed

The paper describes differential tolerance of two fresh water crustaceans Mesocyclops hyalinus and Allodiaptomus satanus to 60Co gamma radiation. Mesocyclops hyalinus is dominant species at site 1, near a Thermal Power Plant at Kolaghat East Midnapore where fly ash deposition is a regular phenomenon. Allodiaptomus satanus is dominant species at site 2 at Kolkata, Ballygung where anthroponotic activities are more pronounced. M. hyalinus is naturally exposed to more stressful situation than A. satanus as revealed by comparing the hydrological parameters of the two habitats. Experimental exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in differential changes in viability morphology and antioxidant enzyme activities in the two selected species. Survival experiments showed greater tolerance of M. hyalinus compared to A. satanus up to 8Gy (absorbed dose) after which if showed drastic fail in survival. More pronounced morphological changes were observed in A. satanus as compared to that in M. hyalinus. The pattern of changes in antioxidant enzyme activity is distinctly opposite in the two radiation exposed species. While in M. hyalinus stimulation in activity of both CAT (excepting at 10Gy absorbed dose) and SOD was observed A. satanus showed decrease in activity of both the enzymes when compared to their unirradiated counterparts. PMID:21046991

Mukherjee, D; Manna, M; Selvaraj, S; Bhattacharya, S; Homechoudhury, S; Chakraborty, A

2010-05-01

322

Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus  

PubMed Central

Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established vertebrate cave system, we can address genetic questions concerning evolutionary parallelism and convergence. We chose the isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus, and generated a genome-wide linkage map for this species. Our map, composed of 117 markers, of which the majority are associated with genes known to be involved in pigmentation, eye, and appendage development, was used to identify loci of large effect responsible for several pigmentation traits and eye loss. Our study provides support for the prediction that significant morphological change can be mediated through one or a few genes. Surprisingly, we found that within population variability in eye size occurs through multiple mechanisms; eye loss has a different genetic basis than reduced eye size. Similarly, again within a population, the phenotype of albinism can be achieved by two different genetic pathways—either by a recessive genotype at one locus or doubly recessive genotypes at two other loci. Our work shows the potential of Asellus for studying the extremes of parallel and convergent evolution—spanning comparisons within populations to comparisons between vertebrate and arthropod systems. PMID:21422298

Protas, Meredith E.; Trontelj, Peter; Patel, Nipam H.

2011-01-01

323

On some interesting marine decapod crustaceans (Alpheidae, Laomediidae, Strahlaxiidae) from Lombok, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Several rare or uncommon, mostly infaunal decapod crustaceans are reported from intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats of Lombok, Indonesia. The alpheid shrimps Alpheus angustilineatus Nomura & Anker, 2005, Athanas shawnsmithi Anker, 2011, Jengalpheops rufus Anker & Dworschak, 2007, Salmoneus alpheophilus Anker & Marin, 2006, Salmoneus colinorum De Grave, 2004, and the laomediid mud-shrimp Naushonia carinata Dworschak, Marin & Anker, 2006, are reported for the first time since their original descriptions and represent new records for the marine fauna of Indonesia. The alpheid shrimps Alpheus macellarius Chace, 1988, Alpheus platyunguiculatus (Banner, 1953), Athanas japonicus Kubo, 1936, Athanas polymorphus Kemp, 1915, Leptalpheus denticulatus Anker & Marin, 2009, Richalpheus palmeri Anker & Jeng, 2006, Salmoneus gracilipes Miya, 1972, Salmoneus tricristatus Banner, 1959 and the laomediid mudshrimps Laomedia astacina De Haan, 1841 and Naushonia lactoalbida Berggren, 1992 are new records for Indonesian waters. The remaining alpheid shrimps, namely Alpheopsis yaldwyni Banner & Banner, 1973, Alpheus savuensis De Man, 1908, Automate anacanthopus De Man, 1910, Automate dolichognatha De Man, 1888, Salmoneus serratidigitus (Coutière, 1896), and the strahlaxiid mud-shrimp Neaxius glyptocercus (von Martens, 1869), all previously known from Indonesia, are recorded for the first time from Lombok. Colour photographs are provided for all species reported, some shown in colour for the first time.  PMID:25661615

Anker, Arthur; Pratama, Idham Sumarto; Firdaus, Muhammad; Rahayu, Dwi Listyo

2015-01-01

324

Invading predatory crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus eliminates both native and exotic species.  

PubMed Central

As the tempo of biological invasions increases, explanations and predictions of their impacts become more crucial. Particularly with regard to biodiversity, we require elucidation of interspecific behavioural interactions among invaders and natives. In freshwaters in The Netherlands, we show that the invasive Ponto-Caspian crustacean amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus is rapidly eliminating Gammarus duebeni, a native European amphipod, and Gammarus tigrinus, until now a spectacularly successful invader from North America. In the laboratory, survival of single (unguarded) female G. duebeni was significantly lower when male D. villosus were free to roam as compared with isolated within microcosms. In addition, survival of paired (guarded) female G. duebeni was significantly lower when male D. villosus as compared with male G. duebeni were present. D. villosus killed and consumed both recently moulted and, unusually, intermoult victims. Survival of G. tigrinus was significantly lower when D. villosus were free to roam as compared with isolated within microcosms and, again, both moulted and intermoult victims were preyed upon. Male D. villosus were significantly more predatory than were females, while female G. tigrinus were significantly more often preyed upon than were males. Predation by D. villosus on both species occurred over a range of water conductivities, an environmental feature previously shown to promote amphipod coexistence. This predatory invader is predicted to reduce further the amphipod diversity in a range of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. PMID:10874746

Dick, J T; Platvoet, D

2000-01-01

325

Disentangling the effects of local and regional factors on the thermal tolerance of freshwater crustaceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the global warming context, we compared the thermal tolerance of several populations of the crustacean Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) along a latitudinal thermal gradient in the Rhône Valley. To disentangle the effect of regional (North vs. South) and local (site-specific) factors, the ecophysiological responses of populations were investigated at two levels of biological organisation: whole organism level considering body size [critical thermal maximum (CTmax), mean speed of locomotion (MS), time mobile (TM)] and organelle function level [mitochondrial respiratory control ratios (RCRs)]. CTmax and RCRs, but not MS and TM, revealed a significantly higher thermal tolerance in southern populations compared to northern ones. Nevertheless, temperatures ? 30°C were deleterious for all populations, suggesting that populations located in the warmer limit of the species distribution will be more threatened by climate change as they live closer to their upper thermal limits. The strong differences observed between populations indicate that the species-level thermal tolerance used in predictive models may not be informative enough to study the impact of global warming on species distributions. This work also reveals that an appropriate choice of indicators is essential to study the consequences of global warming since the response of organisms at the whole body level can be influenced by local conditions.

Cottin, Delphine; Roussel, Damien; Foucreau, Natacha; Hervant, Frédéric; Piscart, Christophe

2012-04-01

326

Proteomic Investigation of Male Gammarus fossarum, a Freshwater Crustacean, in Response to Endocrine Disruptors.  

PubMed

While the decrease in human sperm count in response to pollutants is a worldwide concern, little attention is being devoted to its causes and occurrence in the biodiversity of the animal kingdom. Arthropoda is the most species-rich phyla, inhabiting all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. During evolution, key molecular players of the arthropod endocrine system have diverged from the vertebrate counterparts. Consequently, arthropods may have different sensitivities toward endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here alteration of sperm quality in a crustacean, Gammarus fossarum, a popular organism in freshwater risk assessment, was investigated after laboratory exposure to various concentrations of three different xenobiotics: cadmium, methoxyfenozide, and pyriproxyfen. The integrity of the reproductive process was assessed by means of sperm-quality markers. For each substance, semiquantitative/relative proteomics based on spectral counting procedure was carried out on male gonads to observe the biological impact. The changes in a total of 871 proteins were monitored in response to toxic pressure. A drastic effect was observed on spermatozoon production, with a dose-response relationship. While exposure to EDCs leads to strong modulations of male-specific proteins in testis, no induction of female-specific proteins was noted. Also, a significant portion of orphans proved to be sensitive to toxic stress. PMID:25363278

Trapp, Judith; Armengaud, Jean; Pible, Olivier; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Abbaci, Khedidja; Habtoul, Yassine; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier

2014-11-10

327

Resistance to a bacterial parasite in the crustacean Daphnia magna shows Mendelian segregation with dominance.  

PubMed

The influence of host and parasite genetic background on infection outcome is a topic of great interest because of its pertinence to theoretical issues in evolutionary biology. In the present study, we use a classical genetics approach to examine the mode of inheritance of infection outcome in the crustacean Daphnia magna when exposed to the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. In contrast to previous studies in this system, we use a clone of P. ramosa, not field isolates, which allows for a more definitive interpretation of results. We test parental, F1, F2, backcross and selfed parental clones (total 284 genotypes) for susceptibility against a clone of P. ramosa using two different methods, infection trials and the recently developed attachment test. We find that D. magna clones reliably exhibit either complete resistance or complete susceptibility to P. ramosa clone C1 and that resistance is dominant, and inherited in a pattern consistent with Mendelian segregation of a single-locus with two alleles. The finding of a single host locus controlling susceptibility to P. ramosa suggests that the previously observed genotype-genotype interactions in this system have a simple genetic basis. This has important implications for the outcome of host-parasite co-evolution. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that resistance to parasites in invertebrates is mostly coded by one or few loci with dominance. PMID:22167056

Luijckx, P; Fienberg, H; Duneau, D; Ebert, D

2012-05-01

328

Fitness and virulence of a bacterial endoparasite in an environmentally stressed crustacean host.  

PubMed

Host-parasite interactions are shaped by the co-evolutionary arms race of parasite virulence, transmission success as well as host resistance and recovery. The virulence and fitness of parasites may depend on host condition, which is mediated, for instance, by host energy constraints. Here, we investigated to what extent stress imposed by predation threat and environmental pollutants influences host-parasite interactions. We challenged the crustacean host Daphnia magna with the sterilizing bacterial endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa and simultaneously exposed the host to fish kairomones, the pesticide carbaryl or both stressors. While parasite virulence, measured as impact on host mortality and sterilization, increased markedly after short-term pesticide exposure, it was not influenced by predation threat. Parasite fitness, measured in terms of produced transmission stages, decreased both in fish and pesticide treatments. This effect was much stronger under predation threat than carbaryl exposure, and was attributable to reduced somatic growth of the host, presumably resulting in fewer resources for parasite development. While the indirect impact of both stressors on spore loads provides evidence for host condition-dependent parasite fitness, the finding of increased virulence only under carbaryl exposure indicates a stronger physiological impact of the neurotoxic chemical compared with the effect of a non-toxic fish kairomone. PMID:20663250

Coors, Anja; De Meester, Luc

2011-01-01

329

Resistance to a bacterial parasite in the crustacean Daphnia magna shows Mendelian segregation with dominance  

PubMed Central

The influence of host and parasite genetic background on infection outcome is a topic of great interest because of its pertinence to theoretical issues in evolutionary biology. In the present study, we use a classical genetics approach to examine the mode of inheritance of infection outcome in the crustacean Daphnia magna when exposed to the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. In contrast to previous studies in this system, we use a clone of P. ramosa, not field isolates, which allows for a more definitive interpretation of results. We test parental, F1, F2, backcross and selfed parental clones (total 284 genotypes) for susceptibility against a clone of P. ramosa using two different methods, infection trials and the recently developed attachment test. We find that D. magna clones reliably exhibit either complete resistance or complete susceptibility to P. ramosa clone C1 and that resistance is dominant, and inherited in a pattern consistent with Mendelian segregation of a single-locus with two alleles. The finding of a single host locus controlling susceptibility to P. ramosa suggests that the previously observed genotype–genotype interactions in this system have a simple genetic basis. This has important implications for the outcome of host–parasite co-evolution. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that resistance to parasites in invertebrates is mostly coded by one or few loci with dominance. PMID:22167056

Luijckx, P; Fienberg, H; Duneau, D; Ebert, D

2012-01-01

330

Mitogenomic phylogenetic analysis supports continental-scale vicariance in subterranean thalassoid crustaceans.  

PubMed

Many continental subterranean water crustaceans ("stygobionts") display extreme disjunct distributions, where different species in the same genus are isolated on continents or islands separated by broad oceanic expanses. Despite their freshwater habitat, most of these taxa appear to be most closely related to typical marine groups ("thalassoid" origin). Among the hadzioids-thalassoid amphipods including the stygobiont families Hadziidae, Pseudoniphargidae, and Metacrangonyctidae-several genera are restricted to inland groundwaters ranging from the Caribbean region to the Mediterranean and Middle East, including interspersed oceanic islands. This distribution might have arisen from Tethyan vicariance triggered by the sequential occlusion of the former Tethys Sea, a vast circumtropical ocean existing from the Middle Jurassic up to 20 million years ago (mya). Previous studies have been based on morphological analyses or limited DNA sequence data, making it difficult to test this hypothesis. We used complete mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences, mainly obtained by next-generation sequencing methods and a nuclear ribosomal gene to resolve the phylogeny and to establish a time frame for diversification of the family Metacrangonyctidae (Amphipoda). The results were consistent with the plate tectonics vicariance hypothesis, with major diversifications occurring between 96 and 83 mya. PMID:23063439

Bauzà-Ribot, Maria M; Juan, Carlos; Nardi, Francesco; Oromí, Pedro; Pons, Joan; Jaume, Damià

2012-11-01

331

The trophic importance of algal turfs for coral reef fishes: the crustacean link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On coral reefs, the epilithic algal matrix (EAM) is widely recognised as an important resource for herbivorous and detritivorous fishes. In comparison, little is known of the interaction between benthic carnivores and the EAM, despite the abundance of Crustacea within the EAM. The trophic importance of the EAM to fishes was investigated in Pioneer Bay, Orpheus Island, Great Barrier Reef. Fish densities were quantified using visual and clove oil censuses, and gut content analyses conducted on abundant fish species. Crustaceans were found to be an important dietary category, contributing between 49.5 and 100 % of the gut contents, with harpacticoid copepods being the dominant component. Of the benthic carnivores, the goby Eviota zebrina was found to consume the most harpacticoids with a mean of 249 copepods m-2 day-1. This represents approximately 0.1 % of the available harpacticoid population in the EAM. In a striking comparison, herbivorous parrotfishes were estimated to consume over 12,000 harpacticoids m-2 day-1, over 27 times more than all benthic carnivores surveyed, representing approximately 5.3 % of the available harpacticoid copepod population each day. The high consumption of harpacticoid copepods by benthic carnivores and parrotfishes indicates that harpacticoids form an important trophic link between the EAM and higher trophic levels on coral reefs.

Kramer, M. J.; Bellwood, O.; Bellwood, D. R.

2013-06-01

332

The identification and expression of achaete-scute genes in the branchiopod crustacean Triops longicaudatus.  

