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1

What is molt-inhibiting hormone? The role of an ecdysteroidogenesis inhibitor in the crustacean molting cycle  

PubMed Central

The in vivo molt-inhibitory effects of the ecdysone biosynthesis inhibitors 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine and xanthurenic acid were investigated. These ecdysone biosynthesis inhibitors, isolated from the eyestalks of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), were injected into eyestalk-ablated crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). The active factor was found to be species-nonspecific within crabs and crayfish. The seasonal profiles of the xanthurenic acid and ecdysone titers exhibited a staggered relationship. Moreover, the activity of a 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine aminotransferase varied during the molting cycle. The data suggested that 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine, which is secreted from the X-organ-sinus gland complex of crustaceans, is released into the hemolymph, and after accumulating at the surface of the Y-organ, is converted into the active form, xanthurenic acid. Xanthurenic acid was found to profoundly repress ecdysteroidogenesis in vitro. PMID:16594067

Naya, Yoko; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Ikeda, Midori; Miki, Wataru; Nakanishi, Koji

1989-01-01

2

Neuropeptide signaling mechanisms in crustacean and insect molting glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in arthropods requires the periodic synthesis of a new exoskeleton and shedding, or molting, of the old exoskeleton. Both processes are initiated and coordinated by ecdysteroid molting hormones synthesized and secreted by a pair of molting glands: Y-organ (YO) in decapod crustaceans and the prothoracic gland (PG) in insects. The primary regulation of arthropod molting glands is mediated by

Joseph A. Covi; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles

2011-01-01

3

Neuropeptide signaling mechanisms in crustacean and insect molting glands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth in arthropods requires the periodic synthesis of a new exoskeleton and shedding, or molting, of the old exoskeleton. Both processes are initiated and coordinated by ecdysteroid molting hormones synthesized and secreted by a pair of molting glands: Y-organ (YO) in decapod crustaceans and the prothoracic gland (PG) in insects. The primary regulation of arthropod molting glands is mediated by

Joseph A. Covi; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles

2012-01-01

4

FIRST-CYCLE MOLTS IN NORTH AMERICAN FALCONIFORMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined 1849 specimens of 20 North American Falconiform species to elucidate the occurrence and nomenclature of partial first-cycle molts. As reported in the literature, American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) and White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) have relatively complete body-feather molts that occur during the first fall; in the kite, this molt can also include up to all rectrices and 2-6 secondaries,

PETER PYLE

5

Regulation of ecdysteroid secretion from the Y-organ by molt-inhibiting hormone in the American crayfish, Procambarus clarkii  

Microsoft Academic Search

In crustaceans, molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) has been proposed to regulate molting by inhibiting the secretion of ecdysteroids from the Y-organ. Thus, MIH titer in the hemolymph should be inversely related to ecdysteroid titers during the molt cycle. However, it has not been demonstrated whether the MIH titer in the hemolymph changes during the molt cycle. The purpose of this study

Teruaki Nakatsuji; Haruyuki Sonobe

2004-01-01

6

Magnesium-aspartate-based crystallization switch inspired from shell molt of crustacean  

PubMed Central

Many animals such as crustacean periodically undergo cyclic molt of the exoskeleton. During this process, amorphous calcium mineral phases are biologically stabilized by magnesium and are reserved for the subsequent rapid formation of new shell tissue. However, it is a mystery how living organisms can regulate the transition of the precursor phases precisely. We reveal that the shell mineralization from the magnesium stabilized precursors is associated with the presence of Asp-rich proteins. It is suggested that a cooperative effect of magnesium and Asp-rich compound can result into a crystallization switch in biomineralization. Our in vitro experiments confirm that magnesium increases the lifetime of amorphous calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate in solution so that the crystallization can be temporarily switched off. Although Asp monomer alone inhibits the crystallization of pure amorphous calcium minerals, it actually reduces the stability of the magnesium-stabilized precursors to switch on the transformation from the amorphous to crystallized phases. These modification effects on crystallization kinetics can be understood by an Asp-enhanced magnesium desolvation model. The interesting magnesium-Asp-based switch is a biologically inspired lesson from nature, which can be developed into an advanced strategy to control material fabrications. PMID:20007788

Tao, Jinhui; Zhou, Dongming; Zhang, Zhisen; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

2009-01-01

7

The ecdysteroid titer in the female prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii during the molt cycle  

E-print Network

HPI C resolution of ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone from prawn 823. HPLC resolution of ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone from prawn PZ4. 40 43 44 INTRODUCTION Molting in crustaceans results from tissue response to high circula- ting ti ters of a... the silkworm ~Bomb x mori (Butenandt and Karlson, 1954) and its subsequent structure determination (Huber and Hoppe, 1965), other arthropod ecdysteroids have been isolated and identified: 20-hydroxyecdysone (crustecdysone, ecdysterone, a-ecdysone) (Hampshire...

Newitt, Richard Allen

2012-06-07

8

MOLT-RELATED SUSCEPTIBILITY AND REGENERATIVE LIMB GROWTH AS SENSITIVE INDICATORS OF AQUATIC POLLUTANT TOXICITY TO CRUSTACEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The study evaluated the comparative toxicity of various pollutants to intermolt and molting grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). Most of the tested materials (pentachlorophenol, tetrachlorophenols, trichlorophenols, methylenebis dichlorophenol, dibutyl phthalate, chromium, and dril...

9

Cuticle Ultrastructure Changes in the Crab Scylla serrata Over the Molt Cycle.  

PubMed

Morphological and chemical studies on the cuticle during the molt cycle of the crab Scylla serrata were performed in order to understand the layer formation. Cuticle ultrastructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy-dispersive, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence analysis were used for identification of the elements and phases in the inner surface of the cuticle. In the first stage (A) of cuticle formation, a thin pellicle organized as an irregular fragmented structure is built. It is composed mainly of alpha-chitin/protein beta-keratin-like complexes where heterogeneous mineral nucleation occur. It is impregnated by ferric concretions, responsible for the brown colour of the carapace. At the beginning of the mineralization process, a spheroidal inorganic phase appears consisting of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) Ca/P=1.00, octacalcium phosphate (OCP) Ca/P=1.33 associated with hydromagnesite and bromapatite traces. During further cuticle development in the remaining A stage and in the beginning of the B stage, calcite and magnesian calcite are formed from the precursor calcium phosphate phase. The next development in the C stages is characterized by intense calcareous thickening consisting mainly of calcite and of magnesian calcite, which become the major mineral fraction of the cuticle. Organic-inorganic complex precipitations exhibit different aspects as spongiform, filamentary helicoidal, and concentric radial arrangements during C1, C2, and C3, respectively. During different stages of the cuticle formation in Scylla serrata, these mineral deposits may partially result from the balance among different organic contents, mainly between alpha-chitin and protein beta-keratin-like compounds. On the other hand, the calcium crystallization on apatite and calcite polymorphic structures may be influenced by variations of physico-chemical factors in the cuticle compartment. J. Exp. Zool. 293:414-426, 2002. PMID:12210124

Pratoomchat, Boonyarath; Sawangwong, Pichan; Guedes, Ricardo; Reis Md, Maria de lurdes; Machado, Jorge

2002-09-01

10

Calcium bodies of Titanethes albus (Crustacea: Isopoda): molt-related structural dynamics and calcified matrix-associated bacteria.  

PubMed

Crustaceans form a variety of calcium deposits in which they store calcium necessary for the mineralization of their exoskeletons. Calcium bodies, organs containing large amounts of calcium, have been reported in some terrestrial isopod crustaceans, but have not yet been extensively studied. We analyzed the architecture of these organs during the molt cycle in the isopod Titanethes albus. Two pairs of calcium bodies are positioned ventrolaterally in posterior pereonites of T. albus. Individual organs are epithelial sacs that contain material arranged in concentric layers delimited by thin laminae. As demonstrated by electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization, abundant bacteria are present within the calcium bodies. Regardless of the molt cycle stage, crystalline concretions are present in the central areas of the calcium bodies. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the concretions demonstrated that they are composed predominantly of calcium and phosphorus and selected area electron diffraction indicated the presence of hydroxyapatite. In molting animals, a glassy layer of mineralized matrix is formed between the envelope and the outermost lamina of the calcium body. This layer consists of an amorphous calcium mineral which contains less phosphorus than the central concretions and is resorbed after molt. Since changes in the mineralized matrix are synchronized with the molt cycle, the calcium bodies likely function as a storage compartment that complements sternal deposits as a source of calcium for the mineralization of the exoskeleton. Bacteria associated with the mineralized matrix of calcium bodies are evidently involved in calcium dynamics. PMID:22651964

Vittori, Miloš; Kostanjšek, Rok; Znidarši?, Nada; Zagar, Kristina; Ceh, Miran; Strus, Jasna

2012-10-01

11

Molting Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most students are unaware of the process of molting, but it is an animal characteristic they're sure to be interested in and should have the opportunity to observe. Through a two-month long unit on animal molting, kindergarteners observed pill bugs, crayfish, an anole, and an alligator lizard. Through these hands-on adventures, incorporating integrated topics, students observed how different animals grow and began to discover what it means to "be a scientist."

Arce, Christina

2006-04-01

12

Molt cycle-dependent molecular chaperone and polyubiquitin gene expression in lobster  

PubMed Central

Lobster claw muscle undergoes atrophy in correlation with increasing ecdysteroid (steroid molting hormone) titers during premolt. In vivo molecular chaperone (constitutive heat shock protein 70 [Hsc70], heat shock protein 70 [Hsp70], and Hsp90) and polyubiquitin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were examined in claw and abdominal muscles from individual premolt or intermolt lobsters. Polyubiquitin gene expression was assayed as a marker for muscle atrophy. Both Hsc70 and Hsp90 mRNA levels were significantly induced in premolt relative to intermolt lobster claw muscle, whereas Hsp70 mRNA levels were not. Hsp90 gene expression was significantly higher in premolt claw muscle when compared with abdominal muscle. Polyubiquitin mRNA levels were elevated in premolt when compared with intermolt claw muscle and significantly elevated relative to premolt abdominal muscle. PMID:14984059

Spees, Jeffrey L.; Chang, Sharon A.; Mykles, Donald L.; Snyder, Mark J.; Chang, Ernest S.

2003-01-01

13

Primary molt of California condors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Primary molt of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) was studied intensively from 1982 through 1985, using repeated flight photographs of the remaining individuals in the wild population as a basis for most analyses. On the average, wild condors replaced 4.4 of the 8 emarginated primaries on each wing each year. The sepcific primaries molted were generally the ones missed in the previous year and were usually well-distributed among the eight possibilities, with a tendency for low-numbered primaries to molt earlier than high-numbered primaries. Within individuals, molt of one wing was commonly very different from that of the other wing. Primarily molt of captive juveniles was similar to that of wild juveniles. The interval from loss to full replacement of individual primary feathers was normally 3 1/2 to 4 months, with the primaries closest to the leading edge of the wing growing most slowly. Most primarities were shed between 1 February and 1 September. Primaries lost in late fall and early winter were not replaced until the following summer, indicating interrupted molt over the winter. In general, primary molt of the condor differs from that of smaller cathartids in being highly seasonal, highly variable in sequence, highly asymmetric between wings, and in following a roughly 2-year cycle. Molt of the condor shows many similarities to that of the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) and to that of large accipitrid vultures.

Snyder, N.F.R.; Johnson, E.V.; Clendenen, D.A.

1987-01-01

14

Molting Mania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most children are unaware of the process of molting, the periodic shedding and replacement of part or all of a coat or an outer covering of an animal, but it is an animal characteristic they are sure to be interested in and should have the opportunity to observe. In this article, the author shares how she and her students observed various…

Arce, Christina

2006-01-01

15

Molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding red pigment-concentrating hormone in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon: Implication of its function in molt and osmoregulation.  

PubMed

Red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) is a member of the AKH/RPCH peptide family present mainly in crustaceans and insects. Insect AKH is responsible for metabolic functions whereas RPCH plays a major role in the aggregation of red chromatophores in crustaceans. In this study, a full-length cDNA of RPCH of the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (PmRPCH) was cloned by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends strategies from the eyestalk RNA. A 770 bp full-length PmRPCH cDNA harbored 279 bp of an open reading frame encoding a signal peptide of 21 amino acid residues, an 8 amino acid mature RPCH peptide, followed by 61 amino acid residues of a RPCH precursor-related peptide. The highest levels of PmRPCH mRNA expression were detected in eyestalks while lower expression was found in other nervous tissues i.e. brain, thoracic ganglia and abdominal nerve cord. Expression of PmRPCH was transiently stimulated upon hypersalinity change within 12 h suggesting its osmoregulatory function. During the molting cycle, PmRPCH in the eyestalk was expressed at the lowest level in the early pre-molt stage (D0), then gradually increased over the pre-molt period and reached the highest level in the late pre-molt (D4) and post-molt (AB) stages. RPCH peptide at a dose of 100 pmol also increased gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in 36-48 h after injection. However, PmRPCH did not accelerate the duration of molting cycle. Our results provide the first evidence on the potential function of PmRPCH in molting, probably by mediating hemolymph osmolality and ion transport enzymes during the late pre-molt stage. PMID:24937259

Sathapondecha, Ponsit; Panyim, Sakol; Udomkit, Apinunt

2014-09-01

16

Expression and ecdysteroid responsiveness of the nuclear receptors HR3 and E75 in the crustacean Daphnia magna  

PubMed Central

Ecdysteroids initiate signaling along multiple pathways that regulate various aspects of development, maturation, and reproduction in arthropods. Signaling often involves the induction of downstream transcription factors that either positively or negatively regulate aspects of the pathway. We tested the hypothesis that crustaceans express the nuclear receptors HR3 (ortholog to vertebrate ROR) and E75 (ortholog to vertebrate rev-erb) in response to ecdysteroid signaling. HR3 and E75 cDNAs were cloned from the crustacean Daphnia magna. The DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain of the daphnid HR3 was 95% and 61% identical to those of Drosophila melanogaster. The DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain of the daphnid E75 was 100% and 71% identical to those of D. melanogaster. Both receptors exhibited structural characteristics of binding to DNA as a monomer. The expression of these receptor mRNAs was evaluated through the adult molt cycle and during embryo development. E75 levels were relatively constant throughout the adult molt cycle and through embryo development. HR3 levels were comparable to those of E75 during the initial phases of the adult molt cycle but were elevated ~30-fold at a time in the cycle co-incident with the pre-molt surge in ecdysteroid levels. HR3 mRNA levels in embryos also varied coincident with ecdysteroids levels. To substantiate a role of ecdysteroids in the expression of HR3, daphnids were continuously exposed to 20-hydroxyecdysone and changes in gene expression were measured. HR3 levels were significantly induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone; while E75 levels were minimally affected. These results are consistent with the premise that transcription of HR3 is regulated by ecdysteroids in the crustacean Daphnia magna and that HR3 likely serves as a mediator of ecdysteroid regulatory action in crustaceans. The marginal induction of E75 by 20-hydroxyecdysone may represent limited, tissue or cell-type-specific induction of this transcription factor. PMID:19631716

Hannas, Bethany R.; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

2013-01-01

17

ASPECTS OF MOLTING AND CALCIFICATION IN THE OSTRACOD HETEROCYPRIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ostracod is a marine or freshwater crustacean with a bivalved carapace that encloses the rest of the body. The valves composing the carapace are heavily calci fled and, being an integral part of the exoskeleton, they are shed during each molt. The valves of the new exoskeleton are then calcified while the rest of the exo skeleton remains unmineralized.

ROBERT W. ANGELL

18

Protein production and the molting cycle in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (Nordmann, 1842). II. Hemocyanin and protein synthesis in the midgut gland.  

PubMed

The midgut gland from the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus synthesizes and secretes hemocyanin and proteins linearly for at least 24 hr in vitro. There are no sex-specific differences in the rate of protein and hemocyanin synthesis. During a standard incubation of 5 hr, up to 64% of the newly synthesized protein represents hemocyanin, which is also the predominant secretory protein. There are pronounced changes in the rate of hemocyanin synthesis during the molting cycle which coincide with corresponding changes in total protein synthesis. The titer of protein and hemocyanin synthesis during an intermolt phase exhibits a biphasic profile with the highest values in intermolt stage C4 and in premolt stage D1. PMID:1601257

Spindler, K D; Hennecke, R; Gellissen, G

1992-02-01

19

Molt cycle related changes and effect of short term starvation on the biochemical constituents of the blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus  

PubMed Central

Synthesis and hardening of a new exoskeleton are essential to the arthropod molting process. The present study emphasizes the variations in the levels of hemolymph total free sugars, hepatopancreas glycogen and cuticular proteins during the molting stages of Portunus pelagicus. It also reports the effect of short-term starvation conditions on the biochemical constituents of the hemolymph. Intermolt crabs were subjected to 6 days of starvation and hemolymph samples were taken. Standard biochemical procedures were followed toward the quantification of total proteins, total free sugars and total lipids. The total free sugar level in the hemolymph of P. pelagicus was observed to increase during early premolt D0 (3.108 ± 0.032 g/ml) and a gradual decrease till late postmolt B stage (0.552 ± 0.124 g/ml), suggesting the need for total free sugars to provide energy for the apolysis process. Increase in the levels of hepatopancreas glycogen was observed from 1225 ± 0.04 ?g/mg in early premolt D0 to 1700 ± 0.3 ?g/mg in late premolt D2–3. This is in correlation with the decreased levels of free sugars during premolt stages, suggesting an increase in the storage of glycogen reserves in the hepatopancreas. Cuticular proteins increased during stage B (2.702 ± 0.093 g/ml) and stage C (3.065 ± 0.012 g/ml), indicating exoskeleton hardening and mineralization. Results of the starvation studies clearly showed a steady decline in the level of total free sugars till day 6 (0.099 ± 0.00 g/ml) when compared to the control (8.646 ± 0.08 g/ml). Gradual decrease of total lipids was also observed from the first day of the experiment (6.088 ± 2.44 g/ml) to the last day of the study (0.401 ± 0.20 g/ml) which was 85% lesser than the control (8.450 ± 0.49 g/ml)suggesting the efficient usage of total sugars to consolidate the loss of energy reserves during starvation. The knowledge of Molt-cycle events can be used as a tool for the evaluation of the developmental state providing a morphological reference system for physiological and biochemical studies related to crab aquaculture. Starvation studies enlightens that increasing carbohydrate levels in crab feed together with good protein content could alleviate the natural effects of starvation, improve farm productivity and reduce the deleterious impact of nitrogen pollution generated by rich-protein feeds used in crab farming. PMID:23961226

Sugumar, V.; Vijayalakshmi, G.; Saranya, K.

2012-01-01

20

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers disrupt molting in neonatal Daphnia magna.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardants which can bioaccumulate and biomagnify and are found worldwide despite their banned usage in some countries. In recent years, the possibility that PBDEs may disrupt endocrine functions in vertebrates has been well investigated, but little attention has been paid to the endocrine disrupting potential in aquatic invertebrates. The current study aimed to investigate whether PBDEs affect molting in neonatal Daphnia magna. Prior to molting studies, 48 h LC50 values were tested for several environmentally prevalent PBDEs: PBDEs-28, -47, -99, -100 and -209. The 48 h LC50s determined were 110.7, 7.9, 2.6, and 11.1 ?g/L for PBDEs-28, -47, -99, and -100, respectively, but the highest concentration of PBDEs-209 tested (2.5 mg/L) did not affect survival at 48 h. Sublethal concentrations of these were used to investigate their potential effects on molting, assessed by the time taken to reach 4 molts. Molting studies found that PBDE-28 at 12 ?g/L significantly increased the time it took to complete 4 molts. PBDE-47 at 20 ?g/L inhibited daphnid molting initially but such an inhibitory effect disappeared with the prolongation of exposure due to the death of sensitive individuals. No other PBDEs affected molting at the concentrations tested, while still maintaining relatively high survival rates. In conclusion, this study found that PBDEs-28 and -47 can delay molting at ?g/L concentrations, which raises concern for disrupted molting in crustaceans exposed to PBDEs. PMID:22476648

Davies, Rebecca; Zou, Enmin

2012-07-01

21

Qualitative and quantitative changes in exoskeletal proteins synthesized throughout the molt cycle of the Bermuda land crab  

SciTech Connect

During the premolt period in Crustacea, a single layer of epidermal cells that underlies the exoskeleton is thought to be responsible for the degradation of the old exoskeleton and synthesis of a new one. In order to identify molt-specific proteins and their temporal appearance, they cultured epidermis and associated integumentary tissue from the gill chambers of crab in vitro in the presence of one of three radiolabeled amino acids. Autoradiographs of (/sup 35/S)Met-labeled tissues indicate a low level of synthesis in epidermal cells of intermolt animals; synthesis increases during premolt and stage B of postmolt. Label is also found in the innermost layer of the old exoskeleton while it is being degraded and in new exoskeletal layers during their synthesis. Fluorographs of gels of integumentary proteins show marked quantitative changes in 44 and 56 kD proteins late in premolt. Qualitative changes include synthesis of 46 and 48 kD proteins during late premolt and three proteins (all of approx. 170 kD) detectable only in postmolt. Solubilized gel slices of (/sup 3/H)Leu-labeled proteins indicate maximum synthesis at an earlier premolt stage than seen in Met-labeled proteins. Other proteins of 20, 24, 29, 32, and 96 kD are synthesized in a stage-dependent manner while (/sup 3/H)Tyr labels small proteins that appear only in late premolt.

Stringfellow, L.A.; Skinner, D.M.

1987-05-01

22

Testing competing hypotheses for chronology and intensity of lesser scaup molt during winter and spring migration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined chronology and intensity of molt and their relationships to nutrient reserves (lipid and protein) of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinisK/i>) to test predictions of two competing hypotheses. The "staggered cost" hypothesis states that contour-feather molt is nutritionally costly and should not occur during nutritionally costly periods of the annual cycle unless adequate nutrients are available. The "breeding plumage" hypothesis states that prealternate molt must be complete prior to nesting, regardless of nutrient availability. Males and females were completing prebasic molt during winter (Louisiana) and had similar molt intensities. Females underwent prealternate molt during spring migration (Illinois and Minnesota) and prebreeding (Manitoba) periods; 53% and 93% of females were in moderate to heavy molt in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively, despite experiencing other substantial nutritional costs. Intensity of prealternate molt was not correlated with lipid reserves even though females, on average, were nutritionally stressed. Molt intensity was not negatively correlated with protein reserves at any location. Chronology and intensity of prealternate molt varied little and were not temporally staggered from other nutritionally costly events. Prealternate molt did not influence nutrient reserves, and nutrient reserves likely were not the ultimate factor influencing chronology or intensity of prealternate molt of females. We surmise that nutrients required for prealternate molt come from exogenous sources and that the "staggered cost" hypothesis does not explain chronology of prealternate molt in female Lesser Scaup; rather, it appears that molt must be complete prior to nesting, consistent with the "breeding plumage" hypothesis.

Anteau, Michael J.; Anteau, Andrea C.E.; Afton, Alan D.

2011-01-01

23

Adult neurogenesis and cell cycle regulation in the crustacean olfactory pathway: from glial precursors to differentiated neurons  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis is a characteristic feature of the olfactory pathways of decapod crustaceans. In crayfish and clawed lobsters, adult-born neurons are the progeny of precursor cells with glial characteristics located in a neurogenic niche on the ventral surface of the brain. The daughters of these precursor cells migrate during S and G2 stages of the cell cycle along glial fibers to lateral (cluster 10) and medial (cluster 9) proliferation zones. Here, they divide (M phase) producing offspring that differentiate into olfactory interneurons. The complete lineage of cells producing neurons in these animals, therefore, is arranged along the migratory stream according to cell cycle stage. We have exploited this model to examine the influence of environmental and endogenous factors on adult neurogenesis. We find that increased levels of serotonin upregulate neuronal production, as does maintaining animals in an enriched (versus deprived) environment or augmenting their diet with omega-3 fatty acids; increased levels of nitric oxide, on the other hand, decrease the rate of neurogenesis. The features of the neurogenic niche and migratory streams, and the fact that these continue to function in vitro, provide opportunities unavailable in other organisms to explore the sequence of cellular and molecular events leading to the production of new neurons in adult brains. PMID:17624620

Sullivan, Jeremy M.; Sandeman, David C.; Benton, Jeanne L.

2009-01-01

24

Neuropeptide Action in Insects and Crustaceans*  

PubMed Central

Physiological processes are regulated by a diverse array of neuropeptides that coordinate organ systems. The neuropeptides, many of which act through G protein–coupled receptors, affect the levels of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) and Ca2+ in target tissues. In this perspective, their roles in molting, osmoregulation, metabolite utilization, and cardiovascular function are highlighted. In decapod crustaceans, inhibitory neuropeptides (molt-inihibiting hormone and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone) suppress the molting gland through cAMP- and cGMP-mediated signaling. In insects, the complex movements during ecdysis are controlled by ecdysis-triggering hormone and a cascade of downstream neuropeptides. Adipokinetic/hypertrehalosemic/hyperprolinemic hormones mobilize energy stores in response to increased locomotory activity. Crustacean cardioacceleratory (cardioactive) peptide, proctolin, and FMRFamide-related peptides act on the heart, accessory pulsatile organs, and excurrent ostia to control hemolymph distribution to tissues. The osmoregulatory challenge of blood gorging in Rhodnius prolixus requires the coordinated release of serotonin and diuretic and antidiuretic hormones acting on the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These studies illustrate how multiple neuropeptides allow for flexibility in response to physiological challenges. PMID:20550437

Mykles, Donald L.; Adams, Michael E.; Gade, Gerd; Lange, Angela B.; Marco, Heather G.; Orchard, Ian

2011-01-01

25

The lunar-tide cycle viewed by crustacean and mollusc gatherers in the State of Para?ba, Northeast Brazil and their influence in collection attitudes  

PubMed Central

Traditional human communities have a wide knowledge of their environment. Collection of animals in estuarine and coastal areas are directly influenced by tidal cycles. The aim of this study is to evaluate the understanding of the tides associated with the lunar cycle held by people who gather crustaceans and molluscs in the State of Paraiba. The empirical knowledge of 20 crab gatherers and 30 mollusc gatherers was recorded through open interviews and structured questionnaires. The results showed that the gatherers have an accurate comprehension of tidal phenomenon based on their exploitation of natural resources, which perpetuates through generations. PMID:16393342

Nishida, Alberto K; Nordi, Nivaldo; Alves, Romulo RN

2006-01-01

26

Gene Expression Changes of Caenorhabditis elegans Larvae during Molting and Sleep-Like Lethargus  

PubMed Central

During their development, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae go through four developmental stages. At the end of each larval stage, nematodes molt. They synthesize a new cuticle and shed the old cuticle. During the molt, larvae display a sleep-like behavior that is called lethargus. We wanted to determine how gene expression changes during the C. elegans molting cycle. We performed transcriptional profiling of C. elegans by selecting larvae displaying either sleep-like behavior during the molt or wake behavior during the intermolt to identify genes that oscillate with the molting-cycle. We found that expression changed during the molt and we identified 520 genes that oscillated with the molting cycle. 138 of these genes were not previously reported to oscillate. The majority of genes that had oscillating expression levels appear to be involved in molting, indicating that the majority of transcriptional changes serve to resynthesize the cuticle. Identification of genes that control sleep-like behavior during lethargus is difficult but may be possible by looking at genes that are expressed in neurons. 22 of the oscillating genes were expressed in neurons. One of these genes, the dopamine transporter gene dat-1, was previously shown in mammals and in C. elegans to control sleep. Taken together, we provide a dataset of genes that oscillate with the molting and sleep-wake cycle, which will be useful to investigate molting and possibly also sleep-like behavior during lethargus. PMID:25409030

Turek, Michal; Bringmann, Henrik

2014-01-01

27

Flexibility and constraints in the molt schedule of long-distance migratory shorebirds: causes and consequences.  

PubMed

Molt is a major component of the annual cycle of birds, the timing and extent of which can affect body condition, survival, and future reproductive success through carry-over effects. The way in which molt is fitted into the annual cycle seems to be a somewhat neglected area which is both of interest and of importance. Study of the causes of annual variation in the timing of molt and its potential consequence in long-distance migratory birds was examined using the Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea, as a model species. Using the maximum likelihood molt models of Underhill and Zucchini (1988, Ibis 130:358-372), the relationship between annual variability in the start dates of molt at the population level with conditions on the breeding area was explored. Adult males typically started early in years when temperature in June on the Arctic breeding grounds were high compared to cold years while adult females molted later in years of high breeding success and/or warm July temperature and vice versa. When molt started later, the duration was often shorter, indicating that late completion of molt might have fitness consequences, probably jeopardizing survival. Evidence of this was seen in the low body condition of birds in years when molt was completed late. The results indicate that these migratory shorebirds follow a fine-tuned annual life cycle, and disturbances at a certain stage can alter next biological events through carry-over effects. PMID:23919143

Barshep, Yahkat; Minton, Clive D T; Underhill, Les G; Erni, Birgit; Tomkovich, Pavel

2013-07-01

28

Flexibility and constraints in the molt schedule of long-distance migratory shorebirds: causes and consequences  

PubMed Central

Molt is a major component of the annual cycle of birds, the timing and extent of which can affect body condition, survival, and future reproductive success through carry-over effects. The way in which molt is fitted into the annual cycle seems to be a somewhat neglected area which is both of interest and of importance. Study of the causes of annual variation in the timing of molt and its potential consequence in long-distance migratory birds was examined using the Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea, as a model species. Using the maximum likelihood molt models of Underhill and Zucchini (1988, Ibis 130:358–372), the relationship between annual variability in the start dates of molt at the population level with conditions on the breeding area was explored. Adult males typically started early in years when temperature in June on the Arctic breeding grounds were high compared to cold years while adult females molted later in years of high breeding success and/or warm July temperature and vice versa. When molt started later, the duration was often shorter, indicating that late completion of molt might have fitness consequences, probably jeopardizing survival. Evidence of this was seen in the low body condition of birds in years when molt was completed late. The results indicate that these migratory shorebirds follow a fine-tuned annual life cycle, and disturbances at a certain stage can alter next biological events through carry-over effects. PMID:23919143

Barshep, Yahkat; Minton, Clive D T; Underhill, Les G; Erni, Birgit; Tomkovich, Pavel

2013-01-01

29

Putative involvement of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoforms in the neuroendocrine mediation of osmoregulation in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.  

PubMed

This study investigates the involvement of eyestalk neuroendocrine factors on osmoregulation in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus maintained in freshwater. Eyestalk removal was followed by a significant decrease in hemolymph osmolality and Na(+) concentration and by a 50% increase in mass after one molting cycle. Several neurohormones have been isolated from the sinus gland through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and different crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)-related peptides, including stereoisomers (L-CHH and D-Phe(3) CHH), have been identified by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A glucose quantification bioassay demonstrated a strong hyperglycemic activity following injection of the immunoreactive chromatographic fractions and showed that the D-Phe(3) CHH was the most efficient. Destalked crayfish were then injected with purified CHH HPLC fractions. The D-Phe(3) CHH fraction significantly increased the hemolymph osmolality and Na(+) content 24 h after injection. Two other CHH-related peptides caused a smaller increase in Na(+) concentration. No significant variation was observed in hemolymph Cl(-) concentration following injection of any of the CHH isoforms. These results constitute the first observation of the effects of a CHH isoform, specifically the D-Phe(3) CHH, on osmoregulatory parameters in a freshwater crustacean. The effects of eyestalk ablation and CHH injection on osmoregulation and the identification of different CHH-related peptides and isoforms in crustaceans are discussed. PMID:12582140

Serrano, Laetitia; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Soyez, Daniel; Charmantier, Guy; Grousset, Evelyse; Aujoulat, Fabien; Spanings-Pierrot, Céline

2003-03-01

30

Molt regulation in green and red color morphs of the crab Carcinus maenas: gene expression of molt-inhibiting hormone signaling components.  

PubMed

In decapod crustaceans, regulation of molting is controlled by the X-organ/sinus gland complex in the eyestalks. The complex secretes molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), which suppresses production of ecdysteroids by the Y-organ (YO). MIH signaling involves nitric oxide and cGMP in the YO, which expresses nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). Molting can generally be induced by eyestalk ablation (ESA), which removes the primary source of MIH, or by multiple leg autotomy (MLA). In our work on Carcinus maenas, however, ESA has limited effects on hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and animals remain in intermolt at 7 days post-ESA, suggesting that adults are refractory to molt induction techniques. Consequently, the effects of ESA and MLA on molting and YO gene expression in C. maenas green and red color morphotypes were determined at intermediate (16 and 24 days) and long-term (~90 days) intervals. In intermediate-interval experiments, ESA of intermolt animals caused transient twofold to fourfold increases in hemolymph ecdysteroid titers during the first 2 weeks. In intermolt animals, long-term ESA increased hemolymph ecdysteroid titers fourfold to fivefold by 28 days post treatment, but there was no late premolt peak (>400 pg ?l(-1)) characteristic of late premolt animals and animals did not molt by 90 days post-ESA. There was no effect of ESA or MLA on the expression of Cm-elongation factor 2 (EF2), Cm-NOS, the beta subunit of GC-I (Cm-GC-I?), a membrane receptor GC (Cm-GC-II) and a soluble NO-insensitive GC (Cm-GC-III) in green morphs. Red morphs were affected by prolonged ESA and MLA treatments, as indicated by large decreases in Cm-EF2, Cm-GC-II and Cm-GC-III mRNA levels. ESA accelerated the transition of green morphs to the red phenotype in intermolt animals. ESA delayed molting in premolt green morphs, whereas intact and MLA animals molted by 30 days post treatment. There were significant effects on YO gene expression in intact animals: Cm-GC-I? mRNA increased during premolt and Cm-GC-III mRNA decreased during premolt and increased during postmolt. Cm-MIH transcripts were detected in eyestalk ganglia, the brain and the thoracic ganglion from green intermolt animals, suggesing that MIH in the brain and thoracic ganglion prevents molt induction in green ESA animals. PMID:24198255

Abuhagr, Ali M; Blindert, Jennifer L; Nimitkul, Sukkrit; Zander, Ian A; Labere, Stefan M; Chang, Sharon A; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2014-03-01

31

Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod feeding on skin, mucus and blood from salmonid hosts. Initial analysis of EST sequences from pre adult and adult stages of L. salmonis revealed a large proportion of novel transcripts. In order to link unknown transcripts to biological functions we have combined EST sequencing and microarray analysis to characterize female salmon louse transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production. Results EST sequence analysis shows that 43% of the ESTs have no significant hits in GenBank. Sequenced ESTs assembled into 556 contigs and 1614 singletons and whenever homologous genes were identified no clear correlation with homologous genes from any specific animal group was evident. Sequence comparison of 27 L. salmonis proteins with homologous proteins in humans, zebrafish, insects and crustaceans revealed an almost identical sequence identity with all species. Microarray analysis of maturing female adult salmon lice revealed two major transcription patterns; up-regulation during the final molting followed by down regulation and female specific up regulation during post molting growth and egg production. For a third minor group of ESTs transcription decreased during molting from pre-adult II to immature adults. Genes regulated during molting typically gave hits with cuticula proteins whilst transcripts up regulated during post molting growth were female specific, including two vitellogenins. Conclusion The copepod L.salmonis contains high a level of novel genes. Among analyzed L.salmonis proteins, sequence identities with homologous proteins in crustaceans are no higher than to homologous proteins in humans. Three distinct processes, molting, post molting growth and egg production correlate with transcriptional regulation of three groups of transcripts; two including genes related to growth, one including genes related to egg production. The function of the regulated transcripts is discussed in relation to post molting morphological changes in adult female salmon louse. There is clear evidence that transcription of the major yolk proteins is not induced before some of the post molting growth of abdomen and the genital segment has occurred. A hallmark for the observed growth is transcription of many putative cuticula proteins prior to the size increase. PMID:18331648

Eichner, Christiane; Frost, Petter; Dysvik, Bjarte; Jonassen, Inge; Kristiansen, Bj?rn; Nilsen, Frank

2008-01-01

32

Cloning of a nitric oxide synthase from green shore crab, Carcinus maenas: A comparative study of the effects of eyestalk ablation on expression in the molting glands (Y-organs) of C. maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molting in decapod crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids produced by a pair of Y-organs (YOs) located in the cephalothorax. YO ecdysteroidogenesis is suppressed by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the X-organ of the eyestalk (ES) ganglia. MIH signaling may involve nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). A full-length cDNA encoding Carcinus maenas NOS (Cm-NOS; 3836

Audrey A. McDonald; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles

2011-01-01

33

Timing of molt of barn swallows is delayed in a rare Clock genotype  

PubMed Central

Photoperiodic responses are major factors entraining circannual life-cycles, functioning to adaptively synchronize annual routines to seasonal fluctuations in ecological conditions. Photoperiodism in physiology and behaviour is enforced by genes, including the vertebrate Clock orthologues, which are associated, for example, with phenology of migration in fish and breeding in birds. However, the role of Clock in photoperiodic plumage molt processes is unknown. We analyzed variation in molt schedules in relation to Clock genotype, using the long-distance migratory barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) as a model and by identifying males and females using molecular sexing techniques. Consistently with previous studies, we found one very common (Q7) and two rare (Q6, Q8) variants of a functionally significant Clock polyglutamine repeat. Molt schedules of primary wing feathers of swallows during their wintering period in Nigeria differed among Clock genotypes: rare (1.1%) Q7/Q8 heterozygotes had significantly delayed molt compared to the other genotypes. Molt schedules did not differ between males and females, and no differential association between molt and Clock in relation to sex emerged. The same rare Clock genotype that exhibited delayed breeding in Europe was here found to delay molt in Africa. Though based on a limited number of Q7/Q8 individuals from an otherwise very large sample, these novel results suggest that Clock is involved in the photoperiodic control of both molt and breeding, potentially also via reciprocal carry-over effects. If confirmed in species with higher Clock polymorphism, present results may have far-reaching consequences for the study of photoperiodic control of molt and expression of annual routines. PMID:23638351

Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Fasola, Mauro; Lardelli, Roberto; Micheloni, Pierfrancesco; Scandolara, Chiara; Rubolini, Diego; Gianfranceschi, Luca

2013-01-01

34

Timing of molt of barn swallows is delayed in a rare Clock genotype.  

PubMed

Photoperiodic responses are major factors entraining circannual life-cycles, functioning to adaptively synchronize annual routines to seasonal fluctuations in ecological conditions. Photoperiodism in physiology and behaviour is enforced by genes, including the vertebrate Clock orthologues, which are associated, for example, with phenology of migration in fish and breeding in birds. However, the role of Clock in photoperiodic plumage molt processes is unknown. We analyzed variation in molt schedules in relation to Clock genotype, using the long-distance migratory barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) as a model and by identifying males and females using molecular sexing techniques. Consistently with previous studies, we found one very common (Q 7) and two rare (Q 6, Q 8) variants of a functionally significant Clock polyglutamine repeat. Molt schedules of primary wing feathers of swallows during their wintering period in Nigeria differed among Clock genotypes: rare (1.1%) Q 7/Q 8 heterozygotes had significantly delayed molt compared to the other genotypes. Molt schedules did not differ between males and females, and no differential association between molt and Clock in relation to sex emerged. The same rare Clock genotype that exhibited delayed breeding in Europe was here found to delay molt in Africa. Though based on a limited number of Q 7/Q 8 individuals from an otherwise very large sample, these novel results suggest that Clock is involved in the photoperiodic control of both molt and breeding, potentially also via reciprocal carry-over effects. If confirmed in species with higher Clock polymorphism, present results may have far-reaching consequences for the study of photoperiodic control of molt and expression of annual routines. PMID:23638351

Saino, Nicola; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Fasola, Mauro; Lardelli, Roberto; Micheloni, Pierfrancesco; Scandolara, Chiara; Rubolini, Diego; Gianfranceschi, Luca

2013-01-01

35

When the Seasons Don't Fit: Speedy Molt as a Routine Carry-Over Cost of Reproduction  

PubMed Central

The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica, between reproduction and wing feather molt carried out in the non-breeding period in the Dutch Wadden Sea. We compared primary molt duration between birds undertaking the full migratory and breeding schedule with birds that forego breeding because they are young or are maintained in captivity. Molt duration was ca. 71 days in breeding adults, which was achieved by an accelerated feather replacement strategy. Second-year birds and captive adults took ca. 22% and 27% longer, respectively. Second-year birds start molt in late June, more than four weeks before captive adults, and almost seven weeks before adults that return from breeding in late July–August. Adults finish molt in October when steeply increasing thermostatic costs and reductions in food availability occur. Primary molt duration was longer in female than in male knots (all ages), which was accordance with the somewhat larger body size of females. Since fast growth leads to lower quality feathers, the speedy wing molt shown by Arctic-breeding birds may represent a time constraint that is an unavoidable and routine cost of reproduction. So far it was hypothesized that only birds over 1 kg would have difficulty fitting molt within a year. Here we show that in birds an order of magnitude smaller, temporal imperatives may impose the adoption of non-optimal life-cycle routines in the entire actively breeding population. PMID:23349758

Dietz, Maurine W.; Rogers, Ken G.; Piersma, Theunis

2013-01-01

36

Molecular evolution of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family in ecdysozoans  

PubMed Central

Background Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) family peptides are neurohormones known to regulate several important functions in decapod crustaceans such as ionic and energetic metabolism, molting and reproduction. The structural conservation of these peptides, together with the variety of functions they display, led us to investigate their evolutionary history. CHH family peptides exist in insects (Ion Transport Peptides) and may be present in all ecdysozoans as well. In order to extend the evolutionary study to the entire family, CHH family peptides were thus searched in taxa outside decapods, where they have been, to date, poorly investigated. Results CHH family peptides were characterized by molecular cloning in a branchiopod crustacean, Daphnia magna, and in a collembolan, Folsomia candida. Genes encoding such peptides were also rebuilt in silico from genomic sequences of another branchiopod, a chelicerate and two nematodes. These sequences were included in updated datasets to build phylogenies of the CHH family in pancrustaceans. These phylogenies suggest that peptides found in Branchiopoda and Collembola are more closely related to insect ITPs than to crustacean CHHs. Datasets were also used to support a phylogenetic hypothesis about pancrustacean relationships, which, in addition to gene structures, allowed us to propose two evolutionary scenarios of this multigenic family in ecdysozoans. Conclusions Evolutionary scenarios suggest that CHH family genes of ecdysozoans originate from an ancestral two-exon gene, and genes of arthropods from a three-exon one. In malacostracans, the evolution of the CHH family has involved several duplication, insertion or deletion events, leading to neuropeptides with a wide variety of functions, as observed in decapods. This family could thus constitute a promising model to investigate the links between gene duplications and functional divergence. PMID:20184761

2010-01-01

37

Effect of adenosine on the growth of human T-lymphocyte leukemia cell line MOLT-4.  

PubMed

Adenosine has been observed to suppress the growth of MOLT-4 human leukemia cells in vitro. Changes in the cell cycle, especially increased percentage of cells in S phase, prolonged generation time, and induction of apoptosis at higher adenosine concentrations have been found to be responsible for the growth suppression. Dipyridamole, a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, reversed partially but significantly the adenosine-induced growth suppression. It follows from these results that the action of adenosine on the MOLT-4 cells comprises its cellular uptake and intracellular operation. These findings present new data on anticancer efficacy of adenosine. PMID:17882653

Streitová, Denisa; Weiterová, Lenka; Hofer, Michal; Holá, Jirina; Horváth, Viktor; Kozubík, Alois; Znojil, Vladimír

2007-09-01

38

Binding Proteins for an Ecdysone Metabolite in the Crustacean Hepatopancreas  

PubMed Central

When crustacean hepatopancreas is incubated in the presence of ?-3H]ecdysone of high specific activity and is then homogenized and centrifuged, a peak of protein-radioactivity is recovered after gel filtration of the 105,000 × g supernatant. Analysis of this peak by sucrose gradient centrifugation revealed the presence of two complexes of protein and labeled material (?11.5 S and 6.35 S). The same results were obtained in vivo. On standing at low ionic strength, the lighter component disappeared, suggesting that the heavier component is an aggregate of the lighter one. Chemical analysis of radioactive material in the complex revealed that it is not ?- or ?-ecdysone nor any previously described metabolite of the ecdysones. This new metabolite of ?-ecdysone is found mainly in the incubated hepatopancreas. Partial structures consistent with the analytical data are inferred for this metabolite. It is suggested that the metabolite may be active in the action of molting hormone. PMID:4502933

Gorell, Thomas A.; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Siddall, John B.

1972-01-01

39

Molt patterns and weight changes of the American woodcock  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of molt and changes in body weight of American Woodcock was conducted to better understand the summer and fall behavior of these birds and to indicate periods of physiological stress. The postnuptial molt of adults was a complete molt beginning in late June and ending by the middle of October. In contrast, the postjuvenal molt was a less intensive partial molt beginning in mid-July but also extending to the middle of October. Both male and female adult birds experienced weight loss in August during peak molt. Young birds gradually gained weight throughout the summer. Fat deposition was negatively correlated with molt while fall body weights were positively correlated with fat deposition. The data indicated that the majority of Maine woodcock are not physiologically prepared for migration until mid-October. Weights of adult males during the spring suggested that this is an important period of stress for these birds.

Owen, R.B.; Krohn, W.B.

1973-01-01

40

Exploring Neurogenesis in Crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Plasticity, learning and memory, and neurological disease are exciting topics for students. Discussion around these subjects often results in the consideration of the role of neurogenesis in development, or its involvement in a potential cure for some diseases. We have therefore designed a lab that allows students to experimentally examine how the rate of neurogenesis can be altered by environmental factors. Neuronal cell division in crayfish is identified with fluorescently-labeled BrdU and quantified using conventional or confocal microscopy. Recent studies indicate a conservation of mechanisms that control neurogenesis from insects and crustaceans to mammals. Yet the use of invertebrate models such as crayfish or lobsters has advantages over mammalian models. Invertebrate nervous systems have a simpler organization and larger, identifiable neurons – qualities that make such preparations easier for students to manage. This lab offers many opportunities for student designed experiments and discovery-oriented learning by exploring factors that regulate neurogenesis such as environment, hormones and light. This article illustrates our first experience with the lab, using an experiment designed by our students. We include ideas for expansion of this model and suggestions for avoiding potential pitfalls. It is written in the form of a scientific paper, reporting on a single student experiment, to aid as a teaching tool for future classes. PMID:23493254

Paul, Carol Ann; Goergen, Erin M.; Beltz, Barbara S.

2002-01-01

41

Crustacean oxi-reductases protein sequences derived from a functional genomic project potentially involved in ecdysteroid hormones metabolism - a starting point for function examination.  

PubMed

A transcriptomic assembly originated from hypodermis and Y organ of the crustacean Pontastacus leptodactylus is used here for in silico characterization of oxi-reductase enzymes potentially involved in the metabolism of ecdysteroid molting hormones. RNA samples were extracted from male Y organ and its neighboring hypodermis in all stages of the molt cycle. An equimolar RNA mix from all stages was sequenced using next generation sequencing technologies and de novo assembled, resulting with 74,877 unique contigs. These transcript sequences were annotated by examining their resemblance to all GenBank translated transcripts, determining their Gene Ontology terms and their characterizing domains. Based on the present knowledge of arthropod ecdysteroid metabolism and more generally on steroid metabolism in other taxa, transcripts potentially related to ecdysteroid metabolism were identified and their longest possible conceptual protein sequences were constructed in two stages, correct reading frame was deduced from BLASTX resemblances, followed by elongation of the protein sequence by identifying the correct translation frame of the original transcript. The analyzed genes belonged to several oxi-reductase superfamilies including the Rieske non heme iron oxygenases, cytochrome P450s, short-chained hydroxysteroid oxi-reductases, aldo/keto oxireductases, lamin B receptor/sterol reductases and glucose-methanol-cholin oxi-reductatses. A total of 68 proteins were characterized and the most probable participants in the ecdysteroid metabolism where indicated. The study provides transcript and protein structural information, a starting point for further functional studies, using a variety of gene-specific methods to demonstrate or disprove the roles of these proteins in relation to ecdysteroid metabolism in P. leptodactylus. PMID:24055302

Tom, Moshe; Manfrin, Chiara; Giulianini, Piero G; Pallavicini, Alberto

2013-12-01

42

Depression of synaptic efficacy in high- and low-output Drosophila neuromuscular junctions by the molting hormone (20-HE).  

PubMed

The molt-related steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE), was applied to muscles 6 and 7 of third instar larval of Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junction preparations to examine if rapid, nongenomic responses could be observed as was shown recently to occur in crustacean neuromuscular junctions. At a dose of 10 microM, the excitatory junction potentials were reduced in amplitude within minutes. To elucidate the site of action of the hormone, focal-macropatch recordings of synaptic currents were obtained over the neuromuscular junctions. The results showed that the high-output (Is) and the low-output (Ib) motor nerve terminals, which innervate muscles 6 and 7, released fewer synaptic vesicles for each stimulation while exposed to 20-HE. Because the size and shape of synaptic currents from spontaneous releases did not change, the effects of the 20-HE are presynaptic. The rapid effects of this hormone may account in part for the quiescent behavior associated with molts among insects and crustaceans. PMID:10036278

Ruffner, M E; Cromarty, S I; Cooper, R L

1999-02-01

43

Primary feather molt of juvenile mourning doves in Texas  

E-print Network

. Additionally, Swank mentioned that feather molt as an aging criter ion could only be used until significant numbers of both adults and juveniles had completed molt. Swank specif'ied 15 Cctober as the date after which feather plumage could not be used... also observed arrested or delayed molt in juvenile bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), respectively. Other studies, although not dealing specif'ically with the subject of developing aging models or tables, address...

Morrow, Michael Eugene

2012-06-07

44

Expression of recombinant eyestalk crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, that inhibits Y-organ ecdysteroidogenesis in vitro.  

