Sample records for crustacean molt cycle

  1. Regulation of crustacean molting and regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, D.M.; Graham, D.E.; Holland, C.A.; Soumoff, C.; Mykles, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The regulation of molting and regeneration by two antagonistic hormones is discussed. The time course of ecdysteroid titers in crustacean tissues has been followed during molt and regeneration cycles. (ACR)

  2. What is molt-inhibiting hormone? The role of an ecdysteroidogenesis inhibitor in the crustacean molting cycle

    PubMed Central

    Naya, Yoko; Ohnishi, Mayumi; Ikeda, Midori; Miki, Wataru; Nakanishi, Koji

    1989-01-01

    The in vivo molt-inhibitory effects of the ecdysone biosynthesis inhibitors 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine and xanthurenic acid were investigated. These ecdysone biosynthesis inhibitors, isolated from the eyestalks of blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), were injected into eyestalk-ablated crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). The active factor was found to be species-nonspecific within crabs and crayfish. The seasonal profiles of the xanthurenic acid and ecdysone titers exhibited a staggered relationship. Moreover, the activity of a 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine aminotransferase varied during the molting cycle. The data suggested that 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine, which is secreted from the X-organ-sinus gland complex of crustaceans, is released into the hemolymph, and after accumulating at the surface of the Y-organ, is converted into the active form, xanthurenic acid. Xanthurenic acid was found to profoundly repress ecdysteroidogenesis in vitro. PMID:16594067

  3. MOLT CYCLES AND SEQUENCES IN THE WESTERN GULL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVE N. G. HOWELL; CHRIS CORBEN

    2000-01-01

    We describe the molt cycle of the Western Gull (Larus occidentalis) in central California on the basis of field observations of unmarked birds. The Western Gull has one partial and one complete molt per year. The first and second partial molts span up to 7 or 8 months, subsequent prealternate molts about 4 to 6 months. The complete prebasic molt

  4. Activity of Glutathione S Transferase in the Hepatopancreas is not Influenced by the Molting Cycle in the Fiddler Crab, Uca pugilator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Hotard; Enmin Zou

    2008-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the hepatopancreas of crustaceans has been suggested as a biomarker for organic pollution. However,\\u000a much of crustacean physiology is known to exhibit a cyclic characteristic because of the periodic shedding of the confining\\u000a exoskeleton. The goal of this study was to determine whether hepatopancreatic GST activity varies during the molting cycle\\u000a using the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator,

  5. Pharmacophore based approach to design inhibitors in crustaceans: an insight into the molt inhibition response to the receptor guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Sajal; Princy, S Adline

    2014-04-01

    The first set of competitive inhibitors of molt inhibiting hormone (MIH) has been developed using the effective approaches such as Hip-Hop, virtual screening and manual alterations. Moreover, the conserved residues at 71 and 72 positions in the molt inhibiting hormone is known to be significant for selective inhibition of ecdysteroidogenesis; thus, the information from mutation and solution structure were used to generate common pharmacophore features. The geometry of the final six-feature pharmacophore was also found to be consistent with the homology-modeled MIH structures from various other decapod crustaceans. The Hypo-1, comprising six features hypothesis was carefully selected as a best pharmacophore model for virtual screening created on the basis of rank score and cluster processes. The hypothesis was validated and the database was virtually screened using this 3D query and the compounds were then manually altered to enhance the fit value. The hits obtained were further filtered for drug-likeness, which is expressed as physicochemical properties that contribute to favorable ADME/Tox profiles to eliminate the molecules exhibit toxicity and poor pharmacokinetics. In conclusion, the higher fit values of CI-1 (4.6), CI-4 (4.9) and CI-7 (4.2) in conjunction with better pharmacokinetic profile made these molecules practically helpful tool to increase production by accelerating molt in crustaceans. The use of feeding sub-therapeutic dosages of these growth enhancers can be very effectively implemented and certainly turn out to be a vital part of emerging nutritional strategies for economically important crustacean livestock. PMID:24772941

  6. Effects of endosulfan exposure and Taura Syndrome virus infection on the survival and molting of the marine penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laxminath Tumburu; Eleanor F. Shepard; Allan E. Strand; Craig L. Browdy

    Molting in crustaceans is an important endocrine-controlled biological process that plays a critical role in growth and reproduction. Many factors can affect this physiological cycle in crustaceans including environmental stressors and disease agents. For example the pathology of Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) of shrimp is closely related to molting cycle. Similarly, endosulfan, a commonly used pesticide is a potential endocrine

  7. The ecdysteroid titer in the female prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii during the molt cycle 

    E-print Network

    Newitt, Richard Allen

    1981-01-01

    of labeled and unlabeled ecdysone through purification. Experiment 49: Ecdysteroid titer of prawn carcasses with determination of recovery. 38 39 TABLE 5. Experiment 410: HPLC analysis of zone E from TLC separations 45 TABLE 6. Experiment iI11... on scheme for ecdysteroi ds from car cass or ovaries Molt cycle stages A, 8, and C Molt cycle stages 0 and D I 0 Molt cycle stages Dl and Dl II III Molt cycle stage D3. 15 22 26 28 FIGURE 9: Contamination of HPLC system with ecdyster aids...

  8. Molecular cloning of two structure variants of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus), and their gene expression during molting and ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi; Zhu, Dongfa; Yang, Jifen; Qiu, Xier; Cui, Xiaoyu; Tang, Jie

    2014-12-01

    Two full-length cDNA (Pt-CHH1 and Pt-CHH2) sequences encoding crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) were cloned from tissues of the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) using RACE. Pt-CHH1 was cloned from eyestalk, whereas Pt-CHH2 was cloned from thoracic ganglia. Sequence and structure analyses of Pt-CHH1 and Pt-CHH2 suggest that they may be generated from alternative splicing. Tissue distribution showed that transcript of Pt-CHH1 was only detected in eyestalk, while transcript of Pt-CHH2 was observed in several extra-eyestalk tissues. The transcript levels of Pt-CHH1 and Pt-CHH2 during molting and ovarian development were determined using qPCR. In molting process, level of Pt-CHH1 in eyestalk increased from stage A (postmolt), and to significant higher at stage C (intermolt), then decreased during premolt (D0-D4). In ovarian development, level of Pt-CHH1 in eyestalk decreased from previtellogenic stage (II), and to significant lower at mature stage (IV). The expression patterns of Pt-CHH2 in thoracic ganglia and Y-organ were distinct from that of Pt-CHH1 in eyestalk. The combined results suggest that Pt-CHH1 may be involved in inhibition of molting and ovarian development, whereas Pt-CHH2 may have other physiological functions. PMID:25483792

  9. Effects of molting on the visual acuity of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jamie; Johnsen, Sönke

    2011-09-15

    In crustaceans with compound eyes, the corneal lens of each facet is part of the exoskeleton and thus shed during molting. Here we used an optomotor assay to evaluate the impact of molting on visual acuity (as measured by the minimum resolvable angle, ?(min)) in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found that visual acuity decreases substantially in the days prior to molting and is gradually recovered after molting. Four days prior to molting, ?(min) was 1.8 deg (N=5), a value approximating the best possible acuity in this species. In the 24 h before ecdysis occurred, ?(min) increased to 15.0 deg (N=12), corresponding to an eightfold drop in visual acuity. Within 6 days after molting, ?(min) returned to the pre-molting value. Micrographs of C. sapidus eyes showed that a gap between the corneal lens and the crystalline cone first appeared approximately 5 days prior to shedding and increased in width as the process progressed. This separation was likely responsible for the loss of visual acuity observed in behavioral tests. In blue crabs, mating is limited to the period of the female's pubertal molt, and a reduction in acuity during this time may have an effect on the sensory cues used in female mate choice. The results described here may be broadly applicable to all arthropods that molt and have particular importance for crustaceans that molt multiple times in their lifetime or have mating cycles that are paired with molting. PMID:21865518

  10. Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of ({sup 3}H)ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. ({sup 3}H)ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages.

  11. Pterostilbene induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MOLT4 human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Siedlecka-Kroplewska, Kamila; Jozwik, Agnieszka; Kaszubowska, Lucyna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Boguslawski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Pterostilbene, a polyphenolic compound present in grapes and other fruits, has been demonstrated to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis and autophagy in some cancer cell types. We found that pterostilbene at the IC(90) concentration of 44 µM inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in MOLT4 human leukemia cells. Treatment with pterostilbene resulted in a transient accumulation of cells in the G(0)/G(1)-cell cycle phase followed by the S-phase arrest. Pterostilbene-induced apoptotic death of MOLT4 cells was mediated by caspase-3 activation and was accompanied by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Our results suggest that pterostilbene could serve as a potential additional chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:23264221

  12. Ecdysteroids regulate the levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) expression in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle. PMID:25849453

  13. Ecdysteroids Regulate the Levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) Expression in the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J. Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle. PMID:25849453

  14. Impacts of molt-inhibiting organochlorine compounds on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanling Meng; Enmin Zou

    2009-01-01

    Because of their chemical stability and lipophilicity, many organochlorine compounds (OCs) can readily accumulate in fatty tissues of crustaceans. Several OCs have been reported to inhibit crustacean molting. To determine whether the disruption of crustacean molting by these OCs involves interference with ecdysteroid signaling in the epidermis, the impacts of five molt-inhibiting OCs on the level of N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase (NAG, EC

  15. Molting Mania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Most children are unaware of the process of molting, the periodic shedding and replacement of part or all of a coat or an outer covering of an animal, but it is an animal characteristic they are sure to be interested in and should have the opportunity to observe. In this article, the author shares how she and her students observed various…

  16. Expression and ecdysteroid responsiveness of the nuclear receptors HR3 and E75 in the crustacean Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Hannas, Bethany R.; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2013-01-01

    Ecdysteroids initiate signaling along multiple pathways that regulate various aspects of development, maturation, and reproduction in arthropods. Signaling often involves the induction of downstream transcription factors that either positively or negatively regulate aspects of the pathway. We tested the hypothesis that crustaceans express the nuclear receptors HR3 (ortholog to vertebrate ROR) and E75 (ortholog to vertebrate rev-erb) in response to ecdysteroid signaling. HR3 and E75 cDNAs were cloned from the crustacean Daphnia magna. The DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain of the daphnid HR3 was 95% and 61% identical to those of Drosophila melanogaster. The DNA binding domain and ligand binding domain of the daphnid E75 was 100% and 71% identical to those of D. melanogaster. Both receptors exhibited structural characteristics of binding to DNA as a monomer. The expression of these receptor mRNAs was evaluated through the adult molt cycle and during embryo development. E75 levels were relatively constant throughout the adult molt cycle and through embryo development. HR3 levels were comparable to those of E75 during the initial phases of the adult molt cycle but were elevated ~30-fold at a time in the cycle co-incident with the pre-molt surge in ecdysteroid levels. HR3 mRNA levels in embryos also varied coincident with ecdysteroids levels. To substantiate a role of ecdysteroids in the expression of HR3, daphnids were continuously exposed to 20-hydroxyecdysone and changes in gene expression were measured. HR3 levels were significantly induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone; while E75 levels were minimally affected. These results are consistent with the premise that transcription of HR3 is regulated by ecdysteroids in the crustacean Daphnia magna and that HR3 likely serves as a mediator of ecdysteroid regulatory action in crustaceans. The marginal induction of E75 by 20-hydroxyecdysone may represent limited, tissue or cell-type-specific induction of this transcription factor. PMID:19631716

  17. Control of molting in crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, D.M.; Graham, D.E.; Holland, C.A.; Mykles, D.L.; Soumoff, C.; Yamaoka, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    The single, overriding event that occurs during all proecdysial periods in crustaceans is the synthesis of a new exoskeleton that encompasses an enlarged animal when the old shell is cast off. Regeneration of missing appendages and larval or puberty metamorphoses also occur during proecdysis. Proecdysial periods have been divided into substages defined by the occurrence of specific events. Although a number of factors must be postulated to account for individual proecdysial events, only the molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, has been identified and isolated. Much evidence indicates that the X-organ sinus glands complex, a neurosecretory tissue located in the eyestalks, is the source of a molt inhibiting hormone (MIH) responsible for maintaining animals in anecdysis. An exuviation factor has been proposed to support the extrication of the animal from the old exoskeleton. There is evidence for a limb growth inhibitory factor (LGIF) that affects the rate of growth of regenerating limbs. We are proposing an anecdysial limb autotomy factor (LAF/sub an/) that propels into precocious molts anecdysial limb autotomy factor (LAF/sub pro/) that interrupts the proecdysial period of animals that lose one or more normal or partially regenerated pereopods before a critical time in proecdysis.

  18. Characterization of the putative farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (LvFAMeT) cDNA from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: Evidence for its role in molting.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jerome Ho Lam; Tobe, Stephen S; Chan, Siu-Ming

    2008-02-01

    Methyl farnesoate (MF) is the crustacean homolog of the insect juvenile hormone and is believed to regulate growth and reproduction in crustaceans. Farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT) catalyzes the conversion of farnesoic acid (FA) to MF. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two forms of FAMeTs (i.e. LvFAMeT-S and LvFAMeT-L) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. LvFAMeT transcript has a wide tissue distribution pattern in L. vannamei and is also expressed in nauplius, zoea, mysis, post-larval stages and adults. Unlike FAMeTs reported in other decapods, transcripts of two different sizes were detected in L. vannamei. We postulate that the wide distribution of LvFAMeT expression may be related to its role in growth and regulation of molting. To study the functions of LvFAMeT in molting, the RNA interference (RNAi) technique was used. Injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) for LvFAMeT knocked down the expression of LvFAMeT in shrimp for at least 3 days and the shrimp did not advance to the final stage of molt cycle. Furthermore, the expression of the molt-related genes encoding cathepsin-L and the hemocyanin gene was disturbed. Subsequently, 100% mortality of the shrimp was observed in the LvFAMeT dsRNA-injected shrimp. In contrast, control shrimp completed their molt and proceeded to the next molt cycle. We postulate that, as an important enzyme for the conversion of FA to MF, RNAi injection knocked down the expression of LvFAMeT which could potentially result in a decrease in the production of MF and subsequently, could affect the molting process. The newly identified LvFAMeT may be involved in the control of molting in shrimp. The results of this study demonstrate the potential use of the RNA interference technique to study other putative genes identified in crustaceans. PMID:18226425

  19. Functional Genomic Analysis of C. elegans Molting

    PubMed Central

    Frand, Alison R; Russel, Sascha

    2005-01-01

    Although the molting cycle is a hallmark of insects and nematodes, neither the endocrine control of molting via size, stage, and nutritional inputs nor the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis and release of the exoskeleton is well understood. Here, we identify endocrine and enzymatic regulators of molting in C. elegans through a genome-wide RNA-interference screen. Products of the 159 genes discovered include annotated transcription factors, secreted peptides, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix enzymes essential for molting. Fusions between several genes and green fluorescent protein show a pulse of expression before each molt in epithelial cells that synthesize the exoskeleton, indicating that the corresponding proteins are made in the correct time and place to regulate molting. We show further that inactivation of particular genes abrogates expression of the green fluorescent protein reporter genes, revealing regulatory networks that might couple the expression of genes essential for molting to endocrine cues. Many molting genes are conserved in parasitic nematodes responsible for human disease, and thus represent attractive targets for pesticide and pharmaceutical development. PMID:16122351

  20. Protein production and the molting cycle in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (Nordmann, 1842). II. Hemocyanin and protein synthesis in the midgut gland.

    PubMed

    Spindler, K D; Hennecke, R; Gellissen, G

    1992-02-01

    The midgut gland from the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus synthesizes and secretes hemocyanin and proteins linearly for at least 24 hr in vitro. There are no sex-specific differences in the rate of protein and hemocyanin synthesis. During a standard incubation of 5 hr, up to 64% of the newly synthesized protein represents hemocyanin, which is also the predominant secretory protein. There are pronounced changes in the rate of hemocyanin synthesis during the molting cycle which coincide with corresponding changes in total protein synthesis. The titer of protein and hemocyanin synthesis during an intermolt phase exhibits a biphasic profile with the highest values in intermolt stage C4 and in premolt stage D1. PMID:1601257

  1. INTRODUCTION The visual systems of the nearly 50,000 extant crustacean species

    E-print Network

    Johnsen, Sönke

    -faceted lenses are composed of modified exoskeleton (Land and Nilsson, 2002). When a crustacean molts, the entire exoskeleton is shed, including the faceted lenses. Prior to molting, the exoskeleton separates from the underlying hypodermis, which then secretes a new epicuticle (Smith and Chang, 2007). The outer exoskeleton

  2. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of five chitinases associated with molting in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuguang; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Gang; Lin, Hai; Zhou, Jun; Zeng, Qingfei; Mao, Zhigang; Gu, Xiaohong

    2015-09-01

    Chitinases are crucial enzymes required for chitin degradation in crustaceans. Five chitinase genes, namely, EsCht1, EsCht2, EsCht3, EsCht4, and EsCht6, were identified in the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frames (ORF) of EsCht1, EsCht2, EsCht3, EsCht4 and EsCht6 ranged from 1182bp to 1926bp with encoding proteins between 393 and 641 amino acid residues. Domain analysis of the chitinase proteins showed that most EsChts contained the catalytic domain and the chitin-binding domain (CBD) connected with the serine/threonine (S/T)-rich linker region. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that EsChts with orthologs in crustaceans were divided into six groups. The tissue-dependent, developmental stage-related and molting stage-related differential expression patterns of chitinase genes were determined using end-point polymerase chain reaction and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. During the molting cycle, EsCht2 mRNA expression in the cuticle and EsCht4 and EsCht6 mRNA expression in the hepatopancreas were 108-fold (P<0.05), 19-fold (P<0.05) and 12-fold (P<0.05) higher in the premolt (D(0-1)) than in the intermolt stage, respectively. The results indicated that EsCht1 from group 1 might play a role in the digestion of chitin-containing food; EsCht2 from group 2 likely played a role in the degradation of chitinous cuticle during molting for growth and during the post-embryonic development; EsCh3 from group 3 potentially had a dual role in the digestion of chitin-containing food and defense against chitin-bearing pathogens. EsCht3, EsCht4, and EsCht6 were highly expressed in the reproductive system, indicating their potential roles in reproductive molting. Differential expression patterns of the chitinase genes suggested that they might have distinct biological functions in developmental stage- and physiological growth-related and reproductive molting processes, which are essential for metamorphosis, growth, and reproduction. The findings of this study might form a basis for further studies on the functions of chitinases in E. sinensis and other crustaceans. PMID:26005205

  3. Testing competing hypotheses for chronology and intensity of lesser scaup molt during winter and spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, Michael J.; Anteau, Andrea C.E.; Afton, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined chronology and intensity of molt and their relationships to nutrient reserves (lipid and protein) of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinisK/i>) to test predictions of two competing hypotheses. The "staggered cost" hypothesis states that contour-feather molt is nutritionally costly and should not occur during nutritionally costly periods of the annual cycle unless adequate nutrients are available. The "breeding plumage" hypothesis states that prealternate molt must be complete prior to nesting, regardless of nutrient availability. Males and females were completing prebasic molt during winter (Louisiana) and had similar molt intensities. Females underwent prealternate molt during spring migration (Illinois and Minnesota) and prebreeding (Manitoba) periods; 53% and 93% of females were in moderate to heavy molt in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively, despite experiencing other substantial nutritional costs. Intensity of prealternate molt was not correlated with lipid reserves even though females, on average, were nutritionally stressed. Molt intensity was not negatively correlated with protein reserves at any location. Chronology and intensity of prealternate molt varied little and were not temporally staggered from other nutritionally costly events. Prealternate molt did not influence nutrient reserves, and nutrient reserves likely were not the ultimate factor influencing chronology or intensity of prealternate molt of females. We surmise that nutrients required for prealternate molt come from exogenous sources and that the "staggered cost" hypothesis does not explain chronology of prealternate molt in female Lesser Scaup; rather, it appears that molt must be complete prior to nesting, consistent with the "breeding plumage" hypothesis.

  4. Testing competing hypotheses for chronology and intensity of lesser scaup molt during winter and spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anteau, M.J.; Anteau, A.C.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined chronology and intensity of molt and their relationships to nutrient reserves (lipid and protein) of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) to test predictions of two competing hypotheses. The "staggered cost" hypothesis states that contour-feather molt is nutritionally costly and should not occur during nutritionally costly periods of the annual cycle unless adequate nutrients are available. The "breeding plumage" hypothesis states that prealternate molt must be complete prior to nesting, regardless of nutrient availability. Males and females were completing prebasic molt during winter (Louisiana) and had similar molt intensities. Females underwent prealternate molt during spring migration (Illinois and Minnesota) and prebreeding (Manitoba) periods; 53% and 93% of females were in moderate to heavy molt in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively, despite experiencing other substantial nutritional costs. Intensity of prealternate molt was not correlated with lipid reserves even though females, on average, were nutritionally stressed. Molt intensity was not negatively correlated with protein reserves at any location. Chronology and intensity of prealternate molt varied little and were not temporally staggered from other nutritionally costly events. Prealternate molt did not influence nutrient reserves, and nutrient reserves likely were not the ultimate factor influencing chronology or intensity of prealternate molt of females. We surmise that nutrients required for prealternate molt come from exogenous sources and that the "staggered cost" hypothesis does not explain chronology of prealternate molt in female Lesser Scaup; rather, it appears that molt must be complete prior to nesting, consistent with the "breeding plumage" hypothesis. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative changes in exoskeletal proteins synthesized throughout the molt cycle of the Bermuda land crab

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, L.A.; Skinner, D.M.

    1987-05-01

    During the premolt period in Crustacea, a single layer of epidermal cells that underlies the exoskeleton is thought to be responsible for the degradation of the old exoskeleton and synthesis of a new one. In order to identify molt-specific proteins and their temporal appearance, they cultured epidermis and associated integumentary tissue from the gill chambers of crab in vitro in the presence of one of three radiolabeled amino acids. Autoradiographs of (/sup 35/S)Met-labeled tissues indicate a low level of synthesis in epidermal cells of intermolt animals; synthesis increases during premolt and stage B of postmolt. Label is also found in the innermost layer of the old exoskeleton while it is being degraded and in new exoskeletal layers during their synthesis. Fluorographs of gels of integumentary proteins show marked quantitative changes in 44 and 56 kD proteins late in premolt. Qualitative changes include synthesis of 46 and 48 kD proteins during late premolt and three proteins (all of approx. 170 kD) detectable only in postmolt. Solubilized gel slices of (/sup 3/H)Leu-labeled proteins indicate maximum synthesis at an earlier premolt stage than seen in Met-labeled proteins. Other proteins of 20, 24, 29, 32, and 96 kD are synthesized in a stage-dependent manner while (/sup 3/H)Tyr labels small proteins that appear only in late premolt.

  6. Can dietary molting replace feed withdrawal molting?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of molting diets at inhibiting egg production in layers (Hy-Line W36). In total, 96, pair-housed, 60-wk-old, hens were assigned to one of four diet treatments (n=12/trt): control (C, 15.4%); low energy (LE, 12.9% CP); low salt (LS, 15.4% CP, 0.05% N...

  7. Expression of recombinant eyestalk crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis , that inhibits Y-organ ecdysteroidogenesis in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyler P. Zarubin; Ernest S. Chang; Donald L. Mykles

    2009-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, molting,\\u000a reproduction, and osmoregulation in decapod crustaceans. CHH elevates glucose levels in the hemolymph by stimulating glycogenolysis\\u000a in target tissues. It also inhibits ecdysteroidogenesis in the molting gland, or Y-organ (YO), possibly as a response to environmental\\u000a stress. CHH acts via binding to a membrane receptor

  8. Further Studies on Signaling Pathways for Ecdysteroidogenesis in Crustacean Y-Organs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Spaziani; Thomas C. Jegla; Wenan L. Wang; Jeffrey A. Booth; Shanon M. Connolly; Corey C. Conrad; Matt J. Dewall; Christopher M. Sarno; Danice K. Stone; Rex Montgomery

    2001-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. The Y-organs of crustaceans secrete ecdysteroids (molting hormones) and are regulated (negatively) by a neurosecretory peptide, molt-inhibiting hor- mone (MIH). Signaling path(s) in Y-organs were explored that connect MIH re- ceptors ultimately with suppression of receptor number for the uptake of choles- terol (ecdysteroid precursor) and of gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes. Ex- periments were conducted in vitro with

  9. Survival of Female Harlequin Ducks During Wing Molt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SAMUEL A. IVERSON; DANIEL ESLER

    2007-01-01

    Survival rates of waterfowl during wing molt have rarely been described, leading to uncertainty about the importance of this annual cycle stage for management. We quantified survival probability of 247 radiomarked female harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) during wing molt in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. The daily survival rate (DSR) was extremely high (DSR ¼ 0.999; 95% CI: 0.994- 1.000)

  10. Biological polarized light reflectors in stomatopod crustaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Cronin, Thomas W.; Caldwell, Roy L.; Marshall, Justin

    2005-08-01

    Body parts that can reflect highly polarized light have been found in several species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). These polarized light reflectors can be grossly divided into two major types. The first type, usually red or pink in color to the human visual system, is located within an animal's cuticle. Reflectors of the second type, showing iridescent blue, are located beneath the exoskeleton and thus are unaffected by the molt cycle. We used reflection spectropolarimetry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the reflective properties and the structures that reflect highly polarized light in stomatopods. For the first type of reflector, the degree of polarization usually changes dramatically, from less than 20% to over 70%, with a change in viewing angle. TEM examination indicates that the polarization reflection is generated by multilayer thin-film interference. The second type of reflector, the blue colored ones, reflects highly polarized light to all viewing angles. However, these reflectors show a slight chromatic change with different viewing angles. TEM sections have revealed that streams of oval-shaped vesicles might be responsible for the production of the polarized light reflection. In all the reflectors we have examined so far, the reflected light is always maximally polarized at around 500 nm, which is close to the wavelength best transmitted by sea water. This suggests that the polarized light reflectors found in stomatopods are well adapted to the underwater environment. We also found that most reflectors produce polarized light with a horizontal e-vector. How these polarized light reflectors are used in stomatopod signaling remains unknown.

  11. The Life Cycle of the Parasitic Crustacean, Lernanthropus latis Yamaguti, 1954 (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae), on Marine-Cultured Fish, Lates calcarifer, from Setiu Wetland, Terengganu

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Khalid, Nur Qamarina; Shaharoum-Harrison, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic crustaceans of Lernanthropus latis were isolated from the host, the seabass, Lates calcarifer, obtained from a cage culture in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu. The adult females with egg were kept alive in vials containing 20?mL of filtered seawater and incubated at 30°C. The eggs were monitored every hour and the hatching periods were recorded. Three developmental stages were observed, namely, nauplii I, nauplii II, and infective copepodid. The infective copepodids were then transferred into a tank containing 60 litres of seawater with 150 fingerlings for infection purpose. One fish was sacrificed every 24?hr to inspect the next developmental stage. As a result, six more stages were obtained within 298?hrs starting from the infection day. The stages were known as fixed copepodid I, fixed copepodid II, fixed copepodid III, fixed copepodid IV, preadult, and adult. Parasitic L. latis takes a 483?hr period to complete a life cycle. PMID:25574379

  12. Expression of Biologically Active Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) of Penaeus monodon in Pichia pastoris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supattra Treerattrakool; Apinunt Udomkit; Lily Eurwilaichitr; Burachai Sonthayanon; Sakol Panyim

    2003-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), and gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) are members of a major peptide family produced from the X-organ sinus gland complex in the eyestalk of crustaceans. This peptide family plays important roles in controlling several physiologic processes such as regulation of growth and reproduction. In this study the complementary DNA encoding a peptide related to the

  13. Putative involvement of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoforms in the neuroendocrine mediation of osmoregulation in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Laetitia; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Soyez, Daniel; Charmantier, Guy; Grousset, Evelyse; Aujoulat, Fabien; Spanings-Pierrot, Céline

    2003-03-01

    This study investigates the involvement of eyestalk neuroendocrine factors on osmoregulation in the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus maintained in freshwater. Eyestalk removal was followed by a significant decrease in hemolymph osmolality and Na(+) concentration and by a 50% increase in mass after one molting cycle. Several neurohormones have been isolated from the sinus gland through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and different crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)-related peptides, including stereoisomers (L-CHH and D-Phe(3) CHH), have been identified by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A glucose quantification bioassay demonstrated a strong hyperglycemic activity following injection of the immunoreactive chromatographic fractions and showed that the D-Phe(3) CHH was the most efficient. Destalked crayfish were then injected with purified CHH HPLC fractions. The D-Phe(3) CHH fraction significantly increased the hemolymph osmolality and Na(+) content 24 h after injection. Two other CHH-related peptides caused a smaller increase in Na(+) concentration. No significant variation was observed in hemolymph Cl(-) concentration following injection of any of the CHH isoforms. These results constitute the first observation of the effects of a CHH isoform, specifically the D-Phe(3) CHH, on osmoregulatory parameters in a freshwater crustacean. The effects of eyestalk ablation and CHH injection on osmoregulation and the identification of different CHH-related peptides and isoforms in crustaceans are discussed. PMID:12582140

  14. Flexibility and constraints in the molt schedule of long-distance migratory shorebirds: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Barshep, Yahkat; Minton, Clive D T; Underhill, Les G; Erni, Birgit; Tomkovich, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Molt is a major component of the annual cycle of birds, the timing and extent of which can affect body condition, survival, and future reproductive success through carry-over effects. The way in which molt is fitted into the annual cycle seems to be a somewhat neglected area which is both of interest and of importance. Study of the causes of annual variation in the timing of molt and its potential consequence in long-distance migratory birds was examined using the Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea, as a model species. Using the maximum likelihood molt models of Underhill and Zucchini (1988, Ibis 130:358–372), the relationship between annual variability in the start dates of molt at the population level with conditions on the breeding area was explored. Adult males typically started early in years when temperature in June on the Arctic breeding grounds were high compared to cold years while adult females molted later in years of high breeding success and/or warm July temperature and vice versa. When molt started later, the duration was often shorter, indicating that late completion of molt might have fitness consequences, probably jeopardizing survival. Evidence of this was seen in the low body condition of birds in years when molt was completed late. The results indicate that these migratory shorebirds follow a fine-tuned annual life cycle, and disturbances at a certain stage can alter next biological events through carry-over effects. PMID:23919143

  15. Flexibility and constraints in the molt schedule of long-distance migratory shorebirds: causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Barshep, Yahkat; Minton, Clive D T; Underhill, Les G; Erni, Birgit; Tomkovich, Pavel

    2013-07-01

    Molt is a major component of the annual cycle of birds, the timing and extent of which can affect body condition, survival, and future reproductive success through carry-over effects. The way in which molt is fitted into the annual cycle seems to be a somewhat neglected area which is both of interest and of importance. Study of the causes of annual variation in the timing of molt and its potential consequence in long-distance migratory birds was examined using the Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea, as a model species. Using the maximum likelihood molt models of Underhill and Zucchini (1988, Ibis 130:358-372), the relationship between annual variability in the start dates of molt at the population level with conditions on the breeding area was explored. Adult males typically started early in years when temperature in June on the Arctic breeding grounds were high compared to cold years while adult females molted later in years of high breeding success and/or warm July temperature and vice versa. When molt started later, the duration was often shorter, indicating that late completion of molt might have fitness consequences, probably jeopardizing survival. Evidence of this was seen in the low body condition of birds in years when molt was completed late. The results indicate that these migratory shorebirds follow a fine-tuned annual life cycle, and disturbances at a certain stage can alter next biological events through carry-over effects. PMID:23919143

  16. Effect of a Glycine Residue Insertion into Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone on Hormonal Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidekazu Katayama; Hiromichi Nagasawa

    2004-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) have similar amino acid sequences and therefore comprise a peptide family referred to as the CHH family. All MIHs unexceptionally have an additional glycine residue at position 12, which is lacking in all CHHs. In order to understand the relevance of the absence of the glycine residue for hyperglycemic activity, a mutant

  17. Reference: Biol. Bull., 153: 145-162. (August, 1977) COCKROACH MOLTING. II. THE NATURE OF REGENERATION-

    E-print Network

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    145 Reference: Biol. Bull., 153: 145-162. (August, 1977) COCKROACH MOLTING. II. THE NATURE of Ephestia (Pohley, 1965) or autotomy of cockroach legs (O'Farrell and Stock, 1953, 1954; Stock and O of the cockroach molting cycle interact with the regenerating limb (Penzlin, 1965). Although progress has been made

  18. Molt-inhibiting hormone from the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis: Cloning, tissue expression, and expression of biologically active recombinant peptide in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kara J. Lee; Hyun-Woo Kim; Andrea M. Gomez; Ernest S. Chang; Joseph A. Covi; Donald L. Mykles

    2007-01-01

    Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a member of the crustacean hyperglycemic neuropeptide hormone family, inhibits ecdysteroidogenesis in the molting gland or Y-organ (YO). A cDNA encoding MIH of the land crab (Gel-MIH) was cloned from eyestalk ganglia (EG) by a combination of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 3?- and 5?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA (1.4 kb) encoded

  19. Survival of surf scoters and white-winged scoters during remigial molt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Dickson, Rian D.; Hupp, Jerry; Evenson, Joseph R.; Anderson, Eric M.; Barrett, Jennifer; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying sources and timing of variation in demographic rates is necessary to determine where and when constraints may exist within the annual cycle of organisms. Surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (M. fusca) undergo simultaneous remigial molt during which they are flightless for >1 month. Molt could result in reduced survival due to increased predation risk or increased energetic demands associated with regrowing flight feathers. Waterfowl survival during remigial molt varies across species, and has rarely been assessed for sea ducks. To quantify survival during remigial molt, we deployed very high frequency (VHF) transmitters on surf scoters (n?=?108) and white-winged scoters (n?=?57) in southeast Alaska and the Salish Sea (British Columbia and Washington) in 2008 and 2009. After censoring mortalities potentially related to capture and handling effects, we detected no mortalities during remigial molt; thus, estimates of daily and period survival for both scoter species during molt were 1.00. We performed sensitivity analyses in which mortalities were added to the dataset to simulate potential mortality rates for the population and then estimated the probability of obtaining a dataset with 0 mortalities. We found that only at high survival rates was there a high probability of observing 0 mortalities. We conclude that remigial molt is normally a period of low mortality in the annual cycle of scoters. The molt period does not appear to be a constraint on scoter populations; therefore, other annual cycle stages should be targeted by research and management efforts to change population trajectories.

  20. Crustaceans of Southern Australia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This intriguing resource on the Crustaceans of Southern Australia is provided by Dr. Gary Poore of the Museum of Victoria. Hundreds of images offer a peak into the diverse and colorful underwaters of Australia; images are accompanied by concise text, offering solid introductory information on the biology of marine crustaceans. Users will find this a worthy educational tool to learn more about Australian crustaceans from barnacles to crabs, ghost shrimps to lobsters.