PubMed

The achaete-scute (ac/sc) genes are a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play important roles in the development of neural cells in both vertebrates and invertebrates. As such, the study of arthropod ac/sc gene expression during neurogenesis has become a model system for investigating the evolution of neural patterning. To date, ac/sc gene expression has been investigated in insects, chelicerates, and myriapods. Here we present the identification of two ac/sc genes from the branchiopod crustacean Triops longicaudatus. Triops longicaudatus achaete-scute homologs1 and 2 (Tl-ASH1 and Tl-ASH2) exhibit dynamic and distinct expression profiles during Triops neurogenesis. Tl-ASH1 expression initiates in nearly all cells of the neurogenic region and subsequently in clusters of cells evenly spaced along the length of the developing limbs. In contrast, Tl-ASH2 initiates expression after Tl-ASH1. In the CNS, only a subset of Tl-ASH1 cells appears to express Tl-ASH2. Similarly, in the PNS individual Tl-ASH2 positive cells appear to arise from the clusters of Tl-ASH1 expressing cells. Shortly after activating Tl-ASH2 expression, these cells enlarge and divide. The expression dynamics of ac/sc genes in Triops parallel those observed in insects and contrasts with those found in chelicerates and myriapods. PMID:15939382

Wheeler, Scott R; Skeath, James B

2005-06-01

333

Phylogenetic analysis of arthropods using two nuclear protein-encoding genes supports a crustacean + hexapod clade.  

PubMed Central

Recent phylogenetic analyses using molecular data suggest that hexapods are more closely related to crustaceans than to myriapods, a result that conflicts with long-held morphology-based hypotheses. Here we contribute additional information to this debate by conducting phylogenetic analyses on two nuclear protein-encoding genes, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) and the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), from an extensive sample of arthropod taxa. Results were obtained from two data sets. One data set comprised 1092 nucleotides (364 amino acids) of EF-1 alpha and 372 nucleotides (124 amino acids) of Pol II from 30 arthropods and three lobopods. The other data set contained the same EF-1 alpha fragment and an expanded 1038-nucleotide (346-amino-acid) sample of Pol II from 17 arthropod taxa. Results from maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses strongly supported the existence of a Crustacea + Hexapoda clade (Pancrustacea) over a Myriapoda + Hexapoda clade (Atelocerata). The apparent incompatibility between the molecule-based Pancrustacea hypothesis and morphology-based Atelocerata hypothesis is discussed. PMID:10874751

Shultz, J W; Regier, J C

2000-01-01

334

Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Cycle fun From water cycle Web Quest Links Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Resources Teacher Guide Introduction Luke Warm, a weather man, and you will help two baseball players understand why the big game might be rained out. You will explore the Water cycle and ...

Mrs. Terry

2009-04-03

335

Evaluation of the use of alfalfa diets as an alternative to feed deprivation for the induction of molt in commercial laying chickens  

E-print Network

EVALUATION OF THE USE OF ALFALFA DIETS AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO FEED DEPRIVATION FOR THE INDUCTION OF MOLT IN COMMERCIAL LAYING HENS A Dissertation by KRISTIN L. LANDERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... IN COMMERCIAL LAYING HENS A Dissertation by KRISTIN L. LANDERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by...

Landers, Kristin Lynn

2004-11-15

336

Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal size. The foregut clearance times for Cancer magister increased with increasing body size, while smaller Carcinus maenas cleared the hindgut region at a faster rate than larger individuals. Unlike fish there was no clear relationship between transit rates and any of the SDA characteristics. While the fluoroscopy method is useful for assessing foregut activity and food passage, it is limited when inferring connections between nutrient assimilation and post-absorptive processes in crustaceans. Therefore, at least with respect to meal size, transit rates do not make a good proxy for determining the SDA characteristics in crustaceans. PMID:23916818

McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

2013-11-01

337

Life cycle of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis.  

PubMed

The life cycle of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis was systematically investigated in vivo. The life cycle of females and males consisted of an egg, larva, protonymph, and a tritonymph that gave rise to an adult. Development from egg to adult required 10.06-13.16 days for the male and 9.93-13.03 days for the female. Egg incubation times were greater than 50.1 to less than 52.97 hr. Larval duration was between 3.22 and 4.20 days. The durations of protonymphal stages that were destined to become females and males were greater than 2.40 to less than 3.40 days and greater than 2.33 to less than 3.33 days, respectively. Tritonymphs destined to become females and males molted in greater than 2.22 to less than 3.22 days and greater than 2.42 to less than 3.42 days, respectively. During development, all life stages frequently left their burrows and wandered on the skin surface. PMID:3132547

Arlian, L G; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

1988-06-01

338

Accumulation of dioxins in deep-sea crustaceans, fish and sediments from a submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons are efficient pathways transporting sediments and associated pollutants to deep sea. The objective of this work was to provide with the first assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) levels and accumulation in deep-sea megafauna (crustacean and fish) and sediments in the Blanes submarine canyon (North-Western Mediterranean Sea). The influence of the selected species habitats (pelagic, nektobenthic, and benthic) and the trophic chain level on the accumulation of dioxins was also investigated. Bottom sediment and biota samples were collected at different depths and locations inside the canyon and in the adjacent slope outside the canyon influence. ?2,3,7,8-PCDD/F concentrations in sediments varied from 102 to 680 pg g-1 dry weight (d.w.) (1-6 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 d.w.). Dioxins are enriched in bottom sediments at higher depths inside the canyon and in particular in the deepest parts of the canyon axis (1700 m depth), whereas no enrichment of dioxins was verified at the deepest sediments from the adjacent open slope outside the canyon influence. The proportion of ?2,3,7,8-PCDF (furans) to ?2,3,7,8-PCDD (dioxins) increased for sediments with higher soot carbon content consistent with the higher affinity of PCDF for sorption onto soot carbon. Higher ?2,3,7,8-PCDD/F levels were found in crustaceans than in fish, ranging from 220 to 795 pg g-1 lipid weight (l.w.) (13-90 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 l.w.) and 110 to 300 pg g-1 l.w. (22-33 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 l.w.) in crustaceans and fish, respectively. Dioxin highest concentrations were found in nektobenthic organisms, i.e., benthic organism with swimming capabilities (both fish and crustaceans). These higher levels are consistent with the higher trophic level and predicted biomagnification factors (BMFs) of nektobenthic species. The reduced availability of sediment-bound PCDD/F for benthic species mainly due to soot and organic carbon sorption of these contaminants most probably influenced this result too. While biomagnification exerts a clear influence on the total dioxin concentrations in biota, life habits seem to exert an influence in the differential congener-specific accumulation of dioxins rather than in the total concentration. Thus, pelagic species reflected the estimated congener pattern from the surface water dissolved phase and phytoplankton, whereas the dioxin pattern in benthic and nektobenthic species was more similar to the estimated pattern in the deep-water dissolved phase and the sediment. The three crustacean species considered in this study bioaccumulated higher amounts of other dioxin congeners (non-2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) compared to fish. An interplay of several factors, such as biota habitats, differential uptake of water column dioxin (dissolved and particle-bound fractions), and different metabolization capabilities and rates (CYP-mediated metabolism) may explain the differences observed in dioxin patterns among crustacean species and between fish and crustaceans in the Blanes submarine canyon.

Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Rotllant, Guiomar; Ábalos, Manuela; Parera, Jordi; Dachs, Jordi; Company, Joan B.; Calafat, Antoni; Abad, Esteban

2013-11-01

339

Replacement of a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase by a novel cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase in crustaceans that use copper (haemocyanin) for oxygen transport.  

PubMed Central

The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, which uses the copper-dependent protein haemocyanin for oxygen transport, lacks the ubiquitous cytosolic copper-dependent enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) as evidenced by undetectable levels of Cu,ZnSOD activity, protein and mRNA in the hepatopancreas (the site of haemocyanin synthesis) and gills. Instead, the crab has an unusual cytosolic manganese SOD (cytMnSOD), which is retained in the cytosol, because it lacks a mitochondrial transit peptide. A second familiar MnSOD is present in the mitochondria (mtMnSOD). This unique phenomenon occurs in all Crustacea that use haemocyanin for oxygen transport. Molecular phylogeny analysis suggests the MnSOD gene duplication is as old as the origin of the arthropod phylum. cytMnSOD activity in the hepatopancreas changes during the moulting cycle of the crab. Activity is high in intermoult crabs and non-detectable in postmoult papershell crabs. mtMnSOD is present in all stages of the moulting cycle. Despite the lack of cytCu,ZnSOD, crabs have an extracellular Cu,ZnSOD (ecCu,ZnSOD) that is produced by haemocytes, and is part of a large, approx. 160 kDa, covalently-linked protein complex. ecCu,ZnSOD is absent from the hepatopancreas of intermoult crabs, but appears in this tissue at premoult. However, no ecCu,ZnSOD mRNA can be detected, suggesting that the protein is recruited from the haemolymph. Screening of different taxa of the arthropod phylum for Cu,ZnSOD activity shows that those crustaceans that use haemoglobin for oxygen transport have retained cytCu,ZnSOD. It appears, therefore, that the replacement of cytCu,ZnSOD with cytMnSOD is part of an adaptive response to the dynamic, haemocyanin-linked, fluctuations in copper metabolism that occur during the moulting cycle of the crab. PMID:12769817

Brouwer, Marius; Hoexum Brouwer, Thea; Grater, Walter; Brown-Peterson, Nancy

2003-01-01

340

Bromelain proteinases modulate the cd44 expression on human molt-4/8 leukemia and sk-mel-28 melanoma-cells in-vitro.  

PubMed

CD44 cell surface proteins are involved in leukocyte binding to endothelium and the metastatic spread of tumor cells. Using flow cytometric analysis (FCMA), we investigated the effects of the proteases bromelain, papain, trypsin, and chymotrypsin on the density of CD44 molecules present on human leukemia Molt 4/8 cells. Bromelain was found to be most active in reducing CD44 receptor density. In addition, the effects of the purified bromelain proteinases F4 and F9 were investigated. On Molt 4/8 cells crude bromelain and F9, with the highest proteolytical activity, were found to be most active in reducing CD44 receptor density with a half maximal value of 1.9 mu g/ml and 2.3 mu g/ml, respectively. On human SK-Mel 28 melanoma cells especially F9 showed a strong effect, with a half maximal value of 1.5 mu g/ml. The implications of the findings are discussed with view of the reported antimetastatic activity of orally administrated bromelain with respect to CD44. PMID:21559602

Harrach, T; Gebauer, F; Eckert, K; Kunze, R; Maurer, H

1994-09-01

341

Advances in recording scattered light changes in crustacean nerve with electrical activation  

SciTech Connect

We investigated optical changes associated with crustacean nerve stimulation using birefringent and large angle scattered light. Improved detection schemes disclosed high temporal structure of the optical signals and allowed further investigations of biophysical mechanisms responsible for such changes. Most studies of physiological activity in neuronal tissue use techniques that measure the electrical behavior or ionic permeability of the nerve, such as voltage or ion sensitive dyes injected into cells, or invasive electric recording apparatus. While these techniques provide high resolution, they are detrimental to tissue and do not easily lend themselves to clinical applications in humans. Electrical and chemical components of neural excitation evoke physical responses observed through changes in scattered and absorbed light. This method is suited for in-vivo applications. Intrinsic optical changes have shown themselves to be multifaceted in nature and point to several different physiological processes that occur with different time courses during neural excitation. Fast changes occur concomitantly with electrical events, and slow changes parallel metabolic events including changes in blood flow and oxygenation. Previous experiments with isolated crustacean nerves have been used to study the biophysical mechanisms of fast optical changes. However, they have been confounded by multiple superimposed action potentials which make it difficult to discriminate the temporal signatures of individual optical responses. Often many averages were needed to adequately resolve the signal. More recently, optical signals have been observed in single trials. Initially large angle scattering measurements were used to record these events with much of the signal coming from cellular swelling associated with water influx during activation. By exploiting the birefringent properties derived from the molecular stiucture of nerve membranes, signals appear larger with a greater contrast, but direct comparison of birefringent and 90{sup o} scattering signals has not been reported. New developments in computer and optical technology allow optical recording with higher temporal resolution than could be achieved previously. This has led us to undertake more detailed studies of the biophysical mechanisms underlying these transient changes. Optimization of this technology in conjunction with other technical developments presents a path to noninvasive dynamic clinical observation of optical responses. To conduct these optical recordings, we placed dissected leg, claw and ventral cord nerves from crayfish and lobster in a recording chamber constructed from black Delrin. The chamber consisted of several wells situated perpendicularly to the long axis of the nerve that could beelectrically isolated for stimulating and recording electrical activation, and a window in the center for optical measurements. To measure the birefringence from the nerve, light from a 120W halogen bulb was focused onto the nerve from below the window through a 10X microscope objective and polarized at a 45 degree angle with respect to the long axis of the nerve bundle. A second polarizer turned 90 degrees with respect to the first polarizer was placed on top of the chamber and excluded direct source illumination, passing only birefringent light from the nerve. A large area photodiode placed directly on top of the polarizer detected the magnitude of the birefringent light. To measure light scattered 90 degrees by the nerve, a short length of image conduit placed perpendicularly to the nerve directed large angle scattered light from the nerve to a second photodiode. The output of each photodiode was amplified by a first stage amplifier which produced a DC level output, and was coupled to an AC amplifier (0.3 Hz High Pass) with a gain of 1000 to optimally record changes across time.

Carter, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Rector, D. M. (David M.); Martinez, A. T. (Anne T.); Guerra, F. M. (Francisco M.); George, J. S. (John S.)

2002-01-01

342

Comparative cation dependency of sugar transport by crustacean hepatopancreas and intestine.  

PubMed

Glucose is transported in crustacean hepatopancreas and intestine by Na(+)-dependent co-transport, while Na(+)-dependent D-fructose influx has only been described for the hepatopancreas. It is still unclear if the two sugars are independently transported by two distinct cation-dependent co-transporter carrier systems. In this study, lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were used to characterize, in detail, the cation-dependency of both D-[(3)H]-glucose and D-[(3)H]-fructose influxes, while in vitro perfused intestines were employed to determine the nature of cation-dependent sugar transport across this organ. Over the sodium concentration range of 0-100?mM, both [(3)H]-glucose and [(3)H]-fructose influxes (0.1?mM; 1?min uptakes) by hepatopancreatic BBMV were hyperbolic functions of [Na(+)]. [(3)H]-glucose and [(3)H]-fructose influxes by hepatopancreatic BBMV over a potassium concentration range of 15-100?mM were hyperbolic functions of [K(+)]. Both sugars displayed significant (p<0.01) Na(+)/K(+)-dependent and cation-independent uptake processes. Transepithelial 25?µM [(3)H]-glucose and [(3)H]-fructose fluxes across lobster intestine over luminal sodium and potassium concentration ranges of 0-50?mM and 5-100?mM, respectively, were hyperbolic functions of luminal [Na(+)] and [K(+)]. As with hepatopancreatic sugar transport, transepithelial intestinal sugar transport exhibited both significant (p<0.01) Na(+)/K(+)-dependent and cation-independent processes. Results suggest that both D-glucose and D-fructose are transported by a single SGLT-type carrier in each organ with sodium being the "preferred", high affinity, cation for both sugars in the hepatopancreas, and potassium being the "preferred", high affinity, cation for both sugars in the intestine. PMID:24950971

Duka, Ada; Ahearn, Gregory A

2014-01-01

343

Comparative phylogeography of two marine species of crustacean: Recent divergence and expansion due to environmental changes.  