PubMed

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, molting, reproduction, and osmoregulation in decapod crustaceans. CHH elevates glucose levels in the hemolymph by stimulating glycogenolysis in target tissues. It also inhibits ecdysteroidogenesis in the molting gland, or Y-organ (YO), possibly as a response to environmental stress. CHH acts via binding to a membrane receptor guanylyl cyclase, which is expressed in most tissues, including the YO. Large amounts of biologically active neuropeptide are required to investigate the mechanism of CHH signaling in the YO. Consequently, the eyestalk ganglia CHH (EG-CHH) isoform was cloned into a yeast (Pichia pastoris) expression vector to express recombinant mature peptide (rEG-CHH) with or without a C-terminal c-Myc/polyhistidine tag. Yeast cultures with untagged or tagged rEG-CHH inhibited ecdysteroidogenesis in YOs from European green crab (Carcinus maenas) 36% (P < 0.002) and 51% (P < 0.006), respectively. Purified tagged EG-CHH inhibited YO ecdysteroidogenesis 32% (P < 0.002), but lacked hyperglycemic activity in vivo. This is the first report of recombinant EG-CHH inhibiting YO ecdysteroidogenesis. The data suggest that the tagged recombinant peptide can be used to elucidate the CHH signaling pathway in the crustacean molting gland. PMID:18595002

Zarubin, Tyler P; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2009-07-01

45

The ionic hemolymph composition of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber Latr. during molt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the ionic composition of the hemolymph of Porcellio scaber in four different stages of the molt cycle using capillary electrophoresis and calcium selective mini- and microelectrodes.\\u000a The main ions in the hemolymph were K+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg+, and Cl?. The values for total calcium obtained by means of capillary electrophoresis and calcium selective minielectrodes did not\\u000a differ significantly

A. Ziegler; F. H. E. Scholz

1997-01-01

46

Wilson Bull., 102(3), 1990, pp. 469-479 EFFECT OF LONG DAYS ON MOLT AND AUTUMN  

E-print Network

Wilson Bull., 102(3), 1990, pp. 469-479 EFFECT OF LONG DAYS ON MOLT AND AUTUMN MIGRATORY STATE physiological cycle. We caught juncos in winter on their perennial winter home ranges, held them there during these winter-caught birds into three treatment groups. The first two were alike in being exposed indoors

47

Photoperiodic regulation of seasonal reproduction, molt and body weight in the migratory male yellow-breasted bunting (Emberiza aureola).  

PubMed

Photoperiod has been shown to be a major source of temporal information regulating reproduction and associated functions in a number of avian species. We studied seasonal cycles of testicular volume, molt and body weight in natural and temperature-controlled conditions and under different artificial photoperiods in the yellow-breasted buntings. Buntings posses seasonal cycles of testicular volume, molt, body weight and fattening with no major difference between natural and temperature-controlled conditions. These cycles follow an annual solar cycle suggesting the possibility of their photoperiodic control. To confirm this, photosensitive birds were studied under 9L/15D (close to shortest day length), 12L/12D (equinox day length) and 14L/10D (close to longest day length) for 18 months. Buntings showed testicular growth followed by regression and development of photorefractoriness; molt and body weight change only under 12L/12D and 14L/10D but not under 9L/15D. Reinitiation of above responses did not occur following initial cycles under stimulatory photoperiods precluding the possibility of circannual rhythm involvement. Birds exhibited an incomplete prenuptial molt of body feathers during gonadal stimulation under long days followed by complete postnuptial molt of body and primary feathers that progressed with gonadal regression. Exposure of photosensitive birds to light-dark cycles constituting 9-16h of light/day suggested that daily photoperiod of about 12h or more is essential in inducing testicular growth and function. These results clearly indicate that buntings are capable of fine discrimination of photoperiodic information and use annual changes in day length as an environmental factor to time their seasonal responses. PMID:23910635

Dixit, Anand S; Sougrakpam, Ramita

2013-09-01

48

Molt-inhibiting hormone stimulates vitellogenesis at advanced ovarian developmental stages in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus 1: an ovarian stage dependent involvement  

PubMed Central

To understand the hormonal coordination of the antagonism between molting and reproduction in crustaceans, the terminally anecdysial mature female Callinectes sapidus was used as a model. The regulatory roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) in vitellogenesis were examined. A competitive specific RIA was used to measure the levels of MIH and CHH in the hemolymphs of mature females at pre- and mid- vitellogenic stages, and their effects on vitellogenesis at early (early 2, E2) and mid vitellogenesis (3) stages were determined in vitro. A hepatopancreas fragments incubation system was developed and the levels of vitellogenin (VtG), as well as VtG mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear (hn)VtG RNA were determined using RIA or QPCR, respectively. MIH titers were four times higher at mid-vitellogenesis than at pre-vitellogenesis, while CHH levels in the hemolymph were constant. In the in vitro incubation experiments, MIH increased both VtG mRNA levels and secretion at ovarian stage 3. At stage E2, however, MIH resulted in a mixed response: downregulation of VtG mRNA and upregulation of hnVtG RNA. CHH had no effect on any of the parameters. Actinomycin D blocked the stimulatory effects of MIH in stage 3 animals on VtG mRNA and VtG, while cycloheximide attenuated only VtG levels, confirming the MIH stimulatory effect at this stage. MIH is a key endocrine regulator in the coordination of molting and reproduction in the mature female C. sapidus, which simultaneously inhibits molt and stimulates vitellogenesis. PMID:19583852

Zmora, Nilli; Trant, John; Zohar, Yonathan; Chung, J Sook

2009-01-01

49

Movements of flightless long-tailed ducks during wing molt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the movements of flightless Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) during the wing molt in the near-shore lagoons of the Beaufort Sea in Alaska. Estimates of site fidelity during the 21-day flightless period ranged from 1-100%, with considerable variation among locations and within locations among years. There was no effect of low-level experimental disturbance or an underwater seismic survey on site fidelity of molting Long-tailed Ducks. Birds molting along a relatively consistent habitat gradient were more likely to move than those molting in a fragmented habitat. While flocks of birds are consistently observed in the same locations, these data suggest considerable turnover within these aggregations. These results, in conjunction with other studies, suggest that forage is relatively uniformly distributed within lagoons. We conclude that habitat selection by molting Long-tailed Ducks is likely influenced by protection from wind and associated waves.

Flint, P.L.; Lacroix, D.L.; Reed, J.A.; Lanctot, R.B.

2004-01-01

50

Hemolymph proteins in marine crustaceans  

PubMed Central

This study is done with the aim to bring together the various antimicrobial peptides that are present in the crustacean hemolymph and their sources along with its characteristics. Invertebrates lack immune systems that involve antigen-antibody reactions and do not have an immune memory, therefore most invertebrate species show no evidence of acquired immunity. Crustaceans possess an open circulatory system, where nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and cells are distributed in the hemolymph. They lack adaptive immune system and rely exclusively on their innate immune mechanisms that include both cellular and humoral responses. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins form an important means of host defense in eukaryotes. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have functions in inflammation, wound repair and regulation of the adaptive immune system. Over the past several years, many antimicrobial peptides have been found and characterized in crabs. PMID:23569958

Fredrick, W Sylvester; Ravichandran, S

2012-01-01

51

Tyrosinases from crustaceans form hexamers.  

PubMed Central

Tyrosinases, which are widely distributed among animals, plants and fungi, are involved in many biologically essential functions, including pigmentation, sclerotization, primary immune response and host defence. In the present study, we present a structural and physicochemical characterization of two new tyrosinases from the crustaceans Palinurus elephas (European spiny lobster) and Astacus leptodactylus (freshwater crayfish). In vivo, the purified crustacean tyrosinases occur as hexamers composed of one subunit type with a molecular mass of approx. 71 kDa. The tyrosinase hexamers appear to be similar to the haemocyanins, based on electron microscopy. Thus a careful purification protocol was developed to discriminate clearly between tyrosinases and the closely related haemocyanins. The physicochemical properties of haemocyanins and tyrosinases are different with respect to electronegativity and hydrophobicity. The hexameric nature of arthropod tyrosinases suggests that these proteins were the ideal predecessors from which to develop the oxygen-carrier protein haemocyanin, with its allosteric and co-operative properties, later on. PMID:12466021

Jaenicke, Elmar; Decker, Heinz

2003-01-01

52

Tyrosinases from crustaceans form hexamers.  

PubMed

Tyrosinases, which are widely distributed among animals, plants and fungi, are involved in many biologically essential functions, including pigmentation, sclerotization, primary immune response and host defence. In the present study, we present a structural and physicochemical characterization of two new tyrosinases from the crustaceans Palinurus elephas (European spiny lobster) and Astacus leptodactylus (freshwater crayfish). In vivo, the purified crustacean tyrosinases occur as hexamers composed of one subunit type with a molecular mass of approx. 71 kDa. The tyrosinase hexamers appear to be similar to the haemocyanins, based on electron microscopy. Thus a careful purification protocol was developed to discriminate clearly between tyrosinases and the closely related haemocyanins. The physicochemical properties of haemocyanins and tyrosinases are different with respect to electronegativity and hydrophobicity. The hexameric nature of arthropod tyrosinases suggests that these proteins were the ideal predecessors from which to develop the oxygen-carrier protein haemocyanin, with its allosteric and co-operative properties, later on. PMID:12466021

Jaenicke, Elmar; Decker, Heinz

2003-04-15

53

DEFINITIVE PREBASIC MOLT OF GRAY CATBIRDS AT TWO SITES IN NEW ENGLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the pattern and timing of prebasic molt in adult Gray Catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) at two New England sites: Block Island, Rhode Island (BIRI), and the Vermont Institute of Natural Science (VINS) in Woodstock, Vermont. Catbirds at VINS initiated molt earlier and molted at a significantly slower rate than catbirds at BIRI. Mean individual molt durations spanned approximately 54

Colleen Dwyer Heise; Christopher C. Rimmer

2000-01-01

54

ECCENTRIC FIRST-YEAR MOLT PATrERNS IN CERTAIN TYRANNID FLYCATCHE!.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most passerines follow a similar sequence of remex molt, replacement of the primaries commencing with the innermost and proceeding distally, while that of the secondaries (except for the tertials, S7-S9) begins with the outermost and proceeds proximally (Ginn and Melville 1983). During the first- year molts (here defined as all periods of molting before the second prebasic molt), many passerines

PETER PYLE

55

Primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in North and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Examination of 8,141 adult mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in North and South Carolina revealed that substantial numbers complete primary feather molt in September. Adult mourning doves shed primaries at the rate of 1 per 14 days. No difference was found in this rate between sexes or among years, 1969-74. The initiation of molt differed from year to year, and female molt always preceded male molt. Available data show that southern doves complete primary molt a month earlier than northern doves. Therefore, age based on primary molt can be biased upward if all molt-complete wings from southern hunting samples are considered immature.

Haas, G.H.; Amend, S.R.

1979-01-01

56

Molt and taxonomy of red-breasted nuthatches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The postnuptial and postjuvenal molts of Red-breasted Nuthatches occur from middle June to late September. Some birds may be nearly finished with the complete molt before other individuals begin, so that specimens taken at any given time may differ by as much as two months in the age of their plumage. No characters useful in ageing birds after the completion of the autumn molt were found.....The proposed racial subdivision of Sitta canadensis was based on misleading evidence resulting from variation of plumage age in birds assumed to be seasonally comparable, sooting of birds in industrialized parts of the country, and variation in quality of prepared specimens.

Banks, R.C.

1970-01-01

57

California condor plumage and molt as field study aids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An analysis is made of the reliability of plumage and molt characteristics of the California condor for estimating age and identifying individual birds. Neither character seems sufficiently reliable to use in more than a general way.

Wilbur, S.R.

1975-01-01

58

Orthologues of the Drosophila melanogaster E75 molting control gene in the filarial parasites Brugia malayi and Dirofilaria immitis.  

PubMed

Filarial parasites cause debilitating diseases in humans and domesticated animals. Brugia malayi and Dirofilaria immitis are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans and dogs, respectively. Their life cycle is punctuated by a series of cuticular molts as they move between different hosts and tissues. An understanding of the genetic basis for these developmental transitions may suggest potential targets for vaccines or chemotherapeutics. Nuclear receptor (NR) proteins have been implicated in molting in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and have well characterized roles in molting during larval development of Drosophila melanogaster. For example, the D. melanogaster E75 (NR1D3) NR gene is required for molting and metamorphosis, as well as egg chamber development in adult females. We have identified Bm-nhr-11and Di-nhr-6, B. malayi and D. immitis orthologues of E75. Both genes encode canonical nuclear receptor proteins, are developmentally regulated, and are expressed in a sex-specific manner in adults. PMID:17942167

Crossgrove, Kirsten; Maina, Claude V; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Lochner, Megan C

2008-01-01

59

Changes in Timing, Duration, and Symmetry of Molt of Hawaiian Forest Birds  

PubMed Central

Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650–1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989–1999 and 2000–2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989–1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000–2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds. PMID:22279547

Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.

2012-01-01

60

Crustacean motor pattern generator networks.  

PubMed

Crustacean motor pattern-generating networks have played central roles in understanding the cellular and network bases of rhythmic motor patterns for over half a century. We review here the four best investigated of these systems: the stomatogastric, ventilatory, cardiac, and swimmeret systems. Generally applicable observations arising from this work include (1) neurons with active, endogenous cell properties (endogenous bursting, postinhibitory rebound, plateau potentials), (2) nonhierarchical (distributed) network synaptic connectivity patterns characterized by high levels of inter-neuronal connections, (3) nonspiking neurons and graded transmitter release, (4) multiple modulatory inputs, (5) networks that produce multiple patterns and have flexible boundaries, and (6) peripheral properties (proprioceptive feedback loops, low-frequency muscle filtering) playing an important role in motor pattern generation or expression. PMID:15004425

Hooper, Scott L; DiCaprio, Ralph A

2004-01-01

61

Neural mechanism of optimal limb coordination in crustacean swimming.  

PubMed

A fundamental challenge in neuroscience is to understand how biologically salient motor behaviors emerge from properties of the underlying neural circuits. Crayfish, krill, prawns, lobsters, and other long-tailed crustaceans swim by rhythmically moving limbs called swimmerets. Over the entire biological range of animal size and paddling frequency, movements of adjacent swimmerets maintain an approximate quarter-period phase difference with the more posterior limbs leading the cycle. We use a computational fluid dynamics model to show that this frequency-invariant stroke pattern is the most effective and mechanically efficient paddling rhythm across the full range of biologically relevant Reynolds numbers in crustacean swimming. We then show that the organization of the neural circuit underlying swimmeret coordination provides a robust mechanism for generating this stroke pattern. Specifically, the wave-like limb coordination emerges robustly from a combination of the half-center structure of the local central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) that drive the movements of each limb, the asymmetric network topology of the connections between local CPGs, and the phase response properties of the local CPGs, which we measure experimentally. Thus, the crustacean swimmeret system serves as a concrete example in which the architecture of a neural circuit leads to optimal behavior in a robust manner. Furthermore, we consider all possible connection topologies between local CPGs and show that the natural connectivity pattern generates the biomechanically optimal stroke pattern most robustly. Given the high metabolic cost of crustacean swimming, our results suggest that natural selection has pushed the swimmeret neural circuit toward a connection topology that produces optimal behavior. PMID:25201976

Zhang, Calvin; Guy, Robert D; Mulloney, Brian; Zhang, Qinghai; Lewis, Timothy J

2014-09-23

62

Selenoprotein TRXR-1 and GSR-1 are essential for removal of old cuticle during molting in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Selenoproteins, in particular thioredoxin reductase, have been implicated in countering oxidative damage occurring during aging but the molecular functions of these proteins have not been extensively investigated in different animal models. Here we demonstrate that TRXR-1 thioredoxin reductase, the sole selenoprotein in Caenorhabditis elegans, does not protect against acute oxidative stress but functions instead together with GSR-1 glutathione reductase to promote the removal of old cuticle during molting. We show that the oxidation state of disulfide groups in the cuticle is tightly regulated during the molting cycle, and that when trxr-1 and gsr-1 function is reduced, disulfide groups in the cuticle remain oxidized. A selenocysteine-to-cysteine TRXR-1 mutant fails to rescue molting defects. Furthermore, worms lacking SELB-1, the C. elegans homolog of Escherichia coli SelB or mammalian EFsec, a translation elongation factor known to be specific for selenocysteine in E. coli, fail to incorporate selenocysteine, and display the same phenotype as those lacking trxr-1. Thus, TRXR-1 function in the reduction of old cuticle is strictly selenocysteine dependent in the nematode. Exogenously supplied reduced glutathione reduces disulfide groups in the cuticle and induces apolysis, the separation of old and new cuticle, strongly suggesting that molting involves the regulated reduction of cuticle components driven by TRXR-1 and GSR-1. Using dauer larvae, we demonstrate that aged worms have a decreased capacity to molt, and decreased expression of GSR-1. Together, our results establish a function for the selenoprotein TRXR-1 and GSR-1 in the removal of old cuticle from the surface of epidermal cells. PMID:21199936

Stenvall, Jörgen; Fierro-González, Juan Carlos; Swoboda, Peter; Saamarthy, Karunakar; Cheng, Qing; Cacho-Valadez, Briseida; Arnér, Elias S. J.; Persson, Olof P.; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Tuck, Simon

2011-01-01

63

Hormonal treatment and flight feather molt in immature Sandhill Cranes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molt, the production of a new generation of feathers, is a poorly understood physiological phenomenon in nondomestic birds. Often in large birds like geese, flight is restricted by clipping the primary remiges on 1 wing and flight is restored after the molt when the primaries are replaced. A similar technique would be desirable for use with cranes conditioned for release to the native habitat. However, immature sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) did not appear to replace their primaries annually; therefore, we studied their flight feather molt (from 4 months to 3.5 years of age) and attempted to influence molting. Under natural conditions tail feathers (rectrices) were replaced annually and all secondaries replaced in 2.5-year-old birds. However, replacement of primaries in immature sandhill cranes appears to be a gradual process beginning the 2nd year; about 33% of the original primaries (present at 10 months of age) persisted in the 3.5-year-oId birds. Pulling out the primaries of immature sandhill cranes induces the growth of new primaries, as is true of many other birds. However, the new primaries were incapable of supporting flight, fell out repeatedly, and those that remained were often deformed. Pulling the primaries, under the influence of tranquilizers and anesthetics to relax the feather papillae, also did not induce normal growth of the replacement primaries. Progesterone (including excessively high doses), thyroxine, and follicle stimulating hormone, although effective in inducing feather replacement in domestic poultry, had no effect on crane molt.

Gee, G.F.

1982-01-01

64

Identification and developmental expression of mRNAs encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Full-length cDNAs encoding crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) were isolated from several decapod (brachyuran and astacuran) crustaceans: the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, green shore crab Carcinus maenas, European lobster Homarus gamarus and calico crayfish Orconectes immunis. The cDNAs encode open reading frames of 143 (brachyurans) and 139-140 (astacurans) amino acids. Apart from the predicted signal peptides (30-32 amino acids), the conceptually translated precursor codes for a single copy of CCAP and four other peptides that are extremely similar in terms of amino acid sequence within these species, but which clearly show divergence into brachyuran and astacuran groups. Expression patterns of CCAP mRNA and peptide were determined during embryonic development in Carcinus using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry with whole-mount confocal microscopy, and showed that significant mRNA expression (at 50% embryonic development) preceded detectable levels of CCAP in the developing central nervous system (CNS; at 70% development). Subsequent CCAP gene expression dramatically increased during the late stages of embryogenesis (80-100%), coincident with developing immunopositive structures. In adult crabs, CCAP gene expression was detected exclusively in the eyestalk, brain and in particular the thoracic ganglia, in accord with the predominance of CCAP-containing cells in this tissue. Measurement of expression patterns of CCAP mRNA in Carcinus and Callinectes thoracic ganglia throughout the moult cycle revealed only modest changes, indicating that previously observed increases in CCAP peptide levels during premoult were not transcriptionally coupled. Severe hypoxic conditions resulted in rapid downregulation of CCAP transcription in the eyestalk, but not the thoracic ganglia in Callinectes, and thermal challenge did not change CCAP mRNA levels. These results offer the first tantalising glimpses of involvement of CCAP in environmental adaptation to extreme, yet biologically relevant stressors, and perhaps suggest that the CCAP-containing neurones in the eyestalk might be involved in adaptation to environmental stressors. PMID:16985202

Chung, J S; Wilcockson, D C; Zmora, N; Zohar, Y; Dircksen, H; Webster, S G

2006-10-01

65

Putative involvement of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoforms in the neuroendocrine mediation of osmoregulation in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the involvement of eyestalk neuroendocrine factors on osmoregulation in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus maintained in freshwater. Eyestalk removal was followed by a significant decrease in hemolymph osmolality and Na + concentration and by a 50% increase in mass after one molting cycle. Several neurohormones have been isolated from the sinus gland through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and

Laetitia Serrano; Gaëlle Blanvillain; Daniel Soyez; Guy Charmantier; Evelyse Grousset; Fabien Aujoulat; Céline Spanings-Pierrot; Quai Saint-Bernard

2003-01-01

66

Metabolic responses to cold in subterranean crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in polyol, sugar and free amino acid (FAA) body contents were investigated in the aquatic, subterranean (i.e. hypogean) crustaceans Niphargus rhenorhodanensis and Niphargus virei and in a morphologically close aquatic, surface-dwelling (i.e. epigean) crustacean Gammarus fossarum acclimated to 12°C, 3°C and -2°C. With decreasing temperature, G. fossarum significantly increased its alanine and glutamine levels, while trehalose body content was

Julien Issartel; David Renault; Yann Voituron; Alain Bouchereau; Philippe Vernon; Frédéric Hervant

2005-01-01

67

Neurobiology of the Crustacean Swimmeret System  

PubMed Central

The crustacean swimmeret system includes a distributed set of local circuits that individually control movements of one jointed limb. These modular local circuits occur in pairs in each segmental ganglion, and normally operate synchronously to produce smoothly coordinated cycles of limb movements on different body segments. The system presents exceptional opportunities for computational and experimental investigation of neural mechanisms of coordination because: a. The system will express in vitro the periodic motor pattern that normally drives cycles of swimmeret movements during forward swimming. b. The intersegmental neurons which encode information that is necessary and sufficient for normal coordination have been identified, and their activity can be recorded. c. The local commissural neurons that integrate this coordinating information and tune the phase of each swimmeret are known. d. The complete set of synaptic connections between coordinating neurons and these commissural neurons have been described. e. The synaptic connections onto each local pattern-generating circuit through which coordinating information tunes the circuit's phase have been discovered. These factors make possible for the first time a detailed, comprehensive cellular and synaptic explanation of how this neural circuit produces an effective, behaviorally-significant output. This paper is the first comprehensive review of the system's neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, its local and intersegmental circuitry, its transmitter pharmacology, its neuromodulatory control mechanisms, and its interactions with other motor systems. Each of these topics is covered in detail in an attempt to provide a complete review of the literature as a foundation for new research. The series of hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the system's properties are reviewed critically in the context of experimental tests of their validity. PMID:22270044

Mulloney, Brian; Smarandache-Wellmann, Carmen

2012-01-01

68

Artificial rain and cold wind act as stressors to captive molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).  

PubMed

Free-roaming animals continually cope with changes in their environment. One of the most unpredictable environmental phenomena is weather. Being able to respond to weather appropriately is crucial as it can be a threat to survival. The stress response, consisting of increases in heart rate and release of glucocorticoids, is an important mechanism by which animals cope with stressors. This study examined behavioral, heart rate, and corticosterone responses of captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to two aspects of weather mimicked under controlled conditions, a subtle (3 °C) decrease in temperature and a short, mild bout of rain. Both decreased temperature and exposure to rain elicited increases in heart rate and corticosterone in non-molting starlings. Molt is an important life history stage in birds that affects feather cover and may require a different response to weather-related stressors. We repeated the experiment in molting starlings and found increases in heart rate in response to rain and cold wind. However, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis was suppressed during molt, as molting starlings did not increase corticosterone release in response to either stimulus. These data suggest these stimuli induce increased allostatic load in starlings, and that animals may adjust their response depending on the life-history stage. PMID:23277223

de Bruijn, Robert; Romero, L Michael

2013-03-01

69

ALTERATIONS IN THE GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF POLLUTANT STRESS  

EPA Science Inventory

An estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) has been identified as one of the most sensitive members of the estuarine community to pollutant stress (for a review see Nimmo and Hamaker, 1982). n the majority of life-cycle toxicity tests using this planktonic estuarine crustacean, sublet...

70

Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I from Macrobrachium nipponense: cDNA cloning and involvement in molting.  

PubMed

Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade and involved in many physiological processes. The full-length cDNA of calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I (MnCaMKI) was cloned from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense and its expression pattern during the molt cycle and after eyestalk ablation is described. The full-length cDNA of MnCaMKI is 3,262 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,038 bp, encoding a 345 amino acid protein. The expression of MnCaMKI in three examined tissues was upregulated in the premolt stage of the molt cycle. Its expression was induced after eyestalk ablation (ESA): the highest expression level was reached 1 day after ESA in hepatopancreas, and 3 days after ESA in muscle. By dsRNA-mediated RNA interference assay, expression of MnCaMKI and ecydone receptor gene (MnEcR) was significantly decreased in prawns treated by injection of dsMnCaMKI, while expression of these two genes was also significantly decreased in prawns treated by injection of dsMnEcR, demonstrating a close correlation between the expression of these two genes. These results suggest that CaMKI in M. nipponense is involved in molting. PMID:24491503

Shen, Huaishun; Hu, Yacheng; Zhang, Yuanqin; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Zenghong

2014-04-01

71

Effects of diflubenzuron (Dimilin ® ) on survival, molting, and behavior of juvenile fiddler crabs, Uca pugilator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of repetitive 24-hr weekly exposures to diflubenzuron (Dimilin®) on juvenile fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) were studied in static seawater systems for 10 weeks. Crabs surviving the 10-week exposure period were maintained in clean seawater until death. Survival, molting, and behavior were monitored daily. The no-effect concentration (NOEC) for molting (time to the first molt), survival (time until death),

Patricia A. Cunningham; Lawrence E. Myers

1987-01-01

72

[Inhibitory effect of Tanreqing injection on proliferation of T lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Molt4 in vitro and its mechanism].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to explore the effects of Tanreqing injection on the biologic activities of human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Molt4 in vitro and its mechanism. Tanreqing injection was proportionally diluted and divided into 9 groups of different concentrations, including 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, 1:64, 1:128, 1:256 and 1:512. Molt4 cells were treated with those different concentrations of Tanreqing injection, and the cell growth status at various time points of different concentrations was observed under microscope. CCK-8 assay was employed to detect ability of cell proliferation, growth curve was drawn, the inhibition ratio and 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)) were calculated. Flow cytometry with PI and PI/Annexin V double stainings were used to detect the cell cycle and apoptosis of Molt4 cells after the treatment of Tanreqing injection respectively. Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 mRNA expression of Molt4 cells were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that Tanreqing injection displayed an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Molt4 cell line. In 1:2, 1:4, 1:8 and 1:16 concentration groups, great cytotoxicity was observed and numerous cells were dead. The inhibitory effect of Tanreqing injection was dose-dependent. IC(50) was 1:142 dilution concentration. In the 1:32 concentration group, S phase cell quantity remarkably decreased (p < 0.05) and apoptosis rate significantly increased (p < 0.05) at 72 hours after Tanreqing injection treatment. Simultaneously, caspase-3 mRNA expression increased and Bcl-2 mRNA expressions was downregulated (p < 0.05). It is concluded that the Tanreqing injection has an inhibitory effect on Molt4 cell proliferation and promotes its apoptosis. These biological effects of Tanreqing injection are partly related to cell reduction in S phase, downregulation of bcl-2 gene and upregulation of caspase 3. PMID:21362219

Yang, Bo; Lu, Xue-Chun; Zhang, Feng; Fan, Hui; Li, Su-Xia; Zhu, Hong-Li

2011-02-01

73

Analysis of snail genes in the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: insight into snail gene family evolution.  

PubMed

The transcriptional repressor snail was first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, where it initially plays a role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation, and later plays a role in neurogenesis. Among arthropods, this role of snail appears to be conserved in the insects Tribolium and Anopheles gambiae, but not in the chelicerates Cupiennius salei and Achaearanea tepidariorum, the myriapod Glomeris marginata, or the Branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna. These data imply that within arthropoda, snail acquired its role in gastrulation and mesoderm formation in the insect lineage. However, crustaceans are a diverse group with several major taxa, making analysis of more crustaceans necessary to potentially understand the ancestral role of snail in Pancrustacea (crustaceans + insects) and thus in the ancestor of insects as well. To address these questions, we examined the snail family in the Malacostracan crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We found three snail homologs, Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2 and Ph-snail3, and one scratch homolog, Ph-scratch. Parhyale snail genes are expressed after gastrulation, during germband formation and elongation. Ph-snail1, Ph-snail2, and Ph-snail3 are expressed in distinct patterns in the neuroectoderm. Ph-snail1 is the only Parhyale snail gene expressed in the mesoderm, where its expression cycles in the mesodermal stem cells, called mesoteloblasts. The mesoteloblasts go through a series of cycles, where each cycle is composed of a migration phase and a division phase. Ph-snail1 is expressed during the migration phase, but not during the division phase. We found that as each mesoteloblast division produces one segment's worth of mesoderm, Ph-snail1 expression is linked to both the cell cycle and the segmental production of mesoderm. PMID:22466422

Hannibal, Roberta L; Price, Alivia L; Parchem, Ronald J; Patel, Nipam H

2012-05-01

74

VITELLOGENISIS AND IT'S ENDOCRINE CONTROL IN DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Vitellogenesis, the production of vitellin (major yolk protein), is controlled in decapod crustaceans by several hormones. With increasing efforts world-wide to successfully culture economically important crustaceans, such as shrimp, there is growing interest in attaining a bette...

75

Conserved behavioral and genetic mechanisms in the pre-hatching molt of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus  

PubMed Central

Background During development, juvenile nematodes undergo four molts. Although the number of molts appears to be constant within the Nematoda, the timing of the first molt can occur either before or after hatching. A previous study indicates that, as in some parasitic nematode lineages, a pre-hatching juvenile stage also exists in Diplogastrid nematodes. A detailed description of these sequence of events has yet to be shown for any single species. Findings To delineate the timing of the pre-hatching molt in the beetle-associated Pristionchus pacificus, we tracked individual mid-J1 stage worms inside the eggshell through the J1-J2 transition and hatching. We found that active movement ended 21 hours after egg-laying, followed by lethargus and hatching. We inferred that lethargus behavior represents the onset of the first molt, which precedes each post-hatching molt in C. elegans and P. pacificus. The onset of the J1-J2 molt was also marked by the upregulation of the P. pacificus molting marker Ppa-pnhr-1. We further corroborated the pre-hatching molt with the isolation of two genetic mutants that exhibited aberrant molting both inside the egg and after hatching, as characterized by protracted and often-aborted shedding of the old cuticle. Conclusion Our results describe in detail the pre-hatching juvenile molt in P. pacificus, provide strong visual evidence of a pre-hatching molt, and show support for common genetic mechanisms regulating molting in the pre-hatching and post-hatching developmental stages. Our findings support the hypothesis that the evolution of pre-hatching development in Diplogastrid nematodes is likely due to a heterochronic shift between the timing of the first molt and hatching. PMID:25276336

2014-01-01

76

The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on thyroxine, estradiol, molt, and plumage characteristics in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on plumage characteristics and molt in the American kestrel, Falco sparverills. Several characteristics of plumage. including color and molt schedule, are modulated by hormonal signals and hence may be modified by endocrine-active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g. communication for mating or territorial defense) may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Captive American kestrels were fed Aroclor 1242 at 0. 6.0. and 60.0 ppm (n = 6 males and 6 females per treatment) mixed in their normal diet. Concentrations of plasma estradiol and thyroxine were measured weekly from the beginning of treatment. Measured plumage characteristics included width of the black subterminal band on the tail, color (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 to 800 min. pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing. and timing of onset and duration of molt. Aroclor 1242 depressed plasma thyroxine. Plasma estradiol levels remained low due to the phase of the breeding cycle. Treatments did not disrupt the measured plumage characteristics. This may be due to timing or dose of exposure or to genetic factors.

Quinn, M.J.; French, J.B.; McNabb, F.M.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

2002-01-01

77

The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on thyroxine, estradiol, molt, and plumage characteristics in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius).  

PubMed

The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on plumage characteristics and molt in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius. Several characteristics of plumage, including color and molt schedule, are modulated by hormonal signals and hence may be modified by endocrine-active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g., communication for mating or territorial defense) may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Captive American kestrels were fed Aroclor 1242 at 0, 6.0, and 60.0 ppm (n = 6 males and 6 females per treatment) mixed in their normal diet. Concentrations of plasma estradiol and thyroxine were measured weekly from the beginning of treatment. Measured plumage characteristics included width of the black subterminal band on the tail, color (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 to 800 nm. pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing, and timing of onset and duration of molt. Aroclor 1242 depressed plasma thyroxine. Plasma estradiol levels remained low due to the phase of the breeding cycle. Treatments did not disrupt the measured plumage characteristics. This may be due to timing or dose of exposure or to genetic factors. PMID:12109742

Quinn, Michael J; French, John B; McNabb, F M Anne; Ottinger, Mary Ann

2002-07-01

78

Molt-inhibiting hormone from the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis: cloning, tissue expression, and expression of biologically active recombinant peptide in yeast.  

PubMed

Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a member of the crustacean hyperglycemic neuropeptide hormone family, inhibits ecdysteroidogenesis in the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). A cDNA encoding MIH of the land crab (Gel-MIH) was cloned from eyestalk ganglia (EG) by a combination of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA (1.4 kb) encoded MIH prohormone containing a 35 amino acid signal peptide and a 78 amino acid mature peptide. The mature peptide had the six cysteines, one glycine, two arginines, one aspartate, one phenylalanine, and one asparagine in identical positions in the highly conserved sequence characteristic of other crustacean MIHs. Gel-MIH was expressed only in the EG, as determined by RT-PCR; it was not detected in Y-organ, heart, integument, gill, testis, ovary, hepatopancreas, thoracic ganglion, or skeletal muscle. A cDNA encoding the mature peptide was used to express recombinant MIH (rMIH) using a yeast (Pichia pastoris) expression system. Two constructs were designed to yield either a mature MIH fusion protein with a c-myc epitope and histidine (His) tag at the carboxyl terminus or an untagged mature protein without the c-myc and His sequences. Immunoreactive peptides were detected in Western blots of the cell culture media with both MIH constructs, indicating secretion of the processed rMIH into the medium. Culture media containing the untagged mature peptide significantly inhibited ecdysteroid secretion by YOs from land crab and green crab (Carcinus maenas) cultured in vitro, indicating that the Gel-rMIH was biologically active. PMID:17094991

Lee, Kara J; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Gomez, Andrea M; Chang, Ernest S; Covi, Joseph A; Mykles, Donald L

2007-02-01

79

The involvement of prolactin in avian molt: The effects of gender and breeding success on the timing of molt in Mute swans ( Cygnus olor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that decreasing plasma prolactin stimulates or permits the initiation of avian molt. Changes in the concentration of plasma prolactin in Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were compared in non-breeding singletons and breeding pairs. In breeding swans, the onset of molt is delayed compared to non-breeders, and is delayed further in breeding

A. Dawson; C. M. Perrins; P. J. Sharp; D. Wheeler; S. Groves

2009-01-01

80

Temporal and spatial shifts in habitat use by Black Brant immediately following flightless molt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each year thousands of Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) undergo flightless wing molt in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA), Alaska, in two distinct habitats: inland, freshwater lakes and coastal, brackish wetlands. Brant lose body mass during wing molt and likely must add reserves upon regaining flight to help fuel their 2,500 km migration to autumn staging areas. We characterized movements and habitat use by Brant during post-molt (the period immediately following the recovery of flight) by (1) marking individual Brant with GPS (global positioning system) transmitters, and (2) conducting a series of replicate aerial surveys. Individuals molting in inland habitats promptly abandoned their molt wetland during the post-molt and moved into coastal habitats. Consequently, inland habitats were nearly deserted by early August when Brant had regained flight, a decrease of >5,000 individuals from the flightless period of early July. Conversely, coastal molting Brant largely remained in coastal habitats during the post-molt and many coastal wetlands were occupied by large flocks (>1,000 birds). Our results indicate that inland, freshwater wetlands were less suitable post-molt habitats for Brant, while coastal wetlands were preferred as they transitioned from flightless molt. The immediacy with which Brant vacated inland habitats upon regaining flight suggests that food may be limiting during molt and they are not selecting inland molt sites strictly for food resources, but rather a balance of factors including predator avoidance and acquisition of protein for feather growth. Our data clearly demonstrate that patterns of habitat use by Brant in the TLSA change over the course of the molt season, an important consideration for management of future resource development activities in this area.

Lewis, Tyler L.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Derksen, Dirk V.

2010-01-01

81

EFFECT OF DIFLUBENZURON ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Data are reported for tests exposing a small, estuarine crustacean, Mysidopsis bahia, to diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH-6040, (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea)) in flowing seawater. Tests were conducted in intermittent flows from a diluter or continuous flowing water i...

82

Identifiable Cells in the Crustacean Stomatogastric Ganglion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neural circuits rely on slight physiological differences between the component cells for proper function. When any circuit is analyzed, it is important to characterize the features that distinguish one cell type from another. This review describes the methods used to identify the neurons of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion.

Amber E Hudson (Georgia Institute of Technology); Santiago Archila (Emory University); Astrid A Prinz (Emory University)

2010-10-01

83

Demographic characteristics of molting black brant near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Molting Brant in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska were studied from 1987 to 1992 using capture-mark-recapture techniques to determine origin, age and sex composition, return rates and site fidelity. Brant originated from 10 nesting colonies in Canada and Alaska. The captured birds were 76% adults and 57% males. Ninety-one percent of known-age recaptures were

Bollinger, K. S.; Derksen, D. V.

1996-01-01

84

Gene Silencing in Crustaceans: From Basic Research to Biotechnologies  

PubMed Central

Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) is gaining momentum for crustaceans, both in basic research and for commercial development. RNAi has proven instrumental in a growing number of crustacean species, revealing the functionality of novel crustacean genes essential among others to development, growth, metabolism and reproduction. Extensive studies have also been done on silencing of viral transcripts in crustaceans, contributing to the understanding of the defense mechanisms of crustaceans and strategies employed by viruses to overcome these. The first practical use of gene silencing in aquaculture industry has been recently achieved, through manipulation of a crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland hormone. This review summarizes the advancements in the use of RNAi in crustaceans, and assesses the advantages of this method, as well as the current hurdles that hinder its large-scale practice. PMID:24705266

Sagi, Amir; Manor, Rivka; Ventura, Tomer

2013-01-01

85

Progress of primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The examination of 7,892 adult doves in Missouri between 1953 and 1965 showed that less than 2.5% of adult doves completed their molt before October 1. Adult doves of both sexes began molting their primary feathers during early June in Missouri and lost the last (tenth) primary during the latter half of October. Approximately 140-150 days were required to complete the molt. Thus, early-hatched immatures, which begin their primary molt 25-30 days after hatching, contributed the bulk of the wings with completed molts in September. By correctly classifying September samples of dove wings with a completed molt as young-of-the-year a more accurate young:adult ratio is obtained.

Sadler, K.C.; Tomlinson, R.E.; Wight, H.M.

1970-01-01

86

Toxicity of cadmium to six species in two genera of crayfish and the effect of cadmium on molting success.  

PubMed

Nine acute (96-h) toxicity tests were conducted on six species of crayfish (Cambaridae). Six tests focused on adults, and three tests examined juveniles. Lethal concentration to 50% of a population (LC50) and lethal concentration to 10% of a population (LC10) values, respectively, for the adults of individual test species were as follows: Orconectes juvenilis, 2.44 and 0.623 mg Cd/L; Orconectes placidus, 0.487 and 0.092 mg Cd/L; Orconectes virilis, 3.30 and 0.947 mg Cd/L; Procambarus acutus, 0.368 and 0.048 mg Cd/L; Procambarus alleni, 3.07 and 0.386 mg Cd/L; and Procambarus clarkii, 2.66 and 0.486 mg Cd/L. The Orconectes LC50 genus mean acute value (GMAV) was 1.57 mg Cd/L, whereas the LC50 GMAV for Procambarus was 1.44 mg Cd/L. The LC10 GMAVs were 0.379 and 0.208 mg Cd/L, respectively. Family mean acute values (FMAVs) also were calculated for the Cambaridae using all species data (LC50, 1.51 mg Cd/L; LC10, 0.281 mg Cd/L). For tests with juvenile crayfish, the LC50 and LC10 values, respectively, were as follows: O. juvenilis, 0.060 and 0.014 mg Cd/L; O. placidus, 0.037 and 0.002 mg Cd/L; and P. clarkii, 0.624 and 0.283 mg Cd/L. The GMAVs were calculated for juvenile Orconectes (LC50, 0.047 mg Cd/L; LC10, 0.005 mg Cd/L). Additionally, FMAVs were calculated for juvenile crayfish (LC50, 0.111 mg Cd/L; LC10, 0.020 mg Cd/L). Crayfish sensitivity to Cd varied by a factor of nine among species tested as adults and by a factor of 17 among species tested as juveniles. Molting was a sensitive life stage for crayfish. Most individuals that molted shortly before or during exposure to Cd died, whereas all controls that molted in the adult assays survived. Because molting is a sensitive, recurring life-cycle event, molting individuals should be included in toxicological analysis despite some contrary recommendations. PMID:17373521

Wigginton, Andrew J; Birge, Wesley J

2007-03-01

87

ISOTOPIC EVALUATION OF INTERRUPTED MOLT IN NORTHERN BREEDING POPULATIONS OF THE LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5, Canada Abstract. The Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) breeds throughout North America and various populations apparently exhibit diverse molt strategies. However, molt in this species and how it may vary geographically is generally poorly known. We investigated molt sequence in 27 breeding Loggerhead Shrikes using stable hydrogen (dD) isotope analysis of

Guillermo E. Pérez; Keith A. Hobson

2006-01-01

88

LATITUDINAL VARIATION OF POSTNUPTIAL MOLT IN PACIFIC COAST WHITE-CROWNED SPARROWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The duration of postnuptial molt in the White~crowned Sparrows of the Pacific Seaboard (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli and Z. l. pugetensis) decreases northward by an average of 2.6 days per degree of latitude between the southernmost (35.2øN, molt duration 83 days) and northernmost (48.9øN, 47 days) limits of the breeding range. Males begin molting earlier than females by as much as

L. RICHARD MEWALDT; JAMES R. KING

89

Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans.  

PubMed

Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca). We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod). Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca) establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors. PMID:22536103

Cordaux, Richard; Pichon, Samuel; Hatira, Houda Ben Afia; Doublet, Vincent; Grève, Pierre; Marcadé, Isabelle; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, Faouzia; Bouchon, Didier

2012-01-01

90

Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Abstract Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca). We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod). Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca) establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors. PMID:22536103

Cordaux, Richard; Pichon, Samuel; Hatira, Houda Ben Afia; Doublet, Vincent; Greve, Pierre; Marcade, Isabelle; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Charfi-Cheikhrouha, Faouzia; Bouchon, Didier

2012-01-01

91

Ancient androdioecy in the freshwater crustacean Eulimnadia  

PubMed Central

Among the variety of reproductive mechanisms exhibited by living systems, one permutation—androdioecy (mixtures of males and hermaphrodites)—is distinguished by its rarity. Models of mating system evolution predict that androdioecy should be a brief stage between hermaphroditism and dioecy (separate males and females), or vice versa. Herein we report evidence of widespread and ancient androdioecy in crustaceans in the genus Eulimnadia, based on observations of over 33?000 shrimp from 36 locations from every continent except Antarctica. Using phylogenetic, biogeographical and palaeontological evidence, we infer that androdioecy in Eulimnadia has persisted for 24–180 million years and has been maintained through multiple speciation events. These results suggest that androdioecy is a highly successful aspect of the life history of these freshwater crustaceans, and has persisted for orders of magnitude longer than predicted by current models of this rare breeding system. PMID:16608693

Weeks, Stephen C; Sanderson, Thomas F; Reed, Sadie K; Zofkova, Magdalena; Knott, Brenton; Balaraman, Usha; Pereira, Guido; Senyo, Diana M; Hoeh, Walter R

2005-01-01

92

Body molt of male long-tailed ducks in the nearshore waters of the north slope, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the timing and intensity of body molt in relation to stage of remige growth for postbreeding adult male Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) off the coast of northern Alaska. During this period, remige and rectrix feathers are molted simultaneously with body feathers during the prebasic molt, which results in a period of increased energetic and nutritional demands. We collected birds from late July through mid-August and recorded intensity of molt in eight regions: head and neck, back and rump, greater coverts, lesser coverts, flank and sides, breast, belly, and tail. Using nonlinear regression, we estimated the peak intensity and variation for each region in relation to ninth primary length. We found little evidence of molt in the head and neck region. The greater and lesser coverts, and back and rump reached peak molt intensities earliest and were followed by tail, breast, and belly. Molt intensity in the flank and side region was highly variable and indicated a more prolonged molting pattern in relation to other regions. While body molt occurs simultaneously with wing molt, we found that molt among regions occurred in a staggered pattern. Long-tailed Ducks may employ this staggered molting pattern to minimize the energetic and nutritional requirements of molt.

Howell, M.D.; Grand, J.B.; Flint, P.L.

2003-01-01

93

Inexplicable Inefficiency of Avian Molt? Insights from an Opportunistically Breeding Arid-Zone Species, Lichenostomus penicillatus  

PubMed Central

The majority of bird species studied to date have molt schedules that are not concurrent with other energy demanding life history stages, an outcome assumed to arise from energetic trade-offs. Empirical studies reveal that molt is one of the most energetically demanding and perplexingly inefficient growth processes measured. Furthermore, small birds, which have the highest mass-specific basal metabolic rates (BMRm), have the highest costs of molt per gram of feathers produced. However, many small passerines, including white-plumed honeyeaters (WPHE; Lichenostomus penicillatus), breed in response to resource availability at any time of year, and do so without interrupting their annual molt. We examined the energetic cost of molt in WPHE by quantifying weekly changes in minimum resting metabolic rate (RMRmin) during a natural-molt period in 7 wild-caught birds. We also measured the energetic cost of feather replacement in a second group of WPHEs that we forced to replace an additional 25% of their plumage at the start of their natural molt period. Energy expenditure during natural molt revealed an energy conversion efficiency of just 6.9% (±0.57) close to values reported for similar-sized birds from more predictable north-temperate environments. Maximum increases in RMRmin during the molt of WPHE, at 82% (±5.59) above individual pre-molt levels, were some of the highest yet reported. Yet RMRmin maxima during molt were not coincident with the peak period of feather replacement in naturally molting or plucked birds. Given the tight relationship between molt efficiency and mass-specific metabolic rate in all species studied to date, regardless of life-history pattern (Efficiency (%) ?=?35.720•10?0.494BMRm; r2?=?0.944; p?=?<0.0001), there appears to be concomitant physiological costs entrained in the molt period that is not directly due to feather replacement. Despite these high total expenditures, the protracted molt period of WPHE significantly reduces these added costs on a daily basis. PMID:21311594

Hoye, Bethany J.; Buttemer, William A.

2011-01-01

94

50 CFR 665.140 - American Samoa Crustacean Fisheries. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.140 American Samoa Crustacean Fisheries....

2011-10-01

95

50 CFR 665.140 - American Samoa Crustacean Fisheries. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.140 American Samoa Crustacean Fisheries....

2010-10-01

96

50 CFR 665.140 - American Samoa Crustacean Fisheries. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.140 American Samoa Crustacean Fisheries....

2012-10-01

97

50 CFR 665.440 - Mariana crustacean fisheries. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.440 Mariana crustacean fisheries....

2011-10-01

98

Molting and cuticle deposition in the subterranean trichoniscid Titanethes albus (Crustacea, Isopoda).  

PubMed

Terrestrial isopods are a suitable group for the study of cuticle synthesis and calcium dynamics because they molt frequently and have evolved means to store calcium during molt. Little data is currently available on molting in Synocheta and subterranean isopods. We studied the molting dynamics in the subterranean trichoniscid Titanethes albus under laboratory conditions and performed a microscopic investigation of sternal CaCO(3) deposits and the tergal epithelium during molt in this species. In accordance with its lower metabolic rate, molting in the laboratory is roughly 2-3 times less frequent in Titanethes albus than would be expected for an epigean isopod under similar conditions. Animals assumed characteristic postures following the molt of each body half and did not consume the posterior exuviae after posterior molt. The structure of sternal calcium deposits and the ultrastructural characteristics of the epidermis during cuticle formation in Titanethes albus are similar to those described in representatives of Ligiidae. During the deposition of the exocuticle, the apical plasma membrane of epidermal cells forms finger-like extensions and numerous invaginations. In the ecdysial space of individuals in late premolt we observed cellular extensions surrounded by bundles of tubules. PMID:22536097

Vittori, Miloš; Kostanjšek, Rok; Znidarši?, Nada; Strus, Jasna

2012-01-01

99

Reference: Biol. Bull., 153: 145-162. (August, 1977) COCKROACH MOLTING. II. THE NATURE OF REGENERATION-  

E-print Network

OF REGENERATION- INDUCED DELAY OF MOLTING HORMONE SECRETION JOSEPH G. KUNKEL Department of Zoology, University to be manipulated or stimulated in a close to normal fashion by the experimenter from the periphery. Regeneration to regenerate the lost limb. In some groups of arthropods there is apparently no modification of the molting

Kunkel, Joseph G.

100

40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic...of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic...material can variously affect populations of fish, crustaceans, mollusks...

2014-07-01

101

40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic...of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic...material can variously affect populations of fish, crustaceans, mollusks...

2013-07-01

102

40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic...of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic...material can variously affect populations of fish, crustaceans, mollusks...

2011-07-01

103

40 CFR 230.31 - Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic organisms in the food web.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic...of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.31 Fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic...material can variously affect populations of fish, crustaceans, mollusks...

2012-07-01

104

Molecular mechanism of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) induced suppression of ecdysteroidogenesis in the Y-organ of mud crab: Scylla serrata.  