  1. Expression of the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormones and the gonad-inhibiting hormone during the reproductive cycle of the female American lobster Homarus americanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. de Kleijn; S L Waddy; R Hegeman; W Y Lai; GJM Martens; F Van Herp

    1998-01-01

    Crustacean reproduction is regulated by a complex chain of hormonal interactions in which the crustacean hyper- glycaemic hormones A and B (CHH-A and CHH-B) and the gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) play a primary role. These neurohormones are produced in the same neuro- endocrine cells of the X-organ sinus gland complex, situated in the eyestalks of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. In

  2. Crustacean haemocytes and haematopoiesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mats W Johansson; Pia Keyser; Kallaya Sritunyalucksana; Kenneth Söderhäll

    2000-01-01

    Crustacean haemocytes play important roles in the host immune response including recognition, phagocytosis, melanization, cytotoxicity and cell–cell communication. Classification of the haemocyte types in decapod crustaceans is based mainly on the presence of cytoplasmic granules into hyaline cells, semigranular cells, and granular cells. Each cell type is active in defence reactions, for example; in crayfish, the hyaline cells are chiefly

  3. Antiviral immunity in crustaceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haipeng Liu; Kenneth Söderhäll; Pikul Jiravanichpaisal

    2009-01-01

    Viral diseases of shrimp have caused negative effects on the economy in several countries in Asia, South America and America, where they have numerous shrimp culture industries. The studies on the immunity of shrimp and other crustaceans have mainly focused on general aspects of immunity and as a consequence little is known about the antiviral responses in crustaceans. The aim

  4. Impacts of molt-inhibiting organochlorine compounds on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yanling; Zou, Enmin

    2009-11-01

    Because of their chemical stability and lipophilicity, many organochlorine compounds (OCs) can readily accumulate in fatty tissues of crustaceans. Several OCs have been reported to inhibit crustacean molting. To determine whether the disruption of crustacean molting by these OCs involves interference with ecdysteroid signaling in the epidermis, the impacts of five molt-inhibiting OCs on the level of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, EC 3.2.1.30) mRNA in cultured epidermal tissues from the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. The NAG mRNA was found to be inducible by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) in cultured epidermal tissues. The inducibility of NAG mRNA in cultured epidermal tissues by 20-HE is not only further direct evidence that epidermal expression of NAG gene in U. pugilator is controlled by the molting hormone but also validates the use of the NAG mRNA as a biomarker for epidermal ecdysteroid signaling. When Aroclor 1242, 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB29), endosulfan or kepone was administered alone, the expression of NAG gene in cultured epidermal tissues was upregulated, while heptachlor had no effects. Under binary exposure to both 20-HE and an OC, a condition similar to the natural hormonal milieu of epidermal tissues of animals impacted by OCs, both Aroclor 1242 and endosulfan were found to be capable of antagonizing ecdysteroid signaling in cultured epidermal tissues. This antagonizing effect on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling can at least partly explain the inhibitory effects of these two agents on crustacean molting. PCB29, when given together with 20-HE, produced an additive effect on epidermal ecdysteroid signaling but such an additive effect was not observed when kepone was combined with 20-HE. PMID:19567274

  5. CRUSTACEAN ISSUES ] 3 Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics

    E-print Network

    Wetzer, Regina

    . Crandall, and Darryl L. Felder £\\ CRC Press J Taylor & Francis Group #12;Decapod Crustacean Phylogenetics, U. S. A. CRC Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Croup, an informa business #12;CRC Press by Taylor & Francis Group, I.I.G CRC Press is an imprint of'Taylor & Francis Group, an In forma business

  6. Molting in workers of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus.

    PubMed

    Raina, Ashok; Park, Yong Ihl; Gelman, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, with its huge colonies, is a major urban pest in several southern states and Hawaii as well as in South Asia. Because of their cryptic nature (underground habitat) and very long life cycle, not much is known about molting in termite workers. In C. formosanus, the workers stop foraging and lose their gut fauna, respectively, approximately 10 and 5 days prior to ecdysis. In any given colony an average of 1.01% (range 0.6-1.8) of the workers were found to molt each day under laboratory conditions. Workers destined to molt become sluggish and their head capsules develop a mottled texture one day prior to ecdysis. Ecdysis was generally accomplished with the assistance of other workers, which also fed on the exuviae. Immediately after molting worker mandibles were light pink in color and became fully melanized approximately two days later. Gut fauna were acquired on the fourth day after molting. Flagellates were transferred as small encysted cells from other workers through proctodeal feeding. Juvenile hormone III titer ranged between 30-41 pg/mg bodyweight in all stages except in workers sampled 6 days prior to ecdysis. In these workers the titer was 80.5 pg/mg. The high juvenile hormones (JH) titer may also be involved in causing defaunation. Ecdysteroid titer increased from 2.1 pg/mg in non-molting workers to 359.5 and 332.4 pg/mg one and two days following defaunation, respectively. There was a second smaller peak two days prior to ecdysis. PMID:17904575

  7. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, osmolality and electrolyte levels of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in relation to size and molt stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Da-Fun Yan; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2002-01-01

    The whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) was examined for hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, osmotic and ion concentrations in relation to sex, size and molt stage. No significant difference in hemolymph variables was observed between male and female shrimp with body weight in the range of 4.69–32.57 g. With regard to the molt cycle, hemolymph protein and oxyhemocyanin levels were highest

  8. Salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production, revealed using EST-sequencing and microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eichner, Christiane; Frost, Petter; Dysvik, Bjarte; Jonassen, Inge; Kristiansen, Bjørn; Nilsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Background Lepeophtheirus salmonis is an ectoparasitic copepod feeding on skin, mucus and blood from salmonid hosts. Initial analysis of EST sequences from pre adult and adult stages of L. salmonis revealed a large proportion of novel transcripts. In order to link unknown transcripts to biological functions we have combined EST sequencing and microarray analysis to characterize female salmon louse transcriptomes during post molting maturation and egg production. Results EST sequence analysis shows that 43% of the ESTs have no significant hits in GenBank. Sequenced ESTs assembled into 556 contigs and 1614 singletons and whenever homologous genes were identified no clear correlation with homologous genes from any specific animal group was evident. Sequence comparison of 27 L. salmonis proteins with homologous proteins in humans, zebrafish, insects and crustaceans revealed an almost identical sequence identity with all species. Microarray analysis of maturing female adult salmon lice revealed two major transcription patterns; up-regulation during the final molting followed by down regulation and female specific up regulation during post molting growth and egg production. For a third minor group of ESTs transcription decreased during molting from pre-adult II to immature adults. Genes regulated during molting typically gave hits with cuticula proteins whilst transcripts up regulated during post molting growth were female specific, including two vitellogenins. Conclusion The copepod L.salmonis contains high a level of novel genes. Among analyzed L.salmonis proteins, sequence identities with homologous proteins in crustaceans are no higher than to homologous proteins in humans. Three distinct processes, molting, post molting growth and egg production correlate with transcriptional regulation of three groups of transcripts; two including genes related to growth, one including genes related to egg production. The function of the regulated transcripts is discussed in relation to post molting morphological changes in adult female salmon louse. There is clear evidence that transcription of the major yolk proteins is not induced before some of the post molting growth of abdomen and the genital segment has occurred. A hallmark for the observed growth is transcription of many putative cuticula proteins prior to the size increase. PMID:18331648

  9. Chronologically sampled flight feathers permits recognition of individual molt-migrants due to varying protein sources.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Sievert; Fox, Anthony D; Daniel, Thomas; Kelly, Jeffrey F

    2015-01-01

    This is a proof of concept paper based on chronological samples of growing feathers from geese thought to be molt-migrants. When molt-migrant birds initiate molt shortly after migrating to a new isoscape, isotope values measured along the length of their feathers should change continuously. To assess long-term changes and daily cycling in ? (15)N and ? (13)C values, we serially sampled a growing primary from three presumed molt-migrant geese. Two showed changing ? (15)N signatures along the length of their growing primary, indicating they were molt-migrants, while the third, presumably a resident, showed no change. We then resampled these feathers at closer intervals for evidence of the predicted diel cycle in the use of exogenous and endogenous protein for feather growth, generated by the diel feeding cycle of these geese. As predicted, a periodicity of ca. 24 h in ? (15)N values was found along the primary of the two equilibrating geese, but not in the other goose that was probably a resident. Our results demonstrate that chronological sampling along the length of individual primaries holds great potential for identifying individuals that are molt-migrants. PMID:25649835

  10. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis: Cloning, isoforms, and tissue expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kara J. Lee; Rachelle M. Doran; Donald L. Mykles

    2007-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) regulates carbohydrate metabolism, molting, and ion and water transport. cDNAs encoding four CHH isoforms (designated EG-CHH-A, -B, -C, and -D) were cloned from eyestalk ganglia (EG) from land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis. The isoforms differed in the 3? region of the open reading frame and\\/or the length of the 3? untranslated region. All encoded essentially identical preprohormones

  11. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) neuropeptides family: Functions, titer, and binding to target tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sook Chung; N. Zmora; H. Katayama; N. Tsutsui

    2010-01-01

    The removal of the eyestalk (s) induces molting and reproduction promoted the presence of regulatory substances in the eyestalk (ES), particularly medulla terminalis X-organ and the sinus gland (MTXO–SG). The PCR-based cloning strategies have allowed for isolating a great number of cDNAs sequences of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) neuropeptides family from the eyestalk and non-eyestalk tissues, e.g., pericardial organs and

  12. Effects of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) on the transcript expression of carbohydrate metabolism-related enzyme genes in the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiaki Nagai; Shinji Nagata; Hiromichi Nagasawa

    2011-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), a member of a neuropeptide family present only in arthropods, plays a pivotal role in the modulation of hemolymph glucose levels, molting, reproduction, and the stress response. Although it has been determined that hepatopancreas and muscle are the major tissues in which CHH regulates hyperglycemic activity, the molecular mechanism by which CHH regulates carbohydrate metabolism remains

  13. Identification of genes differentially expressed during larval molting and metamorphosis of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Du-Juan; He, Hong-Juan; Chai, Lian-Qin; Jiang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2007-01-01

    Background Larval molting and metamorphosis are important physiological processes in the life cycle of the holometabolous insect. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify genes differentially expressed during larval molting and metamorphosis. Results We performed SSH between tissues from a variety of developmental stages, including molting 5th and feeding 6th instar larvae, metamorphically committed and feeding 5th instar larvae, and feeding 5th instar and metamorphically committed larvae. One hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified and included 73 putative genes with similarity to known genes, and 27 unknown ESTs. SSH results were further characterized by dot blot, Northern blot, and RT-PCR. The expression levels of eleven genes were found to change during larval molting or metamorphosis, suggesting a functional role during these processes. Conclusion These results provide a new set of genes expressed specifically during larval molt or metamorphosis that are candidates for further studies into the regulatory mechanisms of those stage-specific genes during larval molt and metamorphosis PMID:17588272

  14. Functional analysis of crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone by in vivo assay with wild-type and mutant recombinant proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romina Mettulio; Piero Giulio Giulianini; Enrico Antonio Ferrero; Simonetta Lorenzon; Paolo Edomi

    2004-01-01

    The neuro-endocrine X-organ sinus-gland complex regulates important crustacean physiological processes, such as growth, reproduction and molting. Its major products are the neuropeptides of the cHH\\/MIH\\/GIH family. Until now the structure–function relationships of these neuropeptides were established by sequence comparison. To study the functional relevance of conserved amino acid residues or peptide motifs, we generated point and deletion mutants of the

  15. Molecular evolution of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family in ecdysozoans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) family peptides are neurohormones known to regulate several important functions in decapod crustaceans such as ionic and energetic metabolism, molting and reproduction. The structural conservation of these peptides, together with the variety of functions they display, led us to investigate their evolutionary history. CHH family peptides exist in insects (Ion Transport Peptides) and may be present in all ecdysozoans as well. In order to extend the evolutionary study to the entire family, CHH family peptides were thus searched in taxa outside decapods, where they have been, to date, poorly investigated. Results CHH family peptides were characterized by molecular cloning in a branchiopod crustacean, Daphnia magna, and in a collembolan, Folsomia candida. Genes encoding such peptides were also rebuilt in silico from genomic sequences of another branchiopod, a chelicerate and two nematodes. These sequences were included in updated datasets to build phylogenies of the CHH family in pancrustaceans. These phylogenies suggest that peptides found in Branchiopoda and Collembola are more closely related to insect ITPs than to crustacean CHHs. Datasets were also used to support a phylogenetic hypothesis about pancrustacean relationships, which, in addition to gene structures, allowed us to propose two evolutionary scenarios of this multigenic family in ecdysozoans. Conclusions Evolutionary scenarios suggest that CHH family genes of ecdysozoans originate from an ancestral two-exon gene, and genes of arthropods from a three-exon one. In malacostracans, the evolution of the CHH family has involved several duplication, insertion or deletion events, leading to neuropeptides with a wide variety of functions, as observed in decapods. This family could thus constitute a promising model to investigate the links between gene duplications and functional divergence. PMID:20184761

  16. When the Seasons Don't Fit: Speedy Molt as a Routine Carry-Over Cost of Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Rogers, Ken G.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    The failure of animals to fit all life-cycle stages into an annual cycle could reduce the chances of successful breeding. In some cases, non-optimal strategies will be adopted in order to maintain the life-cycle within the scope of one year. We studied trade-offs made by a High Arctic migrant shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus islandica, between reproduction and wing feather molt carried out in the non-breeding period in the Dutch Wadden Sea. We compared primary molt duration between birds undertaking the full migratory and breeding schedule with birds that forego breeding because they are young or are maintained in captivity. Molt duration was ca. 71 days in breeding adults, which was achieved by an accelerated feather replacement strategy. Second-year birds and captive adults took ca. 22% and 27% longer, respectively. Second-year birds start molt in late June, more than four weeks before captive adults, and almost seven weeks before adults that return from breeding in late July–August. Adults finish molt in October when steeply increasing thermostatic costs and reductions in food availability occur. Primary molt duration was longer in female than in male knots (all ages), which was accordance with the somewhat larger body size of females. Since fast growth leads to lower quality feathers, the speedy wing molt shown by Arctic-breeding birds may represent a time constraint that is an unavoidable and routine cost of reproduction. So far it was hypothesized that only birds over 1 kg would have difficulty fitting molt within a year. Here we show that in birds an order of magnitude smaller, temporal imperatives may impose the adoption of non-optimal life-cycle routines in the entire actively breeding population. PMID:23349758

  17. Evaluation of induced molting methods on the livability and reproductive system regression of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RSC Teixeira; WM Cardoso; GC Nogueira; JM Romao; AA Siqueira; FAC Sampaio; TGV Moraes; CC Campello; CC Buxade

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the alternative method of zinc oxide and fasting to induce molt in Japanese quails. A total number of 190 48-week-old quails was used. They were at end of laying cycle, and presented low egg production. Quails molted by zinc oxide (Z) were fed a diet containing 25,000 ppm of zinc oxide, and received water ad

  18. Predicting crustacean zooplankton species richness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STANLEY DODSON

    1992-01-01

    Data from 66 North American lakes were collected to construct a model for predicting the number of crustacean zooplankton species expected in a lake. The chosen lakes have a range from 4 m* to 80 x lo9 m2 surface area, range from ultra-oligotrophic to hypereutrophic, and have zooplankton species lists based on several years of observation. The number of crustacean

  19. Survival and molting of the pea crab larvae Tunicotheres moseri Rathbun 1918 (Brachyura, Pinnotheridae) exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    López Greco, L S; Bolaños, J; Rodríguez, E M; Hernández, G

    2001-05-01

    The acute lethal toxicity of copper, as well as its sublethal effect on molting, was studied on larval and postlarval stages of the pinnotherid crab Tunicotheres moseri. The most sensitive stage was zoea I, presenting a significant mortality above 0.5 microg x L(-1). Abnormal setation of the maxillipeds was observed in zoeae II moulted from zoeae I exposed to 100 microg x L(-1) and higher copper concentrations, causing a reduced swimming activity of the larvae. This pathology could be reverted after molting of affected zoea II to megalopa, which would be the first report in crustacean larvae that states the possibility of reverting morphological abnormalities after molting. For zoeae II and megalopae, the inhibition of molting and high mortality was registered at 1,000 microg x L(-1). The effect of copper on the duration of the larval and postlarval stages was differential: It retarded the duration of the stage zoea I, did not modify that of zoea II, and accelerated the ecdysis of the megalopae to first crab. However, precocious molting to megalopae was associated with a smaller body size at the concentration of 100 microg x L(-1). This differential effect of copper on the larval stages throughout the larval development could be ecologically relevant. Because of their lecithotrophia, their short developmental period, their good survival in control conditions, and the high sensitivity showed to copper (especially zoea I), larvae of T. moseri have shown that they are an excellent model for studying the effect of pollutant on survival, molting rate, growth, and morphogenetic changes during development. PMID:11525493

  20. Effect of adenosine on the growth of human T-lymphocyte leukemia cell line MOLT-4.

    PubMed

    Streitová, Denisa; Weiterová, Lenka; Hofer, Michal; Holá, Jirina; Horváth, Viktor; Kozubík, Alois; Znojil, Vladimír

    2007-09-01

    Adenosine has been observed to suppress the growth of MOLT-4 human leukemia cells in vitro. Changes in the cell cycle, especially increased percentage of cells in S phase, prolonged generation time, and induction of apoptosis at higher adenosine concentrations have been found to be responsible for the growth suppression. Dipyridamole, a drug inhibiting the cellular uptake of adenosine, reversed partially but significantly the adenosine-induced growth suppression. It follows from these results that the action of adenosine on the MOLT-4 cells comprises its cellular uptake and intracellular operation. These findings present new data on anticancer efficacy of adenosine. PMID:17882653

  1. Chitinase activity in the epidermis of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, as an in vivo screen for molt-interfering xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Zou, Enmin; Bonvillain, Ryan

    2004-12-01

    We describe an in vivo screening assay that uses epidermal chitinase activity as the endpoint following a 7-day exposure of Uca pugilator to test chemicals. Chitinase, a chitinolytic enzyme, is the end product of endocrine cascades of a multi-hormonal system for control of crustacean molting. Wherever a molt-interfering agent adversely impacts the Y-organ-ecdysteroid receptor axis, the effect should be manifested by the activity of chitinase in the epidermis. Therefore, epidermal chitinase activity is an ideal endpoint for molt-interfering effects of xenobiotics. The validity of epidermal chitinase activity being used for such a purpose is supported by our finding that two injections of 20-hydroxyecdysone at 25 microg/g live weight induced a twofold increase in chitinase activity in the epidermis of U. pugilator. A total of nine chemicals were screened for molting hormone and anti-molting activities. o,p'-DDT was found to significantly inhibit epidermal chitinase activity while kepone and methoxychlor exhibited a tendency of inhibition of enzymatic activity. None of the remaining six chemicals, namely, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), atrazine, tributyltin (TBT), methoprene, dieldrin and permethrin, had an effect on epidermal chitinase activity. PMID:15683831

  2. ECDYSIS OF DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS IS ASSOCIATED WITH A DRAMATIC RELEASE OF CRUSTACEAN CARDIOACTIVE PEPTIDE INTO THE HAEMOLYMPH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARKUS K. PHLIPPEN; SIMON G. WEBSTER; J. SOOK CHUNG; HEINRICH DIRCKSEN

    On the basis of detailed analyses of morphological characteristics and behavioural events associated with ecdysis in a crab (Carcinus maenas) and a crayfish (Orconectes limosus), a comprehensive substaging system has been introduced for the ecdysis stage of the moult cycle of these decapod crustaceans. In a remarkably similar stereotyped ecdysis sequence in both species, a passive phase of water uptake

  3. Crustacean oxi-reductases protein sequences derived from a functional genomic project potentially involved in ecdysteroid hormones metabolism - a starting point for function examination.

    PubMed

    Tom, Moshe; Manfrin, Chiara; Giulianini, Piero G; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    A transcriptomic assembly originated from hypodermis and Y organ of the crustacean Pontastacus leptodactylus is used here for in silico characterization of oxi-reductase enzymes potentially involved in the metabolism of ecdysteroid molting hormones. RNA samples were extracted from male Y organ and its neighboring hypodermis in all stages of the molt cycle. An equimolar RNA mix from all stages was sequenced using next generation sequencing technologies and de novo assembled, resulting with 74,877 unique contigs. These transcript sequences were annotated by examining their resemblance to all GenBank translated transcripts, determining their Gene Ontology terms and their characterizing domains. Based on the present knowledge of arthropod ecdysteroid metabolism and more generally on steroid metabolism in other taxa, transcripts potentially related to ecdysteroid metabolism were identified and their longest possible conceptual protein sequences were constructed in two stages, correct reading frame was deduced from BLASTX resemblances, followed by elongation of the protein sequence by identifying the correct translation frame of the original transcript. The analyzed genes belonged to several oxi-reductase superfamilies including the Rieske non heme iron oxygenases, cytochrome P450s, short-chained hydroxysteroid oxi-reductases, aldo/keto oxireductases, lamin B receptor/sterol reductases and glucose-methanol-cholin oxi-reductatses. A total of 68 proteins were characterized and the most probable participants in the ecdysteroid metabolism where indicated. The study provides transcript and protein structural information, a starting point for further functional studies, using a variety of gene-specific methods to demonstrate or disprove the roles of these proteins in relation to ecdysteroid metabolism in P. leptodactylus. PMID:24055302

  4. The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursors a and b of the Norway lobster differ in the preprohormone but not in the mature peptide.

    PubMed

    Mettulio, R; Edomi, P; Ferrero, E A; Lorenzon, S; Giulianini, P G

    2004-11-01

    The neuro-endocrine X-organ sinus-gland complex of crustaceans produces and releases the neuropeptides of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (cHH)/molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH)/gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) family that regulate important physiological processes, such as growth, reproduction and molting. We cloned two full-length cDNAs encoding the preprocHH-A and preprocHH-B of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus of 132 and 131 amino acid residues. The two cHHs differ in the preprohormone but not in the mature peptide sequence. The mature cHH was expressed in bacteria as GST fusion protein that, in bioassay, shows a hyperglycemic activity similar to that of native cHH present in an eyestalk extract. PMID:15501521

  5. Benzoylurea pesticides used as veterinary medicines in aquaculture: Risks and developmental effects on nontarget crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Macken, Ailbhe; Lillicrap, Adam; Langford, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron are benzoylureas that are used in aquaculture to control sea lice. Flubenzurons have low toxicity to many marine species such as fish and algae but by their nature are likely to have significant adverse effects on nontarget species such as crustaceans and amphipods. Although the exact mechanism of toxicity is not known, these compounds are thought to inhibit the production of the enzyme chitin synthase during molting of immature stages of arthropods. These chitin synthesis inhibitors are effective against the larval and pre-adult life stages of sea lice. Due to their low solubility and results of recent monitoring studies conducted in Norway, the sediment compartment is considered the most likely reservoir for these compounds and possible remobilization from the sediment to benthic crustaceans could be of importance. For this reason, the epibenthic copepod Tisbe battagliai was selected for investigations into the acute and developmental effects of these compounds. For comparative purposes, azamethiphos was investigated to identify differences in sensitivity and act as a negative control for developmental effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. Standard acute studies with adult copepods showed little or no acute toxicity at milligrams per liter levels with the flubenzurons, whereas a naupliar developmental test demonstrated that environmentally relevant concentrations (e.g., nanograms per liter) caused a complete cessation of molting and finally death in the exposed copepods. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1533-1542. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25663472

  6. Molt-inhibiting hormone stimulates vitellogenesis at advanced ovarian developmental stages in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus 1: an ovarian stage dependent involvement

    PubMed Central

    Zmora, Nilli; Trant, John; Zohar, Yonathan; Chung, J Sook

    2009-01-01

    To understand the hormonal coordination of the antagonism between molting and reproduction in crustaceans, the terminally anecdysial mature female Callinectes sapidus was used as a model. The regulatory roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) in vitellogenesis were examined. A competitive specific RIA was used to measure the levels of MIH and CHH in the hemolymphs of mature females at pre- and mid- vitellogenic stages, and their effects on vitellogenesis at early (early 2, E2) and mid vitellogenesis (3) stages were determined in vitro. A hepatopancreas fragments incubation system was developed and the levels of vitellogenin (VtG), as well as VtG mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear (hn)VtG RNA were determined using RIA or QPCR, respectively. MIH titers were four times higher at mid-vitellogenesis than at pre-vitellogenesis, while CHH levels in the hemolymph were constant. In the in vitro incubation experiments, MIH increased both VtG mRNA levels and secretion at ovarian stage 3. At stage E2, however, MIH resulted in a mixed response: downregulation of VtG mRNA and upregulation of hnVtG RNA. CHH had no effect on any of the parameters. Actinomycin D blocked the stimulatory effects of MIH in stage 3 animals on VtG mRNA and VtG, while cycloheximide attenuated only VtG levels, confirming the MIH stimulatory effect at this stage. MIH is a key endocrine regulator in the coordination of molting and reproduction in the mature female C. sapidus, which simultaneously inhibits molt and stimulates vitellogenesis. PMID:19583852

  7. Molt-inhibiting hormone stimulates vitellogenesis at advanced ovarian developmental stages in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus 1: an ovarian stage dependent involvement.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Trant, John; Zohar, Yonathan; Chung, J Sook

    2009-01-01

    To understand the hormonal coordination of the antagonism between molting and reproduction in crustaceans, the terminally anecdysial mature female Callinectes sapidus was used as a model. The regulatory roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) in vitellogenesis were examined. A competitive specific RIA was used to measure the levels of MIH and CHH in the hemolymphs of mature females at pre- and mid- vitellogenic stages, and their effects on vitellogenesis at early (early 2, E2) and mid vitellogenesis (3) stages were determined in vitro. A hepatopancreas fragments incubation system was developed and the levels of vitellogenin (VtG), as well as VtG mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear (hn)VtG RNA were determined using RIA or QPCR, respectively. MIH titers were four times higher at mid-vitellogenesis than at pre-vitellogenesis, while CHH levels in the hemolymph were constant. In the in vitro incubation experiments, MIH increased both VtG mRNA levels and secretion at ovarian stage 3. At stage E2, however, MIH resulted in a mixed response: downregulation of VtG mRNA and upregulation of hnVtG RNA. CHH had no effect on any of the parameters. Actinomycin D blocked the stimulatory effects of MIH in stage 3 animals on VtG mRNA and VtG, while cycloheximide attenuated only VtG levels, confirming the MIH stimulatory effect at this stage. MIH is a key endocrine regulator in the coordination of molting and reproduction in the mature female C. sapidus, which simultaneously inhibits molt and stimulates vitellogenesis. PMID:19583852

  8. Tyrosinases from crustaceans form hexamers.

    PubMed Central

    Jaenicke, Elmar; Decker, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    Tyrosinases, which are widely distributed among animals, plants and fungi, are involved in many biologically essential functions, including pigmentation, sclerotization, primary immune response and host defence. In the present study, we present a structural and physicochemical characterization of two new tyrosinases from the crustaceans Palinurus elephas (European spiny lobster) and Astacus leptodactylus (freshwater crayfish). In vivo, the purified crustacean tyrosinases occur as hexamers composed of one subunit type with a molecular mass of approx. 71 kDa. The tyrosinase hexamers appear to be similar to the haemocyanins, based on electron microscopy. Thus a careful purification protocol was developed to discriminate clearly between tyrosinases and the closely related haemocyanins. The physicochemical properties of haemocyanins and tyrosinases are different with respect to electronegativity and hydrophobicity. The hexameric nature of arthropod tyrosinases suggests that these proteins were the ideal predecessors from which to develop the oxygen-carrier protein haemocyanin, with its allosteric and co-operative properties, later on. PMID:12466021

  9. Tyrosinases from crustaceans form hexamers.

    PubMed

    Jaenicke, Elmar; Decker, Heinz

    2003-04-15

    Tyrosinases, which are widely distributed among animals, plants and fungi, are involved in many biologically essential functions, including pigmentation, sclerotization, primary immune response and host defence. In the present study, we present a structural and physicochemical characterization of two new tyrosinases from the crustaceans Palinurus elephas (European spiny lobster) and Astacus leptodactylus (freshwater crayfish). In vivo, the purified crustacean tyrosinases occur as hexamers composed of one subunit type with a molecular mass of approx. 71 kDa. The tyrosinase hexamers appear to be similar to the haemocyanins, based on electron microscopy. Thus a careful purification protocol was developed to discriminate clearly between tyrosinases and the closely related haemocyanins. The physicochemical properties of haemocyanins and tyrosinases are different with respect to electronegativity and hydrophobicity. The hexameric nature of arthropod tyrosinases suggests that these proteins were the ideal predecessors from which to develop the oxygen-carrier protein haemocyanin, with its allosteric and co-operative properties, later on. PMID:12466021

  10. Hemolymph proteins in marine crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Fredrick, W Sylvester; Ravichandran, S

    2012-01-01

    This study is done with the aim to bring together the various antimicrobial peptides that are present in the crustacean hemolymph and their sources along with its characteristics. Invertebrates lack immune systems that involve antigen-antibody reactions and do not have an immune memory, therefore most invertebrate species show no evidence of acquired immunity. Crustaceans possess an open circulatory system, where nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and cells are distributed in the hemolymph. They lack adaptive immune system and rely exclusively on their innate immune mechanisms that include both cellular and humoral responses. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins form an important means of host defense in eukaryotes. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides have functions in inflammation, wound repair and regulation of the adaptive immune system. Over the past several years, many antimicrobial peptides have been found and characterized in crabs. PMID:23569958

  11. The King of Crustaceans: Lobsters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-28

    In the north Atlantic, the American Lobster is the undisputed king of crustaceans. It’s also a tremendously important commercial catch. While all the other fisheries are collapsing, why are lobsters resisting the trend? In this video, Jonathan goes out with a Maine lobsterman to learn why, and he dives down below to find the biggest lobsters he has ever seen. This segment won a New England Emmy Award! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  12. RELATIONSHIP OF DIET, FEED CONSUMPTION, AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT TO SUSCEPTILITY OF LAYING HENS TO SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS DURING FORCED MOLT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of feed deprivation to induce molting and stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles in laying hens is a common practice in commercial egg production. Unfortunately, this method causes an increased risk of Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Methods to stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles without increas...

  13. ECCENTRIC FIRST-YEAR MOLT PATrERNS IN CERTAIN TYRANNID FLYCATCHE!.S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER PYLE

    Most passerines follow a similar sequence of remex molt, replacement of the primaries commencing with the innermost and proceeding distally, while that of the secondaries (except for the tertials, S7-S9) begins with the outermost and proceeds proximally (Ginn and Melville 1983). During the first- year molts (here defined as all periods of molting before the second prebasic molt), many passerines

  14. Primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in North and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, G.H.; Amend, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    Examination of 8,141 adult mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in North and South Carolina revealed that substantial numbers complete primary feather molt in September. Adult mourning doves shed primaries at the rate of 1 per 14 days. No difference was found in this rate between sexes or among years, 1969-74. The initiation of molt differed from year to year, and female molt always preceded male molt. Available data show that southern doves complete primary molt a month earlier than northern doves. Therefore, age based on primary molt can be biased upward if all molt-complete wings from southern hunting samples are considered immature.

  15. Molt and taxonomy of red-breasted nuthatches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1970-01-01

    The postnuptial and postjuvenal molts of Red-breasted Nuthatches occur from middle June to late September. Some birds may be nearly finished with the complete molt before other individuals begin, so that specimens taken at any given time may differ by as much as two months in the age of their plumage. No characters useful in ageing birds after the completion of the autumn molt were found.....The proposed racial subdivision of Sitta canadensis was based on misleading evidence resulting from variation of plumage age in birds assumed to be seasonally comparable, sooting of birds in industrialized parts of the country, and variation in quality of prepared specimens.

  16. Neural mechanism of optimal limb coordination in crustacean swimming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Calvin; Guy, Robert D; Mulloney, Brian; Zhang, Qinghai; Lewis, Timothy J

    2014-09-23

    A fundamental challenge in neuroscience is to understand how biologically salient motor behaviors emerge from properties of the underlying neural circuits. Crayfish, krill, prawns, lobsters, and other long-tailed crustaceans swim by rhythmically moving limbs called swimmerets. Over the entire biological range of animal size and paddling frequency, movements of adjacent swimmerets maintain an approximate quarter-period phase difference with the more posterior limbs leading the cycle. We use a computational fluid dynamics model to show that this frequency-invariant stroke pattern is the most effective and mechanically efficient paddling rhythm across the full range of biologically relevant Reynolds numbers in crustacean swimming. We then show that the organization of the neural circuit underlying swimmeret coordination provides a robust mechanism for generating this stroke pattern. Specifically, the wave-like limb coordination emerges robustly from a combination of the half-center structure of the local central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) that drive the movements of each limb, the asymmetric network topology of the connections between local CPGs, and the phase response properties of the local CPGs, which we measure experimentally. Thus, the crustacean swimmeret system serves as a concrete example in which the architecture of a neural circuit leads to optimal behavior in a robust manner. Furthermore, we consider all possible connection topologies between local CPGs and show that the natural connectivity pattern generates the biomechanically optimal stroke pattern most robustly. Given the high metabolic cost of crustacean swimming, our results suggest that natural selection has pushed the swimmeret neural circuit toward a connection topology that produces optimal behavior. PMID:25201976

  17. Neural mechanism of optimal limb coordination in crustacean swimming

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Calvin; Guy, Robert D.; Mulloney, Brian; Zhang, Qinghai; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in neuroscience is to understand how biologically salient motor behaviors emerge from properties of the underlying neural circuits. Crayfish, krill, prawns, lobsters, and other long-tailed crustaceans swim by rhythmically moving limbs called swimmerets. Over the entire biological range of animal size and paddling frequency, movements of adjacent swimmerets maintain an approximate quarter-period phase difference with the more posterior limbs leading the cycle. We use a computational fluid dynamics model to show that this frequency-invariant stroke pattern is the most effective and mechanically efficient paddling rhythm across the full range of biologically relevant Reynolds numbers in crustacean swimming. We then show that the organization of the neural circuit underlying swimmeret coordination provides a robust mechanism for generating this stroke pattern. Specifically, the wave-like limb coordination emerges robustly from a combination of the half-center structure of the local central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) that drive the movements of each limb, the asymmetric network topology of the connections between local CPGs, and the phase response properties of the local CPGs, which we measure experimentally. Thus, the crustacean swimmeret system serves as a concrete example in which the architecture of a neural circuit leads to optimal behavior in a robust manner. Furthermore, we consider all possible connection topologies between local CPGs and show that the natural connectivity pattern generates the biomechanically optimal stroke pattern most robustly. Given the high metabolic cost of crustacean swimming, our results suggest that natural selection has pushed the swimmeret neural circuit toward a connection topology that produces optimal behavior. PMID:25201976

  18. Neuropeptide-induced inhibition of steroidogenesis in crab molting glands: involvement of cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Baghdassarian, D; de Bessé, N; Saïdi, B; Sommé, G; Lachaise, F

    1996-10-01

    In crustaceans, ecdysteroid production by the molting glands (Y-organs) is negatively regulated by a neuropeptide, molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH). The involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases in the mechanism of action of this neuropeptide was investigated with regard to the steroidogenic activity of Carcinus maenas Y-organs. Regardless of the activity level, the major phosphotransferase activity measured in cytosolic fraction was cGMP-dependent, indicating a relatively high cytosolic concentration of cGMP-kinase in these cells. Phosphotransferase activity was nearly twofold higher in the intermolt (low steroidogenic activity) than in premolt (high steroidogenic activity) animals. In vitro incubation of premolt Y-organs with MIH for 1 hr increased by 3.7-fold the cGMP-kinase activity ratio (-cGMP/ +cGMP). Numerous endogenous protein substrates were predominantly phosphorylated in a cGMP-dependent manner in cytosolic, particulate, and membrane fractions. Similar phosphoprotein patterns were observed in both molting stages. By contrast, cAMP-kinase activity, which was low in intermolt Y-organs, increased significantly in the active steroidogenic premolt Y-organs. The increase in cAMP-kinase activity was accompanied by a cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of several specific endogenous proteins. Taken together these results strongly suggest that activation of cGMP-kinase and subsequent phosphorylation of an endogenous protein(s) may be responsible, at least in part, for the MIH-induced inhibition of steroidogenesis. By contrast, it is most unlikely that cAMP-kinase is involved in these processes. PMID:8921354

  19. California condor plumage and molt as field study aids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbur, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is made of the reliability of plumage and molt characteristics of the California condor for estimating age and identifying individual birds. Neither character seems sufficiently reliable to use in more than a general way.

  20. Primary feather molt of juvenile mourning doves in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Morrow, Michael Eugene

    1983-01-01

    OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEEGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST CF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW METHODS Study Area Aging and Banding Nestlings Recapturing Juvenile Birds Banded as Nestlings Statistical Analyses RESULTS... ages from those predicted by studies reported in the literature. Negative values indicate a faster than expected molt rate; positive values indicate slower than expected 21 Mean delay (days) of observed molt intervals from those predicted...

  1. Prebasic molt initiation and progress in northern fulmars of the High Arctic: do molt and breeding overlap?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel A. Allard; Mark L. Mallory; Kerrie L. Wilcox; Mark R. Forbes

    2008-01-01

    We examined feather molt progress of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) at Cape Vera in the Canadian High Arctic through opportunistic observation of individuals in flight from 2003 to 2006, and\\u000a examination of bodies and wings of 127 individuals collected at the site, from 2003 to 2005. We found no evidence suggesting\\u000a that fulmars shed primary feathers during breeding. Prebasic molt

  2. Changes in Timing, Duration, and Symmetry of Molt of Hawaiian Forest Birds

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650–1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989–1999 and 2000–2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989–1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000–2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds. PMID:22279547

  3. Behavioral and genomic characterization of molt-sleep in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    MacWilliam, Dyan; Arensburger, Peter; Higa, Jason; Cui, Xinping; Adams, Michael E

    2015-07-01

    During the transition from feeding to molting, larval insects undergo profound changes in behavior and patterns of gene expression regulated by the neuroendocrine system. For some species, a distinctive characteristic of molting larvae is presence of a quiescent state sometimes referred to as "molt-sleep". Here, observations of 4th instar Manduca sexta larvae indicate the molting period involves a predominantly quiescent state that shares behavioral properties of adult insect sleep in that it is rapidly reversible and accompanied by a reduced responsiveness to both mildly arousing and noxious stimuli. When subjected to noxious stimuli, molting larvae exhibit locomotory and avoidance behaviors similar to those of inter-molt larvae. Although less consolidated, inter-molt quiescence shares many of the same behavioral traits with molting quiescence. However, when subjected to deprivation of quiescence, inter-molt larvae display a compensatory rebound behavior that is not detected in molting larvae. This suggests that molting quiescence is a specialized form of inactivity that affords survival advantages to molting larvae. RNA-seq analysis of molting larvae shows general reduction in expression of genes encoding GPCRs and down regulation of genes connected with cyclic nucleotide signaling. On the other hand, certain ion channel genes are up-regulated, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, chloride channels and a voltage-dependent calcium channel. These findings suggest patterns of gene expression consistent with elevation of quiescent state characteristic of the molt in a model holometabolous insect. PMID:25661727

  4. Changes in timing, duration, and symmetry of molt of Hawaiian forest birds.

    PubMed

    Freed, Leonard A; Cann, Rebecca L

    2012-01-01

    Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650-1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989-1999 and 2000-2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989-1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000-2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds. PMID:22279547

  5. Neurobiology of the Crustacean Swimmeret System

    PubMed Central

    Mulloney, Brian; Smarandache-Wellmann, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean swimmeret system includes a distributed set of local circuits that individually control movements of one jointed limb. These modular local circuits occur in pairs in each segmental ganglion, and normally operate synchronously to produce smoothly coordinated cycles of limb movements on different body segments. The system presents exceptional opportunities for computational and experimental investigation of neural mechanisms of coordination because: a. The system will express in vitro the periodic motor pattern that normally drives cycles of swimmeret movements during forward swimming. b. The intersegmental neurons which encode information that is necessary and sufficient for normal coordination have been identified, and their activity can be recorded. c. The local commissural neurons that integrate this coordinating information and tune the phase of each swimmeret are known. d. The complete set of synaptic connections between coordinating neurons and these commissural neurons have been described. e. The synaptic connections onto each local pattern-generating circuit through which coordinating information tunes the circuit's phase have been discovered. These factors make possible for the first time a detailed, comprehensive cellular and synaptic explanation of how this neural circuit produces an effective, behaviorally-significant output. This paper is the first comprehensive review of the system's neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, its local and intersegmental circuitry, its transmitter pharmacology, its neuromodulatory control mechanisms, and its interactions with other motor systems. Each of these topics is covered in detail in an attempt to provide a complete review of the literature as a foundation for new research. The series of hypotheses that have been proposed to account for the system's properties are reviewed critically in the context of experimental tests of their validity. PMID:22270044

  6. ALTERATIONS IN THE GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS AS INDICATORS OF POLLUTANT STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) has been identified as one of the most sensitive members of the estuarine community to pollutant stress (for a review see Nimmo and Hamaker, 1982). n the majority of life-cycle toxicity tests using this planktonic estuarine crustacean, sublet...

  7. Inverse Demographic Analysis of Compensatory Responses to Resource Limitation in the Mysid Crustacean Americamysis bahia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  8. Evaluation of the Bacterial Diversity in Cecal Contents of Laying Hens Fed Various Molting Diets Using Bacterial Tag-Encoded FLX Amplicon Pyrosequencing (bTEFAP)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laying hens are typically induced to molt in order to begin a new egg-laying cycle by withdrawing feed for up to 12-14 d. Fasted hens are more susceptible to colonization and tissue invasion by Salmonella Enteriditis. Much of this increased incidence in fasted hens is thought to be due to changes ...