PubMed

Environmental changes, such as changes in the coastal topography due to Eurasian plate movements, climate oscillation during the Pleistocene, and alteration of ocean currents, have complicated the geographical structure of marine species and deepened their divergence between populations. As two widely distributed species of crustacean (Oratosquilla oratoria and Eriocheir japonica), weak differences were expected due to their high dispersal potential of planktonic larvae with ocean currents. However, results showed a significant genetic divergence between north of China and south of China in the study. In addition, the estimated north-south divergence time (27-30.5 Myr) of mantis shrimp was near the time of the Himalayan movement, and the China-Japan clade divergence time (10.5-11.9 Myr) of mitten crabs was also coincident with the time of the opening of the Sea of Japan. Thus, we hypothesized that environmental changes in the coastal topography contributed to the marine species divergence. Furthermore, based on phylogenetic analysis, network analysis and haplotype distribution, we surmised that mitten crabs originated from a population with the oldest haplotype (H6) and then divided into the north and south populations due to the recent Eurasian plate movements and ocean currents. And lineage of Japan originated from the north population for the opening of the Sea of Japan. While O. oratoria was guessed to originate from two separate populations in the China Sea. The results of "star-like" network, negative values in neutral test, and Tajima's D statistics of two marine species supported a recent rapid population expansion event after the Pleistocene glaciations. PMID:25106858

Zhang, Daizhen; Ding, Ge; Ge, Baoming; Zhang, Huabin; Tang, Boping; Yang, Guang

2014-10-15

344

Seasonal bathymetric migrations of deep-sea fishes and decapod crustaceans in the NW Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variations in the photophase length seem to drive migrations of marine animals, a phenomenon still largely unknown in deep-sea fishes and decapod crustaceans. Here, we report depth-oriented migrations of species living in the continental slope of the NW Mediterranean after repeated trawl sampling between 900 and 1500 m depths in four seasons. To understand the variations in the catchability of animals as a function of water depth, we analysed the relationship between population depth shifts and environmental factors by performing a multiparametric habitat monitoring at sea surface (PAR), in the water column (temperature and salinity), and on the seabed (organic matter flux and total mass flux). Significant connections are studied by NMDS and GAM analyses. Bathymetric changes in most targeted species are identified from winter, when distribution was the deepest, to spring and summer, and finally autumn, when the shallowest distribution was observed prior to a sudden bathymetric retreat. The analysis of size-class frequency distributions (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) discards an effect of the juvenile recruitment on these bathymetric changes. Which environmental factor imparts seasonality to these depth-oriented migrations has not yet been clarified. A strong connection is found with water temperature and salinity, associated to flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW). The studied depth range was affected by seasonal fluctuations of both water masses and the interphase amongst them. LIW showed a stronger seasonal pattern, getting warmer, saltier in autumn and fresher in winter. The migration of most species towards shallower depths in spring, summer and autumn, and the sudden migration to deeper grounds in winter could therefore be related to changes in LIW temperature and salinity.

Aguzzi, J.; Company, J. B.; Bahamon, N.; Flexas, M. M.; Tecchio, S.; Fernandez-Arcaya, U.; García, J. A.; Mechó, A.; Koenig, S.; Canals, M.

2013-11-01

345

Acute toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to sensitive freshwater insects, mollusks, and a crustacean.  

PubMed

Both point- and nonpoint-sources of pollution have contributed to increased inorganic nitrogen concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Although numerous studies have investigated the toxic effects of ammonia on freshwater species, relatively little work has been performed to characterize the acute toxicity of the other two common inorganic nitrogen species: nitrate and nitrite. In particular, to our knowledge, no published data exist on the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to North American freshwater bivalves (Mollusca) or stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera). We conducted acute (96-h) nitrate and nitrite toxicity tests with two stonefly species (Allocapnia vivipara and Amphinemura delosa), an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), two freshwater unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea and Megalonaias nervosa), a fingernail clam (Sphaerium simile), and a pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Overall, we did not observe a particularly wide degree of variation in sensitivity to nitrate, with median lethal concentrations ranging from 357 to 937 mg NO(3)-N/l; furthermore, no particular taxonomic group appeared to be more sensitive to nitrate than any other. In our nitrite tests, the two stoneflies tested were by far the most sensitive, and the three mollusks tested were the least sensitive. In contrast to what was observed in the nitrate tests, variation among species in sensitivity to nitrite spanned two orders of magnitude. Examination of the updated nitrite database, including previously published data, clearly showed that insects tended to be more sensitive than crustaceans, which were in turn more sensitive than mollusks. Although the toxic mechanism of nitrite is generally thought to be the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments into forms that cannot carry oxygen, our observed trend in sensitivity of broad taxonomic groups, along with information on respiratory pigments in those groups, suggests that some other yet unknown mechanism may be even more important. PMID:21877224

Soucek, D J; Dickinson, A

2012-02-01

346

Genome anatomy of the gastrointestinal pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus of crustacean origin  

PubMed Central

Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an important human pathogen, is associated with gastroenteritis and transmitted through partially cooked seafood. It has become a major concern in the production and trade of marine food products. The prevalence of potentially virulent and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in raw seafood is of public health significance. Here we describe the genome sequence of a V. parahaemolyticus isolate of crustacean origin which was cultured from prawns in 2008 in Selangor, Malaysia (isolate PCV08-7). The next generation sequencing and analysis revealed that the genome of isolate PCV08-7 has closest similarity to that of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633. However, there are certain unique features of the PCV08-7 genome such as the absence of TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), and the presence of HU-alpha insertion. The genome of isolate PCV08-7 encodes a thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), an important virulence factor that classifies PCV08-7 isolate to be a serovariant of O3:K6 strain. Apart from these, we observed that there is certain pattern of genetic rearrangements that makes V. parahaemolyticus PCV08-7 a non-pandemic clone. We present detailed genome statistics and important genetic features of this bacterium and discuss how its survival, adaptation and virulence in marine and terrestrial hosts can be understood through the genomic blueprint and that the availability of genome sequence entailing this important Malaysian isolate would likely enhance our understanding of the epidemiology, evolution and transmission of foodborne Vibrios in Malaysia and elsewhere. PMID:24330647

2013-01-01

347

Simultaneous Sampling of Flow and Odorants by Crustaceans can Aid Searches within a Turbulent Plume  

PubMed Central

Crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and crayfish use dispersing odorant molecules to determine the location of predators, prey, potential mates and habitat. Odorant molecules diffuse in turbulent flows and are sensed by the olfactory organs of these animals, often using a flicking motion of their antennules. These antennules contain both chemosensory and mechanosensory sensilla, which enable them to detect both flow and odorants during a flick. To determine how simultaneous flow and odorant sampling can aid in search behavior, a 3-dimensional numerical model for the near-bed flow environment was created. A stream of odorant concentration was released into the flow creating a turbulent plume, and both temporally and spatially fluctuating velocity and odorant concentration were quantified. The plume characteristics show close resemblance to experimental measurements within a large laboratory flume. Results show that mean odorant concentration and it's intermittency, computed as dc/dt, increase towards the plume source, but the temporal and spatial rate of this increase is slow and suggests that long measurement times would be necessary to be useful for chemosensory guidance. Odorant fluxes measured transverse to the mean flow direction, quantified as the product of the instantaneous fluctuation in concentration and velocity, v?c?, do show statistically distinct magnitude and directional information on either side of a plume centerline over integration times of <0.5 s. Aquatic animals typically have neural responses to odorant and velocity fields at rates between 50 and 500 ms, suggesting this simultaneous sampling of both flow and concentration in a turbulent plume can aid in source tracking on timescales relevant to aquatic animals. PMID:24300599

Pravin, Swapnil; Reidenbach, Matthew A.

2013-01-01

348

A new view of insect-crustacean relationships I. Inferences from neural cladistics and comparative neuroanatomy.  

PubMed

Traditional hypotheses regarding the relationships of the major arthropod lineages focus on suites of comparable characters, often those that address features of the exoskeleton. However, because of the enormous morphological variety among arthropods, external characters may lead to ambiguities of interpretation and definition, particularly when species have undergone evolutionary simplification and reversal. Here we present the results of a cladistic analysis using morphological characters associated with brains and central nervous systems, based on the evidence that cerebral organization is generally robust over geological time. Well-resolved, strongly supported phylogenies were obtained from a neuromorphological character set representing a variety of discrete neuroanatomical traits. Phylogenetic hypotheses from this analysis support many accepted relationships, including monophyletic Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda, paraphyletic Crustacea and the union of Hexapoda and Crustacea (Tetraconata). They also support Mandibulata (Myriapoda + Tetraconata). One problematic result, which can be explained by symplesiomorphies that are likely to have evolved in deep time, is the inability to resolve Onychophora as a taxon distinct from Arthropoda. Crucially, neuronal cladistics supports the heterodox conclusion that both Hexapoda and Malacostraca are derived from a common ancestor that possessed a suite of discrete neural centers comprising an elaborate brain. Remipedes and copepods, both resolved as basal to Branchiopoda share a neural ground pattern with Malacostraca. These findings distinguish Hexapoda (Insecta) from Branchiopoda, which is the sister group of the clade Malacostraca + Hexapoda. The present study resolves branchiopod crustaceans as descendents of an ancestor with a complex brain, which means that they have evolved secondary simplification and the loss or reduction of numerous neural systems. PMID:21333750

Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Andrew, David R

2011-05-01

349

Nucleic Acid Content in Crustacean Zooplankton: Bridging Metabolic and Stoichiometric Predictions  

PubMed Central

Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although ‘fast-growth’ cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to ‘slow-growth’ copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories. PMID:24466118

Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

2014-01-01

350

Islands beneath islands: phylogeography of a groundwater amphipod crustacean in the Balearic archipelago  

PubMed Central

Background Metacrangonyctidae (Amphipoda, Crustacea) is an enigmatic continental subterranean water family of marine origin (thalassoid). One of the species in the genus, Metacrangonyx longipes, is endemic to the Balearic islands of Mallorca and Menorca (W Mediterranean). It has been suggested that the origin and distribution of thalassoid crustaceans could be explained by one of two alternative hypotheses: (1) active colonization of inland freshwater aquifers by a marine ancestor, followed by an adaptative shift; or (2) passive colonization by stranding of ancestral marine populations in coastal aquifers during marine regressions. A comparison of phylogenies, phylogeographic patterns and age estimations of clades should discriminate in favour of one of these two proposals. Results Phylogenetic relationships within M. longipes based on three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and one nuclear marker revealed five genetically divergent and geographically structured clades. Analyses of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mtDNA data showed the occurrence of a high geographic population subdivision in both islands, with current gene flow occurring exclusively between sites located in close proximity. Molecular-clock estimations dated the origin of M. longipes previous to about 6 Ma, whereas major cladogenetic events within the species took place between 4.2 and 2.0 Ma. Conclusions M. longipes displayed a surprisingly old and highly fragmented population structure, with major episodes of cladogenesis within the species roughly correlating with some of the major marine transgression-regression episodes that affected the region during the last 6 Ma. Eustatic changes (vicariant events) -not active range expansion of marine littoral ancestors colonizing desalinated habitats-explain the phylogeographic pattern observed in M. longipes. PMID:21791038

2011-01-01

351

Environmental hypoxia influences hemoglobin subunit composition in the branchiopod crustacean Triops longicaudatus.  

PubMed

Hemoglobin (Hb) is a highly conserved protein that provides a vital link between environmental oxygen and its use and/or storage within an organism. While ubiquitous among vertebrates, Hb occurs frequently in invertebrate phyla as well. Many arthropod species use the copper-binding pigment hemocyanin, but unique in this phylum are the branchiopod crustaceans, which express Hb. Branchiopod Hb concentration and structure are exquisitely sensitive to environmental oxygen availability. Hemoglobin concentration and oxygen-binding affinity increase with decreasing oxygen tension in Daphnia, Artemia and Triops. The change in binding affinity is attributed to differential Hb subunit expression in Daphnia and Artemia but remains unclear for Triops. This is the first study to demonstrate developmental plasticity of Hb subunit expression in a notostracan, Triops longicaudatus, reared under conditions of varying oxygen availability. In response to variable oxygen environments, T. longicaudatus differentially express four primary Hb subunits ranging between 30 and 34 kDa, with normoxic-reared animals expressing primarily the heavier subunits, and hypoxic-reared animals expressing increased proportions of the lower molecular mass subunits. Moreover, differential Hb subunit expression is induced upon transfer of normoxic-reared adults to a hypoxic environment, such that the distribution of Hb subunits in the transferred adults becomes similar to that of hypoxic-reared animals. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and follow-up analyses revealed several isoforms of Hb subunits that may represent differential gene expression and/or post-translational modification. Unlike Daphnia and Artemia, the Hb hypoxic response in Triops is not reversible in that there was no significant decrease in Hb concentration or change in Hb subunit expression pattern when hypoxic-reared adults were transferred to a normoxic environment. PMID:16155226

Guadagnoli, J A; Braun, A M; Roberts, S P; Reiber, C L

2005-09-01

352

The role of wingless in the development of multibranched crustacean limbs.  

PubMed

Arthropods are the most diverse and speciose group of organisms on earth. A key feature in their successful radiation is the ease with which various appendages become readily adapted to new functions in novel environments. Arthropod limbs differ radically in form and function, from unbranched walking legs to multibranched swimming paddles. To uncover the developmental and genetic mechanisms underlying this diversification in form, we ask whether a three-signal model of limb growth based on Drosophila experiments is used in the development of arthropod limbs with variant shape. We cloned a Wnt-1 ortholog (Tlwnt-1) from Triops longicaudatus, a basal crustacean with a multibranched limb. We examined the mRNA in situ hybridization pattern during larval development to determine whether changes in wg expression are correlated with innovation in limb form. During larval growth and segmentation Tlwnt-1 is expressed in a segmentally reiterated pattern in the trunk. Unexpectedly, this pattern is restricted to the ventral portion of the epidermis. During early limb formation the single continuous stripe of Tlwnt-1 expression in each segment becomes ventrolaterally restricted into a series of shorter stripes. Some but not all of these shorter stripes correspond to what becomes the ventral side of a developing limb branch. We conclude that the Drosophila model of limb development cannot explain all types of arthropod proximodistal outgrowths, and that the multibranched limb of Triops develops from an early reorganization of the ventral body wall. In Triops, Tlwnt-1 plays a semiconservative role similar to that played by Drosophila wingless in segmentation and limb formation, and morphological innovation in limb form arises in part through an early modulation in the expression of the Tlwnt-1 gene. PMID:10370115

Nulsen, C; Nagy, L M

1999-06-01

353

carbon cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Life on earth is based on carbon. Living things acquire carbon from their environment - from air, water, soil, and rock and from other living things - through processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and decomposition. The carbon cycle model is a representation of the movement of carbon from sources to sinks through chemical and physical transfers. The carbon cycle activity allows students to see the effect of fossil fuel burning on the carbon cycle.