PubMed

The present study was focused on the regulation of ecdysteroidogenesis in the Y-organ of Scylla serrata during molting cycle. A strong expression of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and phosphorylation of ERK was predominantly observed in the postmolt and intermolt stages of Y-organs, whereas protein kinase C, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450(scc) activity were exclusively seen in the premolt stages. Interestingly, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by PD98059 in the early postmolt (A), middle postmolt (B) and intermolt (C) stages resulted in the prominent expression of PKC and StAR in the postmolt stages. This result indicates that phosphorylation of ERK is required for suppression of ecdysteroid biosynthesis with the involvement of protein kinase C, and StAR protein. PMID:17949720

Imayavaramban, L; Dhayaparan, D; Devaraj, Halagowder

2007-11-13

105

The involvement of prolactin in avian molt: the effects of gender and breeding success on the timing of molt in Mute swans (Cygnus olor).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that decreasing plasma prolactin stimulates or permits the initiation of avian molt. Changes in the concentration of plasma prolactin in Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were compared in non-breeding singletons and breeding pairs. In breeding swans, the onset of molt is delayed compared to non-breeders, and is delayed further in breeding males compared to their female partners. The seasonal decrease in prolactin in non-breeding birds of both sexes started at the end of May and was associated with the initiation of molt 4 weeks later. The decrease in plasma prolactin in incubating females was more pronounced, as a consequence of increased prolactin secretion associated with incubation behavior, but also started at end of May, and was associated the onset of molt 6 weeks later. In breeding males, plasma prolactin increased at the end of May when they started to care for their newly hatched cygnets. Correspondingly, prolactin began to decrease 3-5 weeks later in males than in females. These males started to molt in mid August, at least 4 weeks later than females. It is concluded that molt is related to decreasing plasma prolactin, and is inhibited when plasma prolactin is increasing or high. PMID:19523387

Dawson, A; Perrins, C M; Sharp, P J; Wheeler, D; Groves, S

2009-04-01

106

Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.  

PubMed

The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat. PMID:24157843

Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

107

Breeding chronology, molt, and measurements of accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most northern goshawks completed laying eggs in April, while most Cooper's hawks completed their clutches in May with essentially no overlap. The sharp-shinned hawks laid in late May and June. Juvenile females represented 4% of the northern goshawk breeding population; 22% of the Cooper's hawk breeding population (highest reported for the species) and 60% of the sharp-shinned hawk breeding population, northern goshawks and Cooper's hawks in juvenal plumage generally nested later in the season, but not sharp-shinned hawks. Females of each species began molting first. Primaries were molted from the innermost outward in all species, but rectrix molt sequence was variable. Usually R1 was molted first. Primary molt of the 2 wings was usually synchronous; however, the rectrix molt was not as orderly. Arrested molt was observed in some individuals of all species; it probably has an energy-saving function. Wing chords of adult northern goshawks from Oregon were not different from Wisconsin fall migrants or birds from Alaska; however, rectrices were significantly shorter in Oregon than Wisconsin. Cooper's hawks nesting in Oregon were much smaller than those trapped in Wisconsin. Wing chords and rectrices were significantly shorter for both sexes, and, although weights were not directly comparable, Oregon Cooper's hawks also weighed much less. The limited number of sharp-shinned hawks measured precluded statistical analyses.

Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Fleming, T.L.

1985-01-01

108

Physiological trade-offs in self-maintenance: plumage molt and stress physiology in birds.  

PubMed

Trade-offs between self-maintenance processes can affect life-history evolution. Integument replacement and the stress response both promote self-maintenance and affect survival in vertebrates. Relationships between the two processes have been studied most extensively in birds, where hormonal stress suppression is down regulated during molt in seasonal species, suggesting a resource-based trade-off between the two processes. The only species found to differ are the rock dove and Eurasian tree sparrow, at least one of which performs a very slow molt that may reduce resource demands during feather growth, permitting investment in the stress response. To test for the presence of a molt-stress response trade-off, we measured hormonal stress responsiveness during and outside molt in two additional species with extended molts, red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We found that both species maintain hormonal stress responsiveness during molt. Further, a comparative analysis of all available species revealed a strong relationship between molt duration and degree of hormonal suppression. Though our results support trade-off hypotheses, these data can also be explained by alternative hypotheses that have not been formally addressed in the literature. We found a strong relationship between stress suppression and seasonality of breeding and evidence suggesting that the degree of suppression may be either locally adaptable or plastic and responsive to local environmental conditions. We hypothesize that environmental unpredictability favors extended molt duration, which in turn allows for maintenance of the hormonal stress response, and discuss implications of a possible trade-off for the evolution of molt schedules. PMID:21795575

Cornelius, Jamie M; Perfito, Nicole; Zann, Richard; Breuner, Creagh W; Hahn, Thomas P

2011-08-15

109

Deleterious Effects of Molting on the Morpho-physiology of Japanese Quail Layers (Coturnix japonica)  

PubMed Central

Molting is a natural physiological phenomenon involving the periodic replacement of old feathers with new ones in the avian species. During mid-November an extensive loss of feathers in Japanese quail was observed in our breeding colony. The cause of molting could not be established, however, lower ambient temperatures may have played a major role and the decrease in day length could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. This study was conducted to correlate some aspects of the molting process using various physiological and morphometric parameters. Forty healthy 125-days old layers, hatch-mates, of approximately similar body weights (130.0±3.9 g) and in peak production were used for cohort evaluation of the molting process. Most of the birds lost feathers extensively from the cervical, thorax and dorsum areas, while some did not molt and continued laying eggs as usual, serving as a premolting control group. The molting birds drastically lost body weight weighing on average 117.5 g compared to 130.0 g in the control group and ceased egg production completely. There was a significant increase in blood glucose (293.03 mg/dL vs. 222.11 mg/dL), an increase in PCV values (47.14% vs. 41.43%) and a decrease in total plasma proteins (3.5 g/dl vs. 5.56 g/dl) and oviducts (1.55 g vs. 5.78 g, a decrease of 73.2%). Ovarian follicles underwent atresia and resorption. Birds that recovered from the molt resumed egg production and regained their body weights showing similar morpho-physiological measures of the control values, which changed during the molting phase. Scientists working with Japanese quail should be fully aware of the physiology of the molting process and its impact on on-going studies involving growth, physiology, endocrinology, nutrition, reproduction and toxicology.

Arora, Kashmiri L.; Vatsalya, Vatsalya

2014-01-01

110

Allometry of the Duration of Flight Feather Molt in Birds  

PubMed Central

We used allometric scaling to explain why the regular replacement of the primary flight feathers requires disproportionately more time for large birds. Primary growth rate scales to mass (M) as M0.171, whereas the summed length of the primaries scales almost twice as fast (M0.316). The ratio of length (mm) to rate (mm/day), which would be the time needed to replace all the primaries one by one, increases as the 0.14 power of mass (M0.316/M0.171?=?M0.145), illustrating why the time required to replace the primaries is so important to life history evolution in large birds. Smaller birds generally replace all their flight feathers annually, but larger birds that fly while renewing their primaries often extend the primary molt over two or more years. Most flying birds exhibit one of three fundamentally different modes of primary replacement, and the size distributions of birds associated with these replacement modes suggest that birds that replace their primaries in a single wave of molt cannot approach the size of the largest flying birds without first transitioning to a more complex mode of primary replacement. Finally, we propose two models that could account for the 1/6 power allometry between feather growth rate and body mass, both based on a length-to-surface relationship that transforms the linear, cylindrical growing region responsible for producing feather tissue into an essentially two-dimensional structure. These allometric relationships offer a general explanation for flight feather replacement requiring disproportionately more time for large birds. PMID:19529759

Rohwer, Sievert; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Rohwer, Vanya G.; Copple, Michelle M.

2009-01-01

111

The C. elegans gene pan-1 encodes novel transmembrane and cytoplasmic leucine-rich repeat proteins and promotes molting and the larva to adult transition  

PubMed Central

Background Extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) proteins are a highly diverse superfamily of membrane-associated or secreted proteins. In the membrane-associated eLRR proteins, the leucine-rich repeat motifs interact with the extracellular matrix and other ligands. Characterizing their functions in animal model systems is key to deciphering their activities in various developmental processes. Results In this study, we identify pan-1 as a critical regulator of C. elegans larval development. pan-1 encodes both transmembrane and cytoplasmic isoforms that vary in the presence and number of leucine-rich repeats. RNAi experiments reveal that pan-1 is required for developmental processes that occur during the mid to late larval stages. Specifically, pan-1 loss of function causes a late larval arrest with a failure to complete development of the gonad, vulva, and hypodermis. pan-1 is also required for early larval ecdysis and execution of the molting cycle at the adult molt. We also provide evidence that pan-1 functionally interacts with the heterochronic gene lin-29 during the molting process. Conclusions We show that PAN-1 is a critical regulator of larval development. Our data suggests that PAN-1 promotes developmental progression of multiple tissues during the transition from a larva to a reproductive adult. We further demonstrate that the activity of PAN-1 is complex with diverse roles in the regulation of animal development. PMID:23682709

2013-01-01

112

Effects of predictable and unpredictable food restriction on the stress response in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).  

PubMed

This study tested whether an ethologically relevant stressor, a three-week period of food restriction where food was unavailable for four hours a day, caused chronic stress in molting and non-molting captive European starlings. Although all birds increased weight during the Food Restriction period, only non-molting birds increased food intake. Morning baseline heart rates increased during the Food Restriction period and all birds showed a decrease in heart rate when food was absent from the cage. In non-molting birds, there were no differences in either baseline or stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) concentrations, whereas molting birds showed attenuated baseline CORT, stress-induced CORT, and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels over the Food Restriction period. Although several parameters, such as increased morning heart rate, are consistent with chronic stress, the majority of these data suggest that restricting food availability is not chronically stressful. Furthermore, making the timing of food removal less predictable by randomizing when food was removed during the day did not enhance any of the above responses, but did alter the frequency of maintenance and feeding behaviors. In conclusion, starlings appear resistant to developing symptoms of chronic stress from repeated food restriction. PMID:21801846

Bauer, Carolyn M; Glassman, Laura W; Cyr, Nicole E; Romero, L Michael

2011-11-01

113

Genomic identification of a putative circadian system in the cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex  

PubMed Central

Essentially nothing is known about the molecular underpinnings of crustacean circadian clocks. The genome of Daphnia pulex, the only crustacean genome available for public use, provides a unique resource for identifying putative circadian proteins in this species. Here, the Daphnia genome was mined for putative circadian protein genes using Drosophila melanogaster queries. The sequences of core clock (e.g. CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD, TIMELESS and CRYPTOCHROME 2), clock input (CRYPTOCHROME 1) and clock output (PIGMENT DISPERSING HORMONE RECEPTOR) proteins were deduced. Structural analyses and alignment of the Daphnia proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Comparisons of the Daphnia proteins with other sequences showed that they are, in most cases, more similar to homologs from other species, including vertebrates, than they are to those of Drosophila. The presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 and 2 in Daphnia suggests the organization of its clock may be more similar to that of the butterfly Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila (which possesses CRYPTOCHROME 1 but not CRYPTOCHROME 2). These data represent the first description of a putative circadian system from any crustacean, and provide a foundation for future molecular, anatomical and physiological investigations of circadian signaling in Daphnia. PMID:21798832

Tilden, Andrea R.; McCoole, Matthew D.; Harmon, Sarah M.; Baer, Kevin N.; Christie, Andrew E.

2011-01-01

114

Migration and molt patterns of red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in Illinois  

E-print Network

Red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), are widespread in North America, but many aspects of their biology are poorly known. In an attempt to elucidate patterns of migration and molt in red bats, data were collected over...

Timm, Robert M.

1989-01-01

115

The crustaceans and pycnogonids of the Mariana Islands  

SciTech Connect

The crustacean and pycnogonid fauna of the Mariana Islands is reviewed, and 829 crustacean and 15 pycnogonid species are documented from the archipelago based on literature records and new collections, including 272 new records. Voucher specimens are listed for 605 and photographic records for 356 species. The bulk of the fauna is marine, including 12 terrestrial and 11 freshwater decapods with marine larvae. Five cladocerans comprise the known freshwater fauna, and 25 peracarids and one copepod are currently documented on land. Coverage reflects a taxonomically uneven effort, and is strongly biased toward macrocrustaceans, with decapods accounting for 80%, and crabs for 50% of the recorded crustacean diversity.

Paulay, Gustav (University of Guam); Kropp, Roy K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ng, Peter K. (National University); Eldredge, Lucius G. (Pacific Science Association, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI)

2003-09-01

116

Perferential loss of thin filaments during molt-induced atrophy in crab claw muscle  

SciTech Connect

The closer muscle of the claw of a land crab Gecarcinus lateralis consists of slow, or tonic, fibers that undergo a sequential atrophy and restoration during each molting cycle. We have examined the ultrastructural organization of claw fibers during the process of protein degradation that takes place in proecdysial muscle atrophy. The myofibrial cross-sectional area is reduced fourfold by dissolution of peripheral myofilaments and by focal erosion within the fibrila. As degradation continues, there is a preferential loss of thin filaments relative to thick filaments: (1) the average distance between thick filaments decreases from 59 to 45 nm, causing a 72% increase in packing density of thick filamets in cross section and (2) the relative numbers of thin and thick filaments decrease from an average ratio of 9:1 to 6:1. Despite these significant structural changes, the general organization of the arcomere is unaltered; the membrane surface density of the sacroplasmic reticulum and the A-band length remain unchanged. Although there is autophagy of some mitochondria, others retain their normal apperance, as do the nuclei. These data suggest that the specific degradation of contractile proteins in proecdysial atrophic muscle includes the differential breakdown of thin vesus thick filaments.

Mykles, D.L. (Univ. of Tennessee, Oak Ridge); Skinner, D.M.

1981-01-01

117

Trade-offs between molt and immune activity in two populations of house sparrows ( Passer domesticus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molt and immune defense are critical activities in which all birds must invest. Because each is costly, wild passerines may have to decrease their investment in one activity if they are to increase investments to others. Here, I studied such molt-immune trade-offs in one neotropical and one north-temperate population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus (L., 1758)). I included two populations

Lynn B. Martin II

2005-01-01

118

A simulation model of the response of molting Pacific black brant to helicopter disturbance  

E-print Network

by the brant during their 4-week summer wing molt. Ecologically, the area is low-arctic tundra underlain by permafrost, and is dominated by numerous grasses and sedges (Spetzman 1959). Also present are various lichens, dwarf shrubs, mosses, and forbs... by the brant during their 4-week summer wing molt. Ecologically, the area is low-arctic tundra underlain by permafrost, and is dominated by numerous grasses and sedges (Spetzman 1959). Also present are various lichens, dwarf shrubs, mosses, and forbs...

Miller, Mark Wayne

2012-06-07

119

Abundance and distribution of the common eider in eastern North America during the molting season  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Like most other sea ducks, male common eiders (Somateria mollissima) concentrate in large groups to molt following the breeding season. Although Maine conducted surveys in the 1980s, little was known of eider molting sites in Atlantic Canada until recently, when surveys and research conducted in Quebec, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nova Scotia and Maine revealed a number of important molting sites. Sites vary in importance from a few hundred males to tens of thousands. Important sites include the western and southern coastal areas of Anticosti island (40,000 birds), Baie des Milles Vaches (9,000) in Quebec, southwestern Nova Scotia (40,000), Petit Manan Island archipelago (7,000), and Metinic Island archipelago (10,000) in Maine. Molting eider surveys conducted in Maine during the early 1980s and in the St. Lawrence in 2003-2004 revealed large flock sizes, commonly over 2,000 birds, in consistent locations annually. An estimated 40,000 males molt in Nova Scotia and 28,400 in Maine (1981 data). Surveys indicate that important sites are used consistently between years and that local movements occur. Recoveries from banded birds suggest that eiders breeding on the lower North Shore of the St. Lawrence, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and even Newfoundland appear to concentrate at the Petit Manan site in Maine. They also suggest inter annual movements between the Nova Scotia and Petit Manan sites. Greater understanding of the relationships between breeding, wintering, and molting sites will facilitate management of this heavily exploited sea duck.

Savard, J-P. L.; Allen, B.; McAuley, D.; Milton, G.R.; Gililand, S.

2005-01-01

120

Corticosterone inhibits feather growth: potential mechanism explaining seasonal down regulation of corticosterone during molt.  

PubMed

Corticosterone (CORT) is seasonally modulated in many passerines, with plasma CORT concentrations lowest during the prebasic molt when all feathers are replaced. To explain why, we proposed that the birds downregulate natural CORT release during molt in order to avoid CORT's degradative effects on proteins and its inhibition of protein synthesis. If CORT exerted these effects during molt, it could slow protein deposition during feather production and potentially result in a longer period of degraded flight performance. To test this hypothesis, either empty or CORT-filled silastic implants were inserted into captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) undergoing induced (feather replacement after plucking) and natural molts. We then measured the rate of feather re-growth by regularly measuring the length of primary, secondary, and tail feathers. CORT implanted birds showed a significantly decreased rate of feather growth compared to control animals. Basal CORT concentrations of induced molt and non-molting birds were also compared but no difference was noted. The results suggest a tradeoff; a complete set of new feathers may be more important to the survival of a bird than the ability of CORT to respond maximally to a stressor. PMID:16125989

Romero, L Michael; Strochlic, David; Wingfield, John C

2005-09-01

121

Crustacean-derived biomimetic components and nanostructured composites.  

PubMed

Over millions of years, the crustacean exoskeleton has evolved into a rigid, tough, and complex cuticle that is used for structural support, mobility, protection of vital organs, and defense against predation. The crustacean cuticle is characterized by a hierarchically arranged chitin fiber scaffold, mineralized predominately by calcium carbonate and/or calcium phosphate. The structural organization of the mineral and organic within the cuticle occurs over multiple length scales, resulting in a strong and tough biological composite. Here, the ultrastructural details observed in three species of crustacean are reviewed: the American lobster (Homarus americanus), the edible crab (Cancer pagurus), and the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus). The Review concludes with a discussion of recent advances in the development of biomimetics with controlled organic scaffolding, mineralization, and the construction of nanoscale composites, inspired by the organization and formation of the crustacean cuticle. PMID:24833136

Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Herrera, Steven; Kisailus, David

2014-08-27

122

EFFECTS OF CHLORINATED SEAWATER ON DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS AND 'MULINIA' LARVAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Eggs and larvae of decapod crustaceans and embryos of Mulinia lateralis were exposed to chlorinated seawater for varying periods in continuous flow systems. Mortality, developmental rate, and general behavior were recorded. Panopeus herbstii zoeae were more sensitive to chlorine-...

123

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis: cloning, isoforms, and tissue expression.  

PubMed

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) regulates carbohydrate metabolism, molting, and ion and water transport. cDNAs encoding four CHH isoforms (designated EG-CHH-A, -B, -C, and -D) were cloned from eyestalk ganglia (EG) from land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis. The isoforms differed in the 3' region of the open reading frame and/or the length of the 3' untranslated region. All encoded essentially identical preprohormones containing a 28-amino acid (aa) signal peptide, a 42-aa precursor related peptide and a 72-aa mature CHH. All deduced aa sequences had the six cysteines, two arginines, one aspartate, one phenylalanine, and one arginine originally identified as characteristic of this neuropeptide family. There was a single aa difference between the EG-CHH-D mature hormone and the other three isoforms. The EG-CHH isoforms were expressed in EG, hindgut, and thoracic ganglion. A fifth CHH isoform, designated pericardial organ (PO)-CHH, was similar to the PO-CHH isoform described in green crab, Carcinus maenas. It was expressed in hindgut and testis, but not in eyestalk ganglia; its expression in PO was not determined. The deduced aa sequence of the PO-CHH was identical to that of the EG-CHH isoforms through aa #40 of the mature peptide. The divergent aa sequence between positions #41 and #73 was encoded by an insertion of a 111-bp sequence absent in EG-CHH cDNAs. The data suggest that EG-CHH and PO-CHH isoforms are generated by alternative splicing of at least two CHH genes. PMID:17586505

Lee, Kara J; Doran, Rachelle M; Mykles, Donald L

2007-01-01

124

The sensory dorsal organs of crustaceans.  

PubMed

The cuticle of crustaceans bears numerous organs, of which the functions of many are unknown. One of these, the sensory dorsal organ (SDO), is present in a wide diversity of taxa. Here we critically review the variability, ultrastructure, distribution, and possible function of this enigmatic cuticular organ. Previous data are complemented by new observations on larvae and adults of various malacostracans. The SDO is composed of four sensors arranged as the corners of a square, the centre of which is occupied by a gland. Pores or pegs surrounding this central complex may also form part of the organ. The arrangement and the external aspect of the five main elements varies greatly, but this apparently has little impact on their ultrastructural organisation. The sensors and the gland are associated with a particularly thin cuticle. Each sensor contains four outer dendritic segments and the central gland is made of a single large cell. It is not yet known what this large cell secretes. The SDO is innervated from the tritocerebrum and therefore belongs to the third cephalic segment. A similar organ, here called the posterior SDO, has been repeatedly observed more posteriorly on the carapace. It resembles the SDO but has a greater number of sensors (usually six, but up to ten) apparently associated with only two outer dendritic segments. The SDO and the posterior SDO are known in the Eumalacostraca, the Hoplocarida, and the Phyllocarida. Some branchiopods also possess a 'dorsal organ' resembling both the SDO and the ion-transporting organ more typical of this group. This may indicate a common origin for these two functionally distinct groups of organs. New observations on the posterior SDO support the hypothesis that the SDO and the posterior SDO are homologous to the lattice organ complexes of the costracans. However, the relationship between the SDO and the dorsal cephalic hump of calanoid copepods remains unclear. No correlation can be demonstrated between the presence of a SDO and a particular ecological or biological trait. In fossils, the most convincing examples of SDO-like organs are found in some Late Cambrian arthropods from the Alum Shale of southern Sweden. They suggest that related organs might have been present in non-crustacean Cambrian arthropods. The distribution of the SDO and posterior SDO in extant and fossil crustaceans strongly suggests that these organs originated early in the history of the group, and are crucial to the functioning of these organisms. However, except for knowing that the sensors are chemoreceptors and that in a given organ a functional relationship probably exists between them and the gland, little is known about this function. The description of a SDO in freshwater carideans, which can be easily reared in a laboratory, opens the way for behavioural and physiological experiments to be undertaken that could prove crucial for the determination of this function. PMID:23279348

Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Meyer, Roland

2013-05-01

125

Crustacean Intersexuality Is Feminization without Demasculinization: Implications for Environmental Toxicology.  

PubMed

The dysfunction associated with intersexuality in vertebrates and molluscs is often a serious threat to ecosystems. Although poorly understood, crustacean intersexuality is associated with contamination and includes forms linked to increased sex-ratio distorting parasites at polluted sites. Despite the importance of crustaceans for monitoring vulnerable aquatic habitats, little is known about the molecular basis of this abnormal sexual differentiation and any associated sexual dysfunction. To increase the relevance of crustaceans to environmental toxicologists, we comprehensively analyzed gene expression in amphipods presenting parasite- and nonparasite-associated intersexuality. Our findings reveal existing vertebrate biomarkers of feminization should not be applied to crustaceans, as orthologous genes are not induced in feminized amphipods. Furthermore, in contrast to vertebrates, where feminization and intersexuality is often associated with deleterious demasculinization, we find males maintain masculinity even when unambiguously feminized. This reveals a considerable regulatory separation of the gene pathways responsible for male and female characteristics and demonstrates that evidence of feminization (even if detected with appropriate biomarkers) is not a proxy for demasculinization in crustaceans. This study has also produced a comprehensive spectrum of potential molecular biomarkers that, when combined with our new molecular understanding, will greatly facilitate the use of crustaceans to monitor aquatic habitats. PMID:25343324

Short, Stephen; Yang, Gongda; Guler, Yasmin; Green Etxabe, Amaia; Kille, Peter; Ford, Alex T

2014-11-18

126

Haste Makes Waste but Condition Matters: Molt Rate–Feather Quality Trade-Off in a Sedentary Songbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe trade-off between current and residual reproductive values is central to life history theory, although the possible mechanisms underlying this trade-off are largely unknown. The ‘molt constraint’ hypothesis suggests that molt and plumage functionality are compromised by the preceding breeding event, yet this candidate mechanism remains insufficiently explored.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe seasonal change in photoperiod was manipulated to accelerate the molt rate.

Csongor I. Vágási; Péter L. Pap; Orsolya Vincze; Zoltán Benk?; Attila Marton; Zoltán Barta

2012-01-01

127

Primary feather molt and serum luteinizing hormone concentration in chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) during a photoperiodically induced molt with or without fasting.  

PubMed

In two experiments, 135 adult chukar partridge of two genetic lines, one selected for high egg production and a random-bred control line, were induced to molt by reducing photoperiod from 16 hr light/day to 8 hr light/day on Day 0. In Experiment 1, feed was removed from approximately half the birds on Day 0 and returned on Day 7. Birds in Experiment 2 were not fasted. Photoperiod was increased to 16 hr light/day on Day 56. Primary feather molt scores, body weights, and, in Experiment 2, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were monitored weekly through Day 85. Prior to the short day period, birds selected for high egg production and females had lower molt scores than controls or males, respectively. Fasting had no effect on molt scores, egg production, or body weights (except during the fasting period). Selected-line birds returned to lay approximately 3 days earlier and laid approximately 16 more eggs during the second production period than controls. Six days before photoperiod was reduced, immunoreactive serum LH levels were 5 to 8 ng/ml; they declined during short days to about 4 ng/ml. Within 8 days after relighting, LH levels increased to approximately 33 ng/ml in males and 18 ng/ml in females. Luteinizing hormone levels remained elevated in males throughout the subsequent 4 weeks but declined in females as egg production resumed. PMID:3588482

Meyer, W E; Millam, J R

1986-08-01

128

Haste Makes Waste: Accelerated Molt Adversely Affects the Expression of Melanin-Based and Depigmented Plumage Ornaments in House Sparrows  

PubMed Central

Background Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt. PMID:21151981

Vagasi, Csongor I.; Pap, Peter L.; Barta, Zoltan

2010-01-01

129

Outlining eicosanoid biosynthesis in the crustacean Daphnia  

PubMed Central

Background Eicosanoids are biologically active, oxygenated metabolites of three C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. They act as signalling molecules within the autocrine or paracrine system in both vertebrates and invertebrates mainly functioning as important mediators in reproduction, the immune system and ion transport. The biosynthesis of eicosanoids has been intensively studied in mammals and it is known that they are synthesised from the fatty acid, arachidonic acid, through either the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway; the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway; or the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway. However, little is still known about the synthesis and structure of the pathway in invertebrates. Results Here, we show transcriptomic evidence from Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) together with a bioinformatic analysis of the D. pulex genome providing insight on the role of eicosanoids in these crustaceans as well as outlining a putative pathway of eicosanoid biosynthesis. Daphnia appear only to have one copy of the gene encoding the key enzyme COX, and phylogenetic analysis reveals that the predicted protein sequence of Daphnia COX clusters with other invertebrates. There is no current evidence of an epoxygenase pathway in Daphnia; however, LOX products are most certainly synthesised in daphnids. Conclusion We have outlined the structure of eicosanoid biosynthesis in Daphnia, a key genus in freshwater ecosystems. Improved knowledge of the function and synthesis of eicosanoids in Daphnia and other invertebrates could have important implications for several areas within ecology. This provisional overview of daphnid eicosanoid biosynthesis provides a guide on where to focus future research activities in this area. PMID:18625039

Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Sibly, Richard M; Timmermans, Martijn JTN; Callaghan, Amanda

2008-01-01

130

Broad antiviral activity in tissues of crustaceans.  

PubMed

Innate antiviral substances occur in vertebrates and may function as host defenses. Virus infections are common among invertebrates, but little is known about the ability of invertebrates to control viral infections. Pre-existing antiviral substances may be particularly important, since invertebrates lack the antiviral defense conferred by specific immunity. In our study, we found that tissue extracts of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), and crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) contained antiviral activities that inhibit a variety of DNA and RNA viruses, i.e. Sindbis virus (SB), vaccinia virus (VAC), vesicular stomatitis virus (VS), mengo virus (MENGO), banzi virus (BANZI) and poliomyelitis (POLIO). The concentration of inhibitory activity was relatively high, ranging from 102 to 216 U/g tissue for Sindbis virus, using the various tissue extracts. The other viruses were somewhat less sensitive to the inhibitor. The main antiviral activity in the inhibitor preparation from blue crab resided in an approximately 440 kDa fraction. It was inactivated significantly by lipid extraction, but not by proteinase K or glycosidases. The antiviral mechanism of the inhibitor from the blue crab was inhibition of virus attachment to eukaryotic cells, as evidenced by inhibitory activity at 4 degrees C. These studies are among the first to show the existence of broadly active antiviral activities in aquatic crustaceans. These antiviral substances may function as innate host defenses in these species that lack specific antibody immunity and, therefore, merit further study. PMID:11080539

Pan, J; Kurosky, A; Xu, B; Chopra, A K; Coppenhaver, D H; Singh, I P; Baron, S

2000-10-01

131

Expression of engrailed can be lost and regained in cells of one clone in crustacean embryos.  

PubMed

In three species of higher crustaceans (Malacostraca) the expression of engrailed has been analysed in relation to the development of the cell division pattern in the germ band. The species differ in the timing of initial en expression. Compared to Cherax destructor and Neomysis integer the onset of en expression in Orchestia cavimana is delayed and appears one cell cycle later. In Cherax and Neomysis cells of the posterior margin of early en stripes lose en expression. This phenomenon does not occur in Orchestia. In a second step the en stripes widen both by division of en positive cells and de novo expression at the posterior margin of the en stripes. The widening phase is similar among all investigated species. In Cherax and Neomysis the cells with de novo en expression are derivatives of cells, which have ceased to express en one cell cycle before. The results in higher crustaceans suggest that neither initiation nor maintenance of en expression is controlled by lineage restrictions and that early en expression is not clonally transmitted. Furthermore, some aspects of boundaries and fields in embryos are discussed. PMID:8398676

Scholtz, G; Dohle, W; Sandeman, R E; Richter, S

1993-06-01

132

Cloning of a nitric oxide synthase from green shore crab, Carcinus maenas: a comparative study of the effects of eyestalk ablation on expression in the molting glands (Y-organs) of C. maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.  

PubMed

Molting in decapod crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids produced by a pair of Y-organs (YOs) located in the cephalothorax. YO ecdysteroidogenesis is suppressed by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a neuropeptide produced in the X-organ of the eyestalk (ES) ganglia. MIH signaling may involve nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). A full-length cDNA encoding Carcinus maenas NOS (Cm-NOS; 3836 base pairs) of 1164 amino acid residues (estimated mass 131,833 Da) was cloned with 88% identity to Gecarcinus lateralis NOS (Gl-NOS). End-point reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that Cm-NOS was expressed at varying levels in the YO, testis, ovary, hepatopancreas, midgut, hindgut, heart, thoracic ganglion, and skeletal muscle and was not detected in the gill. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed localization of NOS and cGMP in the steroidogenic cells and the surrounding connective tissue layer of the C. maenas YO. ES ablation (ESA) induced molting in G. lateralis; hemolymph ecdysteroid titers increased during premolt and reached a peak of about 400 pg/?L at 20 days and 24 days post-ESA. By contrast, ESA did not induce molting in C. maenas; hemolymph ecdysteroid titers increased about 2-fold (53 to 121 pg/?L) by 3 days post-ESA and remained at that level at 7 days post-ESA. Real time PCR was used to quantify the effects of ESA on the expression of NOS in C. maenas and G. lateralis YOs. ESA caused 32-fold and 5-fold increases in Gl-NOS and Cm-NOS transcripts by 24 days and 7 days post-ESA, respectively, which were correlated with hemolymph ecdysteroid levels. In addition, GC-I catalytic subunit (Gl-GC-I?) mRNA level increased 7.4-fold by 24 days post-ESA, but there was no significant effect of ESA on membrane GC (Gl-GC-II) mRNA level. These data indicate that the YO up-regulates NO signaling components in response to withdrawal of ES neuropeptides. PMID:20959144

McDonald, Audrey A; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2011-01-01

133

Haemolymph protein composition and copper levels in decapod crustaceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in haemolymph protein composition and concentration, in copper content and copper distribution in the tissue of decapod crustaceans are reviewed. Haemocyanin is the major haemolymph constituent (> 60%); the remaining proteins (in order of concentration) include coagulogen, apohaemocyanin, hormones and antisomes. Moulting, nutritional state, infection, hypoxia and salinity fluctuations are the major factors affecting the relative proportions and total quantities of the haemolymph proteins. With regard to haemocyanin, the changes in concentration during the moult cycle are principally associated with changes in haemolymph volume, rather than with changes in total haemocyanin content due to synthesis or catabolism. The role of the midgut gland in regulating haemolymph copper and haemocyanin concentration has been re-evaluated. More than 50% of the whole body copper load is stored in the haemolymph. In contrast, less than 3% of the copper load resides in the midgut gland. The latter has little potential for regulating haemolymph copper levels, at least in the short term (hours to a few days), though it may be involved in regulating haemocyanin levels over longer periods (weeks to months). The total copper content of the haemolymph remains within a narrow range, except during starvation when levels may decrease. Consequently, variations in the copper content of soft tissues, which constitute only 20% of decapod dry weight, do not significanlty alter whole body copper concentrations. Evidence that copper released following haemocyanin catabolism becomes bound to metallothionein for later use in the resynthesis of haemocyanin is reviewed and found to be inconclusive. The amount of copper that can be stored in this way is trivial compared with the amount of copper required to permit significant changes in haemolymph haemocyanin concentration. Average tissue copper requirements, calculated during the present study, are approx. 4 times higher than previous theoretical estimates.

Depledge, M. H.; Bjerregaard, P.

1989-06-01

134

Sex Steroids Effects on the Molting Process of the Helminth Human Parasite Trichinella spiralis  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the in vitro effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on the molting process, which is the initial and crucial step in the development of the muscular larvae (ML or L1) to adult worm. Testosterone had no significative effect on the molting rate of the parasite, however, progesterone decreased the molting rate about a 50% in a concentration- and time-independent pattern, while estradiol had a slight effect (10%). The gene expression of caveolin-1, a specific gene used as a marker of parasite development, showed that progesterone and estradiol downregulated its expression, while protein expression was unaffected. By using flow citometry, a possible protein that is recognized by a commercial antiprogesterone receptor antibody was detected. These findings may have strong implications in the host-parasite coevolution, in the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection and could point out to possibilities to use antihormones to inhibit parasite development. PMID:22162638

Hernández-Bello, Romel; Ramirez-Nieto, Ricardo; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Nava-Castro, Karen; Pavón, Lenin; Sánchez-Acosta, Ana Gabriela; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2011-01-01

135

Role of cholesterol synthesis and esterification in the growth of CEM and MOLT4 lymphoblastic cells.  

PubMed Central

CEM and MOLT4 are human T-cell lines isolated from patients with acute cell leukaemia. In culture they show important differences in cholesterol metabolism, CEM being less efficient at synthesizing cholesterol and having a lower activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMGCoA) reductase. To investigate further the relationship between regulation of intracellular cholesterol metabolism at various steps and rate of cell growth, cholesterol synthesis, esterification and efflux were evaluated in CEM and MOLT4 cells at different times during exponential and stationary growth in vitro. It was shown that, although CEM cells have a lower rate of cholesterol synthesis, they grow at a faster rate than MOLT4 cells. However, CEM cells exhibit an increased capacity to esterify cholesterol associated with a decreased efflux of newly synthesized cholesterol into the medium. These results provide evidence for an association between the capability to synthesize and retain cell cholesterol esters and the growth rate potential. PMID:9032443

Dessi, S; Batetta, B; Pani, A; Spano, O; Sanna, F; Putzolu, M; Bonatesta, R; Piras, S; Pani, P

1997-01-01

136

Molt-induced muscle atrophy decreases the zinc content of the pectoralis of the Giant Canada Goose ( Branta canadensis maxima )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During molt-induced atrophy of the pectoralis muscle of the Giant Canada Goose (Branta canadensis maxima), the zinc content of the muscle was significantly reduced (p?0.0139), though the concentration of zinc per unit weight of muscle appeared higher (p?0.0232). Zinc lost from the muscle during molt could be utilized for growth of the new flight feathers.

B. W. C. Rosser; J. C. George

1986-01-01

137

Molted feathers from clay licks in Peru provide DNA for three large macaws ( Ara ararauna , A. chloropterus , and A. macao )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation genetic analyses of wildlife have increased greatly in the past 10 yr, yet genetic studies of parrots are rare because of difficulties associated with capturing them and obtaining samples. Recent studies have demonstrated that molted feathers can provide a useful source of DNA, but success rates have varied considerably among studies. Our objective was to determine if molted macaw

Kara J. Gebhardt; Donald Brightsmith; George Powell; Lisette P. Waits

2009-01-01

138

Short-term oscillations in avian molt intensity: Evidence from the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From a year-long study of molt in the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, we recorded 2069 contour feathers replaced in 137 d (6 May-19 September). Very few contour feathers were lost outside this period. From precise daily counts of feathers lost, and using time series analysis, we identified short-term fluctuations (i.e., 19-d subcycles) around a midsummer peak (i.e., a left-skewed normal distribution). Because these subcycles have never before been reported and because the physiological basis for many aspects of avian molt is poorly known, we offer only hypothetical explanations for the controls responsible for the subcycles. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.; Kery, M.; Redpath, S.M.

2006-01-01

139

Short-term oscillations in avian molt intensity: evidence from the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From a year-long study of molt in the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, we recorded 2069 contour feathers replaced in 137 d (6 May-19 September). Very few contour feathers were lost outside this period. From precise daily counts of feathers lost, and using time series analysis, we identified short-term fluctuations (i.e., 19-d subcycles) around a midsummer peak (i.e., a left-skewed normal distribution). Because these subcycles have never before been reported and because the physiological basis for many aspects of avian molt is poorly known, we offer only hypothetical explanations for the controls responsible for the subcycles.

Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.; Kery, M.; Redpath, S.M.

2006-01-01

140

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (cHH) as a modulator of aggression in crustacean decapods.  

PubMed

Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1) 'control pairs' (CP, n = 8): both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS); (2) 'reinforced pairs' (RP, n = 9): the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3) 'inverted pairs' (IP, n = 9): the opposite of (2). We found that, independently of the crayfish's prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i) the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii) higher glycemic levels, and (iii) lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans. PMID:23166815

Aquiloni, Laura; Giulianini, Piero G; Mosco, Alessandro; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Ferrero, Enrico; Gherardi, Francesca

2012-01-01

141

Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) as a Modulator of Aggression in Crustacean Decapods  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1) ‘control pairs’ (CP, n?=?8): both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS); (2) ‘reinforced pairs’ (RP, n?=?9): the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3) ‘inverted pairs’ (IP, n?=?9): the opposite of (2). We found that, independently of the crayfish’s prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i) the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii) higher glycemic levels, and (iii) lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans. PMID:23166815

Aquiloni, Laura; Giulianini, Piero G.; Mosco, Alessandro; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Ferrero, Enrico; Gherardi, Francesca

2012-01-01

142

Condition-dependent ecdysis and immunocompetence in the amphipod crustacean, Gammarus pulex  

PubMed Central

The exoskeleton of arthropods forms an efficient protection against pathogens, but this first line of defence is periodically weakened during ecdysis, increasing the opportunity for surrounding pathogens to invade the body cavity. Since the richness of pathogens in the environment can be spatially and temporally variable, arthropods may have a fitness advantage in moulting in a place and time of low infection risk. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that the amphipod crustacean, Gammarus pulex, exhibits temporal adjustment of the moult cycle in response to elevated risks of infection. Interestingly, this phenomenon is variable between two populations and independent of levels of immune defences. These results suggest that plasticity of the moult cycle in response to elevated risks of infection is adaptive and may result from adaptation to local variations in the risk of infection. PMID:20462884

Moret, Yannick; Rigaud, Thierry; Motreuil, Sebastien; Troussard, Jean-Phillipe; Moreau, Jerome

2010-01-01

143

TESTOSTERONE AND AVIAN LIFE HISTORIES: EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTALLY ELEVATED TESTOSTERONE ON PREBASIC MOLT AND SURVIVAL IN MALE DARK-EYED JUNCOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) that breed in Virginia begin their prebasic molt after breeding has ended, usually in August. Almost all males caught in late October have completed the molt. In 1989, we obtained anecdotal evidence that males whose testosterone (T) we maintained at artificially elevated levels beyond the end of the breeding season postponed or suppressed prebasic molt.

VAL NOLAN; CHARLES ZIEGENFUS; DANIEL P. CULLEN; C. RAY CHANDLER

144

Carotenoprotein complexes in entomostracan crustaceans (Streptocephalus dichotomus and Moina micrura).  

PubMed

The carotenoprotein complexes of a freshwater fairy shrimp (Streptocephalus dichotomus) and a daphnid (Moina micrura) were characterised and compared. Based on thin layer chromatography and mass spectral analysis, a variety of cartenoprotein complexes such as astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin were found. Both crustaceans had astaxanthin and canthaxanthin as predominant prosthetic groups. Amino acid analysis of the complexes further revealed high levels of asparagine, glutamine and glycine in both species. Our study highlights the presence of naturally available carotenoid species in both crustaceans and their possible inter-conversion in anostracans. PMID:12781971

Velu, C S; Czeczuga, B; Munuswamy, N

2003-05-01

145

Applying fenoxycarb at the penultimate instar triggers an additional ecdysteroid surge and induces perfect extra larval molting in the silkworm.  

PubMed

When the juvenile hormone analog fenoxycarb was topically applied to the silkworm Bombyx mori at the beginning of the 3rd or 4th (penultimate) instar, an extra larval molt was induced. The 5th instar period was shortened to about 5 days and the extra 6th instar ranged from 8 to more than 20 days, depending on the dose applied. Starvation before fenoxycarb treatment strongly enhanced the incidence of extra molting up to 100%. When 1 ng was applied in the 4th instar after a 2-day starvation, most larvae underwent an extra molt, metamorphosed to pupae, then to fertile adults. Combining starvation and fenoxycarb application thus induces a perfect extra molt efficiently. In perfect extra molting larvae, profiles of total ecdysteroid titer during the 4th and 5th instars were similar to that during the 4th instar in the control, and the ecdysteroid profile during the extra 6th instar was similar to that during the control 5th (last) instar. At ecdysteroid peaks, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and ecdysone (E), generally regarded as the active molting hormone and its precursor, had similar titers in the 6th instar, whereas E was much less than 20E in the 4th and 5th instars in the extra molting larvae. E was also abundant only in the last larval instar in the control. These results suggest that both 20E and E contents are important for regulation of larval molt and metamorphosis in silkworms and that fenoxycarb triggers the extra molt by inducing an additional larval molt type of ecdysteroid surge before the last larval instar. PMID:12392697

Kamimura, Manabu; Kiuchi, Makoto

2002-10-01

146

Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans 123 Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods  

E-print Network

Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans 123 Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans Richard Cordaux1 , Samuel Pichon1,3 , Houda Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans. In: Strus J, Taiti S, Sfenthourakis S (Eds

Richard, Cordaux,

147

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling genes in decapod crustaceans: cloning and tissue expression of mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and p70 S6 kinase in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.  

PubMed

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls global translation of mRNA into protein by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase (S6K) and eIF4E-binding protein-1. Akt and Rheb, a GTP-binding protein, regulate mTOR protein kinase activity. Molting in crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids synthesized by a pair of molting glands, or Y-organs (YOs), located in the cephalothorax. During premolt, the YOs hypertrophy and increase production of ecdysteroids. Rapamycin (1?M) inhibited ecdysteroid secretion in Carcinus maenas and Gecarcinus lateralis YOs in vitro, indicating that ecdysteroidogenesis requires mTOR-dependent protein synthesis. The effects of molting on the expression of four key mTOR signaling genes (mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and S6K) in the YO was investigated. Partial cDNAs encoding green crab (C. maenas) mTOR (4031bp), Akt (855bp), and S6K (918bp) were obtained from expressed sequence tags. Identity/similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence of the C. maenas cDNAs to human orthologs were 72%/81% for Cm-mTOR, 58%/73% for Cm-Akt, and 77%/88% for Cm-S6K. mTOR, Akt, S6K, and elongation factor 2 (EF2) in C. maenas and blackback land crab (G. lateralis) were expressed in all tissues examined. The two species differed in the effects of molting on gene expression in the YO. In G. lateralis, Gl-mTOR, Gl-Akt, and Gl-EF2 mRNA levels were increased during premolt. By contrast, molting had no effect on the expression of Cm-mTOR, Cm-Akt, Cm-S6K, Cm-Rheb, and Cm-EF2. These data suggest that YO activation during premolt involves up regulation of mTOR signaling genes in G. lateralis, but is not required in C. maenas. PMID:24269559

Abuhagr, Ali M; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

2014-02-01

148

Changes in immunocompetence and other physiological measures during molt in Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested one of the foundational hypotheses of the field of ecological immunology: that it is difficult for animals to simultaneously carry out two or more especially demanding physiological processes at optimal levels because of energy needs or other factors that cause tradeoffs among competing components of life history. We investigated possible effects of molt (a costly life-history stage that

Vincenzo A. Ellis; Loren Merrill; John C. Wingfield; Adrian L. O'Loghlen; Stephen I. Rothstein

2012-01-01

149

Demecology in the Cambrian: synchronized molting in arthropods from the Burgess Shale  

PubMed Central

Background The Burgess Shale is well known for its preservation of a diverse soft-bodied biota dating from the Cambrian period (Series 3, Stage 5). While previous paleoecological studies have focused on particular species (autecology) or entire paleocommunities (synecology), studies on the ecology of populations (demecology) of Burgess Shale organisms have remained mainly anecdotal. Results Here, we present evidence for mass molting events in two unrelated arthropods from the Burgess Shale Walcott Quarry, Canadaspis perfecta and a megacheiran referred to as Alalcomenaeus sp. Conclusions These findings suggest that the triggers for such supposed synchronized molting appeared early on during the Cambrian radiation, and synchronized molting in the Cambrian may have had similar functions in the past as it does today. In addition, the finding of numerous juvenile Alalcomenaeus sp. molts associated with the putative alga Dictyophycus suggests a possible nursery habitat. In this nursery habitat a population of this animal might have found a more protected environment in which to spend critical developmental phases, as do many modern species today. PMID:23721223

2013-01-01

150

Food Color Preferences of Molting House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in Relation to Sex and Plumage Coloration  

E-print Network

Food Color Preferences of Molting House Finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in Relation to Sex has focused on the food color preferences of birds because they are highly visual animals and play. Recently it has been suggested that birds may use food color as an indicator of antioxidant content

McGraw, Kevin J.

151

Regeneration and Molting Effects on a Proprioceptor Organ in the Dungeness Crab, Cancer magister  

E-print Network

size. Does sensory neuron hyperplasia in inter- nal proprioceptors accompany this growth? To deter hyperplasia now occursbecause an average of 79 neurons are found in the PD organs of 57 crabs. Little to no hyperplasia ac- companies the several succeeding juvenile and adult molts (ca. 82-86 neurons are present

Cooper, Robin L.

152

Molt Migration in Relation to Breeding Success in Greater Snow Geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe summer migratory movements by female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) breeding on Bylot Island, Nunavut. We followed 121 radio-collared females between 1997 and 2001 to determine the frequency and timing of their departure from the colony in relation to breeding status, nesting success, and molting chronology. We found that 90% (n = 51) of non-breeders (no nest

ERIC T. REED; JOËL BÊTY; JULIEN MAINGUY; GILLES GAUTHIER; JEAN-FRANÇOIS GIROUX

2003-01-01

153

The role of behavior in the success of invasive crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many crustaceans have been moved to new locations where they have caused ecological or economic problems, that is, have become invasive. This article focuses on the role of animal behavior in contributing to their success. Certain behaviors are particularly relevant, including (1) feeding: outcompeting native species for food or eating native species of concern; (2) predator avoidance: the invader may

Judith S. Weis

2010-01-01

154

Ontogenic changes of amino acid composition in planktonic crustacean species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in amino acid composition (AAC) during ontogeny of some planktonic crustacean species commonly found in fresh and brackish coastal waters were compared. For these comparisons two calanoid copepods (Eurytemora velox and Calanipeda aquae-dulcis), two cyclopoid copepods (Diacyclops bicuspidatus odessanus and Acanthocyclops robustus) and two Daphnia (Daphnia pulicaria and Daphnia magna) species were selected. A discriminant analysis was performed to

Sandra Brucet; Dani Boix; Rocìo López-Flores; Anna Badosa; Xavier D. Quintana

2005-01-01

155

Leaf choice by crustaceans in a mangrove forest in Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behaviour of leaf eating crustaceans feeding on leaves shed by Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorhiza and Rhizophora stylosa in the mangrove forest at Myora Springs, Queensland, Australia was studied between 1980 and 1984. Individual Sesarma erythrodactyla (carapace >9 mm long), one of the most abundant species of crabs in the forest, processed approximately half a leaf from any of

J. Camilleri

1989-01-01

156

Effects of ovariectomy on long-day-induced premigratory fat deposition, plasma levels of luteinizing hormone and prolactin, and molt in white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii.  

PubMed

Long days initiate the hyperphagia, fat deposition, and nocturnal restlessness, characteristic of the vernal migratory state in white-crowned sparrows. Ovariectomy, when performed in November, but not when performed in January, prevented induction by long days (20L:4D) of vernal fat deposition, whereas autumnal fat deposition was not affected. This is consistent with results obtained previously with males. Very high plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) after photostimulation of ovariectomized females did not interfere with fat deposition. During fat deposition, levels of prolactin were not different from short-day levels and similar in ovariectomized and control females. However, ovariectomy performed in November suppressed the maximum levels of prolactin produced by long-day stimulation and inhibited or disturbed postnuptial molt. These effects were absent when ovariectomy was performed in January. Long-day-induced prolactin levels were higher when birds were photostimulated during a later phase of the annual cycle. It is suggested that castration does not interfere with long-day-induced vernal fat deposition via reduced secretion of prolactin in the absence of ovarian hormones or via supernormal secretion of LH, but that vernal fat deposition, prolactin secretion, and postnuptial molt require the presence of ovarian hormones prior to photostimulation. Autumnal migratory fat deposition, which is part of the cluster of events associated with photorefractoriness, has no requirement for gonadal hormones. PMID:3192064

Schwabl, H; Schwabl-Benzinger, I; Goldsmith, A R; Farner, D S

1988-09-01

157

Timing of feather molt related to date of spring migration in male white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis.  