  9. A molt timer is involved in the metamorphic molt in Manduca sexta larvae

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuichiro; Koyama, Takashi; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Riddiford, Lynn M.; Truman, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Manduca sexta larvae are a model for growth control in insects, particularly for the demonstration of critical weight, a threshold weight that the larva must surpass before it can enter metamorphosis on a normal schedule, and the inhibitory action of juvenile hormone on this checkpoint. We examined the effects of nutrition on allatectomized (CAX) larvae that lack juvenile hormone to impose the critical weight checkpoint. Normal larvae respond to prolonged starvation at the start of the last larval stage, by extending their subsequent feeding period to ensure that they begin metamorphosis above critical weight. CAX larvae, by contrast, show no homeostatic adjustment to starvation but start metamorphosis 4 d after feeding onset, regardless of larval size or the state of development of their imaginal discs. By feeding starved CAX larvae for various durations, we found that feeding for only 12–24 h was sufficient to result in metamorphosis on day 4, regardless of further feeding or body size. Manipulation of diet composition showed that protein was the critical macronutrient to initiate this timing. This constant period between the start of feeding and the onset of metamorphosis suggests that larvae possess a molt timer that establishes a minimal time to metamorphosis. Ligation experiments indicate that a portion of the timing may occur in the prothoracic glands. This positive system that promotes molting and the negative control via the critical weight checkpoint provide antagonistic pathways that evolution can modify to adapt growth to the ecological needs of different insects. PMID:23852731

  10. Functional analysis of insect molting fluid proteins on the protection and regulation of ecdysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Anrui; Kong, Lulu; Zhang, Qiaoli; Ling, Erjun

    2014-12-26

    Molting fluid accumulates between the old and new cuticles during periodical ecdysis in Ecdysozoa. Natural defects in insect ecdysis are frequently associated with melanization (an immunity response) occurring primarily in molting fluids, suggesting that molting fluid may impact immunity as well as affect ecdysis. To address this hypothesis, proteomic analysis of molting fluids from Bombyx mori during three different types of ecdysis was performed. Many proteins were newly identified, including immunity-related proteins, in each molting fluid. Molting fluids inhibited the growth of bacteria in vitro. The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, which can escape immune responses in feeding larvae, is quickly recognized by larvae during ecdysis, followed by melanization in molting fluid and old cuticle. Fungal conidia germination was delayed, and no hyphae were detected in the hemocoels of pharate instar insects. Molting fluids protect the delicate pharate instar insects with extremely thin cuticles against microorganisms. To explore the function of molting fluids in ecdysis regulation, based on protein similarity, 32 genes were selected for analysis in ecdysis regulation through RNAi in Tribolium castaneum, a model commonly used to study integument development because RNAi is difficult to achieve in B. mori. We identified 24 molting proteins that affected ecdysis after knockdown, with different physiological functions, including old cuticle protein recycling, molting fluid pressure balance, detoxification, and signal detection and transfer of molting fluids. We report that insects secrete molting fluid for protection and regulation of ecdysis, which indicates a way to develop new pesticides through interrupting insect ecdysis in the future. PMID:25368323

  11. Hormonal treatment and flight feather molt in immature Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Molt, the production of a new generation of feathers, is a poorly understood physiological phenomenon in nondomestic birds. Often in large birds like geese, flight is restricted by clipping the primary remiges on 1 wing and flight is restored after the molt when the primaries are replaced. A similar technique would be desirable for use with cranes conditioned for release to the native habitat. However, immature sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) did not appear to replace their primaries annually; therefore, we studied their flight feather molt (from 4 months to 3.5 years of age) and attempted to influence molting. Under natural conditions tail feathers (rectrices) were replaced annually and all secondaries replaced in 2.5-year-old birds. However, replacement of primaries in immature sandhill cranes appears to be a gradual process beginning the 2nd year; about 33% of the original primaries (present at 10 months of age) persisted in the 3.5-year-oId birds. Pulling out the primaries of immature sandhill cranes induces the growth of new primaries, as is true of many other birds. However, the new primaries were incapable of supporting flight, fell out repeatedly, and those that remained were often deformed. Pulling the primaries, under the influence of tranquilizers and anesthetics to relax the feather papillae, also did not induce normal growth of the replacement primaries. Progesterone (including excessively high doses), thyroxine, and follicle stimulating hormone, although effective in inducing feather replacement in domestic poultry, had no effect on crane molt.

  12. A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.

    PubMed

    Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A

    2013-02-01

    Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks. PMID:23300320

  13. The phenology of molting, breeding and their overlap in central Amazonian birds

    E-print Network

    Stouffer, Phil

    141 The phenology of molting, breeding and their overlap in central Amazonian birds Erik I. Johnson of molting and breeding are usually temporally separated in temperate birds, but can occur simultaneously in tropical birds, a condition known as molt­breeding overlap. Here, we document great variation in the timing

  14. Behavior of laying hens on alfalfa crumble molt diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced molting by feed withdrawal has been a common practice in the commercial layer industry and usually involves the removal of feed for a period of up to 14 days. However, this is a practice that is believed to adversely influence the welfare of the hens and there is a need to examine behavoria...

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO INDUCED MOLTING IN LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced molting in laying hens by feed withdrawal (FW) is a common practice in the U.S., which has led to public concern regarding their well-being, and there is a pressing need to evaluate physiological changes resulting from prolonged feed withdrawal (FW). A total of 168 hens from Hy-line W-92 li...

  16. EFFECT OF DIFLUBENZURON ON AN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data are reported for tests exposing a small, estuarine crustacean, Mysidopsis bahia, to diflubenzuron (Dimilin, TH-6040, (1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea)) in flowing seawater. Tests were conducted in intermittent flows from a diluter or continuous flowing water i...

  17. Conserved behavioral and genetic mechanisms in the pre-hatching molt of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During development, juvenile nematodes undergo four molts. Although the number of molts appears to be constant within the Nematoda, the timing of the first molt can occur either before or after hatching. A previous study indicates that, as in some parasitic nematode lineages, a pre-hatching juvenile stage also exists in Diplogastrid nematodes. A detailed description of these sequence of events has yet to be shown for any single species. Findings To delineate the timing of the pre-hatching molt in the beetle-associated Pristionchus pacificus, we tracked individual mid-J1 stage worms inside the eggshell through the J1-J2 transition and hatching. We found that active movement ended 21 hours after egg-laying, followed by lethargus and hatching. We inferred that lethargus behavior represents the onset of the first molt, which precedes each post-hatching molt in C. elegans and P. pacificus. The onset of the J1-J2 molt was also marked by the upregulation of the P. pacificus molting marker Ppa-pnhr-1. We further corroborated the pre-hatching molt with the isolation of two genetic mutants that exhibited aberrant molting both inside the egg and after hatching, as characterized by protracted and often-aborted shedding of the old cuticle. Conclusion Our results describe in detail the pre-hatching juvenile molt in P. pacificus, provide strong visual evidence of a pre-hatching molt, and show support for common genetic mechanisms regulating molting in the pre-hatching and post-hatching developmental stages. Our findings support the hypothesis that the evolution of pre-hatching development in Diplogastrid nematodes is likely due to a heterochronic shift between the timing of the first molt and hatching. PMID:25276336

  18. Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity. PMID:24581370

  19. Cuticular Biominerals of the Terrestrial Crustacean Oniscus asellus (Isopoda, Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralization is a phenomenon observed in many eukaryotic organisms and evidence suggests this process began relatively early in the evolution of multicellular life (Marin F et al. 1996). Crustaceans form a large fraction of all eukaryotic biomineralizers by incorporating calcium carbonate (CaCO3) into their cuticle. Terrestrial species are challenged in their production of CaCO3 by the absence of calcium-rich waters. To cope with this limitation, the terrestrial crustacean Oniscus asellus recycles up to 80% (Auzou G 1953) of its total calcium during the molting process. This feat is accomplished by separate molting of the front and back cuticle, with temporary storage of the calcium carbonate as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) in the front half (Ziegler A 1997). These processes infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of proteins (Ziegler A et al. 2012). Until recently, investigations of biomineralization were largely directed toward understanding morphology and large-scale chemistry of the minerals, ignoring the mechanistic roles of biomacromolecules in mineralization processes. More recent work suggests a high involvement of these compounds on the formation of biominerals and, in some cases, the specific polymorphs thereof (Keene EC et al. 2010). This study focuses on identifying the components of the biological mineralization matrix at each stage of the process. Using chemical demineralization of the stored ACC, all biomacromolecules can be separated and purified for subsequent analysis by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. To link the localized biochemistry more intimately to the polymorph of calcium carbonate that forms in the animal, the inorganic phase (';the mineral') will be monitored at each life stage using XRD and TEM. This analysis will reveal the organic components of a very precise biomineralization mechanism and may shed insight on its evolutionary origin. References: Marin F, Westbroek P et al., 1996, Proc Nat Acad Sci 93:1554-1559 Auzou G, 1953, L Ann Sci Nat 15:71-98 Ziegler A, 1997, Zoomorphology 117:181-187 Ziegler A et al., 2012, Cryst Growth Des 12:646-655 Keene EC et al., 2010, Cryst Growth Des 10:1383-1389

  20. Induced metamorphosis in crustacean y-larvae: Towards a solution to a 100-year-old riddle

    PubMed Central

    Glenner, Henrik; Høeg, Jens T; Grygier, Mark J; Fujita, Yoshihisa

    2008-01-01

    Background The y-larva, a crustacean larval type first identified more than 100 years ago, has been found in marine plankton samples collected in the arctic, temperate and tropical regions of all oceans. The great species diversity found among y-larvae (we have identified more than 40 species at our study site alone) indicates that the adult organism may play a significant ecological role. However, despite intense efforts, the adult y-organism has never been identified, and nothing is therefore known about its biology. Results We have successfully and repeatedly induced metamorphosis of y-larvae into a novel, highly reduced juvenile stage by applying the crustacean molting hormone 20-HE. The new stage is slug-like, unsegmented and lacks both limbs and almost all other traits normally characterizing arthropods, but it is capable of vigorous peristaltic motions. Conclusion From our observations on live and preserved material we conclude that adult Facetotecta are endoparasitic in still to be identified marine hosts and with a juvenile stage that represents a remarkable convergence to that seen in parasitic barnacles (Crustacea Cirripedia Rhizocephala). From the distribution and abundance of facetotectan y-larvae in the world's oceans we furthermore suggest that these parasites are widespread and could play an important role in the marine environment. PMID:18492233

  1. Crustacean hematopoiesis and the astakine cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xionghui; Söderhäll, Irene

    2011-06-16

    Major contributions to research in hematopoiesis in invertebrate animals have come from studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. These animals lack oxygen-carrying erythrocytes and blood cells of the lymphoid lineage, which participate in adaptive immune defense, thus making them suitable model animals to study the regulation of blood cells of the innate immune system. This review presents an overview of crustacean blood cell formation, the role of these cells in innate immunity, and how their synthesis is regulated by the astakine cytokines. Astakines are among the first invertebrate cytokines shown to be involved in hematopoiesis, and they can stimulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic tissue cells. The astakines and their vertebrate homologues, prokineticins, share similar functions in hematopoiesis; thus, studies of astakine-induced hematopoiesis in crustaceans may not only advance our understanding of the regulation of invertebrate hematopoiesis but may also provide new evolutionary perspectives about this process. PMID:21444913

  2. Behavior of laying hens on alfalfa crumble molt diets.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, C S; Friend, T H; McReynolds, J L; Kim, W K; Dunkley, K D; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2008-05-01

    Several dietary alternatives to feed withdrawal have been proposed to induce a molt in laying hens. This study compared the behavior of laying hens on an alfalfa crumble diet (ALC) to hens that were either on a conventional layer diet (FF) or hens that had feed withdrawn (FW) during a 9-d trial. Each treatment consisted of 24 hens (3 hens per battery cage), and treatment began after a 2-week acclimation period. Video cameras connected to a digital multiplexer recorded the behavior of the hens. The percentages of observations performing nonnutritive pecking, feeder activity, drinking, walking, preening, head movement, and aggression were quantified for two 10-min periods at daily intervals. The FF hens spent significantly more (P < or = 0.05) time drinking than the other treatments, whereas FW hens displayed the most head movements. From d 1 through 7, FW hens walked less than ALC hens except on d 8 when FW hens walked more than ALC and FF hens. On d 4 and 6, the FW hens spent an increased amount of time preening compared with FF hens until the last few days of the molt period. For the most part, FW hens generally displayed more nonnutritive pecking than ALC and FF hens throughout the molt period. However, FW hen visits to the feeders declined as the trial proceeded, whereas ALC and FF hens generally spent more time at the feeder. In summary, the ALC diet showed potential as an alternative to FW for inducing a molt in laying hens based on reduced nonnutritive pecking behavior, head movements, and greater feeding activity. PMID:18420970

  3. Lake acidification: Effects on crustacean zooplankton populations

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, K.E. (Kent State Univ., OH (United States)); Yan, N.D. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset (Canada)); Keller, W. (Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Sudbury (Canada))

    1993-08-01

    The ranked acid sensitivities of six common crustacean zooplankton taxa were determined from a multilake field survey in Ontario and from laboratory bioassays. The two approaches gave the same ranking (from most to least sensitive): Daphnia galeata mendotae, Daphnia retrocurva, and Skistodiaptomus oregonensis > Diaphanosoma birgei > Mesocyclops edax > Bosmina longirostris. This finding suggests that acidification has caused the widespread damage which has been documented for the zooplankton of Ontario and northeastern US lakes. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Progress of primary feather molt of adult mourning doves in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadler, K.C.; Tomlinson, R.E.; Wight, H.M.

    1970-01-01

    The examination of 7,892 adult doves in Missouri between 1953 and 1965 showed that less than 2.5% of adult doves completed their molt before October 1. Adult doves of both sexes began molting their primary feathers during early June in Missouri and lost the last (tenth) primary during the latter half of October. Approximately 140-150 days were required to complete the molt. Thus, early-hatched immatures, which begin their primary molt 25-30 days after hatching, contributed the bulk of the wings with completed molts in September. By correctly classifying September samples of dove wings with a completed molt as young-of-the-year a more accurate young:adult ratio is obtained.

  5. Chronobiology of deep-water decapod crustaceans on continental margins.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Company, Joan B

    2010-01-01

    Species have evolved biological rhythms in behaviour and physiology with a 24-h periodicity in order to increase their fitness, anticipating the onset of unfavourable habitat conditions. In marine organisms inhabiting deep-water continental margins (i.e. the submerged outer edges of continents), day-night activity rhythms are often referred to in three ways: vertical water column migrations (i.e. pelagic), horizontal displacements within benthic boundary layer of the continental margin, along bathymetric gradients (i.e. nektobenthic), and endobenthic movements (i.e. rhythmic emergence from the substrate). Many studies have been conducted on crustacean decapods that migrate vertically in the water column, but much less information is available for other endobenthic and nektobenthic species. Also, the types of displacement and major life habits of most marine species are still largely unknown, especially in deep-water continental margins, where steep clines in habitat factors (i.e. light intensity and its spectral quality, sediment characteristics, and hydrography) take place. This is the result of technical difficulties in performing temporally scheduled sampling and laboratory testing on living specimens. According to this scenario, there are several major issues that still need extensive research in deep-water crustacean decapods. First, the regulation of their behaviour and physiology by a biological clock is almost unknown compared to data for coastal species that are easily accessible to direct observation and sampling. Second, biological rhythms may change at different life stages (i.e. size-related variations) or at different moments of the reproductive cycle (e.g. at egg-bearing) based on different intra- and interspecific interactions. Third, there is still a major lack of knowledge on the links that exist among the observed bathymetric distributions of species and selected autoecological traits that are controlled by their biological clock, such as the diel rhythm of behaviour. Species evolved in a photically variable environment where intra- and inter-specific interactions change along with the community structure over 24 h. Accordingly, the regulation of their biology through a biological clock may be the major evolutionary constraint that is responsible for their reported bathymetric distributions. In this review, our aim is to propose a series of innovative guidelines for a discussion of the modulation of behavioural rhythms of adult decapod crustaceans, focusing on the deep waters of the continental margin areas of the Mediterranean as a paradigm for other marine zones of the world. PMID:20959158

  6. ISOTOPIC EVALUATION OF INTERRUPTED MOLT IN NORTHERN BREEDING POPULATIONS OF THE LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo E. Pérez; Keith A. Hobson

    2006-01-01

    2 Environment Canada, 11 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 3H5, Canada Abstract. The Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) breeds throughout North America and various populations apparently exhibit diverse molt strategies. However, molt in this species and how it may vary geographically is generally poorly known. We investigated molt sequence in 27 breeding Loggerhead Shrikes using stable hydrogen (dD) isotope analysis of

  7. LATITUDINAL VARIATION OF POSTNUPTIAL MOLT IN PACIFIC COAST WHITE-CROWNED SPARROWS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. RICHARD MEWALDT; JAMES R. KING

    The duration of postnuptial molt in the White~crowned Sparrows of the Pacific Seaboard (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli and Z. l. pugetensis) decreases northward by an average of 2.6 days per degree of latitude between the southernmost (35.2øN, molt duration 83 days) and northernmost (48.9øN, 47 days) limits of the breeding range. Males begin molting earlier than females by as much as

  8. Limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe, May-October 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1974-01-01

    The limnetic crustacean zooplankton of Lake Oahe was dominated by copepods. Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi was the dominant crustacean throughout the lake. Mesocyclops edax, Diaptomus ashlandi and Daphnia pulex were major components of the zooplankton in the deep, downstream portion of the lake while Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva were important constituents in the river-like, upstream section of the lake.

  9. Resistance and vulnerability of crustaceans to cytolytic sea anemone toxins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Giese; D Mebs; B Werding

    1996-01-01

    Crustaceans (Mithraculus, Neopetrolisthes, Periclimenes, Stenorhynchus sp.) living in association with sea anemones, shore crabs (Metopograpsus oceanicus) and brine shrimps (Artemia salina) were found to be resistent to the exposure of cytolytic sea anemone toxins (up to 100 ?g\\/ml) and to other membraneactive compounds such as gramicidin A and saponin. The gill filaments of the crustaceans were not affected, indicating that

  10. Alfalfa as a nutritive modulator in maintaining the innate immune response during the molting process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Force molting of laying hens increases enteric foodborne pathogens in the reproductive tract, leading to contaminated eggs and progeny of infected hens. Currently, we lack a complete understanding of how conditions such as molting affect the immune system. Previous reports show that alfalfa is eff...

  11. FEATHER GROWTH RATE AND MASS IN NEARCTIC PASSERINES WITH VARIABLE MIGRATORY BEHAVIOR AND MOLT PATTERN

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    FEATHER GROWTH RATE AND MASS IN NEARCTIC PASSERINES WITH VARIABLE MIGRATORY BEHAVIOR AND MOLT ptilochronology-based measurements of the growth rate of their tail feathers. We used between molt duration and feather quality, observed variation in feather growth rate was positively

  12. Skin lipid structure controls water permeability in snake molts.

    PubMed

    Torri, Cristian; Mangoni, Alfonso; Teta, Roberta; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Alibardi, Lorenzo; Fermani, Simona; Bonacini, Irene; Gazzano, Massimo; Burghammer, Manfred; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipids in controlling water exchange is fundamentally a matter of molecular organization. In the present study we have observed that in snake molt the water permeability drastically varies among species living in different climates and habitats. The analysis of molts from four snake species: tiger snake, Notechis scutatus, gabon viper, Bitis gabonica, rattle snake, Crotalus atrox, and grass snake, Natrix natrix, revealed correlations between the molecular composition and the structural organization of the lipid-rich mesos layer with control in water exchange as a function of temperature. It was discovered, merging data from micro-diffraction and micro-spectroscopy with those from thermal, NMR and chromatographic analyses, that this control is generated from a sophisticated structural organization that changes size and phase distribution of crystalline domains of specific lipid molecules as a function of temperature. Thus, the results of this research on four snake species suggest that in snake skins different structured lipid layers have evolved and adapted to different climates. Moreover, these lipid structures can protect, "safety", the snakes from water lost even at temperatures higher than those of their usual habitat. PMID:24157843

  13. Genomic identification of a putative circadian system in the cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Tilden, Andrea R; McCoole, Matthew D; Harmon, Sarah M; Baer, Kevin N; Christie, Andrew E

    2011-09-01

    Essentially nothing is known about the molecular underpinnings of crustacean circadian clocks. The genome of Daphnia pulex, the only crustacean genome available for public use, provides a unique resource for identifying putative circadian proteins in this species. Here, the Daphnia genome was mined for putative circadian protein genes using Drosophila melanogaster queries. The sequences of core clock (e.g. CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD, TIMELESS and CRYPTOCHROME 2), clock input (CRYPTOCHROME 1) and clock output (PIGMENT DISPERSING HORMONE RECEPTOR) proteins were deduced. Structural analyses and alignment of the Daphnia proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Comparisons of the Daphnia proteins with other sequences showed that they are, in most cases, more similar to homologs from other species, including vertebrates, than they are to those of Drosophila. The presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 and 2 in Daphnia suggests the organization of its clock may be more similar to that of the butterfly Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila (which possesses CRYPTOCHROME 1 but not CRYPTOCHROME 2). These data represent the first description of a putative circadian system from any crustacean, and provide a foundation for future molecular, anatomical and physiological investigations of circadian signaling in Daphnia. PMID:21798832

  14. Breeding chronology, molt, and measurements of accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Fleming, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Most northern goshawks completed laying eggs in April, while most Cooper's hawks completed their clutches in May with essentially no overlap. The sharp-shinned hawks laid in late May and June. Juvenile females represented 4% of the northern goshawk breeding population; 22% of the Cooper's hawk breeding population (highest reported for the species) and 60% of the sharp-shinned hawk breeding population, northern goshawks and Cooper's hawks in juvenal plumage generally nested later in the season, but not sharp-shinned hawks. Females of each species began molting first. Primaries were molted from the innermost outward in all species, but rectrix molt sequence was variable. Usually R1 was molted first. Primary molt of the 2 wings was usually synchronous; however, the rectrix molt was not as orderly. Arrested molt was observed in some individuals of all species; it probably has an energy-saving function. Wing chords of adult northern goshawks from Oregon were not different from Wisconsin fall migrants or birds from Alaska; however, rectrices were significantly shorter in Oregon than Wisconsin. Cooper's hawks nesting in Oregon were much smaller than those trapped in Wisconsin. Wing chords and rectrices were significantly shorter for both sexes, and, although weights were not directly comparable, Oregon Cooper's hawks also weighed much less. The limited number of sharp-shinned hawks measured precluded statistical analyses.

  15. The C. elegans gene pan-1 encodes novel transmembrane and cytoplasmic leucine-rich repeat proteins and promotes molting and the larva to adult transition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) proteins are a highly diverse superfamily of membrane-associated or secreted proteins. In the membrane-associated eLRR proteins, the leucine-rich repeat motifs interact with the extracellular matrix and other ligands. Characterizing their functions in animal model systems is key to deciphering their activities in various developmental processes. Results In this study, we identify pan-1 as a critical regulator of C. elegans larval development. pan-1 encodes both transmembrane and cytoplasmic isoforms that vary in the presence and number of leucine-rich repeats. RNAi experiments reveal that pan-1 is required for developmental processes that occur during the mid to late larval stages. Specifically, pan-1 loss of function causes a late larval arrest with a failure to complete development of the gonad, vulva, and hypodermis. pan-1 is also required for early larval ecdysis and execution of the molting cycle at the adult molt. We also provide evidence that pan-1 functionally interacts with the heterochronic gene lin-29 during the molting process. Conclusions We show that PAN-1 is a critical regulator of larval development. Our data suggests that PAN-1 promotes developmental progression of multiple tissues during the transition from a larva to a reproductive adult. We further demonstrate that the activity of PAN-1 is complex with diverse roles in the regulation of animal development. PMID:23682709

  16. Significant fluctuations in ecdysteroid receptor gene (EcR) expression in relation to seasons of molt and reproduction in the grapsid crab, Metopograpsus messor (Brachyura: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Shyamal, Sharmishtha; Anilkumar, G; Bhaskaran, R; Doss, G P; Durica, D S

    2015-01-15

    Metopograpsus messor, a brachyuran crab inhabiting the estuaries of North Kerala (India), is a prolific breeder releasing approximately 14-16 broods a year. The present paper reports the sequence information on the DNA binding domain (C domain, DBD), linker (D domain) and ligand binding domain (E domain, LBD) of M. messor ecdysteroid receptor (MmEcR) gene, the first grapsid brachyuran crab EcR examined. We have also measured MmEcR transcript levels in the ovary and the hepatopancreas throughout the annual cycle, with special reference to seasons of molt and reproduction. MmEcR expression in both the tissues is found to be at its peak (P<0.05) in late premolt crabs (January/May, molt/reproduction season); the expression levels are lowest (P<0.05) during June/July, when the females would neither molt nor reproduce (season for molt/reproduction repose). Intermediate levels of expression were found during the breeding season (August/December). Interestingly, this pattern of gene expression is in concordance with the fluctuating ecdysteroid levels of the hemolymph and Y organ secretory activity. The significant levels of fluctuation in the ovarian expression of MmEcR strongly suggest the ovary as a potential target for ecdysteroid action. A season-wise comparison of the gene expression reveals that ovarian MmEcR transcript levels are higher in breeding crabs (August/December) than the non-breeding animals (June/July), implicating a possible ecdysteroid role in reproduction in M. messor. PMID:25448252

  17. A simulation model of the response of molting Pacific black brant to helicopter disturbance 

    E-print Network

    Miller, Mark Wayne

    1991-01-01

    on molting Pacific black brant near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska. Locations of 18, 118 brant were digitized into the model based on 10 years of aerial survey data. Bell 206 and Bell 412 helicopters were simulated flying across the molting grounds along various... Bell 412 around the northezn edge, 1-mile inland parallel to the coast 50 times/day, could cause heavy weight loss to 25% of the molting population. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank Dr. Milton W. Weller for the opportunity to study under his...

  18. Dual Protonophore–Chitinase Inhibitors Dramatically Affect O. volvulus Molting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The L3-stage-specific chitinase OvCHT1 has been implicated in the development of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. Closantel, a known anthelmintic drug, was previously discovered as a potent and specific OvCHT1 inhibitor. As closantel is also a known protonophore, we performed a simple scaffold modulation to map out the structural features that are relevant for its individual or dual biochemical roles. Furthermore, we present that either OvCHT1 inhibition or protonophoric activity was capable of affecting O. volvulus L3 molting and that the presence of both activities in a single molecule yielded more potent inhibition of the nematode’s developmental process. PMID:24918716

  19. Blood chemistry of wild Brazilian Coscoroba Swans during molt.

    PubMed

    Calabuig, Cecilia Pérez; Ferrer, Miguel; Muriel, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    The Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) is an unusual member of the Anatidae found in South America, from the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego through Chile and Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay as far north as Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. The species is not threatened globally, but some local populations have declined and the status of others is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the plasma chemistry of a wild population of Coscoroba Swans in southern Brazil during their molting period. We captured 12 chicks, 14 juveniles, and 31 mature birds. The following blood parameters were measured: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, creatine-kinase, aspartate amino transferase, alanine-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and pancreatic amylase. Significant differences between males and females were not observed for any of the parameters, and only the levels of alkaline phosphatase differed significantly among age groups. PMID:20688656

  20. Crustacean-derived biomimetic components and nanostructured composites.

    PubMed

    Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Herrera, Steven; Kisailus, David

    2014-08-27

    Over millions of years, the crustacean exoskeleton has evolved into a rigid, tough, and complex cuticle that is used for structural support, mobility, protection of vital organs, and defense against predation. The crustacean cuticle is characterized by a hierarchically arranged chitin fiber scaffold, mineralized predominately by calcium carbonate and/or calcium phosphate. The structural organization of the mineral and organic within the cuticle occurs over multiple length scales, resulting in a strong and tough biological composite. Here, the ultrastructural details observed in three species of crustacean are reviewed: the American lobster (Homarus americanus), the edible crab (Cancer pagurus), and the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus). The Review concludes with a discussion of recent advances in the development of biomimetics with controlled organic scaffolding, mineralization, and the construction of nanoscale composites, inspired by the organization and formation of the crustacean cuticle. PMID:24833136

  1. Several species of marine worms and crustaceans are routinely

    E-print Network

    Smith, Jerome A.

    Several species of marine worms and crustaceans are routinely imported into California for use,000 blood worms from Maine; and 600,000 pileworms from Maine and Massachusetts. Laboratory experiments show

  2. INTRODUCTION Among aquatic crustaceans, a wide variety of taxa

    E-print Network

    Morandini, Andre C.

    ). Various crustaceans also occur in association with pelagic cnidar- ians, such as copepods (Humes 1953 an associa- tion between Libinia spinosa (H. Milne-Edwards, 1834) (Brachyura, Majidae) and the scyphomedusa

  3. Ultraviolet polarisation sensitivity in the stomatopod crustacean Odontodactylus scyllarus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja Kleinlogel; N. Justin Marshall

    2009-01-01

    The ommatidia of crustacean eyes typically contain two classes of photoreceptors with orthogonally oriented microvilli. These\\u000a receptors provide the basis for two-channel polarisation vision in the blue–green spectrum. The retinae of gonodactyloid stomatopod\\u000a crustaceans possess a great variety of structural specialisations for elaborate polarisation vision. One type of specialisation\\u000a is found in the small, distally placed R8 cells within the

  4. Migration and molt patterns of red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), in Illinois

    E-print Network

    Timm, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Red bats, Lasiurus borealis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), are widespread in North America, but many aspects of their biology are poorly known. In an attempt to elucidate patterns of migration and molt in red bats, data were collected over...

  5. Changes in Timing, Duration, and Symmetry of Molt of Hawaiian Forest Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard A. Freed; Rebecca L. Cann

    2012-01-01

    Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650–1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989–1999 and 2000–2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in

  6. Trade-offs between molt and immune activity in two populations of house sparrows ( Passer domesticus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn B. Martin II

    2005-01-01

    Molt and immune defense are critical activities in which all birds must invest. Because each is costly, wild passerines may have to decrease their investment in one activity if they are to increase investments to others. Here, I studied such molt-immune trade-offs in one neotropical and one north-temperate population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus (L., 1758)). I included two populations

  7. Abundance and distribution of the common eider in eastern North America during the molting season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Allen, B.; McAuley, D.; Milton, G.R.; Gililand, S.

    2005-01-01

    Like most other sea ducks, male common eiders (Somateria mollissima) concentrate in large groups to molt following the breeding season. Although Maine conducted surveys in the 1980s, little was known of eider molting sites in Atlantic Canada until recently, when surveys and research conducted in Quebec, Newfoundland, Labrador, Nova Scotia and Maine revealed a number of important molting sites. Sites vary in importance from a few hundred males to tens of thousands. Important sites include the western and southern coastal areas of Anticosti island (40,000 birds), Baie des Milles Vaches (9,000) in Quebec, southwestern Nova Scotia (40,000), Petit Manan Island archipelago (7,000), and Metinic Island archipelago (10,000) in Maine. Molting eider surveys conducted in Maine during the early 1980s and in the St. Lawrence in 2003-2004 revealed large flock sizes, commonly over 2,000 birds, in consistent locations annually. An estimated 40,000 males molt in Nova Scotia and 28,400 in Maine (1981 data). Surveys indicate that important sites are used consistently between years and that local movements occur. Recoveries from banded birds suggest that eiders breeding on the lower North Shore of the St. Lawrence, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and even Newfoundland appear to concentrate at the Petit Manan site in Maine. They also suggest inter annual movements between the Nova Scotia and Petit Manan sites. Greater understanding of the relationships between breeding, wintering, and molting sites will facilitate management of this heavily exploited sea duck.

  8. Corticosterone inhibits feather growth: potential mechanism explaining seasonal down regulation of corticosterone during molt.

    PubMed

    Romero, L Michael; Strochlic, David; Wingfield, John C

    2005-09-01

    Corticosterone (CORT) is seasonally modulated in many passerines, with plasma CORT concentrations lowest during the prebasic molt when all feathers are replaced. To explain why, we proposed that the birds downregulate natural CORT release during molt in order to avoid CORT's degradative effects on proteins and its inhibition of protein synthesis. If CORT exerted these effects during molt, it could slow protein deposition during feather production and potentially result in a longer period of degraded flight performance. To test this hypothesis, either empty or CORT-filled silastic implants were inserted into captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) undergoing induced (feather replacement after plucking) and natural molts. We then measured the rate of feather re-growth by regularly measuring the length of primary, secondary, and tail feathers. CORT implanted birds showed a significantly decreased rate of feather growth compared to control animals. Basal CORT concentrations of induced molt and non-molting birds were also compared but no difference was noted. The results suggest a tradeoff; a complete set of new feathers may be more important to the survival of a bird than the ability of CORT to respond maximally to a stressor. PMID:16125989

  9. [Genetic characteristics of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Molt-4].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Cai; Liu, Cong-Yan; Sun, Xue-Jing; He, Jing-Juan; Wan, Sui-Gui; Sun, Wan-Ling

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the genetic characteristics of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Molt-4, and evaluate its application in measuring telomere length by Flow-FISH. Molt-4 cell line was cultured in suspension and subcultured regularly. Eight different passages of Molt-4 cells in exponential stage were selected.The growth curves were drawn by cell counting method, meanwhile calculating the population doubling times of cells,DNA ploidies were determined by flow cytometry,karyotypes were analyzed by G-banding and telomere lengths were measured by Southern blot. The results showed that the population doubling time of Molt-4 cell line was (1.315 ± 0.062) d, DNA ploidy index was (2.085 ± 0.0093) , and the telomere length was (32.05 ± 5.27) kb. There were no significant difference among different passages (P = 0.931,0.888 and 0.935 separately). The karyotypes showed that the chromosome numbers of Molt-4 cell line were from 91 to 99 in different metaphases, and the majority of them were hypertetraploid, and stable and recurrent structural abnormalities of chromosomes could be kept. It is concluded that the stable genetic characteristics and the longer telomere length of Molt-4 cell line makes it be a feasible control cells in measurement of telomere length by Flow-FISH. PMID:24762992

  10. Outlining eicosanoid biosynthesis in the crustacean Daphnia

    PubMed Central

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Sibly, Richard M; Timmermans, Martijn JTN; Callaghan, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Eicosanoids are biologically active, oxygenated metabolites of three C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. They act as signalling molecules within the autocrine or paracrine system in both vertebrates and invertebrates mainly functioning as important mediators in reproduction, the immune system and ion transport. The biosynthesis of eicosanoids has been intensively studied in mammals and it is known that they are synthesised from the fatty acid, arachidonic acid, through either the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway; the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway; or the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway. However, little is still known about the synthesis and structure of the pathway in invertebrates. Results Here, we show transcriptomic evidence from Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) together with a bioinformatic analysis of the D. pulex genome providing insight on the role of eicosanoids in these crustaceans as well as outlining a putative pathway of eicosanoid biosynthesis. Daphnia appear only to have one copy of the gene encoding the key enzyme COX, and phylogenetic analysis reveals that the predicted protein sequence of Daphnia COX clusters with other invertebrates. There is no current evidence of an epoxygenase pathway in Daphnia; however, LOX products are most certainly synthesised in daphnids. Conclusion We have outlined the structure of eicosanoid biosynthesis in Daphnia, a key genus in freshwater ecosystems. Improved knowledge of the function and synthesis of eicosanoids in Daphnia and other invertebrates could have important implications for several areas within ecology. This provisional overview of daphnid eicosanoid biosynthesis provides a guide on where to focus future research activities in this area. PMID:18625039

  11. Haemolymph protein composition and copper levels in decapod crustaceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depledge, M. H.; Bjerregaard, P.

    1989-06-01

    Variations in haemolymph protein composition and concentration, in copper content and copper distribution in the tissue of decapod crustaceans are reviewed. Haemocyanin is the major haemolymph constituent (> 60%); the remaining proteins (in order of concentration) include coagulogen, apohaemocyanin, hormones and antisomes. Moulting, nutritional state, infection, hypoxia and salinity fluctuations are the major factors affecting the relative proportions and total quantities of the haemolymph proteins. With regard to haemocyanin, the changes in concentration during the moult cycle are principally associated with changes in haemolymph volume, rather than with changes in total haemocyanin content due to synthesis or catabolism. The role of the midgut gland in regulating haemolymph copper and haemocyanin concentration has been re-evaluated. More than 50% of the whole body copper load is stored in the haemolymph. In contrast, less than 3% of the copper load resides in the midgut gland. The latter has little potential for regulating haemolymph copper levels, at least in the short term (hours to a few days), though it may be involved in regulating haemocyanin levels over longer periods (weeks to months). The total copper content of the haemolymph remains within a narrow range, except during starvation when levels may decrease. Consequently, variations in the copper content of soft tissues, which constitute only 20% of decapod dry weight, do not significanlty alter whole body copper concentrations. Evidence that copper released following haemocyanin catabolism becomes bound to metallothionein for later use in the resynthesis of haemocyanin is reviewed and found to be inconclusive. The amount of copper that can be stored in this way is trivial compared with the amount of copper required to permit significant changes in haemolymph haemocyanin concentration. Average tissue copper requirements, calculated during the present study, are approx. 4 times higher than previous theoretical estimates.