Maryland Virtual High School

354

Cell cycle perturbations and apoptosis induced by isohomohalichondrin B (IHB), a natural marine compound  

PubMed Central

Isohomohalichondrin B (IHB), a novel marine compound with anti-tumoral activity, extracted from the Lissodendorix sponge, inhibits GTP binding to tubulin, preventing microtubule assembly. Cell cycle perturbations and apoptosis induced by IHB were investigated on selected human cancer cell lines by using flow cytometric and biochemical techniques. Monoparameter flow cytometric analysis showed that 1 h IHB exposure caused a delayed progression through S-phase, a dramatic block in G2M phase of the cell cycle and the appearance of tetraploid cell population in LoVo, LoVo/DX, MOLT-4 and K562 cells. At 24 h after IHB exposure, the majority of cells blocked in G2M were in prophase as assessed by morphological analysis and by the fact that they expressed high levels of cyclin A/cdc2 and cyclin B1/cdc2. At 48 h, all cells were tetraploid as assessed by biparameter cyclin A/DNA and cyclin B1/DNA content analysis. Apoptotic death was detected in both leukaemic MOLT-4 and K562 cells, which express wild-type and mutated p53 respectively, when the cells were blocked in mitotic prophase. In conclusion, IHB is a novel potent anti-tumour drug that causes delayed S-phase progression, mitotic block, tetraploidy and apoptosis in cancer cell lines. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:9888468

Bergamaschi, D; Ronzoni, S; Taverna, S; Faretta, M; Feudis, P De; Faircloth, G; Jimeno, J; Erba, E; D'Incalci, M

1999-01-01

355

Effects of temperature on photoperiodically induced reproductive development, circulating plasma luteinizing hormone and thyroid hormones, body mass, fat deposition and molt in mountain white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha.  

PubMed

The mountain white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha, breeds in subalpine meadows throughout many mountainous regions of western North America. Mathematical analysis of 20 years of egg-laying dates at Tioga Pass, California (3030m elevation) indicated a highly predictable breeding season suggesting that precise environmental cues such as the annual change in day length were important for regulating reproductive function. Additionally, it appeared that there was sufficient yearly variation in the timing of breeding to suggest that other environmental cues may also be important for regulating adjustments in reproductive development and regression. Captive populations of Z. l. oriantha showed strong responses in gonadal development following transfer to longs days (15L 9D) and low temperature (5 degrees C) slowed down photoperiodically induced gonadal growth and subsequent regression, in both males and females. High temperature of 30 degrees C tended to accelerate gonadal development and regression whereas gonadal development was intermediate in a group exposed to 20 degrees C. Prior exposure to these temperature regimes while on short days (9L 15D) had no effect on body mass, fat, or plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid hormones. Curiously there was no effect of temperature on photoperiodically induced rises in LH in either sex despite marked effects on gonadal growth. Brood patch development was also enhanced in females exposed to 30 degrees C. Corticosterone levels measured in a subset of plasma samples from this experiment indicated no effect of temperature suggesting that the retarded gonadal development at 5 degrees C was not a result of thermal stress. Although there was a robust effect of photostimulation on thyroid hormone levels in blood of both sexes, temperature treatment had no effect on tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentrations. However, plasma levels of thyroxine (T4) were lower initially at 5 degrees C versus 20 and 30 degrees C treatments. This may be related to the protracted gonadal cycle at 5 degrees C versus the truncated gonadal cycle at 30 degrees C. Molt score, an indication of post-reproductive state and onset of photorefractoriness, was delayed in birds exposed to 5 degrees C. Body mass, and to a lesser extent fat score, tended to be lowest in birds exposed to 5 degrees C compared with those at 20 and 30 degrees C. These results demonstrate that ambient temperature significantly affected photoperiodically induced gonadal development and regression in these birds. The endocrine mechanisms underlying these effects require further study. PMID:12679091

Wingfield, John C; Hahn, Thomas P; Maney, Donna L; Schoech, Stephan J; Wada, Masaru; Morton, Martin L

2003-04-01

356

Direct evidence for the function of crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG): total chemical synthesis of IAG.  

PubMed

Insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) is presumed to be a sex differentiation factor so-called androgenic gland hormone (AGH) in decapod crustacean, although the function of IAG peptide has not yet been reported. In this study, we synthesized IAG from the prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, and its function was assessed by an in vitro bioassay. As a result, IAG with the insulin-type disulfide bond arrangement showed biological activity, whereas its disulfide isomer did not. These results strongly suggest that the native IAG peptide has an insulin-type disulfide, and it is the decapod AGH. PMID:25270404

Katayama, Hidekazu; Kubota, Nozomi; Hojo, Hironobu; Okada, Ayumi; Kotaka, Sayaka; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Ohira, Tsuyoshi

2014-11-01

357

3H-L-leucine transport by the promiscuous crustacean dipeptide-like cotransporter.  

PubMed

The crustacean intestine and hepatopancreas display a variety of solute transport mechanisms for transmembrane transfer of dietary contents from lumen to epithelial cytosol. An in vitro intestinal perfusion apparatus was used to characterize mucosal to serosoal (MS) and serosal to mucosal (SM) Zn(2+) -dependent (3)H-L-leucine transport by the intestine of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Transmural 20?µM MS (3)H-L-leucine fluxes across lobster intestine were a hyperbolic function of luminal zinc concentration (1-50?µM) following Michaelis-Menten kinetics (K(m) = 2.67 ± 0.74?µM; J(max) = 19.56 ± 2.22?pmol/cm(2) ×min). Transmural 20?µM SM (3)H-L-leucine fluxes were not affected by serosal zinc, resulting in a highly significant stimulation of net amino acid transfer to the blood by luminal metal. MS fluxes of 20?µM (3)H-L-leucine were also hyperbolic functions of luminal [Cu(2+)], [Mn(2+)], [Na(+)], and [H(+)]. MS flux of (3)H-L-leucine was a sigmoidal function of luminal [L-leucine] and was stimulated by the addition of 20?µM luminal zinc at both pH 7.0 and 5.5. A greater enhanced amino acid transport occurred at the lower pH 5.5. MS flux of 20?µM (3)H-L-leucine in the presence of 20?µM zinc was significantly inhibited by addition of 100?µM luminal glycylsarcosine, and MS flux of 20?µM (3)H-glycylsarcosine was inhibited by 100?µM L-leucine in the presence of 20?µM zinc. Results suggest that (3)H-L-leucine and metals form a complex (e.g., Leu-Zn-Leu] that may functionally mimic dipeptides and use a dipeptide-like transporter during MS fluxes as suggested for fish and mammals. PMID:21732547

Obi, I; Wells, A L; Ortega, P; Patel, D; Farah, L; Zanotto, F P; Ahearn, G A

2011-10-01

358

Menstrual Cycle  

MedlinePLUS

... to the lining of the uterus. If the egg is not fertilized, hormone levels will drop around Day 25 . This signals the next menstrual cycle to begin. The egg will break apart and be shed with the ...

359

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from Moorland School in England, describes the rock cycle. Topics briefly discussed include rock formation, erosion, transportation, and deposition, plus various types of rocks. The page is directed towards a middle-school audience.

Moorland School

360

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rock Cycle SciPack explores different kinds and categories of rocks, the major processes through which they form and the cyclical nature of the formation and transformation of rock materials. The focus is on topics supporting Standards and Benchmarks related to the rock cycle as part of the transfer and transformation of matter and energy in Earth's system as well as a sense of the time scales involved and how rocks provide information about their own development and the history of Earth.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Rock Cycle: Categories by Process? List the three different types of rock. ? Make appropriate observations about rocks (e.g. describe rock composition and texture).? Make appropriate observations about the general environments in which the rocks formed.Rock Cycle: Environments of Formation? Realize that different rocks have specific origins, and that they are the product of any number of processes.? Identify the processes through which igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock form.? Explain the role of intermediary materials such as sediment and magma in the formation of different kinds of rock.? Provide an overarching description of the steps in the rock cycle, the formation of sedimentary rock, the re-forming of rock by heat and pressure, and the process by which re-formed rock can return to the surface.Rock Cycle: Cycling? Recognize the formation and transformation processes as part of a continuing cycle.? Identify that while the form and location of different rocks change over time, the amount of material and the distribution among the elements remains constant.? Explain the different processes or paths that each type of rock may take in the rock cycle.Rock Cycle: Earth's Autobiography? State the amount of time over which the rock cycle has been in operation (4 billion years rather than 40 million or 400 million).? Recognize that the processes at work in the present are the same as those at work in the distant past.? Describe how rock formations and characteristics can be used to determine how different rock formed, making appropriate interpretations about the source of the rock, history and processes, and the environment of formation.? Describe how rocks provide a history of the changing surface of Earth and its lifeforms.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-21

361

Silencing of Molt-Regulating Transcription Factor Gene, CiHR3, Affects Growth and Development of Sugarcane Stem Borer, Chilo infuscatellus  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus. PMID:23427912

Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin

2012-01-01

362

Silencing of molt-regulating transcription factor gene, CiHR3, affects growth and development of sugarcane stem borer, Chilo infuscatellus.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) is a technology for conducting functional genomic studies and a potential tool for crop protection against insect pests. Development of reliable methods for production and delivery of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the major challenge for efficient pest control. In this study, Chilo infuscatellus Snellen (Crambidae: Lepidoptera) was fed with CiHR3 dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The dsRNA ingested by C. infuscatellus successfully triggered silencing of the molt-regulating transcription factor CiHR3, an important gene for insect growth and development, and caused significant abnormalities and weight loss in insects within seven days of treatment. This study is an ideal example of feeding-based RNAi mediated by dsRNA expressed in bacteria or synthesized in vitro. The results also suggested that feeding-based RNA interference is a potential method for the management of C. infuscatellus. PMID:23427912

Zhang, Yu-liang; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Kulye, Mahesh; Wu, Su-ran; Yu, Nai-tong; Wang, Jian-hua; Zeng, Hong-mei; Liu, Zhi-xin

2012-01-01

363

Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D)  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 49 NIST Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D) (PC database for purchase)   The CYCLE_D database package simulates the vapor compression refrigeration cycles. It is fully compatible with REFPROP 9.0 and covers the 62 single-compound refrigerants . Fluids can be used in mixtures comprising up to five components.

364

Ontogeny of the ventral nerve cord in malacostracan crustaceans: a common plan for neuronal development in Crustacea, Hexapoda and other Arthropoda?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review sets out to summarize our current knowledge on the structural layout of the embryonic ventral nerve cord in decapod crustaceans and its development from stem cell to the mature structure. In Decapoda, neuronal stem cells, the neuroblasts, mostly originate from ectodermal stem cells, the ectoteloblast, via a defined lineage. The neuroblasts undergo repeated asymmetric division and generate ganglion

Steffen Harzsch

2003-01-01

365

Muscular and hepatic pollution biomarkers in the fishes Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the crustacean Aristeus antennatus in the Blanes Submarine Canyon (NW Mediterranean).  

PubMed

Submarine canyons are regarded as a sink for pollutants. In order to determine if this theory applied to deep-sea species from an important fishing ground (the Blanes submarine canyon) located in the NW Mediterranean, we sampled the commercial fish Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the crustacean Aristeus antennatus. Specimens were sampled inside and outside (in the open continental slope) the submarine canyon; both are regarded as potentially affected by exposure to different anthropogenic chemicals. Several pollution biomarkers in muscle (activity of cholinesterases) and liver/hepatopancreas (catalase, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase in fish or mixed function oxygenase (MFO)-related reductases in crustacean, and lipid peroxidation levels) were measured. Chemical analysis of the persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was also performed on the fish and crustacean muscle. Biomarker activities and levels were discussed in relation to pollutant exposure, habitat, and parameters including sex, size, and species. Biochemical responses and chemical analysis of PCBs evidenced interspecies differences as well as sex and size-related ones, mainly in A. antennatus. An indication of higher exposure to pollutants inside the canyon was observed, which was more clearly reflected in the fish than in the crustacean. However, further research is required to confirm this observation. PMID:18941829

Solé, Montserrat; Hambach, Bastian; Cortijo, Verónica; Huertas, David; Fernández, Pilar; Company, Joan B

2009-07-01

366

Cycle Route  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're an avid cyclist or just a neophyte, you'll find this rather unique app most useful. Cycle Route can assist those with a passion for cycling plan out their route based on topography, elevation, main roads, and a range of other variables. Visitors just need to enter their origin and destination and they will be all set. The app returns a range of routes that users can take advantage of and there's also a mobile version as well. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2013-11-07

367

Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory introduces students to the current scientific understanding of the greenhouse effect and the carbon cycle. The activity leads them through several interactive tasks investigating recent trends in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Students analyze scientific data and use scientific reasoning to determine the causes responsible for these recent trends. By studying carbon cycle science in a visual and interactive manner, the activity provides students with a conceptual framework with which to address the challenges of a changing climate.

NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory

368

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture  

PubMed Central

We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

2014-01-01

369

Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences- Department of Invertebrates-Ant'Phipoda: the Biodiversity Reference Centre for Antarctic Amphipod Crustaceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features Ant'Phipoda: the Biodiversity Reference Centre for Antarctic Amphipod Crustaceans which is managed by the Laboratory of Carcinology, a research group at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. This Reference Centre "includes specialised databases, reference collections, and assists a network of contributing specialists (the Antarctic Ant'Phipodologist Network) who are involved in taxonomic revision of the Antarctic amphipod fauna, and the synthesis of its geographic and bathymetric distribution and bio-ecological traits." Decorated by a dancing Ant'Phipod, the homepage contains links to an Ant'Phipod Checklist (which is available for download as a pdf file), the Ant'Phipodologist Network, and Research Activities. Site visitors can also link to a photo gallery of great Amphipod pictures and a page of Amphipod links.

370

Menu Cycles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide for commercial foods instruction is designed to aid the teacher in communicating the importance of menu cycles in commercial food production. It also provides information about the necessary steps in getting food from the raw form to the finished product, and then to the consumer. In addition to providing information on how to…

Clayton, Alfred; Almony, John

371

Cycle Sequencing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents the cycle sequencing. The animation contains instructions on how to sequence a piece of DNA beginning with the raw materials needed, and details on the process: "Fluorescent dyes are added to the reactions, and a laser within an automated DNA sequencing machine is used to analyze the DNA fragments produced."

2011-11-23

372

Soft-bottom crustacean assemblages in Mediterranean marine caves: the cave of Cerro Gordo (Granada, Spain) as case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although marine caves are priority conservation areas according to the Directive 92/43/CEE of the European Community, there is a lack of studies dealing with their soft-bottom communities. For a case study, we selected the Cerro Gordo cave at 15 m depth. Three different zones were defined: a semi-dark 25-m long entrance area, a dark intermediate area of 35 m, and the final zone at 90 m from the entrance. Sediment samples were taken from these zones as well as from outside the cave (control) by SCUBA diving. Six rectangular cores of 10 × 250 cm2 were collected in each site for macrofaunal study, and three more replicates were taken to analyze physico-chemical parameters. The granulometry showed a clear gradient from medium sands outside the cave to silt and clay in the inner zone. Measurements of the crustacean assemblages showed that the number of species and abundance were significantly higher outside the cave (30-40 species, >4,000 ind m-2) than inside (5-10 species, <1,000 ind m-2). Multivariate analyses showed a clear difference in species composition between outside and inside the cave. Caprellids, tanaids, cumaceans, and decapods were only found outside the cave, while gammarids and isopods were present both outside and inside the cave. The gammarid Siphonoecetes sabatieri and the tanaid Apseudes latreilli were the dominant species outside the cave, while the gammarids Harpinia pectinata, Harpinia crenulata, and Harpinia ala were dominant inside. The present study represents an increase in depth range and geographic distribution for Kupellonura mediterranea and Monoculodes packardi. This is the first description of soft-bottom crustacean communities from submarine caves of southern Spain.