PubMed

In migratory birds, the ability to depart wintering grounds at the appropriate time is an important determinant of fitness. Understanding the regulation of this timing will be essential for predicting whether timing of bird migration keeps up with global climate change. We examined whether the timing of the late-winter molt, in which white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) replace head and body feathers in advance of mating, may constrain the timing of northward migratory departure. In an observational study, we found a significant correlation between timing of molt and the date on which free-living male white-throated sparrows disappeared from our study site during migration. The following year, we tested whether experimentally manipulating molt date by advancing photoperiod during temporary captivity would subsequently advance disappearance date once the birds were released. Sparrows that were experimentally induced to molt early disappeared from the wintering site before controls. However, the captive control birds also molted and disappeared from the site earlier than free-living controls, suggesting that the diet during captivity had played a role. In the third winter we completed the study by advancing or delaying molt using only dietary manipulation. Together, these results show that the ability to molt early in spring is related to early disappearance from the wintering site. Early molt likely has carry-over effects on reproduction and the requirements of molt may prevent populations from adjusting migration timing in response to global climate change. J. Exp. Zool. 321A: 586-594, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25287905

Cristol, Daniel Aaron; Johnson, Karen Michelle; Jenkins, Kendell Daly; Hawley, Dana Michelle

2014-12-01

158

The Penaeus monodon Chitinase 1 Gene Is Differentially Expressed in the Hepatopancreas During the Molt Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We have isolated a full-length chitinase complementary DNA from the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that encodes a 621 amino acid protein possessing the functional domains of the chitinase protein family. The Penaeus monodon chitinase 1 (PmChi-1) gene product is 81.8% identical to a chitinase 1 protein expressed in the hepatopancreas of Penaeus japonicus. Analysis by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction

Siok Hwee Tan; Bernard M. Degnan; Sigrid A. Lehnert

2000-01-01

159

The effects of storage time on vitelline membrane protein banding patterns and interior egg quality of eggs from non-molted and molted hens  

E-print Network

bands between 60 to 100 kDa. In each of two trials, an additional one hundred forty eggs were gathered at the same time from the same flock and stored at 4°C. Twenty eggs were evaluated for quality on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 for eggs from...????????????????????????..????.. 136 CHAPTER ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page III-1 Measurement of OD/µ g values from SDS-PAGE gels for GP-II protein in the whole layer for 72 wk pre-molted hens; Experiment 1???..?..???? 33 III-2 Measurement of OD/µ g values from SDS...

Kelley, Angela Jean

2004-09-30

160

HumanWildlife Conflicts 3(2):260270, Fall 2009 Molt migration by giant Canada geese in  

E-print Network

, Groepper et al. 2007). Unfortunately, this successful restoration has created problems, including goose movements of Canada geese from their nesting grounds to locations where they molt their flight feathers

161

Journal of Insect Physiology 52 (2006) 410416 RNAi studies reveal a conserved role for RXR in molting in the  

E-print Network

protein (Oro et al., 1990; Henrich et al., 1990; Shea et al., 1990). Phenotypic analysis of three USP molting and pupal development in D. melanogaster (Perrimon et al., 1985; Oro et al., 1992; Li and Bender

Belles, Xavier

162

Molt-inhibiting hormone stimulates vitellogenesis at advanced ovarian developmental stages in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus 2: novel specific binding sites in hepatopancreas and cAMP as a second messenger  

PubMed Central

The finding that molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) regulates vitellogenesis in the hepatopancreas of mature Callinectes sapidus females, raised the need for the characterization of its mode of action. Using classical radioligand binding assays, we located specific, saturable, and non-cooperative binding sites for MIH in the Y-organs of juveniles (J-YO) and in the hepatopancreas of vitellogenic adult females. MIH binding to the hepatopancreas membranes had an affinity 77 times lower than that of juvenile YO membranes (KD values: 3.22 × 10-8 and 4.19 × 10-10 M/mg protein, respectively). The number of maximum binding sites (BMAX) was approximately two times higher in the hepatopancreas than in the YO (BMAX values: 9.24 × 10-9 and 4.8 × 10-9 M/mg protein, respectively). Furthermore, MIH binding site number in the hepatopancreas was dependent on ovarian stage and was twice as high at stage 3 than at stages 2 and 1. SDS-PAGE separation of [125I] MIH or [125I] crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) crosslinked to the specific binding sites in the membranes of the J-YO and hepatopancreas suggests a molecular weight of ~51 kDa for a MIH receptor in both tissues and a molecular weight of ~61 kDa for a CHH receptor in the hepatopancreas. The use of an in vitro incubation of hepatopancreas fragments suggests that MIH probably utilizes cAMP as a second messenger in this tissue, as cAMP levels increased in response to MIH. Additionally, 8-Bromo-cAMP mimicked the effects of MIH on vitellogenin (VtG) mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear (hn) VtG RNA levels. The results imply that the functions of MIH in the regulation of molt and vitellogenesis are mediated through tissue specific receptors with different kinetics and signal transduction. MIH ability to regulate vitellogenesis is associated with the appearance of MIH specific membrane binding sites in the hepatopancreas upon pubertal/final molt. PMID:19583849

Zmora, Nilli; Sagi, Amir; Zohar, Yonathan; Chung, J Sook

2009-01-01

163

Phylogenetic position of the Pentastomida and (pan)crustacean relationships.  

PubMed Central

Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda; however, the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus) and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans probably related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacostracans and hexapods. PMID:15129965

Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

2004-01-01

164

Phylogenetic position of the Pentastomida and (pan)crustacean relationships.  

PubMed

Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda; however, the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus) and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans probably related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacostracans and hexapods. PMID:15129965

Lavrov, Dennis V; Brown, Wesley M; Boore, Jeffrey L

2004-03-01

165

Combined effects of molt and chronic stress on heart rate, heart rate variability, and glucocorticoid physiology in European Starlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molt is an important life-history stage in avian species, but little is known about the effects of chronic stress during this period. Three weeks after the onset of molt, captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were exposed to 18 days of chronic stress, induced with four 30-minute randomized stressors presented daily. Birds showed no chronic-stress-induced changes in heart rate or heart rate

Sophia Kostelanetz; Molly J. Dickens; L. Michael Romero

2009-01-01

166

Perqu noms n'hi hagi un,... hi pintes molt. Oficina de Cooperaci al Desenvolupament i Solidaritat  

E-print Network

1 Perquè només n'hi hagi un,... hi pintes molt. #12;2 Oficina de Cooperació al Desenvolupament i Dipòsit legal: #12;3 Perquè només n'hi hagi un,... hi pintes molt. Sumari Oficina de Cooperació al privats, per induir i fomentar estratègies de desenvolupa- ment humà i sostenible i donar-hi suport. La

Oro, Daniel

167

Using body mass dynamics to examine long-term habitat shifts of arctic-molting geese: evidence for ecological change  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1976 onward, molting brant geese (Branta bernicla) within the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Alaska, shifted from inland, freshwater lakes toward coastal wetlands. Two hypotheses\\u000a explained this redistribution: (1) ecological change: redistribution of molting brant reflects improvements in coastal foraging\\u000a habitats, which have undergone a succession toward salt-tolerant plants due to increased coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion\\u000a as induced by

Tyler L. Lewis; Paul L. Flint; Dirk V. Derksen; Joel A. Schmutz; Eric J. Taylor; Karen S. Bollinger

168

Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic  

PubMed Central

For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

2005-01-01

169

Horizontal transfer of transposons between and within crustaceans and insects  

PubMed Central

Background Horizontal transfer of transposable elements (HTT) is increasingly appreciated as an important source of genome and species evolution in eukaryotes. However, our understanding of HTT dynamics is still poor in eukaryotes because the diversity of species for which whole genome sequences are available is biased and does not reflect the global eukaryote diversity. Results In this study we characterized two Mariner transposable elements (TEs) in the genome of several terrestrial crustacean isopods, a group of animals particularly underrepresented in genome databases. The two elements have a patchy distribution in the arthropod tree and they are highly similar (>93% over the entire length of the element) to insect TEs (Diptera and Hymenoptera), some of which were previously described in Ceratitis rosa (Crmar2) and Drosophila biarmipes (Mariner-5_Dbi). In addition, phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of TE versus orthologous gene distances at various phylogenetic levels revealed that the taxonomic distribution of the two elements is incompatible with vertical inheritance. Conclusions We conclude that the two Mariner TEs each underwent at least three HTT events. Both elements were transferred once between isopod crustaceans and insects and at least once between isopod crustacean species. Crmar2 was also transferred between tephritid and drosophilid flies and Mariner-5 underwent HT between hymenopterans and dipterans. We demonstrate that these various HTTs took place recently (most likely within the last 3 million years), and propose iridoviruses and/or Wolbachia endosymbionts as potential vectors of these transfers. PMID:24472097

2014-01-01

170

Proteolytic cleavage of phospholipase Cg1 during apoptosis in Molt4 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is a cell suicide mechanism that requires the activation of cellular death pro- teases for its induction. We examined whether the progress of apoptosis involves cleavage of phospho- lipase C-g1 (PLC-g1), which plays a pivotal role in mitogenic signaling pathway. Pretreatment of T leu- kemic Molt-4 cells with PLC inhibitors such as U-73122 or ET-18-OCH3 potentiated etoposide-in- duced apoptosis

SUN SIK BAE; DAVID K. PERRY; YONG SEOK OH; JANG HYUN CHOI; SEHAMUDDIN H. GALADARI; TARIQ GHAYUR; SUNG HO RYU; YUSUF A. HANNUN; PANN-GHILL SUH

171

Female resistance and male preference in a stream-dwelling isopod: effects of female molt characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the stream-dwelling isopod, Lirceus fontinalis, mating contests between males and females occur prior to pair formation. We examined the relative contribution of male preference\\u000a and female resistance to contest outcomes. We first quantified male and female behavior during typical mating interactions\\u000a and examined the relationship between time until molt (TTM) and mating outcomes. We then examined the role of

Timothy C. Sparkes; Daniel P. Keogh; Kristin E. Haskins

2000-01-01

172

Effects of a new molt-inducing insecticide, tebufenozide, on zooplankton communities in lake enclosures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potent ecdysone agonist, tebufenozide, has recently been developed as a molt-inducing insecticide to control defoliating lepidopterans. As part of continuing research efforts to assess the effectiveness and environmental safety of this material for insect pest management in Canadian forests, tebufenozide (RH-5992-2F) was applied to large lake enclosures and the effects on zooplankton communities were evaluated. There were significant treatment

David P. Kreutzweiser; David R. Thomas

1995-01-01

173

Proteomic analysis of insect molting fluid with a focus on enzymes involved in chitin degradation.  

PubMed

Cuticular chitin degradation is extremely important for insect growth and development, which has not been fully understood thus far. One obstacle to understanding this mechanism is the lack of a systematic analysis of the chitinolytic enzymes involved in cuticular chitin degradation. In this study, we used the silkmoth Bombyx mori as a model organism and compared proteomic analyses for larval-pupal (L-P) and pupal-adult (P-A) molting fluids using tandem mass tag quantitative mass spectrometry. There were 195 proteins identified from both L-P and P-A molting fluids. A total of 170 out of 195 proteins were deduced to be secretory and were enriched for GO terms associated with chitin metabolism and proteolysis by using AgriGO. Although the chitinolytic enzymes are encoded by many insect genes, the proteomics analysis unexpectedly showed that only four chitinolytic enzymes with the combination "211" were abundant in both molting fluids, namely, two insect GH18 Chitinase family members (ChtI and ChtII), one bacterial-type GH18 Chitinase (Chi-h), and one insect GH20 hexosaminidase (Hex1). A tissue-specific and stage-specific gene expression pattern verified that the "211" enzymes are involved in cuticular chitin degradation. This work first demonstrates that specific enzymes ChtI, ChtII, Chi-h, and Hex1 can be assigned to cuticular chitin degradation. PMID:24779478

Qu, Mingbo; Ma, Li; Chen, Peng; Yang, Qing

2014-06-01

174

NHR-23 dependent collagen and hedgehog-related genes required for molting  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} NHR-23 is a critical regulator of nematode development and molting. {yields} The manuscript characterizes the loss-of-function phenotype of an nhr-23 mutant. {yields} Whole genome expression analysis identifies new potential targets of NHR-23. {yields} Hedgehog-related genes are identified as NHR-23 dependent genes. {yields} New link between sterol mediated signaling and regulation by NHR-23 is found. -- Abstract: NHR-23, a conserved member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, is required for normal development in Caenorhabditis elegans where it plays a critical role in growth and molting. In a search for NHR-23 dependent genes, we performed whole genome comparative expression microarrays on both control and nhr-23 inhibited synchronized larvae. Genes that decreased in response to nhr-23 RNAi included several collagen genes. Unexpectedly, several hedgehog-related genes were also down-regulated after nhr-23 RNAi. A homozygous nhr-23 deletion allele was used to confirm the RNAi knockdown phenotypes and the changes in gene expression. Our results indicate that NHR-23 is a critical co-regulator of functionally linked genes involved in growth and molting and reveal evolutionary parallels among the ecdysozoa.

Kouns, Nathaniel A.; Nakielna, Johana; Behensky, Frantisek [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Krause, Michael W. [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kostrouch, Zdenek [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Kostrouchova, Marta, E-mail: marta.kostrouchova@lf1.cuni.cz [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

2011-10-07

175

Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages  

PubMed Central

Background Litopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from Litopenaeus vannamei abdominal muscle cDNA library. The LvDBP23 cDNA contains 639 nucleotides of protein-coding sequence with deduced 212 amino acids of predicted molecular mass 23.32 kDa with glycine-rich domain at amino acid position 94–130. The mRNA sequence is successfully used for producing LvDBP23 recombinant protein in sf9 insect cell expression system. The expression of LvDBP23 mRNA is presented in abdominal muscle and swimming leg muscle, as well as other tissues including intestine, lymphoid and gill. The mRNA expression has the highest level in abdominal muscle in all tested tissues. LVDBP23 transcript during the molt cycle is highly expressed in the intermolt stage. In vitro nucleic acid-binding assays reveal that LvDBP23 protein can bind to both ssDNA and dsDNA, indicating its possible role of regulation of gene transcription. Conclusions/Significance We are the first to report a DNA-binding protein identified from the abdominal muscle tissue of marine shrimp L. Vannamei. Its high-level specific expression during the intermot stage suggests its role in the regulation of muscle buildup during the growth phase of shrimp molt cycle. PMID:21625495

Laoong-u-thai, Yanisa; Zhao, Baoping; Phongdara, Amornrat; Yang, Jinzeng

2011-01-01

176

Endocrine regulation of the reproduction in crustaceans: Identification of potential targets for toxicants and environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in ecotoxicological research documents that crustaceans are highly vulnerable to diverse chemicals and toxicants\\u000a in the environment. In particular, pollutants affecting endocrine homeostasis in crustaceans (i.e., endocrine disruptors)\\u000a are intensively studied, and serious reproductive disorders have been documented. In this review, current knowledge about\\u000a the endocrine regulation of the crustacean reproduction is put together with the published ecotoxicological data

Edita Mazurová; Klára Hilscherová; Rita Triebskorn; Heinz-R. Köhler; Blahoslav Maršálek; Lud?k Bláha

2008-01-01

177

Molecular cloning and characterization of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone cDNA from Litopenaeus schmitti. Functional analysis by double-stranded RNA interference technique.  

PubMed

The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) plays an important role in the regulation of hemolymph glucose levels, but it is also involved in other functions such as growth, molting and reproduction. In the present study we describe the first CHH family gene isolated from the Atlantic Ocean shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti. Sequence analysis of the amplified cDNA fragment revealed a high nucleotide sequence identity with other CHHs. Northern blot analysis showed that the isolated CHH mRNA from L. schmitti is present in the eyestalk but not in muscle or stomach. We also investigated the ability of dsRNA to inhibit the CHH function in shrimps in vivo. Injection of CHH dsRNA into the abdominal hemolymph sinuses resulted in undetectable CHH mRNA levels within 24 h and a corresponding decrease in hemolymph glucose levels, suggesting that functional gene silencing had occurred. These findings are the first evidence that dsRNA technique is operative in adult shrimps in vivo. PMID:17212782

Lugo, Juana M; Morera, Yuliet; Rodríguez, Tania; Huberman, Alberto; Ramos, Laida; Estrada, Mario P

2006-12-01

178

Dissociation of Circadian and Circatidal Timekeeping in the Marine Crustacean Eurydice pulchra  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Tidal (12.4 hr) cycles of behavior and physiology adapt intertidal organisms to temporally complex coastal environments, yet their underlying mechanism is unknown. However, the very existence of an independent “circatidal” clock has been disputed, and it has been argued that tidal rhythms arise as a submultiple of a circadian clock, operating in dual oscillators whose outputs are held in antiphase i.e., ?12.4 hr apart. Results We demonstrate that the intertidal crustacean Eurydice pulchra (Leach) exhibits robust tidal cycles of swimming in parallel to circadian (24 hr) rhythms in behavioral, physiological and molecular phenotypes. Importantly, ?12.4 hr cycles of swimming are sustained in constant conditions, they can be entrained by suitable stimuli, and they are temperature compensated, thereby meeting the three criteria that define a biological clock. Unexpectedly, tidal rhythms (like circadian rhythms) are sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of Casein kinase 1, suggesting the possibility of shared clock substrates. However, cloning the canonical circadian genes of E. pulchra to provide molecular markers of circadian timing and also reagents to disrupt it by RNAi revealed that environmental and molecular manipulations that confound circadian timing do not affect tidal timing. Thus, competent circadian timing is neither an inevitable nor necessary element of tidal timekeeping. Conclusions We demonstrate that tidal rhythms are driven by a dedicated circatidal pacemaker that is distinct from the circadian system of E. pulchra, thereby resolving a long-standing debate regarding the nature of the circatidal mechanism. PMID:24076244

Zhang, Lin; Hastings, Michael H.; Green, Edward W.; Tauber, Eran; Sladek, Martin; Webster, Simon G.; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; Wilcockson, David C.

2013-01-01

179

The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences for Stomatopod Crustaceans: Implications for Phylogeny  

SciTech Connect

We report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of stomatopods and compare their features to each other and to those of other crustaceans. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding sequences were used to explore relationships within the Stomatopoda, within the malacostracan crustaceans, and among crustaceans and insects. Although these analyses support the monophyly of both Malacostraca and, within it, Stomatopoda, it also confirms the view of a paraphyletic Crustacea, with Malacostraca being more closely related to insects than to the branchiopod crustaceans.

Swinstrom, Kirsten; Caldwell, Roy; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

2005-09-07

180

Adult neurogenesis in the decapod crustacean brain: a hematopoietic connection?  

PubMed

New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the first-generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors co-exist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined. Experiments also demonstrate that the first-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are not self-renewing. A source external to the neurogenic niche must therefore provide cells that replenish the first-generation precursor pool, because although these cells divide and produce a continuous efflux of second-generation cells from the niche, the population of first-generation niche precursors is not diminished with growth and aging. In vitro studies show that cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to involve serotonergic mechanisms. We propose that, in crayfish, the hematopoietic system may be a source of cells that replenish the niche cell pool. These and other studies reviewed here establish decapod crustaceans as model systems in which the processes underlying adult neurogenesis, such as stem cell origins and transformation, can be readily explored. Studies in diverse species where adult neurogenesis occurs will result in a broader understanding of fundamental mechanisms and how evolutionary processes may have shaped the vertebrate/mammalian condition. PMID:21929622

Beltz, Barbara S; Zhang, Yi; Benton, Jeanne L; Sandeman, David C

2011-09-01

181

Expanding the Crustacean neuropeptidome using a multifaceted mass spectrometric approach.  

PubMed

Jonah crab Cancer borealis is an excellent, long-served model organism for many areas of physiology, including the study of endocrinology and neurobiology. Characterizing the neuropeptides present in its nervous system provides the first critical step toward understanding the physiological roles of these complex molecules. Multiple mass spectral techniques were used to comprehensively characterize the neuropeptidome in C. borealis, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), MALDI time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF MS and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS). To enhance the detection signals and expand the dynamic range, direct tissue analysis, tissue extraction, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and off-line HPLC separation have also been employed. In total, 142 peptides were identified, including 85 previously known C. borealis peptides, 22 peptides characterized previously from other decapods, but new to this species, and 35 new peptides de novo sequenced for the first time in this study. Seventeen neuropeptide families were revealed including FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP), allatostatin (A and B type), RYamide, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, proctolin, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptide (CPRP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), corazonin, pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH), tachykinin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) and HISGLYRamide. Collectively, our results greatly increase the number and expand the coverage of known C. borealis neuropeptides, and thus provide a stronger framework for future studies on the physiological roles played by these molecules in this important model organism. PMID:19222238

Ma, Mingming; Wang, Junhua; Chen, Ruibing; Li, Lingjun

2009-05-01

182

Adult neurogenesis in the decapod crustacean brain: A hematopoietic connection?  

PubMed Central

New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the 1st- generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors coexist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined. Experiments also demonstrate that the 1st-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are not self-renewing. A source external to the neurogenic niche must therefore provide cells that replenish the 1st-generation precursor pool, because although these cells divide and produce a continuous efflux of 2nd-generation cells from the niche, the population of 1st-generation niche precursors is not diminished with growth and aging. In vitro studies show that cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to involve serotonergic mechanisms. We propose that in crayfish, the hematopoietic system may be a source of cells that replenish the niche cell pool. These and other studies reviewed here establish decapod crustaceans as model systems in which the processes underlying adult neurogenesis, such as stem cell origins and transformation, can be readily explored. Studies in diverse species where adult neurogenesis occurs will result in a broader understanding of fundamental mechanisms and how evolutionary processes may have shaped the vertebrate/mammalian condition. PMID:21929622

Beltz, Barbara S.; Zhang, Yi; Benton, Jeanne L.; Sandeman, David C.

2011-01-01

183

A review of gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

This article reviews the mechanical processes associated with digestion in decapod crustaceans. The decapod crustacean gut is essentially an internal tube that is divided into three functional areas, the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The foregut houses the gastric mill apparatus which functions in mastication (cutting and grinding) of the ingested food. The processed food passes into the pyloric region of the foregut which controls movement of digesta into the midgut region and hepatopancreas where intracellular digestion takes place. The movements of the foregut muscles and gastric mill are controlled via nerves from the stomatogastric ganglion. Contraction rates of the gastric mill and foregut muscles can be influenced by environmental factors such as salinity, temperature, and oxygen levels. Gut contraction rates depend on the magnitude of the environmental perturbation and the physiological ability of each species. The subsequent transit of the digesta from the foregut into the midgut and through the hindgut has been followed in a wide variety of crustaceans. Transit rates are commonly used as a measure of food processing rates and are keys in understanding strategies of adaptation to trophic conditions. Transit times vary from as little as 30 min in small copepods to over 150 h in larger lobsters. Transit times can be influenced by the size and the type of the meal, the size and activity level of an animal and changes in environmental temperature, salinity and oxygen tension. Ultimately, changes in transit times influence digestive efficiency (the amount of nutrients absorbed across the gut wall). Digestive efficiencies tend to be high for carnivorous crustaceans, but somewhat lower for those that consume plant material. A slowing of the transit rate allows more time for nutrient absorption but this may be confounded by changes in the environment, which may reduce the energy available for active transport processes. Given the large number of articles already published on the stomatogastric ganglion and its control mechanisms, this area will continue to be of interest to scientists. There is also a push towards studying animals in a more natural environment or even in the field and investigation of the energetic costs of the components of digestion under varying biotic and environmental conditions will undoubtedly be an area that expands in the future. PMID:23266655

McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

2013-05-01

184

The effects of ethidium bromide induced loss of mitochondrial DNA on mitochondrial phenotype and ultrastructure in a human leukemia T-cell line (MOLT-4 cells).  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA-deficient (rho(0)) cells were generated following a 26-day incubation of MOLT-4 lymphoblastoid T cells in ethidium bromide (3,8-diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide). The absence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the resultant MOLT-4 rho(0) cells was confirmed by Southern analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MOLT-4 rho(0) cells proliferated more slowly than parental cells (wild type) and produced significantly more lactate (approximately fourfold increase; P < 0.001) with concomitantly reduced oxygen consumption (12.3% vs. 100%; P < 0.001) compared with the wild type. MOLT-4 rho(0) cells also showed reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity and a reduced cytochrome c oxidase/citrate synthase activity ratio compared to parental wild-type MOLT-4 cells (P < 10(-11)). Electron microscopy showed elongated mitochondria with parallel cristae in MOLT-4 cells although the mitochondria in MOLT-4 rho(0) cells appeared enlarged, some were vacuolated with either an absent or a grossly distorted cristae pattern. Vital staining with 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) was used to image mitochondria in intact cells and study mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Deltapsi(m)). Flow cytometry using JC-1 indicated that MOLT-4 rho(0) had a lower Deltapsi(m) than MOLT-4. Sodium fluoride (an inhibitor of the glycolytic pathway) at a concentration of 20 mM further reduced the Deltapsi(m) in MOLT-4-rho(0) cells. This data suggested that a glycolytic pathway product, possibly ATP, was required for the maintenance of Deltapsi(m) in MOLT-4 rho(0) cells. PMID:15050409

Armand, Ray; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Kintner, Jennifer; White, Kristina A; Miselis, Kristin A; Perez, Raymond P; Lewis, Lionel D

2004-04-01

185

Evaluation of feeding various sources of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted using 588 Hy-Line W-36 hens (68 wk of age) to evaluate if laying hens can be successfully molted by ad libitum feeding various levels of 3 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Treatment 1 consisted of a 47% corn (C):47% soy hulls (SH) molt diet (C:SH) fed for 28 d (positive control). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were molt diets containing 94% DDGS from the 3 sources fed for 28 d. Treatments 5, 6, and 7 were 32% C: 42% SH: 20% DDGS, from each of the 3 DDGS sources, also fed for 28 d. At the end of the 28-d molt period, all hens were fed a 16% CP corn-soybean meal layer diet. Body weight loss during the molt period was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for hens fed the C:SH diet (26%) than hens fed the diets containing DDGS, and the reduction in BW loss varied among DDGS sources. Feed intake was lower (P < 0.05) for the C:SH control treatment compared with most DDGS treatments. Hens fed the C:SH diet had egg production near 0% during the last 3 wk of the molt period. Hens on the other treatments did not have mean egg production below 17% during the molt period (wk 1 to 4), and the reduction in egg production varied among DDGS sources. Postmolt hen-day egg production (5-41 wk) did not significantly differ among treatments; however, egg mass and egg specific gravity were generally reduced (P < 0.05) for hens fed the 94% DDGS molt diets compared with hens fed the C:SH diet. This study showed that molt and postmolt performance responses varied among DDGS sources; however, none of the molt diets containing 20 to 94% DDGS yielded molt period reductions in BW or egg production similar to a 47% C: 47% SH diet. PMID:24879692

Bland, Kelly; Utterback, Pam; Koelkebeck, Ken; Parsons, Carl

2014-06-01

186

Insect Neuropeptide Bursicon Homodimers Induce Innate Immune and Stress Genes during Molting by Activating the NF-?B Transcription Factor Relish  

PubMed Central

Background Bursicon is a heterodimer neuropeptide composed of two cystine knot proteins, bursicon ? (burs ?) and bursicon ? (burs ?), that elicits cuticle tanning (melanization and sclerotization) through the Drosophila leucine-rich repeats-containing G protein-coupled receptor 2 (DLGR2). Recent studies show that both bursicon subunits also form homodimers. However, biological functions of the homodimers have remained unknown until now. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we show in Drosophila melanogaster that both bursicon homodimers induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in neck-ligated adults following recombinant homodimer injection and in larvae fat body after incubation with recombinant homodimers. These AMP genes were also up-regulated in 24 h old unligated flies (when the endogenous bursicon level is low) after injection of recombinant homodimers. Up-regulation of AMP genes by the homodimers was accompanied by reduced bacterial populations in fly assay preparations. The induction of AMP expression is via activation of the NF-?B transcription factor Relish in the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway. The influence of bursicon homodimers on immune function does not appear to act through the heterodimer receptor DLGR2, i.e. novel receptors exist for the homodimers. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal a mechanism of CNS-regulated prophylactic innate immunity during molting via induced expression of genes encoding AMPs and genes of the Turandot family. Turandot genes are also up-regulated by a broader range of extreme insults. From these data we infer that CNS-generated bursicon homodimers mediate innate prophylactic immunity to both stress and infection during the vulnerable molting cycle. PMID:22470576

Li, Sheng; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Stanley, David; Song, Qisheng

2012-01-01

187

Mini review Usage of energy reserves in crustaceans during starvation: Status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review the current knowledge about the usage of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins as energy source by marine crustaceans during starvation. Crustaceans are a large and diverse group including some economically important species. The efforts to culture them for human consumption has prompted the interest to understand the preferences of energy sources to be applied for feed

Arturo Sanchez-Paz; Fernando Garcia-Carreno; Adriana Muhlia-Almazan; Alma B. Peregrino-Uriarte; Jorge Hernandez-Lopez; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia

188

Chemical biology of the mutualistic relationships of sea anemones with fish and crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish species of the genera Amphiprion and Premnas (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) as well as various crustaceans seek protection from predators among the tentacles of sea anemones, where they live essentially unharmed from stinging by the host's nematocysts. The mucous coats of anemonefish and crustaceans have been suggested as mechanisms that prevent the discharge of the nematocysts upon contact. Whereas some fish

Dietrich Mebs

2009-01-01

189

Measurement of Neuropeptides in Crustacean Hemolymph via MALDI Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Neuropeptides are often released into circulatory fluid (hemolymph) to act as circulating hormones and regulate many physiological processes. However, the detection of these low-level peptide hormones in circulation is often complicated by high salt interference and rapid degradation of proteins and peptides in crude hemolymph extracts. In this study, we systematically evaluated three different neuropeptide extraction protocols and developed a simple and effective hemolymph preparation method suitable for MALDI MS profiling of neuropeptides by combining acid-induced abundant protein precipitation/depletion, ultrafiltration, and C18 micro-column desalting. In hemolymph samples collected from crab Cancer borealis several secreted neuropeptides have been detected, including members from at least five neuropeptide families, such as RFamide, allatostatin, orcokinin, tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP). Furthermore, two TRPs were detected in the hemolymph collected from food-deprived animals, suggesting the potential role of these neuropeptides in feeding regulation. In addition, a novel peptide with a Lys-Phe-amide C-terminus was identified and de novo sequenced directly from the Cancer borealis hemolymph sample. To better characterize the hemolymph peptidome, we also identified several abundant peptide signals in C. borealis hemolymph that were assigned to protein degradation products. Collectively, our study describes a simple and effective sample preparation method for neuropeptide analysis directly from crude crustacean hemolymph. Numerous endogenous neuropeptides were detected including both known ones and new peptides whose functions remain to be characterized. PMID:19185513

Chen, Ruibing; Ma, Mingming; Hui, Limei; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Lingjun

2009-01-01

190

Null point of discrimination in crustacean polarisation vision.  

PubMed

The polarisation of light is used by many species of cephalopods and crustaceans to discriminate objects or to communicate. Most visual systems with this ability, such as that of the fiddler crab, include receptors with photopigments that are oriented horizontally and vertically relative to the outside world. Photoreceptors in such an orthogonal array are maximally sensitive to polarised light with the same fixed e-vector orientation. Using opponent neural connections, this two-channel system may produce a single value of polarisation contrast and, consequently, it may suffer from null points of discrimination. Stomatopod crustaceans use a different system for polarisation vision, comprising at least four types of polarisation-sensitive photoreceptor arranged at 0, 45, 90 and 135 deg relative to each other, in conjunction with extensive rotational eye movements. This anatomical arrangement should not suffer from equivalent null points of discrimination. To test whether these two systems were vulnerable to null points, we presented the fiddler crab Uca heteropleura and the stomatopod Haptosquilla trispinosa with polarised looming stimuli on a modified LCD monitor. The fiddler crab was less sensitive to differences in the degree of polarised light when the e-vector was at -45 deg than when the e-vector was horizontal. In comparison, stomatopods showed no difference in sensitivity between the two stimulus types. The results suggest that fiddler crabs suffer from a null point of sensitivity, while stomatopods do not. PMID:24737768

How, Martin J; Christy, John; Roberts, Nicholas W; Marshall, N Justin

2014-07-15

191

Measurement of neuropeptides in crustacean hemolymph via MALDI mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Neuropeptides are often released into circulatory fluid (hemolymph) to act as circulating hormones and regulate many physiological processes. However, the detection of these low-level peptide hormones in circulation is often complicated by high salt interference and rapid degradation of proteins and peptides in crude hemolymph extracts. In this study, we systematically evaluated three different neuropeptide extraction protocols and developed a simple and effective hemolymph preparation method suitable for MALDI MS profiling of neuropeptides by combining acid-induced abundant protein precipitation/depletion, ultrafiltration, and C(18) micro-column desalting. In hemolymph samples collected from the crab Cancer borealis, several secreted neuropeptides have been detected, including members from at least five neuropeptide families, such as RFamide, allatostatin, orcokinin, tachykinin-related peptide (TRP), and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP). Furthermore, two TRPs were detected in the hemolymph collected from food-deprived animals, suggesting the potential role of these neuropeptides in feeding regulation. In addition, a novel peptide with a Lys-Phe-amide C-terminus was identified and de novo sequenced directly from the Cancer borealis hemolymph sample. To better characterize the hemolymph peptidome, we also identified several abundant peptide signals in C. borealis hemolymph that were assigned to protein degradation products. Collectively, our study describes a simple and effective sample preparation method for neuropeptide analysis directly from crude crustacean hemolymph. Numerous endogenous neuropeptides were detected, including both known ones and new peptides whose functions remain to be characterized. PMID:19185513

Chen, Ruibing; Ma, Mingming; Hui, Limei; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Lingjun

2009-04-01

192

Do Decapod Crustaceans Have Nociceptors for Extreme pH?  

PubMed Central

Background Nociception is the physiological detection of noxious stimuli. Because of its obvious importance, nociception is expected to be widespread across animal taxa and to trigger robust behaviours reliably. Nociception in invertebrates, such as crustaceans, is poorly studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Three decapod crustacean species were tested for nociceptive behaviour: Louisiana red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp.). Applying sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, or benzocaine to the antennae caused no change in behaviour in the three species compared to controls. Animals did not groom the stimulated antenna, and there was no difference in movement of treated individuals and controls. Extracellular recordings of antennal nerves in P. clarkii revealed continual spontaneous activity, but no neurons that were reliably excited by the application of concentrated sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. Conclusions/Significance Previously reported responses to extreme pH are either not consistently evoked across species or were mischaracterized as nociception. There was no behavioural or physiological evidence that the antennae contained specialized nociceptors that responded to pH. PMID:20422026

Puri, Sakshi; Faulkes, Zen

2010-01-01

193

Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic.  

PubMed

Recent molecular analyses indicate that crustaceans and hexapods form a clade (Pancrustacea or Tetraconata), but relationships among its constituent lineages, including monophyly of crustaceans, are controversial. Our phylogenetic analysis of three protein-coding nuclear genes from 62 arthropods and lobopods (Onychophora and Tardigrada) demonstrates that Hexapoda is most closely related to the crustaceans Branchiopoda (fairy shrimp, water fleas, etc.) and Cephalocarida + Remipedia, thereby making hexapods terrestrial crustaceans and the traditionally defined Crustacea paraphyletic. Additional findings are that Malacostraca (crabs, isopods, etc.) unites with Cirripedia (barnacles, etc.) and they, in turn, with Copepoda, making the traditional crustacean class Maxillopoda paraphyletic. Ostracoda (seed shrimp)--either all or a subgroup--is associated with Branchiura (fish lice) and likely to be basal to all other pancrustaceans. A Bayesian statistical (non-clock) estimate of divergence times suggests a Precambrian origin for Pancrustacea (600 Myr ago or more), which precedes the first unambiguous arthropod fossils by over 60 Myr. PMID:15734694

Regier, Jerome C; Shultz, Jeffrey W; Kambic, Robert E

2005-02-22

194

Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic  

PubMed Central

Recent molecular analyses indicate that crustaceans and hexapods form a clade (Pancrustacea or Tetraconata), but relationships among its constituent lineages, including monophyly of crustaceans, are controversial. Our phylogenetic analysis of three protein-coding nuclear genes from 62 arthropods and lobopods (Onychophora and Tardigrada) demonstrates that Hexapoda is most closely related to the crustaceans Branchiopoda (fairy shrimp, water fleas, etc.) and Cephalocarida+Remipedia, thereby making hexapods terrestrial crustaceans and the traditionally defined Crustacea paraphyletic. Additional findings are that Malacostraca (crabs, isopods, etc.) unites with Cirripedia (barnacles, etc.) and they, in turn, with Copepoda, making the traditional crustacean class Maxillopoda paraphyletic. Ostracoda (seed shrimp)—either all or a subgroup—is associated with Branchiura (fish lice) and likely to be basal to all other pancrustaceans. A Bayesian statistical (non-clock) estimate of divergence times suggests a Precambrian origin for Pancrustacea (600 Myr ago or more), which precedes the first unambiguous arthropod fossils by over 60 Myr. PMID:15734694

Regier, Jerome C.; Shultz, Jeffrey W.; Kambic, Robert E.

2005-01-01

195

Maximal horizontal flight performance of hummingbirds: effects of body mass and molt.  

PubMed

Hovering and fast forward flapping represent two strenuous types of flight that differ in aerodynamic power requirement. Maximal capabilities of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) in hovering and forward flight were compared under varying body mass and wing area. The capability to hover in low-density gas mixtures was adversely affected by body mass, whereas the capability to fly in a wind tunnel did not show any adverse mass effect. Molting birds that lost primary flight feathers and reduced wing area also displayed mass loss and loss of aerodynamic power and flight speed. This suggests that maximal flight speed is insensitive to short-term perturbations of body mass but that molting is stressful and reduces the birds' speed and capacity for chase and escape. Hummingbirds' flight behavior in confined space was also investigated. Birds reduced their speeds flying through a narrow tube to approximately one-fifth of that in the wind tunnel and did not display differences under varying body mass and wing area. Hence, performance in the flight tube was submaximal and did not correlate with performance variation in the wind tunnel. For ruby-throated hummingbirds, both maximal mass-specific aerodynamic power derived from hovering performance in low-density air media and maximal flight velocity measured in the wind tunnel were invariant with body mass. PMID:10068617

Chai, P; Altshuler, D L; Stephens, D B; Dillon, M E

1999-01-01

196

The trans-generational phase accumulation in the desert locust: morphometric changes and extra molting.  

PubMed

To understand the underlying trans-generational phase accumulation, a classical morphometric characteristic, the F/C ratio (F, hind femur length; C, maximum head width), of adult desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) was monitored over eight consecutive generations. Adult F/C ratios, which are larger in solitarious locusts than in gregarious ones, were negatively correlated to the darkness of body color at hatching. Two successive generations were required for a complete shift from the gregarious (crowd-reared) to the solitarious (isolated-reared) phase and vice versa in the laboratory. That is (1) female adults needed to be exposed to crowded (or isolated) conditions so that their hatchlings would become large (or small) and dark (or green) in color, and (2) the hatchlings then needed to be exposed to crowded (or isolated) conditions for their entire nymphal stage. Solitarious locusts exhibited extra molting that influenced the F/C ratio in the adult stage, but did not exert significant influences on the trans-generational changes in this trait because the incidence was low. The incidence of extra molting was negatively correlated with nymphal survival rates. The morphometric trans-generational changes may be explained without assuming any accumulating internal factor. PMID:19631213

Maeno, Koutaro; Tanaka, Seiji

2009-11-01

197

Filling the gap between identified neuroblasts and neurons in crustaceans adds new support for Tetraconata  

PubMed Central

The complex spatio-temporal patterns of development and anatomy of nervous systems play a key role in our understanding of arthropod evolution. However, the degree of resolution of neural processes is not always detailed enough to claim homology between arthropod groups. One example is neural precursors and their progeny in crustaceans and insects. Pioneer neurons of crustaceans and insects show some similarities that indicate homology. In contrast, the differentiation of insect and crustacean neuroblasts (NBs) shows profound differences and their homology is controversial. For Drosophila and grasshoppers, the complete lineage of several NBs up to formation of pioneer neurons is known. Apart from data on median NBs no comparable results exist for Crustacea. Accordingly, it is not clear where the crustacean pioneer neurons come from and whether there are NBs lateral to the midline homologous to those of insects. To fill this gap, individual NBs in the ventral neuroectoderm of the crustacean Orchestia cavimana were labelled in vivo with a fluorescent dye. A partial neuroblast map was established and for the first time lineages from individual NBs to identified pioneer neurons were established in a crustacean. Our data strongly suggest homology of NBs and their lineages, providing further evidence for a close insect–crustacean relationship. PMID:18048285

Ungerer, Petra; Scholtz, Gerhard

2007-01-01

198

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF FAST AND SLOW CRUSTACEAN MUSCLES  

PubMed Central

Known phasic and tonic muscle fibers of the crab Cancer magister were studied by electron microscopy. Phasic fibers have sarcomeres about 4.5 µ long, small polygonal myofibrils, and a well-developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. The thick myofilaments, disposed in hexagonal array, are each surrounded by six thin filaments. The tonic fibers have a sarcomere length of about 12 µ, larger myofibrils, a poorly developed sarcoplasmic reticulum, and a disorderly array of myofilaments. Each thick myofilament is surrounded by 10–12 thin filaments. The same morphological type of slow muscle has been found in the crustaceans, Macrocyclops albidus, Cypridopsis vidua, and Balanus cariosus, in each case in an anatomical location consistent with tonic action. A search of the literature indicates that this type of muscle is found in all classes of arthropods and is confined to visceral and postural muscles or specializations of these. PMID:6061726

Fahrenbach, Wolf H.

1967-01-01

199

Arthropod phylogeny revisited, with a focus on crustacean relationships.  

PubMed

Higher-level arthropod phylogenetics is an intensely active field of research, not least as a result of the hegemony of molecular data. However, not all areas of arthropod phylogenetics have so far received equal attention. The application of molecular data to infer a comprehensive phylogeny of Crustacea is still in its infancy, and several emerging results are conspicuously at odds with morphology-based studies. In this study, we present a series of molecular phylogenetic analyses of 88 arthropods, including 57 crustaceans, representing all the major lineages, with Onychophora and Tardigrada as outgroups. Our analyses are based on published and new sequences for two mitochondrial markers, 16S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and the nuclear ribosomal gene 18S rDNA. We designed our phylogenetic analyses to assess the effects of different strategies of sequence alignment, alignment masking, nucleotide coding, and model settings. Our comparisons show that alignment optimization of ribosomal markers based on secondary structure information can have a radical impact on phylogenetic reconstruction. Trees based on optimized alignments recover monophyletic Arthropoda (excluding Onychophora), Pancrustacea, Malacostraca, Insecta, Myriapoda and Chelicerata, while Maxillopoda and Hexapoda emerge as paraphyletic groups. Our results are unable to resolve the highest-level relationships within Arthropoda, and none of our trees supports the monophyly of Myriochelata or Mandibulata. We discuss our results in the context of both the methodological variations between different analyses, and of recently proposed phylogenetic hypotheses. This article offers a preliminary attempt to incorporate the large diversity of crustaceans into a single molecular phylogenetic analysis, assessing the robustness of phylogenetic relationships under varying analysis parameters. It throws into sharp relief the relative strengths and shortcomings of the combined molecular data for assessing this challenging phylogenetic problem, and thereby provides useful pointers for future studies. PMID:19854296

Koenemann, Stefan; Jenner, Ronald A; Hoenemann, Mario; Stemme, Torben; von Reumont, Björn M

2010-01-01

200

Journal of Plankton Research Vol.18 no.10 pp.1897-1915, 1996 The importance of crustacean zooplankton in structuring rotifer  

E-print Network

Journal of Plankton Research Vol.18 no.10 pp.1897-1915, 1996 The importance of crustacean of crustacean zooplankton on the rotifer and phytoplankton community. Among the crustacean plankton, calanoid in this experiment. The colonial rotifer Conochilus unicomis was not affected by crustacean plankton. The two most

Fussman, Gregor

201

The influence of insect juvenile hormone agonists on metamorphosis and reproduction in estuarine crustaceans.  

PubMed

Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (pyriproxyfen, methoprene and fenoxycarb). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater than two orders of magnitude more sensitive to disruption by methoprene and fenoxycarb than was embryonic development. Developing larvae of the mud crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, exhibited reduced metamorphic success at lower concentrations of methoprene and pyriproxyfen than grass shrimp larvae. These responses suggest that the more rigidly controlled metamorphic process in crabs is more sensitive to compounds acting as endocrine disruptors than is the more flexible metamorphic pattern in shrimp. The final crab larval stage, the megalopa, was more sensitive to methoprene and fenoxycarb exposure than earlier zoeal stages. Mud crab larvae exposed to fenoxycarb had reduced biomass and lipid content, particularly triglycerides and sterols. Concentrations of fenoxycarb which reduced the reproductive capacity in single life-cycle exposures of the estuarine mysid, Americamysis bahia, were similar to those concentrations which inhibited metamorphosis in grass shrimp. Juvenile mysids released by exposed adults and reared through maturation without further exposure produced fewer young and had altered sex ratios (lower percentages of males) at lower parental-exposure concentrations than directly affected parental reproduction. These transgenerational responses may well be a product of irreversible effects during developmental exposures which become apparent following maturation and initiation of reproduction. These findings support using a functional approach as an appropriate screening procedure to evaluate potential environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals in aquatic environments. PMID:21676750

McKenney, Charles L

2005-01-01

202

Phylogeny of Molting Protostomes (Ecdysozoa) as Inferred from 18S and 28S rRNA Gene Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships within the group of molting protostomes were reconstructed by comparing the sets of 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences considered either separately or in combination. The reliability of reconstructions was estimated from the bootstrap indices for major phylogenetic tree nodes and from the degree of congruence of phylogenetic trees obtained by different methods. By either criterion, the phylogenetic

N. B. Petrov; N. S. Vladychenskaya

2005-01-01

203

Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

Franson, J. C.; Hoffman, D. J.; Schmutz, J. A.

2009-01-01

204

Safety Testing of Tebufenozide, a New Molt-Inducing Insecticide, for Effects on Nontarget Forest Soil Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tebufenozide, a new molt-inducing insecticide that mimics the action of ecdysone, is being considered for use to control defoliating lepidoptera in forests in Canada. Soil microcosms, employing substrates and species from the ecosystems in which spraying is likely to occur, were used to evaluate the effects of this compound on soil invertebrates. The forest earthworm (Dendrobaena octaedraSavigny) and four species

J. A. Addison

1996-01-01

205

762 shorT commUnicaTions AN IMPROVED EXTRACTION METHOD TO INCREASE DNA YIELD FROM MOLTED FEATHERS  

E-print Network

- vasive source of DNA for genetic studies of Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), we isolated words: Accipiter gentilis, DNA extraction, DNA yield, molted feathers, noninvasive genetic sampling ADN en estudios de Accipiter gentilis, aislamos y cuantificamos ADN de plumas mudadas y comparamos la

206

The relationship between circulating ecdysteroids and chela allometry in male tanner crabs: Evidence for a terminal molt in the genus Chionoecetes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Whether male Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi, undergo a terminal molt associated with a change in claw allometry has long been debated. We measured molting hormone levels in captured male C. bairdi to assess the potential for molting. We plotted a frequency histogram of chela height to carapace width ratios and found a bimodal distribution of crabs with a ratio of approximately 0.18 separating the two modes. Male crabs with a ratio less than 0.18 were classified as "small-clawed" (SC) while crabs with a ratio greater than 0.18 were classified as "large-clawed" (LC). Circulating molting hormones between SC and LC crabs were compared. Significantly lower ecdysteroid levels were found in LC crabs, indicating that this morphotype had negligible potential for molting. Circulating ecdysteroids were measured in SC males of different shell conditions (soft, new, old, and very old) and no significant differences were found. This research suggests that the molt to LC morphology is a terminal molt. The results from this study have important implications for fisheries management because sub-legal LC males will not recruit into the fishery and removal of larger males may have long term effects on population size structure.

Tamone, S.L.; Taggart, S.J.; Andrews, A.G.; Mondragon, J.; Nielsen, J.K.

2007-01-01

207

Fine scale movements and habitat use of black brant during the flightless Wing Molt in Arctic Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) migrate annually to the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA), Alaska, to undergo the flightless wing molt on tundra lakes and wetlands. GPS transmitters were attached to Brant over two summers (2007?????"2008) to examine patterns of movement and habitat use of molting Brant, including variation by habitat type, year and body mass. Molting Brant were located an average of 31 ??1 m (SE) from shore and this distance did not vary across any of the explanatory variables. Brant moved an average of 123 ??3 m hr-1 while flightless. Movement rates varied by year, averaging 22 ??12 m hr-1 faster in 2008, and across habitat types, averaging 22 ??13 m hr-1 faster in inland versus coastal and estuarine habitats. Two kernel home ranges were estimated: entire home range, which encompassed the complete 95% probability contour, and shoreline home range, which included only shoreline areas used by molting Brant. Entire home range (x bar = 15.1 ??2.2 km2) was negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that heavier individuals have more body reserves to contribute to feather growth and thereby require less food and smaller home ranges. Conversely, shoreline home range (x bar = 4.3 ??0.6 km2) did not vary by body mass, but rather by habitat type, being larger in estuarine habitats. The complex shorelines and numerous deltaic islands of estuarine habitats offer more shoreline per area than either coastal or inland habitats. Brant appear to have limited ability to adjust their home range size or forage further from shore in response to variable food resources across years or habitats, instead altering their movement rate. Given this apparent lack of behavioral flexibility, Brant may be sensitive to development-related disturbances or habitat losses at molt sites in the TLSA.

Lewis, T.L.; Flint, P.L.; Derksen, D.V.; Schmutz, J.A.