  12. Multiple parasitic crustacean infestation on belonid fish Strongylurastrongylura.

    PubMed

    Aneesh, Panakkool-Thamban; Sudha, Kappalli; Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Anilkumar, Gopinathan; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous multiple infestation of parasitic crustacean species involving a cymothoid isopod, Cymothoafrontalis Milne Edward, 1840 and four species of copepods such as Lernanthropustylosuri Richiardi, 1880, Caligodeslacinatus Kroyer, 1863, Bomolochusbellones Burmeister, 1833 and Dermoergasiluscoleus Cressey & Collette, 1970 was frequently noticed on spot-tail needlefish, Strongylurastrongylura (Belonidae) captured from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India) during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. All the 43 fishes (Strongylurastrongylura) collected, were under the hyper-infection with parasitic crustaceans; a total of 388 parasitic crustaceans including 57 Cymothoafrontalis, 252 Lernanthropustylosuri, 31 Caligodeslacinatus, 24 Bomolochusbellones and 32 Dermoergasiluscoleus were recovered from the host fish. 4 members (9.30%) of host fish were under quadruple parasitism, in two different combinations. Seventeen (39.53%) host fishes showed triple parasitism and 20 (46.51%) members exhibited double parasitism, with four and five parasitic combinations respectively. Remaining two (4.65%) fishes were parasitized only by the copepod, Lernanthropustylosuri. The infestations by all recovered parasitic crustaceans were highly site specific. The damage caused by the parasitic crustaceans was also discussed. PMID:25561846

  13. Haste Makes Waste: Accelerated Molt Adversely Affects the Expression of Melanin-Based and Depigmented Plumage Ornaments in House Sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Vágási, Csongor I.; Pap, Péter L.; Barta, Zoltán

    2010-01-01

    Background Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt. PMID:21151981

  14. Body condition, food habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohman, W.L.; Ankney, C.D.; Roster, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    We studied body condition, food habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) using drainwater evaporation ponds in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Levels of body fat and protein were similar by sex but varied by age (adults greater than immatures). Masses of breast and leg muscle protein were greatest in adult males and lowest in immature males, but similar in adult and immature females. Fat and protein levels in late-wintering ruddy ducks were independent of their body size. We detected no differences among sex-age classes in the proportion of animal foods consumed. Aquatic invertebrates composed 85% of the diet; midge larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) and brine flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) were the principal taxa consumed. Molt score by feather region and overall molt score did not vary by sex or age. Light to moderate molt (25 to 50% molting feathers) was recorded in all feather regions. High levels of body fat and protein were attributed to premigratory hyperphagia and consumption of foods with a high protein:energy ratio.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hyperglycemia Is Mediated by CHH Release in Crustaceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simonetta Lorenzon; Piero Giulio Giulianini; Enrico Antonio Ferrero

    1997-01-01

    Septicemia in crustaceans may occur occasionally due to Gram-negative opportunistic bacteria, especially under conditions of intensive aquaculture. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin induces in mammals septic shock and the activation by LPS of hormone release through the hypothalamo–pituitary axis is well known. In crustaceans an increase in circulating Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone and hyperglycemia are reported to result from exposure to several

  16. MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC.COVS PRIMARIES SECONDS TERTIALS

  17. MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

  18. MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull BAND NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT

  19. MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull S Feather NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

  20. MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC

  1. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

  2. MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2012 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC

  3. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

  4. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI

  5. MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Year 2013 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Local 4 Skull NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR

  6. MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2014 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Year 2014 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Local 4 Skull HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC

  7. MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    MAPS RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Year 2011 Page # CODE AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Local 4 Skull BANDER'S INITIALS CODE BAND NUMBER SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR

  8. Brooding and embryonic development in the crustacean Paragnathia formica (Hesse, 1864) (Peracarida: Isopoda: Gnathiidae).

    PubMed

    Manship, Brigitte M; Walker, Anthony J; Davies, Angela J

    2011-03-01

    The crustacean family Gnathiidae Leach, 1814 (Peracarida: Isopoda) comprises 12 genera known mostly from marine environments. Juvenile gnathiid isopods are fish ectoparasites, feeding on blood and tissue fluids in order to complete their life cycles. Gnathiid juvenile development generally includes three moults, the last involving metamorphosis to non-feeding, adult stages. The blood meal ingested by juveniles provides resources for adult survival, reproduction and embryological development. Reproductive biology in the brackish water gnathiid, Paragnathia formica (Hesse, 1864), is unusual amongst crustaceans, since brooding females have paired internal uterine sacs, rather than an external brood pouch. Known embryological development for P. formica includes three post gastrulation stages. In the current study, brooding and embryological development in this gnathiid were reexamined using histological and fluorescence methods, and by scanning electron microscopy. Novel observations were made of the blastodisc and germ cell migration within developing eggs, release of Stage 2 embryos by rupture of embryonic membranes, the in utero moult of Stage 2 to Stage 3 embryos, and the asynchronous development of the brood within the paired uterine sacs. These findings highlight the remarkable nature of brooding in P. formica and expand the paucity of knowledge of embryological development in gnathiids in general. PMID:21224013

  9. Sex Steroids Effects on the Molting Process of the Helminth Human Parasite Trichinella spiralis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bello, Romel; Ramirez-Nieto, Ricardo; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Nava-Castro, Karen; Pavón, Lenin; Sánchez-Acosta, Ana Gabriela; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro effects of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on the molting process, which is the initial and crucial step in the development of the muscular larvae (ML or L1) to adult worm. Testosterone had no significative effect on the molting rate of the parasite, however, progesterone decreased the molting rate about a 50% in a concentration- and time-independent pattern, while estradiol had a slight effect (10%). The gene expression of caveolin-1, a specific gene used as a marker of parasite development, showed that progesterone and estradiol downregulated its expression, while protein expression was unaffected. By using flow citometry, a possible protein that is recognized by a commercial antiprogesterone receptor antibody was detected. These findings may have strong implications in the host-parasite coevolution, in the sex-associated susceptibility to this infection and could point out to possibilities to use antihormones to inhibit parasite development. PMID:22162638

  10. [Effects of dimilin, a chitin inhibitor 1 (4 chlorophenyl) 3 (2-6 difluorobenzoyl) urea on the oenocytes and molting in the processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff.) (Lepidoptera) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Denneulin, J C; Lamy, M

    1977-01-01

    Te oenocytes of the processionary caterpillar show histophysiological variations during their developing cycle. Grafting experiments and culture in vitro, have not so far allowed us to reveal the least participation of the oenocytes in the determinism of molting and in the transformation of cholesterol into ecdysone. On the other hand, histochemical studies of the oenocytes during the last period of their larval state, reveal, just before nymphosis, the existence of polysaccharides which probably correspond to the synthesis of pre-cuticular substance. When the caterpillars are treated with a chitin inhibitor (pH - 60-40 = Dimilin), the polysaccharides are not longer to be seen in the oenocytes. This deficiency in cuticular material could well be the consequence of one of the most spectacular effects of this product that is a profound perturbation in the formation of the cuticle that leads to the death of animals when molting. PMID:565611

  11. Perqu noms n'hi hagi un,... hi pintes molt. Oficina de Cooperaci al Desenvolupament i Solidaritat

    E-print Network

    Oro, Daniel

    1 Perquè només n'hi hagi un,... hi pintes molt. #12;2 Oficina de Cooperació al Desenvolupament i Dipòsit legal: #12;3 Perquè només n'hi hagi un,... hi pintes molt. Sumari Oficina de Cooperació al privats, per induir i fomentar estratègies de desenvolupa- ment humà i sostenible i donar-hi suport. La

  12. CRUSTACEANS ALONG A COASTAL RIVER-ESTUARINE GRADIENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Peterson

    Benthic crustaceans were collected monthly between 24 August 1985 and 20 September 1986 from tidal freshwater (TFW), oligohaline (OH) and mesohaline (h4H) sites in Old Fort Bayou, a black-water tidal river of the Biloxi Bay estuary, Mississippi. Salinity varied seasonally and spatially and was primarily related to variations in rainfall during this study. Reduced rainfall after October 1985 resulted in

  13. Evaluation of Some Binding Agents for Crustacean Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Heinen

    1981-01-01

    Eleven binding agents were added at 3.0% dry weight or less to a trout feed intended for use as a crustacean diet. Moist and dry food pellets were prepared, oscillated in beakers of 30°C water for 24 h, and inspected periodically for integrity. Two to six pellets prepared with each binding agent were tested. Dry pellets were generally less stable

  14. PHOTOINDUCED TOXICITY OF FLUORANTHENE TO SEVEN MARINE BENTHIC CRUSTACEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven marine benthic crustaceans were exposed in 4 d water-only toxicity tests to five concentrations of fluoranthene.After exposures, mortality (LC50) and the ability to bury in clean sediment (EC50) were determined. Survivors were then exposed to UV radiation for 1 h. The diffe...

  15. Assessing Stress and Predicting Mortality in Economically Significant Crustaceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan W. Stoner

    2012-01-01

    Reducing animal stress and mortality associated with bycatch and discard in fishing, aquaculture, and live-market trade depends upon improvements in fishing gear and the practices employed in capture, holding, handling, and transport. Several approaches have been used to evaluate the likely mortality of commercially important crustaceans: (1) assess external injuries assuming a direct relationship to mortality, (2) extrapolate from direct

  16. Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Crustaceans1

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Laboratory, School of Forest Resources and Conservation Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, UF 33570, Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, UF Center. #12;2Common Freshwater Fish Parasites Pictorial Guide: Crustaceans https://srac.tamu.edu/index

  17. Use of plant protein sources in crustacean diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World production of crustaceans has experienced a steady expansion that is expected to continue as world population increases and demand for quality sea food continues to rise. Paralleling the growth of industry has been an expansion in feed production, which has been primarily dominated by marine s...

  18. EFFECTS OF ALFALFA AND FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDE ON MOLTING PARAMETERS AND BONE QUALITIES USING DUAL ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY AND CONVENTIONAL BONE ASSAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of alfalfa and fructooligosaccharides on molting performance and bone parameters compared to the conventional feed withdrawal molting procedure. Feed withdrawal, the primary method for inducing molt, has received increasing levels of scrutiny related to ...

  19. Short-term oscillations in avian molt intensity: evidence from the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.; Kery, M.; Redpath, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    From a year-long study of molt in the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, we recorded 2069 contour feathers replaced in 137 d (6 May-19 September). Very few contour feathers were lost outside this period. From precise daily counts of feathers lost, and using time series analysis, we identified short-term fluctuations (i.e., 19-d subcycles) around a midsummer peak (i.e., a left-skewed normal distribution). Because these subcycles have never before been reported and because the physiological basis for many aspects of avian molt is poorly known, we offer only hypothetical explanations for the controls responsible for the subcycles.

  20. Short-term oscillations in avian molt intensity: Evidence from the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Lish, J.W.; Kery, M.; Redpath, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    From a year-long study of molt in the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, we recorded 2069 contour feathers replaced in 137 d (6 May-19 September). Very few contour feathers were lost outside this period. From precise daily counts of feathers lost, and using time series analysis, we identified short-term fluctuations (i.e., 19-d subcycles) around a midsummer peak (i.e., a left-skewed normal distribution). Because these subcycles have never before been reported and because the physiological basis for many aspects of avian molt is poorly known, we offer only hypothetical explanations for the controls responsible for the subcycles. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

  1. Haste Makes Waste but Condition Matters: Molt Rate–Feather Quality Trade-Off in a Sedentary Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Vágási, Csongor I.; Pap, Péter L.; Vincze, Orsolya; Benk?, Zoltán; Marton, Attila; Barta, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    Background The trade-off between current and residual reproductive values is central to life history theory, although the possible mechanisms underlying this trade-off are largely unknown. The ‘molt constraint’ hypothesis suggests that molt and plumage functionality are compromised by the preceding breeding event, yet this candidate mechanism remains insufficiently explored. Methodology/Principal Findings The seasonal change in photoperiod was manipulated to accelerate the molt rate. This treatment simulates the case of naturally late-breeding birds. House sparrows Passer domesticus experiencing accelerated molt developed shorter flight feathers with more fault bars and body feathers with supposedly lower insulation capacity (i.e. shorter, smaller, with a higher barbule density and fewer plumulaceous barbs). However, the wing, tail and primary feather lengths were shorter in fast-molting birds if they had an inferior body condition, which has been largely overlooked in previous studies. The rachis width of flight feathers was not affected by the treatment, but it was still condition-dependent. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that sedentary birds might face evolutionary costs because of the molt rate–feather quality conflict. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that (1) molt rate affects several aspects of body feathers as well as flight feathers and (2) the costly effects of rapid molt are condition-specific. We conclude that molt rate and its association with feather quality might be a major mediator of life history trade-offs. Our findings also suggest a novel advantage of early breeding, i.e. the facilitation of slower molt and the condition-dependent regulation of feather growth. PMID:22808221

  2. Changes in immunocompetence and other physiological measures during molt in Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo A. Ellis; Loren Merrill; John C. Wingfield; Adrian L. O'Loghlen; Stephen I. Rothstein

    2012-01-01

    We tested one of the foundational hypotheses of the field of ecological immunology: that it is difficult for animals to simultaneously carry out two or more especially demanding physiological processes at optimal levels because of energy needs or other factors that cause tradeoffs among competing components of life history. We investigated possible effects of molt (a costly life-history stage that

  3. The Gastrointestinal Tract Ecology of Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Molting Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Ricke

    There is an interaction between feed with- drawal induced-molting and foodborne Salmonella Enter- itidis colonization and invasion in susceptible laying hens. Less is known about the ecology of the indigenous microflora and their response to feed removal, the re- sponse of S. Enteritidis to feed removal (virulence expres- sion), and the interaction between the gastrointestinal tract microenvironment and S. Enteritidis.

  4. COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY Selection of Molting and Pupation Sites by Coleomegilla maculata

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Éric

    (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Avoidance of Intraguild Predation E´ RIC LUCAS,1 DANIEL CODERRE,2 AND JACQUES BRODEUR1 Environ. Entomol. 29(3): 454Ð459 (2000) ABSTRACT Molting and pupating insects are especially predation. We charac- terized microsites on potato plants and evaluated their associated risk of predation

  5. Reference: Biol. Bull., 148: 259-273. (April 1975) COCKROACH MOLTING. I. TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION OF

    E-print Network

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    Reference: Biol. Bull., 148: 259-273. (April 1975) 259 COCKROACH MOLTING. I. TEMPORAL ORGANIZATION an approach to the study of cockroach development using feeding (Kunkel, 1966) and regeneration (O'Farrell and Stock, 1953) as extrinsically controllable cues for regulating the development of cockroach cultures

  6. UNCORRECTED 2 Molting-specific downregulation of C. elegans body-wall muscle attachment sites

    E-print Network

    Zaidel-Bar, Ronen

    s t r a c t 20Repeated molting of the cuticula is an integral part of arthropod and nematode development for secretion and 22synthesis of a new cuticle. Here, we use the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to show (ecdysozoans), such as nematodes and arthro- 39 pods, form the largest group in the animal kingdom [1

  7. Demecology in the Cambrian: synchronized molting in arthropods from the Burgess Shale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Burgess Shale is well known for its preservation of a diverse soft-bodied biota dating from the Cambrian period (Series 3, Stage 5). While previous paleoecological studies have focused on particular species (autecology) or entire paleocommunities (synecology), studies on the ecology of populations (demecology) of Burgess Shale organisms have remained mainly anecdotal. Results Here, we present evidence for mass molting events in two unrelated arthropods from the Burgess Shale Walcott Quarry, Canadaspis perfecta and a megacheiran referred to as Alalcomenaeus sp. Conclusions These findings suggest that the triggers for such supposed synchronized molting appeared early on during the Cambrian radiation, and synchronized molting in the Cambrian may have had similar functions in the past as it does today. In addition, the finding of numerous juvenile Alalcomenaeus sp. molts associated with the putative alga Dictyophycus suggests a possible nursery habitat. In this nursery habitat a population of this animal might have found a more protected environment in which to spend critical developmental phases, as do many modern species today. PMID:23721223

  8. Cloning of genomic sequences of three crustacean hyperglycemic hormone superfamily genes and elucidation of their roles of regulating insulin-like androgenic gland hormone gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Fajun; Bai, Hongkun; Zhang, Wenyi; Fu, Hongtuo; Jiang, Fengwei; Liang, Guoxia; Jin, Shubo; Sun, Shengming; Qiao, Hui

    2015-04-25

    The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) gene in crustaceans plays an important role in male sexual differentiation, metabolism, and growth. However, the upstream regulation of IAG signaling schemes remains poorly studied. In the present study, we cloned the 5' flanking sequence of IAG and full-length genomic sequences of gonad-inhibiting hormone (Mn-GIH), molt-inhibiting hormone (Mn-MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (Mn-CHH) in Macrobrachium nipponense. We identified the transcription factor-binding sites in the 5' flanking sequence of IAG and investigated the exon-intron patterns of the three CHH superfamily genes. Each CHH superfamily gene consisted of two introns separating three exons. Mn-GIH and Mn-MIH shared the same intron insertion sites, which differed from Mn-CHH. We provided DNA-level evidence for the type definition. We also identified two cAMP response elements in the 5' untranslated region. We further investigated the regulatory relationships between Mn-GIH, Mn-MIH, and Mn-CHH and IAG at the transcriptional level by injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). IAG transcription levels were significantly increased to 660.2%, 472.9%, and 112.4% of control levels in the Mn-GIH dsRNA, Mn-MIH dsRNA, and Mn-CHH dsRNA groups, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that Mn-GIH and Mn-MIH, but not Mn-CHH, negatively regulate the expression of the IAG gene. PMID:25680292

  9. Phylogenetic position of the Pentastomida and (pan)crustacean relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda; however, the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus) and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans probably related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacostracans and hexapods. PMID:15129965

  10. Alien Decapod Crustaceans in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcos Tavares

    \\u000a Thirteen marine alien species of decapod crustaceans have been recorded from the Southwestern Atlantic. Five species of alien\\u000a decapods have established local populations: Charybdis hellerii (Brazil), Eurypanopeus depressus (Uruguay and Argentina), Palaemon macrodactylus (Argentina), Pyromaia tuberculata (Brazil and Argentina) and Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Brazil). The history and distribution of these species is reviewed. Also discussed is the local penaeid shrimp culture,

  11. Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

    2005-01-01

    For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

  12. Bacteria-Induced Dscam Isoforms of the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apiruck Watthanasurorot; Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Haipeng Liu; Irene Söderhäll; Kenneth Söderhäll

    2011-01-01

    The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, also known as Dscam, is a member of the immunoglobulin super family. Dscam plays an essential function in neuronal wiring and appears to be involved in innate immune reactions in insects. The deduced amino acid sequence of Dscam in the crustacean Pacifastacus leniusculus (PlDscam), encodes 9(Ig)-4(FNIII)-(Ig)-2(FNIII)-TM and it has variable regions in the N-terminal

  13. Crustacean fish parasites from Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asri T. Yuniar; Harry W. Palm; Thorsten Walter

    2007-01-01

    The present study is the first investigation on ectoparasites of commercial important fish from Segara Anakan, a brackish\\u000a water lagoon located at the southern coast of Java, Indonesia. Eight economically important marine fish species (Mugil cephalus, Siganus javus, Scatophagus argus, Caranx sexfasciatus, Lutjanus johnii, Eleutheronema \\u000a tetradactylum, Johnius coitor, and Epinephelus coioides) were examined for crustacean parasites. Prevalence and intensity data

  14. Molt-inhibiting hormone stimulates vitellogenesis at advanced ovarian developmental stages in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus 2: novel specific binding sites in hepatopancreas and cAMP as a second messenger

    PubMed Central

    Zmora, Nilli; Sagi, Amir; Zohar, Yonathan; Chung, J Sook

    2009-01-01

    The finding that molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) regulates vitellogenesis in the hepatopancreas of mature Callinectes sapidus females, raised the need for the characterization of its mode of action. Using classical radioligand binding assays, we located specific, saturable, and non-cooperative binding sites for MIH in the Y-organs of juveniles (J-YO) and in the hepatopancreas of vitellogenic adult females. MIH binding to the hepatopancreas membranes had an affinity 77 times lower than that of juvenile YO membranes (KD values: 3.22 × 10-8 and 4.19 × 10-10 M/mg protein, respectively). The number of maximum binding sites (BMAX) was approximately two times higher in the hepatopancreas than in the YO (BMAX values: 9.24 × 10-9 and 4.8 × 10-9 M/mg protein, respectively). Furthermore, MIH binding site number in the hepatopancreas was dependent on ovarian stage and was twice as high at stage 3 than at stages 2 and 1. SDS-PAGE separation of [125I] MIH or [125I] crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) crosslinked to the specific binding sites in the membranes of the J-YO and hepatopancreas suggests a molecular weight of ~51 kDa for a MIH receptor in both tissues and a molecular weight of ~61 kDa for a CHH receptor in the hepatopancreas. The use of an in vitro incubation of hepatopancreas fragments suggests that MIH probably utilizes cAMP as a second messenger in this tissue, as cAMP levels increased in response to MIH. Additionally, 8-Bromo-cAMP mimicked the effects of MIH on vitellogenin (VtG) mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear (hn) VtG RNA levels. The results imply that the functions of MIH in the regulation of molt and vitellogenesis are mediated through tissue specific receptors with different kinetics and signal transduction. MIH ability to regulate vitellogenesis is associated with the appearance of MIH specific membrane binding sites in the hepatopancreas upon pubertal/final molt. PMID:19583849

  15. Molt-inhibiting hormone stimulates vitellogenesis at advanced ovarian developmental stages in the female blue crab, Callinectes sapidus 2: novel specific binding sites in hepatopancreas and cAMP as a second messenger.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Sagi, Amir; Zohar, Yonathan; Chung, J Sook

    2009-01-01

    The finding that molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) regulates vitellogenesis in the hepatopancreas of mature Callinectes sapidus females, raised the need for the characterization of its mode of action. Using classical radioligand binding assays, we located specific, saturable, and non-cooperative binding sites for MIH in the Y-organs of juveniles (J-YO) and in the hepatopancreas of vitellogenic adult females. MIH binding to the hepatopancreas membranes had an affinity 77 times lower than that of juvenile YO membranes (KD values: 3.22 x 10(-8) and 4.19 x 10(-10) M/mg protein, respectively). The number of maximum binding sites (B(MAX)) was approximately two times higher in the hepatopancreas than in the YO (B(MAX) values: 9.24 x 10(-9) and 4.8 x 10(-9) M/mg protein, respectively). Furthermore, MIH binding site number in the hepatopancreas was dependent on ovarian stage and was twice as high at stage 3 than at stages 2 and 1. SDS-PAGE separation of [125I] MIH or [125I] crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) crosslinked to the specific binding sites in the membranes of the J-YO and hepatopancreas suggests a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa for a MIH receptor in both tissues and a molecular weight of approximately 61 kDa for a CHH receptor in the hepatopancreas. The use of an in vitro incubation of hepatopancreas fragments suggests that MIH probably utilizes cAMP as a second messenger in this tissue, as cAMP levels increased in response to MIH. Additionally, 8-Bromo-cAMP mimicked the effects of MIH on vitellogenin (VtG) mRNA and heterogeneous nuclear (hn) VtG RNA levels. The results imply that the functions of MIH in the regulation of molt and vitellogenesis are mediated through tissue specific receptors with different kinetics and signal transduction. MIH ability to regulate vitellogenesis is associated with the appearance of MIH specific membrane binding sites in the hepatopancreas upon pubertal/final molt. PMID:19583849

  16. Dissociation of Circadian and Circatidal Timekeeping in the Marine Crustacean Eurydice pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Hastings, Michael H.; Green, Edward W.; Tauber, Eran; Sladek, Martin; Webster, Simon G.; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; Wilcockson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Tidal (12.4 hr) cycles of behavior and physiology adapt intertidal organisms to temporally complex coastal environments, yet their underlying mechanism is unknown. However, the very existence of an independent “circatidal” clock has been disputed, and it has been argued that tidal rhythms arise as a submultiple of a circadian clock, operating in dual oscillators whose outputs are held in antiphase i.e., ?12.4 hr apart. Results We demonstrate that the intertidal crustacean Eurydice pulchra (Leach) exhibits robust tidal cycles of swimming in parallel to circadian (24 hr) rhythms in behavioral, physiological and molecular phenotypes. Importantly, ?12.4 hr cycles of swimming are sustained in constant conditions, they can be entrained by suitable stimuli, and they are temperature compensated, thereby meeting the three criteria that define a biological clock. Unexpectedly, tidal rhythms (like circadian rhythms) are sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of Casein kinase 1, suggesting the possibility of shared clock substrates. However, cloning the canonical circadian genes of E. pulchra to provide molecular markers of circadian timing and also reagents to disrupt it by RNAi revealed that environmental and molecular manipulations that confound circadian timing do not affect tidal timing. Thus, competent circadian timing is neither an inevitable nor necessary element of tidal timekeeping. Conclusions We demonstrate that tidal rhythms are driven by a dedicated circatidal pacemaker that is distinct from the circadian system of E. pulchra, thereby resolving a long-standing debate regarding the nature of the circatidal mechanism. PMID:24076244

  17. MoSI BANDING Sheet Location Band Size Season (e.g. 2009-10) Page # CODE SEX AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP New Band N Male M Local 4 Skull S Feather Wear F None 0 None 0 None 0 None 0 None 0 None N None 0 Juvenal J CODE BAND NUMBER SPECIES NAME SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT

  18. Metamorphosis in the Cirripede Crustacean Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Maruzzo, Diego; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S.; Høeg, Jens T.

    2012-01-01

    Stalked and acorn barnacles (Cirripedia Thoracica) have a complex life cycle that includes a free-swimming nauplius larva, a cypris larva and a permanently attached sessile juvenile and adult barnacle. The barnacle cyprid is among the most highly specialized of marine invertebrate larvae and its settlement biology has been intensively studied. By contrast, surprisingly few papers have dealt with the critical series of metamorphic events from cementation of the cyprid to the substratum until the appearance of a suspension feeding juvenile. This metamorphosis is both ontogenetically complex and critical to the survival of the barnacle. Here we use video microscopy to present a timeline and description of morphological events from settled cyprid to juvenile barnacle in the model species Balanus amphitrite, representing an important step towards both a broader understanding of the settlement ecology of this species and a platform for studying the factors that control its metamorphosis. Metamorphosis in B. amphitrite involves a complex sequence of events: cementation, epidermis separation from the cypris cuticle, degeneration of cypris musculature, rotation of the thorax inside the mantle cavity, building of the juvenile musculature, contraction of antennular muscles, raising of the body, shedding of the cypris cuticle, shell plate and basis formation and, possibly, a further moult to become a suspension feeding barnacle. We compare these events with developmental information from other barnacle species and discuss them in the framework of barnacle settlement ecology. PMID:22666355

  19. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA838 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  20. 75 FR 55360 - In the Matter of Mattingly Testing Services, Inc. Molt, MT; Order Revoking License (Effective...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...licensee facilities in Molt and Billings, Montana. The license further authorizes the possession of natural or depleted uranium, as solid metal, for shielding in radiography equipment. On the same date this Order (EA-10-100) is...

  1. The ecdysteroid titer in the female prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii during the molt cycle

    E-print Network

    Newitt, Richard Allen

    1981-01-01

    Whinnie et al. , 1972), Palaemonetes ~u io (Freeman and Bartell, 1975), 1976; Hubschman and Armstrong, 1972), Gammarus ~s . (Ducruet, 1975), Homarus americanus (Rao et al. , 1973), Procambrus ~s . (Lowe et al. , 1968; Krishnakumaran and Schneiderman, 1970...

  2. NHR-23 dependent collagen and hedgehog-related genes required for molting

    PubMed Central

    Kouns, Nathaniel A.; Nakielna, Johana; Behensky, Frantisek; Krause, Michael W.; Kostrouch, Zdenek; Kostrouchova, Marta

    2011-01-01

    NHR-23, a conserved member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, is required for normal development in C. elegans where it plays a critical role in growth and molting. In a search for NHR-23 dependent genes, we performed whole genome comparative expression microarrays on both control and nhr-23 inhibited synchronized larvae. Genes that decreased in response to nhr-23 RNAi included several collagen genes. Unexpectedly, several hedgehog-related genes were also down-regulated after nhr-23 RNAi. A homozygous nhr-23 deletion allele was used to confirm the RNAi knockdown phenotypes and the changes in gene expression. Our results indicate that NHR-23 is a critical co-regulator of functionally linked genes involved in growth and molting and reveal evolutionary parallels among the ecdysozoa. PMID:21910973

  3. A molecular genetic approach to the biosynthesis of the insect steroid molting hormone.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lawrence I; Warren, James T

    2005-01-01

    Insect growth, development, and molting depend upon a critical titer of the principal molting hormone of arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Although the structure of 20E as a polyhydroxylated steroid was determined more than five decades ago, the exact steps in its biosynthesis have eluded identification. Over the past several years, the use of the fly database and the techniques and paradigms of biochemistry, analytical chemistry, and molecular genetics have allowed the cloning and sequencing of four genes in the Halloween gene family of Drosophila melanogaster, all of them encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, each of which mediates one of the four terminal hydroxylation steps in 20E biosynthesis. Further, the sequence of these hydroxylations has been determined, and developmental alterations in the expression of each of these genes have been quantified during both embryonic and postembryonic life. PMID:16399407

  4. Research Note Phytase Effects on Amino Acid Digestibility in Molted Laying Hens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Snow; M. W. Douglas; C. M. Parsons

    Two hundred sixteen previously molted Dekalb Delta Leghorn laying hens (78 wk of age) were utilized to determine the effect of phytase on the ileal digestibility of amino acids. The hens were randomly arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial to evaluate three diet types that were corn-soybean meal (C-SBM), C-SBM-meat and bone meal (C-SBM-MBM), and C-SBM-wheat middlings (C-SBM-WM) and

  5. Larval Culture of Tachypleus gigas and Its Molting Behavior Under Laboratory Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Mishra

    \\u000a Horseshoe crab populations along the northeast coast of India are under threat due to degradation of the breeding beaches.\\u000a To augment the trend, attempts were made to culture the larvae of Tachypleus gigas and study its growth rate by enhancing the molting pattern in the laboratory condition. Trilobites of T. gigas were cultured on a controlled diet of brine shrimp

  6. Proteomic analysis of insect molting fluid with a focus on enzymes involved in chitin degradation.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mingbo; Ma, Li; Chen, Peng; Yang, Qing

    2014-06-01

    Cuticular chitin degradation is extremely important for insect growth and development, which has not been fully understood thus far. One obstacle to understanding this mechanism is the lack of a systematic analysis of the chitinolytic enzymes involved in cuticular chitin degradation. In this study, we used the silkmoth Bombyx mori as a model organism and compared proteomic analyses for larval-pupal (L-P) and pupal-adult (P-A) molting fluids using tandem mass tag quantitative mass spectrometry. There were 195 proteins identified from both L-P and P-A molting fluids. A total of 170 out of 195 proteins were deduced to be secretory and were enriched for GO terms associated with chitin metabolism and proteolysis by using AgriGO. Although the chitinolytic enzymes are encoded by many insect genes, the proteomics analysis unexpectedly showed that only four chitinolytic enzymes with the combination "211" were abundant in both molting fluids, namely, two insect GH18 Chitinase family members (ChtI and ChtII), one bacterial-type GH18 Chitinase (Chi-h), and one insect GH20 hexosaminidase (Hex1). A tissue-specific and stage-specific gene expression pattern verified that the "211" enzymes are involved in cuticular chitin degradation. This work first demonstrates that specific enzymes ChtI, ChtII, Chi-h, and Hex1 can be assigned to cuticular chitin degradation. PMID:24779478

  7. NHR-23 dependent collagen and hedgehog-related genes required for molting

    SciTech Connect

    Kouns, Nathaniel A.; Nakielna, Johana; Behensky, Frantisek [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Krause, Michael W. [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kostrouch, Zdenek [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Kostrouchova, Marta, E-mail: marta.kostrouchova@lf1.cuni.cz [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)] [Laboratory of Model Systems, Institute of Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} NHR-23 is a critical regulator of nematode development and molting. {yields} The manuscript characterizes the loss-of-function phenotype of an nhr-23 mutant. {yields} Whole genome expression analysis identifies new potential targets of NHR-23. {yields} Hedgehog-related genes are identified as NHR-23 dependent genes. {yields} New link between sterol mediated signaling and regulation by NHR-23 is found. -- Abstract: NHR-23, a conserved member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, is required for normal development in Caenorhabditis elegans where it plays a critical role in growth and molting. In a search for NHR-23 dependent genes, we performed whole genome comparative expression microarrays on both control and nhr-23 inhibited synchronized larvae. Genes that decreased in response to nhr-23 RNAi included several collagen genes. Unexpectedly, several hedgehog-related genes were also down-regulated after nhr-23 RNAi. A homozygous nhr-23 deletion allele was used to confirm the RNAi knockdown phenotypes and the changes in gene expression. Our results indicate that NHR-23 is a critical co-regulator of functionally linked genes involved in growth and molting and reveal evolutionary parallels among the ecdysozoa.

  8. Expanding the Crustacean neuropeptidome using a multifaceted mass spectrometric approach.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Wang, Junhua; Chen, Ruibing; Li, Lingjun

    2009-05-01

    Jonah crab Cancer borealis is an excellent, long-served model organism for many areas of physiology, including the study of endocrinology and neurobiology. Characterizing the neuropeptides present in its nervous system provides the first critical step toward understanding the physiological roles of these complex molecules. Multiple mass spectral techniques were used to comprehensively characterize the neuropeptidome in C. borealis, including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS), MALDI time-of-flight (TOF)/TOF MS and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS). To enhance the detection signals and expand the dynamic range, direct tissue analysis, tissue extraction, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and off-line HPLC separation have also been employed. In total, 142 peptides were identified, including 85 previously known C. borealis peptides, 22 peptides characterized previously from other decapods, but new to this species, and 35 new peptides de novo sequenced for the first time in this study. Seventeen neuropeptide families were revealed including FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP), allatostatin (A and B type), RYamide, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, proctolin, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptide (CPRP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), corazonin, pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH), tachykinin, pyrokinin, SIFamide, red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) and HISGLYRamide. Collectively, our results greatly increase the number and expand the coverage of known C. borealis neuropeptides, and thus provide a stronger framework for future studies on the physiological roles played by these molecules in this important model organism. PMID:19222238

  9. Adult neurogenesis in the decapod crustacean brain: A hematopoietic connection?

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Zhang, Yi; Benton, Jeanne L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the 1st- generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors coexist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined. Experiments also demonstrate that the 1st-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are not self-renewing. A source external to the neurogenic niche must therefore provide cells that replenish the 1st-generation precursor pool, because although these cells divide and produce a continuous efflux of 2nd-generation cells from the niche, the population of 1st-generation niche precursors is not diminished with growth and aging. In vitro studies show that cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to involve serotonergic mechanisms. We propose that in crayfish, the hematopoietic system may be a source of cells that replenish the niche cell pool. These and other studies reviewed here establish decapod crustaceans as model systems in which the processes underlying adult neurogenesis, such as stem cell origins and transformation, can be readily explored. Studies in diverse species where adult neurogenesis occurs will result in a broader understanding of fundamental mechanisms and how evolutionary processes may have shaped the vertebrate/mammalian condition. PMID:21929622

  10. Barremian decapod crustaceans from Serre de Bleyton (Drôme, SE France)

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Kroh, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Based on mostly small-sized isolated cheliped fingers, a new decapod crustacean assemblage is described from the Barremian of Serre de Bleyton (Drôme, SE France). The assemblage is composed mostly of representatives of the crab family Dynomenidae. In addition, remains of astacidean lobsters, axiidean shrimps, paguroid hermit crabs and brachyurous crabs of the families Necrocarcinidae and ?Cenomanocarcinidae occur in low numbers. Graptocarcinus moosleitneri (Dynomenidae) and ?Paranecrocarcinus schloegli (Necrocarcinidae) are introduced as new species. They both exhibit presence of multi-setal pores on dactyli that are interpreted as parts of a sieving mechanism used in feeding. The stratigraphic range of Graptocarcinus is extended herein to the Barremian.