Navarro-Barranco, C.; Guerra-García, J. M.; Sánchez-Tocino, L.; García-Gómez, J. C.

2012-12-01

373

Identification of a Divergent Environmental DNA Sequence Clade Using the Phylogeny of Gregarine Parasites (Apicomplexa) from Crustacean Hosts  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental SSU rDNA surveys have significantly improved our understanding of microeukaryotic diversity. Many of the sequences acquired using this approach are closely related to lineages previously characterized at both morphological and molecular levels, making interpretation of these data relatively straightforward. Some sequences, by contrast, appear to be phylogenetic orphans and are sometimes inferred to represent “novel lineages” of unknown cellular identity. Consequently, interpretation of environmental DNA surveys of cellular diversity rely on an adequately comprehensive database of DNA sequences derived from identified species. Several major taxa of microeukaryotes, however, are still very poorly represented in these databases, and this is especially true for diverse groups of single-celled parasites, such as gregarine apicomplexans. Methodology/Principal Findings This study attempts to address this paucity of DNA sequence data by characterizing four different gregarine species, isolated from the intestines of crustaceans, at both morphological and molecular levels: Thiriotia pugettiae sp. n. from the graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis), Cephaloidophora cf. communis from two different species of barnacles (Balanus glandula and B. balanus), Heliospora cf. longissima from two different species of freshwater amphipods (Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and E. vittatus), and Heliospora caprellae comb. n. from a skeleton shrimp (Caprella alaskana). SSU rDNA sequences were acquired from isolates of these gregarine species and added to a global apicomplexan alignment containing all major groups of gregarines characterized so far. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of these data demonstrated that all of the gregarines collected from crustacean hosts formed a very strongly supported clade with 48 previously unidentified environmental DNA sequences. Conclusions/Significance This expanded molecular phylogenetic context enabled us to establish a major clade of intestinal gregarine parasites and infer the cellular identities of several previously unidentified environmental SSU rDNA sequences, including several sequences that have formerly been discussed broadly in the literature as a suspected “novel” lineage of eukaryotes. PMID:21483868

Rueckert, Sonja; Simdyanov, Timur G.; Aleoshin, Vladimir V.; Leander, Brian S.

2011-01-01

374

Roles of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone in ionic and metabolic homeostasis in the Christmas Island blue crab, Discoplax celeste.  

PubMed

There is a growing body of evidence implicating the involvement of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in ionic homeostasis in decapod crustaceans. However, little is known regarding hormonally influenced osmoregulatory processes in terrestrial decapods. As many terrestrial decapods experience opposing seasonal demands upon ionoregulatory physiologies, we reasoned that these would make interesting models in which to study the effect of CHH upon these phenomena. In particular, those (tropical) species that also undergo seasonal migrations might be especially informative, as we know relatively little regarding the nature of CHHs in terrestrial decapods, and hormonally mediated responses to seasonal changes in metabolic demands might also be superimposed or otherwise integrated with those associated with ionic homeostasis. Using Discoplax celeste as a model crab that experiences seasonal extremes in water availability, and exhibits diurnal and migratory activity patterns, we identified two CHHs in the sinus gland. We biochemically characterised (cDNA cloning) one CHH and functionally characterised (in terms of dose-dependent hyperglycaemic responses and glucose-dependent negative feedback loops) both CHHs. Whole-animal in situ branchial chamber (22)NaCl perfusion experiments showed that injection of both CHHs increased gill Na(+) uptake in a seasonally dependent manner, and (51)Cr-EDTA clearance experiments demonstrated that CHH increased urine production by the antennal gland. Seasonal and salinity-dependent differences in haemolymph CHH titre further implicated CHH in osmoregulatory processes. Intriguingly, CHH appeared to have no effect on gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase or V-ATPase activity, suggesting unknown mechanisms of this hormone's action on Na(+) transport across gill epithelia. PMID:23239894

Turner, Lucy M; Webster, Simon G; Morris, Stephen

2013-04-01

375

The Effect of Pre and Postmolt Diets High in n-3 Fatty Acids and Molt Programs on Skeletal Integrity and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I of White Leghorns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated changes in bone integrity and circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) of hens subjected to 2 distinct molting regimens and fed pre- and postmolt diets high in n-3 or n-6 fatty acids. A dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer determined bone mineral density (BMD) of the tibia and humerus of 45 live hens from 62 to 76 wk of

H. Mazzuco; J. P. McMurtry; A. Y. Kuo; P. Y. Hester

376

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through five lessons, students are introduced to all facets of the rock cycle. Topics include rock and mineral types, material stresses and weathering, geologic time and fossil formation, the Earth's crust and tectonic plates, and soil formation and composition. Lessons are presented in the context of the related impact on humans in the form of roadway and tunnel design and construction, natural disasters, environmental site assessment for building structures, and measurement instrumentation and tools. Hands-on activities include experiencing tensional, compressional and shear material stress by using only hand force to break bars of soap; preparing Jeopardy-type trivia questions/answers for a class game that reinforces students' understanding of rocks and the rock cycle; creating "fossils" using melted chocolate; working within design constraints to design and build a model tunnel through a clay mountain; and soil sampling by creating tools, obtaining soil cores, documenting a soil profile log, and analyzing the findings to make engineering predictions.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

377

Effects of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) replacement therapy on the programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroidectomized male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) exposed to long days.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that T3 (triiodothyronine) is the tissue-active "seasonality" hormone by determining whether T3 could mimic T4 (thyroxine) and program photostimulated thyroidectomized (THX) male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for three components of seasonality (i.e., full-blown testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt). Photosensitive males were radiothyroidectomized, transferred to long days 4 weeks later, and administered 14 daily injections (s.c.) of alkaline saline (V) containing 0.1, 1, or 10 micrograms T4 or T3. THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received only V. After 5 additional weeks on long days, all birds were tested for photosensitivity/photorefractoriness. Periodically during the experiment, primary flight feathers were scored for molt, and testis length was monitored by laparotomy. As an independent measure of reproductive (i.e., photosensitive vs. photorefractory) state, hypothalami collected at the end of the experiment were assayed for cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) content. Like THI controls, THX males administered 1 or 10 micrograms T4 exhibited full-blown testicular growth and then regression, initiated molt, and had low hypothalamic cGnRH-I, indicating that photostimulated birds that received mid- or high-dose T4 replacement therapy had been programmed for all three components of seasonality. On the other hand, both THX controls and THX males administered low-dose (0.1 microgram) T3 replacement therapy exhibited only modest testicular growth, signifying that neither group had been programmed for any component of seasonality. By contrast, photostimulated THX males that received 0.1 microgram T4, or 1 or 10 micrograms T3, were programmed for testicular growth, but not for photorefractoriness or molt. Collectively, these results show that subcutaneously administered T3 mimicked T4 imperfectly and suggest either that T3 does not program photostimulated male tree sparrows for photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt, or that T3 does not cross the blood-brain barrier as efficiently as does T4. PMID:9360316

Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

1997-11-01

378

Cyclical Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students model the water cycle using a set of glass bowls, water, salt, clear plastic wrap, and a marble. and observe the process of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. They observe that water can change from a liquid to a gas, and change back into a liquid. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA SCI Files: The Case of the Phenomenal Weather. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

2012-08-03

379

Relationships between structure and molting hormonal activity of tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide, and their analogs in cultured integument system of Chilo suppressalis Walker.  

PubMed

The molting hormonal activity of methoxyfenozide (RH-2485), tebufenozide (RH-5992), five analogs with various alkyl groups, and 18 acyl analogs was measured by using cultured integument of rice stem borers, Chilo suppressalis Walker. The hormonal activity of methoxyfenozide was remarkably high (EC(50) = 1.1 x 10(-9) M), being equivalent to that of tebufenozide (RH-5992). The hormonal activity of several tebufenozide analogs with varying alkyl groups such as CH(3), n-C(3)H(7), i-C(3)H(7), n-C(4)H(9) and n-C(5)H(11) at the para-position of the benzene ring furthest from the tert-butyl group was lower than that of tebufenozide (alkyl group is C(2)H(5)). The activity decreased to varying degrees as a result of replacement of the 3,5-dimethylphenyl moiety of tebufenozide with either a phenyl, naphthyl, or cyclohexyl group. Both 1- and 2-naphthyl derivatives were very active (EC(50) = 4.3 x 10(-8) M and 3.2 x 10(-8) M, respectively) without any significant difference between them. The activity of the 1-cyclohexenyl analog (EC(50) = 1.0 x 10(-7) M) was about 40x that of the corresponding 3-cyclohexenyl analog (EC(50) = 4.4 x 10(-6) M), but 1/100 that of tebufenozide. The activity varied parabolically with respect to the molecular hydrophobicity, and decreased with longer acyl moieties. PMID:10699589

Nakagawa, Y; Hattori, K; Minakuchi, C; Kugimiya, S; Ueno, T

2000-03-01

380

Limited genetic differentiation among breeding, molting, and wintering groups of the threatened Steller's eider: The role of historic and contemporary factors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Due to declines in the Alaska breeding population, the Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) was listed as threatened in North America in 1997. Periodic non-breeding in Russia and Alaska has hampered field-based assessments of behavioral patterns critical to recovery plans, such as levels of breeding site fidelity and movements among three regional populations: Atlantic-Russia, Pacific-Russia and Alaska. Therefore, we analyzed samples from across the species range with seven nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and cytochrome b mitochondrial (mt)DNA sequence data to infer levels of interchange among sampling areas and patterns of site fidelity. Results demonstrated low levels of population differentiation within Atlantic and Pacific nesting areas, with higher levels observed between these regions, but only for mtDNA. Bayesian analysis of microsatellite data from wintering and molting birds showed no signs of sub-population structure, even though band-recovery data suggests multiple breeding areas are present. We observed higher estimates of F-statistics for female mtDNA data versus male data, suggesting female-biased natal site fidelity. Summary statistics for mtDNA were consistent with models of historic population expansion. Lack of spatial structure in Steller's eiders may result largely from insufficient time since historic population expansions for behaviors, such as natal site fidelity, to isolate breeding areas genetically. However, other behaviors such as the periodic non-breeding observed in Steller's eiders may also play a more contemporary role in genetic homogeneity, especially for microsatellite loci. ?? Springer 2005.

Pearce, J.M.; Talbot, S.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Rearick, J.R.

2005-01-01

381

Mangroves as nursery sites: comparisons of the abundance and species composition of fish and crustaceans in mangroves and other nearshore habitats in tropical Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daytime sampling of mangrove and seagrass (Halophila\\/Halodule community) habitats every 7 wk at Alligator Creek, Queensland, Australia, over a period of 13 mo (February 1985–February\\u000a 1986) using two types of seine net, revealed distinct mangrove and seagrass fish and crustacean faunas. Total abundance of\\u000a fish and relative abundance of small and large fish also varied between habitats and seasonally. Post-larval,

A. I. Robertson; N. C. Duke

1987-01-01

382

An antibody to recombinant crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone of Nephrops norvegicus cross-reacts with neuroendocrine organs of several taxa of malacostracan Crustacea.  

PubMed

The crustacean hyperglycaemic hormones (cHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that play a central role in the physiology of crustaceans. A partial cDNA coding for cHH of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, was cloned; this cDNA was fused to glutathione- S-transferase (GST) to obtain a recombinant fusion protein that was used to raise a rabbit antiserum and to perform a biological assay. The specificity of the purified antibody was demonstrated by means of Western blotting. To validate the specificity of the purified antibody to the cHH of N. norvegicus and its cross-reactivity with other species, we performed standard immunocytochemistry of the eyestalk on: (1) paraffin sections of the decapod species N. norvegicus, Munida rugosa and Astacus leptodactylus and of the stomatopod Squilla mantis; (2) semithin resin sections of N. norvegicus and Palaemon elegans; (3) ultrathin sections of N. norvegicus sinus gland (transmission electron microscopy studies). The pattern of immunoreactivity shown by N. norvegicus eyestalk sections conforms to distribution, relative amount and ultrastructural features of cHH-containing neurons and nerve endings as reported in the previous literature. In all the crustacean species examined, the antibody marks precisely the X organ-sinus gland complex and unspecific staining is completely lacking. In addition, its specific cross-reaction by immunoprecipitation depletes shrimp eyestalk extract of hyperglycaemic activity in an in vivo bioassay. The results obtained show a cHH-specific molecular recognition despite the fact that the species tested belong to systematic groups increasingly remote in the phylogenetic tree. The antibody could be used for advancing our knowledge on cHH activity in a variety of crustacean species, e.g. for monitoring reproductive and stress conditions. PMID:11845331

Giulianini, P G; Pandolfelli, N; Lorenzon, S; Ferrero, E A; Edomi, P

2002-02-01

383

Serotonin immunoreactive interneurons in the brain of the Remipedia: new insights into the phylogenetic affinities of an enigmatic crustacean taxon  

PubMed Central

Background Remipedia, a group of homonomously segmented, cave-dwelling, eyeless arthropods have been regarded as basal crustaceans in most early morphological and taxonomic studies. However, molecular sequence information together with the discovery of a highly differentiated brain led to a reconsideration of their phylogenetic position. Various conflicting hypotheses have been proposed including the claim for a basal position of Remipedia up to a close relationship with Malacostraca or Hexapoda. To provide new morphological characters that may allow phylogenetic insights, we have analyzed the architecture of the remipede brain in more detail using immunocytochemistry (serotonin, acetylated ?-tubulin, synapsin) combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy and image reconstruction techniques. This approach allows for a comprehensive neuroanatomical comparison with other crustacean and hexapod taxa. Results The dominant structures of the brain are the deutocerebral olfactory neuropils, which are linked by the olfactory globular tracts to the protocerebral hemiellipsoid bodies. The olfactory globular tracts form a characteristic chiasm in the center of the brain. In Speleonectes tulumensis, each brain hemisphere contains about 120 serotonin immunoreactive neurons, which are distributed in distinct cell groups supplying fine, profusely branching neurites to 16 neuropilar domains. The olfactory neuropil comprises more than 300 spherical olfactory glomeruli arranged in sublobes. Eight serotonin immunoreactive neurons homogeneously innervate the olfactory glomeruli. In the protocerebrum, serotonin immunoreactivity revealed several structures, which, based on their position and connectivity resemble a central complex comprising a central body, a protocerebral bridge, W-, X-, Y-, Z-tracts, and lateral accessory lobes. Conclusions The brain of Remipedia shows several plesiomorphic features shared with other Mandibulata, such as deutocerebral olfactory neuropils with a glomerular organization, innervations by serotonin immunoreactive interneurons, and connections to protocerebral neuropils. Also, we provided tentative evidence for W-, X-, Y-, Z-tracts in the remipedian central complex like in the brain of Malacostraca, and Hexapoda. Furthermore, Remipedia display several synapomorphies with Malacostraca supporting a sister group relationship between both taxa. These homologies include a chiasm of the olfactory globular tract, which connects the olfactory neuropils with the lateral protocerebrum and the presence of hemiellipsoid bodies. Even though a growing number of molecular investigations unites Remipedia and Cephalocarida, our neuroanatomical comparison does not provide support for such a sister group relationship. PMID:22947030

2012-01-01

384

On the Brain of a Crustacean: A Morphological Analysis of CaMKII Expression and Its Relation to Sensory and Motor Pathways  

PubMed Central

Calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a Ca2+-activated enzyme that is abundant in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. However, its characterization is poorly addressed in the nervous system of crustaceans, and, to our knowledge, no studies have determined the microanatomical location of CaMKII in a crustacean species. In this study, we found labeling of CaMKII in the eyestalk and brain of the prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus, by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Antibodies against neuron (ß tubulin III), glutamate receptor (GluA1), and FMRFamide were used in order to further characterize the CaMKII-labeled cells in the brain. In the eyestalk, strong labeling with CaMKII was observed in the photoreceptors. These cells, especially in the rhabdom, were also reactive to anti-ß tubulin III, whereas the pigment cells were labeled with anti-CaMKII. GluA1 co-located with CaMKII in the photoreceptors. Also, CaMKII appeared in the same sites as FMRFamide in the deutocerebrum, including the olfactory lobe, and in the tritocerebrum, specifically in the antennular neuropil, indicating that the synaptic areas in these regions may be related to sensory-motor processing. In the brain, the identification of cells and regions that express CaMKII contributes to the understanding of the processing of neural connections and the modulating role of CaMKII in decapod crustaceans. PMID:23741406

Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M.