2011-01-01

208

Fine scale movements and habitat use of black brant during the flightless Wing Molt in Arctic Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thousands of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) migrate annually to the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area (TLSA), Alaska, to undergo the flightless wing molt on tundra lakes and wetlands. GPS transmitters were attached to Brant over two summers (2007â€"2008) to examine patterns of movement and habitat use of molting Brant, including variation by habitat type, year and body mass. Molting Brant were located an average of 31 ±1 m (SE) from shore and this distance did not vary across any of the explanatory variables. Brant moved an average of 123 ±3 m hr -1 while flightless. Movement rates varied by year, averaging 22 ±12 m hr -1 faster in 2008, and across habitat types, averaging 22 ±13 m hr -1 faster in inland versus coastal and estuarine habitats. Two kernel home ranges were estimated: entire home range, which encompassed the complete 95% probability contour, and shoreline home range, which included only shoreline areas used by molting Brant. Entire home range (x bar = 15.1 ±2.2 km 2) was negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that heavier individuals have more body reserves to contribute to feather growth and thereby require less food and smaller home ranges. Conversely, shoreline home range (x bar = 4.3 ±0.6 km 2) did not vary by body mass, but rather by habitat type, being larger in estuarine habitats. The complex shorelines and numerous deltaic islands of estuarine habitats offer more shoreline per area than either coastal or inland habitats. Brant appear to have limited ability to adjust their home range size or forage further from shore in response to variable food resources across years or habitats, instead altering their movement rate. Given this apparent lack of behavioral flexibility, Brant may be sensitive to development-related disturbances or habitat losses at molt sites in the TLSA.

Lewis, Tyler L.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Schmutz, Joel A.

2011-01-01

209

Dietary mercury exposure causes decreased escape takeoff flight performance and increased molt rate in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).  

PubMed

Mercury is a widespread and persistent environmental contaminant that occurs in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Recently, songbirds that forage from primarily terrestrial sources have shown evidence of bioaccumulation of mercury, but little research has assessed the effects of mercury on their health and fitness. There are many indications that mercury negatively affects neurological functioning, bioenergetics, and behavior through a variety of mechanisms and in a wide array of avian taxa. Effective flight is crucial to avian fitness and feather molt is an energetically expensive life history trait. Therefore, we investigated whether mercury exposure influenced flight performance and molt in a common songbird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Specifically, we dosed the diet of captive starlings with methylmercury cysteine at 0.0, 0.75, or 1.5 ?g/g wet weight and recorded changes in flight performance after 1 year of dietary mercury exposure. We also recorded the annual molt of wing feathers. We found that individuals dosed with mercury exhibited decreased escape takeoff flight performance compared with controls and blood mercury was also correlated with an increased rate of molt, which can reduce flight performance and thermoregulatory ability. This study reveals two novel endpoints, flight performance and molt, that may be affected by dietary mercury exposure. These findings suggest a potential impact on wild songbirds exposed to mercury levels comparable to the high dosage levels in the present study. Any decrease in flight efficiency could reduce fitness due to a direct impact on survival during predation events or by decreased efficiency in other critical activities (such as foraging or migration) that require efficient flight. PMID:25030113

Carlson, Jenna R; Cristol, Daniel; Swaddle, John P

2014-10-01

210

Using body mass dynamics to examine long-term habitat shifts of arctic-molting geese: Evidence for ecological change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1976 onward, molting brant geese (Branta bernicla) within the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Alaska, shifted from inland, freshwater lakes toward coastal wetlands. Two hypotheses explained this redistribution: (1) ecological change: redistribution of molting brant reflects improvements in coastal foraging habitats, which have undergone a succession toward salt-tolerant plants due to increased coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion as induced by climate change or (2) interspecific competition: greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) populations increased 12-fold at inland lakes, limiting food availability and forcing brant into coastal habitats. Both hypotheses presume that brant redistributions were driven by food availability; thus, body mass dynamics may provide insight into the relevance of these hypotheses. We compared body mass dynamics of molting brant across decades (1978, 1987–1992, 2005–2007) and, during 2005–2007, across habitats (coastal vs. inland). Brant lost body mass during molt in all three decades. At inland habitats, rates of mass loss progressively decreased by decade despite the increased number of greater white-fronted geese. These results do not support an interspecific competition hypothesis, instead suggesting that ecological change enhanced foraging habitats for brant. During 2005–2007, rates of mass loss did not vary by habitat. Thus, while habitats have improved from earlier decades, our results cannot distinguish between ecological changes at inland versus coastal habitats. However, we speculate that coastal forage quality has improved beyond that of inland habitats and that the body mass benefits of these higher quality foods are offset by the disproportionate number of brant now molting coastally.

Lewis, Tyler L.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Taylor, Eric J.; Bollinger, Karen S.

2011-01-01

211

REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL SCREENING PROTOCOLS FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS USING ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research is to develop in vivo screening protocols for endocrine disruption in marine crustaceans, invertebrates of ecological and economic importance. A series of comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuar...

212

THE INFLUENCE OF INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE AGONISTTS ON METAMORPHOSIS AND REPRODUCTION IN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS  

EPA Science Inventory

Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (JHAs) (methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater ...

213

On the Crustacean Hosts of Larval Acanthocephalan and Cestode Parasites in Southwestern Lake Michigan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 11,875 crustaceans of 2 species, Pontoporeia affinis (Lindstrom) (Amphipoda) and Mysis relicta (Loven) (Mysidacea) from bottom samples as well as from the stomachs of slimy sculpins, Cottus cognatus Richardson, was dissected in search of certai...

O. M. Amin

1978-01-01

214

SEASONAL COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE OF DECAPOD AND STOMATOPOD CRUSTACEANS FROM COASTAL HABITATS,  

E-print Network

and bathymetric range, described assemblages of deca- pod Crustacea from the continental shelf of the southeastern. Keiser (1977) identified 20 species of deca- pod and stomatopod crustaceans in a study of the incidental

215

Hydrozoans as Pests in Closed-System Culture of Larval Decapod Crustaceans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three species of hydrozoans, Moerisia lyonsi, Stylactis arge, and Clytia gracilis, were accidentally introduced into closed system culture tanks used for rearing larval decapod crustaceans. The cnidarians were highly successful in competing with prawn and...

P. A. Sandifer, T. I. J. Smith, D. R. Calder

1974-01-01

216

POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLINS: A MOLECULAR APPROACH TO REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY.  

EPA Science Inventory

To fully elucidate the action of crustacean hormones, or their agonists, on vitellogenesis and reproduction, it has become increasingly important to develop sensitive assays that indicate a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on easily measured endpoints. Because of the relative ab...

217

POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLINS: A MOLECULAR APPROACH TO REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

To fully elucidate the action of crustacean hormones, or their agonists, on reproduction and vitellogenesis it has become increasingly important to develop sensitive assays that indicate a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on easily measured endpoints. Because of the relative abun...

218

The Influence of Sedimentary Heterogeneity on Within Maerl Bed Differences in Infaunal Crustacean Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was undertaken of the crustacean community associated with maerl habitats in Mannin Bay, Ireland. Based on a visual classification of sedimentary fractions, eight sedimentary facies could be distinguished. These ranged from live maerl banks and seagrass-covered live maerl banks in the shallow, low energy parts of the inner bay to maerl debris facies, mixed with varying proportions of sand, mud and shell gravel in the more exposed, high energy, parts of the bay. Amphipoda dominated the crustacean fauna, accounting for more than 95% of total numerical abundance. Overall, the crustacean fauna occurring in the studied maerl habitats is similar to the fauna occurring in subtidal gravel habitats, with little evidence of elective species. Only the mud-maerl debris facies and the seagrass-covered live maerl banks appear to harbour a relatively different crustacean fauna from the remainder of the sedimentary facies. These differences were mainly changes in the numerical abundance of dominant species, rather than species displacements.

De Grave, S.

1999-07-01

219

Chemical Communication in Crustaceans: Research Challenges for the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical signals play an important role during various life stages of crustaceans. Settling of larvae, parent–offspring communication,\\u000a mate finding, mate choice, aggressive contests, and dominance hierarchies are all mediated by chemical signals. Enormous advances\\u000a have been made on understanding the function of chemical signals in crustaceans and we are on the doorstep of major advances\\u000a in chemical characterization of pheromones.

Martin Thiel; Thomas Breithaupt

220

Metabolism and chemical composition of crustaceans from the Antarctic mesopelagic zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rates of oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and phosphate excretion were measured in conjunction with analyses of water content, ash and four elements (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus) on seven crustacean species from the mesopelagic zone (200-1000 m depth) in the Antarctic Ocean. To minimize the body mass effect, rates were expressed as adjusted rates, dividing by "metabolic body size" on a nitrogen basis. Adjusted rates ranged from 1.0 to 4.1 ?l O 2 (mg body N) -0.85h -1 for oxygen consumption (AMRO O 2), 0.06 to 0.25 ?g N (mg body N) -0.84h -1 for ammonia excretion (AMR NH4) and 0.03 to 1.1 ?g P (mg body N) -0.87h -1 for phosphate excretion (AMR PO4). Comparison of these adjusted rates with rates for crustaceans from the epipelagic zone of the same Antarctic waters at the same temperature (0.2°C) revealed the rate for mesopelagic crustaceans is 48% on average of the epipelagic rate for AMR O 2, 29% for AMR NH 4 and 267% for AMR PO 4. Atomic O:N ratios of these crustaceans ranged from 19 to 74, which are much higher than the theoretical value (7 to 8) for primary carnivores, suggesting an opportunistic feeding pattern by these crustaceans. Water, ash and four element contents of these deep-sea crustaceans showed high interspecific variations: no consistent pattern was seen in the comparison with those living in shallow waters. As AMR O 2 represents the overall metabolic processes in the animal, the observed reduction of about one half for crustaceans from mesopelagic zones may be explained by the higher buoyancy and/or less active swimming than the epipelagic crustaceans.

Ikeda, T.

1988-12-01

221

Population variation in isotopic composition of shorebird feathers: Implications for determining molting grounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope analyses have revolutionized the study of migratory connectivity. However, as with all tools, their limitations must be understood in order to derive the maximum benefit of a particular application. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of stable isotopes of C, N, H, O and S for assigning known-origin feathers to the molting sites of migrant shorebird species wintering and breeding in Argentina. Specific objectives were to: 1) compare the efficacy of the technique for studying shorebird species with different migration patterns, life histories and habitat-use patterns; 2) evaluate the grouping of species with similar migration and habitat use patterns in a single analysis to potentially improve prediction accuracy; and 3) evaluate the potential gains in prediction accuracy that might be achieved from using multiple stable isotopes. The efficacy of stable isotope ratios to determine origin was found to vary with species. While one species (White-rumped Sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis) had high levels of accuracy assigning samples to known origin (91% of samples correctly assigned), another (Collared Plover, Charadrius collaris) showed low levels of accuracy (52% of samples correctly assigned). Intra-individual variability may account for this difference in efficacy. The prediction model for three species with similar migration and habitat-use patterns performed poorly compared with the model for just one of the species (71% versus 91% of samples correctly assigned). Thus, combining multiple sympatric species may not improve model prediction accuracy. Increasing the number of stable isotopes in the analyses increased the accuracy of assigning shorebirds to their molting origin, but the best combination - involving a subset of all the isotopes analyzed - varied among species.

Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Bucher, E.H.; Rye, R.O.; Landis, G.

2009-01-01

222

Neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of adult decapod crustaceans: development of the neurogenic niche in the brains of procambarid crayfish  

PubMed Central

Background In the decapod crustacean brain, neurogenesis persists throughout the animal's life. After embryogenesis, the central olfactory pathway integrates newborn olfactory local and projection interneurons that replace old neurons or expand the existing population. In crayfish, these neurons are the descendants of precursor cells residing in a neurogenic niche. In this paper, the development of the niche was documented by monitoring proliferating cells with S-phase-specific markers combined with immunohistochemical, dye-injection and pulse-chase experiments. Results Between the end of embryogenesis and throughout the first post-embryonic stage (POI), a defined transverse band of mitotically active cells (which we will term 'the deutocerebral proliferative system' (DPS) appears. Just prior to hatching and in parallel with the formation of the DPS, the anlagen of the niche appears, closely associated with the vasculature. When the hatchling molts to the second post-embryonic stage (POII), the DPS differentiates into the lateral (LPZ) and medial (MPZ) proliferative zones. The LPZ and MPZ are characterized by a high number of mitotically active cells from the beginning of post-embryonic life; in contrast, the developing niche contains only very few dividing cells, a characteristic that persists in the adult organism. Conclusions Our data suggest that the LPZ and MPZ are largely responsible for the production of new neurons in the early post-embryonic stages, and that the neurogenic niche in the beginning plays a subordinate role. However, as the neuroblasts in the proliferation zones disappear during early post-embryonic life, the neuronal precursors in the niche gradually become the dominant and only mechanism for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain. PMID:22225949

2012-01-01

223

Global Diversity of Marine Isopods (Except Asellota and Crustacean Symbionts)  

PubMed Central

The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10–1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the bathyal and abyssal Antarctic than Arctic GOODS provinces, and more from the larger Pacific than Atlantic oceans. Two areas with many species known are the New Zealand-Kermadec and the Northern North Pacific provinces. Deep hard substrates such as found on seamounts and the slopes are underrepresented in samples. This, the documented numbers of undescribed species in recent collections and probable cryptic species suggest a large as yet undocumented fauna, potentially an order of magnitude greater than presently known. PMID:22952700

Poore, Gary C. B.; Bruce, Niel L.

2012-01-01

224

Four parasitic Crustacean species from marine fishes of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to present a preliminary knowledge of the parasitic copepods of marine fish of Turkey. In this study, four parasitic crustaceans were reported from five different fish species found in Turkish seas: Lepeophtheirus europaensis (Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988) was found on the gills of the European flounder, Platichtys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Pleuronectidae); Nerocila bivittata (Risso, 1816) on caudal peduncles of east Atlantic peacock wrasse, Symphodus tinca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Labridae); Ceratothoa oestroides (Risso, 1826), on the mouth base of European pilchard, Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792) (Clupeidae); Anilocra physodes (Linnaeus, 1758), on the body surface of gilthead seabreams, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 (Sparidae) and on horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Carangidae). Also, a list of the parasitic copepods previously reported from marine fishes of Turkey since 1931 is given, with a new report of the host species, the localities where they were collected and the corresponding authors. At the present time, 23 parasitic copepods have been recorded from 25 host fish of Turkish coasts. Lepeophtheirus europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut & Gabrion, 1988 was reported for the first time in Turkish coastal waters. PMID:17471420

Oguz, Mehmet Cemal; Oktener, Ahmet

2007-01-01

225

Bacteria-Induced Dscam Isoforms of the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus  

PubMed Central

The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, also known as Dscam, is a member of the immunoglobulin super family. Dscam plays an essential function in neuronal wiring and appears to be involved in innate immune reactions in insects. The deduced amino acid sequence of Dscam in the crustacean Pacifastacus leniusculus (PlDscam), encodes 9(Ig)-4(FNIII)-(Ig)-2(FNIII)-TM and it has variable regions in the N-terminal half of Ig2 and Ig3 and the complete Ig7 and in the transmembrane domain. The cytoplasmic tail can generate multiple isoforms. PlDscam can generate more than 22,000 different unique isoforms. Bacteria and LPS injection enhanced the expression of PlDscam, but no response in expression occurred after a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or injection with peptidoglycans. Furthermore, PlDscam silencing did not have any effect on the replication of the WSSV. Bacterial specific isoforms of PlDscam were shown to have a specific binding property to each tested bacteria, E. coli or S. aureus. The bacteria specific isoforms of PlDscam were shown to be associated with bacterial clearance and phagocytosis in crayfish. PMID:21695245

Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Liu, Haipeng; Soderhall, Irene; Soderhall, Kenneth

2011-01-01

226

Crustacean social behavioral changes in response to isolation.  

PubMed

Periods of isolation during which animals have no social contact are common in the design of behavioral experiments. They are used, for example, to test memory and recognition responses, or to ensure a baseline condition before experimental manipulations commence. We investigated the effect of isolation periods on the aggressive behavior of matched pairs of the crayfish Cherax destructor in two contexts. The first experiment tested the effects of a period of isolation between two encounters. The second experiment tested the effects of isolation before an encounter by pairing one crayfish from a communal living environment with another crayfish from an isolated one. Fight outcome and aggression levels were analyzed, resulting in three conclusions about the social biology of C. destructor. First, encounters between familiar opponents are influenced by the outcome of the familiarization fight for about 2 weeks. Second, the level of aggression and the outcome of an encounter are affected over different time frames. Third, individuals that are isolated before an encounter can be disadvantaged. These data suggest that isolation, or events that occur during periods of isolation, affect multiple elements of social behavior in C. destructor. This suggestion has implications for the interpretation of previous results and future studies in crustaceans and other taxa. PMID:17928525

Hemsworth, Robert; Villareal, Wil; Patullo, Blair W; MacMillan, David L

2007-10-01

227

Photosensitive neurogenic heart of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica  

PubMed Central

The heart of animals is regulated through the central nervous system in response to external sensory stimuli. We found, however, that the adult neurogenic heart of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica has photosensitivity. The beat frequency of the isolated heart decreased in response to a light stimulus. Magnitude of the response was stimulus intensity dependent and the heartbeat frequency decreased to less than 80% of the dark value during illumination of the white light with an intensity of 6.0?mW?cm?2. The spectral sensitivity curve of the heart photoresponse peaked at a wavelength around 520?nm. In response to 530?nm monochromatic light, the relationship between light intensity and response magnitude was linear and the threshold intensity was 7.26×1012?quanta?cm?2?s?1. Bursting activity of the cardiac ganglion, which is located in the heart and acts as the cardiac pacemaker deceased in frequency in response to illumination by white light. This fact suggests that the heart photoresponse of L. exotica results from the photosensitivity of the cardiac ganglion neurons. The photoresponse of the heart therefore contributes to regulation of cardiac output in addition to other regulatory systems. PMID:16959646

Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hariyama, Takahiko; Takano, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Hiroshi

2006-01-01

228

Solution conformations of an insect neuropeptide: crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP).  

PubMed

The solution structure of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), a cyclic amidated nonapeptide neurohormone, was studied using molecular dynamics techniques, with constraints derived from NMR studies in water and water/dodecylphosphocholine micellar medium. This peptide, found in various invertebrates, has the primary sequence Pro(1) Phe(2) Cys(3) Asn(4) Ala(5) Phe(6) Thr(7) Gly(8) Cys(9) NH(2), with an intramolecular disulfide bridge between the two cysteine residues. In aqueous solution the peptide was found to have a type(IV) beta-turn between residues 5-8. In a water/decane biphasic medium a type(IV) beta-turn between residues 3 and 6 and two classic gamma-turns between residues 4-6 and 7-9, were found. Analysis of the (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts data showed that the model free S(2) order parameter of the residues varied between 0.65 and 0.9. The molecular dynamic root mean square fluctuations of structural ensembles of the backbone varied between 0.5 and 2.2 with the central residues showing the least fluctuations. PMID:19103242

Jackson, Graham E; Mabula, Andre N; Stone, Shane R; Gäde, Gerd; Kövér, Katalin E; Szilágyi, László; van der Spoel, David

2009-03-01

229

Kinetic properties of hexameric tyrosinase from the crustacean Palinurus elephas.  

PubMed

Tyrosinases catalyze hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols and their subsequent oxidation to o-quinones, whereas catecholoxidases catalyze only the latter reaction. Both enzymes occur in all organisms and are Type 3 copper proteins that perform the first steps of melanin formation. In arthropods, they play an essential role in the sclerotization of the exoskeleton. Very few phenoloxidases are characterized structurally or kinetically and the existence of an actual tyrosinase activity has not been demonstrated in most cases. Here we present for the first time a complete kinetic characterization of a tyrosinase from a crustacean (Palinurus elephas) including the influence of inhibitors. In contrast to most tyrosinases which are monomeric or dimeric, this tyrosinase occurs as a hexamer. However, the data did not indicate cooperativity in steady-state kinetics for the two substrates used, the monophenol tyramine and the diphenol dopamine. Mimosine as well as phenylthiourea (PTU) inhibited both monophenolhydroxylase and diphenoloxidase activity. Inhibition by mimosine was competitive, whereas PTU was a noncompetitive inhibitor. Furthermore, for the diphenolase activity substrate inhibition was observed, which was apparently abolished by adding PTU. These observations lead to the hypothesis that a secondary, allosteric binding site exists, which binds dopamine and PTU and reduces the catalytic activity. PMID:18422877

Brack, Antje; Hellmann, Nadja; Decker, Heinz

2008-01-01

230

Photosensitive neurogenic heart of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica.  

PubMed

The heart of animals is regulated through the central nervous system in response to external sensory stimuli. We found, however, that the adult neurogenic heart of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica has photosensitivity. The beat frequency of the isolated heart decreased in response to a light stimulus. Magnitude of the response was stimulus intensity dependent and the heartbeat frequency decreased to less than 80% of the dark value during illumination of the white light with an intensity of 6.0 mW cm-2. The spectral sensitivity curve of the heart photoresponse peaked at a wavelength around 520 nm. In response to 530 nm monochromatic light, the relationship between light intensity and response magnitude was linear and the threshold intensity was 7.26 x 1012 quanta cm-2 s-1. Bursting activity of the cardiac ganglion, which is located in the heart and acts as the cardiac pacemaker deceased in frequency in response to illumination by white light. This fact suggests that the heart photoresponse of L. exotica results from the photosensitivity of the cardiac ganglion neurons. The photoresponse of the heart therefore contributes to regulation of cardiac output in addition to other regulatory systems. PMID:16959646

Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hariyama, Takahiko; Takano, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Hiroshi

2006-10-01

231

Detritivorous crustaceans become herbivores on jasmonate-deficient plants  

PubMed Central

The jasmonate signal pathway is known to control defenses against herbivores, such as leaf eaters (folivores). Does the reach of the pathway extend to defense against other types of animal? Among the arthropods attracted to seed baits placed below flowering Arabidopsis thaliana plants are 2 largely nocturnal isopod crustaceans generally considered as detritivores: Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare. Parallel laboratory experiments identified the isopods as being capable of predation on intact plants. Isopod feeding was strongly facilitated in jasmonate-deficient Arabidopsis and rice plants. The feeding activity of isopods revealed potentially detritivore-sensitive, jasmonate-protected Achilles' heels in these architecturally different plants (petioles and inflorescence stems in Arabidopsis, and lower stem and mesocotyl in rice). The work addresses the question of what stops 2 detritivores from attacking living plants and provides evidence that it is, in part, the jasmonate signal pathway. Furthermore, senescent leaves from an Arabidopsis jasmonate mutant were consumed more rapidly than senescent wild-type leaves, suggesting that past activity of the jasmonate signal pathway in leaves may slow carbon recycling through detritivory. PMID:19139394

Farmer, Edward E.; Dubugnon, Lucie

2009-01-01

232

Effects of zinc on Salmonella in the layer house environments and laying hens, and the ability of zinc to induce molt in laying hens  

E-print Network

environments, and its ability to induce a molt in single comb white leghorn hens. In part, the antibacterial properties of zinc may reduce environmental contamination in a poultry house by interrupting airborne routes. The first phase involved detecting...

Park, Shinyoung

2005-02-17

233

A gene family of cathepsin L-like proteases of filarial nematodes are associated with larval molting and cuticle and eggshell remodeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysteine proteinases are involved in a variety of important biological processes and have been implicated in molting and tissue remodeling in free living and parasitic nematodes. We show that in the lymphatic filarial nematode Brugia pahangi molting of third-stage larvae (L3) to fourth-stage larvae is dependent on the activity of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (CPL), which can be detected

David B. Guiliano; Xiqiang Hong; James H. McKerrow; Mark. L. Blaxter; Yelena Oksov; Jing Liu; Elodie Ghedin; Sara Lustigman

2004-01-01

234

Ultrastructural and cytological changes in the muscle fibers of the pectoralis of the giant Canada goose ( Branta canadensis maxima ) in disuse atrophy during molt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult male Branta canadensis maxima were collected from a nonmigratory feral population during their premolt, molt and postmolt phases. Lean dry weight of the pectoralis muscle decreased significantly (p=0.0001) during molt, as a result of disuse atrophy. Histochemical analysis revealed that the region of the pectoralis muscle sampled consisted of Red (fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic) and White (fast-twitch glycolytic) muscle fiber types,

B. W. C. Rosser; J. C. George

1987-01-01

235

Evaluation of the use of alfalfa diets as an alternative to feed deprivation for the induction of molt in commercial laying chickens  

E-print Network

contents have been the most recent development in a dietary control strategy for the induction of molt. Diets composed of grape pomace (Keshavarz and Quimby, 2002), wheat middlings (Biggs et al., 2001; Seo and Holt, 2002), or alfalfa meal (Medvedev et... contents have been the most recent development in a dietary control strategy for the induction of molt. Diets composed of grape pomace (Keshavarz and Quimby, 2002), wheat middlings (Biggs et al., 2001; Seo and Holt, 2002), or alfalfa meal (Medvedev et...

Landers, Kristin Lynn

2004-11-15

236

Molting-associated suppression of symbiont population and up-regulation of antimicrobial activity in the midgut symbiotic organ of the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis.  

PubMed

The majority of insects possess symbiotic bacteria. Since symbiont titers can affect host phenotypes of biological importance, host insects are expected to evolve some mechanisms for regulating symbiont population. Here we report that, in the Riptortus-Burkholderia gut symbiosis, titers of the beneficial symbiont transiently decrease at the pre-molt stages in host development. This molting-associated suppression of the symbiont population is coincident with the increase of antimicrobial activity in the symbiotic midgut, which is observed in both symbiotic and aposymbiotic insects. Two genes, pyrrhocoricin-like antimicrobial peptide and c-type lysozyme, exhibit significantly increased expression in the symbiotic midgut at the pre-molt stages. These results suggest that the molting-associated up-regulation of antimicrobial activity in the symbiotic midgut represents a physiological mechanism of the host insect to regulate symbiosis, which is presumably for defending molting insects against injury and infection and/or for allocating symbiont-derived energy and resources to host molting. PMID:24201132

Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Han, Sang Heum; Kim, Chan-Hee; Jo, Yong Hun; Futahashi, Ryo; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel

2014-03-01

237

Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: interspecific competition or ecological change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska have changed in size\\u000a and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of\\u000a greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada

Paul L. Flint; Edward J. Mallek; Rodney J. King; Joel A. Schmutz; Karen S. Bollinger; Dirk V. Derksen

2008-01-01

238

Expression and modulation of the Lewis x antigen (CD15) on the T cell line Molt4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The T cell lines Molt-4 and H9 exhibited a characteristic distribution of the cell adhesion molecule Lewis x (CD15, lacto-N-fucopentanose III) showing an unusually broad peak by flow cytometry ranging from cells without CD15 to cells with high expression. The cytokines IL-1, IL-2, IFN-?, IFN-?, and TNF-?, known to activate T cells, did not affect CD15 expression. However, phorbol myristate

Kai Schulze-Forster; H. Rainer Maurer

1997-01-01

239

Phylogenetic evidence for a single long-lived clade of crustacean cyclic parthenogens and its implications for the evolution of sex  

PubMed Central

The short-term advantages of sexual reproduction are unclear, but the existence of groups that are capable of producing either meiotic or ameiotic eggs (cyclic parthenogenesis, CP) might indicate that short-term advantages to sex exist. Alternatively, CP might be an unstable transitory stage between asexuality and sex, or a phylogenetically favoured life cycle (i.e. clade selection). The extensive knowledge of breeding systems and population genetics in branchiopod crustaceans makes them a useful group to test phylogenetic predictions of these hypotheses. Several proponents favour the hypothesis that CP has evolved multiple times in five orders of branchiopod crustaceans. We inferred the first robust branchiopod phylogeny from nuclear rRNA sequence (SSU and LSU), morphology, and complex rRNA stem–loop structures to assess the phylogenetic distribution of cyclic parthenogenesis. The sequence-based, structural rRNA and total evidence phylogenies are concordant and suggest that cyclic parthenogenesis arose once in the branchiopods, that this clade is long-lived (at least since the Permian), and that it has radiated extensively into nearly every aqueous habitat without reverting to strict sexuality and only rarely transforming to strict asexuality. These results are consistent with the clade selection hypothesis but inconsistent with the predictions of the hypothesis that CP is a transitory stage that leads to strict sexual reproduction. The evidence also indicates that clade selection for CP is a viable alternative explanation for the maintenance of sex in CP life cycles.

Taylor, D. J.; Crease, T. J.; Brown, W. M.

1999-01-01

240

Electrogenic 2 Na+/1 H+ exchange in crustaceans.  

PubMed

Hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the marine lobster, Homarus americanus exhibited 22Na uptake which was Cl-independent, amiloride sensitive, and stimulated by a transmembrane H gradient (Hi greater than Ho). Sodium influx by vesicles of both species were sigmoidal functions of [Na]o, yielding Hill coefficients that were not significantly different (P greater than 0.5) than 2.0. Estimations of half-saturation constants (KNa) were 82.2 mM (prawn) and 280.1 mM (lobster), suggesting a possible adaptation of this transporter to environmental salinity. Trans-stimulation and cis-inhibition experiments involving variable [H] suggested that the exchangers in both species possessed single internal cation binding sites (pK 6.5-6.7) and two external cation binding sites (prawn, pK 4.0 and 5.7; lobster pK 3.5 and 6.1). Similar cis inhibition studies using amiloride as a competitive inhibitor of Na uptake supported the occurrence of dual external sites (prawn, Ki50 and 1520 microM; lobster Ki9 and 340 microM). Electrogenic Na/H exchange by vesicles from both crustaceans was demonstrated using equilibrium shift experiments where a transmembrane potential was used as the only driving force for the transport event. Transport stoichiometries of the antiporters were determined using Static Head analysis where driving forces for cation transfer were balanced using a 10:1 Na gradient, a 100:1 H gradient, and a stoichiometry of 2.0. These electrogenic 2 Na/1 H exchangers appear thermodynamically capable of generating sufficient gastric acidification for organismic digestive activities. PMID:2167376

Ahearn, G A; Franco, P; Clay, L P

1990-07-01

241

Gill structure and relationships of the Triassic cycloid crustaceans.  

PubMed

Unusually well-preserved fossils of a Halicyne-like cycloid crustacean frequently occur in the early Late Triassic lacustrine clay bed at Krasiejów in Opole Silesia, southern Poland. Its gill-like structures form a horseshoe-shaped pair of units composed of numerous calcified blades with reverse U-shaped cross-section. Originally, these were parallel slits opening on the ventral surface of the carapace. Lobation of the posterior margin of the carapace, of unusually large mature size for the group, make the animal different from other members of Halicynidae, and the new name Opolanka decorosa gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for it. More completely preserved specimens of cycloids from Vosges, France, and Madagascar show that the slit openings were located above radially arranged coxae of the walking appendages and a reduced abdomen. The disposition and arrangement of the cycloid gills suggest at least close analogy, and possibly homology, with the "respiratory areas" of the Branchiura, serving mostly as ion-exchange organs. It is proposed that they originated, in connection with the body size increase and adaptation to fresh-water environment, as radially arranged infoldings of the respiratory areas cuticle, with strongly calcified rigid dorsal parts suspended from the carapace. At least three ecologically and anatomically distinct lineages were represented in the order Cyclida, which was probably initially confined to marine environments and gradually adapted to life in continental waters. New taxa Schraminidae fam. nov. (with Schramine gen. nov.) and Americlidae fam. nov. (with Americlus gen. nov.) are proposed. PMID:18690662

Dzik, Jerzy

2008-12-01

242

Scale-dependent analysis of an otter-crustacean system in Argentinean Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern river otter or ‘huillin’, Lontra provocax, is an endangered species endemic of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina and Chile. It feeds almost exclusively on the genera of macro-crustacea: Aegla and Sammastacus. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of food availability on the huillin’s distribution using a scale-dependent analysis of crustacean and otter distributions. We compared the distributions of otters and macro-crustaceans along a north-south regional gradient, between river basins of northern Patagonia, in an altitudinal gradient within a river basin, and between habitat types within a lake. We investigated the distribution of otters by sign surveys along lake shores, river banks and marine coasts, and of crustaceans using surveys in the water, undigested remains in mink ( Mustela vison) scats, presence of external skeletons at the waterside and through interviews with local people. Our results show that there were heterogeneities in the distributions of macro-crustaceans at four scales and these were generally reflected in the distributions of freshwater otters. We conclude that the main factor limiting the distributions of L. provocax in freshwater environments is the availability of macro-crustaceans. This paper shows how scale-dependent type analyses of population distribution serves as a method for identifying key environmental factors for species for which the use of long-term demographies is unfeasible.

Cassini, Marcelo H.; Fasola, Laura; Chehébar, Claudio; MacDonald, David W.

2009-05-01

243

The non-native seaweed Asparagopsis armata supports a diverse crustacean assemblage.  

PubMed

This is the first study describing the crustacean fauna associated to Asparagopsis armata, a non-native, red seaweed widely distributed along western Mediterranean coasts. First found in Australia and New Zealand, it was introduced naturally through the Strait of Gibraltar and rapidly spread out. A one-year spatio-temporal study (Feb 08-Feb 09) was carried out in the Strait of Gibraltar to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of the associated crustacean fauna. Maximum biomass of A. armata was measured during April-June, whereas the maximum crustacean abundances were registered from June-October. In total 41 crustacean species were identified. The caprellid Caprella penantis, traditionally associated to non-polluted areas, was more abundant on Tarifa Island (higher values of dissolved oxygen and pH) than in Algeciras (lower oxygen and pH). The gammarid Podocerus variegatus was dominant in Algeciras Bay while Hyale schmidti and Apherusa mediterranea were the most abundant on Tarifa Island. Among isopods, Synisoma nadejda was only found on Tarifa Island. When compared with literature of native algae of the intertidal and shallow sublittoral, the species richness of associated crustaceans was similar in A. armata and the natives. Very little is known about the influence of this algae on altering marine communities, so complete faunistic studies dealing with other groups such as polychaetes or molluscs are necessary to properly address biogeographical, ecological and management programmes dealing with this non-native species. PMID:21367448

Pacios, I; Guerra-García, J M; Baeza-Rojano, E; Cabezas, M P

2011-05-01

244

Scale-dependent analysis of an otter-crustacean system in Argentinean Patagonia.  

PubMed

The Southern river otter or 'huillin', Lontra provocax, is an endangered species endemic of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina and Chile. It feeds almost exclusively on the genera of macro-crustacea: Aegla and Sammastacus. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of food availability on the huillin's distribution using a scale-dependent analysis of crustacean and otter distributions. We compared the distributions of otters and macro-crustaceans along a north-south regional gradient, between river basins of northern Patagonia, in an altitudinal gradient within a river basin, and between habitat types within a lake. We investigated the distribution of otters by sign surveys along lake shores, river banks and marine coasts, and of crustaceans using surveys in the water, undigested remains in mink (Mustela vison) scats, presence of external skeletons at the waterside and through interviews with local people. Our results show that there were heterogeneities in the distributions of macro-crustaceans at four scales and these were generally reflected in the distributions of freshwater otters. We conclude that the main factor limiting the distributions of L. provocax in freshwater environments is the availability of macro-crustaceans. This paper shows how scale-dependent type analyses of population distribution serves as a method for identifying key environmental factors for species for which the use of long-term demographies is unfeasible. PMID:19225749

Cassini, Marcelo H; Fasola, Laura; Chehébar, Claudio; Macdonald, David W

2009-05-01

245

A periodical cicada (Magicicada sp.) molts on the side of a tree after emerging from underground.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A periodical cicada (left) has mostly freed itself from its old exoskeleton (right). The cicada's new exoskeleton is light in color and has not yet hardened. Every 13 or 17 years, periodical cicadas (Magicicada sp.) emerge from underground burrows across several regions of North America over a few weeks. The cicadas molt to adulthood and then congregate in trees, where they sing and mate, lay eggs, and die. Densities of adult cicadas aboveground during the mass emergence can become higher than 300 individuals per square meter. Because such a large number of cicadas are available as prey over a short period of time (a resource pulse), cicada predators become satiated. Most cicadas die without being eaten and fall as detritus from the trees onto the soil or water underneath. A recent study found that this allochthonous subsidy (moving from one ecosystem to another) of cicada detritus can affect the dynamics and stability of food webs in aquatic woodland ecosystems. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (88:9) in September of 2007.

Fields, Matthew

2010-02-12

246

The ovary structure and oogenesis in the basal crustaceans and hexapods. Possible phylogenetic significance.  

PubMed

Recent large-scale phylogenetic analyses of exclusively molecular or combined molecular and morphological characters support a close relationship between Crustacea and Hexapoda. The growing consensus on this phylogenetic link is reflected in uniting both taxa under the name Pancrustacea or Tetraconata. Several recent molecular phylogenies have also indicated that the monophyletic hexapods should be nested within paraphyletic crustaceans. However, it is still contentious exactly which crustacean taxon is the sister group to Hexapoda. Among the favored candidates are Branchiopoda, Malacostraca, Remipedia and Xenocarida (Remipedia + Cephalocarida). In this context, we review morphological and ultrastructural features of the ovary architecture and oogenesis in these crustacean groups in search of traits potentially suitable for phylogenetic considerations. We have identified a suite of morphological characters which may prove useful in further comparative studies. PMID:24858464

Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Bilinski, Szczepan M

2014-07-01

247

The eyes of a tiny 'Orsten' crustacean - a compound eye at receptor level?  

PubMed

Among the oldest fossil crustaceans are those of the Late Cambrian (Furongian 499 ± 0.3-488.3 ± 1.7 Ma) of Västergötland, central Sweden and the lower Ordovician (Tremadocian 488.3 and 478.6 Ma) of the island of ?land. These are three-dimensionally preserved in nodules from the so called 'stinkstone' ('Orsten') limestone. 'Orsten'-like fossils represent tiny, often meiobenthic organsisms (Haug, Maas, & Waloszek, 2009) smaller than 2mm, which mainly were arthropods, especially crustaceans close to the stemline. As a result of phosphatisation, hairs, bristles and even cellular structures up to 0.3 ?m are preserved (Walossek, 1993), especially compound eyes, as typical for all visually orientated crustaceans (Schoenemann et al., 2011). We show a miniscule prototype of a compound eye (?40 ?m) in a small crustacean, which lived almost half a billion years ago. The eye is close to but comfortably established above being limited in its resolving power by diffraction, but it is too small to be an apposition eye, normally regarded as the basal form of all compound eyes, as is found in bees, dragonflies, crustaceans and many other arthropods still living today. The facets of this compound eye are ?8 ?m in size, the surface structure indicates the relicts of a tiny lens covering each facet. In order to work functionally and to ensure that that diffraction and waveguide problems were avoided, it seems reasonable to suppose that the compound eye consisted of visual units, each with a single photoreceptor cell directly below a weak lens for capturing and slightly focusing the light. The entire unit has a diameter similar to that of a normal sensory cell as found in compound eyes. Thus, the early compound eye analysed here may be interpreted as a prototype representing the earliest stages of the evolution of crustacean compound eyes. PMID:23123806

Schoenemann, Brigitte

2013-01-14

248

50 CFR 16.13 - Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or their eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or their... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...16.13 Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or...

2013-10-01

249

50 CFR 16.13 - Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or their eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or their... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...16.13 Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or...

2011-10-01

250

50 CFR 16.13 - Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or their eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or their... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...16.13 Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or...

2010-10-01

251

50 CFR 16.13 - Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or their eggs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or their... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...16.13 Importation of live or dead fish, mollusks, and crustaceans, or...

2012-10-01

252

Corticosterone stress response and plasma metabolite levels during breeding and molt in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina).  

PubMed

Many birds face energetic trade-offs between different life history stages, such as reproductive effort, feather molt and the non-breeding period. Little is known about how physiological measures of condition (corticosterone, plasma metabolites) in free-living birds change from nesting stages to the post-breeding molt period or whether this is influenced by prior reproductive effort. We evaluated whether corticosterone (CORT) and plasma metabolite levels vary with date, nest stage and sex in a free-living migratory songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We also tested whether (1) baseline CORT levels early in the season were predictive of subsequent reproductive success and (2) whether prior reproductive effort influenced CORT levels and blood metabolites during molt. Baseline CORT levels decreased with date during both the incubation stage and nestling stage, but did not vary significantly across stage of breeding season. Stress-induced CORT declined with date during incubation and varied significantly across breeding stage, with lower levels during feather molt. Profiles of the metabolites of ?-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, and triglyceride did not vary significantly with date or breeding stage. Only triglycerides varied significantly with sex, with females having higher levels than males. Reproductive output was highly variable (0-10 fledglings per season) but baseline CORT levels in females during the first incubation period of the season was not related to subsequent reproductive output. Prior reproductive effort, measured as the cumulative number of young hatched during the breeding season, was positively related to stress-induced CORT during molt. High reproductive effort in wood thrush appears to have physiological carry-over effects into the molt period which could potentially affect rate of molt and preparation for fall migration. PMID:21255575

Done, Tyler; Gow, Elizabeth A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

2011-04-01

253

Lactic acid formation in crustaceans and the liver function of the midgut gland questioned.  

PubMed

1. The possibility of the midgut gland of the crustacean (Cherax destructor) functioning as a liver has been investigated. 2. Seven species of crustaceans accumulate lactic acid in the haemolymph when exercised. The rate of disappearance of lactate in Homarus gammarus and in C. destructor is very slow when compared with man. 3. In the midgut gland of C. destructor no firm evidence was obtained for gluconeogenesis from lactate and for ketogenesis from fatty acids. 4. It is concluded that there is at present no justification for the common practice of calling the midgut gland an hepatopancreas. PMID:318254

Phillips, J W; McKinney, R J; Hird, F J; Macmillan, D L

1977-01-01

254

All insects molt repeatedly during their life cycle to accommodate growth and the changes in external body form  

E-print Network

between the epidermis, central nervous system (CNS) and other tissues (Reynolds, 1980). These requirements are met by a complex hierarchy of endocrine and paracrine signals that have been investigated most with the hindgut. The second endocrine peptide is ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH) (Z itnan et al., 1996), which

Hewes, Randall S.

255

Effect of withdrawing long days from male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): implications for understanding thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we withdrew thyroid hormones by thyroidectomy before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation and showed that male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) are programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by or before Week 3 on long days. In this corollary study, we withdrew long days before or after the control circuits had been programmed. After 1 day to 4 wk on long days, groups of thyroid-intact males were returned to short days until Week 7, when they were moved to constant light and evaluated for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt. Long-day controls held 7 wk on long days showed robust testicular growth through Week 6 and then spontaneous testicular regression. Testes of short-day controls and of males photostimulated for 1 day remained small. In all other groups, photostimulation induced testicular growth, which gave way to regression during exposure to short days. Long-day controls tested photorefractory at Week 7 and initiated molt by Week 10. All other groups tested photosensitive and did not molt. Our demonstration that long days are required for expression of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroid-intact male tree sparrows previously programmed for these events suggests that long days create a milieu that is permissive for expression. PMID:9472917

Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

1998-01-01

256

`Akohekohe response to flower availability: seasonal abundance, foraging, breeding, and molt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the relationship of flower availability to the seasonality of life history events of the `Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), a primarily nectarivorous and endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper from montane rain forests on Maui, Hawai`i. For comparison, we also investigated temporal bird density and foraging behavior of three other competing Hawaiian honeycreepers: `Apapane (Himatione sanguinea), `I`iwi (Vestiaria coccinea), and Hawai`i `Amakihi (Hemignathus virens). All species except `Amakihi fed primarily on nectar of `Ohi?a-lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), which produced flowers year-round but had an annual flowering peak in January. Flowers of several subcanopy shrubs and trees were important components of the diet for all nectarivores, and these were available seasonally depending upon the species. `Akohekohe densities did not change temporally, suggesting a relatively stable population residing above 1,700 m. Monthly densities of `Apapane, `I`iwi, and Hawai`i `Amakihi were positively correlated with monthly `Ohi?a-lehua flower abundance, and 50-80% of these populations departed temporarily from our high-elevation site in July. There was a positive correlation with the timing of Akohekohe breeding and high abundance of `Ohi?a-lehua bloom. Molt followed breeding. From a conservation perspective, these results show that `Akohekohe maintain a relatively stable population above the mid-elevation zone of disease transmission, particularly during the fall when `Ohi?a-lehua bloom decreases and mosquitoes increase. `Akohekohe remain on their territories partly by switching their foraging to subcanopy trees and shrubs, most of which require protection from feral pigs (Sus scrofa).

Berlin, K.E.; Simon, J.C.; Pratt, T.K.; Kowalsky, J.R.; Hatfield, J.S.

2001-01-01

257

Vertical and temporal distribution of pelagic decapod crustaceans over the shelf-break and middle slope in two contrasting zones around Mallorca (western Mediterranean Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pelagic decapod crustacean fauna of two different zones (Sóller and Cabrera) with different hydrographic dynamics and oligotrophy levels was studied around Mallorca (western Mediterranean), the latter with a higher degree of oligotrophy than the former. Samples were taken with a Pelagic Trawl and an IKMT in the upper 600 m of the water column, targeting larger and middle-sized nektonic species, respectively. Fourteen species were collected: five dendrobranchiate shrimps, eight caridean shrimps and one scyllarid lobster. Some species were restricted to the shelf-break: Chlorotocus crassicornis and Plesionika heterocarpus. Others were exclusive of the middle slope: Pasiphaea multidentata, and Sergia robusta. Pasiphaea sivado and Gennadas elegans occurred in all pelagic strata. Multivariate analyses showed several distinct assemblages related to bathymetry and sampling depth. No significant differences were found concerning zone or sampled seasons. Bathymetrically, Deep Scattering Layers showed the highest diversity. No decapod crustaceans occurred in epipelagic daytime samples. The pelagic decapod community sampled was structured by both the geomorphology (and associated hydrographic characteristics over the shelf-break) and the influence of light in the water column. Size analysis showed species-specific patterns concerning size/age movements into the water column throughout the day-night cycle.

Simão, Daniela S.; Torres, Asvin P.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Abelló, Pere

2014-10-01

258

Determination of lethal dissolved oxygen levels for selected marine and estuarine fishes, crustaceans, and a bivalve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide a database of the incipient lethal concentrations for reduced dissolved oxygen (DO) for selected marine and estuarine species including 12 species of fish, 9 crustaceans, and 1 bivalve. All species occur in the Virginian Province, USA, which is a cold temperate region. The study period was August 1987 to September 1995. Standard

D. Miller; S. Poucher; L. Coiro

2002-01-01

259

Turning Loss Into Opportunity: The Key Deletion of an Escape Circuit in Decapod Crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decapod crustacean escape responses are adaptive behaviors whose neural bases are well understood. The escape circuit is composed of giant neurons. Lateral giant interneurons (LGs) respond to posterior stimuli by generating a somersaulting tailflip; medial giant interneurons (MGs) respond to anterior stimuli with a backwards tailflip. Both sets of interneurons connect to giant fast flexor motor neurons (MoGs). Most features

Zen Faulkes

2008-01-01

260

Electron microscopic study of follicle cell development during vitellogenesis in the marine crustacean Isopoda, Idotea  

E-print Network

. The ultrastructure of follicle cells has been compared to that of developing oocytes in the marine crustacean isopod). A preliminary histological study (Biometry, Souty, 1978), using Besse's terminology (1976) in the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio dilatatus, distinguished three stages of vitel- logenesis sensu lato and correlated

Boyer, Edmond

261

The embryonic development of the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the evolution of development and put it into a phylogenetic context, it is important to have, in addition to a\\u000a model organism like Drosophila, more insights into the huge diversity of arthropod morphologies. In recent years, the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804 has become a popular animal for studies in evolutionary and developmental biology, but a detailed

Carsten Wolff

2009-01-01

262

NOTES ON DECAPOD AND EUPHAUSIID CRUSTACEANS, CONTINENTAL MARGIN, WESTERN ATLANTIC, GEORGES BANK  

E-print Network

and 1 species ofeuphausiid are reported from the outer continental shelf. submarine canyons. and nearby. transtridensl. Records of decapod crustaceans from the outer continental shelf, submarine canyons, and nearby continental shelf in the western At- lantic were reviewed by Squires (1965), Williams and Wigley (1977

263

Zoosporic aquatic fungi growing on dead specimens of 29 freshwater crustacean species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated aquatic fungi growing on the carapaces of 29 species of dead crustaceans (13 species of Copepoda, 13 species of Cladocera and 3 species of Ostracoda) in the water from six limnological and trophical different water bodies (two springs, one river, one lake and two ponds). All of these waterbodies are strongly loaded. 146 species of aquatic fungi

Bazyli Czeczuga; Mariola Koz?owska; Anna Godlewska

2002-01-01

264

Exceptionally preserved crustaceans from western Canada reveal a cryptic Cambrian radiation.  

PubMed

The early history of crustaceans is obscured by strong biases in fossil preservation, but a previously overlooked taphonomic mode yields important complementary insights. Here we describe diverse crustacean appendages of Middle and Late Cambrian age from shallow-marine mudstones of the Deadwood Formation in western Canada. The fossils occur as flattened and fragmentary carbonaceous cuticles but provide a suite of phylogenetic and ecological data by virtue of their detailed preservation. In addition to an unprecedented range of complex, largely articulated filtering limbs, we identify at least four distinct types of mandible. Together, these fossils provide the earliest evidence for crown-group branchiopods and total-group copepods and ostracods, extending the respective ranges of these clades back from the Devonian, Pennsylvanian, and Ordovician. Detailed similarities with living forms demonstrate the early origins and subsequent conservation of various complex food-handling adaptations, including a directional mandibular asymmetry that has persisted through half a billion years of evolution. At the same time, the Deadwood fossils indicate profound secular changes in crustacean ecology in terms of body size and environmental distribution. The earliest radiation of crustaceans is largely cryptic in the fossil record, but "small carbonaceous fossils" reveal organisms of surprisingly modern aspect operating in an unfamiliar biosphere. PMID:22307616

Harvey, Thomas H P; Vélez, Maria I; Butterfield, Nicholas J

2012-01-31

265

Exceptionally preserved crustaceans from western Canada reveal a cryptic Cambrian radiation  

PubMed Central

The early history of crustaceans is obscured by strong biases in fossil preservation, but a previously overlooked taphonomic mode yields important complementary insights. Here we describe diverse crustacean appendages of Middle and Late Cambrian age from shallow-marine mudstones of the Deadwood Formation in western Canada. The fossils occur as flattened and fragmentary carbonaceous cuticles but provide a suite of phylogenetic and ecological data by virtue of their detailed preservation. In addition to an unprecedented range of complex, largely articulated filtering limbs, we identify at least four distinct types of mandible. Together, these fossils provide the earliest evidence for crown-group branchiopods and total-group copepods and ostracods, extending the respective ranges of these clades back from the Devonian, Pennsylvanian, and Ordovician. Detailed similarities with living forms demonstrate the early origins and subsequent conservation of various complex food-handling adaptations, including a directional mandibular asymmetry that has persisted through half a billion years of evolution. At the same time, the Deadwood fossils indicate profound secular changes in crustacean ecology in terms of body size and environmental distribution. The earliest radiation of crustaceans is largely cryptic in the fossil record, but “small carbonaceous fossils” reveal organisms of surprisingly modern aspect operating in an unfamiliar biosphere. PMID:22307616

Harvey, Thomas H. P.; Velez, Maria I.; Butterfield, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

266

Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Microhabitat Use by Fishes and Decapod Crustaceans in a Louisiana Estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a 1-m beam trawl to characterize microhabitat use by fishes and decapod crustaceans in monthly samples collected in Vermilion and West Cote Blanche bays in central coastal Louisiana. Randomized sampling within strata characterized the distributions of species, size-classes, and environmental conditions throughout the coastal bays. Microhabitats were characterized by salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, depth, distance from shore, substrate

Donald M. Baltz; Robert F. Jones

2003-01-01

267

Application of intracellular optical techniques to the study of stomatopod crustacean vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The noninvasive techniques of intracellular optical physiology were used to measure reflectance changes in the deep pseudopupils of various regions of the apposition compound eyes of 3 species of stomatopod crustaceans.2.Upon exposure to light, prominent changes in reflectance were observed in all eye regions of all species studied. Generally, the response was an increasing reflectance following stimulus onset; however, in

Thomas W. Cronin

1989-01-01

268

ALIEN FRESHWATER CRUSTACEAN AND INDIGENOUS MOLLUSC SPECIES WITH AQUACULTURE POTENTIAL IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farming of crustaceans and molluscs in Southern Africa is not well developed, but it is likely to intensify in coming years. The pressure to introduce new candidate species to satisfy specific culinary demands or improve bulk yields and efficiencies is also expected to increase.This paper stresses some of the problems associated with the intentional or accidental introduction of exotics, and

Heimo Mikkola

1996-01-01

269

Journal of Fish Diseases 1995, 18. 529-537 Antibody response to crustacean ectoparasites in  

E-print Network

. and brown trout, Salmo trutta L. Knowledge of the immune response to crustacean parasites by their fish is Argulusfoliaceus L., a palaearctic species found on freshwater fish including the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), immunized with Argulus foliaceus L. antigen extract N. R U A N E

McCarthy, T.K.