  11. Chemoreception in the marine environment Many marine crustaceans rely heavily on olfaction to find

    E-print Network

    Koehl, Mimi

    Chemoreception in the marine environment Many marine crustaceans rely heavily on olfaction to find. Stomatopods are good model systems for studies of flow and olfaction We use stomatopod antennules here Gonodactylaceus mutatus. Flicking, fluid flow and olfaction Many crustaceans sample their chemical environment

  12. Stressed-Out Lobsters: Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone and Stress Proteins1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERNEST S. CHANG

    2005-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Organisms in natural habitats must frequently respond to changes in their environments through various physiological mechanisms. My laboratory has developed several methods for the quantifi- cation of stress in crustaceans. An ELISA was developed for the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the American lobster (Homarus americanus). It is sensitive to as little as 0.2 fmol of peptide. Increases in

  13. Crustacean neuropeptide genes of the CHH\\/MIH\\/GIH family: implications from molecular studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siu-Ming Chan; Pei-Li Gu; Ka-Hou Chu; Stephen S Tobe

    2003-01-01

    The crustacean eyestalk CHH\\/MIH\\/GIH gene family represents a unique group of neuropeptide originally identified in crustaceans. These neuropeptides shared a high degree of amino acid identity, and the conservation of cysteine residues at the same relative positions. Based on their biological, biochemical, and molecular properties, they can be divided into the CHH and MIH subtypes with two major members in

  14. Crustacean zooplankton in lakes and reservoirs of temperate and tropical regions: variation with trophic status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Pinto-Coelho; Bernadette Pinel-Alloul; Ginette Méthot; Karl E. Havens

    2005-01-01

    The influence of trophic status on the crustacean zooplankton community was investigated in lakes and res- ervoirs in temperate and subtropical-tropical regions. We tested if there is a consistent relationship between crustacean species richness, assemblages, and abundance and trophic indices such as total phosphorus and chlorophyll a. We also examined if these patterns differ between regions. Cumulative species richness and

  15. Do Decapod Crustaceans Have Nociceptors for Extreme pH?

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Sakshi; Faulkes, Zen

    2010-01-01

    Background Nociception is the physiological detection of noxious stimuli. Because of its obvious importance, nociception is expected to be widespread across animal taxa and to trigger robust behaviours reliably. Nociception in invertebrates, such as crustaceans, is poorly studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Three decapod crustacean species were tested for nociceptive behaviour: Louisiana red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes sp.). Applying sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, or benzocaine to the antennae caused no change in behaviour in the three species compared to controls. Animals did not groom the stimulated antenna, and there was no difference in movement of treated individuals and controls. Extracellular recordings of antennal nerves in P. clarkii revealed continual spontaneous activity, but no neurons that were reliably excited by the application of concentrated sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. Conclusions/Significance Previously reported responses to extreme pH are either not consistently evoked across species or were mischaracterized as nociception. There was no behavioural or physiological evidence that the antennae contained specialized nociceptors that responded to pH. PMID:20422026

  16. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, N. J.; Land, M. F.; Cronin, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a ‘primate-like’ awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  17. Oxygen Consumption Rates and Oxygen Concentration in Molt-4 Cells and Their mtDNA Depleted (?0) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jiangang; Khan, Nadeem; Lewis, Lionel D.; Armand, Ray; Grinberg, Oleg; Demidenko, Eugene; Swartz, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory deficient cell lines are being increasingly used to elucidate the role of mitochondria and to understand the pathophysiology of mitochondrial genetic disease. We have investigated the oxygen consumption rates and oxygen concentration in wild-type (WT) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depleted (?0) Molt-4 cells. Wild-type Molt-4 cells have moderate oxygen consumption rates, which were significantly reduced in the ?0 cells. PCMB (p-chloromercurobenzoate) inhibited the oxygen consumption rates in both WT and ?0 cells, whereas potassium cyanide decreased the oxygen consumption rates only in WT Molt-4 cells. Menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB) increased the oxygen consumption rates in both cell lines, whereas CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone) stimulated the oxygen consumption rates only in WT Molt-4 cells. Superoxide radical adducts were observed in both WT and ?0 cells when stimulated with MSB. The formation of this adduct was inhibited by PCMB but not by potassium cyanide. These results suggest that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by MSB were at least in part produced via a mitochondrial independent pathway. An oxygen gradient between the extra- and intracellular compartments was observed in WT Molt-4 cells, which further increased when cells were stimulated by CCCP and MSB. The results are consistent with our earlier findings suggesting that such oxygen gradients may be a general phenomenon found in most or all cell systems under appropriate conditions. PMID:12547809

  18. Recrudescence Mechanisms and Gene Expression Profile of the Reproductive Tracts from Chickens during the Molting Period

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Suzie E.; Lim, Chul-Hong; Lee, Jin-Young; Bae, Seung-Min; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Song, Gwonhwa

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive system of chickens undergoes dynamic morphological and functional tissue remodeling during the molting period. The present study identified global gene expression profiles following oviductal tissue regression and regeneration in laying hens in which molting was induced by feeding high levels of zinc in the diet. During the molting and recrudescence processes, progressive morphological and physiological changes included regression and re-growth of reproductive organs and fluctuations in concentrations of testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and corticosterone in blood. The cDNA microarray analysis of oviductal tissues revealed the biological significance of gene expression-based modulation in oviductal tissue during its remodeling. Based on the gene expression profiles, expression patterns of selected genes such as, TF, ANGPTL3, p20K, PTN, AvBD11 and SERPINB3 exhibited similar patterns in expression with gradual decreases during regression of the oviduct and sequential increases during resurrection of the functional oviduct. Also, miR-1689* inhibited expression of Sp1, while miR-17-3p, miR-22* and miR-1764 inhibited expression of STAT1. Similarly, chicken miR-1562 and miR-138 reduced the expression of ANGPTL3 and p20K, respectively. These results suggest that these differentially regulated genes are closely correlated with the molecular mechanism(s) for development and tissue remodeling of the avian female reproductive tract, and that miRNA-mediated regulation of key genes likely contributes to remodeling of the avian reproductive tract by controlling expression of those genes post-transcriptionally. The discovered global gene profiles provide new molecular candidates responsible for regulating morphological and functional recrudescence of the avian reproductive tract, and provide novel insights into understanding the remodeling process at the genomic and epigenomic levels. PMID:24098561

  19. Imaging mass spectrometry of neuropeptides in decapod crustacean neuronal tissues.

    PubMed

    DeKeyser, Stephanie S; Kutz-Naber, Kimberly K; Schmidt, Joshua J; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A; Li, Lingjun

    2007-05-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) of neuropeptides in crustacean neuronal tissues was performed on a MALDI-TOF/TOF instrument. Sample preparation protocols were developed for the sensitive detection of these highly complex endogenous signaling molecules. The neuromodulatory complements of the pericardial organ (PO) and brain of the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, were mapped. Distributions of peptide isoforms belonging to 10 neuropeptide families were investigated using the IMS technique. Often, neuropeptides of high sequence homology were similarly located. However, two RFamide-family peptides and a truncated orcokinin peptide were mapped to locations distinct from other members of their respective families. Over 30 previously sequenced neuropeptides were identified based on mass measurement. For increased confidence of identification, select peptides were fragmented by post-source decay (PSD) and collisional-induced dissociation (CID). Collectively, this organ-level IMS study elucidates the spatial relationships between multiple neuropeptide isoforms of the same family as well as the relative distributions of neuropeptide families. PMID:17381149

  20. Photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to seven marine benthic crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Boese, B L; Lamberson, J O; Swartz, R C; Ozretich, R J

    1997-05-01

    Seven marine benthic crustaceans were exposed in 4 d water-only toxicity tests to five concentrations of fluoranthene. After exposures, mortality (LC50) and the ability to bury in clean sediment (EC50) were determined. Survivors were then exposed to UV radiation for 1 h. The differences between LC50s and EC50s before and after UV exposure were used to assess photoinduced toxicity. UV exposure enhanced fluoranthene toxicity by as much as tenfold in five of the seven species tested (Rhepoxynius abronius, Eohaustorius estuarius, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Grandidierella japonica, and Corophium insidiosum). Species having the greatest potential for natural exposure to sunlight (Excirolana vancouverensis and Emerita analoga) were the least sensitive to photoinduced fluoranthene toxicity. Although photoinduced toxicity needs to be considered in environmental risk assessments, testing should be done, using ecologically relevant species and exposures. PMID:9175504

  1. Crustacean zooplankton in aerated wastewater treatment lagoons as a potential feedstock for biofuel.

    PubMed

    Kring, Stefanie A; Xia, Xiaoyan; Powers, Susan E; Twiss, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton biomass productivity was estimated for two 64,000 m3 (1.7 ha) facultative aerated wastewater treatment lagoons to evaluate potential biodiesel production from zooplankton biomass. Lagoons were monitored bi-weekly during summer 2010. Lipid accumulated by crustacean zooplankton was considered the most efficient means by which to collect lipid produced by phytoplankton owing to the greater ease in the collection of these organisms (>0.153mm) compared with unicellular algae (size <0.06 mm). In terms of biomass, the cladoceran Daphnia and the copepod Cyclops were the dominant zooplankton in these hypereutrophic lagoons, while unicellular chlorophytes dominated the phytoplankton community. Secondary productivity of these lagoons (250 g of dry weight m(-2) yr(-1)) is comparable to the secondary productivity of other sewage lagoons. The potential biodiesel production for one lagoon was estimated to be 0.04 +/- 0.02 L m(-2) yr(-1), which results in a total of 1120 +/- 560 L from two lagoons. This study showed that there are organisms present in wastewater lagoons, besides algae, that can serve as a biofuel feedstock. Additionally, this research expands the current knowledge of facultative aerated wastewater lagoon ecology and waste stream-derived biofuel. Future research should include complete life cycle and economic analyses to determine if harvesting zooplankton from wastewater lagoons is a sustainable endeavour. PMID:24350451

  2. Size Dimorphism, Molt Status, and Body Mass Variation of Prairie Falcons Nesting in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Steenhof; James O. McKinley; Cheryl R. Dykstra

    2006-01-01

    Birds face challenges in how they allocate energy during the reproductive season. Most temperate zone species do not breed and molt at the same time, presumably because of the high energy demands of these two activities (Espie et al. 1996 and citations therein). However, representatives of at least four raptor genera are known to molt during the nesting season (Schmutz

  3. Plumage development and molt in Long-tailed Manakins (Chiroxiphia linearis): Variation according to sex and age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doucet, S.M.; McDonald, D.B.; Foster, M.S.; Clay, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Lek-mating Long-tailed Manakins (Chiroxiphia linearis) exhibit an unusual pattern of delayed plumage maturation. Each year, males progress through a series of predefinitive plumages before attaining definitive plumage in their fifth calendar year. Females also exhibit variation in plumage coloration, with some females displaying male-like plumage characteristics. Using data from mist-net captures in northwest Costa Rica (n = 1,315) and museum specimens from throughout the range of Long-tailed Manakins (n = 585), we documented the plumage sequence progression of males, explored variation in female plumage, and described the timing of molt in this species. Males progressed through a series of age-specific predefinitive plumages, which enabled the accurate aging of predefinitive-plumaged males in the field; this preclefinitive plumage sequence is the basis for age-related status- signaling in these males. Females tended to acquire red coloration in the crown as they aged. However, colorful plumage in females may be a byproduct of selection on bright male plumage. Females exhibited an early peak of molt activity from February to April, little molt from May through July, and a second, more pronounced peak of molt activity in October. By contrast, males in older predefinitive-plumage stages and males in definitive plumage exhibited comparable unimodal distributions in molt activity beginning in June and peaking between July and October. Our data are consistent with selective pressure to avoid the costs of molt-breeding overlap in females and older males. Our findings have important implications for social organization and signaling in Longtailed Manakins, and for the evolution of delayed plumage maturation in birds.

  4. MELENGESTROL ACETATE AS AN EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO INDUCE A DECLINE IN EGG PRODUCTION AND REVERSIBLE REGRESSION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT IN LAYING HENS II. EFFECTS ON POST MOLT EGG QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inducing hens to molt increases egg quality, egg production and extends the productive life of the hens. Molting is normally accomplished by feed withdrawal, which has received criticism, and alternatives described thus far have resulted in poor post-molt performance. Previous studies have shown t...

  5. Journal of Fish Diseases 1995, 18. 529-537 Antibody response to crustacean ectoparasites in

    E-print Network

    McCarthy, T.K.

    . and brown trout, Salmo trutta L. Knowledge of the immune response to crustacean parasites by their fish is Argulusfoliaceus L., a palaearctic species found on freshwater fish including the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L

  6. POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLINS: A MOLECULAR APPROACH TO REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    To fully elucidate the action of crustacean hormones, or their agonists, on reproduction and vitellogenesis it has become increasingly important to develop sensitive assays that indicate a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on easily measured endpoints. Because of the relative abun...

  7. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  8. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  9. Chemical Communication in Crustaceans: Research Challenges for the Twenty-First Century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Thiel; Thomas Breithaupt

    \\u000a Chemical signals play an important role during various life stages of crustaceans. Settling of larvae, parent–offspring communication,\\u000a mate finding, mate choice, aggressive contests, and dominance hierarchies are all mediated by chemical signals. Enormous advances\\u000a have been made on understanding the function of chemical signals in crustaceans and we are on the doorstep of major advances\\u000a in chemical characterization of pheromones.

  10. Neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of adult decapod crustaceans: development of the neurogenic niche in the brains of procambarid crayfish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the decapod crustacean brain, neurogenesis persists throughout the animal's life. After embryogenesis, the central olfactory pathway integrates newborn olfactory local and projection interneurons that replace old neurons or expand the existing population. In crayfish, these neurons are the descendants of precursor cells residing in a neurogenic niche. In this paper, the development of the niche was documented by monitoring proliferating cells with S-phase-specific markers combined with immunohistochemical, dye-injection and pulse-chase experiments. Results Between the end of embryogenesis and throughout the first post-embryonic stage (POI), a defined transverse band of mitotically active cells (which we will term 'the deutocerebral proliferative system' (DPS) appears. Just prior to hatching and in parallel with the formation of the DPS, the anlagen of the niche appears, closely associated with the vasculature. When the hatchling molts to the second post-embryonic stage (POII), the DPS differentiates into the lateral (LPZ) and medial (MPZ) proliferative zones. The LPZ and MPZ are characterized by a high number of mitotically active cells from the beginning of post-embryonic life; in contrast, the developing niche contains only very few dividing cells, a characteristic that persists in the adult organism. Conclusions Our data suggest that the LPZ and MPZ are largely responsible for the production of new neurons in the early post-embryonic stages, and that the neurogenic niche in the beginning plays a subordinate role. However, as the neuroblasts in the proliferation zones disappear during early post-embryonic life, the neuronal precursors in the niche gradually become the dominant and only mechanism for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain. PMID:22225949

  11. Biodegradation of the chitin-protein complex in crustacean cuticle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hof, C.H.J.; Bierstedt, A.; Flannery, M.B.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Evershed, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between weeks 1 and 2. After 8 weeks tyrosine, tryptophan and valine are the most prominent amino acid moieties, showing their resistance to degradation. The presence of cyclic ketones in the pyrolysates indicates that mucopolysaccharides or other bound non-chitinous carbohydrates are also resistant to decay. There is no evidence of structural degradation of chitin prior to 8 weeks when FTIR revealed a reduction in chitin-specific bands. The chemical changes are paralleled by structural changes in the cuticle, which becomes an increasingly open structure consisting of loose chitinous fibres. The rapid rate of decay in the experiments suggests that where chitin and protein are preserved in fossil cuticles degradation must have been inhibited.Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between weeks 1 and 2. After 8 weeks tyrosine, tryptophan and valine are the most prominent amino acid moieties, showing their resistance to degradation. The presence of cyclic ketones in the pyrolysates indicates that mucopolysaccharides or other bound non-chitinous carbohydrates are also resistant to decay. There is no evidence of structural degradation of chitin prior to 8 weeks when FTIR revealed a reduction in chitin-specific bands. The chemical changes are paralleled by structural changes in the cuticle, which becomes an increasingly open structure consisting of loose chitinous fibres. The rapid rate of decay in the experiments suggests, that where chitin and protein are preserved in fossil cuticles degradation must have been inhibited.

  12. Global Diversity of Marine Isopods (Except Asellota and Crustacean Symbionts)

    PubMed Central

    Poore, Gary C. B.; Bruce, Niel L.

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10–1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the bathyal and abyssal Antarctic than Arctic GOODS provinces, and more from the larger Pacific than Atlantic oceans. Two areas with many species known are the New Zealand-Kermadec and the Northern North Pacific provinces. Deep hard substrates such as found on seamounts and the slopes are underrepresented in samples. This, the documented numbers of undescribed species in recent collections and probable cryptic species suggest a large as yet undocumented fauna, potentially an order of magnitude greater than presently known. PMID:22952700

  13. USE OF A LIVE ATTENUATED SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM VACCINE TO PROTECT HENS AGAINST S. ENTERITIDIS INFECTION WHILE UNDERGOING MOLT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies demonstrated that Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infections in hens undergoing molt via feed withdrawal were more severe than in full fed hens. Two trials were conducted to determine whether immunizing hens with Megan®Vac1, a commercially-available attenuated S. typhimurium vaccine, w...

  14. Immunological cell and serum metabolite response of sixty-week old commercial laying hens to an alfalfa meal molt diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practice of inducing molt in commercial poultry involves light restriction, feed removal, and limiting water for five to fourteen days. Many animal welfare groups are concerned about this issue due to the stresses that feed and water deprivation cause. With this in mind, alternative diets have...

  15. The successful induction of molting in the adult male lobster (Homarus americanus) with a slow-release form of ecdysterone.

    PubMed

    Gilgan, M W; Burns, B G

    1976-05-01

    In an initial, and then a confirmatory experiment, adult, male lobsters were injected with solvent, ecdysterone (E, 2.0 mug/g live weight) or ecdysterone acetate (EAc, 2.5 or 5.0 mug/g live weight) emulsions in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). Control lobsters underwent no molts and only one death in the two cases. The E treated animals all died (average: exp. 1, 19.2 +/-2.1 days; exp. 2, 25.3 +/- 8 days). After the lobsters were treated twice with 2.5 mug EAc/g live weight, in the first experiment, four out of five molted and one died; in the second experiment six out of eight molted, one died and one remained refractory. The high EAc dose resulted in five deaths, one molt and two pseudomolts after one treatment. It is concluded that the use of the oil emulsion and EAc sufficiently slowed the release of free ecdysterone to allow complete premolt development in the lobster. PMID:941177

  16. 762 shorT commUnicaTions AN IMPROVED EXTRACTION METHOD TO INCREASE DNA YIELD FROM MOLTED FEATHERS

    E-print Network

    - vasive source of DNA for genetic studies of Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), we isolated words: Accipiter gentilis, DNA extraction, DNA yield, molted feathers, noninvasive genetic sampling ADN en estudios de Accipiter gentilis, aislamos y cuantificamos ADN de plumas mudadas y comparamos la

  17. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  18. The relationship between circulating ecdysteroids and chela allometry in male tanner crabs: Evidence for a terminal molt in the genus Chionoecetes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tamone, S.L.; Taggart, S.J.; Andrews, A.G.; Mondragon, J.; Nielsen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Whether male Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi, undergo a terminal molt associated with a change in claw allometry has long been debated. We measured molting hormone levels in captured male C. bairdi to assess the potential for molting. We plotted a frequency histogram of chela height to carapace width ratios and found a bimodal distribution of crabs with a ratio of approximately 0.18 separating the two modes. Male crabs with a ratio less than 0.18 were classified as "small-clawed" (SC) while crabs with a ratio greater than 0.18 were classified as "large-clawed" (LC). Circulating molting hormones between SC and LC crabs were compared. Significantly lower ecdysteroid levels were found in LC crabs, indicating that this morphotype had negligible potential for molting. Circulating ecdysteroids were measured in SC males of different shell conditions (soft, new, old, and very old) and no significant differences were found. This research suggests that the molt to LC morphology is a terminal molt. The results from this study have important implications for fisheries management because sub-legal LC males will not recruit into the fishery and removal of larger males may have long term effects on population size structure.

  19. Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Protas, Meredith; Jeffery, William R

    2012-01-01

    Cave animals are excellent models to study the general principles of evolution as well as the mechanisms of adaptation to a novel environment: the perpetual darkness of caves. In this article, two of the major model systems used to study the evolution and development (evo-devo) of cave animals are described: the teleost fish Astyanax mexicanus and the isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus. The ways in which these animals match the major attributes expected of an evo-devo cave animal model system are described. For both species, we enumerate the regressive and constructive troglomorphic traits that have evolved during their adaptation to cave life, the developmental and genetic basis of these traits, the possible evolutionary forces responsible for them, and potential new areas in which these model systems could be used for further exploration of the evolution of cave animals. Furthermore, we compare the two model cave animals to investigate the mechanisms of troglomorphic evolution. Finally, we propose a few other cave animal systems that would be suitable for development as additional models to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the developmental and genetic mechanisms involved in troglomorphic evolution. PMID:23580903

  20. Ultraviolet filters in stomatopod crustaceans: diversity, ecology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Bok, Michael J; Porter, Megan L; Cronin, Thomas W

    2015-07-01

    Stomatopod crustaceans employ unique ultraviolet (UV) optical filters in order to tune the spectral sensitivities of their UV-sensitive photoreceptors. In the stomatopod species Neogonodactylus oerstedii, we previously found four filter types, produced by five distinct mycosporine-like amino acid pigments in the crystalline cones of their specialized midband ommatidial facets. This UV-spectral tuning array produces receptors with at least six distinct spectral sensitivities, despite expressing only two visual pigments. Here, we present a broad survey of these UV filters across the stomatopod order, examining their spectral absorption properties in 21 species from seven families in four superfamilies. We found that UV filters are present in three of the four superfamilies, and evolutionary character reconstruction implies that at least one class of UV filter was present in the ancestor of all modern stomatopods. Additionally, postlarval stomatopods were observed to produce the UV filters simultaneously alongside development of the adult eye. The absorbance properties of the filters are consistent within a species; however, between species we found a great deal of diversity, both in the number of filters and in their spectral absorbance characteristics. This diversity correlates with the habitat depth ranges of these species, suggesting that species living in shallow, UV-rich environments may tune their UV spectral sensitivities more aggressively. We also found additional, previously unrecognized UV filter types in the crystalline cones of the peripheral eye regions of some species, indicating the possibility for even greater stomatopod visual complexity than previously thought. PMID:25964422

  1. Remarkable Diversity of Endogenous Viruses in a Crustacean Genome

    PubMed Central

    Thézé, Julien; Leclercq, Sébastien; Moumen, Bouziane; Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in paleovirology have uncovered myriads of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) integrated in the genome of their eukaryotic hosts. These fragments result from endogenization, that is, integration of the viral genome into the host germline genome followed by vertical inheritance. So far, most studies have used a virus-centered approach, whereby endogenous copies of a particular group of viruses were searched in all available sequenced genomes. Here, we follow a host-centered approach whereby the genome of a given species is comprehensively screened for the presence of EVEs using all available complete viral genomes as queries. Our analyses revealed that 54 EVEs corresponding to 10 different viral lineages belonging to 5 viral families (Bunyaviridae, Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Totiviridae) and one viral order (Mononegavirales) became endogenized in the genome of the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. We show that viral endogenization occurred recurrently during the evolution of isopods and that A. vulgare viral lineages were involved in multiple host switches that took place between widely divergent taxa. Furthermore, 30 A. vulgare EVEs have uninterrupted open reading frames, suggesting they result from recent endogenization of viruses likely to be currently infecting isopod populations. Overall, our work shows that isopods have been and are still infected by a large variety of viruses. It also extends the host range of several families of viruses and brings new insights into their evolution. More generally, our results underline the power of paleovirology in characterizing the viral diversity currently infecting eukaryotic taxa. PMID:25084787

  2. Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Protas, Meredith; Jeffery, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Cave animals are excellent models to study the general principles of evolution as well as the mechanisms of adaptation to a novel environment: the perpetual darkness of caves. In this article, two of the major model systems used to study the evolution and development (evo–devo) of cave animals are described: the teleost fish Astyanax mexicanus and the isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus. The ways in which these animals match the major attributes expected of an evo–devo cave animal model system are described. For both species, we enumerate the regressive and constructive troglomorphic traits that have evolved during their adaptation to cave life, the developmental and genetic basis of these traits, the possible evolutionary forces responsible for them, and potential new areas in which these model systems could be used for further exploration of the evolution of cave animals. Furthermore, we compare the two model cave animals to investigate the mechanisms of troglomorphic evolution. Finally, we propose a few other cave animal systems that would be suitable for development as additional models to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the developmental and genetic mechanisms involved in troglomorphic evolution. PMID:23580903

  3. Bacteria-Induced Dscam Isoforms of the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus.

    PubMed

    Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Liu, Haipeng; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    The Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule, also known as Dscam, is a member of the immunoglobulin super family. Dscam plays an essential function in neuronal wiring and appears to be involved in innate immune reactions in insects. The deduced amino acid sequence of Dscam in the crustacean Pacifastacus leniusculus (PlDscam), encodes 9(Ig)-4(FNIII)-(Ig)-2(FNIII)-TM and it has variable regions in the N-terminal half of Ig2 and Ig3 and the complete Ig7 and in the transmembrane domain. The cytoplasmic tail can generate multiple isoforms. PlDscam can generate more than 22,000 different unique isoforms. Bacteria and LPS injection enhanced the expression of PlDscam, but no response in expression occurred after a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection or injection with peptidoglycans. Furthermore, PlDscam silencing did not have any effect on the replication of the WSSV. Bacterial specific isoforms of PlDscam were shown to have a specific binding property to each tested bacteria, E. coli or S. aureus. The bacteria specific isoforms of PlDscam were shown to be associated with bacterial clearance and phagocytosis in crayfish. PMID:21695245

  4. Detritivorous crustaceans become herbivores on jasmonate-deficient plants.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Edward E; Dubugnon, Lucie

    2009-01-20

    The jasmonate signal pathway is known to control defenses against herbivores, such as leaf eaters (folivores). Does the reach of the pathway extend to defense against other types of animal? Among the arthropods attracted to seed baits placed below flowering Arabidopsis thaliana plants are 2 largely nocturnal isopod crustaceans generally considered as detritivores: Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare. Parallel laboratory experiments identified the isopods as being capable of predation on intact plants. Isopod feeding was strongly facilitated in jasmonate-deficient Arabidopsis and rice plants. The feeding activity of isopods revealed potentially detritivore-sensitive, jasmonate-protected Achilles' heels in these architecturally different plants (petioles and inflorescence stems in Arabidopsis, and lower stem and mesocotyl in rice). The work addresses the question of what stops 2 detritivores from attacking living plants and provides evidence that it is, in part, the jasmonate signal pathway. Furthermore, senescent leaves from an Arabidopsis jasmonate mutant were consumed more rapidly than senescent wild-type leaves, suggesting that past activity of the jasmonate signal pathway in leaves may slow carbon recycling through detritivory. PMID:19139394

  5. Detritivorous crustaceans become herbivores on jasmonate-deficient plants

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Edward E.; Dubugnon, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    The jasmonate signal pathway is known to control defenses against herbivores, such as leaf eaters (folivores). Does the reach of the pathway extend to defense against other types of animal? Among the arthropods attracted to seed baits placed below flowering Arabidopsis thaliana plants are 2 largely nocturnal isopod crustaceans generally considered as detritivores: Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare. Parallel laboratory experiments identified the isopods as being capable of predation on intact plants. Isopod feeding was strongly facilitated in jasmonate-deficient Arabidopsis and rice plants. The feeding activity of isopods revealed potentially detritivore-sensitive, jasmonate-protected Achilles' heels in these architecturally different plants (petioles and inflorescence stems in Arabidopsis, and lower stem and mesocotyl in rice). The work addresses the question of what stops 2 detritivores from attacking living plants and provides evidence that it is, in part, the jasmonate signal pathway. Furthermore, senescent leaves from an Arabidopsis jasmonate mutant were consumed more rapidly than senescent wild-type leaves, suggesting that past activity of the jasmonate signal pathway in leaves may slow carbon recycling through detritivory. PMID:19139394

  6. Population variation in isotopic composition of shorebird feathers: Implications for determining molting grounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Bucher, E.H.; Rye, R.O.; Landis, G.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope analyses have revolutionized the study of migratory connectivity. However, as with all tools, their limitations must be understood in order to derive the maximum benefit of a particular application. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of stable isotopes of C, N, H, O and S for assigning known-origin feathers to the molting sites of migrant shorebird species wintering and breeding in Argentina. Specific objectives were to: 1) compare the efficacy of the technique for studying shorebird species with different migration patterns, life histories and habitat-use patterns; 2) evaluate the grouping of species with similar migration and habitat use patterns in a single analysis to potentially improve prediction accuracy; and 3) evaluate the potential gains in prediction accuracy that might be achieved from using multiple stable isotopes. The efficacy of stable isotope ratios to determine origin was found to vary with species. While one species (White-rumped Sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis) had high levels of accuracy assigning samples to known origin (91% of samples correctly assigned), another (Collared Plover, Charadrius collaris) showed low levels of accuracy (52% of samples correctly assigned). Intra-individual variability may account for this difference in efficacy. The prediction model for three species with similar migration and habitat-use patterns performed poorly compared with the model for just one of the species (71% versus 91% of samples correctly assigned). Thus, combining multiple sympatric species may not improve model prediction accuracy. Increasing the number of stable isotopes in the analyses increased the accuracy of assigning shorebirds to their molting origin, but the best combination - involving a subset of all the isotopes analyzed - varied among species.

  7. Relation between physico-chemical limnology and crustacean community in Wular Lake of Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shah, Javaid Ahmad; Pandit, Ashok K

    2013-10-01

    The present study scrutinizes the seasonal variation in the distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical liminology of Wular lake. Water samples were collected from five study sites during September 2010-August 2011. Remarkable spatial and temporal variations were observed among the different study sites. Among the parameters recorded water temperature showed positive correlation with pH (p<0.01) and orthophosphate (p<0.05).Transparency showed a significant negative correlation with total alkalinity (p<0.01), free carbon dioxide (p<0.01) and ammonical nitrogen (p<0.01). Crustacean zooplankton were collected by filtering 100 L lake water through a 30 microm nytal mesh and preserved in 4% formalin. A total of 42 taxa of crustacean were recorded, among them 23 species belonged to Cladocera, 16 to Copepoda and only 3 to Ostracoda. Species diversity and density depicted an abrupt up surge on the advent of warmer period (extending from March). Among the various sites a maximum of 40 species were recorded from a single biotope (site III) against the minimum of only 17 species being recorded from site I. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis showed close similarity (0.928-0.944%) between summer and autumn in terms of species diversity. Pearson correlation coefficient of the various physico-chemical parameters of water with crustacean zooplankton depicted that not only a single but multiple factors govern over the distribution and diversity of crustacean in the lake. PMID:24502158

  8. Undesirable Enzymatic Browning in Crustaceans: Causative Effects and Its Inhibition by Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat; Ahmad, Mehraj; Arfat, Yasir Ali; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2015-12-01

    Undesirable enzymatic browning mediated by polyphenol oxidase (E.C. 1.14.18.1) on the surface of seafood from crustaceans have been a great concern to food processors, causing quality losses of seafood products. Seafoods especially from crustaceans are worldwide consumed due to their delicacy and nutritional value. However, black spot formation (melanosis) is the major problem occurring in crustaceans during postmortem handling and refrigerated storage induce deleterious changes in organoleptic properties and, therefore, decreases commercial value. Polyphenoloxidase (PPO), the copper-containing metalloprotein involved in oxidation of phenol to quinone is the major biochemical reaction of melanosis formation. This enzymatic mechanism causes unappealing blackening in postharvest crustaceans. To alleviate the melanosis formation in crustaceans, use of phenolic compounds from plant extract can serve as antimelanotics and appears to be a good alternative to the conventional sulfites which are associated with health-related disorders. In this review, we focuses on the unique features about the structure, distribution, and properties of PPO as well as mechanism of melanosis formation and provide a comprehensive deeper insight on the factors affecting melanosis formation and its inhibition by various antimelanotics including newly discovered plant phenolic compounds. PMID:25584522

  9. Scale-dependent analysis of an otter-crustacean system in Argentinean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassini, Marcelo H.; Fasola, Laura; Chehébar, Claudio; MacDonald, David W.

    2009-05-01

    The Southern river otter or ‘huillin’, Lontra provocax, is an endangered species endemic of the Andean Patagonian region of Argentina and Chile. It feeds almost exclusively on the genera of macro-crustacea: Aegla and Sammastacus. The aim of this study was to analyse the role of food availability on the huillin’s distribution using a scale-dependent analysis of crustacean and otter distributions. We compared the distributions of otters and macro-crustaceans along a north-south regional gradient, between river basins of northern Patagonia, in an altitudinal gradient within a river basin, and between habitat types within a lake. We investigated the distribution of otters by sign surveys along lake shores, river banks and marine coasts, and of crustaceans using surveys in the water, undigested remains in mink ( Mustela vison) scats, presence of external skeletons at the waterside and through interviews with local people. Our results show that there were heterogeneities in the distributions of macro-crustaceans at four scales and these were generally reflected in the distributions of freshwater otters. We conclude that the main factor limiting the distributions of L. provocax in freshwater environments is the availability of macro-crustaceans. This paper shows how scale-dependent type analyses of population distribution serves as a method for identifying key environmental factors for species for which the use of long-term demographies is unfeasible.

  10. Ensuring crustacean product quality in the post-harvest phase.

    PubMed

    Neil, Douglas M

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies of the fisheries for the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), have illustrated the negative effects of pathogens and of the physiological stresses of capture processes on the exploitation of live animals and their products, and have identified mitigating measures. Firstly, having established that trawl capture of N. norvegicus is highly stressful, but that these animals have powerful physiological mechanisms of recovery, procedures for on-board recovery of animals destined for vivier transport to distant European markets have been implemented commercially, with significant improvements in survival rates. Such procedures also mitigate against the initiation of a stress-induced muscle necrosis. Secondly, measurements of post-mortem autolytic and spoilage processes have identified the existence of a post-capture 'handling window' of several hours which allows the whole or tailed products to be preserved, by icing or freezing, without detriment to quality. Commercial consortia of Scottish fishermen are exploiting this opportunity to extend product shelf-life by freezing at sea within this handling window. Thirdly, the well-documented infections of Scottish N. norvegicus populations by the dinoflagellate Hematodinium sp. not only provide examples of pathogen-induced mortality, but also have effects on post-harvest products including vivier transport losses and changes in post-mortem degradation leading to earlier organoleptic rejection. Under commercial conditions these effects can be mitigated by post-capture visual screening, but only during the periods of peak patent infection when parasitised animals are visually identifiable. Wider implementation of such mitigating procedures during the harvesting of wild-caught crustaceans will contribute to a more sustainable exploitation of these valuable marine resources. PMID:22433999

  11. Effects of zinc on Salmonella in the layer house environments and laying hens, and the ability of zinc to induce molt in laying hens 

    E-print Network

    Park, Shinyoung

    2005-02-17

    There is increasing interest in developing methods to detect and identify Salmonella, to eliminate or reduce the risk of contamination of shell eggs, and to retain the economic advantages of induced molting without increasing ...

  12. Effects of zinc on Salmonella in the layer house environments and laying hens, and the ability of zinc to induce molt in laying hens

    E-print Network

    Park, Shinyoung

    2005-02-17

    phase investigated the ability of zinc propionate, as an alternative salt form of zinc, to induce molt in laying hens, the influence of zinc acetate and zinc propionate on gastrointestinal tract fermentation, and susceptibility of laying hens to S...

  13. A gene family of cathepsin L-like proteases of filarial nematodes are associated with larval molting and cuticle and eggshell remodeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Guiliano; Xiqiang Hong; James H. McKerrow; Mark. L. Blaxter; Yelena Oksov; Jing Liu; Elodie Ghedin; Sara Lustigman

    2004-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases are involved in a variety of important biological processes and have been implicated in molting and tissue remodeling in free living and parasitic nematodes. We show that in the lymphatic filarial nematode Brugia pahangi molting of third-stage larvae (L3) to fourth-stage larvae is dependent on the activity of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (CPL), which can be detected

  14. Primary structures of decapod crustacean metallothioneins with special emphasis on freshwater and semi-terrestrial species.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, S N; Pedersen, K L; Højrup, P; Depledge, M H; Knudsen, J

    1996-11-01

    Cadmium injections induced only a single form of metallothionein (MT) in the midgut gland of Potamon potamios, whereas the same treatment induced two isoforms in Astacus astacus. The only difference between the two latter isoforms was that one had an extra N-terminal methionine residue. MT from P. potamios showed structural differences from other decapod crustacean MTs. It contained a Gly-Thr motif at positions 8 and 8a, which had previously been found only in certain vertebrate and molluscan MTs. Furthermore P. potamios MT contained two to three times as many glutamic acid residues as normally found in decapod crustacean MT. The primary structure of MT from the freshwater crayfish A. astacus showed a high degree of sequence identity with MT from other decapod crustaceans, especially the marine astacidean Homarus americanus, although two valine residues were unexpectedly found at positions 8 and 21, where lysine residues are normally found. PMID:8921011

  15. Ontogeny of behavioural adaptations in beach crustaceans: some temporal considerations for integrated coastal zone management and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, E.; Kennedy, F.

    2003-10-01

    So-called "typical" behavioural responses of coastal animals to particular stimuli have previously been shown often to vary cyclically in phase with diel or tidal cycles in the environment. Less well-studied are differences in the behaviour of adults and juveniles of the same species at the same time of day or tidal state, or in response to the same stimulus. Experimental studies of such differences in behaviour are reviewed and compared for three species of beach crustaceans, namely, the crab Carcinus maenas, the isopod Eurydice pulchra and the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Juvenile, but not adult, Carcinus will entrain circatidal rhythmicity after exposure to artificial tidal cycles of immersion/emersion; juvenile, but not adult, Eurydice express pronounced free-running circatidal swimming rhythms at neap tides as well as at springs; and, in Orchestoidea, juveniles and adults express patterns of daily locomotor activity that are complementary, both on the shore and in the laboratory. These ontogenetic differences are discussed in relation to distributional and behavioural differences between adults and juveniles in each species, drawing attention to their adaptive significance and wider implications for coastal management and conservation.

  16. Planktonic Crustacean Assemblages in a System of Three Reservoirs in the Mexican Central Plateau: Seasonal and Spatial Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco A. Ramírez-Olvera; Magdalena Díaz-Argüero; Eugenia López-López

    2004-01-01

    Planktonic crustacean assemblages were examined monthly for one year in a system of three reservoirs in the Mexican Central Plateau (Rio Grande de Morelia)—Lorna Caliente, Umécuaro and Cointzio. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, transparency, nitrites, nitrates, total phosphorus, iron, hardness, turbidity, and suspended solids were quantified. Fourteen species of planktonic crustaceans were observed, including four copepods and ten cladocerans; major

  17. Cytotoxicity of dihydroartemisinin toward Molt-4 cells attenuated by N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone and deferoxamine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ho Wing; Singh, Narendra P; Lai, Henry C

    2013-10-01

    Derivatives of artemisinin, a compound extracted from the wormwood Artemisia annua L, have potent anticancer properties. The anticancer mechanisms of artemisinin derivatives have not been fully-elucidated. We hypothesize that the cytotoxicity of these compounds is due to the free radicals formed by interaction of their endoperoxide moiety with intracellular iron in cancer cells. The effects of N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN), a spin-trap free radical scavenger, and deferoxamine (DX), an iron chelating agent, on the in vitro cytotoxicity of dihyroartemisinin (DHA) toward Molt-4 human T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells were investigated in the present study. Dihydroartemisinin effectively killed Molt-4 cells in vitro. Its cytotoxicity was significantly attenuated by PBN and DX. Based on the data of our present and previous studies, we conclude that one anticancer mechanism of dihydroartemisinin is the formation of toxic-free radicals via an iron-mediated process. PMID:24123007

  18. Recruitment patterns of decapod crustacean megalopae in a shallow inlet (SW Spain) related to life history strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gordillo, J. I.; Arias, A. M.; Rodríguez, A.; Drake, P.

    2003-03-01

    Decapod crustacean megalopae were sampled weekly (spring/neap tides) during late-spring/summer of 1998 by using two planktonic nets located close to the surface and the bottom, at a fixed station in the mouth of the R?´o San Pedro inlet (SW Spain). Sampling was carried out during 25 h cycles to ascertain the flux of megalopae in relation to the main environmental (diel, tidal, tidal amplitude) cycles. The hypothesis that megalopae of some species may be using tidal-stream transport as a mechanism of re-invading the inlet was tested and the relationship between megalopal behaviour and life history strategy was analysed. In general, the flux of megalopae was higher during spring tides, but such differences were only statistically significant for Pisidia longicornis and Liocarcinus sp.2 due to the considerable interdate variation. With the exception of Macropodia sp., megalopae were more abundant close to the bottom. The diel/tidal flux of most abundant species suggested two different patterns of behaviour: megalopae of Liocarcinus spp., Panopeus africanus, Uca tangeri and Brachynotus sexdentatus seemed to be re-invading the inlet (specially at nocturnal floods), while megalopae of Ilia nucleus, Nepinnotheres pinnotheres and Macropodia sp. may have been just looking for a suitable place for settlement. The first group corresponded to the species whose zoeal development occurs in open sea, and the second one to species that complete their life cycle within the studied system, suggesting a relationship between the duration of the larval phase and the life cycle strategy of the species.