2013-01-01

385

On the brain of a crustacean: a morphological analysis of CaMKII expression and its relation to sensory and motor pathways.  

PubMed

Calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) is a Ca(2+)-activated enzyme that is abundant in vertebrate and invertebrate brains. However, its characterization is poorly addressed in the nervous system of crustaceans, and, to our knowledge, no studies have determined the microanatomical location of CaMKII in a crustacean species. In this study, we found labeling of CaMKII in the eyestalk and brain of the prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus, by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Antibodies against neuron (ß tubulin III), glutamate receptor (GluA1), and FMRFamide were used in order to further characterize the CaMKII-labeled cells in the brain. In the eyestalk, strong labeling with CaMKII was observed in the photoreceptors. These cells, especially in the rhabdom, were also reactive to anti-ß tubulin III, whereas the pigment cells were labeled with anti-CaMKII. GluA1 co-located with CaMKII in the photoreceptors. Also, CaMKII appeared in the same sites as FMRFamide in the deutocerebrum, including the olfactory lobe, and in the tritocerebrum, specifically in the antennular neuropil, indicating that the synaptic areas in these regions may be related to sensory-motor processing. In the brain, the identification of cells and regions that express CaMKII contributes to the understanding of the processing of neural connections and the modulating role of CaMKII in decapod crustaceans. PMID:23741406

Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M; Müller, Yara M R; Allodi, Silvana

2013-01-01

386

Moult cycle specific differential gene expression profiling of the crab Portunus pelagicus  

PubMed Central

Background Crustacean moulting is a complex process involving many regulatory pathways. A holistic approach to examine differential gene expression profiles of transcripts relevant to the moulting process, across all moult cycle stages, was used in this study. Custom cDNA microarrays were constructed for Portunus pelagicus. The printed arrays contained 5000 transcripts derived from both the whole organism, and from individual organs such as the brain, eyestalk, mandibular organ and Y-organ from all moult cycle stages. Results A total of 556 clones were sequenced from the cDNA libraries used to construct the arrays. These cDNAs represented 175 singletons and 62 contigs, resulting in 237 unique putative genes. The gene sequences were classified into the following biological functions: cuticular proteins associated with arthropod exoskeletons, farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FaMeT), proteins belonging to the hemocyanin gene family, lectins, proteins relevant to lipid metabolism, mitochondrial proteins, muscle related proteins, phenoloxidase activators and ribosomal proteins. Moult cycle-related differential expression patterns were observed for many transcripts. Of particular interest were those relating to the formation and hardening of the exoskeleton, and genes associated with cell respiration and energy metabolism. Conclusions The expression data presented here provide a chronological depiction of the molecular events associated with the biological changes that occur during the crustacean moult cycle. Tracing the temporal expression patterns of a large variety of transcripts involved in the moult cycle of P. pelagicus can provide a greater understanding of gene function, interaction, and regulation of both known and new genes with respect to the moulting process. PMID:21396120

2011-01-01

387

Biotransformation pathways of biocides and pharmaceuticals in freshwater crustaceans based on structure elucidation of metabolites using high resolution mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

So far, there is limited information on biotransformation mechanisms and products of polar contaminants in freshwater crustaceans. In the present study, metabolites of biocides and pharmaceuticals formed in Gammarus pulex and Daphnia magna were identified using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Different confidence levels were assigned to the identification of metabolites without reference standards using a framework based on the background evidence used for structure elucidation. Twenty-five metabolites were tentatively identified for irgarol, terbutryn, tramadol, and venlafaxine in G. pulex (21 via oxidation and 4 via conjugation reactions) and 11 metabolites in D. magna (7 via oxidation and 4 via conjugation reactions), while no evidence of metabolites for clarithromycin and valsartan was found. Of the 360 metabolites predicted for the four parent compounds using pathway prediction systems and expert knowledge, 23 products were true positives, while 2 identified metabolites were unexpected products. Observed oxidative reactions included N- and O-demethylation, hydroxylation, and N-oxidation. Glutathione conjugation of selected biocides followed by subsequent reactions forming cysteine conjugates was described for the first time in freshwater invertebrates. PMID:23391280

Jeon, Junho; Kurth, Denise; Hollender, Juliane

2013-03-18

388

Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for the Isopod Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and Transferability in Terrestrial Isopods  

PubMed Central

Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

2013-01-01

389

Concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic in fresh fish, mollusks, and crustaceans from the Gulf of Thailand.  

PubMed

Concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic were determined in 120 samples of eight marine animals collected from the Gulf of Thailand between March and May 2008. Two species with the highest annual catch from each of four marine animal groups were analyzed: fish (Indo-Pacific mackerel and goldstripe sardine), bivalves (green mussel and blood cockle), cephalopods (pharaoh cuttlefish and Indian squid), and crustaceans (banana prawn and swimming crab). Concentrations of inorganic arsenic based on wet weight ranged from 0.012 ?g/g in Indian squids to 0.603 ?g/g in blood cockles. Average percentages of inorganic arsenic with respect to total arsenic ranged from 1.2% in banana prawns to 7.3% in blood cockles. Blood cockles also exhibited the highest levels of total arsenic (5.26 ± 2.01 ?g/g) and inorganic arsenic (0.352 ± 0.148 ?g/g). The levels of inorganic arsenic in the study samples were much lower than the Thai regulatory limit of 2 ?g/g (wet wt) and hence are safe for human consumption. PMID:21375883

Ruangwises, Suthep; Ruangwises, Nongluck

2011-03-01

390

Evidence for a cost of immunity when the crustacean Daphnia magna is exposed to the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa.  

PubMed

The deployment of the immune system has the obvious potential to ameliorate infection outcomes, but immune responses can also harm hosts by either damaging host tissues or monopolizing resources, leading to enhanced mortality. To gain insight into such a 'cost of immunity' when the crustacean Daphnia magna is challenged with the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, we measured survivorship among hosts that resisted infection following exposure to various strains and doses of the parasite. In the first of two experiments, these exposures were: single exposures with relatively non-aggressive strains, double exposures with non-aggressive strains, and exposure to aggressive strains. Mortality increased across this gradient of exposure. In a second experiment, we varied the dose of the most aggressive P. ramosa strain and found that resisting infection when a large dose was applied resulted in greater mortality than when a medium or low dose was applied. Assuming that resistance is accomplished with an immune response, and that more aggressive parasites and/or larger doses of parasites are more immunostimulatory, these data are compatible with a cost of immunity. Indeed, in terms of survival, resisting parasites can be more harmful than infection. PMID:17922716

Little, Tom J; Killick, Stuart C

2007-11-01

391

Desert Springs: Deep Phylogeographic Structure in an Ancient Endemic Crustacean (Phreatomerus latipes)  

PubMed Central

Desert mound springs of the Great Artesian Basin in central Australia maintain an endemic fauna that have historically been considered ubiquitous throughout all of the springs. Recent studies, however, have shown that several endemic invertebrate species are genetically highly structured and contain previously unrecognised species, suggesting that individuals may be geographically ‘stranded in desert islands’. Here we further tested the generality of this hypothesis by conducting genetic analyses of the obligate aquatic phreatoicid isopod Phreatomerus latipes. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships amongst P. latipes individuals were examined using a multilocus approach comprising allozymes and mtDNA sequence data. From the Lake Eyre region in South Australia we collected data for 476 individuals from 69 springs for the mtDNA gene COI; in addition, allozyme electrophoresis was conducted on 331 individuals from 19 sites for 25 putative loci. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses showed three major clades in both allozyme and mtDNA data, with a further nine mtDNA sub-clades, largely supported by the allozymes. Generally, each of these sub-clades was concordant with a traditional geographic grouping known as spring complexes. We observed a coalescent time between ?2–15 million years ago for haplotypes within each of the nine mtDNA sub-clades, whilst an older total time to coalescence (>15 mya) was observed for the three major clades. Overall we observed that multiple layers of phylogeographic history are exemplified by Phreatomerus, suggesting that major climate events and their impact on the landscape have shaped the observed high levels of diversity and endemism. Our results show that this genus reflects a diverse fauna that existed during the early Miocene and appears to have been regionally restricted. Subsequent aridification events have led to substantial contraction of the original habitat, possibly over repeated Pleistocene ice age cycles, with P. latipes populations becoming restricted in the distribution to desert springs. PMID:22815684

Guzik, Michelle T.; Adams, Mark A.; Murphy, Nicholas P.; Cooper, Steven J. B.; Austin, Andrew D.

2012-01-01

392

Desert springs: deep phylogeographic structure in an ancient endemic crustacean (Phreatomerus latipes).  

PubMed

Desert mound springs of the Great Artesian Basin in central Australia maintain an endemic fauna that have historically been considered ubiquitous throughout all of the springs. Recent studies, however, have shown that several endemic invertebrate species are genetically highly structured and contain previously unrecognised species, suggesting that individuals may be geographically 'stranded in desert islands'. Here we further tested the generality of this hypothesis by conducting genetic analyses of the obligate aquatic phreatoicid isopod Phreatomerus latipes. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships amongst P. latipes individuals were examined using a multilocus approach comprising allozymes and mtDNA sequence data. From the Lake Eyre region in South Australia we collected data for 476 individuals from 69 springs for the mtDNA gene COI; in addition, allozyme electrophoresis was conducted on 331 individuals from 19 sites for 25 putative loci. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses showed three major clades in both allozyme and mtDNA data, with a further nine mtDNA sub-clades, largely supported by the allozymes. Generally, each of these sub-clades was concordant with a traditional geographic grouping known as spring complexes. We observed a coalescent time between ?2-15 million years ago for haplotypes within each of the nine mtDNA sub-clades, whilst an older total time to coalescence (>15 mya) was observed for the three major clades. Overall we observed that multiple layers of phylogeographic history are exemplified by Phreatomerus, suggesting that major climate events and their impact on the landscape have shaped the observed high levels of diversity and endemism. Our results show that this genus reflects a diverse fauna that existed during the early Miocene and appears to have been regionally restricted. Subsequent aridification events have led to substantial contraction of the original habitat, possibly over repeated Pleistocene ice age cycles, with P. latipes populations becoming restricted in the distribution to desert springs. PMID:22815684

Guzik, Michelle T; Adams, Mark A; Murphy, Nicholas P; Cooper, Steven J B; Austin, Andrew D

2012-01-01

393

Cell cycle alteration, apoptosis and response of leukemic cell lines to gamma radiation with high- and low-dose rate.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to compare the effect of gamma radiation with sub-low dose-rate 1.8 mGy/min (SLDR), low dose-rate 3.9 mGy/min (LDR) and high dose-rate 0.6 Gy/min (HDR) on human leukemic cell lines with differing p53 status (HL-60, p53 deficient and MOLT-4, p53 wild) and to elucidate the importance of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest during irradiation. Radiosensitivity of HL-60 and MOLT-4 cells was determined by test of clonogenity. Decrease of dose-rate had no effect on radiosensitivity of MOLT-4 cells (D(0) for HDR 0.87 Gy, for LDR 0.78 Gy and for SLDR 0.70 Gy). In contrast, a significant increase of radioresistance after LDR irradiation was observed for p53 negative HL-60 cells (D(0) for HDR 2.20 Gy and for LDR 3.74 Gy). After an additional decrease of dose-rate (SLDR) D(0) value (2.92 Gy) was not significantly different from HDR irradiation. Considering the fact that during HDR the cells are irradiated in all phases of the cell cycle and during LDR mainly in the G2 phase, we have been unable to prove that the G2 phase is the most radiosensitive phase of the cell cycle of HL-60 cells. On the contrary, irradiation of cells in this phase induced damage reparation and increased radioresistance. When the dose-rate was lowered, approximately to 1.8 mGy/min, an opposite effect was detected, i.e. D(0) value decreased to 2.9 Gy. We have proved that during SLDR at first (dose up to 2.5 Gy) the cells accumulated in G2 phase, but then they entered mitosis or, if the cell damage was not sufficiently repaired, the cells entered apoptosis. The entry into mitosis has a radiosensibilizing effect. PMID:15209542

Vávrová, J; Rezácová, M; Vokurková, D; Psutka, J

2004-01-01

394

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn the process of the water cycle. Alabama Course of Study: Science. Second Grade: Standard 9: Describe evaporation, condensation, and precipitation in the water cycle. What is the water cycle? On the worksheet provided, list the 4 parts of the water cycle. Between the parts draw a small picture to represent what is happening during this cycle. The Water Cycle See how we use the water in the water cycle. Thirstins Water Cycle Name 3 ways water changes form. This is an animated diagram of the Water Cycle Here is a ...

Lopez, Mrs.

2009-07-09

395

Separation and partial characterization of proteinases with substrate specificity for basic amino acids from human MOLT-4 T lymphocytes: identification of those inhibited by variable-loop-V3 peptides of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-1) envelope glycoprotein.  