270

Protein synthesis and specific dynamic action in crustaceans: effects of temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature influences the specific dynamic action (SDA), or rise in oxygen uptake rate after feeding, in eurythermal and stenothermal crustaceans by changing the timing and the magnitude of the response. Intra-specific studies on the eurythermal crab, Carcinus maenas, show that a reduction in acclimation temperature is associated with a decrease in SDA magnitude, resulting from an increase in SDA duration

N. M. Whiteley; R. F. Robertson; J. Meagor; A. J. El Haj; E. W. Taylor

2001-01-01

271

The evolutionary history of crustacean segmentation: a fossil-based perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The evolution of segmentation in Crustacea, that is, the formation of sclerotized and jointed body somites and arrangement of somites into tagmata, is viewed in light of historical traits and functional constraints. The set of Early to Late Cambrian 'Orsten' arthropods have informed our current views of crustacean evolution considerably. These three-dimensionally preserved fossils document ancient morphologies, as opposed

Dieter Waloszek; Andreas Maas

2005-01-01

272

Determination of bioactivity of chemical fractions of liquid wastes using freshwater and saltwater algae and crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex wastes from industrial and municipal outfalls were fractionated chemically and tested for toxicity with freshwater and saltwater algae and crustaceans. The organic fraction of each waste was subfractionated into acid-, base-, and neutral-extractable portions, and the inorganic fraction was subfractionated into its anion and cation components. All wastes affected growth of the algae Skeletonema costatum (saltwater) and Monoraphidium capricornutum

Gerald E. Walsh; Richard L. Garnas

1983-01-01

273

Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone, a possible endocrine regulator of ecdysis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta  

E-print Network

ecdysis because (i) its endocrine system is well characterized, (ii) it has identifiable cells fromCrustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone, a possible endocrine regulator of ecdysis in the tobacco hornworm State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 Fig. 3: Paired endocrine cells of the Third thoracic ganglia

Fuse, Megumi

274

Chemical composition and buoyancy of midwater crustaceans as function of depth of occurrence off Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, ash, C, H, N, lipid, carbohydrate, chitin and protein contents were determined for 28 species of midwater crustaceans. Variation of these components as a function of depth of occurrence, relative buouancy and respiratory rate of these species was examined. Vertical distribution data for 10 of the species based on discrete depth crawls is provided. The relative bouyancies of 16

J. J. Childress; M. Nygaard

1974-01-01

275

Propulsion efficiency and cost of transport for copepods: a hydromechanical model of crustacean swimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of direct measurement, costs of locomotion to small swimming Crustacea (Pleuromamma xiphias (Calanoida) was analyzed by extrapolating model parameters from data available in the literature. The model predictions agree well with empirical observations reported for larger crustaceans, in that swimming for copepods is relatively costly. The ratio of active to standard metabolism for P. xiphias was >3.

M. J. Morris; G. Gust; J. J. Torres

1985-01-01

276

The Influence of Sedimentary Heterogeneity on Within Maerl Bed Differences in Infaunal Crustacean Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken of the crustacean community associated with maerl habitats in Mannin Bay, Ireland. Based on a visual classification of sedimentary fractions, eight sedimentary facies could be distinguished. These ranged from live maerl banks and seagrass-covered live maerl banks in the shallow, low energy parts of the inner bay to maerl debris facies, mixed with varying proportions of

S. De Grave

1999-01-01

277

Insecticidal juvenile hormone analogs stimulate the production of male offspring in the crustacean Daphnia magna.  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone analogs (JHAs) represent a class of insecticides that were designed specifically to disrupt endocrine-regulated processes relatively unique to insects. Recently we demonstrated that the crustacean juvenoid hormone methyl farnesoate programs oocytes of the crustacean Daphnia magna to develop into males. We hypothesized that insecticidal JHAs might mimic the action of methyl farnesoate, producing altered sex ratios of offspring. Daphnids were exposed chronically (3 weeks) to sublethal concentrations of methyl farnesoate, the JHA pyriproxyfen, and several nonjuvenoid chemicals to discern whether excess male offspring production is a generic response to stress or a specific response to juvenoid hormones. Only methyl farnesoate and pyriproxyfen increased the percentage of males produced by exposed maternal organisms. As previously reported with methyl farnesoate, acute exposure (24 hr) to either pyriproxyfen or the JHA methoprene caused oocytes maturing in the ovary to develop into males. We performed experiments to determine whether combined effects of a JHA and methyl farnesoate conformed better to a model of concentration addition (indicative of same mechanism of action) or independent joint action (indicative of different mechanisms of action). Combined effects conformed better to the concentration-addition model, although some synergy, of unknown etiology, was evident between the insecticides and the hormone. These experiments demonstrate that insecticidal JHAs mimic the action of the crustacean juvenoid hormone methyl farnesoate, resulting in the inappropriate production of male offspring. The occurrence of such an effect in the environment could have dire consequences on susceptible crustacean populations. PMID:12782492

Olmstead, Allen W; LeBlanc, Gerald A

2003-01-01

278

Control of body size by oxygen supply reveals size-dependent and size-independent mechanisms of molting and metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Body size profoundly affects many aspects of animal biology, including metamorphosis, allometry, size-dependent alternative pathways of gene expression, and the social and ecological roles of individuals. However, regulation of body size is one of the fundamental unsolved problems in developmental biology. The control of body size requires a mechanism that assesses size and stops growth within a characteristic range of sizes. Under normal growth conditions in Manduca sexta, the endocrine cascade that causes the brain to initiate metamorphosis starts when the larva reaches a critical weight. Metamorphosis is initiated by a size-sensing mechanism, but the nature of this mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that this size-sensing mechanism depends on the limited ability of a fixed tracheal system to sustain the oxygen supply to a growing individual. As body mass increases, the demand for oxygen also increases, but the fixed tracheal system does not allow a corresponding increase in oxygen supply. We show that interinstar molting has the same size-related oxygen-dependent mechanism of regulation as metamorphosis. We show that low oxygen tension induces molting at smaller body size, consistent with the hypothesis that under normal growth conditions, body size is regulated by a mechanism that senses oxygen limitation. We also found that under poor growth conditions, larvae may never attain the critical weight but eventually molt regardless. We show that under these conditions, larvae do not use the critical weight mechanism, but instead use a size-independent mechanism that is independent of the brain. PMID:21873228

Callier, Viviane; Nijhout, H. Frederik

2011-01-01

279

The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.  

PubMed

Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dalvin, Sussie T; Bron, James E; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

2013-01-01

280

Fish and macro-crustacean communities and their dynamics in the Severn Estuary.  

PubMed

The species of fish and macro-crustacean living within the Severn Estuary are reviewed. The fish community is notably species rich and exceeds 100 species in total for the estuary. Standardised long-term sampling at Hinkley Point in Bridgwater Bay gives a total complement of 83 for a single locality and this number is increasing by about one new species every two years. Most of these new species are moving in from centres of population lying to the south of the estuary. Almost all species of fish and macro-crustacean living within the estuary undertake regular migrations so that they tend to move seasonally in waves up and down the estuary. For fish, both species richness and the total abundance reach a maximum in late summer and autumn. The timing of this peak varies between the upper and lower estuary. This seasonal maximum is primarily caused by the arrival of the new recruits which use the estuary as a nursery. In contrast, crustaceans tend to be at their most diverse and abundant in early to mid summer. Using a 30-year time series of fish and crustacean abundance collected at Hinkley Point it is shown that major changes in the structure of the community are now underway and there are considerable recent changes in the abundance. However, some abundant species, including sand goby, Pomatoschistus spp., whiting, Merlangius merlangus and sprat, Sprattus sprattus, the three most abundant species in the estuary, have shown no long-term trend. At present, approximately 20% of the fish and macro-crustaceans observed in Bridgwater Bay are undergoing rapid, typically exponential, change in abundance. For a numerically abundant, diverse, fauna composed of approximately 90 species such levels of change are unexpected and suggest that the system is presently far from equilibrium. In some cases, the observed changes can be related to recent warming and the North Atlantic Oscillation. The overall increase in fish abundance observed may reflect a general improvement in water quality and a reduction in other anthropogenic impacts such as mortality in cooling-water intakes. The potential impacts of tidal power generation in the Severn Estuary are reviewed. There is considerable potential for any major installation to impact the fish and crustacean populations as they migrate and also alter the nature of the habitat resulting in changes in community composition. A particular difficulty in predicting the future impact of harnessing tidal energy is that the present community is already changing rapidly. The ability of fish and crustaceans to pass through the turbines unharmed will be a key issue in an assessment of the impact of tidal power generation. PMID:20074757

Henderson, P A; Bird, D J

2010-01-01

281

Genes involved in thoracic exoskeleton formation during the pupal-to-adult molt in a social insect model, Apis mellifera  

PubMed Central

Background The insect exoskeleton provides shape, waterproofing, and locomotion via attached somatic muscles. The exoskeleton is renewed during molting, a process regulated by ecdysteroid hormones. The holometabolous pupa transforms into an adult during the imaginal molt, when the epidermis synthe3sizes the definitive exoskeleton that then differentiates progressively. An important issue in insect development concerns how the exoskeletal regions are constructed to provide their morphological, physiological and mechanical functions. We used whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays to screen for genes involved in exoskeletal formation in the honeybee thoracic dorsum. Our analysis included three sampling times during the pupal-to-adult molt, i.e., before, during and after the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis that triggers synthesis of the adult exoskeleton. Results Gene ontology annotation based on orthologous relationships with Drosophila melanogaster genes placed the honeybee differentially expressed genes (DEGs) into distinct categories of Biological Process and Molecular Function, depending on developmental time, revealing the functional elements required for adult exoskeleton formation. Of the 1,253 unique DEGs, 547 were upregulated in the thoracic dorsum after apolysis, suggesting induction by the ecdysteroid pulse. The upregulated gene set included 20 of the 47 cuticular protein (CP) genes that were previously identified in the honeybee genome, and three novel putative CP genes that do not belong to a known CP family. In situ hybridization showed that two of the novel genes were abundantly expressed in the epidermis during adult exoskeleton formation, strongly implicating them as genuine CP genes. Conserved sequence motifs identified the CP genes as members of the CPR, Tweedle, Apidermin, CPF, CPLCP1 and Analogous-to-Peritrophins families. Furthermore, 28 of the 36 muscle-related DEGs were upregulated during the de novo formation of striated fibers attached to the exoskeleton. A search for cis-regulatory motifs in the 5?-untranslated region of the DEGs revealed potential binding sites for known transcription factors. Construction of a regulatory network showed that various upregulated CP- and muscle-related genes (15 and 21 genes, respectively) share common elements, suggesting co-regulation during thoracic exoskeleton formation. Conclusions These findings help reveal molecular aspects of rigid thoracic exoskeleton formation during the ecdysteroid-coordinated pupal-to-adult molt in the honeybee. PMID:23981317

2013-01-01

282

Hatching rhythms and dispersion of decapod crustacean larvae in a brackish coastal lagoon in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mar Chiquita, a brackish coastal lagoon in central Argentina, is inhabited by dense populations of two intertidal grapsid crab species, Cyrtograpsus angulatus and Chasmagnathus granulata. During a preliminary one-year study and a subsequent intensive sampling programme (November December 1992), the physical properties and the occurrence of decapod crustacean larvae in the surface water of the lagoon were investigated. The lagoon is characterized by highly variable physical conditions, with oligohaline waters frequently predominating over extended periods. The adjacent coastal waters show a complex pattern of semidiurnal tides that often do not influence the lagoon, due to the existence of a sandbar across its entrance. Besides frequently occurring larvae (exclusively freshly hatched zoeae and a few megalopae) of the two dominating crab species, those of three other brachyurans ( Plathyxanthus crenulatus, Uca uruguayensis, Pinnixa patagonica) and of one anomuran (the porcellanid Pachycheles haigae) were also found occasionally. Caridean shrimp ( Palaemonetes argentinus) larvae occurred in a moderate number of samples, with a maximum density of 800·m-3. The highest larval abundance was recorded in C. angulatus, with almost 8000°m-3. Significantly more C. angulatus and C. granulata zoeae occurred at night than during daylight conditions, and more larvae (statistically significant only in the former species) during ebb (outflowing) than during flood (inflowing) tides. In consequence, most crab zoeae were observed during nocturnal ebb, the least with diurnal flood tides. Our data suggest that crab larvae do not develop in the lagoon, where the adult populations live, but exhibit an export strategy, probably based upon exogenously coordinated egg hatching rhythms. Zoeal development must take place in coastal marine waters, from where the megalopa eventually returns for settlement and metamorphosis in the lagoon. Significantly higher larval frequency of C. granulata in low salinities (?12‰) and at a particular sampling site may be related to local distribution patterns of the reproducing adult population. Unlike crab larvae, those of shrimp ( P. argentinus) are retained inside the lagoon, where they develop from hatching through metamorphosis. They significantly prefer low salinity and occur at the lagoon surface more often at night. These patterns cannot be explained by larval release rhythms like those in brachyuran crabs, but may reflect diel vertical migrations to the bottom. It is concluded that osmotic stress as well as predation pressure exerted by visually directed predators (small species or life-cycle stages of estuarine fishes) may be the principal selection factors for the evolution of hatching and migration rhythms in decapod larvae, and that these are characteristics of export or retention mechanisms, respectively.

Anger, K.; Spivak, E.; Bas, C.; Ismael, D.; Luppi, T.

1994-12-01

283

The Y-organ secretory activity fluctuates in relation to seasons of molt and reproduction in the brachyuran crab, Metopograpsus messor (Grapsidae): Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

This paper presents a first-time report on the localization, structure and seasonal secretory activity of the Y-organ of a grapsid brachyuran crab (Metopograpsus messor). Having exhibited discrete seasonality with reference to the programming of molt and reproduction, this brachyuran crab has offered us an excellent model to obtain a clear picture of the fluctuating secretory nature of the Yorgan, all the way through the reproductive (August-December) as well as the molt-reproduction active (January-May) and inactive (June-July) seasons. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the secretion of the Y-organ was at its peak in premolt crabs during molt-reproduction season (January-May). Interestingly, the Y-organs of the intermolt females that engaged in breeding activity showed higher levels of secretion than those of the molt-reproduction inactive season (June-July), implicating the gland's involvement in reproduction. Immunohistochemical studies using the antiserum raised against 2-succinyl conjugate of ecdysone have demonstrated the ecdysteroid nature of the secretion from the Y-organ, and results of the quantitative assay of ecdysteroids (through radioimmunoassay) revealed that the hormone titer fluctuates in consonance with the Y-organ's secretory activity during seasons of molt and reproduction. Pertinently, not only that the paper gives us a comprehensive understanding on the secretory activity of the Y-organ in a season-dependent fashion, it also allows us to have a better insight into the gland's function related to molting and reproduction (for the first time) in a grapsid brachyuran crab. PMID:24291010

Shyamal, Sharmishtha; Sudha, K; Gayathri, N; Anilkumar, G

2014-01-15

284

Identification of Two Distinct Molt-Inhibiting Hormone-Related Peptides from the Giant Tiger Prawn Penaeus monodon  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Six peptides belonging to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family were isolated from extracts of the sinus glands\\u000a of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. These were designated Pem-SGP-A to Pem-SGA-F (Pem, Penaeus monodon; SGP, sinus gland peptide) and their amino-terminal amino acid sequences were analyzed. Five of the 6 peptides (Pem-SGP-A,\\u000a -B, -D,

Chatchadaporn Krungkasem; Tsuyoshi Ohira; Wei-Jun Yang; Rosman Abdullah; Hiromichi Nagasawa; Katsumi Aida

2002-01-01

285

Seasonal dynamics of crustacean zooplankton community structure in Erhai Lake, a plateau lake, with reference to phytoplankton and environmental factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal dynamics of a crustacean zooplankton community in Erhai Lake was investigated from May 2010 to April 2011. In total, 11 species were recorded, including six (6 genera) cladoceran and five (5 genera) copepod species. The crustacean zooplankton densities ranged from 24.3 to 155.4 ind./L. In winter and spring, the large-bodied cladoceran Daphnia galeata dominated the crustacean plankton community. In summer and autumn, when the colonial or filamentous algae dominated the phytoplankton communities, the small-bodied species (e.g. B osmina fatalis, Ceriodaphnia quadrangular, and Mesocyclops leuckarti) replaced the large-bodied ones. One-way ANOVA and redundancy analysis revealed that community structure was dependent upon total nitrogen, total phosphorus, water temperature, transparency, and the biomass of small algae. The variation in both phytoplankton structure and environmental variables were important factors in the seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton structure in Erhai Lake.

Yang, Wei; Deng, Daogui; Zhang, Sai; Hu, Cuilin

2014-09-01

286

Seasonal abundance, distribution and growth of commercially important marine crustaceans at a hot water discharge in Galveston Bay, Texas  

E-print Network

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE, DISTRIBUTION, AND GROWTH OF COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT MARINE CRUSTACEANS AT A HOT WATER DISCHARGE IN GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by BENNY JOHN GALLAWAY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1970 Major Subject: Fisheries Science SEASONAL ABUNDANCE, DISTRIBUTION, AND GROWTH OF COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT MARINE CRUSTACEANS AT A HOT WATER DISCHARGE IN GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS...

Gallaway, B. J

2012-06-07

287

Selective extraction of astaxanthin from crustaceans by use of supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

An on-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system coupled to a continuous flow manifold including a UV detector was used as a screening system to extract astaxanthin from crayfish, which was found to be the major carotenoid present in the samples. This compound constitutes the principal additive used to dye salmon flesh. The flow manifold was used to confirm the presence of astaxanthin in the crustacean samples. Also, an HPLC/UV-vis method was used to ascertain that this compound was the major carotenoid extracted under the optimum SFE conditions employed. The influence of SFE operating variables such as pressure, temperature, equilibration time, extraction time, trap temperature, and volume of CO(2) modifier was examined in order to maximize the efficiency of analyte extraction. The use of supercritical CO(2) enables the expeditious, selective, quantitative extraction of astaxanthin from crustaceans. PMID:18969665

López, M; Arce, L; Garrido, J; Ríos, A; Valcárcel, M

2004-10-20

288

Crustaceans from bitumen clast in Carboniferous glacial diamictite extend fossil record of copepods.  

PubMed

Copepod crustaceans are extremely abundant but, because of their small size and fragility, they fossilize poorly. Their fossil record consists of one Cretaceous (c. 115?Ma) parasite and a few Miocene (c. 14?Ma) fossils. In this paper, we describe abundant crustacean fragments, including copepods, from a single bitumen clast in a glacial diamictite of late Carboniferous age (c. 303?Ma) from eastern Oman. Geochemistry identifies the source of the bitumen as an oilfield some 100-300?km to the southwest, which is consistent with an ice flow direction from glacial striae. The bitumen likely originated as an oil seep into a subglacial lake. This find extends the fossil record of copepods by some 188?Ma, and of free-living forms by 289?Ma. The copepods include evidence of the extant family Canthocamptidae, believed to have colonized fresh water in Pangaea during Carboniferous times. PMID:20975721

Selden, Paul A; Huys, Rony; Stephenson, Michael H; Heward, Alan P; Taylor, Paul N

2010-01-01

289

Seasonal Patterns in the Fish and Crustacean Community of a Turbid Temperate Estuary (Zeeschelde Estuary, Belgium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish and crustaceans were sampled for 1 year in the upper reaches of a temperate estuary characterized by high turbidity and a tidal range of up to 5 m. Samples were taken in the cooling-water circuit of the Doel Nuclear Power station (Zeeschelde, Belgium). Between July 1994 and June 1995, 55 fish species, two shrimp species and four crab species were recorded. The fish community was composed of 36 marine species, 16 freshwater species and three diadromous species. Shrimps, Gobiidae and Clupeidae dominated the samples both in numbers and biomass. An exceptionally clear seasonal succession was observed in the species composition. It is argued that young fish and crustaceans use the highly turbid Zeeschelde Estuary as a refuge from predators.

Maes, J.; Taillieu, A.; Van Damme, P. A.; Cottenie, K.; Ollevier, F.

1998-08-01

290

Increase of crustacean sensitivity to purified hepatotoxic cyanobacterial extracts by manipulation of experimental conditions.  

PubMed

Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are one of the most common consequences of water eutrophication. Microbiotests with crustaceans are not expensive and are easy to prepare for screening tests. They can be applied in the determination of bioactivity and interaction between toxic substances in water, including hepatotoxins. The principal aim of this study was to modify the standard conditions in the Thamnotoxkit F trade mark and Artoxkit M in order to increase crustacean sensitivity to purified cyanobacterial extracts containing microcystins. The results reported show that exposure time, higher temperature, and presence of DMSO can increase the sensitivity of microbiotests to microcystins. The best sensitivity with the Artemia salina test was achieved after a 48-h exposure at 25 degrees C. The tests using a 24-h exposure at 27 degrees C were the most sensitive for Thamnocephalus platyurus. The test without preincubation with DMSO provided the best correlation of microcystin concentration and LC(50) for Thamnocephalus platyurus and is recommended. PMID:15269916

Drobniewska, Agata; Tarczy?ska, Ma?gorzata; Mankiewicz, Joanna; Jurczak, Tomasz; Zalewski, Maciej

2004-08-01

291

Effects of Pollutants on Olfactory Mediated Behaviors in Fish and Crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Streams, lakes and the sea are the final sinks of various pollutants which means that aquatic organisms are exposed to many\\u000a different chemicals present in the ambient water. Several studies demonstrate that these pollutants may interfere with chemoreception\\u000a of aquatic animals. Many aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates depend on chemical senses for their survival and reproduction.\\u000a In fish and crustaceans, olfactory

K. Håkan Olsén

292

Sulfhydryl alkylating agents induce calcium current in skeletal muscle fibers of a crustacean ( Atya lanipes )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Voltage-clamp experiments using the three-microelectrode voltage clamp technique were performed on ventroabdominal flexor muscles of the crustacean Atya lanipes. Potassium and chloride currents were found to underlie the normal, passive response of the muscle. Blocking potassium currents with tetraethylammonium and replacing chloride ions with methanesulfonate did not unmask an inward current. By treating the muscle with the sulfhydryl-alkylating agent

L. Lizardi; M. C. Garcia; J. A. Sanchez; C. Zuazaga

1992-01-01

293

First record of a Facetotectan crustacean in plankton of Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nauplii V of the rare crustacean Hansenocaris furcifera It, 1989, belonging to the infraclass Facetotecta were recorded in the plankton of Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan) for\\u000a the first time. The larvae were probably transported in summer from the coastal waters off Japan. Scanning electron microscopic\\u000a observations revealed previously unknown morphological characteristics of these larvae: three pairs of

E. A. Ponomarenko; O. M. Korn

2006-01-01

294

Nearshore distributional gradients of larval fish (15 taxa) and planktonic crustaceans (6 Taxa) in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen taxa of fish larvae (most identified to species) and 6 taxa of crustaceans (most identified to species) were studied in zooplankton samples collected 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 km off the leeward coast of Oahu, Hawaii in May and July 1975. The following distributional patterns were elucidated: inshore (2 spp); inshore-neritic (2 spp); neritic (7 spp); and offshore-neritic (7

J. M. Leis

1982-01-01

295

Evaluation of limit feeding corn and distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted using 504 Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens (69 wk of age) randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments. These treatments consisted of a 47% corn:47% soy hulls diet (C:SH) fed ad libitum; a 94% corn diet fed at a rate of 36.3, 45.4, or 54.5 g/hen per day (CORN 36, CORN 45, and CORN 54, respectively); and a 94% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) diet fed at the same rates as the previous corn diets (DDGS 36, DDGS 45, and DDGS 54, respectively) during the molt period of 28 d. The intent was to feed the DDGS diets for 28 d; however, all hens on these diets had very low feed intakes and greater than anticipated BW loss. Thus, they were switched to a 16% CP corn-soybean meal layer diet on d 19 of the molt period. At d 28, hens on all treatments were fed the same corn-soybean meal layer diet for 39 wk (73 to 112 wk of age). All DDGS diets and the CORN 36 diet resulted in total cessation of egg production during the molt period and egg production of hens fed the CORN 45, CORN 54, and C:SH diets had decreased to 3 and 4%, respectively, by d 28. Body weight loss during the 28-d molt period ranged from 14% for the CORN 54 diet to approximately 23% for the 3 DDGS diets. Postmolt egg production (5 to 43 wk) was higher for hens fed the DDGS molt diets than those fed the corn diets. There were no consistent differences in egg mass, egg-specific gravity, feed efficiency, or layer feed consumption among molt treatments for the postmolt period. These results indicate that limit feeding corn diet and DDGS diet in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs will yield long-term postmolt performance that is comparable to that observed by ad libitum feeding a C:SH diet. PMID:20181852

Mejia, L; Meyer, E T; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

2010-03-01

296

The cryptocephal gene (ATF4) encodes multiple basic-leucine zipper proteins controlling molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

The cryptocephal (crc) mutation causes pleiotropic defects in ecdysone-regulated events during Drosophila molting and metamorphosis. Here we report that crc encodes a Drosophila homolog of vertebrate ATF4, a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. We identified three putative protein isoforms. CRC-A and CRC-B contain the bZIP domain, and CRC-D is a C-terminally truncated form. We have generated seven new crc alleles. Consistent with the molecular diversity of crc, these alleles show that crc is a complex genetic locus with two overlapping lethal complementation groups. Alleles representing both groups were rescued by a cDNA encoding CRC-B. One lethal group (crc(1), crc(R6), and crc(Rev8)) consists of strong hypomorphic or null alleles that are associated with mutations of both CRC-A and CRC-B. These mutants display defects associated with larval molting and pupariation. In addition, they fail to evert the head and fail to elongate the imaginal discs during pupation, and they display variable defects in the subsequent differentiation of the adult abdomen. The other group (crc(R1), crc(R2), crc(E85), crc(E98), and crc(929)) is associated with disruptions of CRC-A and CRC-D; except for a failure to properly elongate the leg discs, these mutants initiate metamorphosis normally. Subsequently, they display a novel metamorphic phenotype, involving collapse of the head and abdomen toward the thorax. The crc gene is expressed throughout development and in many tissues. In third instar larvae, crc expression is high in targets of ecdysone signaling, such as the leg and wing imaginal discs, and in the ring gland, the source of ecdysone. Together, these findings implicate CREB/ATF proteins in essential functions during molting and metamorphosis. In addition, the similarities between the mutant phenotypes of crc and the ecdysone-responsive genes indicate that these genes are likely to be involved in common signaling pathways. PMID:10924469

Hewes, R S; Schaefer, A M; Taghert, P H

2000-01-01

297

Cross communication between signaling pathways: juvenoid hormones modulate ecdysteroid activity in a crustacean.  

PubMed

Methyl farnesoate is a juvenoid hormone that regulates a variety of processes in crustaceans including male sex determination among daphnids (Branchiopoda, Cladocera). The synthetic juvenoids pyriproxyfen and fenoxycarb mimic the action of methyl farnesoate in daphnids. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that juvenoids also can regulate ecdysteroid activity in a crustacean (Daphnia magna). Methyl farnesoate, pyriproxyfen, and fenoxycarb all disrupted ecdysteroid-regulated aspects of embryo development in daphnids. Exposure of ecdysteroid-responsive cells to 20-hydroxyecdysone reduced cell proliferation and increased mRNA levels of the ecdysone receptor and its partner protein ultraspiracle. Co-treatment of cells with the juvenoid pyriproxyfen attenuated all of these ecdysteroid mediated responses. While juvenoids functioned as anti-ecdysteroids in both intact embryos and in cultured cells, 20-hydroxyecdysone showed no evidence of acting as an anti-juvenoid. The combined effects of pyroproxyfen with the ecdysteroid synthesis inhibitor fenarimol and the ecdysteroid receptor antagonist testosterone were evaluated in an effort to discern whether the action of the juvenoids were additive with those of know anti-ecdysteroids. The anti-ecdysteroid effects of pyriproxyfen were non-additive with those of either anti-ecdysteroid. Rather, joint effects conformed to a model of synergy. These results demonstrated that juvenoids elicit anti-ecdysteroidal activity in a crustacean through a unique mechanism of action. A model involving receptor partner deprivation is proposed that explains the synergistic interactions observed. PMID:15449346

Mu, Xueyan; Leblanc, Gerald A

2004-10-01

298

The Environmental-Endocrine Basis of Gynandromorphism (Intersex) in a Crustacean  

PubMed Central

Commensurate with the decline in many crustacean populations has been an accumulation in reports of sexually ambiguous individuals within these populations. The cause of gynandromorphism or intersex among crustaceans is unknown. We show that gynandromorphism in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna is initiated by the sex-determining hormone methyl farnesoate when levels of the hormone are intermediate between low levels that stimulate the production of broods containing all female offspring and high levels that stimulate the production of broods of all male offspring. The incidence of hormonally-induced gynandromorphism was low (0.14% at the maximum stimulatory hormone concentrations) but was significantly increased (46-fold) when the animals were hormone-treated at 30oC. Some environmental chemicals also can stimulate the gynandromorphic phenotype as we demonstrated with the insecticide pyriproxyfen. Gynandromorphism occurs due to inadequate signaling of male-sex determination since: a) gynandromorphs did not occur in a population that was producing only female offspring; and, b) conditions that stimulated gynandromorphism also reduced the incidence of male offspring. We suggest that male sex determination normally occurs prior to the first embryonic cleavage. Elevated temperature may alter the timing of sex determination such that methyl farnesoate signaling occurs after the first embryonic cleavage and bilateral gynandromorphism occurs as a consequence of signaling to only one of the daughter cells. These results demonstrate that environmental factors can cause aberrant sex determination via perturbations in methyl farnesoate signaling. PMID:17205107

Olmstead, Allen W.; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

2007-01-01

299

Evolutionary change in neural development within the arthropods: axonogenesis in the embryos of two crustaceans.  

PubMed

It has been previously suggested that there is a conservative program for neural development amongst the arthropods, on the basis that a stereotyped set of cells involved in establishing the axon tracts in the CNS of insect embryos is also present in crayfish embryos. We have examined the spatiotemporal pattern of axon growth from a set of early differentiating central neurons in the embryo of two crustaceans, the woodlouse Porcellio scaber and the freshwater crayfish Cherax destructor, and drawn comparisons with insect neurons whose somata lie in corresponding positions within the CNS. While many of the woodlouse and crayfish neurons show a similar pattern of axon growth to their insect counterparts, the axon trajectories taken by others differ from those seen in insects. We conclude that this aspect of early neural development has not been rigidly conserved during the evolution of the crustaceans and insects. However, the extent of similarity between the insects and the crustaceans is consistent with the idea that these groups of arthropods share a common evolutionary 'Bauplan' for the construction of their nervous systems. While the pattern of early axon growth in the woodlouse and crayfish embryos is sufficiently similar that many neurons could be confidently recognised as homologues, several differences were noted in both the relative order of axon outgrowth and axon morphologies of individual neurons. PMID:8223272

Whitington, P M; Leach, D; Sandeman, R

1993-06-01

300

Pyrokinin neuropeptides in a crustacean. Isolation and identification in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Identification of substances able to elicit physiological or behavioural processes that are related to reproduction would greatly contribute to the domestication of commercially important crustaceans that do not reproduce easily in captivity. Crustaceans are thought to release urine signals used for chemical communication involved in courtship behaviour. In contrast to insects, very little is known about the endocrinological processes underlying this phenomenon. Therefore, an extract of 3500 central nervous systems of female white shrimp Penaeus vannamei was screened for myotropic activity in order to purify pyrokinin-like peptides that belong to the pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide family. Members of this family regulate reproductive processes in insects, including pheromone biosynthesis. Purification of these pyrokinins was achieved by a combination of reversed-phase and normal-phase chromatography. Subsequent characterization by mass spectrometry, Edman degradation and peptide synthesis resulted in the elucidation of two novel peptides. Pev-PK 1 has the primary sequence DFAFSPRL-NH(2) and a second peptide (Pev-PK 2) is characterized as the nonapeptide ADFAFNPRL-NH(2). Pev-PK 1 contains the typical FXPRL-NH(2) (X = G, S, T or V) C-terminal sequence that characterizes members of the versatile pyrokinin/PBAN family. Pev-PK 2 displays an Asn residue at the variable X position of the core pyrokinin sequence. These crustacean pyrokinins are the first to be found in a noninsect. The synthetic peptides display myotropic activity on the Leucophaea maderae as well as on the Astacus leptodactylus hindgut. PMID:11121115

Torfs, P; Nieto, J; Cerstiaens, A; Boon, D; Baggerman, G; Poulos, C; Waelkens, E; Derua, R; Calderón, J; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

2001-01-01

301

Toxicity of two types of silver nanoparticles to aquatic crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus.  

PubMed

Although silver nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used in various consumer products and produced in industrial scale, information on harmful effects of nanosilver to environmentally relevant organisms is still scarce. This paper studies the adverse effects of silver NPs to two aquatic crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus. For that, silver NPs were synthesized where Ag is covalently attached to poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). In parallel, the toxicity of collargol (protein-coated nanosilver) and AgNO? was analyzed. Both types of silver NPs were highly toxic to both crustaceans: the EC50 values in artificial freshwater were 15-17 ppb for D. magna and 20-27 ppb for T. platyurus. The natural water (five different waters with dissolved organic carbon from 5 to 35 mg C/L were studied) mitigated the toxic effect of studied silver compounds up to 8-fold compared with artificial freshwater. The toxicity of silver NPs in all test media was up to 10-fold lower than that of soluble silver salt, AgNO?. The pattern of the toxic response of both crustacean species to the silver compounds was almost similar in artificial freshwater and in natural waters. The chronic 21-day toxicity of silver NPs to D. magna in natural water was at the part-per-billion level, and adult mortality was more sensitive toxicity test endpoint than the reproduction (the number of offspring per adult). PMID:23143296

Blinova, Irina; Niskanen, Jukka; Kajankari, Paula; Kanarbik, Liina; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Tenhu, Heikki; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Kahru, Anne

2013-05-01

302

Genome size estimates for crustaceans using Feulgen image analysis densitometry of ethanol-preserved tissues.  

PubMed

Crustaceans are enormously diverse both phylogenetically and ecologically, but they remain substantially underrepresented in the existing genome size database. An expansion of this dataset could be facilitated if it were possible to obtain genome size estimates from ethanol-preserved specimens. In this study, two tests were performed in order to assess the reliability of genome size data generated using preserved material. First, the results of estimates based on flash-frozen versus ethanol-preserved material were compared across 37 species of crustaceans that differ widely in genome size. Second, a comparison was made of specimens from a single species that had been stored in ethanol for 1-14 years. In both cases, the use of gill tissue in Feulgen image analysis densitometry proved to be a very viable approach. This finding is of direct relevance to both new studies of field-collected crustaceans as well as potential studies based on existing collections. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25139836

Jeffery, Nicholas W; Gregory, T Ryan

2014-10-01

303

Bioaccumulation and role of UV-absorbing compounds in two marine crustacean species from Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted during summer and winter, 2000, and summer 2001 to determine the bioaccumulation and role of UV-absorbing compounds in two crustacean species--the amphipod Amphitoe valida and the isopod Idothea haltica--from the mid-littoral of the Patagonia coast (Argentina). Macroalgae constituting the diet for these species differed in the concentration of UV-absorbing compounds, from high amounts in the rhodophyte Polysiphonia sp. to almost null in chlorophyte species (i.e., Enteromorpha sp. and Codium sp.). Consequently, transferring and bioaccumulation of these compounds, identified as the mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) Porphyra-334 and Shinorine, varied in the crustaceans according to their algal diet, being high when feeding on Polysiphonia sp. Survival experiments carried out with crustaceans feeding on poor and rich-MAA diets demonstrated that the role of these compounds in A. valida and I. baltica was different. In A. valida, and based on a significantly higher survival in those individuals feeding on the rhodophyte, MAAs seem to provide an effective protection against UV-B radiation (280-320 nm). In I. baltica, mortality was not significantly different in individuals feeding on rich and poor MAA diets. However, judging from the comparatively high amounts of MAAs in eggs/embryos, these compounds might provide protection to the progeny rather than to adult organisms. PMID:12656485

Helbling, E Walter; Menchi, C Fernando; Villafañe, Virginia E

2002-10-01

304

Hiding opaque eyes in transparent organisms: a potential role for larval eyeshine in stomatopod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Opaque screening pigments are a fundamental requisite for preserving resolution in image-forming eyes. Possession of any type of image-forming eye in a transparent, pelagic animal will thus undermine the ability of that animal to be invisible in the water column. Transparent, pelagic animals must therefore deal with the trade-off between the ability to see and the ability of other animals to see them. Stomatopod larvae, like many transparent crustaceans, possess specialized optics in their compound eyes that minimize the volume of the opaque retina. Though the volumes of these retinas are reduced, their opacity remains conspicuous to an observer. The light reflected from structures overlying the retinas of stomatopod crustacean larval eyes, referred to here as eyeshine, is hypothesized to further reduce the visibility of opaque retinas. Blue or green wavelengths of light are most strongly reflected in stomatopod larval eyeshine, suggesting a putative spectral matching to the light environment against which the larval eyes are viewed. We tested the efficacy of stomatopod crustacean larval eyeshine as an ocular camouflaging mechanism by photographing larvae in their natural light environment and analysing the contrast of eyes with the background light. To test for spectral matching between stomatopod larval eyeshine and the background light environment, we characterized the spectrum of eyeshine and calculated its performance using radiometric measurements collected at the time of each photographic series. These results are the first to demonstrate an operative mirror camouflage matched in both spectrum and radiance to the pelagic background light environment. PMID:25232197

Feller, K D; Cronin, T W

2014-09-15

305

Comparison of adrenocortical responses to acute stress in lowland and highland Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus): similar patterns during the breeding, but different during the prebasic molt.  

PubMed

Previous studies indicate most free-living avian species in both extreme and temperate environments seasonally modulate the adrenocortical responses to acute stress, and those breeding in harsh environments always express reduced adrenocortical responses, which may allow them to obtain maximal reproductive success. However, recent investigations showing a human commensal species, house sparrows (Passer domesticus), expressed similar corticosterone (CORT) responses in both benign and harsh environments. In this study, focusing on another human commensal species, Eurasian tree sparrows (P. montanus), we examined the adrenocortical response to acute stress in lowland populations, among the early and late breeding, the prebasic molt, and the wintering stages, and compared them with previously published data from populations on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results show: (1) similar to highland Eurasian tree sparrows, lowland populations show no differences in baseline CORT levels among life history stages, and the stress-induced CORT (maximal CORT, total and corrected integrated CORT) levels are lower during the early breeding and the prebasic molt stages than those in the late breeding and the wintering stages; (2) highland Eurasian tree sparrows show stronger adrenocortical responses during the prebasic molt stage than lowland populations, whereas there are no differences between the early and the breeding stages (except for maximal CORT). Our results suggest that Eurasian tree sparrows from both harsh and benign environments have similar patterns of adrenocortical responses in the breeding stage, whereas they are different in the prebasic molt stage. In highland birds, the increased maximal CORT levels during the late breeding and the small increases in adrenocortical responses during the prebasic molt are interesting but remain unexplained. PMID:21815272

Li, Dongming; Wu, Junzhe; Zhang, Xiaorui; Ma, Xiaofei; Wingfield, John C; Lei, Fumin; Wang, Gang; Wu, Yuefeng

2011-11-01

306

[Non-predatory mortality of the crustacean zooplankton and its possible causes (a literature review)].  

PubMed

General mortality (death rate, d) in natural populations of the crustacean zooplankton is calculated as difference between birth rate (b) and population growth rate (r). The mortality includes both predatory (consumptive) and non-predatory (non-consumptive), or "natural", deaths of individuals due to senescence, diseases and parasites, starvation, limiting physical and chemical factors of anthropogenic or natural origin. Modem methods of evaluation of non-predatory mortality of the plankton crustaceans, including direct method based on live/dead sorting by special staining of samples and measurements of sedimentation rate of dead individuals using a sedimentation trap are briefly characterized. Possible causes of non-predatory mortality of crustacean are examined based on different (mainly fresh) temperate water bodies. The possible causes are classified as: physical conditions including temperature, wind effects, ultraviolet radiation, water turbidity, current velocity; chemical conditions including concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH value, water toxicity of both anthropogenic (due to pollutant inflow) and natural (due to cyanobacterial bloom and ingestion of some toxic diatoms by copepods) origin; parasites and epibionts; bottom-up factors or food limitation including quantity and quality of food, the former as content of carbon (energy) and the latter as content of essential compounds in food. It is concluded that, for the populations of crustacean herbivorous zooplankton, the biotic factors appeared to be more important and more probable causes of non-predatory mortality than the abiotic ones, under conditions of non-acid water bodies of the temperate zone when the current speed is less than critical one (0.25 m/c) and in absence of the anthropogenic toxicants. These factors are primarily a food poor quality due to low content of phosphorus, nitrogen, polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega3 family and others, as well as microparasites causing infections and, to a lesser extent (just in blooming water bodies), natural toxicity of cyanobacteria. Non-optimal for the zooplankton physical and chemical factors, as causes of non-predatory mortality of plankton crustaceans, appeared to be less important because of their acting episodically in time locally in space, so the zooplankton is able to avoid their effects and to regenerate fast. PMID:19425353

Dubovskaia, O P

2009-01-01

307

Risk of Vibrio transmission linked to the consumption of crustaceans in coastal towns of Côte d'Ivoire.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of Vibrio spp. transmission from crustaceans to humans in two coastal towns of Côte d'Ivoire. Bacteriologic analysis was performed on 322 crustacean samples obtained from six markets in Abidjan and one in Dabou. Suspected Vibrio colonies were identified by morphological, cultural, biochemical, and molecular tests and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PCR assays were used to further characterize Vibrio strains. A survey on consumption of crustaceans was conducted among 120 randomly selected households in Abidjan. Overall, Vibrio spp. were isolated from 7.8% of the crustacean samples studied, at levels as high as 6.3 log CFU/g. Of the Vibrio strains identified, 40% were V. alginolyticus, 36% were V. parahaemolyticus, and 24% were nontoxigenic V. cholerae; the latter two species can cause mild to severe forms of seafood-associated gastroenteritis. Among interviewed households, 11.7% reported daily consumption of crustaceans, confirming the high probability of exposure of human population to Vibrio spp., and 7.5% reported symptoms of food poisoning after consumption of crustaceans. The absence of genes encoding major virulence factors in the studied strains, i.e., cholera toxin (ctxA and ctxB) in V. cholerae and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) in V. parahaemolyticus, does not exclude the possibility of exposure to pathogenic strains. However, human infections are not common because most households (96.7%) boil crustaceans, usually for at least 45 min (85.9% of households) before consumption. PMID:22691466

Traoré, S G; Bonfoh, B; Krabi, R; Odermatt, P; Utzinger, J; Rose, K-N; Tanner, M; Frey, J; Quilici, M-L; Koussémon, M

2012-06-01

308

Larval ecology and synchronous reproduction of two crustacean species : Semibalanus balanoides in New England, USA and Gecarcinus quadratus in Veraguas, Panama  

E-print Network

The environmental cues for synchronous reproduction were investigated for two highly abundant, ecologically important crustacean species: the temperate acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, and the tropical terrestrial ...

Gyory, Joanna

2011-01-01

309

Interactions between behaviour and physical forcing in the control of horizontal transport of decapod crustacean larvae.  

PubMed

We summarize what is known of the biophysical interactions that control vertical migration and dispersal of decapod larvae, asking the following main questions: How common is vertical migration in decapod crustacean larvae? What is the vertical extent of the migrations? What are the behavioural mechanisms that control vertical migrations? How does vertical migration interact with the physics of the ocean to control the dispersal of larvae? These questions are analysed by first giving a synopsis of the physical processes that are believed to significantly affect horizontal transport, and then by describing migration patterns according to taxon, to ecological category based on the habitat of adults and larvae, and to stage within the larval series. Some kind of vertical migration has been found in larval stages of virtually all species that have been investigated, irrespective of taxonomic or ecological category. Most vertical migration schedules have a cyclic nature that is related to a major environmental cyclic factor. Tidal (ebb or flood) migration and daily (nocturnal and twilight) migration are the two types of cyclic migration that have been identified. In general, all species show some type of daily migration, with nocturnal migration being the most common, whereas tidal migrations have only been identified in species that use estuaries during part of their life cycle. Moreover, there are several examples indicating that the phasing and extent of migration both change throughout ontogeny. Reported ranges of vertical displacement vary between a few metres in estuaries and several tens of metres (sometimes more than 100 m) in shelf and oceanic waters. Vertical movements are controlled by behavioural responses to the main factors of the marine environment. The most important factors in this respect are light, pressure and gravity, but salinity, temperature, turbulence, current and other factors, also influence behaviour. Many of these factors change cyclically, and the larvae respond with cyclic behaviours. The type of response may be endogenous and regulated by an internal clock, as in the case of some tidally synchronised migrations, but in most cases it is a direct response to a change in an environmental variable, as in diel migration. The reaction of the larvae to exogenous cues depends both on the rate of change of the variable and on the absolute amount of change. A series of dispersal types, involving different spatial and temporal scales, have been identified in decapod larvae: retention of the larval series within estuaries; export from estuarine habitats, dispersal over the shelf, and reinvasion of estuaries by the last stage; hatching in shelf waters and immigration to estuaries by late larvae or postlarvae; complete development on the shelf; and hatching in shelf waters, long-range dispersal in the ocean, and return to the shelf by late stages. In all of these cases, vertical migration behaviour and changes of behaviour during the course of larval development have been related to particular physical processes, resulting in conceptual mechanisms that explain dispersal and recruitment. Most decapod larvae are capable of crossing the vertical temperature differences normally found across thermoclines in natural systems. This ability may have significant consequences for horizontal transport within shelf waters, because amplitude and phase differences of the tidal currents across the thermocline may be reflected in different trajectories of the migrating larvae. PMID:15596167

Queiroga, Henrique; Blanton, Jack

2005-01-01

310

Patterns of use and distribution of king eiders and black scoters during the annual cycle in northeastern Bristol Bay, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northeastern Bristol Bay, Alaska, which includes three large estuaries, is used by multiple sea duck species during the annual\\u000a cycle. Limited aerial surveys indicate that this area supports tens of thousands of king eiders and black scoters during spring\\u000a migration and the autumn molt. Existing satellite telemetry data were used to assess the temporal patterns of habitat use\\u000a and spatial

J. L. Schamber; P. L. Flint; A. N. Powell

2010-01-01

311

Life cycle of tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

The tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium has a typical three-host life-cycle. Whereas its larvae and nymphs are less host-specific feeding on a variety of tetrapods, tortoises of the genus Testudo are principal hosts of adults. Ticks retained this trait also in our study under laboratory conditions, while adults were reluctant to feed on mammalian hosts. Combination of feeding larvae and nymphs on guinea pigs and feeding of adults on Testudo marginata tortoises provided the best results. Feeding period of females was on average 25 days (range 17-44), whereas males remain after female engorgement on tortoise host. Female pre-oviposition period was 14 days (3-31), followed by 24 days of oviposition (18-29). Pre-eclosion and eclosion, both together, takes 31 days (21-43). Larvae fed 5 days (3-9), then molted to nymphs after 17 days (12-23). Feeding period of nymphs lasted 7 days (5-10), engorged nymphs molted to adults after 24 days (19-26). Sex ratio of laboratory hatched H. aegyptium was nearly equal (1:1.09). The average weight of engorged female was 0.95 (0.72-1.12) g. The average number of laid eggs was 6,900 (6,524-7,532) per female, it was significantly correlated with weight of engorged female. Only 2.8% of engorged larvae and 1.8% of engorged nymphs remained un-molted and died. Despite the use of natural host species, feeding success of females reached only 45%. The whole life-cycle was completed within 147 days (98-215). PMID:21431927

Siroký, Pavel; Erhart, Jan; Petrželková, Klára J; Kamler, Martin

2011-07-01

312

Survivorship in micro fungi and crustacean resting stages during ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum land testing of EXPOSE unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches on interplanetary quarantine within space missions. Direct experiments in open space supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria and fungi spores in open space during long time experiments (Novikova et al. 2007). The rate of survivorship in long-term mission was low but enough to conclude that biological invasion to Mars is a real danger. The possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it dormant stages (spores) of primitive fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium aurantiogriseum derived from ISS environment were used in the land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions. Survivorship in resting eggs of some crustaceans with dried (cladoceran Daphnia magna, fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis and ostracode Eucypris ornate from hemi desert Caspian area) and wet diapause state (copepod Mixodiaptomus tatricus from the Tatra mountains, altitude 1510 m) was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. Micro fungi showed a high level of survivorship in samples treated with UV samples varied from 95 till 100 Supported by RFBR grant 07-04-00006.