  19. Mechanisms of population genetic heterogeneity among molting common mergansers on Kodiak Island, Alaska: implications for assessments of migratory connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, John M.; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Maryanski, Nate

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying population genetic heterogeneity within nonbreeding aggregations can inform our understanding of patterns of site fidelity, migratory connectivity, and gene flow between breeding and nonbreeding areas. However, characterizing mechanisms that contribute to heterogeneity, such as migration and dispersal, is required before site fidelity and migratory connectivity can be assessed accurately. We studied nonbreeding groups of Common Mergansers (Mergus merganser) molting on Kodiak Island, Alaska, from 2005 to 2007, using banding data to assess rates of recapture, mitochondrial (mt) DNA to determine natal area, and nuclear microsatellite genotypes to assess dispersal. Using baseline information from differentiated mtDNA haplogroups across North America, we were able to assign individuals to natal regions and document population genetic heterogeneity within and among molting groups. Band-recovery and DNA data suggest that both migration from and dispersal among natal areas contribute to admixed groups of males molting on Kodiak Island. A lack of differentiation in the Common Merganser's nuclear, bi-parentally inherited DNA, observed across North America, implies that dispersal can mislead genetic assessments of migratory connectivity and assignments of nonbreeding individuals to breeding areas. Thus multiple and independent data types are required to account for such behaviors before accurate assessments of migratory connectivity can be made.

  20. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in Mycteria leucocephala Pennant 1769: molted feathers as successful DNA source.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Mustafa, Mohd; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2014-10-01

    DNA from molted feathers is being increasingly used for genetic studies on birds. However, the DNA obtained from such non-invasive sources is often not of enough quantity and quality for isolation of new microsatellite markers. The present study examined the potential of shed feathers of near threatened Painted Stork as a source of its DNA for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. Thirty-one shed feathers of varying conditions ('good' and 'deteriorated') and sizes ('large', 'intermediate' and 'small') collected in a north Indian population were used to isolate DNA by a standard isopropanol method and 11 microsatellite markers already developed in the Wood Stork were screened for amplification. Nine plucked feathers from two dead Painted Storks were also used to compare the DNA yield and amplification success. The DNA yield of feathers varied significantly in relation to the calamus size and condition. Among molted feathers, 'good' and 'large' samples provided more DNA than 'deteriorated' and 'small' ones, respectively. 'Large' plucked feathers yielded more DNA than 'large' molted feathers. DNA was almost degraded in all the samples and ratio of absorbance at 260/280 nm varied from 1.0 to 1.8, indicating impurity in many samples. Independent of DNA yields, all microsatellites were cross-amplified in all kinds of feathers, with > 80% success in different feather categories. It is concluded that the shed feathers can be successfully used to isolate DNA in the Painted Stork and for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. PMID:25345251

  1. The Steroid Molting Hormone Ecdysone Regulates Sleep in Adult Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2010-01-01

    Ecdysone is the major steroid hormone in insects and plays essential roles in coordinating developmental transitions such as larval molting and metamorphosis through its active metabolite 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Although ecdysone is present throughout life in both males and females, its functions in adult physiology remain largely unknown. In this study we demonstrate that ecdysone-mediated signaling in the adult is intimately involved in transitions between the physiological states of sleep and wakefulness. First, administering 20E to adult Drosophila melanogaster promoted sleep in a dose-dependent manner, and it did so primarily by altering the length of sleep and wake bouts without affecting waking activity. Second, mutants for ecdysone synthesis displayed the “short-sleep phenotype,” and this was alleviated by administering 20E at the adult stage. Third, mutants for nuclear ecdysone receptors showed reduced sleep, and conditional overexpression of wild-type ecdysone receptors in the adult mushroom bodies resulted in an isoform-specific increase in sleep. Finally, endogenous ecdysone levels increased after sleep deprivation, and mutants defective for ecdysone signaling displayed little sleep rebound, suggesting that ecdysone is involved in homeostatic sleep regulation. In light of the recent finding that lethargus—a period at larval-stage transitions in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans—is a sleep-like state, our results suggest that sleep is functionally and mechanistically linked to a genetically programmed, quiescent behavioral state during development. PMID:20215472

  2. The relative importance of protozoans, rotifers, and crustaceans in a freshwater zooplankton community1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Pace; John D. Orcutt

    1981-01-01

    A complete analysis of the macro- and microzooplankton of a warm monomictic lake indi- cates that Protozoa dominate the community numerically. During winter mixis, ciliates are found at densities of l-8 x 103*liter-' and constitute up to 32% of the zooplankton community biomass, With summer stratification crustaceans decline, while both the relative and absolute abundance of protozoans and rotifers increase.

  3. A Multi-scale Strategy for Discovery of Novel Endogenous Neuropeptides in the Crustacean Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chenxi; Lietz, Christopher B.; Ye, Hui; Hui, Limei; Yu, Qing; Yoo, Sujin; Li, Lingjun

    2013-01-01

    The conventional mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategy is often inadequate for the comprehensive characterization of various size neuropeptides without assistance of genomic information. This study evaluated sequence coverage of different size neuropeptides in two crustacean species, blue crab Callinectes sapidus and Jonah crab Cancer borealis using conventional MS methodologies and revealed limitations to mid- and large-size peptide analysis. Herein we attempt to establish a multi-scale strategy for simultaneous and confident sequence elucidation of various sizes of peptides in the crustacean nervous system. Nine novel neuropeptides spanning a wide range of molecular weights (0.9-8.2 kDa) were fully sequenced from a major neuroendocrine organ, the sinus gland of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. These novel neuropeptides included seven allatostatin (A- and B-type) peptides, one crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptide, and one crustacean hyperglycemic hormone. Highly accurate multi-scale characterization of a collection of varied size neuropeptides was achieved by integrating traditional data-dependent tandem MS, improved bottom-up sequencing, multiple fragmentation technique-enabled top-down sequencing, chemical derivatization, and in silico homology search. Collectively, the ability to characterize a neuropeptidome with vastly differing molecule sizes from a neural tissue extract could find great utility in unraveling complex signaling peptide mixtures employed by other biological systems. PMID:23806756

  4. MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verslycke, Tim A., Nancy Fockedey, Charles L. McKenney, Jr., Stephen D. Roast, Malcolm B. Jones, Jan Mees and Colin R. Janssen. 2004. Mysid Crustaceans as Potential Test Organisms for the Evaluation of Environmental Endocrine Disruption: A Review. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(5):12...

  5. Circadian Rhythmicity of the Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) in the Hemolymph of the Crayfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANINE L. KALLEN; S. L. ABRAHAMSE; F. VAN HERP

    1990-01-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is involved in the regulation of endogenous blood glucose metabolism. In this paper we describe the daily rhythmicity in the blood glucose and the blood CHH con- tent of the crayfish Orconectes limosus. Both blood CHH and blood glucose levels increase during the first hours after the beginning of darkness. The bioactivity of released CHH

  6. Propulsion efficiency and cost of transport for copepods: a hydromechanical model of crustacean swimming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Morris; G. Gust; J. J. Torres

    1985-01-01

    In the absence of direct measurement, costs of locomotion to small swimming Crustacea (Pleuromamma xiphias (Calanoida) was analyzed by extrapolating model parameters from data available in the literature. The model predictions agree well with empirical observations reported for larger crustaceans, in that swimming for copepods is relatively costly. The ratio of active to standard metabolism for P. xiphias was >3.

  7. Hypothesis for heritable, anti-viral immunity in crustaceans and insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W Flegel; Klong Luang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that crustaceans and insects can persistently carry one or more viral pathogens at low levels, without signs of disease. They may transmit them to their offspring or to naïve individuals, often with lethal consequences. The underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated, but the process has been called viral accommodation. Since tolerance to one virus does

  8. Charles Darwin and Joseph de Bosquet – Brothers in barnacles: How diminutive crustaceans helped shape a theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. M. Jagt

    2011-01-01

    Ten years after his return to England on board ‘The Beagle’ in 1836, Charles Robert Darwin (1809–1882) started collecting, dissecting, describing and interpreting both extant and fossil acorn and goose barnacles (cirripedes). In all, he spent eight years on this animal group and, between 1851 and 1855, published four authoritative and admirably illustrated volumes on these sessile crustaceans; a highly

  9. High sequence variability among hemocyte-specific Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors in decapod crustaceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lage Cerenius; Haipeng Liu; Yanjiao Zhang; Vichien Rimphanitchayakit; Anchalee Tassanakajon; M. Gunnar Andersson; Kenneth Söderhäll; Irene Söderhäll

    2010-01-01

    Crustacean hemocytes were found to produce a large number of transcripts coding for Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). A detailed study performed with the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the shrimp Penaeus monodon revealed the presence of at least 26 and 20 different Kazal domains from the hemocyte KPIs, respectively. Comparisons with KPIs from other taxa indicate that the sequences of these

  10. Transglutaminase activity in the hematopoietic tissue of a crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, importance in hemocyte homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xionghui Lin; Kenneth Söderhäll; Irene Söderhäll

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transglutaminases (TGases) form a group of enzymes that have many different substrates and among the most well known are fibrin for Factor XIIIa and the clotting protein in crustaceans. We also found that TGase is an abundant protein in the hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells of crayfish and hence we have studied the possible function of this enzyme in hematopoiesis.

  11. Vitellogenin synthesis in the fat body of the marine crustacean Isopoda, Idotea balthica basteri, during vitellogenesis

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , 1967). #12;Material and methods. The Idotea used in this study were born and reared in our laboratory shown in several insects that the proteins incorporated in the oocyte yolk (vitellogenins that the site of vitellogenin synthesis in crustaceans has not yet been determined. Most studies on the presumed

  12. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus

    E-print Network

    Patel, Nipam H.

    Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus Meredith E. Protasa and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals responsible for several pigmentation traits and eye loss. Our study provides support for the prediction

  13. Variation in acid tolerance of certain freshwater crustaceans in different natural waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Fryer

    1993-01-01

    On the island of Rhum (Inner Hebrides: Western Scotland) several taxonomically diverse species of small crustaceans live in water that is more acidic and of lower ionic content than that in which they have ever been found in Yorkshire (England). Physiological difficulties appear to be experienced by these species in Yorkshire in waters that would evidently be suitable in Rhum.

  14. DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVITY OF CHEMICAL FRACTIONS OF LIQUID WASTES USING FRESHWATER AND SALTWATER ALGAE AND CRUSTACEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is described for analysis of complex industrial and municipal wastes. The method uses chemical fractionation and subfractionation combined with laboratory toxicity tests on marine and freshwater algae and crustaceans to determine toxicity of whole waste and to identify i...

  15. Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone, a possible endocrine regulator of ecdysis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    E-print Network

    Fuse, Megumi

    ecdysis because (i) its endocrine system is well characterized, (ii) it has identifiable cells fromCrustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone, a possible endocrine regulator of ecdysis in the tobacco hornworm State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 Fig. 3: Paired endocrine cells of the Third thoracic ganglia

  16. Fish and macro-crustacean communities and their dynamics in the Severn Estuary.

    PubMed

    Henderson, P A; Bird, D J

    2010-01-01

    The species of fish and macro-crustacean living within the Severn Estuary are reviewed. The fish community is notably species rich and exceeds 100 species in total for the estuary. Standardised long-term sampling at Hinkley Point in Bridgwater Bay gives a total complement of 83 for a single locality and this number is increasing by about one new species every two years. Most of these new species are moving in from centres of population lying to the south of the estuary. Almost all species of fish and macro-crustacean living within the estuary undertake regular migrations so that they tend to move seasonally in waves up and down the estuary. For fish, both species richness and the total abundance reach a maximum in late summer and autumn. The timing of this peak varies between the upper and lower estuary. This seasonal maximum is primarily caused by the arrival of the new recruits which use the estuary as a nursery. In contrast, crustaceans tend to be at their most diverse and abundant in early to mid summer. Using a 30-year time series of fish and crustacean abundance collected at Hinkley Point it is shown that major changes in the structure of the community are now underway and there are considerable recent changes in the abundance. However, some abundant species, including sand goby, Pomatoschistus spp., whiting, Merlangius merlangus and sprat, Sprattus sprattus, the three most abundant species in the estuary, have shown no long-term trend. At present, approximately 20% of the fish and macro-crustaceans observed in Bridgwater Bay are undergoing rapid, typically exponential, change in abundance. For a numerically abundant, diverse, fauna composed of approximately 90 species such levels of change are unexpected and suggest that the system is presently far from equilibrium. In some cases, the observed changes can be related to recent warming and the North Atlantic Oscillation. The overall increase in fish abundance observed may reflect a general improvement in water quality and a reduction in other anthropogenic impacts such as mortality in cooling-water intakes. The potential impacts of tidal power generation in the Severn Estuary are reviewed. There is considerable potential for any major installation to impact the fish and crustacean populations as they migrate and also alter the nature of the habitat resulting in changes in community composition. A particular difficulty in predicting the future impact of harnessing tidal energy is that the present community is already changing rapidly. The ability of fish and crustaceans to pass through the turbines unharmed will be a key issue in an assessment of the impact of tidal power generation. PMID:20074757

  17. MoSI RECAPTURES Sheet Location Band Size R Season (e.g. 2009-10) Page # CODE SEX AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Recapture R Male M Local 4 Skull S Feather Wear F None 0 None 0 None 0 None 0 None 0 None N None 0 Juvenal J SPECIES NAME SPECIES ALPHA CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT

  18. MoSI UNBANDED Sheet Location Band Size U Season (e.g. 2009-10) Page # CODE SEX AGE HOW AGED AND HOW SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP

    E-print Network

    DeSante, David F.

    SEXED SKULL CL. PROT. BR. PATCH FAT BODY MLT FF MOLT FF WEAR MOLT LIMITS & PLUMAGE DISP Only use 'U' for Male M Local 4 Skull S Feather Wear F None 0 None 0 None 0 None 0 None 0 None N None 0 Juvenal J CODE AGE HOW AGED SEX HOW SEXED SKULL CL.PROT. BR.PATCH FAT BODYMLT FFMOLT FFWEAR JUV.PL. PRI.COVS SEC

  19. Effect of withdrawing long days from male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea): implications for understanding thyroid-dependent programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F E; Reinert, B D

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies, we withdrew thyroid hormones by thyroidectomy before, at, or after the onset of photostimulation and showed that male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) are programmed for seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt by or before Week 3 on long days. In this corollary study, we withdrew long days before or after the control circuits had been programmed. After 1 day to 4 wk on long days, groups of thyroid-intact males were returned to short days until Week 7, when they were moved to constant light and evaluated for photosensitivity or photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt. Long-day controls held 7 wk on long days showed robust testicular growth through Week 6 and then spontaneous testicular regression. Testes of short-day controls and of males photostimulated for 1 day remained small. In all other groups, photostimulation induced testicular growth, which gave way to regression during exposure to short days. Long-day controls tested photorefractory at Week 7 and initiated molt by Week 10. All other groups tested photosensitive and did not molt. Our demonstration that long days are required for expression of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroid-intact male tree sparrows previously programmed for these events suggests that long days create a milieu that is permissive for expression. PMID:9472917

  20. Amino acid sequences of both isoforms of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and corresponding precursor-related peptide in Cancer pagurus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sook Chung; Mark C. Wilkinson; Simon G. Webster

    1998-01-01

    Both isoforms of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and corresponding crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptide (CPRP) derived from HPLC-purified sinus gland extracts from the edible crab Cancer pagurus were fully characterised by microsequencing and mass spectrometry. The amino acid sequences of the CHH isoforms were almost identical except that the N-terminus of the minor isoform (CHH-I), was glutamine rather than

  1. The Y-organ secretory activity fluctuates in relation to seasons of molt and reproduction in the brachyuran crab, Metopograpsus messor (Grapsidae): Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shyamal, Sharmishtha; Sudha, K; Gayathri, N; Anilkumar, G

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a first-time report on the localization, structure and seasonal secretory activity of the Y-organ of a grapsid brachyuran crab (Metopograpsus messor). Having exhibited discrete seasonality with reference to the programming of molt and reproduction, this brachyuran crab has offered us an excellent model to obtain a clear picture of the fluctuating secretory nature of the Yorgan, all the way through the reproductive (August-December) as well as the molt-reproduction active (January-May) and inactive (June-July) seasons. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the secretion of the Y-organ was at its peak in premolt crabs during molt-reproduction season (January-May). Interestingly, the Y-organs of the intermolt females that engaged in breeding activity showed higher levels of secretion than those of the molt-reproduction inactive season (June-July), implicating the gland's involvement in reproduction. Immunohistochemical studies using the antiserum raised against 2-succinyl conjugate of ecdysone have demonstrated the ecdysteroid nature of the secretion from the Y-organ, and results of the quantitative assay of ecdysteroids (through radioimmunoassay) revealed that the hormone titer fluctuates in consonance with the Y-organ's secretory activity during seasons of molt and reproduction. Pertinently, not only that the paper gives us a comprehensive understanding on the secretory activity of the Y-organ in a season-dependent fashion, it also allows us to have a better insight into the gland's function related to molting and reproduction (for the first time) in a grapsid brachyuran crab. PMID:24291010

  2. Glucose–sulfate conjugates as a new phase II metabolite formed by aquatic crustaceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Ikenaka; Masumi Ishizaka; Heesoo Eun; Yuichi Miyabara

    2007-01-01

    We found that aquatic crustaceans, decapoda; atyidae (Caridina multidentata, Neocaridina denticulate, and Paratya compressa), metabolize pyrene to a new conjugation product. The results of deconjugation treatments indicated that glucose and sulfate combined with 1-hydroxypyrene. Further analysis by LC\\/ESI-MS\\/MS showed that the molecular weight of the product was 460 (m\\/z 459; deprotonated ion), and that it has a glucose–sulfate moiety (m\\/z

  3. Spatial structure and seasonality of decapod crustacean populations on the northwestern Mediterranean slope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesc Maynou; Ghard Y. Conan; Joan E. Cartes; Francisco Sardh

    1996-01-01

    Two trawl surveys designed for geostatistical analysis were made in spring and fall 199 1 on Nephrops norvegicus fishing grounds off Barcelona, Spain. High-resolution geostatistical techniques-a new tool for analyzing species assemblages-were used to map and assess species abundances. Of the 43 decapod crustacean species collected, the spatial structures of the nine most abundant were analyzed and mapped by kriging.

  4. Isolation and characterization of an additional crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the greasyback shrimp Metapenaeus ensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuyoshi Ohira; Katsuyoshi Suitoh; Fumihiro Yamane; Chiaki Nagai; Michio Suzuki; Naoaki Tsutsui; Hiromichi Nagasawa; Susumu Izumi

    2010-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is released from the X-organ\\/sinus gland complex located in the eyestalks. In this\\u000a study, the most abundant CHH in the sinus gland of the greasyback shrimp Metapenaeus ensis was purified by reversed-phase HPLC and identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Although two CHH molecules (Mee-CHH-A\\u000a and Mee-CHH-B) have already been identified from M. ensis by cDNA

  5. Megabenthic decapod crustacean assemblages on the Galician continental shelf and upper slope (north-west Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Fariña; J. Freire; E. González-Gurriarán

    1997-01-01

    The structure of megabenthic decapod crustacean assemblages on the Galician (north-west Spain) continental shelf (100 to\\u000a 200 depth) and upper slope (200 to 500 m) was analyzed based on surveys carried out in autumn and spring, from 1980 to 1987.\\u000a Forty species belonging to 19 families were caught. The portunid crab Polybius henslowii, a species with pelagic phases, was the

  6. Crustacean (malacostracan) Hox genes and the evolution of the arthropod trunk.

    PubMed

    Abzhanov, A; Kaufman, T C

    2000-06-01

    Representatives of the Insecta and the Malacostraca (higher crustaceans) have highly derived body plans subdivided into several tagma, groups of segments united by a common function and/or morphology. The tagmatization of segments in the trunk, the part of the body between head and telson, in both lineages is thought to have evolved independently from ancestors with a distinct head but a homonomous, undifferentiated trunk. In the branchiopod crustacean, Artemia franciscana, the trunk Hox genes are expressed in broad overlapping domains suggesting a conserved ancestral state (Averof, M. and Akam, M. (1995) Nature 376, 420-423). In comparison, in insects, the Antennapedia-class genes of the homeotic clusters are more regionally deployed into distinct domains where they serve to control the morphology of the different trunk segments. Thus an originally Artemia-like pattern of homeotic gene expression has apparently been modified in the insect lineage associated with and perhaps facilitating the observed pattern of tagmatization. Since insects are the only arthropods with a derived trunk tagmosis tested to date, we examined the expression patterns of the Hox genes Antp, Ubx and abd-A in the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidae, Isopoda). We found that, unlike the pattern seen in Artemia, these genes are expressed in well-defined discrete domains coinciding with tagmatic boundaries which are distinct from those of the insects. Our observations suggest that, during the independent tagmatization in insects and malacostracan crustaceans, the homologous 'trunk' genes evolved to perform different developmental functions. We also propose that, in each lineage, the changes in Hox gene expression pattern may have been important in trunk tagmatization. PMID:10804167

  7. Evolution of distinct expression patterns for engrailed paralogues in higher crustaceans (Malacostraca)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ahzhanov; Thomas C. Kaufman

    2000-01-01

    The segment-polarity gene engrailed of Drosophila melanogaster and its homologues in other arthropods possess a highly conserved expression domain in the posterior portion of each segment.\\u000a We report here that the two pan-specific antibodies, Mab4D9 and Mab4F11, reveal strikingly different accumulation patterns\\u000a in both of the malacostracan crustaceans Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) and Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda), compared with insects. The signal

  8. Effects of Pollutants on Olfactory Mediated Behaviors in Fish and Crustaceans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Håkan Olsén

    \\u000a Streams, lakes and the sea are the final sinks of various pollutants which means that aquatic organisms are exposed to many\\u000a different chemicals present in the ambient water. Several studies demonstrate that these pollutants may interfere with chemoreception\\u000a of aquatic animals. Many aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates depend on chemical senses for their survival and reproduction.\\u000a In fish and crustaceans, olfactory

  9. Phylogeography of Ponto-Caspian crustaceans: a benthic-planktonic comparison.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Melania E A; Hebert, Paul D N; Onciu, Teodora M

    2003-04-01

    The Black, Azov, Caspian and Aral Seas, remnants of the intracontinental Paratethys basin, are home to a spectacular diversity of crustaceans. This study examines the past history of the Ponto-Caspian fauna through comparative phylogeographical studies on both benthic and planktonic taxa, based on an examination of nucleotide diversity in the mitochondrial, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene. The COI data reveal a striking example of phylogeographical concordance. All species analysed, three amphipods and three cladocerans, are characterized by two monophyletic clades corresponding to the Black and Caspian regions. However, this phylogeographical partition is, on average, four times deeper for the benthic amphipods than for the planktonic cladocerans. Based on standard molecular clocks, the Black and Caspian lineages of benthic crustaceans diverged at varied intervals from 1 to 8 million years ago. By contrast, planktonic lineages are more recent with their divergence occurring in the last million years. Levels of intraspecific polymorphisms are variable and generally lower in planktonic than benthic taxa. The mechanisms responsible for the high diversity of crustaceans in the Ponto-Caspian region are discussed on the basis of these results. PMID:12753217

  10. Identification of neuropeptides from the decapod crustacean sinus glands using nanoscale liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Goy, Michael F; Li, Lingjun

    2005-11-25

    Neurosecretory systems are known to synthesize and secrete a diverse class of peptide hormones which regulate many physiological processes. The crustacean sinus gland (SG) is a well-defined neuroendocrine site that produces numerous hemolymph-borne agents including the most complex class of endocrine signaling molecules--neuropeptides. As an ongoing effort to define the peptidome of the crustacean SG, we determine the neuropeptide complements of the SG of the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis, and the Maine lobster, Homarus americanus, using nanoflow liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (ESI-QTOF) MS/MS. Numerous neuropeptides were identified, including orcokinins, orcomyotropin, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), CHH precursor-related peptides (CPRPs), red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH), beta-pigment dispersing hormone (beta-PDH), proctolin and HL/IGSL/IYRamide. Among them, two novel orcokinins were de novo sequenced from the SG of H. americanus. Three CPRPs including a novel isoform were sequenced in H. americanus. Four new CPRPs were sequenced from the SG of C. borealis. Our results show that structural polymorphisms in CPRPs (and thus the CHH precursors) are common in Dendrobranchiata as well as in Pleocyemata. The evolutionary relationship between the CPRPs is also discussed. PMID:16214114

  11. Hiding opaque eyes in transparent organisms: a potential role for larval eyeshine in stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Feller, K D; Cronin, T W

    2014-09-15

    Opaque screening pigments are a fundamental requisite for preserving resolution in image-forming eyes. Possession of any type of image-forming eye in a transparent, pelagic animal will thus undermine the ability of that animal to be invisible in the water column. Transparent, pelagic animals must therefore deal with the trade-off between the ability to see and the ability of other animals to see them. Stomatopod larvae, like many transparent crustaceans, possess specialized optics in their compound eyes that minimize the volume of the opaque retina. Though the volumes of these retinas are reduced, their opacity remains conspicuous to an observer. The light reflected from structures overlying the retinas of stomatopod crustacean larval eyes, referred to here as eyeshine, is hypothesized to further reduce the visibility of opaque retinas. Blue or green wavelengths of light are most strongly reflected in stomatopod larval eyeshine, suggesting a putative spectral matching to the light environment against which the larval eyes are viewed. We tested the efficacy of stomatopod crustacean larval eyeshine as an ocular camouflaging mechanism by photographing larvae in their natural light environment and analysing the contrast of eyes with the background light. To test for spectral matching between stomatopod larval eyeshine and the background light environment, we characterized the spectrum of eyeshine and calculated its performance using radiometric measurements collected at the time of each photographic series. These results are the first to demonstrate an operative mirror camouflage matched in both spectrum and radiance to the pelagic background light environment. PMID:25232197

  12. Orcokinin peptides in developing and adult crustacean stomatogastric nervous systems and pericardial organs.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingjun; Pulver, Stefan R; Kelley, Wayne P; Thirumalai, Vatsala; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Marder, Eve

    2002-03-12

    The orcokinins are a family of neuropeptides recently isolated from several crustacean species. We found orcokinin-like immunoreactivity in the stomatogastric nervous systems and pericardial organs of three decapod crustacean species, Homarus americanus, Cancer borealis, and Panulirus interruptus. The neuropil of the stomatogastric ganglion was stained in adults of all three species as well as in embryonic and larval H. americanus. In H. americanus, the somata giving rise to this projection were found in the inferior ventricular nerve. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry mass profiling and sequencing with postsource decay led to the identification of six different orcokinin family peptides, including those previously described in other decapods and two novel shorter peptides. Application of exogenous [Ala(13)]orcokinin to the stomatogastric ganglion of H. americanus resulted in changes in the pyloric rhythm. Specifically, the number of lateral pyloric (LP) neuron spikes/burst decreased, and the phase of firing of the pyloric neurons was altered. Together, these data indicate that the orcokinins are likely to function as modulators of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion. PMID:11840477

  13. Adult neurogenesis: Examples from the decapod crustaceans and comparisons with mammals

    PubMed Central

    Sandeman, David C.; Bazin, Francois; Beltz, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    Defining evolutionary origins is a means of understanding an organism’s position within the integrated web of living beings, and to not only to trace characteristics back in time, but also to project forward in an attempt to reveal relationships with more recently evolved forms. Both the vertebrates and arthropods possess condensed nervous systems, but this is dorsal in the vertbrates and ventral in the arthropods. Also, whereas the nervous system in the vertebrates develops from a neural tube in the embryo, that of the arthropods comes from an ectodermal plate. Despite these apparently fundamental differences, it is now generally accepted that life-long neurogenesis, the generation of functionally integrated neurons from progenitor cells, is a common feature of the adult brains of a variety of organisms, ranging from insects and crustaceans to birds and mammals. Among decapod crustaceans, there is evidence for adult neurogenesis in basal species of the Dendrobranchiata, as well as in more recent terrestrial, marine and fresh-water species. The widespread nature of this phenomenon in decapod species may relate to the importance of the adult-born neurons, although their functional contribution is not yet known. The many similarities between the systems generating neurons in the adult brains of decapod crustaceans and mammals, reviewed in this paper, suggest that adult neurogenesis is governed by common ancestral mechanisms that have been retained in a phylogenetically broad group of species. PMID:21396485

  14. Pyrokinin neuropeptides in a crustacean. Isolation and identification in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Torfs, P; Nieto, J; Cerstiaens, A; Boon, D; Baggerman, G; Poulos, C; Waelkens, E; Derua, R; Calderón, J; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    2001-01-01

    Identification of substances able to elicit physiological or behavioural processes that are related to reproduction would greatly contribute to the domestication of commercially important crustaceans that do not reproduce easily in captivity. Crustaceans are thought to release urine signals used for chemical communication involved in courtship behaviour. In contrast to insects, very little is known about the endocrinological processes underlying this phenomenon. Therefore, an extract of 3500 central nervous systems of female white shrimp Penaeus vannamei was screened for myotropic activity in order to purify pyrokinin-like peptides that belong to the pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide family. Members of this family regulate reproductive processes in insects, including pheromone biosynthesis. Purification of these pyrokinins was achieved by a combination of reversed-phase and normal-phase chromatography. Subsequent characterization by mass spectrometry, Edman degradation and peptide synthesis resulted in the elucidation of two novel peptides. Pev-PK 1 has the primary sequence DFAFSPRL-NH(2) and a second peptide (Pev-PK 2) is characterized as the nonapeptide ADFAFNPRL-NH(2). Pev-PK 1 contains the typical FXPRL-NH(2) (X = G, S, T or V) C-terminal sequence that characterizes members of the versatile pyrokinin/PBAN family. Pev-PK 2 displays an Asn residue at the variable X position of the core pyrokinin sequence. These crustacean pyrokinins are the first to be found in a noninsect. The synthetic peptides display myotropic activity on the Leucophaea maderae as well as on the Astacus leptodactylus hindgut. PMID:11121115

  15. Application of crustacean chitin as a co-diluent in direct compression of tablets.

    PubMed

    Mir, Viviana García; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Antikainen, Osmo; Sandler, Niklas; Revoredo, Ofelia Bilbao; Colarte, Antonio Iraizoz; Nieto, Olga Maria; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    A "simplex-centroid mixture design" was used to study the direct-compression properties of binary and ternary mixtures of chitin and two cellulosic direct-compression diluents. Native milled and fractioned (125-250 microm) crustacean chitin of lobster origin was blended with microcrystalline cellulose, MCC (Avicel PH 102) and spray-dried lactose-cellulose, SDLC Cellactose (composed of a spray-dried mixture of alpha-lactose monohydrate 75% and cellulose powder 25%). An instrumented single-punch tablet machine was used for tablet compactions. The flowability of the powder mixtures composed of a high percentage of chitin and SDLC was clearly improved. The fractioned pure chitin powder was easily compressed into tablets by using a magnesium stearate level of 0.1% (w/w) but, as the die lubricant level was 0.5% (w/w), the tablet strength collapsed dramatically. The tablets compressed from the binary mixtures of MCC and SDLC exhibited elevated mechanical strengths (>100 N) independent of the die lubricant level applied. In conclusion, fractioned chitin of crustacean origin can be used as an abundant direct-compression co-diluent with the established cellulosic excipients to modify the mechanical strength and, consequently, the disintegration of the tablets. Chitin of crustacean origin, however, is a lubrication-sensitive material, and this should be taken into account in formulating direct-compression tablets of it. PMID:20238188

  16. [Non-predatory mortality of the crustacean zooplankton and its possible causes (a literature review)].

    PubMed

    Dubovskaia, O P

    2009-01-01

    General mortality (death rate, d) in natural populations of the crustacean zooplankton is calculated as difference between birth rate (b) and population growth rate (r). The mortality includes both predatory (consumptive) and non-predatory (non-consumptive), or "natural", deaths of individuals due to senescence, diseases and parasites, starvation, limiting physical and chemical factors of anthropogenic or natural origin. Modem methods of evaluation of non-predatory mortality of the plankton crustaceans, including direct method based on live/dead sorting by special staining of samples and measurements of sedimentation rate of dead individuals using a sedimentation trap are briefly characterized. Possible causes of non-predatory mortality of crustacean are examined based on different (mainly fresh) temperate water bodies. The possible causes are classified as: physical conditions including temperature, wind effects, ultraviolet radiation, water turbidity, current velocity; chemical conditions including concentration of dissolved oxygen, pH value, water toxicity of both anthropogenic (due to pollutant inflow) and natural (due to cyanobacterial bloom and ingestion of some toxic diatoms by copepods) origin; parasites and epibionts; bottom-up factors or food limitation including quantity and quality of food, the former as content of carbon (energy) and the latter as content of essential compounds in food. It is concluded that, for the populations of crustacean herbivorous zooplankton, the biotic factors appeared to be more important and more probable causes of non-predatory mortality than the abiotic ones, under conditions of non-acid water bodies of the temperate zone when the current speed is less than critical one (0.25 m/c) and in absence of the anthropogenic toxicants. These factors are primarily a food poor quality due to low content of phosphorus, nitrogen, polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega3 family and others, as well as microparasites causing infections and, to a lesser extent (just in blooming water bodies), natural toxicity of cyanobacteria. Non-optimal for the zooplankton physical and chemical factors, as causes of non-predatory mortality of plankton crustaceans, appeared to be less important because of their acting episodically in time locally in space, so the zooplankton is able to avoid their effects and to regenerate fast. PMID:19425353

  17. SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM OF AN UNUSUALLY FAST-ACTING CRUSTACEAN MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluth, Jack

    1969-01-01

    The fast-acting, synchronous "remotor" muscle of the lobster second antenna was examined by light and electron microscopy and was found to have a more profuse sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) than any other muscle known. Myofibrils are widely separated from one another and occupy only about one-fourth of the volume of the muscle; most of the remaining volume is taken up by the SR, which resembles the smooth-surfaced reticulum of steroid-secreting cells. Dense granules (0.03–0.1 µ in diameter) are scattered through the reticulum. T-tubules penetrate into the fibers and form dyads along the A bands of myofibrils; however, ferritin-labeling experiments show that the volume of the T-system is very small compared with that of the SR. Myofibrils are ?0.5 µ x 1.0 µ in cross section and consist of thick filaments, which appear tubular except at the M region, and thin filaments, which are situated midway between neighboring thick filaments. The ratio of thin to thick filaments is 3:1. The extreme development of the SR in this muscle is discussed in relation to the exceedingly short duration of the contraction-relaxation cycle. PMID:5792338

  18. Larval ecology and synchronous reproduction of two crustacean species : Semibalanus balanoides in New England, USA and Gecarcinus quadratus in Veraguas, Panama

    E-print Network

    Gyory, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The environmental cues for synchronous reproduction were investigated for two highly abundant, ecologically important crustacean species: the temperate acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, and the tropical terrestrial ...

  19. Trematode parasites of Otago Harbour (New Zealand) soft?sediment intertidal ecosystems: Life cycles, ecological roles and DNA barcodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommy L. F. Leung; Kirsten M. Donald; Devon B. Keeney; Anson V. Koehler; Robert C. Peoples; Robert Poulin

    2009-01-01

    Parasites, in particular trematodes (Platyhelminthes: Digenea), play major roles in the population dynamics and community structure of invertebrates on soft?sediment mudflats. Here, we provide a list of the 20 trematode species currently known to infect molluscs, crustaceans and polychaetes from Otago Harbour (New Zealand) soft?sediment intertidal areas, as well as information on their transmission modes, life cycles, andknown ecological impacts.

  20. The in vivo and in vitro effect of a fructooligosaccharide prebiotic combined with alfalfa molt diets on egg production and salmonella in laying hens

    E-print Network

    Donalson, Lisa Michelle

    2005-08-29

    have encouraged the industry to seek alternatives to feed withdrawal with one alternative being feeding a high fiber diet like alfalfa. Alfalfa is high in protein, but low in energy which is desirable for a molt diet. Alfalfa??s fermentation properties...

  1. Ultrastructure and development of the new stylets inside pre-molting first instar nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ultrastructure and development of new stylets was studied in pre-molting first instar nymph of Diaphorina citri. Two oval-shaped masses of cuboidal hypodermal cells, located in the cephalic region, had long extensions that ended with developing pairs of mandibular and maxillary stylets, apparent...