PubMed Central

The V3 loop of the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 likely plays a role in HIV-1 infectivity. Although the amino acid sequence of the V3 loop is hypervariable, it contains a conserved region, Gly-Pro-Gly-Arg, that shows similarity to the active-site Gly-Pro-Cys-Arg sequence of inter-alpha-trypsin and trypstatin proteinase inhibitors. The purpose of the present work was to identify proteinases recognizing substrates with basic amino acids in the P1 substrate site that are present in MOLT-4 cells, a human CD4-positive T helper lymphocyte cell line, and to characterize these enzymes in terms of substrate, pH and ionic-strength preferences, size and susceptibility to various inhibitors, including 24- and 36-amino-acid-long V3 loop peptides. Extraction of MOLT-4 cells at low ionic strength solubilized nearly all of the trypsin-like activity, which was separable into five peaks of activity by chromatography on Mono-Q: Peaks 1, 2a, 2b, 3 and 4. All showed a neutral pH optimum, and all except Peak 4 showed optimal activity at high ionic strength. Peak 1 preferred Tos-Gly-Pro-Arg, p-nitroanilide (-pNA) substrate; Peaks 2-4 preferred benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Leu-Gly-Arg-pNA. Peak 1, a zinc-dependent enzyme with serine and histidine in the active site, exhibited an M(r) of 75,000 on Superose 12 and was poorly inhibited by V3 loop peptides. Peak 2 contained two overlapping peaks, called 2a and 2b, that exhibited properties of zinc-dependent metalloproteinases. Gel filtration of Peak 2 activities revealed a major peak of activity at 81 kDa and a shoulder centred at 240 kDa. Each was modestly inhibited by V3 loop peptides. Peak 3, a zinc-dependent proteinase, exhibited a molecular mass of 100 kDa by gel filtration and was particularly sensitive to inhibition by V3 loop peptides. Peak 4 exhibited a molecular mass of 1100 kDa by gel filtration and was not inhibited by V3 loop peptides. None of these enzymes could be classified as mast-cell tryptase, and material in MOLT-4 cells cross-reactive with anti-(human tryptase) antibodies was not detected. Whether any of the MOLT-4 proteinases described in this study play a role in HIV-1 infectivity remains to be examined. PMID:8318003

Harvima, I T; Harvima, R J; Nilsson, G; Ivanoff, L; Schwartz, L B

1993-01-01

396

Brain architecture in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae), a crustacean with a good aerial sense of smell  

PubMed Central

Background During the evolutionary radiation of Crustacea, several lineages in this taxon convergently succeeded in meeting the physiological challenges connected to establishing a fully terrestrial life style. These physiological adaptations include the need for sensory organs of terrestrial species to function in air rather than in water. Previous behavioral and neuroethological studies have provided solid evidence that the land hermit crabs (Coenobitidae, Anomura) are a group of crustaceans that have evolved a good sense of aerial olfaction during the conquest of land. We wanted to study the central olfactory processing areas in the brains of these organisms and to that end analyzed the brain of Coenobita clypeatus (Herbst, 1791; Anomura, Coenobitidae), a fully terrestrial tropical hermit crab, by immunohistochemistry against synaptic proteins, serotonin, FMRFamide-related peptides, and glutamine synthetase. Results The primary olfactory centers in this species dominate the brain and are composed of many elongate olfactory glomeruli. The secondary olfactory centers that receive an input from olfactory projection neurons are almost equally large as the olfactory lobes and are organized into parallel neuropil lamellae. The architecture of the optic neuropils and those areas associated with antenna two suggest that C. clypeatus has visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusion In parallel to previous behavioral findings of a good sense of aerial olfaction in C. clypeatus, our results indicate that in fact their central olfactory pathway is most prominent, indicating that olfaction is a major sensory modality that these brains process. Interestingly, the secondary olfactory neuropils of insects, the mushroom bodies, also display a layered structure (vertical and medial lobes), superficially similar to the lamellae in the secondary olfactory centers of C. clypeatus. More detailed analyses with additional markers will be necessary to explore the question if these similarities have evolved convergently with the establishment of superb aerial olfactory abilities or if this design goes back to a shared principle in the common ancestor of Crustacea and Hexapoda. PMID:18590553

Harzsch, Steffen; Hansson, Bill S

2008-01-01

397

The Maternal Transcriptome of the Crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis Is Inherited Asymmetrically to Invariant Cell Lineages of the Ectoderm and Mesoderm  

PubMed Central

Background The embryo of the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis has a total, unequal and invariant early cleavage pattern. It specifies cell fates earlier than other arthropods, including Drosophila, as individual blastomeres of the 8-cell stage are allocated to the germ layers and the germline. Furthermore, the 8-cell stage is amenable to embryological manipulations. These unique features make Parhyale a suitable system for elucidating germ layer specification in arthropods. Since asymmetric localization of maternally provided RNA is a widespread mechanism to specify early cell fates, we asked whether this is also true for Parhyale. A candidate gene approach did not find RNAs that are asymmetrically distributed at the 8-cell stage. Therefore, we designed a high-density microarray from 9400 recently sequenced ESTs (1) to identify maternally provided RNAs and (2) to find RNAs that are differentially distributed among cells of the 8-cell stage. Results Maternal-zygotic transition takes place around the 32-cell stage, i.e. after the specification of germ layers. By comparing a pool of RNAs from early embryos without zygotic transcription to zygotic RNAs of the germband, we found that more than 10% of the targets on the array were enriched in the maternal transcript pool. A screen for asymmetrically distributed RNAs at the 8-cell stage revealed 129 transcripts, from which 50% are predominantly expressed in the early embryonic stages. Finally, we performed knockdown experiments for two of these genes and observed cell-fate-related defects of embryonic development. Conclusions In contrast to Drosophila, the four primary germ layer cell lineages in Parhyale are specified during the maternal control phase of the embryo. A key step in this process is the asymmetric distribution of a large number of maternal RNAs to the germ layer progenitor cells. PMID:23418507

Levesque, Mitchell P.; Gerberding, Matthias

2013-01-01

398

Heterospecific transgenesis in Drosophila suggests that engrailed.a is regulated by POU proteins in the crustacean Sacculina carcini.  

PubMed

Almost all knowledge of the regulation of segmentation genes in arthropods comes from Drosophila. In order to study the regulation of the segment-polarity gene engrailed in a non-insect arthropod we focussed on putative regulatory regions of the engrailed.a (en.a) gene in the barnacle crustacean Sacculina carcini. In this animal, en.ais expressed in segmental stripes like the engrailed genes of other arthropods. As transgenesis in Sacculina is not possible at present, we have used Drosophila as a test tube. The Sacculina en.aintron is able to induce a specific expression of lacZin the Drosophila wing imaginal disc.This pattern is not an engrailed-like pattern, but does suggest that some Drosophila transcription factors interact with the Sacculina en.a intron. We show that two DrosophilaPOU proteins, Nubbin and VVL, and Engrailed itself bind to the Sacculina en.a intron in vitro and that they regulate this expression in vivo. The conservation of POU protein binding sites in metazoans suggests that Sacculina POU proteins could recognize the same sequences. Hence, we looked at the expression of nubbin and vvlhomologues in Sacculinalarvae. Indeed, their expression patterns are consistent with a putative regulatory function on en.a in segments and appendages. Remarkably, the vvl homologue is expressed in Sacculina in a striking striped pattern that is very different from the vvl pattern in Drosophila embryos, and is complementary to the Sacculina en.a pattern. These experiments suggest that the Sacculina engrailed.a gene is regulated by POU proteins. PMID:11875653

Gibert, Jean-Michel; Joannin, Nicolas; Blin, Marylin; Rigolot, Catherine; Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle; Quéinnec, Eric; Deutsch, Jean S

2002-02-01

399

HIV Life Cycle  

MedlinePLUS

... the connection between HIV medicines and the HIV life cycle? Without treatment, HIV infection gradually destroys the ... HIV. What are the stages of the HIV life cycle? To understand the HIV life cycle, it ...

400

Analysis of the expression pattern of Mysidium columbiae wingless provides evidence for conserved mesodermal and retinal patterning processes among insects and crustaceans.  

PubMed

The Wnt family includes a number of genes, such as wingless ( wg), which encode secreted glycoproteins that function in numerous developmental patterning processes. In order to gain a better understanding of crustacean pattern formation, a wg orthologue was cloned from the malacostracan crustacean Mysidium columbiae(mysid), and the expression pattern of this gene was compared with that of Drosophila wg. Although Drosophila wg is expressed in many developing tissues, such as the ventral neuroectoderm, M. columbiae wg (mcowg)expression is detected within only a subset of these tissues. mcowg is expressed in the dorsal part of each developing segment and within the developing eye, but not within the ventral neuroectoderm. Dorsal wg expression in Drosophila is required for heart and muscle development, and conservation of this dorsal wgexpression pattern suggests that mcowgmay function to pattern these tissues in mysids. Consistent with this, expression of Even-skipped (Eve) protein in heart precursor and muscle cells, which is dependent on Wg signaling in Drosophila, is also conserved in mysids. Within the developing mysid eye, mcowg is expressed in a pattern that is similar to the expression pattern of Drosophila wg in the fly eye disc. In Drosophila,Wg inhibits neural differentiation at the anterior margin of the eye disc and patterns the dorsal/ventral axis of the eye. These data indicate that mcowg may function similarly during mysid eye development. Analysis of mcowgexpression provides molecular evidence suggesting that the processes of heart, muscle, and eye patterning are likely to be conserved among insects and crustaceans. PMID:11976949

Duman-Scheel, Molly; Pirkl, Nicole; Patel, Nipam H

2002-04-01

401

The First Venomous Crustacean Revealed by Transcriptomics and Functional Morphology: Remipede Venom Glands Express a Unique Toxin Cocktail Dominated by Enzymes and a Neurotoxin  

PubMed Central

Animal venoms have evolved many times. Venomous species are especially common in three of the four main groups of arthropods (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda), which together represent tens of thousands of species of venomous spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and hymenopterans. Surprisingly, despite their great diversity of body plans, there is no unambiguous evidence that any crustacean is venomous. We provide the first conclusive evidence that the aquatic, blind, and cave-dwelling remipede crustaceans are venomous and that venoms evolved in all four major arthropod groups. We produced a three-dimensional reconstruction of the venom delivery apparatus of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis, showing that remipedes can inject venom in a controlled manner. A transcriptomic profile of its venom glands shows that they express a unique cocktail of transcripts coding for known venom toxins, including a diversity of enzymes and a probable paralytic neurotoxin very similar to one described from spider venom. We screened a transcriptomic library obtained from whole animals and identified a nontoxin paralog of the remipede neurotoxin that is not expressed in the venom glands. This allowed us to reconstruct its probable evolutionary origin and underlines the importance of incorporating data derived from nonvenom gland tissue to elucidate the evolution of candidate venom proteins. This first glimpse into the venom of a crustacean and primitively aquatic arthropod reveals conspicuous differences from the venoms of other predatory arthropods such as centipedes, scorpions, and spiders and contributes valuable information for ultimately disentangling the many factors shaping the biology and evolution of venoms and venomous species. PMID:24132120

von Reumont, Björn M.; Blanke, Alexander; Richter, Sandy; Alvarez, Fernando; Bleidorn, Christoph; Jenner, Ronald A.

2014-01-01

402

The first venomous crustacean revealed by transcriptomics and functional morphology: remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin.  

PubMed

Animal venoms have evolved many times. Venomous species are especially common in three of the four main groups of arthropods (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda), which together represent tens of thousands of species of venomous spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and hymenopterans. Surprisingly, despite their great diversity of body plans, there is no unambiguous evidence that any crustacean is venomous. We provide the first conclusive evidence that the aquatic, blind, and cave-dwelling remipede crustaceans are venomous and that venoms evolved in all four major arthropod groups. We produced a three-dimensional reconstruction of the venom delivery apparatus of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis, showing that remipedes can inject venom in a controlled manner. A transcriptomic profile of its venom glands shows that they express a unique cocktail of transcripts coding for known venom toxins, including a diversity of enzymes and a probable paralytic neurotoxin very similar to one described from spider venom. We screened a transcriptomic library obtained from whole animals and identified a nontoxin paralog of the remipede neurotoxin that is not expressed in the venom glands. This allowed us to reconstruct its probable evolutionary origin and underlines the importance of incorporating data derived from nonvenom gland tissue to elucidate the evolution of candidate venom proteins. This first glimpse into the venom of a crustacean and primitively aquatic arthropod reveals conspicuous differences from the venoms of other predatory arthropods such as centipedes, scorpions, and spiders and contributes valuable information for ultimately disentangling the many factors shaping the biology and evolution of venoms and venomous species. PMID:24132120

von Reumont, Björn M; Blanke, Alexander; Richter, Sandy; Alvarez, Fernando; Bleidorn, Christoph; Jenner, Ronald A

2014-01-01

403

Neuropeptide complexity in the crustacean central olfactory pathway: immunolocalization of A-type allatostatins and RFamide-like peptides in the brain of a terrestrial hermit crab  

PubMed Central

Background In the olfactory system of malacostracan crustaceans, axonal input from olfactory receptor neurons associated with aesthetascs on the animal’s first pair of antennae target primary processing centers in the median brain, the olfactory lobes. The olfactory lobes are divided into cone-shaped synaptic areas, the olfactory glomeruli where afferents interact with local olfactory interneurons and olfactory projection neurons. The local olfactory interneurons display a large diversity of neurotransmitter phenotypes including biogenic amines and neuropeptides. Furthermore, the malacostracan olfactory glomeruli are regionalized into cap, subcap, and base regions and these compartments are defined by the projection patterns of the afferent olfactory receptor neurons, the local olfactory interneurons, and the olfactory projection neurons. We wanted to know how neurons expressing A-type allatostatins (A-ASTs; synonym dip-allatostatins) integrate into this system, a large family of neuropeptides that share the C-terminal motif –YXFGLamide. Results We used an antiserum that was raised against the A-type Diploptera punctata (Dip)-allatostatin I to analyse the distribution of this peptide in the brain of a terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae). Allatostatin A-like immunoreactivity (ASTir) was widely distributed in the animal’s brain, including the visual system, central complex and olfactory system. We focussed our analysis on the central olfactory pathway in which ASTir was abundant in the primary processing centers, the olfactory lobes, and also in the secondary centers, the hemiellipsoid bodies. In the olfactory lobes, we further explored the spatial relationship of olfactory interneurons with ASTir to interneurons that synthesize RFamide-like peptides. We found that these two peptides are present in distinct populations of local olfactory interneurons and that their synaptic fields within the olfactory glomeruli are also mostly distinct. Conclusions We discuss our findings against the background of the known neurotransmitter complexity in the crustacean olfactory pathway and summarize what is now about the neuronal connectivity in the olfactory glomeruli. A-type allatostatins, in addition to their localization in protocerebral brain areas, seem to be involved in modulating the olfactory signal at the level of the deutocerebrum. They contribute to the complex local circuits within the crustacean olfactory glomeruli the connectivity within which as yet is completely unclear. Because the glomeruli of C. clypeatus display a distinct pattern of regionalization, their olfactory systems form an ideal model to explore the functional relevance of glomerular compartments and diversity of local olfactory interneurons for olfactory processing in crustaceans. PMID:22967845

2012-01-01

404

A new view of insect-crustacean relationships II. Inferences from expressed sequence tags and comparisons with neural cladistics.  