Alekseev, Victor; Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Deshevaya, Elena; Brancelj, Anton; Malyavin, Stanislav

313

Temporal and spatial habitat preferences and biotic interactions between mosquito larvae and antagonistic crustaceans in the field.  

PubMed

Investigations on natural antagonists of mosquito larvae found that micro-crustaceans (e.g., Cladocera) control mosquito populations under experimental conditions. However, their relevance for mosquito control under field situations remains widely unclear because important information about habitat preferences and time of occurrence of crustaceans and mosquito larvae are still missing. In order to fill this knowledge gap, a field study was undertaken in different wetland areas of Saxony, Germany, in different habitats (i.e., grassland, forest, and reed-covered wetlands). We found negative interactions between larvae of Ae. vexans and predatory Cyclopoida (Crustacean: Copepoda), which both were dominant during the first two weeks of hydroperiod, at ponds located at grassland habitats. Larvae of Cx. pipiens were spatially associated with competing Cladocera, but they colonized ponds more rapidly. Populations of Cladocera established from the third week of hydroperiod and prevented Cx. pipiens colonization thereafter. Ostracoda were highly abundant during the whole hydroperiod, but their presence was restricted to habitats of reed-covered wetland at one geographical area. Mosquito larvae hardly occurred at those ponds. In general, we found that ponds at the reed-covered wetlands provided better conditions for the initial development of crustaceans and hence, mosquito larval colonization was strongly inhibited. Grassland habitat, in contrast, favored early development of mosquito larvae. This study showed that micro-crustaceans are relevant for mosquito management but their impact on mosquito larvae varies between species and depends on environmental conditions. PMID:24820562

Kroeger, Iris; Liess, Matthias; Duquesne, Sabine

2014-06-01

314

Chemoreceptors of crustaceans: similarities to receptors for neuroactive substances in internal tissues.  

PubMed Central

A description is given of crustacean chemosensory systems and the neurophysiological procedures used to study them. Their response properties and tuning characteristics are discussed. A review is then provided of specific crustacean chemoreceptors that are stimulated selectively by either purine nucleotides, taurine, glutamate, or glycine, all of which have neuroactive properties in internal tissues. Two distinctly different types of purinergic chemoreceptors occur on the antennules of the spiny lobster. P1-like chemoreceptors have a potency sequence of AMP greater than ADP greater than ATP greater than adenosine and show a strict structural requirement for the ribose phosphate moiety. P2-like chemoreceptors have a potency sequence of ATP greater than ADP greater than AMP or adenosine and show a broad sensitivity to nucleotide triphosphates with modifications in both the purine and ribose phosphate moieties. Sensilla containing the dendrites of chemosensory neurons also possess an ectonucleotidase(s) that inactivates excitatory nucleotides to yield adenosine which is subsequently internalized by a sensillar uptake system. Narrowly tuned taurinergic chemoreceptors are present on both the antennules and legs of lobsters. Although taurine itself is the most effective stimulant, the taurine analogs hypotaurine and beta-alanine are also very excitatory. Structure-activity studies indicate these chemoreceptors have marked similarities to taurine-sensitive systems in internal tissues of vertebrates. By contrast, comparative studies of glutamatergic chemoreceptors on the legs of lobsters indicate response spectra different from those of the glutamate receptors in lobster neuromuscular junctions and the three classes of excitatory amino acid receptors identified internally in vertebrates. Crustacean chemoreceptors for glycine, ecdysteroids, and pyridine are also described. The hypothesis that receptors for internal neuroactive agents may have originally evolved as external chemoreceptors of primitive aquatic organisms is discussed. PMID:3297662

Carr, W E; Ache, B W; Gleeson, R A

1987-01-01

315

Endogenous production of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase by decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

The potential ability to produce cellulase enzymes endogenously was examined in decapods crustaceans including the herbivorous gecarcinid land crabs Gecarcoidea natalis and Discoplax hirtipes, the amphibious freshwater crab Austrothelphusa transversa, the terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita variabilis the parastacid crayfish Euastacus, and the crayfish Cherax destructor. The midgut gland of both G. natalis and D. hirtipes contained substantial total cellulase activities and activities of the cellulase enzymes endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and beta-glucosidase. With the exception of total cellulase and beta-glucosidase from D. hirtipes, the enzyme activities within the midgut gland were higher than those within the digestive juice. Hence, the enzyme activities appear to reside predominantly within midgut gland, providing indirect evidence for endogenous synthesis of cellulase enzymes by this tissue. A 900 bp cDNA fragment encoding a portion of the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase amino acid sequence was amplified by RT-PCR using RNA isolated from the midgut gland of C. destructor, Euastacus, A. transversa and C. variabilis. This provided direct evidence for the endogenous production of endo-beta-1,4-glucanase. The 900 bp fragment was also amplified from genomic DNA isolated from the skeletal muscle of G. natalis and D. hirtipes, clearly indicating that the gene encoding endo-beta-1,4-glucanase is also present in these two species. As this group of evolutionary diverse crustacean species possesses and expresses the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene it is likely that decapod crustaceans generally produce cellulases endogenously and are able to digest cellulose. PMID:16408228

Linton, Stuart M; Greenaway, Peter; Towle, David W

2006-05-01

316

Arsenic trioxide induces apoptosis in cells of MOLT4 and its daunorubicin-resistant cell line via depletion of intracellular glutathione, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo demonstrate that arsenic trioxide (As 2O 3) induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in both parent T lymphoblastoid leukemia MOLT-4 cells and cells of its daunorubicin-resistant subline, MOLT-4\\/DNR, expressing functional P-gp.MethodsCell growth was measured using an MTT assay. Cell viability was determined using a dye exclusion test. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) was measured using a glutathione assay kit. Mitochondrial membrane

Xiao-Mei Hu; Toshihiko Hirano; Kitaro Oka

2003-01-01

317

Isolation and expression analysis of a Pax group III gene from the crustacean Cherax destructor.  

PubMed

Pax genes encode transcription factors that are critical regulators of key developmental processes in evolutionarily diverse animal phyla. Here we report the first isolation of a Pax gene from a crustacean: a Pax group III gene we have termed CdpaxIII that contains highly conserved DNA-binding domains, the paired domain and homeodomain. CdpaxIII is expressed in the embryo, in adult limb muscle during both quiescence and regeneration, and during the distinct process of epimorphic limb regeneration. Interestingly, CdpaxIII is expressed as two distinct alternate transcripts, one of which is novel in lacking a large portion of its paired domain. PMID:15772827

White, Robert B; Lamey, Tina M; Ziman, Mel; Koenders, Annette

2005-06-01

318

The role of epibenthic crustacean predators in an estuarine food web  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two field experiments were carried out on an estuarine intertidal mudflat, enclosing varying densities of the crustacean predators Carcinus maenas and Crangon crangon. Effects of predation on prey densities were few and limited to cages with abnormally high densities of crabs. In both experiments there were significant effects on the size structure of the amphipod Corophium volutator. The results are compared with those from other caging experiments and it is suggested that, where marked, predation effects have been recorded unnaturally high densities of predators were used.

Raffaelli, D.; Conacher, A.; McLachlan, H.; Emes, C.

1989-02-01

319

Relationships between structure and molting hormonal activity of tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide, and their analogs in cultured integument system of Chilo suppressalis Walker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molting hormonal activity of methoxyfenozide (RH-2485), tebufenozide (RH-5992), five analogs with various alkyl groups, and 18 acyl analogs was measured by using cultured integument of rice stem borers, Chilo suppressalis Walker. The hormonal activity of methoxyfenozide was remarkably high (EC50 = 1.1 × 10?9 M), being equivalent to that of tebufenozide (RH-5992). The hormonal activity of several tebufenozide analogs

Yoshiaki Nakagawa; Kazunari Hattori; Chieka Minakuchi; Soichi Kugimiya; Tamio Ueno

2000-01-01

320

LC/MS/MS identification of 20-hydroxyecdysone in a scorpion (Liocheles australasiae) and its binding affinity to in vitro-translated molting hormone receptors.  

PubMed

Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) technology have facilitated the detection and quantification of minor components in organisms and the environment. In this study, we successfully identified 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in first instar nymphs (7 days after hatching) of the scorpion Liocheles australasiae, using tandem mass spectrometry combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (LC/MS/MS). This substance was not found in adults after the fifth stage. Other possible molting hormone candidates such as makisterone A (MaA) and ponasterone A (PoA), both of which are reported to be the molting hormones of a few arthropod species, were not detected in this scorpion. The ligand-receptor binding of 20E and its analogs was quantitatively evaluated against the in vitro-translated molting hormone receptor, the heterodimer of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR) of L. australasiae (LaEcR/LaRXR). The concentrations of ecdysone (E), MaA, 20E, and PoA that are required to inhibit 50% of [(3)H]PoA binding to the LaEcR/LaRXR complex were determined to be 1.9, 0.69, 0.05, and 0.017 ?M, respectively. The activity profiles of these 4 ecdysteroids are consistent with those obtained for the molting hormone receptors of several insects. The binding of a non-steroidal E agonist, tebufenozide, to EcR was not observed even at high concentrations, indicating that the structure of the ligand-binding pocket of LaEcR is not favorable for interaction with tebufenozide. PMID:21958716

Miyashita, Masahiro; Matsushita, Kaori; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Akahane, Sho; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Miyagawa, Hisashi

2011-12-01

321

Binding sites of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone and its second messengers on gills and hindgut of the green shore crab, Carcinus maenas: A possible osmoregulatory role  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the possible involvement of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in osmoregulation in crustaceans, ligand binding and second messenger assays were performed on gills and hindgut preparations of the green shore crab Carcinus maenas, whilst midgut gland, previously known as one of the target tissues of CHH served as a control tissue. Classical receptor binding analyses using [125I]CHH by saturation

J. Sook Chung; S. G. Webster

2006-01-01

322

Morphological changes in Daphnia galeata induced by a crustacean terpenoid hormone and its analog.  

PubMed

Terpenoid hormones in insects (i.e., juvenile hormones) have various effects on physiology, morphology, and behavior, producing a wide range of phenotypic variation. Recent studies have shown that sex determination in cladoceran crustaceans is under the strong control of a major terpenoid hormone of crustaceans, methyl farnesoatote (MF). It can be easily conceived that MF is also a major determinant of other traits in cladocerans. In the present study, morphological changes known as antipredatory responses in a cladoceran Daphnia galeata in response to exposure to MF and a juvenile hormone-mimicking pesticide, fenoxycarb, were investigated. Morphological change was studied using neonates less than 24?h old, exposed either to MF at the concentrations from 1.9 to 30?µg/L, or fenoxycarb at the concentrations from 13 to 200?ng/L, for 6 d. Animals developed a longer helmet at 1.9?µg/L of MF and 25?ng/L of fenoxycarb, and showed a concentration-dependent elongation. However, the tail spine was reduced in size in a concentration-dependent manner. Results of the present study not only give new insight into the mechanisms of inducible defenses in cladocerans, but also provide invaluable information to understand ecological and evolutionary consequences of endocrine disruption through the shift in biological interaction between predator and prey. PMID:20928915

Oda, Shigeto; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Iguchi, Taisen

2011-01-01

323

Evidence for widespread Wolbachia infection in isopod crustaceans: molecular identification and host feminization.  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia are maternally inherited, intracellular, alpha proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They cause three kinds of reproductive alterations in their hosts: cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. There have been many studies of the distribution of Wolbachia in arthropods, but very few crustacean species are known to be infected. We investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 85 species from five crustacean orders. Twenty-two isopod species were found to carry these bacteria. The bacteria were found mainly in terrestrial species, suggesting that Wolbachia came from a continental environment. The evolutionary relationships between these Wolbachia strains were determined by sequencing bacterial genes and by interspecific transfers. All the bacteria associated with isopods belonged to the Wolbachia B group, based on 16S rDNA sequence data. All the terrestrial isopod symbionts in this group except one formed an independent clade. The results of interspecific transfers show evidence of specialization of Wolbachia symbionts to their isopod hosts. They also suggest that host species plays a more important role than bacterial phylogeny in determining the phenotype induced by Wolbachia infection. PMID:9684374

Bouchon, D; Rigaud, T; Juchault, P

1998-01-01

324

Digestive Enzymes of the Crustaceans Munida and Their Application in Cheese Manufacturing: A Review  

PubMed Central

Crustaceans Munida (fam. Galatheideae, ord. Decapodi) were fished in the Southern Adriatic Sea and their proteolytic activities were characterized and tested for potential application in cheese manufacturing. Enzymes extracted from whole crustaceans, mainly serine proteases, showed high caseinolytic and moderate clotting activities. Analysis by 2D zymography of the digestive enzymes extracted from Munida hepatopancreas, showed the presence of several isotrypsin- and isochymotrypsin-like enzymes in the range of 20–34 kDa and 4.1–5.8 pI. Moreover, specific enzymatic assays showed the presence of aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases A and B. Overall, optimum activity was achieved at pH 7.5 and 40–45 °C. Caseinolytic activity, determined both spectrophotometrically and by SDS gel electrophoresis, indicated higher activity on ?-casein than on ?-casein. Miniature cheddar-type cheeses and Pecorino-type cheeses were manufactured by adding starter, rennet and Munida extracts to milk. Reverse-phase HPLC and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry showed a more complex pattern of proteolytic products in cheeses made using Munida instead of chymosin. Munida extracts were found to degrade the chymosin-derived ?-casein fragment f193–209, one of the peptides associated with bitterness in cheese. In conclusion, Munida digestive enzymes represent a promising tool for development of new cheese products and shorten cheese ripening when used either alone or in addition to calf rennet. PMID:21822412

Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Riccio, Paolo

2011-01-01

325

Demonstration of expression of a neuropeptide-encoding gene in crustacean hemocytes.  

PubMed

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) was originally identified in a neuroendocrine system-the X-organ/sinus gland complex. In this study, a cDNA (Prc-CHH) encoding CHH precursor was cloned from the hemocyte of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Analysis of tissues by a CHH-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the presence of CHH in hemocytes, the levels of which were much lower than those in the sinus gland, but 2 to 10 times higher than those in the thoracic and cerebral ganglia. Total hemocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation into layers of hyaline cell (HC), semi-granular cell (SGC), and granular cell (GC). Analysis of extracts of each layer using ELISA revealed that CHH is present in GCs (202.8±86.7 fmol/mg protein) and SGCs (497.8±49.4 fmol/mg protein), but not in HCs. Finally, CHH stimulated the membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity of hemocytes in a dose-dependent manner. These data for the first time confirm that a crustacean neuropeptide-encoding gene is expressed in cells essential for immunity and its expression in hemocytes is cell type-specific. Effect of CHH on the membrane-bound GC activity of hemocyte suggests that hemocyte is a target site of CHH. Possible functions of the hemocyte-derived CHH are discussed. PMID:22269107

Wu, Su-Hua; Chen, Yan-Jhou; Huang, Shao-Yen; Tsai, Wei-Shiun; Wu, Hsin-Ju; Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Lee, Chi-Ying

2012-04-01

326

Mass spectrometric elucidation of the neuropeptidome of a crustacean neuroendocrine organ  

PubMed Central

The blue crab Callinectes sapidus has been used as an experimental model organism for the study of regulation of cardiac activity and other physiological processes. Moreover, it is an economically and ecologically important crustacean species. However, there was no previous report on the characterization of its neuropeptidome. To fill in this gap, we employed multiple sample preparation methods including direct tissue profiling, crude tissue extraction and tissue extract fractionation by HPLC to obtain a complete description of the neuropeptidome of C. sapidus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) and MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF were utilized initially to obtain a quick snapshot of the neuropeptide profile, and subsequently nanoflow liquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF) tandem MS analysis of neuropeptide extracts was conducted for de novo sequencing. Simultaneously, the pericardial organ (PO) tissue extract was labeled by a novel N, N-dimethylated leucine (DiLeu) reagent, offering enhanced fragmentation efficiency of peptides. In total, 130 peptide sequences belonging to 11 known neuropeptide families including orcomyotropin, pyrokinin, allatostatin A (AST-A), allatostatin B (AST-B), FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), and orcokinin were identified. Among these 130 sequences, 44 are novel peptides and 86 are previously identified. Overall, our results lay the groundwork for future physiological studies of neuropeptides in C. sapidus and other crustaceans. PMID:22627023

Hui, Limei; Xiang, Feng; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Li, Lingjun

2012-01-01

327

Skeletal adaptations for forwards and sideways walking in three species of decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Crustaceans have been successfully employed to study legged locomotion for decades. Most studies have focused on either forwards-walking macrurans, or sideways-walking brachyurans. Libinia emarginata is a Majoid crab (Brachyura) and as such belongs to the earliest group to have evolved the crab form from homoloid ancestors. Unlike most brachyurans, Libinia walks forwards 80% of the time. We employed standard anatomical techniques and motion analysis to compare the skeleton, stance, and the range of motion of the legs of Libinia to the sideways-walking green shore crab (Carcinus maenas), and to the forwards-walking crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). We found animals tended to have greater ranges of motion for joints articulating in the preferred direction of locomotion. Leg segments proximal to such joints were comparatively longer. Thorax elongation, leg length and placement at rest also reflected walking preference. Comparative studies of walking in Libinia and other brachyurans may shed light on the neuroethology of legged locomotion, and on the anatomical and physiological changes necessary for sideways-walking in crustaceans. PMID:18089130

Vidal-Gadea, A G; Rinehart, M D; Belanger, J H

2008-03-01

328

Diverse pereopodal secretory systems implicated in thread production in an apseudomorph tanaidacean crustacean.  

PubMed

Among arthropods, various insects, spiders, and crustaceans produce thread. The crustacean Tanaidacea include species that use thread mainly to construct dwelling tubes. While thread production was previously known only in Tanaoidea and Paratanaoidea, it was recently discovered in two species in Kalliapseudidae (Apseudoidea), although information on the morphology of the thread-producing system was lacking. Using histology, light and scanning electron microscopy, we found that the kalliapseudid Phoxokalliapseudes tomiokaensis comb. nov. lacks the sort of glandular structures associated with thread production in the pereonites, but has these structures in pereopods 1-6. We observed four types of glandular systems defined by the types and distribution of glands they contain: Type A (pereopod 1), Type B (pereopods 2 and 3), Type C (pereopods 4 and 5), and Type D (pereopod 6). All types have small rosette glands and lobed glands; Type A additionally has large rosette glands. The inferred thread-producing apparatus in P. tomiokaensis is very different from that in Tanaoidea and Paratanaoidea, suggesting that kalliapseudids evolved thread production independently from the latter two groups. PMID:24753223

Kakui, Keiichi; Hiruta, Chizue

2014-09-01

329

The embryonic development of the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea).  

PubMed

To examine the evolution of development and put it into a phylogenetic context, it is important to have, in addition to a model organism like Drosophila, more insights into the huge diversity of arthropod morphologies. In recent years, the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804 has become a popular animal for studies in evolutionary and developmental biology, but a detailed and complete description of its embryonic development is still lacking. Therefore, the embryonic development of the woodlouse P. scaber is described in a series of discrete stages easily identified by examination of living animals and the widely used technique of nuclei staining on fixed specimens. It starts with the first cleavage of the zygote and ends with a hatched manca that eventually leaves the mother's brood pouch. Classical methods like normal light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy are used, in addition to confocal LCM and computer-aided 3D reconstruction in order to visualise important processes during ontogeny. The purpose of these studies is to offer an easy way to define the different degrees of development for future comparative analyses of embryonic development amongst crustaceans in particular, as well as between different arthropod groups. In addition, several aspects of Porcellio embryonic development, such as the mouth formation, limb differentiations and modifications or the formation of the digestive tract, make this species particularly interesting for future studies in evolutionary and developmental biology. PMID:20111872

Wolff, Carsten

2009-12-01

330

Interaction investigations of crustacean ?-GBP recognition toward pathogenic microbial cell membrane and stimulate upon prophenoloxidase activation.  

PubMed

In invertebrates, crustaceans' immune system consists of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) instead of immunoglobulin's, which involves in the microbial recognition and initiates the protein-ligand interaction between hosts and pathogens. In the present study, PRRs namely ?-1,3 glucan binding protein (?-GBP) from mangrove crab Episesarma tetragonum and its interactions with the pathogens such as bacterial and fungal outer membrane proteins (OMP) were investigated through microbial aggregation and computational interaction studies. Molecular recognition and microbial aggregation results of Episesarma tetragonum ?-GBP showed the specific binding affinity toward the fungal ?-1,3 glucan molecule when compared to other bacterial ligands. Because of this microbial recognition, prophenoloxidase activity was enhanced and triggers the innate immunity inside the host animal. Our findings disclose the role of ?-GBP in molecular recognition, host-pathogen interaction through microbial aggregation, and docking analysis. In vitro results were concurred with the in silico docking, and molecular dynamics simulation analysis. This study would be helpful to understand the molecular mechanism of ?-GBP and update the current knowledge on the PRRs of crustaceans. PMID:24591174

Sivakamavalli, Jeyachandran; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

2014-04-01

331

Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.  

PubMed

Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone. PMID:23364944

DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H

2014-10-01

332

Cloning, expression, and localization of a molt-related beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.  

PubMed

A beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase cDNA (CfGlcNAcase) was cloned from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana. Western blotting analysis of developmental CfGlcNAcase expression revealed high levels of expression of the gene on the last day of the 5th instar larvae and the first day in the 6th instar larvae, followed by a decrease to background levels during the intermolt of the 6th instar. CfGlcNAcase was detected again from the last day of the 6th instar to day 2 of pupal stage. CfGlcNAcase expression was induced by tebufenozide at 24 h post treatment and remained at high levels until 72 h. Immunohistochemical localization analysis of CfGlcNAcase indicated that CfGlcNAcase was present in the molting fluid, epidermis, trachea, and hemolymph in prepupae during the transformation from larva to pupa. CfGlcNAcase cDNA was expressed into a recombinant protein in bacterial and baculovirus systems and the protein expressed in the baculovirus system had a higher chitinolytic activity than in the bacterial system and appeared to be secreted. PMID:18330895

Zheng, Y-P; Krell, P J; Doucet, D; Arif, B M; Feng, Q-L

2008-05-01

333

Evaluation of limit feeding varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted with 672 Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens (69 wk of age) to evaluate the effects of feeding varying levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with corn, wheat middlings, and soybean hulls on long-term laying hen postmolt performance. The control molt treatment consisted of a 47% corn:47% soybean hulls (C:SH) diet fed ad libitum for 28 d. Hens fed the other 7 treatments were limit fed 65 g/hen per day for 16 d, and then fed 55 g/hen per day for 12 d. Hens on treatments 2 and 3 were fed 49% C:35% wheat middlings (WM) or SH:10% DDGS diets (C:WM:10DDGS, C:SH:10DDGS). Hens on treatments 4 and 5 were fed 49% C:25% WM or SH:20% DDGS diets (C:WM:20DDGS, C:SH:20DDGS). Those on treatments 6 and 7 were fed 47% C:47% DDGS (C:DDGS) or 47% WM:47% DDGS (WM:DDGS) diets. Those on treatment 8 were fed a 94% DDGS diet. At 28 d, all hens were fed a corn-soybean meal layer diet (16% CP) and production performance was measured for 36 wk. None of the hens fed the molt diets went completely out of production, and only the C:SH and C:SH:10DDGS molt diets decreased hen-day egg production to below 5% by wk 4 of the molt period. Postmolt egg production was lowest (P < 0.05) for the C:WM:20DDGS treatment. No differences (P > 0.05) in egg weights were detected among treatments throughout the postmolt period. In addition, no consistent differences were observed among treatments for egg mass throughout the postmolt period. Overall results of this study indicated that limit feeding diets containing DDGS at levels of 65 or 55 g/hen per day during the molt period did not cause hens to totally cease egg production. PMID:21248328

Mejia, L; Meyer, E T; Studer, D L; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

2011-02-01

334

Lipid, sterols and fatty acids of abyssal polychaetes, crustaceans, and a cnidarian from the northeast Pacific Ocean: food web implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid, sterol, and fatty acid compositions of the abyssal anemone Bathyphellia aus- tralis, the 3 polychaetes Laetmonice sp., Paradiopatra sp. and Travisia sp., 3 crustaceans (Munidopsis sp. and 2 lysianassid amphipods), and an unidentified caridean shrimp were determined from a site in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Lipid composition was dominated by phospholipids in most species. However, energy storage lipids

Jeffrey C. Drazen; Charles F. Phleger; Michaela A. Guest; Peter D. Nichols

2008-01-01

335

Melanization and Pathogenicity in the Insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to

Chadanat Noonin; Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Irene Söderhäll; Susana Merino; Juan M. Tomás; Kenneth Söderhäll; Stefan Bereswill

2010-01-01

336

Comparative distribution of a putative egg-laying hormone in neural and reproductive tissues of four Decapoda crustaceans.  

PubMed

Evidence for the presence of a putative egg-laying (ELH) hormone has been previously described in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, so a further investigation was carried out to detect its presence in a range of Decapoda crustaceans prior to a full molecular analysis. The crustaceans were represented by the Australian fresh water yabbie, Cherax destructor, the Australian southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, the snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio, and the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus. Female cerebral ganglia, ventral nerve cords and gonads were investigated in a comparative study of the distribution of the immunoreactive hormone using immunoenzyme and immunofluorescence techniques. Immunoreactivity was detected in all tissues of interest, and the distribution patterns showed similarity within the four species, as well as that of P. monodon reported in the earlier study. There were minor variations. These data indicate that a putative ELH-like neuropeptide is widespread in crustaceans, and supports its previous identification in a range of molluscs and other invertebrates. Elucidation of the molecular structure of the peptide hormone and its encoding gene, as well as its involvement in spawning behaviour of crustaceans, is now fully under investigation. PMID:19184148

Liu, Zhipeng; Donald, John; Hanna, Peter; Nuurai, Parinyaphon; Sobhon, Prasert

2009-03-01

337

Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the comparative strategies of accumulation under standardised laboratory conditions of the essential metals zinc and copper, and the non-essential metal cadmium by three crustaceans of different taxa; vizPalaemon elegans Rathke (Malacostraca: Eucarida: Decapoda),Echinogammarus pirloti (Sexton & Spooner) (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda) and the barnacleElminius modestus Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

P. S. Rainbow; S. L. White

1989-01-01

338

DEVELOPMENT OF A PCR BASED PROTOCOL FOR WSSV SCREENING FOR MAJOR CRUSTACEANS INHABITING IN CULTURED SHRIMP FARM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islam, M. N., Hossain, M. A. and Ahsan, M. N. 2007. Development of a PCR Based Protocol for WSSV Screening for Major Crustaceans Inhabiting in Cultured Shrimp Farm. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 2(4): 9-17 The array of prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in cultured tiger shrimp, Bagda (Penaeus monodon) and non cultured Metapenaeus monoceros & crab, Scylla

M. N. ISLAM; M. A. HOSSAIN; M. N. AHSAN

2007-01-01

339

Communications in Genomics and Proteomics Cloning and characterization of the retinoid X receptor from a primitive crustacean Daphnia magna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terpenoid hormones function as morphogens throughout the animal kingdom and many of these activities are mediated through members of the retinoid X group of nuclear receptors (RXR; NR2B). In the present study, RXR was cloned from the water flea Daphnia magna, a primitive crustacean of the class Branchiopoda, and characterized with respect to phylogeny, developmental expression, and hormonal regulation. The

Ying H. Wang; Guirong Wang; Gerald A. LeBlanc

340

Technical improvements of a rearing system for the culture of decapod crustacean larvae, with emphasis on marine ornamental species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the efficiency of cylindrico-spherical (CST) and cylindrico-conical tanks (CCT) to culture the larvae of decapod crustaceans, with emphasis to marine ornamental species, and describes a new filter system to flush uneaten preys. The ornamental shrimps Lysmata debelius, Lysmata seticaudata and Stenopus hispidus, the ornamental crab Stenorhynchus seticornis and the ornamental hermit crab Clibanarius erythropus were used

Ricardo Calado; Tânia Pimentel; António Vitorino; Gisela Dionísio; Maria Teresa Dinis

2008-01-01

341

Arsenic speciation and spatial and interspecies differences of metal concentrations in mollusks and crustaceans from a South China estuary.  

PubMed

Arsenic speciation and concentrations were determined in mollusks and crustaceans in the intertidal zone from twelve locations in Zhanjiang estuary, South China. Metal concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also concurrently determined in these species. Arsenic speciation analysis showed that the less-toxic arsenobetaine (AsB) constituted 80.6-98.8 % of all As compounds, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) constituted 0.47-3.44 %. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and As(V) were only detected in the whelk Drupa fiscella and the crab Heteropilumnus ciliatus, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)] was not detected in any of the sampled specimens, but there were also unidentified other As species. A strong spatial variation of metals in the oyster Saccostrea cucullata was found in the estuary, confirming that oysters can be used as a good biomonitor of metal contamination in the studied area. The concentrations of eight metals in the studied mollusks and crustaceans clearly revealed that these invertebrates accumulated different metals to different degrees. Furthermore, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb contents in mollusks and crustacean samples were below the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) safe concentrations, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of the metals through marine mollusks and crustaceans consumption. PMID:23475307

Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Li

2013-05-01

342

SPATIO-TEMPORAL FLUCTUATIONS IN THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF DEMERSAL FISH AND EPIBENTHIC CRUSTACEANS IN YAQUINA BAY, OREGON  

EPA Science Inventory

A total of over 32,000 demersal fish and epibenthic crustaceans belonging to 62 species were caught in 42 biweekly trawls from 10 stations in Yaquina Bay, Oregon, during 1967 and 1968. English sole, Parophrys vetulus, was the most abundant species. eventeen species (13 fishes and...

343

JOURNAL OF CRUSTACEAN BIOLOGY, 28(1): 7681, 2008 GENETIC IDENTIFICATION OF THE NORTHEASTERN ATLANTIC SPINY SPIDER  

E-print Network

to clarify the taxonomic status of this crab in the northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean regions genes, 16S and COI, in different crab populations from the northeastern Atlantic and MediterraneanJOURNAL OF CRUSTACEAN BIOLOGY, 28(1): 76­81, 2008 GENETIC IDENTIFICATION OF THE NORTHEASTERN

Posada, David

344

Effects of Removal of Muscle Receptor Organ Input on the Temporal Structure of Non-Giant Swimming Cycles in the Crayfish, Cherax Destructor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of the muscle receptor organs (MROs) of decapod crustaceans have focused on their role in local reflex loops. This may not be their only function. We examine their involvement in the regulation of non-giant swimming cycles by removing stretch receptor (SR) input from the MROs in abdominal segments 2-5 of the crayfish Cherax destructor. SR input was left

Zen Faulkes; David L. Macmillan

2002-01-01

345

Rock Cycle: Cycling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Rocks SciPack. It explores the variables that contribute to rock transformation and the continuous processes of rock formation that constitute the rock cycle. The rock cycle provides an example of the transfer of energy and mass in the Earth system. Earth is a closed system containing essentially a fixed amount of each element. Movement of matter is driven by the Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and is often accompanied by changes in the physical and chemical properties of the matter. Minerals are made, dissolved, and remade--on the Earth's surface, in the oceans, and in the hot, high-pressure layers beneath the crust. The total amount of material stays the same as its forms change. Learning Outcomes:� Recognize the formation and transformation processes as part of a continuing cycle.� Identify that while the form and location of different rocks change over time, the amount of material and the distribution among the elements remains constant.� Explain the different processes or paths that each type of rock may take in the rock cycle.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

346

Life Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students extend their knowledge of matter and energy cycles in organisms to engineering life cycle assessment of products. They learn about product life cycle assessment and the flow of energy through the cycle, comparing it to the flow of nutrients and energy in the life cycles of organisms.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

347

Visualization of ecdysteroid activity using a reporter gene in the crustacean, Daphnia.  

PubMed

Ecdysone is a hormone known to play a pivotal role in crustaceans and insects. In order to evaluate the ecdysone activities in the environment and within the organism, we have developed a biomonitoring Daphnia strain by introducing a reporter gene. In this study, the ecdysone response element was inserted in the upstream region of a reporter gene, and the DNA construct was injected into Daphnia eggs. The expression of the reporter gene was detected during the early embryonic development stage. In addition, when the eggs expressing the reporter gene were exposed to ecdysone, there was enhanced expression of the reporter gene at detectable levels, while the presence of an antagonist led to its downregulation. These results suggested that this system could be potentially developed for monitoring ecdysone activities in media. PMID:24296240

Asada, Miki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

2014-02-01

348

High sequence variability among hemocyte-specific Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Crustacean hemocytes were found to produce a large number of transcripts coding for Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). A detailed study performed with the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the shrimp Penaeus monodon revealed the presence of at least 26 and 20 different Kazal domains from the hemocyte KPIs, respectively. Comparisons with KPIs from other taxa indicate that the sequences of these domains evolve rapidly. A few conserved positions, e.g. six invariant cysteines were present in all domain sequences whereas the position of P1 amino acid, a determinant for substrate specificity, varied highly. A study with a single crayfish animal suggested that even at the individual level considerable sequence variability among hemocyte KPIs produced exist. Expression analysis of four crayfish KPI transcripts in hematopoietic tissue cells and different hemocyte types suggest that some of these KPIs are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis or hemocyte release as they were produced in particular hemocyte types or maturation stages only. PMID:19715720

Cerenius, Lage; Liu, Haipeng; Zhang, Yanjiao; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Gunnar Andersson, M; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

2010-01-01

349

Physiological thermoregulation in a crustacean? Heart rate hysteresis in the freshwater crayfish Cherax destructor.  

PubMed

Differential heart rates during heating and cooling (heart rate hysteresis) are an important thermoregulatory mechanism in ectothermic reptiles. We speculate that heart rate hysteresis has evolved alongside vascularisation, and to determine whether this phenomenon occurs in a lineage with vascularised circulatory systems that is phylogenetically distant from reptiles, we measured the response of heart rate to convective heat transfer in the Australian freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor. Heart rate during convective heating (from 20 to 30 degrees C) was significantly faster than during cooling for any given body temperature. Heart rate declined rapidly immediately following the removal of the heat source, despite only negligible losses in body temperature. This heart rate 'hysteresis' is similar to the pattern reported in many reptiles and, by varying peripheral blood flow, it is presumed to confer thermoregulatory benefits particularly given the thermal sensitivity of many physiological rate functions in crustaceans. PMID:15313496

Goudkamp, Jacqueline E; Seebacher, Frank; Ahern, Mark; Franklin, Craig E

2004-07-01

350

Biochemical analyses of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.  

PubMed

A biochemical analysis was made of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, as present in the CHH-producing perikarya, in the axonal tract and in the sinus gland, respectively. Hyperglycemic material was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE and SDS-PAGE) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in combination with a dotting immunobinding assay (DIA) and a bioassay for hyperglycemic activity. After electrophoretic analyses, the predominant biologically as well as immunologically detectable product present in all parts of the cell has an apparent molecular radius of approximately 7000 Da. In the perikarya extract, a second factor with lower electrophoretic mobility was found, which may represent the prohormone or precursor of CHH. The analyses by means of HPLC showed two predominant immunopositive peaks with an elution time of 28-29 and 52-54 min, respectively. For both HPLC peaks, electrophoretic analyses indicate a molecular weight of 7000 Da. PMID:3514370

Kallen, J L; Reijntjens, F M; Peters, D J; Van Herp, F

1986-02-01

351

Direct and indirect fitness consequences of female choice in a crustacean.  

PubMed

Understanding the evolution and maintenance of female mate choice requires information on both the benefits (the sum of direct and indirect benefits) and costs of selective mating. In this study, I assessed the fitness consequences of female mate choice in a freshwater crustacean. In Hyalella amphipods, males attempt to form precopulatory pairs with females. Large males, bearing large posterior gnathopods, tend to be over-represented in precopulatory pairs. I show that females receive both direct (reduced risk of predation while paired) and indirect (sexy sons) benefits from mating with these males. Furthermore, the behavioral mechanisms used to filter male phenotypes carry no detectable energetic cost for females. Thus, females that choose males with successful phenotypes are expected to have higher Darwinian fitness than females that mate at random. This study shows that direct and indirect selection act together to favor large male size, which explains the sexual size dimorphism and size-based mating biases observed in this species. PMID:18410531

Cothran, Rickey D

2008-07-01

352

Trehalose and vitreous states: desiccation tolerance of dormant stages of the crustaceans Triops and Daphnia.  

PubMed

Several aquatic organisms are able to withstand extreme desiccation in at least one of their life stages. This is commonly known as "anhydrobiosis." It was often thought that to tolerate such a desiccated state required high amounts of compatible solutes such as the nonreducing disaccharide trehalose, which protects cellular structures by water replacement and glass formation. Trehalose levels of dormant eggs and cysts of five freshwater crustaceans (Daphnia magna, Daphnia pulex, Triops longicaudatus, Triops cancriformis, and Triops australiensis) were observed in different states of hydration and dehydration. Although trehalose was detected in all species, the concentration was under 0.5% of the dry weight (0.05 ?g/?g protein), and no change between the different states was observed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements indicated that dried cysts of all Triops species were in a glassy state, supporting the vitrification hypothesis. No indication for a vitreous state was found in dried resting eggs of Daphnia. PMID:21460525

Hengherr, S; Heyer, A G; Brümmer, F; Schill, R O

2011-01-01

353

Transforming nanostructured chitin from crustacean waste into beneficial health products: a must for our society  

PubMed Central

Chitin, obtained principally from crustacean waste, is a sugar-like polymer that is available at low cost. It has been shown to be bio- and ecocompatible, and has a very low level of toxicity. Recently, it has become possible to industrially produce pure chitin crystals, named “chitin nanofibrils” (CN) for their needle-like shape and nanostructured average size (240 × 5 × 7 nm). Due to their specific chemical and physical characteristics, CN may have a range of industrial applications, from its use in biomedical products and biomimetic cosmetics, to biotextiles and health foods. At present, world offshore disposal of this natural waste material is around 250 billion tons per year. It is an underutilized resource and has the potential to supply a wide range of useful products if suitably recycled, thus contributing to sustainable growth and a greener economy. PMID:24198491

Morganti, P; Morganti, G; Morganti, A

2011-01-01

354

Astakine 2--the dark knight linking melatonin to circadian regulation in crustaceans.  

PubMed

Daily, circadian rhythms influence essentially all living organisms and affect many physiological processes from sleep and nutrition to immunity. This ability to respond to environmental daily rhythms has been conserved along evolution, and it is found among species from bacteria to mammals. The hematopoietic process of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is under circadian control and is tightly regulated by astakines, a new family of cytokines sharing a prokineticin (PROK) domain. The expression of AST1 and AST2 are light-dependent, and this suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for PROK domain proteins in mediating circadian rhythms. Vertebrate PROKs are transmitters of circadian rhythms of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain of mammals, but the mechanism by which they function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that high AST2 expression is induced by melatonin in the brain. We identify RACK1 as a binding protein of AST2 and further provide evidence that a complex between AST2 and RACK1 functions as a negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. By DNA mobility shift assay, we showed that the AST2-RACK1 complex will interfere with the binding between BMAL1 and CLK and inhibit the E-box binding activity of the complex BMAL1-CLK. Finally, we demonstrate by gene knockdown that AST2 is necessary for melatonin-induced inhibition of the complex formation between BMAL1 and CLK during the dark period. In summary, we provide evidence that melatonin regulates AST2 expression and thereby affects the core clock of the crustacean brain. This process may be very important in all animals that have AST2 molecules, i.e. spiders, ticks, crustaceans, scorpions, several insect groups such as Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Blattodea, but not Diptera and Coleoptera. Our findings further reveal an ancient evolutionary role for the prokineticin superfamily protein that links melatonin to direct regulation of the core clock gene feedback loops. PMID:23555281

Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Saelee, Netnapa; Phongdara, Amornrat; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

2013-03-01

355

Allatostatin modulates skeletal muscle performance in crustaceans through pre- and postsynaptic effects.  

PubMed

Allatostatins, originally identified in insects as peptide inhibitors of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, are regarded as potent inhibitory regulators of intestinal muscles in insects and crustaceans. However, accumulating data indicate that allatostatins might also be involved in modulation of skeletal neuromuscular events. We show that most ganglia of two isopod crustaceans (Idotea baltica and I. emarginata) contain pairs of large, allatostatin-immunoreactive motor neurons which supply several segmental muscles. Among them are the dorsal extensor muscles, of which some fibres receive immunoreactive, varicose innervation. We demonstrate, on identified muscle fibres, that allatostatin exerts a twofold inhibitory effect: it reduces contractions of single voltage-clamped fibres, and it decreases the amplitude of evoked excitatory junctional currents recorded from individual release boutons. No change in excitation-contraction threshold or in passive membrane parameters was observed. As the amplitude of miniature currents generated by spontaneously released single transmitter quanta was not changed, the inhibitory effect of the peptide on junctional currents must be of presynaptic origin. Supportive results were obtained on leg muscles of the crab Eriphia spinifrons, where allatostatin decreased evoked synaptic currents by reducing the mean number of transmitter quanta released by presynaptic depolarization without affecting the amplitudes of currents generated by single quanta. This effect of allatostatin was similar for two functionally different neurons, the slow and the fast closer excitor. The data show that allatostatin occurs in identified motor neurons of Idotea and exerts complementary pre- and postsynaptic modulatory effects which reduce muscle responses. Thus, allatostatin counteracts the effects of another neuropeptide, proctolin, which is also present in Idotea and causes potentiating effects on the same muscle fibres. PMID:10383641

Kreissl, S; Weiss, T; Djokaj, S; Balezina, O; Rathmayer, W

1999-07-01

356

An epipodite-bearing crown-group crustacean from the Lower Cambrian.  

PubMed

Crown-group crustaceans (Eucrustacea) are common in the fossil record of the past 500 million years back to the early Ordovician period, and very rare representatives are also known from the late Middle and Late Cambrian periods. Finds in Lower Cambrian rocks of the Phosphatocopina, the fossil sister group to eucrustaceans, imply that members of the eucrustacean stem lineage co-occurred, but it remained unclear whether crown-group members were also present at that time. 'Orsten'-type fossils are typically tiny embryos and cuticle-bearing animals, of which the cuticle is phosphatized and the material is three-dimensional and complete with soft parts. Such fossils are found predominantly in the Cambrian and Ordovician and provide detailed morphological and phylogenetic information on the early evolution of metazoans. Here we report an Orsten-type Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Lower Cambrian of China that contains at least three new arthropod species, of which we describe the most abundant form on the basis of exceptionally well preserved material of several growth stages. The limb morphology and other details of this new species are markedly similar to those of living cephalocarids, branchiopods and copepods and it is assigned to the Eucrustacea, thus representing the first undoubted crown-group crustacean from the early Cambrian. Its stratigraphical position provides substantial support to the proposition that the main cladogenic event that gave rise to the Arthropoda was before the Cambrian. Small leaf-shaped structures on the outer limb base of the new species provide evidence on the long-debated issue of the origin of epipodites: they occur in a set of three, derive from setae and are a ground-pattern feature of Eucrustacea. PMID:17914395

Zhang, Xi-guang; Siveter, David J; Waloszek, Dieter; Maas, Andreas

2007-10-01

357

Synaptic neuropil in nerves of the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system: an immunocytochemical and electron microscopical study.  

PubMed

Patches of peptide-immunoreactive varicosities have been found in nerves of the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of decapod crustaceans. In the present study, these patches were examined in detail in the stomatogastric nerve (stn) and in the superior oesophageal nerve (son) of the crayfish Cherax destructor by using whole-mount immunocytochemical techniques combined with confocal microscopy and, in addition, electron microscopy. Double-labeling experiments with antibodies generated against the peptides allatostatin, FMRFamide and proctolin, combined with an antibody generated against the small vesicle protein synapsin, suggest that each patch contains small synaptic vesicles in addition to all three peptides. The neuropil regions of the ganglia of the STNS were also strongly stained by the synapsin antibody. Synapsin-like immunoreactivity was also studied in the crab Cancer pagurus and the lobster Homarus americanus. A similar pattern of staining was found for all three species, but the distribution within the stn varied. In H. americanus, a lightly stained weblike structure was found on the surface of nerves including the inferior oesophageal nerve, the son, and the anterior stn. By using electron microscopy, synapses were found in the core of the stn-son junction of C. destructor, in the same region where the synapsin-like and the peptide staining was localized. In addition, putative neurohemal release sites were found in the peripheral sheath of the stn. The presynaptic profiles found in the core of the stn seem to correspond to the types of presynaptic profiles found in the neuropil of the stomatogastric ganglion. These findings demonstrate that synaptic neuropil is present in the nerves of the STNS of a decapod crustacean. PMID:10754509

Skiebe, P; Ganeshina, O

2000-05-01

358

Misidentification of OLGA-PH-J/92, believed to be the only crustacean cell line.  

PubMed

Continuous cell lines from aquatic invertebrate species are few and the development of crustacean cell lines remains an elusive goal. Although a crayfish cell line derived from neural ganglia of Orconectes limosus was reported in 2000, this cell line OLGA-PH-J/92 failed to be authenticated as such. In this report, we describe our attempts to identify the taxonomic identity of the cell line through immunological and molecular techniques. Immunohistochemical screening for the expression of a suite of invertebrate neuropeptides gave negative results, precluding an invertebrate neural origin. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxydase I, and 18S ribosomal RNA genes that had been widely used to confirm species identity, could not confirm the OLGA-PH-J/92 cells as originating from crayfish. Subsequent attempts to identify the cells provided moderate homology (82%) to Gephyramoeba sp. (AF293897) following PCR amplification of an 18S rDNA fragment after a BLAST search. A literature search provided morphological evidence of the similarity of OLGA-PH-J/92 to the Gephyramoeba distributed by the American Type Culture Collection as ATCC 50654, which also had been misidentified and was renamed Acramoeba dendroida (Smirnov et al., Eur J Protistol 44:35-44, 2008). The morphology of the OLGA-PH-J/92 cells which remains identical to the original report (Neumann et al., In Vivo 14:691-698, 2000) and matched corresponding micrographs that were available from the ATCC before the cell line was dropped from their catalog (ATCC CRL 1494) is very similar to A. dendroida and could thus belong to the Acramoebidae. These results unequivocally indicate that the OLGA-PH-J/92 cell line is not derived from the crayfish O. limosus, and the search for an immortal crustacean cell line continues. PMID:21938590

Lee, Lucy E J; Bufalino, Mary Rose; Christie, Andrew E; Frischer, Marc E; Soin, Thomas; Tsui, Clement K M; Hanner, Robert H; Smagghe, Guy

2011-10-01

359

Long-term Lethal Toxicity Test with the Crustacean Artemia franciscana  

PubMed Central

Our research activities target the use of biological methods for the evaluation of environmental quality, with particular reference to saltwater/brackish water and sediment. The choice of biological indicators must be based on reliable scientific knowledge and, possibly, on the availability of standardized procedures. In this article, we present a standardized protocol that used the marine crustacean Artemia to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals and/or of marine environmental matrices. Scientists propose that the brine shrimp (Artemia) is a suitable candidate for the development of a standard bioassay for worldwide utilization. A number of papers have been published on the toxic effects of various chemicals and toxicants on brine shrimp (Artemia). The major advantage of this crustacean for toxicity studies is the overall availability of the dry cysts; these can be immediately used in testing and difficult cultivation is not demanded1,2. Cyst-based toxicity assays are cheap, continuously available, simple and reliable and are thus an important answer to routine needs of toxicity screening, for industrial monitoring requirements or for regulatory purposes3. The proposed method involves the mortality as an endpoint. The numbers of survivors were counted and percentage of deaths were calculated. Larvae were considered dead if they did not exhibit any internal or external movement during several seconds of observation4. This procedure was standardized testing a reference substance (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate); some results are reported in this work. This article accompanies a video that describes the performance of procedural toxicity testing, showing all the steps related to the protocol. PMID:22525984

Manfra, Loredana; Savorelli, Federica; Pisapia, Marco; Magaletti, Erika; Cicero, Anna Maria

2012-01-01

360

Ciliate Epibionts Associated with Crustacean Zooplankton in German Lakes: Distribution, Motility, and Bacterivory  

PubMed Central

Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and re-attachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from 1 to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5?min, and 98% detached within 30?min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60?min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120?min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate?1?h?1 and 24.33??l ciliate?1?h?1, respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations. PMID:22783247

Bickel, Samantha L.; Tang, Kam W.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

2012-01-01

361

Putative Pacemakers in the Eyestalk and Brain of the Crayfish Procambarus clarkii Show Circadian Oscillations in Levels of mRNA for Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone  

PubMed Central

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress. PMID:24391849

Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; Loredo-Ranjel, Rosaura; Fanjul-Moles, Maria Luisa

2013-01-01

362

Putative pacemakers in the eyestalk and brain of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii show circadian oscillations in levels of mRNA for crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.  