  2. Transcriptome analysis of integument differentially expressed genes in the pigment mutant (quail) during molting of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hongyi; Liu, Chun; Cheng, Tingcai; Li, Qiongyan; Wu, Yuqian; Zhou, Mengting; Zhang, Yinxia; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q) mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao). Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes) were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes) were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation. PMID:24718369

  3. Ovarian steroid production in vitro during gonadal regression in the turkey. II. Changes induced by forced molting.

    PubMed

    Porter, T E; Silsby, J L; Hargis, B M; Fehrer, S C; el Halawani, M E

    1991-10-01

    In the turkey, the onset of incubation behavior is associated with altered ovarian steroidogenesis, ovarian regression, decreased, LH secretion, and increased serum prolactin (Prl) levels. To clarify the relative contribution of circulating LH and Prl to the initiation of ovarian regression, laying hens were exposed for 0, 3, 7, or 14 days to a forced molting procedure (exposure to reduced day length of 6L:18D and removal of feed and water for the initial 3 days) that induces ovarian regression and decreased LH levels but does not increase Prl levels. On each of these days, hens were killed and granulosa and theca interna cells from the largest (F1) and fifth largest (F5) preovulatory follicles and total cells from the small white follicles (SWF) were incubated for 5 h in the presence or absence of ovine LH (oLH; 0-1,000 ng/ml). Force-molted hens exhibited diminished levels of circulating LH, Prl, progesterone (P), androgen (A), and estradiol (E) by Day 3 of treatment. Ovarian atresia began in F1 by the third day of treatment, and included F1 and F5 by the seventh day. No preovulatory follicles were present on the fourteenth day. With both F1 and F5 granulosa cells, production of P in the presence of oLH was initially enhanced (Day 3) and later absent (Day 7). In contrast, production of A by F5 theca interna cells in the presence of oLH was initially suppressed (Day 3) and then returned to pretreatment levels (Day 7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1751633

  4. Accumulation of cadmium associated with sewage sludge by a marine amphipod crustacean.

    PubMed

    Caparis, M E; Rainbow, P S

    1994-12-01

    Cadmium bound to sewage sludge (5% mixture with littoral mud) is available to the deposit-feeding marine amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator (Pallas). The amphipod accumulates labelled cadmium from sludge in proportion to both duration of exposure and cadmium concentration of the sludge. Newly accumulated cadmium is added onto the existing cadmium body load without significant excretion. Thus, cadmium in association with sewage sludge dumped at sea may be absorbed and accumulated by deposit-feeding invertebrates, with the potential of being transferred along marine food chains. PMID:7801109

  5. Diseases of wild and cultured juvenile crustaceans: Insights from below the minimum landing size.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Donald C

    2012-06-01

    Decapod crustaceans (i.e., lobsters, crabs, and shrimps) are all subject to disease, both in the wild and in culture. No life stage appears to be immune to some form of pathogen or parasite. However, juveniles appear to be the targets of some of the most pervasive and consequential diseases. It is therefore surprising, given the enormous economic value of adult decapods, that we know so little about the effects of pathogens on their vulnerable life stage. Here I review the significant diseases reported for juvenile decapods that support fisheries and aquaculture, and highlight research that demonstrates the advantage of incorporating juveniles and ecology in studies of disease. PMID:22429832

  6. Detrimental effect of CO2-driven seawater acidification on a crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao-qun; Jeswin, Joseph; Shen, Kai-li; Lablche, Meghan; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2015-03-01

    The effects of the decline in ocean pH, termed as ocean acidification due to the elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, on calcifying organisms such as marine crustacean are unclear. To understand the possible effects of ocean acidification on the physiological responses of a marine model crustacean brine shrimp, Artemia sinica, three groups of the cysts or animals were raised at different pH levels (8.2 as control; 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress according to the predictions for the end of this century and next century accordingly) for 24 h or two weeks, respectively, followed by examination of their hatching success, morphological appearance such as deformity and microstructure of animal body, growth (i.e. body length), survival rate, expression of selected genes (involved in development, immunity and cellular activity etc), and biological activity of several key enzymes (participated in antioxidant responses and physiological reactions etc). Our results clearly demonstrated that the cysts hatching rate, growth at late stage of acidification stress, and animal survival rate of brine shrimp were all reduced due to lower pH level (7.6 & 7.8) on comparison to the control group (pH 8.2), but no obvious change in deformity or microstructure of brine shrimp was present under these acidification stress by microscopy observation and section analysis. In addition, the animals subjected to a lower pH level of seawater underwent changes on their gene expressions, including Spätzle, MyD88, Notch, Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, prophenoloxidase, Apoptosis inhibitor 5, Trachealess, Caveolin-1 and Cyclin K. Meanwhile, several key enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, were also affected by acidified seawater stress. Taken together, our findings supports the idea that CO2-driven seawater acidification indeed has a detrimental effect, in case of hatching success, growth and survival, on a model crustacean brine shrimp, which will increase the risk of juvenile brine shrimp and possibly also other crustaceans, as important live feeds for aquaculture being introduced in the ecosystem especially the marine food webs. PMID:25555807

  7. Application of Crustacean Chitin as a Co-diluent in Direct Compression of Tablets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviana García Mir; Jyrki Heinämäki; Osmo Antikainen; Niklas Sandler; Ofelia Bilbao Revoredo; Antonio Iraizoz Colarte; Olga Maria Nieto; Jouko Yliruusi

    2010-01-01

    A “simplex-centroid mixture design” was used to study the direct-compression properties of binary and ternary mixtures of\\u000a chitin and two cellulosic direct-compression diluents. Native milled and fractioned (125–250 ?m) crustacean chitin of lobster\\u000a origin was blended with microcrystalline cellulose, MCC (Avicel® PH 102) and spray-dried lactose–cellulose, SDLC Cellactose®\\u000a (composed of a spray-dried mixture of alpha-lactose monohydrate 75% and cellulose powder 25%).

  8. Comparative toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Fulton, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used on agricultural crops, as well as for nurseries, golf courses, urban structural and landscaping sites, residential home and garden pest control, and mosquito abatement. Evaluation of sensitive marine and estuarine species is essential for the development of toxicity testing and risk-assessment protocols. Two estuarine crustacean species, Americamysis bahia (mysids) and Palaemonetes pugio (grass shrimp), were tested with the commonly used pyrethroid compounds, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin. Sensitivities of adult and larval grass shrimp and 7-day-old mysids were compared using standard 96-h LC50 bioassay protocols. Adult and larval grass shrimp were more sensitive than the mysids to all the pyrethroids tested. Larval grass shrimp were approximately 18-fold more sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin than the mysids. Larval grass shrimp were similar in sensitivity to adult grass shrimp for cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and phenothrin, but larvae were approximately twice as sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin as adult shrimp. Acute toxicity to estuarine crustaceans occurred at low nanogram per liter concentrations of some pyrethroids, illustrating the need for careful regulation of the use of pyrethroid compounds in the coastal zone. PMID:23364944

  9. From cooperation to combat: adverse effect of thermal stress in a symbiotic coral-crustacean community.

    PubMed

    Stella, J S; Munday, P L; Walker, S P W; Pratchett, M S; Jones, G P

    2014-04-01

    Although mutualisms are ubiquitous in nature, our understanding of the potential impacts of climate change on these important ecological interactions is deficient. Here, we report on a thermal stress-related shift from cooperation to antagonism between members of a mutualistic coral-dwelling community. Increased mortality of coral-defending crustacean symbionts Trapezia cymodoce (coral crab) and Alpheus lottini (snapping shrimp) was observed in response to experimentally elevated temperatures and reduced coral-host (Pocillopora damicornis) condition. However, strong differential numerical effects occurred among crustaceans as a function of species and sex, with shrimp (75%), and female crabs (55%), exhibiting the fastest and greatest declines in numbers. These declines were due to forceful eviction from the coral-host by male crabs. Furthermore, surviving female crabs were impacted by a dramatic decline (85%) in egg production, which could have deleterious consequences for population sustainability. Our results suggest that elevated temperature switches the fundamental nature of this interaction from cooperation to competition, leading to asymmetrical effects on species and/or sexes. Our study illustrates the importance of evaluating not only individual responses to climate change, but also potentially fragile interactions within and among susceptible species. PMID:24343842

  10. The origin of crustaceans: new evidence from the Early Cambrian of China.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J. Y.; Vannier, J.; Huang, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    One of the smallest arthropods recently discovered in the Early Cambrian Maotianshan Shale Lagerstätte is described. Ercaia gen. nov. has an untagmatized trunk bearing serially repeated biramous appendages (long and segmented endopods and flap-like exopods), a head with an acron bearing stalked lateral eyes and a sclerite and two pairs of antennae. The position of this 520 million-year-old tiny arthropod within the Crustacea is supported by several anatomical features: (i) a head with five pairs of appendages including two pairs of antennae, (ii) highly specialized antennae (large setose fans with a possible function in feeding), and (iii) specialized last trunk appendages (segmented pediform structures fringed with setae). The segmentation pattern of Ercaia (5 head and 13 trunk) is close to that of Maxillopoda but lacks the trunk tagmosis of modern representatives of the group. Ercaia is interpreted as a possible derivative of the stem group Crustacea. Ercaia is likely to have occupied an ecological niche similar to those of some Recent meiobenthic organisms (e.g. copepods living in association with sediment). This new fossil evidence supports the remote ancestry of crustaceans well before the Late Cambrian and shows, along with other fossil data (mainly Early Cambrian in China), that a variety of body plans already coexisted among the primitive crustacean stock. PMID:11674864

  11. Evidence for widespread Wolbachia infection in isopod crustaceans: molecular identification and host feminization.

    PubMed Central

    Bouchon, D; Rigaud, T; Juchault, P

    1998-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited, intracellular, alpha proteobacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. They cause three kinds of reproductive alterations in their hosts: cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis and feminization. There have been many studies of the distribution of Wolbachia in arthropods, but very few crustacean species are known to be infected. We investigated the prevalence of Wolbachia in 85 species from five crustacean orders. Twenty-two isopod species were found to carry these bacteria. The bacteria were found mainly in terrestrial species, suggesting that Wolbachia came from a continental environment. The evolutionary relationships between these Wolbachia strains were determined by sequencing bacterial genes and by interspecific transfers. All the bacteria associated with isopods belonged to the Wolbachia B group, based on 16S rDNA sequence data. All the terrestrial isopod symbionts in this group except one formed an independent clade. The results of interspecific transfers show evidence of specialization of Wolbachia symbionts to their isopod hosts. They also suggest that host species plays a more important role than bacterial phylogeny in determining the phenotype induced by Wolbachia infection. PMID:9684374

  12. Do the neurohormones VIH (vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone) and CHH (crustacean hyperglycemic hormone) of crustaceans have a common precursor? Immunolocalization of VIH and CHH in the X-organ sinus gland complex of the lobster, Homarus americanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANINE KALLEN; JEAN-JACQUES MEUSY

    1989-01-01

    The present study deals with the location of the vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone (VIH)-producing cells in the eyestalk of the lobster Homarus americanus. In the present study, the neurosecretory pathways of VIH in Homarus, have been described immunocytochemically by use of a mouse serum against Homarus VIH. The location of the VIH cells was compared with the location of the crustacean

  13. Comparison of Selected Condition Indices Between Intermolt and Post-Molt Marron, Cherax tenuimanus, of Different Feeding Status Raised Under Intensive Culture Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Japo Jussila

    1999-01-01

    Mature marron, Cherax tenuimanus (mean weight 40.2 ± 2.3 g), were raised in an intensive system to investigate changes in hepato-pancreatic and tail muscle indices and total hemocyte counts in fed intermolt (stage C) and either fed or non-fed post-molt (stage AB) groups. Marron were raised in individual compartments in a recirculating system under controlled environment. Wet and dry somatic

  14. Characterization of an ovary-specific glutathione peroxidase from the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis and its role in crustacean reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long Tao Wu; Ka Hou Chu

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the corresponding scavenging system components especially glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are indispensible for normal development of the gonads. To investigate the function of GPx in crustaceans, we cloned and characterized a full length GPx (MeGPx) transcript in the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus ensis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MeGPx clustered withthe GPx from mollusks and

  15. Effects of widely used pharmaceuticals and a detergent on oxidative stress biomarkers of the crustacean Artemia parthenogenetica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Nunes; F. Carvalho; L. Guilhermino

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are continuously dispersed into the environment as a result of human and veterinary use, posing relevant environmental concerns. The present paper reports the acute toxic effects of three therapeutic agents (diazepam, clofibrate and clofibric acid) and a detergent, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), to the hypersaline crustacean Artemia parthenogenetica. This study specially focused on oxidative stress parameters, namely (1) total and

  16. Enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay for the detection of pathogenic spiroplasma in commercially exploited crustaceans from China

    E-print Network

    freshwater crustaceans from China. The bacteria infect Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis), crayfish of China. A rabbit antiserum was prepared against the spiroplasma isolated from a Chinese mitten crab. Introduction Eriocheir sinensis, the Chinese mitten crab, supports a valuable aquaculture industry in China

  17. THREE SPECIES OF AMPHIPOD CRUSTACEANS COLLECTED FROM BREID AND LUTZOW- HOLM BA YS, ANTARCTICA, DURING TW. 1\\/^-26 CWSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiro TAKEUCHI

    1992-01-01

    Three species of amphipod crustaceans were described based on the specimens collected from Breid and Lutzow-Holm Bays, Antarctica, during the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-26 Cruise): Aeginoides gaussi SCHELLENBERG, 1926 and Dodecasella elegans K. H. BARNARD, 1931 of the pht- isicid Caprellidea, and Neoxenodice hoshiaii n. sp. of the podocerid Gammaridea. Dodecasella elegans seems to show a sexual dimorphism in

  18. Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc, copper and cadmium in a decapod, an amphipod and a barnacle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Rainbow; S. L. White

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the comparative strategies of accumulation under standardised laboratory conditions of the essential metals zinc and copper, and the non-essential metal cadmium by three crustaceans of different taxa; vizPalaemon elegans Rathke (Malacostraca: Eucarida: Decapoda),Echinogammarus pirloti (Sexton & Spooner) (Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda) and the barnacleElminius modestus Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica).

  19. Melanization and Pathogenicity in the Insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chadanat Noonin; Pikul Jiravanichpaisal; Irene Söderhäll; Susana Merino; Juan M. Tomás; Kenneth Söderhäll; Stefan Bereswill

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to

  20. The Impact of the Macrophyte Substratum and Season on Crustacean Zooplankton Communities of Three Shallow and Macrophyte-Dominated Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Kuczy?ska-Kippen

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a three-season study on three lakes in three different habitats (Chara tomentosa bed, Typha angustifolia stand, and the open water) in order to determine the best predictors of microcrustacean distribution. The seasonal composition and abundance of crustacean zooplankters were typical of the pelagic zone in temperate lakes, and there was no appreciable difference in the zooplankton communities among

  1. Effects of sewage-impacted sediment on reproduction in the benthic crustacean Leptocheirus plumulosus.

    PubMed

    Zulkosky, A M; Ferguson, P L; McElroy, A E

    2002-01-01

    Several organic contaminants in sewage effluent have been shown to elicit an estrogenic response in juvenile fish. Comparatively little emphasis has been placed on assessing these effects in marine invertebrates, particularly benthic organisms inhabiting sediment where lipophilic contaminants tend to persist. The present study examined reproductive effects in the benthic crustacean Leptocheirus plumulosus exposed to sewage-impacted sediment from Jamaica Bay, New York. Data from chronic 28-day tests showed a 50% reduction in the average number of young (juveniles + embryos) produced per surviving female in exposures to sediment from Jamaica Bay (JB). Nonylphenol ethoxylate ('NPEO) concentrations at this site were measured at 44.2 microg/g dw, concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than reference site concentrations in central Long Island Sound (CLIS). Dose-response studies with nonylphenol (NP) amended reference sediment, however, did not significantly affect reproduction suggesting that other contaminants may have contributed to the effects observed. PMID:12408626

  2. Direct and indirect fitness consequences of female choice in a crustacean.

    PubMed

    Cothran, Rickey D

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the evolution and maintenance of female mate choice requires information on both the benefits (the sum of direct and indirect benefits) and costs of selective mating. In this study, I assessed the fitness consequences of female mate choice in a freshwater crustacean. In Hyalella amphipods, males attempt to form precopulatory pairs with females. Large males, bearing large posterior gnathopods, tend to be over-represented in precopulatory pairs. I show that females receive both direct (reduced risk of predation while paired) and indirect (sexy sons) benefits from mating with these males. Furthermore, the behavioral mechanisms used to filter male phenotypes carry no detectable energetic cost for females. Thus, females that choose males with successful phenotypes are expected to have higher Darwinian fitness than females that mate at random. This study shows that direct and indirect selection act together to favor large male size, which explains the sexual size dimorphism and size-based mating biases observed in this species. PMID:18410531

  3. Biochemical analyses of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    PubMed

    Kallen, J L; Reijntjens, F M; Peters, D J; Van Herp, F

    1986-02-01

    A biochemical analysis was made of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, as present in the CHH-producing perikarya, in the axonal tract and in the sinus gland, respectively. Hyperglycemic material was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE and SDS-PAGE) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in combination with a dotting immunobinding assay (DIA) and a bioassay for hyperglycemic activity. After electrophoretic analyses, the predominant biologically as well as immunologically detectable product present in all parts of the cell has an apparent molecular radius of approximately 7000 Da. In the perikarya extract, a second factor with lower electrophoretic mobility was found, which may represent the prohormone or precursor of CHH. The analyses by means of HPLC showed two predominant immunopositive peaks with an elution time of 28-29 and 52-54 min, respectively. For both HPLC peaks, electrophoretic analyses indicate a molecular weight of 7000 Da. PMID:3514370

  4. Crustacean peptidergic neurons in culture show immediate outgrowth in simple medium.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, I; Graf, R; Grau, S; Haylett, B; Meyers, D; Ruben, P

    1989-01-01

    The survival and outgrowth of neurons in culture has usually required conditioning factors. We now report that crustacean neurons, taken from the peptidergic neurosecretory system of the eyestalk of crabs (Cardisoma carnifex) and lobsters (Panulirus marginatus), show immediate outgrowth, sustained for a week or more, in defined medium as simple as physiological saline with glucose and glutamine. The neurons show peptide hormone immunoreactivity that is prominent at growth cones, exhibit differences in form correlated with their immunoreactivity, release peptides to the medium, and have voltage-dependent currents, including a well-sustained Ca current. Cd blocks secretion, growth, and the Ca current. Peptidergic secretory neurons may be able to utilize existing membrane from their store of granules and already active synthetic, transport, and secretory mechanisms for immediate outgrowth. Images PMID:2643105

  5. High sequence variability among hemocyte-specific Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors in decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Cerenius, Lage; Liu, Haipeng; Zhang, Yanjiao; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Gunnar Andersson, M; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Crustacean hemocytes were found to produce a large number of transcripts coding for Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). A detailed study performed with the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and the shrimp Penaeus monodon revealed the presence of at least 26 and 20 different Kazal domains from the hemocyte KPIs, respectively. Comparisons with KPIs from other taxa indicate that the sequences of these domains evolve rapidly. A few conserved positions, e.g. six invariant cysteines were present in all domain sequences whereas the position of P1 amino acid, a determinant for substrate specificity, varied highly. A study with a single crayfish animal suggested that even at the individual level considerable sequence variability among hemocyte KPIs produced exist. Expression analysis of four crayfish KPI transcripts in hematopoietic tissue cells and different hemocyte types suggest that some of these KPIs are likely to be involved in hematopoiesis or hemocyte release as they were produced in particular hemocyte types or maturation stages only. PMID:19715720

  6. Molecular cloning of the precursors of pigment dispersing hormone in crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Desmoucelles-Carette, C; Sellos, D; Van Wormhoudt, A

    1996-04-25

    The cDNAs encoding the precursors of a chromactive crustacean hormone, Pigment Dispersing Hormone (PDH) of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei, were studied by PCR and molecular cloning. Three different cDNAs were isolated and sequenced. The PDH precursor consists of a putative 22- or 23-amino acid signal peptide, a 34-amino acid PDH-Precursor Related Peptide (PPRP) of unknown function, and the 18-amino acid mature PDH. The deduced mature PDH amino acid sequences are identical except the change of a Leucine by an Isoleucine in one variant and are very similar to those of other species. The signal peptides appear highly variable. The variability between the PPRP sequences is low between the different species, suggesting that this peptide may have a physiological role. PMID:8630031

  7. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus - Contributors to Cellular Detoxification.

    PubMed

    Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C; Passamaneck, Yale; Christie, Andrew E; Lenz, Petra H

    2015-01-01

    Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival. PMID:25945801

  8. Long-term Lethal Toxicity Test with the Crustacean Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    Manfra, Loredana; Savorelli, Federica; Pisapia, Marco; Magaletti, Erika; Cicero, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Our research activities target the use of biological methods for the evaluation of environmental quality, with particular reference to saltwater/brackish water and sediment. The choice of biological indicators must be based on reliable scientific knowledge and, possibly, on the availability of standardized procedures. In this article, we present a standardized protocol that used the marine crustacean Artemia to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals and/or of marine environmental matrices. Scientists propose that the brine shrimp (Artemia) is a suitable candidate for the development of a standard bioassay for worldwide utilization. A number of papers have been published on the toxic effects of various chemicals and toxicants on brine shrimp (Artemia). The major advantage of this crustacean for toxicity studies is the overall availability of the dry cysts; these can be immediately used in testing and difficult cultivation is not demanded1,2. Cyst-based toxicity assays are cheap, continuously available, simple and reliable and are thus an important answer to routine needs of toxicity screening, for industrial monitoring requirements or for regulatory purposes3. The proposed method involves the mortality as an endpoint. The numbers of survivors were counted and percentage of deaths were calculated. Larvae were considered dead if they did not exhibit any internal or external movement during several seconds of observation4. This procedure was standardized testing a reference substance (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate); some results are reported in this work. This article accompanies a video that describes the performance of procedural toxicity testing, showing all the steps related to the protocol. PMID:22525984

  9. The Global Diversity of Parasitic Isopods Associated with Crustacean Hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jason D.; Boyko, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans) are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ?7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species) and intermediate (pelagic copepod) host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species), with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species), East Asian Sea (120 species), and Central Indian Ocean (44 species). The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts) are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species) followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively). Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids) exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species) with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts) show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species) and North East Atlantic (8 species). Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago) hold a wealth of undescribed species, reflecting our knowledge of host diversity patterns. PMID:22558143

  10. Toxicity on crustaceans and endocrine disrupting activity on Saccharomyces cerevisiae of eight alkylphenols.

    PubMed

    Isidori, Marina; Lavorgna, Margherita; Nardelli, Angela; Parrella, Alfredo

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years many concerns have been raised regarding the environmental safety of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants (APnEOs). They are widely used in detergents, paints, herbicides and many other formulated products. It has been estimated that 60% of APnEOs end up in the aquatic environment; they are biodegradable and transformed into alkylphenols, such as nonylphenol and octylphenol that are hydrophobic and tend to accumulate. In the present study, acute and chronic aquatic toxicity and the estrogenic activity of the following eight alkylphenols were assessed: 4-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate, 4-tert-octylphenol, POE (1 to 2)-nonylphenol, POE (6)-nonylphenol, POE (3)-tert-octylphenol and POE (9 to 10)-tert-octylphenol. The toxic potential was measured on the crustaceans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia, while the estrogenic activity was determined by using the YES-test with the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae RMY326. The results showed that the exposure of crustaceans to the eight xenoestrogens investigated caused both acute and chronic effects. The EC50 values found for C. dubia at 48 h were compared to D. magna at 24h and, gave a first indication about the toxic activity of the compounds investigated, that is better expressed in the long-term. In fact, chronic data showed a strong increase in toxicity with EC50 values one or two orders of magnitude lower than the acute values. The results of the YES-test showed that nonylphenol, octylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol were the most estrogenic and the bioassay was able to detect their estrogenicity at very low concentrations (ng-microg/l). PMID:16343595

  11. Astakine 2—the Dark Knight Linking Melatonin to Circadian Regulation in Crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Saelee, Netnapa; Phongdara, Amornrat; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Daily, circadian rhythms influence essentially all living organisms and affect many physiological processes from sleep and nutrition to immunity. This ability to respond to environmental daily rhythms has been conserved along evolution, and it is found among species from bacteria to mammals. The hematopoietic process of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is under circadian control and is tightly regulated by astakines, a new family of cytokines sharing a prokineticin (PROK) domain. The expression of AST1 and AST2 are light-dependent, and this suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for PROK domain proteins in mediating circadian rhythms. Vertebrate PROKs are transmitters of circadian rhythms of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain of mammals, but the mechanism by which they function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that high AST2 expression is induced by melatonin in the brain. We identify RACK1 as a binding protein of AST2 and further provide evidence that a complex between AST2 and RACK1 functions as a negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. By DNA mobility shift assay, we showed that the AST2-RACK1 complex will interfere with the binding between BMAL1 and CLK and inhibit the E-box binding activity of the complex BMAL1-CLK. Finally, we demonstrate by gene knockdown that AST2 is necessary for melatonin-induced inhibition of the complex formation between BMAL1 and CLK during the dark period. In summary, we provide evidence that melatonin regulates AST2 expression and thereby affects the core clock of the crustacean brain. This process may be very important in all animals that have AST2 molecules, i.e. spiders, ticks, crustaceans, scorpions, several insect groups such as Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Blattodea, but not Diptera and Coleoptera. Our findings further reveal an ancient evolutionary role for the prokineticin superfamily protein that links melatonin to direct regulation of the core clock gene feedback loops. PMID:23555281

  12. Astakine 2--the dark knight linking melatonin to circadian regulation in crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Saelee, Netnapa; Phongdara, Amornrat; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2013-03-01

    Daily, circadian rhythms influence essentially all living organisms and affect many physiological processes from sleep and nutrition to immunity. This ability to respond to environmental daily rhythms has been conserved along evolution, and it is found among species from bacteria to mammals. The hematopoietic process of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is under circadian control and is tightly regulated by astakines, a new family of cytokines sharing a prokineticin (PROK) domain. The expression of AST1 and AST2 are light-dependent, and this suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for PROK domain proteins in mediating circadian rhythms. Vertebrate PROKs are transmitters of circadian rhythms of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain of mammals, but the mechanism by which they function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that high AST2 expression is induced by melatonin in the brain. We identify RACK1 as a binding protein of AST2 and further provide evidence that a complex between AST2 and RACK1 functions as a negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. By DNA mobility shift assay, we showed that the AST2-RACK1 complex will interfere with the binding between BMAL1 and CLK and inhibit the E-box binding activity of the complex BMAL1-CLK. Finally, we demonstrate by gene knockdown that AST2 is necessary for melatonin-induced inhibition of the complex formation between BMAL1 and CLK during the dark period. In summary, we provide evidence that melatonin regulates AST2 expression and thereby affects the core clock of the crustacean brain. This process may be very important in all animals that have AST2 molecules, i.e. spiders, ticks, crustaceans, scorpions, several insect groups such as Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Blattodea, but not Diptera and Coleoptera. Our findings further reveal an ancient evolutionary role for the prokineticin superfamily protein that links melatonin to direct regulation of the core clock gene feedback loops. PMID:23555281

  13. Mapping of neuropeptides in the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system by imaging mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Hui, Limei; Kellersberger, Katherine; Li, Lingjun

    2012-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) with great emphasis on comprehensive analysis and mapping distribution of its diverse neuropeptide complement. Previously, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has been applied to this endeavor yet with identification accuracy and throughput compromised. Therefore, molecular imaging methods are pursued to unequivocally determine the identity and location of the neuropeptides at a high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a novel multi-faceted mass spectrometric strategy combining profiling and imaging techniques to characterize and map neuropeptides from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus STNS at the network level. In total, 55 neuropeptides from 10 families were identified from the major ganglia in the C. sapidus STNS for the first time, including the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), the paired commissural ganglia (CoG), the esophageal ganglion (OG), and the connecting nerve stomatogastric nerve (stn) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and the MS/MS capability of this technique. In addition, the locations of multiple neuropeptides were documented at a spatial resolution of 25 ?m in the STG and upstream nerve using MALDI-TOF/TOF and high-mass-resolution and high-mass-accuracy MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) instrument. Furthermore, distributions of neuropeptides in the whole C. sapidus STNS were examined by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Different isoforms from the same family were simultaneously and unambiguously mapped, facilitating the functional exploration of neuropeptides present in the crustacean STNS and exemplifying the revolutionary role of this novel platform in neuronal network studies. PMID:23192703

  14. The crustacean scavenger guild in Antarctic shelf, bathyal and abyssal communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Broyer, Claude; Nyssen, Fabienne; Dauby, Patrick

    2004-07-01

    Peracarid crustaceans form a significant part of the macrobenthic community that is responsible for scavenging on large food falls onto the sea floor. Although several studies are available about scavengers from tropical and temperate seas, very little information has been published about such species living in Antarctic waters, particularly at greater depths. The present paper is based on a collection of 31 baited trap sets deployed in the Weddell Sea, Scotia Sea, and off the South Shetland Islands, and presents results on the geographical and bathymetric distribution of the different taxa and on the eco-functional role of scavengers. Some 68,000 peracarid crustaceans from 62 species were collected. About 98% of individuals belonged to the amphipod superfamily Lysianassoidea, and 2% to the isopod family Cirolanidae. Of these species, 31, including 26 lysianassoids (1400 individuals), were collected deeper than 1000 m. High species richness was discerned for the eastern Weddell Sea shelf compared with other Antarctic areas. The Antarctic slope also seems to be richer in species than other areas investigated in the world, while in the abyss, scavenger species richness appears to be lower in Antarctica. A richness gradient was thus observed from the shelf to the deep. For amphipods, a number of species extend their distribution from the shelf to the slope and only one to the abyssal zone. Amphipod species showed degrees of adaptation to necrophagy. The functional adaptations of the mandible and the storage function of the gut are discussed. Feeding experiments conducted on lysianassoid species collected at great depths and maintained in aquaria showed a mean feeding rate of about 1.4-4.1% dry body weight day -1, which is consistent with data obtained from other species.

  15. Putative Pacemakers in the Eyestalk and Brain of the Crayfish Procambarus clarkii Show Circadian Oscillations in Levels of mRNA for Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Nelson-Mora, Janikua; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; Loredo-Ranjel, Rosaura; Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress. PMID:24391849

  16. Discrete pulses of molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, during late larval development of Drosophila melanogaster: correlations with changes in gene activity.

    PubMed

    Warren, James T; Yerushalmi, Yoram; Shimell, Mary Jane; O'Connor, Michael B; Restifo, Linda L; Gilbert, Lawrence I

    2006-02-01

    Periodic pulses of the insect steroid molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), acting via its nuclear receptor complex (EcR/USP), control gene expression at many stages throughout Drosophila development. However, during the last larval instar of some lepidopteran insects, subtle changes in titers of ecdysteroids have been documented, including the so-called "commitment peak." This small elevation of 20E reprograms the larva for metamorphosis to the pupa. Similar periods of ecdysteroid immunoreactivity have been observed during the last larval instar of Drosophila. However, due to low amplitude and short duration, along with small body size and staging difficulties, their timing and ecdysteroid composition have remained uncertain. Employing a rigorous regimen of Drosophila culture and a salivary gland reporter gene, Sgs3-GFP, we used RP-HPLC and differential ecdysteroid RIA analysis to determine whole body titers of 20E during the last larval instar. Three small peaks of 20E were observed at 8, 20, and 28 hr following ecdysis, prior to the well-characterized large peak around the time of pupariation. The possible regulation of 20E levels by biosynthetic P450 enzymes and the roles of these early peaks in coordinating gene expression and late larval development are discussed. PMID:16273522

  17. Rock Cycle: Cycling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Rocks SciPack. It explores the variables that contribute to rock transformation and the continuous processes of rock formation that constitute the rock cycle. The rock cycle provides an example of the transfer of energy and mass in the Earth system. Earth is a closed system containing essentially a fixed amount of each element. Movement of matter is driven by the Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and is often accompanied by changes in the physical and chemical properties of the matter. Minerals are made, dissolved, and remade--on the Earth's surface, in the oceans, and in the hot, high-pressure layers beneath the crust. The total amount of material stays the same as its forms change. Learning Outcomes:? Recognize the formation and transformation processes as part of a continuing cycle.? Identify that while the form and location of different rocks change over time, the amount of material and the distribution among the elements remains constant.? Explain the different processes or paths that each type of rock may take in the rock cycle.

  18. The insulin-like androgenic gland hormone in crustaceans: From a single gene silencing to a wide array of sexual manipulation-based biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Sagi, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Due to the over-harvesting and deterioration of wild populations, the ever-growing crustacean market is increasingly reliant on aquaculture, driving the need for better management techniques. Since most cultured crustacean species exhibit sexually dimorphic growth patterns, the culture of monosex populations (either all-male or all-female) is a preferred approach for gaining higher yields, with the ecological benefit of reducing the risk of invasion by the cultured species. Sexual manipulations may also render sustainable solutions to the environmental problems caused by the presence of invasive crustacean species with detrimental impacts ranging from aggressive competition with native species for food and shelter, to affecting aquaculture facilities and harvests and causing structural damage to river banks. Recent discoveries of androgenic gland (AG)-specific insulin-like peptides (IAGs) in crustaceans and the ability to manipulate them and their encoding transcripts (IAGs) have raised the possibility of sexually manipulating crustacean populations. Sexual manipulation is already a part of sustainable solutions in fish aquaculture and in the bio-control of insect pest species, and attempts are also being made to implement it with crustaceans. As recently exemplified in a commercially important prawn species, IAG silencing, a temporal, non-genetically modifying and non-transmissible intervention, has enabled the production of non-breeding all-male monosex populations that are the progeny of sexually reversed males ('neo-females'). IAG manipulations-based biotechnologies therefore have the potential to radically transform the entire industry. We review here how this proof of concept could be broadened to meet both aquacultural and environmental needs. We include the major cultured decapod crustacean groups and suggest a sustainable solution for the management of invasive and pest crustacean species. We also review the key considerations for devising a biotechnological approach that specifically tailors the molecular technological abilities to the management of each target group. PMID:22561950

  19. An antibody to recombinant crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone of Nephrops norvegicus cross-reacts with neuroendocrine organs of several taxa of malacostracan Crustacea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Giulianini; N. Pandolfelli; S. Lorenzon; E. Ferrero; P. Edomi

    2002-01-01

    The crustacean hyperglycaemic hormones (cHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that play a central role in the physiology of crustaceans. A partial cDNA coding for cHH of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, was cloned; this cDNA was fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to obtain a recombinant fusion protein that was used to raise a rabbit antiserum and to perform a biological assay. The

  20. DNA methylation, histone H3 methylation, and histone H4 acetylation in the genome of a crustacean.

    PubMed

    Barzotti, Rita; Pelliccia, Franca; Rocchi, Angela

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we used antibodies against histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9 (H3K9m3); against histone H4 acetylated at lysines 5, 8, 12, and 16 (H4ac); and against DNA methylated at 5C cytosine (m5C) to study the presence and distribution of these markers in the genome of the isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus. The use of these 3 antibodies to immunolabel spermatogonial metaphases yields reproducible patterns on the chromosomes of this crustacean. The X and Y chromosomes present an identical banding pattern with each of the antibodies. The heterochromatic telomeric regions and the centromeric regions are rich in H3K9m3, but depleted in m5C and H4ac. Thus, m5C does not seem to be required to stabilize the silence of these regions in this organism. PMID:16462905

  1. Coregulation of Ion Channel Conductances Preserves Output in a Computational Model of a Crustacean Cardiac Motor Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Ball, John M.; Franklin, Clarence C.; Tobin, Anne-Elise

    2015-01-01

    Similar activity patterns at both neuron and network levels can arise from different combinations of membrane and synaptic conductance values. A strategy by which neurons may preserve their electrical output is via cell type-dependent balances of inward and outward currents. Measurements of mRNA transcripts that encode ion channel proteins within motor neurons in the crustacean cardiac ganglion recently revealed correlations between certain channel types. To determine whether balances of intrinsic currents potentially resulting from such correlations preserve certain electrical cell outputs, we developed a nominal biophysical model of the crustacean cardiac ganglion using biological data. Predictions from the nominal model showed that coregulation of ionic currents may preserve the key characteristics of motor neuron activity. We then developed a methodology of sampling a multidimensional parameter space to select an appropriate model set for meaningful comparison with variations in correlations seen in biological datasets. PMID:20573909

  2. Abundance, composition, and distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to hypolimnetic oxygen depletion in west-central Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heberger, Roy F.; Reynolds, James B.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of crustacean zooplankton were collected monthly in west-central Lake Erie in April and June to October 1968, and in July and August 1970, before and during periods of hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion. The water column at offshore stations was thermally stratified from June through September 1968, and the hypolimnion contained no DO in mid-August of 1968 or 1970. Composition, abundance, and vertical distribution of crustacean zooplankton changed coincidentally with oxygen depletion. From July to early August, zooplankton abundance dropped 79% in 1968 and 50% in 1970. The declines were attributed largely to a sharp decrease in abundance of planktonic Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi. Zooplankton composition shifted from mainly cyclopoid copepods in July to mainly cladocerans and copepod nauplii in middle to late August. We believe that mortality of adults and dormancy of copepodites in response to anoxia was the probable reason for the late summer decline in planktonic C. b. thomasi.

  3. Distributional patterns of decapod crustaceans in the circum-Mediterranean area during the Oligo-Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2015-04-01

    During the Oligocene and Miocene, the circum-Mediterranean area was a complex network of (mostly) shallow marine basins. Significant biogeographic differentiation of this area has been documented (Harzhauser et al. 2007), mainly during the Miocene, when connections between Proto-Mediterranean, Paratethys and Proto-Indo-West Pacific were intermittently opening and closing. These seaways allowed migration of marine faunas. Distributional patterns has so far been discussed for several different animal groups, especially for molluscs (e.g. Studencka et al. 1998; Harzhauser et al. 2002, 2003, 2007). To test these patterns with decapod crustaceans, a database has been compiled including all previously published Oligocene and Miocene decapod occurrences and newly gathered data from examined material deposited in the institutional collections. Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats since the Mesozoic times with ever-increasing importance throughout the Cenozoic. Müller (1979) argued that brachyuran decapods are among the best zoogeographical indicators. Although decapods were used as such indicators before (e.g. Schweitzer 2001; Feldmann & Schweitzer 2006), no detailed analysis of the circum-Mediterranean taxa has been conducted so far. Based on proposed anti-estuarine circulation pattern, decapods originated in the Proto-Mediterranean, and migrated both into the North Sea and the Paratethys. Moreover, during the Early Miocene the Rhine Graben served as a connection between the North Sea and the Paratethys which enabled faunal exchange. The Middle Miocene Proto-Mediterranean and Paratethys decapod assemblages as taken together were relatively homogeneous, although distinct due to increasing rate of endemites in the Paratethys during the Miocene. The research has been supported by FWF: Lise Meitner Program M 1544-B25. References Feldmann R.M. & Schweitzer C.E. 2006: Paleobiogeography of Southern Hemisphere decapod Crustacea. J. Paleontol. 80, 83-103. Harzhauser M., Kroh A., Mandic O., Piller W.E., Göhlich U., Reuter M. & Berning B. 2007: Biogeographic responses to geodynamics: a key study all around the Oligo-Miocene Tethyan Seaway. Zool. Anz. 246, 241-256. Harzhauser M., Mandic O. & Zuschin M. 2003: Changes in Paratethyan marine molluscs at the Early/Middle Miocene transition: diversity, palaeogeography and palaeoclimate. Acta Geol. Pol. 53, 323-339. Harzhauser M., Piller W.E. & Steininger F.F. 2002: Circum-Mediterranean Oligo/Miocene Biogeographic Evolution - the Gastropods' Point of View. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 183, 103-133. Müller P. 1979: The Indo-West-Pacific character of the Badenian decapod crustaceans of the Paratethys. In: VII International Congress on Mediterranean Neogene. Athens, September 27-October 2. Ann. Géol. Pays Hellén., Tome hors série 2, 865-869. Schweitzer C.E. 2001: Paleobiogeography of Cretaceous and Tertiary decapod crustaceans of the North Pacific Ocean. J. Paleontol. 75, 808-826. Studencka B., Gontsharova I.A. & Popov S.V. 1998: The bivalve faunas as a basis for reconstruction of the Middle Miocene history of the Paratethys. Acta Geol. Pol. 48, 285-342.