PubMed

The enormous diversity of Arthropoda has complicated attempts by systematists to deduce the history of this group in terms of phylogenetic relationships and phenotypic change. Traditional hypotheses regarding the relationships of the major arthropod groups (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, Crustacea, and Hexapoda) focus on suites of morphological characters, whereas phylogenomics relies on large amounts of molecular sequence data to infer evolutionary relationships. The present discussion is based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that provide large numbers of short molecular sequences and so provide an abundant source of sequence data for phylogenetic inference. This study presents well-supported phylogenies of diverse arthropod and metazoan outgroup taxa obtained from publicly-available databases. An in-house bioinformatics pipeline has been used to compile and align conserved orthologs from each taxon for maximum likelihood inferences. This approach resolves many currently accepted hypotheses regarding internal relationships between the major groups of Arthropoda, including monophyletic Hexapoda, Tetraconata (Crustacea + Hexapoda), Myriapoda, and Chelicerata sensu lato (Pycnogonida + Euchelicerata). "Crustacea" is a paraphyletic group with some taxa more closely related to the monophyletic Hexapoda. These results support studies that have utilized more restricted EST data for phylogenetic inference, yet they differ in important regards from recently published phylogenies employing nuclear protein-coding sequences. The present results do not, however, depart from other phylogenies that resolve Branchiopoda as the crustacean sister group of Hexapoda. Like other molecular phylogenies, EST-derived phylogenies alone are unable to resolve morphological convergences or evolved reversals and thus omit what may be crucial events in the history of life. For example, molecular data are unable to resolve whether a Hexapod-Branchiopod sister relationship infers a branchiopod-like ancestry of the Hexapoda, or whether this assemblage originates from a malacostracan-like ancestor, with the morphologically simpler Branchiopoda being highly derived. Whereas this study supports many internal arthropod relationships obtained by other sources of molecular data, other approaches are required to resolve such evolutionary scenarios. The approach presented here turns out to be essential: integrating results of molecular phylogenetics and neural cladistics to infer that Branchiopoda evolved simplification from a more elaborate ancestor. Whereas the phenomenon of evolved simplification may be widespread, it is largely invisible to molecular techniques unless these are performed in conjunction with morphology-based strategies. PMID:21315832

Andrew, David R

2011-05-01

405

CLASS DESCRIPTIONS CYCLING SERIES  

E-print Network

CLASS DESCRIPTIONS CYCLING SERIES CYCLING Whether you are an avid cyclist or just beginning, this class will provide a high-intensity cardio workout. Ride around the world in all types of terrain, while for all participants. This class is open to 30 participants. ULTIMATE CYCLING Ultimate Cycling

Pittendrigh, Barry

406

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone from the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus in its weakly active precursor form  

PubMed Central

Crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in crustaceans. Pej-SGP-I, one of the six known CHHs in the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, was heterolo­gously expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally His-tagged and Nus-tagged protein in its weakly active precursor form, Pej-SGP-I-Gly, which has an extra glycine residue at the C-terminus. The recombinant peptide was subjected to affinity purification, tag removal, further purification and crystallization by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using NaCl as the main precipitant. The crystals diffracted to 1.95?Å resolution and the space group was assigned as primitive orthorhombic P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 40.19, b = 53.65, c = 53.63?Å. The Matthews coefficient (V M = 1.73?Å3?Da?1) indicated that the crystal contained two Pej-SGP-I-Gly molecules per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 29.0%. PMID:22139173

Inoue, Hirotaka; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Nagai, Chiaki; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

2011-01-01

407

Acute combined pressure and temperature exposures on a shallow-water crustacean: Novel insights into the stress response and high pressure neurological syndrome.  

PubMed

Little is known about the ecological and physiological processes governing depth distribution limits in species. Temperature and hydrostatic pressure are considered to be two dominant factors. Research has shown that some marine ectotherms are shifting their bathymetric distributions in response to rapid anthropogenic ocean surface warming. Shallow-water species unable to undergo latitudinal range shifts may depend on bathymetric range shifts to seek refuge from warming surface waters. As a first step in constraining the molecular basis of pressure tolerance in shallow water crustaceans, we examined differential gene expression in response to acute pressure and temperature exposures in juveniles of the shallow-water shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Significant increases in the transcription of genes coding for an NMDA receptor-regulated protein, an ADP ribosylation factor, ?-actin, two heat shock protein 70kDa isoforms (HSP70), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were found in response to elevated pressure. NMDA receptors have been implicated in pathways of excitotoxic damage to neurons and the onset of high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) in mammals. These data indicate that the sub-lethal effects of acute barotrauma are associated with transcriptional disturbances within the nervous tissue of crustaceans, and cellular macromolecular damage. Such transcriptional changes lead to the onset of symptoms similar to that described as HPNS in mammals, and may act as a limit to shallow water organisms' prolonged survival at depth. PMID:25433335

Morris, J P; Thatje, S; Ravaux, J; Shillito, B; Fernando, D; Hauton, C

2015-03-01

408

Post-Embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Multigenic Succession through Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

409

Post-embryonic transcriptomes of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: multigenic succession through metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of the insect juvenile hormone, acts as the active crustacean juvenoid. Molt steroids were also linked to morphogenesis and several other molecular pathways, such as Hedgehog and Wnt, are known to underlie morphogenesis in all metazoans examined and, as such, are thought to do the same in crustaceans. Using next generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced the transcriptomes of several larval and post-larval stages. De novo assembly, followed by bioinformatics analysis, revealed that many novel transcripts are over-expressed in either larvae- or post-larvae-stage prawn, shedding light on the molecular basis underlying M. rosenbergii metamorphosis. Fast larval molting rates and periodic morphological changes were reflected in over-expression of transcripts annotated to the cell cycle, DNA replication and morphogenic pathways (i.e., Hedgehog and Wnt). Further characterization of transcripts assigned to morphogenic pathways by real-time RT-PCR reconfirmed their over-expression in larvae, albeit with a more complex expression pattern when examined in the individual developmental stages. The expression level of an orthologue of cytochrome P450, 15A1, known to epoxidize methyl farnesoate in insects, was increased in the late larval and early post-larval stages, in accordance with the role of methyl farnesoate in crustacean metamorphosis. This study exemplifies the applicability of a high-throughput sequencing approach for studying complex traits, including metamorphosis, providing new insight into this unexplored area of crustacean research. PMID:23372848

Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Weil, Simy; Sharabi, Omri; Sagi, Amir

2013-01-01

410

NJITMAGAZINE OF CRUSTACEANS,  

E-print Network

to determine how physiological systems function. A crab's simple digestive system, says Farzan Nadim, associate in the central nervous system and what happens when those patterns become abnormal. Research into rhythmic neuron about 30 neurons involved in digestion, it is a good choice for studying the rhythmic pattern of fast

Bieber, Michael

411

Exploring Neurogenesis in Crustaceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes a laboratory exercise that allows students to experimentally examine how the rate of neurogenesis can be altered by environmental factors. Neuronal cell division in crayfish is identified with fluorescently-labeled BrdU and quantified using conventional or confocal microscopy.

Carol Ann Paul (Wellesley College; )

2002-10-30

412

Exploring Neurogenesis in Crustaceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plasticity, learning and memory, and neurological diseaseare exciting topics for students. Discussion around thesesubjects often results in the consideration of the role ofneurogenesis in development, or its involvement in apotential cure for some diseases. We have thereforedesigned a lab that allows students to experimentallyexamine how the rate of neurogenesis can be altered byenvironmental factors. Neuronal cell division in crayfish isidentified with fluorescently-labeled BrdU and quantifiedusing conventional or confocal microscopy.

Carol Ann Paul, Erin M. Goergen, and Barbara S. Beltz (Wellesley College,; )

2008-06-11

413

Multiple Rankine topping cycles  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is primarily determined by the temperatures of heat addition and rejection. However, no working fluid has been identified which will operate in a Rankine cycle over an extremely wide temperature range. Multiple Rankine topping cycles offer a technique for achieving high thermal efficiencies in power plants by allowing the use of several working fluids. This paper gives a history of Rankine topping cycles, presents an analysis for the calculation of the overall efficiency of a three-module multiple Rankine cycle, and presents results from a case study for a sodium-mercury-water cycle.

McWhirter, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Engineering Div.]|[Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Coll. of Engineering

1995-07-01

414

The Influence of Allochthonous Leaf Detritus on the Occurrence of Crustacean Detritivores in the Soft-bottom Macrobenthos of the Po River Delta Area (northwestern Adriatic Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core samples were examined quarterly at two coastal sites (S1 and S2) and at an offshore station (S3) located in the Po River delta area (northwestern Adriatic Sea). Analyses focused on (i) occurrence of coarse detritus of allochthonous origin in the sedimentary matrix and (ii) the relative influence of macrodetritus enrichment and other environmental factors on the vagile macrofauna. Plant debris occurred in site S1 sediments only in summer and autumn; in contrast, fragments of the phanerogams Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera spp. were found in site S2 sediment throughout the sampling period. Sediments from the offshore site S3 were characterized by negligible plant material, even though in summer and autumn samples debris of continental origin was observed. Even though leaf detritus occurrence at site S2 was ˜5-fold higher compared to the other coastal site S1, it did not influence the total organic matter and its distribution among grain-size classes. Conversely, the specific organic content of dimensional fractions provided an effective assessment of detritus enrichment processes occurring at the two coastal sites. A group of brackish-originated crustaceans (i.e. the amphipods Gammarus insensibilis and G. aequicauda and the isopod Idotea baltica) was the main determinant of among-site multivariate differences in the vagile macrofauna; depositivorous ophiuroids accounted for the residual differences observed during the study period. The analysis of taxa abundance and individual body size indicated that in both site S1 and S3 macrodetritus advection to the benthic system corresponded with passive dispersal of brackish crustaceans, that provided a negligible contribution to the macrobenthic production. In contrast, in site S2 allochthonous inputs from marginal environments could have represented the key factor for the persistence of an authochthonous population of Gammarus insensibilis. The amphipod provided a considerable (19·4%) contribution to the total macrobenthic production of the site, dominated by filter-feeding bivalves and tubicolous deposit feeders. The potential effects of detritivorous crustaceans on soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblages of the northern Adriatic Sea are discussed.

Mancinelli, G.; Rossi, L.

2002-05-01

415

Rock Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this interactive rock cycle animation to help you with your schoolwork! This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle.

2010-01-01

416

What-a-cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students act as water molecules and travel through parts of the water cycle (ocean, atmosphere, clouds, glaciers, snow, rivers, lakes, ground, aquifer), noting on a hydrological cycle diagram the pathway traveled.

Jetstream - On-line School for Weather

417

Amazon Water Cycle Roleplay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this creative roleplay activity, learners will explore the various processes of the water cycle using movement, sound, and props to aid in comprehension. Learners will understand that water changes forms throughout the water cycle, and that this cycle runs continuously throughout all the cycles at the same time. This standards-based lesson, which is great for the classroom, camps, or afterschool programs, includes roleplay cards and ideas for props.

California Academy of Sciences

2008-01-01

418

Water Cycle Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and its role in studying the water cycle. This webquest provides links to eight websites, allowing middle school students to explore the water cycle and its impacts on Earth's weather and climate. Through online videos and articles, students follow a water molecule through the cycle, discover the connection between the water cycle and global water/heat distribution, examine the role of solar energy, and assess the importance of fresh water.

419

Characterizing diurnal and seasonal cycles in monsoon systems from TRMM and CEOP observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CEOP Inter-Monsoon Study (CIMS) is one of the two main science drivers of CEOP that aims to (a) provide better understanding of fundamental physical processes in monsoon regions around the world, and (b) demonstrate the synergy and utility of CEOP data in providing a pathway for model physics evaluation and improvement. As the data collection phase for EOP-3 and EOP-4 is being completed, two full annual cycles (2003-2004) of research-quality data sets from satellites, reference sites, and model output location time series (MOLTS) have been processed and made available for data analyses and model validation studies. This article presents preliminary results of a CIMS study aimed at the characterization and intercomparison of all major monsoon systems. The CEOP reference site data proved its value in such exercises by being a powerful tool to cross-validate the TRMM data, and to intercompare with multi-model results in ongoing work. We use 6 years (1998-2003) of pentad CEOP/TRMM data with 2deg x 2.5deg latitude-longitude grid, over the domain of interests to define the monsoon climatological diurnal and annual cycles for the East Asian Monsoon (EAM), the South Asian Monsoon (SAM), the West Africa Monsoon (WAM), the North America/Mexican Monsoon (NAM), the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) and the Australian Monsoon (AUM). As noted, the TRMM data used in the study were cross-validated using CEOP reference site data, where applicable. Results show that the observed diurnal cycle of rain peaked around late afternoon over monsoon land, and early morning over the oceans. The diurnal cycles in models tend to peak 2-3 hours earlier than observed. The seasonal cycles of the EAM and SAM show the strongest continentality, i.e, strong control by continental processes away from the ITCZ. The WAM, and the AUM shows the less continentality, i.e, strong control by the oceanic ITCZ.

Lau, William K. M.

2006-01-01

420

Characterizing Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles in Monsoon Systems from TRMM and CEOP Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CEOP Inter-Monsoon Study (CIMS) is one of the two main science drivers of CEOP that aims to (a) provide better understanding of fundamental physical processes in monsoon regions around the world, and (b) demonstrate the synergy and utility of CEOP data in providing a pathway for model physics evaluation and improvement. As the data collection phase for EOP-3 and EOP-4 is being completed, two full annual cycles (2003-2004) of research-quality data sets from satellites, reference sites, and model output location time series (MOLTS) have been processed and made available for data analyses and model validation studies. This article presents preliminary results of a CIMS study aimed at the characterization and intercomparison of all major monsoon systems. The CEOP reference site data proved its value in such exercises by being a powerful tool to cross-validate the TRMM data, and to intercompare with multi-model results in ongoing work. We use 6 years (1998-2003) of pentad CEOP/TRMM data with 2 deg x 2.5 deg. latitude-longitude grid, over the domain of interests to define the monsoon climatological diurnal and annual cycles for the East Asian Monsoon (EAM), the South Asian Monsoon (SAM), the West Africa Monsoon (WAM), the North America/Mexican Monsoon (NAM), the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) and the Australian Monsoon (AUM). As noted, the TRMM data used in the study were cross-validated using CEOP reference site data, where applicable. Results show that the observed diurnal cycle of rain peaked around late afternoon over monsoon land, and early morning over the oceans. The diurnal cycles in models tend to peak 2-3 hours earlier than observed. The seasonal cycles of the EAM and SAM show the strongest continentality, i.e, strong control by continental processes away from the ITCZ. The WAM, and the AUM shows the less continentality, i.e, strong control by the oceanic ITCZ.

Lau, William K. M.

2007-01-01

421

The Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a poster about the rock cycle! Directions: Make a poster about the rock cycle. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about the rock cycle. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

Walls, Mrs.

2011-01-30

422

The Anderson Quin Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to make a more refined evaluation of the Anderson Quin Cycle based on most recent information on the performance of various elements that will be used in the Anderson Quin Cycle. My original estimate of the work plan for evaluating and optimizing the Anderson Quin Cycle called for 7000 man hours of work. Since

J. H. Anderson; W. M. Bilbow

1993-01-01