PubMed

Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress. PMID:24391849

Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; Loredo-Ranjel, Rosaura; Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa

2013-01-01

363

Subsurface crustacean communities as proxy for groundwater-surface water interactions in the Henares and Tajuña Rivers floodplains, central Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, the linkage between surface water - groundwater via the hyporheic zone and the alluvial floodplains become more and more acknowledged. Hydrological exchanges between the stream and hyporheic zone ensure the transport of matter and energy and provide support for biogeochemical processes occurring in-stream bed sediments. Furthermore, the hyporheic zone is directly linked to permeable alluvial aquifers of which exchanges in both directions ensure the withstanding of a mixt biotic community's that may originate either from the surface benthic habitats or from the shallow aquifer. Data on the subsurface crustacean assemblages are used to infer the surface-groundwater interaction in two-groundwater fed-streams in central Spain. The survey was conducted on 20 hyporheic sites (20-40 cm depth) and 28 shallow or deep boreholes. Multivariate statistics were applied to test for differences in crustacean communities resulting from changes in water chemistry between the upstream and downstream parts of the alluvial aquifer, and between the hyporheic zone and the alluvial aquifer. Our aims were to: 1) test whether groundwater discharges in-stream bed sediments are reflected in changes in the crustacean assemblage's structure; and 2) establish whether the surface water influence decreases with increasing groundwater depth and distance from the river. We further aimed to test whether the diversity-stability ecotonal paradigm associated with the distinct level of disturbances and stability at the interface surface-groundwater and the aquifer is reflected in groundwater crustacean community structure. We start from the assumption that groundwater ecosystems undergo significant changes in space and time, and that classical groundwater stability hypothesis ought to be changed to concepts operative for surface ecosystems: disturbance and resilience. The streams are characterised by distinct gradients of surface-groundwater exchanges at spatial scale, with major interactions at the rivers headwaters compare to the lower part of the alluvial aquifer. The origin of the water in-stream bed sediments is indicated by water chemistry, whereas crustacean communities indicate surface-groundwater exchanges by modifications of the community's structure i.e., upwelling groundwater is indicated by large stygobites populations (obligate groundwater species), whereas downwelling surface waters is usually linked to mixed stygophiles and stygoxene populations. The downwelled surface water flow pattern has detectable influence on increasing nutrient content in shallow hyporheic waters and consequently, crustacean assemblages show distinctly high density and diversity. The crustacean diversity slightly declines with increasing depth, whereas no relationship with the population density was detected. The results obtained highlight the recognition of crustacean communities as alternative proxy to investigate surface water-groundwater exchanges. We concluded that the hydrological connections between surface water and groundwater had a major influence in shaping the crustacean communities structure by controlling the diversity, density and ecological configuration of these populations. In the perspective of increasing alteration of surface-groundwater exchanges due to human actions, both small and large scale monitoring surveys are critical for placing groundwater changes in quality and quantity into a wider context, in order to enhance the assessment of subsurface ecosystems sensitivity to anthropogenic forcing and consequently reduce the negative impact.

Rasines Ladero, Ruben; Iepure, Sanda; Careño, Francisco; de Bustamante, Irene

2013-04-01

364

Effects of Mg2+ on Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle fibres from yabby (crustacean) and rat  

PubMed Central

The role of myoplasmic [Mg2+] on Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was examined in the two major types of crustacean muscle fibres, the tonic, long sarcomere fibres and the phasic, short sarcomere fibres of the fresh water decapod crustacean Cherax destructor (yabby) and in the fast-twitch rat muscle fibres using the mechanically skinned muscle fibre preparation.A robust Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release (CICR) mechanism was present in both long and short sarcomere fibres and 1 mm Mg2+ exerted a strong inhibitory action on the SR Ca2+ release in both fibre types.The SR displayed different properties with respect to Ca2+ loading in the long and the short sarcomere fibres and marked functional differences were identified with respect to Mg2+ inhibition between the two crustacean fibre types. Thus, in long sarcomere fibres, the submaximally loaded SR was able to release Ca2+ when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mm in the presence of 8 mm ATPtotal and in the virtual absence of Ca2+ (< 5 nM) even when the CICR was suppressed. In contrast, negligible Ca2+ was released from the submaximally loaded SR of short sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mm under the same conditions as for the long sarcomere fibres. Nevertheless, the rate of SR Ca2+ release in short sarcomere fibres increased markedly when [Mg2+] was lowered in the presence of [Ca2+] approaching the normal resting levels (50-100 nM).Rat fibres were able to release SR Ca2+ at a faster rate than the long sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mm in the virtual absence of Ca2+ but, unlike with yabby fibres, the net rate of Ca2+ release was actually increased for conditions that were considerably less favourable to CICR.In summary, it is concluded that crustacean skeletal muscles have more that one functional type of Ca2+-release channels, that these channels display properties that are intermediate between those of mammalian skeletal and cardiac isoforms, that the inhibition exerted by Mg2+ at rest on the crustacean SR Ca2+-release channels must be removed during excitation-contraction coupling and that, unlike in crustacean fibres, CICR cannot play the major role in the activation of SR Ca2+-release channels in the rat skeletal muscle. PMID:10896719

Launikonis, Bradley S; Stephenson, D George

2000-01-01

365

Effects of Mg2+ on Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle fibres from yabby (crustacean) and rat.  

PubMed

1. The role of myoplasmic [Mg2+] on Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was examined in the two major types of crustacean muscle fibres, the tonic, long sarcomere fibres and the phasic, short sarcomere fibres of the fresh water decapod crustacean Cherax destructor (yabby) and in the fast-twitch rat muscle fibres using the mechanically skinned muscle fibre preparation. 2. A robust Ca2+-induced Ca2+-release (CICR) mechanism was present in both long and short sarcomere fibres and 1 mM Mg2+ exerted a strong inhibitory action on the SR Ca2+ release in both fibre types. 3. The SR displayed different properties with respect to Ca2+ loading in the long and the short sarcomere fibres and marked functional differences were identified with respect to Mg2+ inhibition between the two crustacean fibre types. Thus, in long sarcomere fibres, the submaximally loaded SR was able to release Ca2+ when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mM in the presence of 8 mM ATPtotal and in the virtual absence of Ca2+ (< 5 nM) even when the CICR was suppressed. In contrast, negligible Ca2+ was released from the submaximally loaded SR of short sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0.01 mM under the same conditions as for the long sarcomere fibres. Nevertheless, the rate of SR Ca2+ release in short sarcomere fibres increased markedly when [Mg2+] was lowered in the presence of [Ca2+] approaching the normal resting levels (50-100 nM). 4. Rat fibres were able to release SR Ca2+ at a faster rate than the long sarcomere yabby fibres when [Mg2+] was lowered from 1 to 0. 01 mM in the virtual absence of Ca2+ but, unlike with yabby fibres, the net rate of Ca2+ release was actually increased for conditions that were considerably less favourable to CICR. 5. In summary, it is concluded that crustacean skeletal muscles have more that one functional type of Ca2+-release channels, that these channels display properties that are intermediate between those of mammalian skeletal and cardiac isoforms, that the inhibition exerted by Mg2+ at rest on the crustacean SR Ca2+-release channels must be removed during excitation-contraction coupling and that, unlike in crustacean fibres, CICR cannot play the major role in the activation of SR Ca2+-release channels in the rat skeletal muscle. PMID:10896719

Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

2000-07-15

366

Impact of heat processing on the detection of the major shellfish allergen tropomyosin in crustaceans and molluscs using specific monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

The major heat-stable shellfish allergen, tropomyosin, demonstrates immunological cross-reactivity, making specific differentiation of crustaceans and molluscs for food labelling very difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies in differential detection of shellfish-derived tropomyosin in 11 crustacean and 7 mollusc species, and to study the impact of heating on its detection. Cross-reactive tropomyosin was detected in all crustacean species, with partial detection in molluscs: mussels, scallops and snails but none in oyster, octopus and squid. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that heating of shellfish has a profound effect on tropomyosin detection. This was evident by the enhanced recognition of multiple tropomyosin variants in the analysed shellfish species. Specific monoclonal antibodies, targetting the N-terminal region of tropomyosin, must therefore be developed to differentiate tropomyosins in crustaceans and molluscs. This can help in correct food labelling practices and thus protection of consumers. PMID:23993581

Kamath, Sandip D; Abdel Rahman, Anas M; Komoda, Toshikazu; Lopata, Andreas L

2013-12-15

367

Carbon Cycles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of energy cycles by learning about the carbon cycle. They learn how carbon atoms travel through the geological (ancient) carbon cycle and the biological/physical carbon cycle. They consider how human activities disturb the carbon cycle by emitting carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. They discuss how engineers and scientists are working to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Lastly, students consider how they can help the world through simple energy conservation measures.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

368

Experimental study of trophic cascade effect of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrixon ) in a subtropical lake, Lake Donghu: on plankton community and underlying mechanisms of changes of crustacean community  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enclosure experiment was carried out to test trophic cascade effect of filter-feeding fish on the ecosystem: growth of crustacean zooplankton, and possible mechanism of changes of crustacean community structure. Four fish biomass levels were set as follows: 0, 116, 176 and 316 g m-2, and lake water (containing ca. 190 g m-2 of filter-feeding fishes) was comparatively monitored. Nutrient

Min Lu; Ping Xie; Huijuan Tang; Zhaojun Shao; Liqiang Xie

2002-01-01

369

Serotonin immunoreactivity in the ventral nerve cord of the primitive crustacean Anaspides tasmaniae closely resembles that of crayfish  

PubMed

Syncarid crustaceans, of which only a few living species remain, have articulated segments with well-developed appendages along the length of the body, an arrangement thought to resemble that of the earliest malacostracan crustaceans. Decapod malacostracans have fused thoracic segments and reduced abdominal appendages. Modern representatives of the two groups are separated by at least 300 million years of evolutionary history. The serotonin immunoreactivity of ganglia and connectives from the ventral nerve cord of the syncarid Anaspides tasmaniae was compared with that of serially homologous ganglia of the crayfish Cherax destructor. Both species show the serotonin-immunoreactive longitudinal fibre bundles described from other decapods and thought to be part of a neuromodulatory network. They also have in common a number of the cell bodies associated with this system. Each species has some serotonergic cells in the region examined that are not present, or that do not stain, in the other species. PMID:9318221

Harrison; Macmillan; Young

1995-01-01

370

Isolation, cloning and expression of the Crustacean Cardioactive Peptide gene in the Chagas' disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus.  

PubMed

The blood-gorging bug, Rhodnius prolixus, is a major vector of Chagas' disease in Central and South America. We have cloned and characterized the crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) gene in R. prolixus. The RhoprCCAP gene contains five exons and four introns, and encodes a 129 amino acid prepropeptide, which following post-translation processing, produces CCAP. The predicted RhoprCCAP amino acid sequence is identical to CCAP of crustaceans and other insects, i.e. it is highly conserved. RhoprCCAP mRNA is observed in the central nervous system (CNS) using reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR, but not in the gut and salivary glands. In situ hybridization reveals that the expression of CCAP mRNA is localized to a small number of dorsally situated bilaterally paired neurons within the CNS. PMID:20624439

Lee, D H; Paluzzi, J P; Orchard, I; Lange, A B

2011-03-01

371

Distribution of centrifugal neurons targeting the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain among decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

To determine the distribution of two systems of centrifugal neurons innervating the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain across decapod crustaceans, brains of the following nine species comprising most infraorders were immunostained with antibodies against dopamine and the neuropeptides substance P and FMRFamide: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Homarus americanus, Cherax destructor, Orconectes limosus, Procambarus clarkii, Astacus leptodactylus, Carcinus maenas, Eriocheir sinensis and Pagurus bernhardus. One system consisting of several neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity that originate in the eyestalk ganglia was present in the four crayfish but not in any other species. These neurons project mainly into the lateral soma clusters (cluster 10) comprising the somata of ascending olfactory projection neurons and innervate very sparsely the medial soma clusters (clusters 9 and 11) containing the somata of local interneurons. In the innervation pattern of the lateral cluster, the dopamine-immunoreactive neurons showed large species-specific differences. The other system comprises a pair of giant neurons with substance P-like immunoreactivity. These neurons have somata in the median protocerebrum of the central brain and major projections into the lateral clusters and the core of the olfactory lobes, the neuropils that are the first synaptic relay in the central olfactory pathway of decapods; minor arborizations are present in the medial clusters. The system of substance P-immunoreactive giant neurons was present and of great morphological similarity in all studied species. Only in one species, the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii, evidence for co-localization of FMRFamide-like with substance P-like immunoreactivity in these neurons was obtained. These and previously collected data indicate that the centrifugal neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity may be associated with the presence of an accessory lobe, a second-order neuropil that receives input from the olfactory lobe and only occurs in spiny lobsters, clawed lobsters and crayfish. The pair of centrifugal giant neurons with substance P-like immunoreactivity, on the other hand, appears to be a constitutive component of the decapod crustacean brain that most likely is functionally associated with the olfactory lobe. Both systems apparently exert modulatory functions on olfactory information processing by preferentially targeting the somata of the projection neurons. Thus, in the olfactory projection neurons, the somata seem to be more directly involved in information processing than in most other neurons of the arthropod CNS. PMID:9106436

Schmidt, M

1997-03-28

372

Role of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the environmental stressor-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.  

PubMed

To identify and characterize CHH (TJ-CHH) gene in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and promoter region. The full-length TJ-CHH cDNA was 716 bp in length, encoding 136 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of TJ-CHH showed a high similarity of the CHH mature domain to other crustaceans. Six conserved cysteine residues and five conserved structural motifs in the CHH mature peptide domain were also observed. The genomic structure of the TJ-CHH gene contained three exons and two introns in its open reading frame (ORF), and several transcriptional elements were detected in the promoter region of the TJ-CHH gene. To investigate transcriptional change of TJ-CHH under environmental stress, T. japonicus were exposed to heat treatment, UV-B radiation, heavy metals, and water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian crude oil. Upon heat stress, TJ-CHH transcripts were elevated at 30 °C and 35 °C for 96 h in a time-course experiment. UV-B radiation led to a decreased pattern of the TJ-CHH transcript 48 h and more after radiation (12 kJ/m(2)). After exposure of a fixed dose (12 kJ/m(2)) in a time-course experiment, TJ-CHH transcript was down-regulated in time-dependent manner with a lowest value at 12h. However, the TJ-CHH transcript level was increased in response to five heavy metal exposures for 96 h. Also, the level of the TJ-CHH transcript was significantly up-regulated at 20% of WAFs after exposure to WAFs for 48 h and then remarkably reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the enhanced TJ-CHH transcript level is associated with a cellular stress response of the TJ-CHH gene as shown in decapod crustaceans. This study is also helpful for a better understanding of the detrimental effects of environmental changes on the CHH-triggered copepod metabolism. PMID:23797038

Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Il-Chan; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

2013-09-01

373

Carbon Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive animation focuses on the carbon cycle and includes embedded videos and captioned images to provide greater clarification and detail of the cycle than would be available by a single static visual alone.

Sciencelearn; Waikato, University O.

374

Rock Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash animation about the rock cycle is suitable for a review or overview in an introductory level Physical Geology class. It includes animations, photos, and descriptions involving rock types and processes in the rock cycle.

Smoothstone; Company, Houghton M.

375

Invading predatory crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus eliminates both native and exotic species.  

PubMed Central

As the tempo of biological invasions increases, explanations and predictions of their impacts become more crucial. Particularly with regard to biodiversity, we require elucidation of interspecific behavioural interactions among invaders and natives. In freshwaters in The Netherlands, we show that the invasive Ponto-Caspian crustacean amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus is rapidly eliminating Gammarus duebeni, a native European amphipod, and Gammarus tigrinus, until now a spectacularly successful invader from North America. In the laboratory, survival of single (unguarded) female G. duebeni was significantly lower when male D. villosus were free to roam as compared with isolated within microcosms. In addition, survival of paired (guarded) female G. duebeni was significantly lower when male D. villosus as compared with male G. duebeni were present. D. villosus killed and consumed both recently moulted and, unusually, intermoult victims. Survival of G. tigrinus was significantly lower when D. villosus were free to roam as compared with isolated within microcosms and, again, both moulted and intermoult victims were preyed upon. Male D. villosus were significantly more predatory than were females, while female G. tigrinus were significantly more often preyed upon than were males. Predation by D. villosus on both species occurred over a range of water conductivities, an environmental feature previously shown to promote amphipod coexistence. This predatory invader is predicted to reduce further the amphipod diversity in a range of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. PMID:10874746

Dick, J T; Platvoet, D

2000-01-01

376

Disentangling the effects of local and regional factors on the thermal tolerance of freshwater crustaceans.  

PubMed

In the global warming context, we compared the thermal tolerance of several populations of the crustacean Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) along a latitudinal thermal gradient in the Rhône Valley. To disentangle the effect of regional (North vs. South) and local (site-specific) factors, the ecophysiological responses of populations were investigated at two levels of biological organisation: whole organism level considering body size [critical thermal maximum (CTmax), mean speed of locomotion (MS), time mobile (TM)] and organelle function level [mitochondrial respiratory control ratios (RCRs)]. CTmax and RCRs, but not MS and TM, revealed a significantly higher thermal tolerance in southern populations compared to northern ones. Nevertheless, temperatures???30°C were deleterious for all populations, suggesting that populations located in the warmer limit of the species distribution will be more threatened by climate change as they live closer to their upper thermal limits. The strong differences observed between populations indicate that the species-level thermal tolerance used in predictive models may not be informative enough to study the impact of global warming on species distributions. This work also reveals that an appropriate choice of indicators is essential to study the consequences of global warming since the response of organisms at the whole body level can be influenced by local conditions. PMID:22349555

Cottin, Delphine; Roussel, Damien; Foucreau, Natacha; Hervant, Frédéric; Piscart, Christophe

2012-04-01

377

Disentangling the effects of local and regional factors on the thermal tolerance of freshwater crustaceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the global warming context, we compared the thermal tolerance of several populations of the crustacean Gammarus pulex (Amphipoda: Gammaridae) along a latitudinal thermal gradient in the Rhône Valley. To disentangle the effect of regional (North vs. South) and local (site-specific) factors, the ecophysiological responses of populations were investigated at two levels of biological organisation: whole organism level considering body size [critical thermal maximum (CTmax), mean speed of locomotion (MS), time mobile (TM)] and organelle function level [mitochondrial respiratory control ratios (RCRs)]. CTmax and RCRs, but not MS and TM, revealed a significantly higher thermal tolerance in southern populations compared to northern ones. Nevertheless, temperatures ? 30°C were deleterious for all populations, suggesting that populations located in the warmer limit of the species distribution will be more threatened by climate change as they live closer to their upper thermal limits. The strong differences observed between populations indicate that the species-level thermal tolerance used in predictive models may not be informative enough to study the impact of global warming on species distributions. This work also reveals that an appropriate choice of indicators is essential to study the consequences of global warming since the response of organisms at the whole body level can be influenced by local conditions.

Cottin, Delphine; Roussel, Damien; Foucreau, Natacha; Hervant, Frédéric; Piscart, Christophe

2012-04-01

378

A Successful Crayfish Invader Is Capable of Facultative Parthenogenesis: A Novel Reproductive Mode in Decapod Crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions are impacting biota worldwide, and explaining why some taxa tend to become invasive is of major scientific interest. North American crayfish species, particularly of the family Cambaridae, are prominent invaders in freshwaters, defying the “tens rule” which states that only a minority of species introduced to new regions become established, and only a minority of those become invasive and pests. So far, success of cambarid invaders has largely been attributed to rapid maturation, high reproductive output, aggressiveness, and tolerance to pollution. We provide experimental evidence that females of one cambarid species particularly widespread in Europe, the spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, are capable of facultative parthenogenesis. Such reproductive mode has never before been recognized in decapods, the most diverse crustacean order. As shown by analysis of seven microsatellite loci, crayfish females kept physically separated from males produced genetically homogeneous offspring identical with maternal individuals; this suggests they reproduced by apomixis, unlike those females which mated with males and had a diverse offspring. Further research is needed to clarify what environmental conditions are necessary for a switch to parthenogenesis in O. limosus, and what role it plays in natural crayfish populations. However, if such reproductive plasticity is present in other cambarid crayfish species, it may contribute to the overwhelming invasive success of this group. PMID:21655282

Buric, Milos; Hulak, Martin; Kouba, Antonin

2011-01-01

379

The Crustacean Central Nervous System in Focus: Subacute Neurodegeneration Induces a Specific Innate Immune Response  

PubMed Central

To date nothing is known about the subacute phase of neurodegeneration following injury in invertebrates. Among few clues available are the results published by our group reporting hemocytes and activated glial cells at chronic and acute phases of the lesion. In vertebrates, glial activation and recruitment of immunological cells are crucial events during neurodegeneration. Here, we aimed to study the subacute stage of neurodegeneration in the crab Ucides cordatus, investigating the cellular/molecular strategy employed 48 hours following ablation of the protocerebral tract (PCT). We also explored the expression of nitric oxide (NO) and histamine in the PCT during this phase of neurodegeneration. Three immune cellular features which seem to characterize the subacute phase of neurodegeneration were revealed by: 1) the recruitment of granulocytes and secondarily of hyalinocytes to the lesion site (inducible NO synthase- and histamine-positive cells); 2) the attraction of a larger number of cells than observed in the acute phase; 3) the presence of activated glial cells as shown by the round shaped nuclei and increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. We suggest that molecules released from granulocytes in the acute phase attract the hyalinocytes thus moving the degeneration process to the subacute phase. The importance of our study resides in the characterization of cellular and biochemical strategies peculiar to the subacute stage of the neurodegeneration in invertebrates. Such events are worth studying in crustaceans because in invertebrates this issue may be addressed with less interference from complex strategies resulting from the acquired immune system. PMID:24278343

Chaves da Silva, Paula Grazielle; Correa, Clynton Lourenco; de Carvalho, Sergio Luiz; Allodi, Silvana

2013-01-01

380

Distribution of presumptive chemosensory afferents with FMRFamide- or substance P-like immunoreactivity in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

In five species of decapod crustaceans--Cherax destructor (crayfish), Carcinus maenas (crab), Homarus americanus (clawed lobster), Eriocheir sinensis (crab), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (shrimp)--immunocytochemical stainings revealed the presence of sensory afferents with FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system. These afferents were extremely thin, very numerous, and innervated all sensory neuropils except the optic and olfactory lobes. In their target neuropils they gave rise to condensed net- or ball-like terminal structures. Only in Homarus americanus but not in any other studied species immunocytochemistry revealed a separate, non-overlapping class of sensory afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity. Also the afferents with substance P-like immunoreactivity were very thin and numerous, innervated all sensory neuropils except optic and olfactory lobes, and gave rise to condensed terminal structures. From their morphological characteristics it can be concluded that likely both classes of afferents are chemosensory. The substance P-like immunoreactivity suggests a link with the nociceptor afferents of vertebrates, with which both classes of afferents share several other morphological features. PMID:9037486

Schmidt, M

1997-01-23

381

Posttranslational isomerization of a neuropeptide in crustacean neurosecretory cells studied by ultrastructural immunocytochemistry.  

PubMed

Isomerization of the third amino acid residue (a phenylalanine) of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) has been previously reported to occur as a late step of hormone precursor maturation in a few neurosecretory cells in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the crayfish Orconectes limosus. In the present report, using conformation-specific antisera combined with immunogold labeling, we have studied, at the ultrastructural level, the distribution of L- and D-CHH immunoreactivity in CHH-secreting cells of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus. Two CHH-secreting cell populations were observed, the first one (L-cells), the most numerous, exhibited only labeling for L-CHH. In the second one (D-cells), four secretory granule populations were distinguished according to their labeling: unlabeled, either L- or D- exclusively or both L- and D-granules. Labeling quantification by image analysis in D-cells showed a marked increase in D-labeling from the cell body to the axon terminal. However some L- and mixed granules remain in axon terminals. Our results demonstrate that Phe3 isomerization of CHH occurs within the secretory granules of specialized neurosecretory cells and progresses as the granules migrate along the axonal tract. The observation that not all the CHH synthesized is isomerized, and the great variability in the proportion of L- and D-immunoreactivity in granules in every cell region may suggest an heterogeneous distribution of the putative enzyme involved in Phe3 isomerization, a peptide isomerase, within the secretory pathway. PMID:14533741

Gallois, Dominique; Brisorgueil, Marie-Jeanne; Conrath, Marie; Mailly, Philippe; Soyez, Daniel

2003-08-01

382

Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.  

PubMed

The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species. PMID:22650431

Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

2012-06-01

383

The quick extraction of chitin from an epizoic crustacean species (Chelonibia patula).  

PubMed

Chitin was isolated from the shells of Chelonibia patula (barnacle, Crustacea), which lives on blue crab epizoically, following a 10-min demineralisation process through HCl and a 20-min deproteinisation process through NaOH. Due to the low-crystalline structure, and mineral-rich and low-protein content of the shells, chitin isolation was convenient. It was observed that the shell structure of C. patula contains 3.11% chitin per its dry weight. Following characterisation of the isolated chitin by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy, it was determined that there was close similarity with the ?-chitin isolated from crabs, shrimps and insects in various studies. It was observed that chitin was composed of nanofibres with a width of 10-20 nm. It was concluded that this was an economically advantageous chitin resource compared with crustaceans such as shrimp, crayfish and crab, because it is possible to isolate chitin in a significantly shorter time. PMID:24933023

Kaya, Murat; Karaarslan, Muhsin; Baran, Talat; Can, Esra; Ekemen, Gulcin; Bitim, Betul; Duman, Fatih

2014-12-01

384

Positive Darwinian selection on crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) of the green shore crab, Carcinus maenas.  

PubMed

The tissue-specific expression and differential function of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in Carcinus maenas indicate an interesting evolutionary history. Previous studies have shown that CHH from the sinus gland X-organ (XO-type) has hyperglycemic activity, whereas the CHH from the pericardial organ (PO-type) neither shows hyperglycemic activity nor it inhibits Y-organ ecdysteroid synthesis. Here we examined the types of selective pressures operating on the variants of CHH in Carcinus maenas. Maximum likelihood-based codon substitution analyses revealed that the variants of this neuropeptide in C. maenas have been subjected to positive Darwinian selection indicating adaptive evolution and functional divergence among the CHH variants leading to two unique groups (PO and XO-type). Although the average ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution (omega) for the entire coding region is 0.5096, few codon sites showed significantly higher omega (10.95). Comparison of models that incorporate positive selection (omega > 1) with models not incorporating positive selection (omega <1) at certain codon sites failed to reject (p=0) evidence of positive Darwinian selection. PMID:18391229

Padhi, Abinash; Verghese, Bindhu; Otta, Subhendu K; Varghese, Binu; Ramu, Karri

2007-01-01

385

Acute toxicity of benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers on freshwater crustacean (Daphnia pulex).  

PubMed

Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) enter aquatic environments either directly, via wash-off from skin and clothes during water recreational activities, or indirectly, via discharges of sewage and swimming pool waters. Their potentially toxic effects on biota, particularly aquatic organisms, are of considerable concern. However, not much information on their toxicity to aquatic organisms is available. In the present study, we investigated the acute toxicity of selected BUVSs on a freshwater crustacean (Daphnia pulex) for the first time. The 24 and 48-hr median lethal concentration (LC??) values of UV-571 for D. pulex were estimated to be 6.35 (5.08-8.39) and 2.59 (2.04-3.38) mg/l, respectively. No acute toxicity effects were observed up to 10 mg/l for other BUVSs such as UV-9, -320, -326, -327, -328, -329, and -360. Although acute toxicities of targeted BUVSs were not high, further long-term studies are required to fully assess the effects on growth and reproduction by these compounds on aquatic biota because of their bioaccumulative characteristics. PMID:21467753

Kim, Joon-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2011-04-01

386

Crustacean cardioactive peptide in the Chagas' disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus: presence, distribution and physiological effects.  

PubMed

Crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), a cyclic nonapeptide (PFCNAFTGCamide), has multifunctional roles in insects including stimulating visceral and cardiac muscle contraction, and regulating ecdysis. Previously, we have sequenced the cDNA for CCAP from Rhodnius prolixus central nervous system (CNS) and shown expression of the CCAP transcript in neurons of the CNS. In the present study, we have biochemically identified and sequenced CCAP from 5th instar R. prolixus CNS using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry, and mapped CCAP-like immunoreactivity in the CNS and peripheral tissues of 5th instar R. prolixus. Physiologically, the hindgut of R. prolixus was found to be sensitive to CCAP, showing dose-dependent increases in contractions with threshold at 5 × 10(-9) M and maximum response at 10(-7) M CCAP. Also, CCAP was found to increase the frequency of the heartbeat in a reversible, dose-dependent manner, with threshold close to 10(-11) M and maximum response at 10(-10) M CCAP. PMID:21875591

Lee, Do Hee; Lange, Angela B

2011-10-01

387

A mutation in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant alters juvenile hormone response in insects and crustaceans.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone is an essential regulator of major developmental and life history events in arthropods. Most of the insects use juvenile hormone III as the innate juvenile hormone ligand. By contrast, crustaceans use methyl farnesoate. Despite this difference that is tied to their deep evolutionary divergence, the process of this ligand transition is unknown. Here we show that a single amino-acid substitution in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant has an important role during evolution of the arthropod juvenile hormone pathway. Microcrustacea Daphnia pulex and D. magna share a juvenile hormone signal transduction pathway with insects, involving Methoprene-tolerant and steroid receptor coactivator proteins that form a heterodimer in response to various juvenoids. Juvenile hormone-binding pockets of the orthologous genes differ by only two amino acids, yet a single substitution within Daphnia Met enhances the receptor's responsiveness to juvenile hormone III. These results indicate that this mutation within an ancestral insect lineage contributed to the evolution of a juvenile hormone III receptor system. PMID:23673641

Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Toyota, Kenji; Hirakawa, Ikumi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Miura, Toru; Colbourne, John K; Iguchi, Taisen

2013-01-01

388

Developmental changes in heart photosensitivity of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica.  

PubMed

During juvenile development, the cardiac pacemaker of the isopod crustacean Ligia exotica is transferred from the myocardium to the cardiac ganglion of the neurogenic heart. In adult, light stimulus decreases the beat frequency of the heart. To elucidate developmental changes in the photosensitivity of the juvenile Ligia heart, we examined the effect of a light stimulus on the semi-isolated heart of juveniles at various developmental stages by the recording membrane potential of the myocardium. We also examined the effect of hyperpolarizing current injection into the myocardium, because this causes different effects on the beat frequency between myogenic and neurogenic hearts. In newly hatched juveniles, beat frequency decreased upon current injection but exhibited no response to white light. In contrast, 10 days after hatching, beat frequency did not change upon current injection, but decreased in response to white light. The heart photoresponse of juveniles was reversibly eliminated by application of tetrodotoxin, which changes the heartbeat from neurogenic to myogenic by suppressing cardiac ganglion activity. The proportion of juveniles exhibiting a heart photoresponse increased gradually up to 100% during the period between 3 and 10 days after hatching. The results suggest that the heart photoresponse of L. exotica appears in association with transfer of the cardiac pacemaker from the myocardium to the cardiac ganglion during juvenile development. PMID:17551248

Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hariyama, Takahiko; Yamagishi, Hiroshi

2007-03-01

389

Mitogenomic phylogenetic analysis supports continental-scale vicariance in subterranean thalassoid crustaceans.  

PubMed

Many continental subterranean water crustaceans ("stygobionts") display extreme disjunct distributions, where different species in the same genus are isolated on continents or islands separated by broad oceanic expanses. Despite their freshwater habitat, most of these taxa appear to be most closely related to typical marine groups ("thalassoid" origin). Among the hadzioids-thalassoid amphipods including the stygobiont families Hadziidae, Pseudoniphargidae, and Metacrangonyctidae-several genera are restricted to inland groundwaters ranging from the Caribbean region to the Mediterranean and Middle East, including interspersed oceanic islands. This distribution might have arisen from Tethyan vicariance triggered by the sequential occlusion of the former Tethys Sea, a vast circumtropical ocean existing from the Middle Jurassic up to 20 million years ago (mya). Previous studies have been based on morphological analyses or limited DNA sequence data, making it difficult to test this hypothesis. We used complete mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences, mainly obtained by next-generation sequencing methods and a nuclear ribosomal gene to resolve the phylogeny and to establish a time frame for diversification of the family Metacrangonyctidae (Amphipoda). The results were consistent with the plate tectonics vicariance hypothesis, with major diversifications occurring between 96 and 83 mya. PMID:23063439

Bauzà-Ribot, Maria M; Juan, Carlos; Nardi, Francesco; Oromí, Pedro; Pons, Joan; Jaume, Damià

2012-11-01

390

Acute and chronic toxicity of six anticancer drugs on rotifers and crustaceans.  

PubMed

The growing use of cytostatic drugs is gaining relevance as an environmental concern. Environmental and distribution studies are increasing due to the development of accurate analytical methods, whereas ecotoxicological studies are still lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of six cytostatics (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, and imatinib) belonging to five classes of Anatomical Therapeutic Classification (ATC) on primary consumers of the aquatic chain (Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Brachionus calyciflorus, and Thamnocephalus platyurus). Acute ecotoxicological effects occurred at concentrations in the order of mgL(-)(1), higher than those predicted in the environment, and the most acutely toxic drugs among those tested were cisplatin and doxorubicin for most aquatic organisms. For chronic toxicity, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil showed the highest toxic potential in all test organisms, inducing 50% reproduction inhibition in crustaceans at concentrations on the order of ?gL(-)(1). Rotifers were less susceptible to these pharmaceuticals. On the basis of chronic results, the low effective concentrations suggest a potential environmental risk of cytostatics. Thus, this study could be an important starting point for establishing the real environmental impact of these substances. PMID:24512989

Parrella, Alfredo; Lavorgna, Margherita; Criscuolo, Emma; Russo, Chiara; Fiumano, Vittorio; Isidori, Marina

2014-11-01

391

The impact of coastal defence structures (tetrapods) on decapod crustaceans in the southern North Sea.  

PubMed

Although the use of coastal defence structures is expected to increase, little is known about the ecological impact of such structures on the natural environment. In particular, the temporal and spatial patterns of communities in association with artificial substrate are still poorly understood. This study examined possible effects of experimental tetrapod fields on the decapod crustacean community in a subtidal hard-bottom area in the southern North Sea. We performed in situ studies in the fields and along transects oriented away from the tetrapod fields. Species composition and abundances were assessed before and after the introduction of the artificial material. The study revealed a significant decrease of smaller, less vagile species (Pisidia longicornis, Pilumnus hirtellus, Galathea squamifera) over the entire study area in the years following the tetrapod introduction. For 2 species, Hyas araneus and Homarus gammarus, the tetrapods appeared to be highly attractive as habitat and shelter because their abundance increased over time. No distinct spatial or temporal effects were observed for mobile predatory crabs, such as Cancer pagurus and Liocarcinus spp. The results of the study demonstrate that possible effects of artificial structures on macro-invertebrates in temperate hard-bottom areas are highly species-specific and depend on the size, lifestyle and ecological requirements of the species. This work highlights the importance of long-term studies. Our findings clearly indicate that more time is needed to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic influences on species distributions. PMID:24041979

Wehkamp, Stephanie; Fischer, Philipp

2013-12-01

392

Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal size. The foregut clearance times for Cancer magister increased with increasing body size, while smaller Carcinus maenas cleared the hindgut region at a faster rate than larger individuals. Unlike fish there was no clear relationship between transit rates and any of the SDA characteristics. While the fluoroscopy method is useful for assessing foregut activity and food passage, it is limited when inferring connections between nutrient assimilation and post-absorptive processes in crustaceans. Therefore, at least with respect to meal size, transit rates do not make a good proxy for determining the SDA characteristics in crustaceans. PMID:23916818

McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

2013-11-01

393

Accumulation of dioxins in deep-sea crustaceans, fish and sediments from a submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine canyons are efficient pathways transporting sediments and associated pollutants to deep sea. The objective of this work was to provide with the first assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) levels and accumulation in deep-sea megafauna (crustacean and fish) and sediments in the Blanes submarine canyon (North-Western Mediterranean Sea). The influence of the selected species habitats (pelagic, nektobenthic, and benthic) and the trophic chain level on the accumulation of dioxins was also investigated. Bottom sediment and biota samples were collected at different depths and locations inside the canyon and in the adjacent slope outside the canyon influence. ?2,3,7,8-PCDD/F concentrations in sediments varied from 102 to 680 pg g-1 dry weight (d.w.) (1-6 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 d.w.). Dioxins are enriched in bottom sediments at higher depths inside the canyon and in particular in the deepest parts of the canyon axis (1700 m depth), whereas no enrichment of dioxins was verified at the deepest sediments from the adjacent open slope outside the canyon influence. The proportion of ?2,3,7,8-PCDF (furans) to ?2,3,7,8-PCDD (dioxins) increased for sediments with higher soot carbon content consistent with the higher affinity of PCDF for sorption onto soot carbon. Higher ?2,3,7,8-PCDD/F levels were found in crustaceans than in fish, ranging from 220 to 795 pg g-1 lipid weight (l.w.) (13-90 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 l.w.) and 110 to 300 pg g-1 l.w. (22-33 WHO98-TEQ pg g-1 l.w.) in crustaceans and fish, respectively. Dioxin highest concentrations were found in nektobenthic organisms, i.e., benthic organism with swimming capabilities (both fish and crustaceans). These higher levels are consistent with the higher trophic level and predicted biomagnification factors (BMFs) of nektobenthic species. The reduced availability of sediment-bound PCDD/F for benthic species mainly due to soot and organic carbon sorption of these contaminants most probably influenced this result too. While biomagnification exerts a clear influence on the total dioxin concentrations in biota, life habits seem to exert an influence in the differential congener-specific accumulation of dioxins rather than in the total concentration. Thus, pelagic species reflected the estimated congener pattern from the surface water dissolved phase and phytoplankton, whereas the dioxin pattern in benthic and nektobenthic species was more similar to the estimated pattern in the deep-water dissolved phase and the sediment. The three crustacean species considered in this study bioaccumulated higher amounts of other dioxin congeners (non-2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) compared to fish. An interplay of several factors, such as biota habitats, differential uptake of water column dioxin (dissolved and particle-bound fractions), and different metabolization capabilities and rates (CYP-mediated metabolism) may explain the differences observed in dioxin patterns among crustacean species and between fish and crustaceans in the Blanes submarine canyon.

Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Rotllant, Guiomar; Ábalos, Manuela; Parera, Jordi; Dachs, Jordi; Company, Joan B.; Calafat, Antoni; Abad, Esteban

2013-11-01

394

Effects of temperature on photoperiodically induced reproductive development, circulating plasma luteinizing hormone and thyroid hormones, body mass, fat deposition and molt in mountain white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha.  

PubMed

The mountain white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha, breeds in subalpine meadows throughout many mountainous regions of western North America. Mathematical analysis of 20 years of egg-laying dates at Tioga Pass, California (3030m elevation) indicated a highly predictable breeding season suggesting that precise environmental cues such as the annual change in day length were important for regulating reproductive function. Additionally, it appeared that there was sufficient yearly variation in the timing of breeding to suggest that other environmental cues may also be important for regulating adjustments in reproductive development and regression. Captive populations of Z. l. oriantha showed strong responses in gonadal development following transfer to longs days (15L 9D) and low temperature (5 degrees C) slowed down photoperiodically induced gonadal growth and subsequent regression, in both males and females. High temperature of 30 degrees C tended to accelerate gonadal development and regression whereas gonadal development was intermediate in a group exposed to 20 degrees C. Prior exposure to these temperature regimes while on short days (9L 15D) had no effect on body mass, fat, or plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid hormones. Curiously there was no effect of temperature on photoperiodically induced rises in LH in either sex despite marked effects on gonadal growth. Brood patch development was also enhanced in females exposed to 30 degrees C. Corticosterone levels measured in a subset of plasma samples from this experiment indicated no effect of temperature suggesting that the retarded gonadal development at 5 degrees C was not a result of thermal stress. Although there was a robust effect of photostimulation on thyroid hormone levels in blood of both sexes, temperature treatment had no effect on tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentrations. However, plasma levels of thyroxine (T4) were lower initially at 5 degrees C versus 20 and 30 degrees C treatments. This may be related to the protracted gonadal cycle at 5 degrees C versus the truncated gonadal cycle at 30 degrees C. Molt score, an indication of post-reproductive state and onset of photorefractoriness, was delayed in birds exposed to 5 degrees C. Body mass, and to a lesser extent fat score, tended to be lowest in birds exposed to 5 degrees C compared with those at 20 and 30 degrees C. These results demonstrate that ambient temperature significantly affected photoperiodically induced gonadal development and regression in these birds. The endocrine mechanisms underlying these effects require further study. PMID:12679091

Wingfield, John C; Hahn, Thomas P; Maney, Donna L; Schoech, Stephan J; Wada, Masaru; Morton, Martin L

2003-04-01

395

Vitellogenin is not an appropriate biomarker of feminisation in a crustacean.  

PubMed

The expression of the yolk protein vitellogenin (Vtg) has been used as a biomarker of feminisation in multiple fish species throughout the world. Since the late 1990s, researchers have attempted to develop similar biomarkers to address whether reproductive endocrine disruption also occurs in the males of invertebrate groups such as the Crustacea. To date, the vast majority of studies investigating Vtg induction in male Crustacea have resulted in negative or inconclusive results, leading researchers to question the utility of Vtg expression as a biomarker in this taxon. This study measured the expression of Vtg genes in two intersex phenotypes (termed internal and external) found in the male amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus, and compared them with those of normal males and females. Males presenting the external intersex phenotype are infected with known feminising parasites and display a variety of feminised traits including oviduct structures on their testes and external female brood plates (oostegites). The internal intersex male phenotype, that displays a pronounced oviduct structure on the testes without the external intersex characteristics, is not parasite infected and it is thought to be a result of environmental contamination. Given their morphology, these phenotypes might be considered highly 'feminised' or 'de-masculinised' and can be utilised to test the suitability of feminisation biomarkers. The E. marinus transcriptome was searched for genes resembling Vtg and two sequences were revealed, that we subsequently refer to as Vtg1 and Vtg2. Results from a high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing screen of gonadal cDNA libraries suggested that very low expression (in this manuscript gene transcription is taken to represent gene expression, although it is acknowledged that in addition to transcription, translation, transcript processing, mRNA stability and protein stability can regulate gene expression) of Vtg1 and Vtg2 in normal males (ESTs=1 and 0 for Vtg1 and Vtg2, respectively), internal intersex males (ESTs=0 for both Vtg sequences) and external intersex males (ESTs=5 and 0 for Vtg1 and Vtg2, respectively). In contrast, the sequencing suggested notable levels of expression of both Vtg genes in females (ESTs=1133 and 84 for Vtg1 and Vtg2, respectively). Subsequent qPCR analysis validates these expression levels, with the signal for Vtg1 and Vtg2 transcripts in all male phenotypes being indistinguishable from that caused by contamination of trace levels of genomic DNA or the low-level amplification non-target sequences. These findings suggest that Vtg expression is not notably induced in highly feminised amphipods and is therefore not an appropriate biomarker of feminisation/de-masculination in crustaceans. We discuss our findings in the context of previous attempts to measure Vtg in male crustaceans and suggest a requirement for more appropriate taxon-specific biomarkers to monitor feminisation in these groups. PMID:24342352

Short, Stephen; Yang, Gongda; Kille, Peter; Ford, Alex T

2014-08-01

396

Ecdysteroid responses of estuarine crustaceans exposed through complete larval development to juvenile hormone agonist insecticides.  

PubMed

Fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen are insecticides that gain their toxicity by specifically acting as insect juvenile hormone agonists (JHA), and so are endocrine disruptors by design and effectively prevent larvae from maturing into adults. Efforts to assess the environmental effects of JHAs on nontarget populations of invertebrates have resulted in the utilization of several established estuarine crustacean models. This work was conducted to test the hypothesis that the mortality, inhibition of development and decreased fecundity reported previously in these animals from JHA exposure coincides with abnormal circulating titers of ecdysteroids. Gravid female grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and mud crabs (Rhithropanopeus harrisii), species with different developmental plasticity and JHA tolerances, were collected and held at wet lab conditions (20 ppt salinity, 25°C) until larval release. Larvae were collected <12 hr after hatch and exposed to JHAs during a static renewal test through end of development with seawater or nominal concentrations of JHA previously shown to induce significant developmental delays and/or decreased body weights. Larvae were subsampled (10 larvae/sample, n = 2 to 8) at each developmental stage, lyophilized, and ecdysteroids extracted by homogenization in 80% methanol and elution from C18 Sep-Pak cartridges with 25%, 60% and 100% methanol to capture the polar, free, and apolar conjugates, respectively, and then quantified by ELISA. As was expected significant differences in successful completion of development (larval survival), developmental duration, and growth (dry weight) were observed. These physiological perturbations were linked with significantly altered ecdysteroid titers, supporting a newly emerging theory that juvenoids possibly act as anti-ecdysteroids through a novel molecular mechanism involving inhibition of ecdysteroid signaling. PMID:21676751

Tuberty, Shea R; McKenney, Charles L

2005-01-01

397

Unusual duplication of the insulin-like receptor in the crustacean Daphnia pulex  

PubMed Central

Background The insulin signaling pathway (ISP) has a key role in major physiological events like carbohydrate metabolism and growth regulation. The ISP has been well described in vertebrates and in a few invertebrate model organisms but remains largely unexplored in non-model invertebrates. This study is the first detailed genomic study of this pathway in a crustacean species, Daphnia pulex. Results The Daphnia pulex draft genome sequence assembly was scanned for major components of the ISP with a special attention to the insulin-like receptor. Twenty three putative genes are reported. The pathway appears to be generally well conserved as genes found in other invertebrates are present. Major findings include a lower number of insulin-like peptides in Daphnia as compared to other invertebrates and the presence of multiple insulin-like receptors (InR), with four genes as opposed to a single one in other invertebrates. Genes encoding for the Dappu_InR are likely the result of three duplication events and bear some unusual features. Dappu_InR-4 has undergone extensive evolutionary divergence and lacks the conserved site of the catalytic domain of the receptor tyrosine kinase. Dappu_InR-1 has a large insert and lacks the transmembranal domain in the ?-subunit. This domain is also absent in Dappu_InR-3. Dappu_InR-2 is characterized by the absence of the cystein-rich region. Real-time q-PCR confirmed the expression of all four receptors. EST analyses of cDNA libraries revealed that the four receptors were differently expressed under various conditions. Conclusions Duplications of the insulin receptor genes might represent an important evolutionary innovation in Daphnia as they are known to exhibit extensive phenotypic plasticity in body size and in the size of defensive structures in response to predation. PMID:20939922

2010-01-01

398

Birth, survival and differentiation of neurons in an adult crustacean brain.  

PubMed

Life-long neurogenesis is a characteristic feature of many vertebrate and invertebrate species. In decapod crustaceans, new neurons are added throughout life to two cell clusters containing local (cluster 9) and projection (cluster 10) interneurons in the olfactory pathway. Adult-born neurons in clusters 9 and 10 in crayfish have the anatomical properties and chemistry of mature neurons by 6 months after birth. Here we use 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation to pulse label mitotically active cells in these cell clusters, followed by a survival time of up to 8 months, during which crayfish (Cherax destructor) were sacrificed at intervals and the numbers of BrdU-labeled cells quantified. We find a decrease in the numbers of BrdU-labeled cells in cell cluster 10 between the first and second weeks following BrdU exposure, suggesting a period of cell death shortly after proliferation. Additional delayed cell divisions in both cell clusters are indicated by increases in labeled cells long after the BrdU clearing time. The differentiation time of these cells into neurons was defined by detection of the first immunoreactivity for the transmitter SIFamide in cluster 10 BrdU-labeled cells, which begins at 4 weeks after BrdU labeling; the numbers of SIFamide-labeled cells continues to increase over the following month. Experiments testing whether proliferation and survival of Cluster 10 cells are influenced by locomotor activity provided no evidence of a correlation between activity levels and cell proliferation, but suggest a strong influence of locomotor activity on cell survival. PMID:24339155

Kim, Youngmi Faith; Sandeman, David C; Benton, Jeanne L; Beltz, Barbara S

2014-06-01

399

Putative neurohemal release zones in the stomatogastric nervous system of decapod crustaceans.  

PubMed

The stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of decapod crustaceans has long been used to study the modulation of small neural circuits. Profiles in the sheath of the nerves and ganglia of the STNS, which contain only dense-core vesicles, have been described in electron microscopical studies (Friend [1976] Cell Tissue Res. 175:369-380; Kilman and Marder [1997] Soc Neurosci Abstr. 23:477; Skiebe and Ganeshina [2000] J Comp Neurol 420:373-397). These profiles resemble those found in neurohemal organs and suggest the presence of neurohemal release zones in the STNS. To map these putative neurohemal release zones, a combination of two antibodies was used in the present study. A synapsin antibody recognizing vesicle proteins of clear vesicles was combined with a synaptotagmin antibody recognizing vesicle proteins of clear and dense-core vesicles. Exclusive synaptotagmin-like staining, therefore, indicated the regions with only dense-core vesicles. Such a staining was found in a mesh in the perineural sheath of nerves in the STNS of all three species investigated. In the crayfish Cherax destructor and the lobster Homarus americanus, the stained mesh was located in the sheath of nerves connecting all four ganglia of the STNS, whereas in the crab Cancer pagurus it was found on different nerves, which are more directly exposed to the hemolymph in this species. Exclusive synaptotagmin-like staining was also found in a putative neurohemal release zone in the sheath of the circumoesophageal connectives and the postoesophageal commissure in C. destructor. These data suggest that an important source of modulation of the networks and the muscles of the stomach is a compartmentalized release of neurohormones from zones in the STNS. PMID:12378588

Skiebe, Petra; Wollenschläger, Tina

2002-11-18

400

An identified serotonergic neuron regulates adult neurogenesis in the crustacean brain  

PubMed Central

New neurons are born and integrated into functional circuits in the brains of many adult organisms. In virtually all of these systems, serotonin is a potent regulator of neuronal proliferation. Specific neural pathways underlying these serotonergic influences have not, however, been identified and manipulated. The goal of the present study was to test whether adult neurogenesis in the crustacean brain is influenced by electrical activity in the serotonergic dorsal giant neurons (DGNs) innervating the primary olfactory processing areas, the olfactory lobes (OLs), and higher order centers, the accessory lobes (ALs). Adult-born neurons occur in two interneuronal cell clusters that are part of the olfactory pathway. The present study demonstrates that neurogenesis also continues in these areas in a dissected, perfused brain preparation, although the rate of neuronal production is lower than in brains from intact same-sized animals. Inclusion of 10?9M serotonin in the perfusate delivered to the dissected brain preparation restores the rate of neurogenesis to in vivo levels. While subthreshold stimulation of the DGN does not significantly alter the rate of neurogenesis, electrical activation of a single DGN results in significant increases in neurogenesis in Cluster 10 (CL10) on the same side of the brain, compared with levels on the contralateral, unstimulated side. Measurements of serotonin levels in the perfusate using high performance liquid chromatography established that serotonin levels are elevated about ten-fold during DGN stimulation, confirming that serotonin is released during DGN activity. This is the first identified neural pathway through which adult neurogenesis has been directly manipulated. PMID:19373861

Sandeman, D.C.; Benton, J.L.; Beltz, B.S.

2010-01-01