  4. Changes in the pelagic crustacean zooplankton of high-boreal Island Lake, Saskatchewan, associated with uranium mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Melville

    1995-01-01

    Island Lake, Saskatchewan, has become eutrophic, subsaline (salinity between 0.5 and 3.0 g I-1) and contaminated with several metals over the last decade. In this study, the crustacean zooplankton community in the lake in early summer 1989 is compared to the community during the early summers of the baseline years 1978 and 1979, based on archived environmental impact assessment samples.

  5. Small-scale spatial and temporal interactions among benthic crustaceans and one fish species in the Bay of Biscay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verena M. Trenkel; François Le Loc’h; Marie-Joëlle Rochet

    2007-01-01

    In the summer of 2004, a video survey was carried out in the northern part of the central mud bank (Grande Vasière) of the\\u000a Bay of Biscay to study the small scale relationship between the dominant crustacean megafauna Nephrops norvegicus, Munida rugosa and Goneplax rhomboides and juvenile hake (Merluccius merluccius). Using a towed body, high-resolution videos were recorded in six

  6. Preparation of Two Recombinant Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormones from the Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and Their Hyperglycemic Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuyoshi Ohira; Naoaki Tsutsui; Hiromichi Nagasawa; Marcy N. Wilder

    2006-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is released from the X-organ\\/sinus gland complex located in the eyestalks, and regulates glucose levels in the hemolymph. In the giant freshwater prawn ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii ), two cDNAs encoding different CHH molecules were previously cloned by other workers. One of these (Mar-CHH-2) was expressed only in the eyestalks, whereas the other (Mar-CHH-L) was expressed in

  7. Differential expression of CMG peptide and crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) in the eyestalk of the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paisarn Sithigorngul; Nanthika Panchan; Parin Chaivisuthangkura; Siwaporn Longyant; Weerawan Sithigorngul; Amorn Petsom

    2002-01-01

    Mouse antiserum against C-terminal amide of Pem-CMG (a peptide in the family of CHH\\/MIH\\/GIH) penta-deca peptide (RPRQRNQYRAALQRLamide=CMG-15) was generated and used for localization of the peptide in tissue and extract of the eyestalk of Penaeus monodon by means of immunohistochemistry and dot-ELISA in comparison with anti-T+ antiserum (T+=YANAVQTVamide: the putative C-terminal amide of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) of Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

  8. Fishes and decapod crustaceans of Cape Cod eelgrass meadows: Species composition, seasonal abundance patterns and comparison with unvegetated substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Heck; K. W. Able; M. P. Fahay; C. T. Roman

    1989-01-01

    Bimonthly trawl samples from eelgrass and nearby unvegetated areas on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, showed greater species richness\\u000a in eelgrass meadows relative to unvegetated areas, and greater summer abundance in vegetation for decapod crustaceans and\\u000a fishes. The composition of eelgrass-associated decapods and fishes was dominated by cold-water taxa and was strikingly different\\u000a from that of the better studied eelgrass meadows of

  9. Distribution of centrifugal neurons targeting the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain among decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M

    1997-03-28

    To determine the distribution of two systems of centrifugal neurons innervating the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain across decapod crustaceans, brains of the following nine species comprising most infraorders were immunostained with antibodies against dopamine and the neuropeptides substance P and FMRFamide: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Homarus americanus, Cherax destructor, Orconectes limosus, Procambarus clarkii, Astacus leptodactylus, Carcinus maenas, Eriocheir sinensis and Pagurus bernhardus. One system consisting of several neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity that originate in the eyestalk ganglia was present in the four crayfish but not in any other species. These neurons project mainly into the lateral soma clusters (cluster 10) comprising the somata of ascending olfactory projection neurons and innervate very sparsely the medial soma clusters (clusters 9 and 11) containing the somata of local interneurons. In the innervation pattern of the lateral cluster, the dopamine-immunoreactive neurons showed large species-specific differences. The other system comprises a pair of giant neurons with substance P-like immunoreactivity. These neurons have somata in the median protocerebrum of the central brain and major projections into the lateral clusters and the core of the olfactory lobes, the neuropils that are the first synaptic relay in the central olfactory pathway of decapods; minor arborizations are present in the medial clusters. The system of substance P-immunoreactive giant neurons was present and of great morphological similarity in all studied species. Only in one species, the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii, evidence for co-localization of FMRFamide-like with substance P-like immunoreactivity in these neurons was obtained. These and previously collected data indicate that the centrifugal neurons with dopamine-like immunoreactivity may be associated with the presence of an accessory lobe, a second-order neuropil that receives input from the olfactory lobe and only occurs in spiny lobsters, clawed lobsters and crayfish. The pair of centrifugal giant neurons with substance P-like immunoreactivity, on the other hand, appears to be a constitutive component of the decapod crustacean brain that most likely is functionally associated with the olfactory lobe. Both systems apparently exert modulatory functions on olfactory information processing by preferentially targeting the somata of the projection neurons. Thus, in the olfactory projection neurons, the somata seem to be more directly involved in information processing than in most other neurons of the arthropod CNS. PMID:9106436

  10. Potentiation of a novel palladium (II) complex lethality with bee venom on the human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (MOLT-4)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although honeybee venom (BV) has been reported to induce apoptosis in different types of cancerous cells, its synergistic effects with customary anti-cancer drugs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of BV alone (as a natural product) and the synergistic cytological effects of this component in combination with [Pd (bpy) (Pi-Pydtc)]NO3 – a novel palladium complex on human T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia cells. To investigate the cytotoxic effect of the BV alone and in combination with palladium complex on MOLT-4 cells MTT assay was performed. In order to determine the apoptotic effects of BV separately and in combination with Pd (II) complex on these cells and its ability to induce apoptosis, morphological examination, flowcytometric analysis and caspase-3 colorimetric assay were done. Results We found that BV induced morphological changes, namely nuclear shrinkage, and inhibited MOLT-4 cell proliferation; both effects were dose- and time-dependent. Flow cytometry by Annexin-V antibody demonstrated that BV induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells. Furthermore, BV induced apoptosis independently of caspase-3 in these cells. In addition, we proved a clear synergistic effect of BV on [Pd (bpy) (Pi-Pydtc)]NO3. The apoptotic pathway activated by BV in combination with Pd complex was caspase-3-dependent. Conclusions These observations provide an explanation for the anti-proliferative properties of BV, and suggest that this agent may be useful for treating lymphoblastic leukemia alone or in combination with chemotherapy drugs pending further investigations on animal models as preclinical tests. PMID:24090289

  11. A new look at embryonic development of the visual system in decapod crustaceans: neuropil formation, neurogenesis, and apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Harzsch, S; Benton, J; Dawirs, R R; Beltz, B

    1999-05-01

    In recent years, comparing the structure and development of the central nervous system in crustaceans has provided new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of arthropods. Furthermore, the structural evolution of the compound eyes and optic ganglia of adult arthropods has been discussed, but it was not possible to compare the ontogeny of arthropod visual systems, owing to the lack of data on species other than insects. In the present report, we studied the development of the crustacean visual system by examining neurogenesis, neuropil formation, and apoptotic cell death in embryos of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, the spider crab, Hyas araneus, and the caridean shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus, and compare these processes with those found in insects. Our results on the patterns of stem cell proliferation provide evidence that in decapod crustaceans and hemimetabolous insects, there exist considerable similarities in the mechanisms by which accretion of the compound eyes and growth of the optic lobes is achieved, suggesting an evolutionary conservation of these mechanisms. PMID:10235683

  12. From genes to behavior: investigations of neurochemical signaling come of age for the model crustacean Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; McCoole, Matthew D

    2012-08-01

    The cladoceran crustacean Daphnia pulex has served as a standard organism for aquatic toxicity testing for decades. The model organism status of D. pulex rests largely on its remarkable ability to rapidly adapt morphologically, physiologically and behaviorally to a wide range of environmental challenges, as well as on its parthenogenetic reproduction and ease of laboratory culture. As in all multicellular organisms, neurochemical control systems are undoubtedly major contributors to the functional flexibility of Daphnia. Surprisingly, little work has focused on understanding its neurochemistry at any level. Recently, D. pulex has been the subject of extensive genome and transcriptome sequencing, and it is currently the only crustacean with a fully sequenced, publicly accessible genome. Although the molecular work was initiated for gene-based investigations of ecotoxicology and toxicogenomics, the data generated have allowed for investigations into numerous aspects of Daphnia biology, including its neurochemical signaling. This Commentary summarizes our knowledge of D. pulex neurochemistry obtained from recent genomic and transcriptomic studies, and places these data in context with other anatomical, biochemical and physiological experiments using D. pulex and its sister species Daphnia magna. Suggestions as to how the Daphnia molecular data may be useful for future investigations of crustacean neurochemical signaling are also provided. PMID:22786629

  13. The Life Cycle of the Antarctic Nematode Plectus murrayi Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    de Tomasel, Cecilia Milano; Adams, Byron J; Tomasel, Fernando G; Wall, Diana H

    2013-03-01

    We study and describe the life cycle of Plectus murrayi, a free-living, bacterivorous soil nematode endemic to terrestrial Antarctica. The study was performed at 15°C, a temperature identified as optimal for growth rate studies in the laboratory. Under these conditions, we observed that the first molt occurs in the egg, and second-stage juveniles hatch 12 to 14 d after egg laying. Individuals undergo three subsequent molts to become adults 23 to 26 d after hatching with a final average length of 950 ?m. Egg-laying begins 41 to 43 d after hatching, resulting in an egg-to-egg life cycle ranging from 53 to 57 d under our experimental conditions. Considering that the average soil temperature during austral summers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys is only a few degrees above freezing, it is highly likely that many, if not most of these animals, require more than 1 yr to complete their entire life cycle. Our study supports other research that establishes P. murrayi as an important model organism for studying adaptation to extreme environmental stress. PMID:23589658

  14. New Functions of Arthropod Bursicon: Inducing Deposition and Thickening of New Cuticle and Hemocyte Granulation in the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Chung, J. Sook; Katayama, Hidekazu; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Arthropod growth requires molt-associated changes in softness and stiffness of the cuticle that protects from desiccation, infection and injury. Cuticle hardening in insects depends on the blood-borne hormone, bursicon (Burs), although it has never been determined in hemolymph. Whilst also having Burs, decapod crustaceans reiterate molting many more times during their longer life span and are encased in a calcified exoskeleton, which after molting undergoes similar initial cuticle hardening processes as in insects. We investigated the role of homologous crustacean Burs in cuticular changes and growth in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found dramatic increases in size and number of Burs cells during development in paired thoracic ganglion complex (TGC) neurons with pericardial organs (POs) as neurohemal release sites. A skewed expression of Burs ?/Burs ? mRNA in TGC corresponds to protein contents of identified Burs ? homodimer and Burs heterodimer in POs. In hemolymph, Burs is consistently present at ?21 pM throughout the molt cycle, showing a peak of ?89 pM at ecdysis. Since initial cuticle hardness determines the degree of molt-associated somatic increment (MSI), we applied recombinant Burs in vitro to cuticle explants of late premolt or early ecdysis. Burs stimulates cuticle thickening and granulation of hemocytes. These findings demonstrate novel cuticle-associated functions of Burs during molting, while the unambiguous and constant presence of Burs in cells and hemolymph throughout the molt cycle and life stages may implicate further functions of its homo- and heterodimer hormone isoforms in immunoprotective defense systems of arthropods. PMID:23029467

  15. Selected endocrine disrupting compounds (Vinclozolin, Flutamide, Ketoconazole and Dicofol): Effects on survival, occurrence of males, growth, molting and reproduction of Daphnia magna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maher H. Haeba; Klára Hilscherová; Edita Mazurová; Ludek Bláha

    2008-01-01

    Background, Aim and Scope  Pollution-induced endocrine disruption in vertebrates and invertebrates is a worldwide environmental problem, but relatively\\u000a little is known about effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in planktonic crustaceans (including Daphnia magna). Aims of the present study were to investigate acute 48 h toxicity and sub-chronic (4–6 days) and chronic (21 days) effects\\u000a of selected EDCs in D. magna.

  16. Genetic basis of eye and pigment loss in the cave crustacean, Asellus aquaticus.

    PubMed

    Protas, Meredith E; Trontelj, Peter; Patel, Nipam H

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the process of evolution is one of the great challenges in biology. Cave animals are one group with immense potential to address the mechanisms of evolutionary change. Amazingly, similar morphological alterations, such as enhancement of sensory systems and the loss of eyes and pigmentation, have evolved multiple times in a diverse assemblage of cave animals. Our goal is to develop an invertebrate model to study cave evolution so that, in combination with a previously established vertebrate cave system, we can address genetic questions concerning evolutionary parallelism and convergence. We chose the isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus, and generated a genome-wide linkage map for this species. Our map, composed of 117 markers, of which the majority are associated with genes known to be involved in pigmentation, eye, and appendage development, was used to identify loci of large effect responsible for several pigmentation traits and eye loss. Our study provides support for the prediction that significant morphological change can be mediated through one or a few genes. Surprisingly, we found that within population variability in eye size occurs through multiple mechanisms; eye loss has a different genetic basis than reduced eye size. Similarly, again within a population, the phenotype of albinism can be achieved by two different genetic pathways--either by a recessive genotype at one locus or doubly recessive genotypes at two other loci. Our work shows the potential of Asellus for studying the extremes of parallel and convergent evolution-spanning comparisons within populations to comparisons between vertebrate and arthropod systems. PMID:21422298

  17. Preventive antioxidant responses to extreme oxygen level fluctuation in a subterranean crustacean.

    PubMed

    Lawniczak, M; Romestaing, C; Roussel, D; Maazouzi, C; Renault, D; Hervant, F

    2013-06-01

    The principal aim of this work was to explore the responses of the groundwater crustacean Niphargus rhenorhodanensis to oxidative stress caused by short- and long-term drastic variations in oxygen level. To this end, we investigated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and anti-oxidative enzyme (SOD and GPx) activities during 24 h anoxia and post-anoxia recovery, and during 10 days of severe hypoxia and post-hypoxia recovery. We observed a decrease in TBARS amounts during recovery from severe hypoxia. Parallel to these results, we observed an overactivation of SOD activity after a 24 h anoxic stress. GPx activity measured at the end of anoxia or severe hypoxia and in the early hours of post-stress recovery also showed an overactivation compared to the control group. We can hypothesize that this overproduction of GPx corresponded to an anticipatory mechanism coping with the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the recovery phase in subterranean animals. This response could be considered as a major asset for life in alternately normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and therefore in extreme biotopes such as groundwaters. PMID:23545443

  18. Novel membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase-2 from crustacean arthropods.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kristella; Varvas, Külliki; Järving, Ivar; Samel, Nigulas

    2014-08-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) have been shown to play important physiological roles in insects and marine invertebrates, yet the knowledge of their biosynthetic pathways is often lacking. Recently, we described cyclooxygenases in two amphipod crustaceans, Gammarus sp. and Caprella sp. In the present study, we report the cloning and characterization of prostaglandin E synthases (PGES) from the same organisms. The amphipod membrane-bound PGES-2-type enzymes share about 40% of the amino acid sequence identity with human mPGES-2, contain a conserved Cys110-x-x-Cys113 motif and have very low heme-binding affinity. The recombinant enzymes purified in the absence of dithiothreitol specifically catalyze the isomerization of PGH2 into PGE2. The PGES activity is increased in the presence of reduced glutathione and inhibited with a sulfhydryl group inhibitor. We assume that the amphipod mPGES-2, unlike in their mammalian counterparts, is responsible for PGE2 synthesis, not only in vitro but also in vivo. PMID:24947207

  19. Sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles. [Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Gerencser, G.A.; Cattey, M.A; Ahearn, G.A. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States) Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Purified brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas using differential centrifugation and Mg{sup +2} precipitation techniques. Uptake of 0.1 mM {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} was stimulated by pre-loading vesicles with Cl{sup {minus}} leading to a transient accumulation of isotope more than twice that at equilibrium. Pre-loading with HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} or gluconate had no effect on sulfate uptake. No stimulation of {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} was observed in the presence of inwardly directed Na{sup +} or tetramethylammonium{sup +} gradients. Uptake of the divalent anion was strongly stimulated by inwardly directed proton gradients (pH{sub o} < pH{sub i}) and markedly inhibited by outwardly directed proton gradients (pH{sub o} > pH{sub i}). {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}/Cl{sup {minus}} exchange was enhanced by imposing a transmembrane inside positive K{sup +} diffusion potential and inhibited by a membrane potential of the opposite polarity (K{sup +}/valinomycin). Results suggest the presence of a proton-dependent, electrogenic anion antiport mechanism in BBMV isolated from the crustacean hepatopancreas.

  20. Two antibacterial C-type lectins from crustacean, Eriocheir sinensis, stimulated cellular encapsulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing-Kun; Li, Shuang; Guo, Xiao-Nv; Cheng, Lin; Wu, Min-Hao; Tan, Shang-Jian; Zhu, You-Ting; Yu, Ai-Qing; Li, Wei-Wei; Wang, Qun

    2013-12-01

    The first step of host fighting against pathogens is that pattern recognition receptors recognized pathogen-associated molecular patterns. However, the specificity of recognition within the innate immune molecular of invertebrates remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated how invertebrate pattern recognition receptor (PRR) C-type lectins might be involved in the antimicrobial response in crustacean. Based on our previously obtained completed coding regions of EsLecA and EsLecG in Eriocheir sinensis, the recombinant EsLectin proteins were produced via prokaryotic expression system and affinity chromatography. Subsequently, both rEsLecA and rEsLecG were discovered to have wide spectrum binding activities towards microorganisms, and their microbial-binding was calcium-independent. Moreover, the binding activities of both rEsLecA and rEsLecG induced the aggregation against microbial pathogens. Both microorganism growth inhibitory activities assays and antibacterial activities assays revealed their capabilities of suppressing microorganisms growth and directly killing microorganisms respectively. Furthermore, the encapsulation assays signified that both rEsLecA and rEsLecG could stimulate the cellular encapsulation in vitro. Collectively, data presented here demonstrated the successful expression and purification of two C-type lectins proteins in the Chinese mitten crab, and their critical role in the innate immune system of an invertebrate. PMID:23911906

  1. Posttranslational isomerization of a neuropeptide in crustacean neurosecretory cells studied by ultrastructural immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Gallois, Dominique; Brisorgueil, Marie-Jeanne; Conrath, Marie; Mailly, Philippe; Soyez, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    Isomerization of the third amino acid residue (a phenylalanine) of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) has been previously reported to occur as a late step of hormone precursor maturation in a few neurosecretory cells in the X-organ-sinus gland complex of the crayfish Orconectes limosus. In the present report, using conformation-specific antisera combined with immunogold labeling, we have studied, at the ultrastructural level, the distribution of L- and D-CHH immunoreactivity in CHH-secreting cells of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus. Two CHH-secreting cell populations were observed, the first one (L-cells), the most numerous, exhibited only labeling for L-CHH. In the second one (D-cells), four secretory granule populations were distinguished according to their labeling: unlabeled, either L- or D- exclusively or both L- and D-granules. Labeling quantification by image analysis in D-cells showed a marked increase in D-labeling from the cell body to the axon terminal. However some L- and mixed granules remain in axon terminals. Our results demonstrate that Phe3 isomerization of CHH occurs within the secretory granules of specialized neurosecretory cells and progresses as the granules migrate along the axonal tract. The observation that not all the CHH synthesized is isomerized, and the great variability in the proportion of L- and D-immunoreactivity in granules in every cell region may suggest an heterogeneous distribution of the putative enzyme involved in Phe3 isomerization, a peptide isomerase, within the secretory pathway. PMID:14533741

  2. Environmental and scale-dependent evolutionary trends in the body size of crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Schweitzer, Carrie E; Feldmann, Rodney M; Kowalewski, Micha?

    2015-07-22

    The ecological and physiological significance of body size is well recognized. However, key macroevolutionary questions regarding the dependency of body size trends on the taxonomic scale of analysis and the role of environment in controlling long-term evolution of body size are largely unknown. Here, we evaluate these issues for decapod crustaceans, a group that diversified in the Mesozoic. A compilation of body size data for 792 brachyuran crab and lobster species reveals that their maximum, mean and median body size increased, but no increase in minimum size was observed. This increase is not expressed within lineages, but is rather a product of the appearance and/or diversification of new clades of larger, primarily burrowing to shelter-seeking decapods. This argues against directional selective pressures within lineages. Rather, the trend is a macroevolutionary consequence of species sorting: preferential origination of new decapod clades with intrinsically larger body sizes. Furthermore, body size evolution appears to have been habitat-controlled. In the Cretaceous, reef-associated crabs became markedly smaller than those in other habitats, a pattern that persists today. The long-term increase in body size of crabs and lobsters, coupled with their increased diversity and abundance, suggests that their ecological impact may have increased over evolutionary time. PMID:26156761

  3. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of crustacean proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S.; Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; De la Mora, Eugenio; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, interacts specifically with DNA replication and repair proteins through a small peptide motif called the PCNA-interacting protein or PIP box. PCNA is recognized as one of the key proteins involved in DNA metabolism. In the present study, the recombinant PCNA from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPCNA) was heterologously overexpressed and purified using metal ion-affinity chromatography. Crystals suitable for diffraction grew overnight using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. LvPCNA crystals belong to space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 144.6, b = 83.4, c = 74.3?Å, ? = 117.6°. One data set was processed to 3?Å resolution, with an overall R meas of 0.09 and a completeness of 93.3%. Initial phases were obtained by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvPCNA as the search model. Refinement and structural analysis are underway. This report is the first successful crystallographic analysis of a marine crustacean decapod shrimp (L. vannamei) proliferating cell nuclear antigen. PMID:23143251

  4. The crustacean central nervous system in focus: subacute neurodegeneration induces a specific innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Chaves da Silva, Paula Grazielle; Corrêa, Clynton Lourenço; de Carvalho, Sergio Luiz; Allodi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    To date nothing is known about the subacute phase of neurodegeneration following injury in invertebrates. Among few clues available are the results published by our group reporting hemocytes and activated glial cells at chronic and acute phases of the lesion. In vertebrates, glial activation and recruitment of immunological cells are crucial events during neurodegeneration. Here, we aimed to study the subacute stage of neurodegeneration in the crab Ucides cordatus, investigating the cellular/molecular strategy employed 48 hours following ablation of the protocerebral tract (PCT). We also explored the expression of nitric oxide (NO) and histamine in the PCT during this phase of neurodegeneration. Three immune cellular features which seem to characterize the subacute phase of neurodegeneration were revealed by: 1) the recruitment of granulocytes and secondarily of hyalinocytes to the lesion site (inducible NO synthase- and histamine-positive cells); 2) the attraction of a larger number of cells than observed in the acute phase; 3) the presence of activated glial cells as shown by the round shaped nuclei and increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. We suggest that molecules released from granulocytes in the acute phase attract the hyalinocytes thus moving the degeneration process to the subacute phase. The importance of our study resides in the characterization of cellular and biochemical strategies peculiar to the subacute stage of the neurodegeneration in invertebrates. Such events are worth studying in crustaceans because in invertebrates this issue may be addressed with less interference from complex strategies resulting from the acquired immune system. PMID:24278343

  5. The Crustacean Central Nervous System in Focus: Subacute Neurodegeneration Induces a Specific Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Chaves da Silva, Paula Grazielle; Corrêa, Clynton Lourenço; de Carvalho, Sergio Luiz; Allodi, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    To date nothing is known about the subacute phase of neurodegeneration following injury in invertebrates. Among few clues available are the results published by our group reporting hemocytes and activated glial cells at chronic and acute phases of the lesion. In vertebrates, glial activation and recruitment of immunological cells are crucial events during neurodegeneration. Here, we aimed to study the subacute stage of neurodegeneration in the crab Ucides cordatus, investigating the cellular/molecular strategy employed 48 hours following ablation of the protocerebral tract (PCT). We also explored the expression of nitric oxide (NO) and histamine in the PCT during this phase of neurodegeneration. Three immune cellular features which seem to characterize the subacute phase of neurodegeneration were revealed by: 1) the recruitment of granulocytes and secondarily of hyalinocytes to the lesion site (inducible NO synthase- and histamine-positive cells); 2) the attraction of a larger number of cells than observed in the acute phase; 3) the presence of activated glial cells as shown by the round shaped nuclei and increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. We suggest that molecules released from granulocytes in the acute phase attract the hyalinocytes thus moving the degeneration process to the subacute phase. The importance of our study resides in the characterization of cellular and biochemical strategies peculiar to the subacute stage of the neurodegeneration in invertebrates. Such events are worth studying in crustaceans because in invertebrates this issue may be addressed with less interference from complex strategies resulting from the acquired immune system. PMID:24278343

  6. On some interesting marine decapod crustaceans (Alpheidae, Laomediidae, Strahlaxiidae) from Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Pratama, Idham Sumarto; Firdaus, Muhammad; Rahayu, Dwi Listyo

    2015-01-01

    Several rare or uncommon, mostly infaunal decapod crustaceans are reported from intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats of Lombok, Indonesia. The alpheid shrimps Alpheus angustilineatus Nomura & Anker, 2005, Athanas shawnsmithi Anker, 2011, Jengalpheops rufus Anker & Dworschak, 2007, Salmoneus alpheophilus Anker & Marin, 2006, Salmoneus colinorum De Grave, 2004, and the laomediid mud-shrimp Naushonia carinata Dworschak, Marin & Anker, 2006, are reported for the first time since their original descriptions and represent new records for the marine fauna of Indonesia. The alpheid shrimps Alpheus macellarius Chace, 1988, Alpheus platyunguiculatus (Banner, 1953), Athanas japonicus Kubo, 1936, Athanas polymorphus Kemp, 1915, Leptalpheus denticulatus Anker & Marin, 2009, Richalpheus palmeri Anker & Jeng, 2006, Salmoneus gracilipes Miya, 1972, Salmoneus tricristatus Banner, 1959 and the laomediid mudshrimps Laomedia astacina De Haan, 1841 and Naushonia lactoalbida Berggren, 1992 are new records for Indonesian waters. The remaining alpheid shrimps, namely Alpheopsis yaldwyni Banner & Banner, 1973, Alpheus savuensis De Man, 1908, Automate anacanthopus De Man, 1910, Automate dolichognatha De Man, 1888, Salmoneus serratidigitus (Coutière, 1896), and the strahlaxiid mud-shrimp Neaxius glyptocercus (von Martens, 1869), all previously known from Indonesia, are recorded for the first time from Lombok. Colour photographs are provided for all species reported, some shown in colour for the first time.  PMID:25661615

  7. Mitogenomic phylogenetic analysis supports continental-scale vicariance in subterranean thalassoid crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Bauzà-Ribot, Maria M; Juan, Carlos; Nardi, Francesco; Oromí, Pedro; Pons, Joan; Jaume, Damià

    2012-11-01

    Many continental subterranean water crustaceans ("stygobionts") display extreme disjunct distributions, where different species in the same genus are isolated on continents or islands separated by broad oceanic expanses. Despite their freshwater habitat, most of these taxa appear to be most closely related to typical marine groups ("thalassoid" origin). Among the hadzioids-thalassoid amphipods including the stygobiont families Hadziidae, Pseudoniphargidae, and Metacrangonyctidae-several genera are restricted to inland groundwaters ranging from the Caribbean region to the Mediterranean and Middle East, including interspersed oceanic islands. This distribution might have arisen from Tethyan vicariance triggered by the sequential occlusion of the former Tethys Sea, a vast circumtropical ocean existing from the Middle Jurassic up to 20 million years ago (mya). Previous studies have been based on morphological analyses or limited DNA sequence data, making it difficult to test this hypothesis. We used complete mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences, mainly obtained by next-generation sequencing methods and a nuclear ribosomal gene to resolve the phylogeny and to establish a time frame for diversification of the family Metacrangonyctidae (Amphipoda). The results were consistent with the plate tectonics vicariance hypothesis, with major diversifications occurring between 96 and 83 mya. PMID:23063439

  8. Carbon Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sciencelearn

    This interactive animation focuses on the carbon cycle and includes embedded videos and captioned images to provide greater clarification and detail of the cycle than would be available by a single static visual alone.

  9. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryland Virtual High School

    The purpose of this activity is to demonstrate the principle of conservation of mass through the rock cycle. When students create the model, the various parts and processes in the rock cycle are reinforced for them.

  10. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This interactive Flash animation about the rock cycle is suitable for a review or overview in an introductory level Physical Geology class. It includes animations, photos, and descriptions involving rock types and processes in the rock cycle.

  11. Supplementation of dietary vitamins, protein and probiotics on semen traits and immunohistochemical study of pituitary hormones in zinc-induced molted broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rifat Ullah; Rahman, Zia-ur-; Javed, Ijaz; Muhammad, Faqir

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary vitamin E and vitamin C, probiotics mixture and protein level and their combination on semen quality and immunohistochemical study of some pituitary hormones in male broiler breeders. One hundred and eighty male broiler breeders 65 weeks old were divided into six groups by completely randomized design. The birds were subjected to zinc-induced molt by mixing zinc oxide at the rate of 3000mg/kg in the feed. After molting, one group was fed control diet (CP16%). The other groups were fed vitamin E (100IU/kg), vitamin C (500IU/kg), probiotics (50mg/L of drinking water), protein (CP14%) and combination of these components. These treatments were given for five weeks. After the feeding period, semen samples were taken and analyzed for semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and dead sperm percentage. Pituitary samples were collected from three birds per replicate and were processed for immunohistochemical study. The results of semen quality parameters revealed that semen volume and sperm motility were significantly high in the vitamin E fed group, while the dead sperm percentage decreased significantly in the vitamin C group. The morphometric analysis revealed that compared to other groups, vitamin E caused a significant increase in the size and area of FSH, LH gonadotropes and lactotropes. These results showed that vitamin E alone may play some role in the enhancement of semen quality and growth of gonadotropes and lactotropes. PMID:23522908

  12. Replacement of a cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase by a novel cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase in crustaceans that use copper (haemocyanin) for oxygen transport.

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Marius; Hoexum Brouwer, Thea; Grater, Walter; Brown-Peterson, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, which uses the copper-dependent protein haemocyanin for oxygen transport, lacks the ubiquitous cytosolic copper-dependent enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) as evidenced by undetectable levels of Cu,ZnSOD activity, protein and mRNA in the hepatopancreas (the site of haemocyanin synthesis) and gills. Instead, the crab has an unusual cytosolic manganese SOD (cytMnSOD), which is retained in the cytosol, because it lacks a mitochondrial transit peptide. A second familiar MnSOD is present in the mitochondria (mtMnSOD). This unique phenomenon occurs in all Crustacea that use haemocyanin for oxygen transport. Molecular phylogeny analysis suggests the MnSOD gene duplication is as old as the origin of the arthropod phylum. cytMnSOD activity in the hepatopancreas changes during the moulting cycle of the crab. Activity is high in intermoult crabs and non-detectable in postmoult papershell crabs. mtMnSOD is present in all stages of the moulting cycle. Despite the lack of cytCu,ZnSOD, crabs have an extracellular Cu,ZnSOD (ecCu,ZnSOD) that is produced by haemocytes, and is part of a large, approx. 160 kDa, covalently-linked protein complex. ecCu,ZnSOD is absent from the hepatopancreas of intermoult crabs, but appears in this tissue at premoult. However, no ecCu,ZnSOD mRNA can be detected, suggesting that the protein is recruited from the haemolymph. Screening of different taxa of the arthropod phylum for Cu,ZnSOD activity shows that those crustaceans that use haemoglobin for oxygen transport have retained cytCu,ZnSOD. It appears, therefore, that the replacement of cytCu,ZnSOD with cytMnSOD is part of an adaptive response to the dynamic, haemocyanin-linked, fluctuations in copper metabolism that occur during the moulting cycle of the crab. PMID:12769817

  13. Effects of temperature on photoperiodically induced reproductive development, circulating plasma luteinizing hormone and thyroid hormones, body mass, fat deposition and molt in mountain white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, John C; Hahn, Thomas P; Maney, Donna L; Schoech, Stephan J; Wada, Masaru; Morton, Martin L

    2003-04-01

    The mountain white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha, breeds in subalpine meadows throughout many mountainous regions of western North America. Mathematical analysis of 20 years of egg-laying dates at Tioga Pass, California (3030m elevation) indicated a highly predictable breeding season suggesting that precise environmental cues such as the annual change in day length were important for regulating reproductive function. Additionally, it appeared that there was sufficient yearly variation in the timing of breeding to suggest that other environmental cues may also be important for regulating adjustments in reproductive development and regression. Captive populations of Z. l. oriantha showed strong responses in gonadal development following transfer to longs days (15L 9D) and low temperature (5 degrees C) slowed down photoperiodically induced gonadal growth and subsequent regression, in both males and females. High temperature of 30 degrees C tended to accelerate gonadal development and regression whereas gonadal development was intermediate in a group exposed to 20 degrees C. Prior exposure to these temperature regimes while on short days (9L 15D) had no effect on body mass, fat, or plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid hormones. Curiously there was no effect of temperature on photoperiodically induced rises in LH in either sex despite marked effects on gonadal growth. Brood patch development was also enhanced in females exposed to 30 degrees C. Corticosterone levels measured in a subset of plasma samples from this experiment indicated no effect of temperature suggesting that the retarded gonadal development at 5 degrees C was not a result of thermal stress. Although there was a robust effect of photostimulation on thyroid hormone levels in blood of both sexes, temperature treatment had no effect on tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentrations. However, plasma levels of thyroxine (T4) were lower initially at 5 degrees C versus 20 and 30 degrees C treatments. This may be related to the protracted gonadal cycle at 5 degrees C versus the truncated gonadal cycle at 30 degrees C. Molt score, an indication of post-reproductive state and onset of photorefractoriness, was delayed in birds exposed to 5 degrees C. Body mass, and to a lesser extent fat score, tended to be lowest in birds exposed to 5 degrees C compared with those at 20 and 30 degrees C. These results demonstrate that ambient temperature significantly affected photoperiodically induced gonadal development and regression in these birds. The endocrine mechanisms underlying these effects require further study. PMID:12679091

  14. Nucleic acid content in crustacean zooplankton: bridging metabolic and stoichiometric predictions.

    PubMed

    Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although 'fast-growth' cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to 'slow-growth' copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories. PMID:24466118

  15. Seasonal bathymetric migrations of deep-sea fishes and decapod crustaceans in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguzzi, J.; Company, J. B.; Bahamon, N.; Flexas, M. M.; Tecchio, S.; Fernandez-Arcaya, U.; García, J. A.; Mechó, A.; Koenig, S.; Canals, M.

    2013-11-01

    Seasonal variations in the photophase length seem to drive migrations of marine animals, a phenomenon still largely unknown in deep-sea fishes and decapod crustaceans. Here, we report depth-oriented migrations of species living in the continental slope of the NW Mediterranean after repeated trawl sampling between 900 and 1500 m depths in four seasons. To understand the variations in the catchability of animals as a function of water depth, we analysed the relationship between population depth shifts and environmental factors by performing a multiparametric habitat monitoring at sea surface (PAR), in the water column (temperature and salinity), and on the seabed (organic matter flux and total mass flux). Significant connections are studied by NMDS and GAM analyses. Bathymetric changes in most targeted species are identified from winter, when distribution was the deepest, to spring and summer, and finally autumn, when the shallowest distribution was observed prior to a sudden bathymetric retreat. The analysis of size-class frequency distributions (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) discards an effect of the juvenile recruitment on these bathymetric changes. Which environmental factor imparts seasonality to these depth-oriented migrations has not yet been clarified. A strong connection is found with water temperature and salinity, associated to flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW). The studied depth range was affected by seasonal fluctuations of both water masses and the interphase amongst them. LIW showed a stronger seasonal pattern, getting warmer, saltier in autumn and fresher in winter. The migration of most species towards shallower depths in spring, summer and autumn, and the sudden migration to deeper grounds in winter could therefore be related to changes in LIW temperature and salinity.

  16. Comparative phylogeography of Ponto-Caspian mysid crustaceans: isolation and exchange among dynamic inland sea basins.

    PubMed

    Audzijonyte, Asta; Daneliya, Mikhail E; Väinölä, Risto

    2006-09-01

    The distributions of many endemic Ponto-Caspian brackish-water taxa are subdivided among the Black, Azov and Caspian Sea basins and further among river estuaries. Of the two alternative views to explain the distributions, the relict school has claimed Tertiary fragmentation of the once contiguous range by emerging geographical and salinity barriers, whereas the immigration view has suggested recolonization of the westerly populations from the Caspian Sea after extirpation during Late Pleistocene environmental perturbations. A study of mitochondrial (COI) phylogeography of seven mysid crustacean taxa from the genera Limnomysis and Paramysis showed that both scenarios can be valid for different species. Four taxa had distinct lineages related to the major basin subdivision, but the lineage distributions and depths of divergence were not concordant. The data do not support a hypothesis of Late Miocene (10-5 Myr) vicariance; rather, range subdivisions and dispersal from and to the Caspian Sea seem to have occurred at different times throughout the Pleistocene. For example, in Paramysis lacustris each basin had an endemic clade 2-5% diverged from the others, whereas Paramysis kessleri from the southern Caspian and the western Black Sea were nearly identical. Species-specific ecological characteristics such as vagility and salinity tolerance seem to have played important roles in shaping the phylogeographic patterns. The mitochondrial data also suggested recent, human-mediated cryptic invasions of P. lacustris and Limnomysis benedeni from the Caspian to the Sea of Azov basin via the Volga-Don canal. Cryptic species-level subdivisions were recorded in populations attributed to Paramysis baeri, and possibly in P. lacustris. PMID:16911214

  17. Simulated climate change causes immune suppression and protein damage in the crustacean Nephrops norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Hernroth, Bodil; Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Wiklander, Kerstin; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Baden, Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is causing global warming, which affects oceans by elevating water temperature and reducing pH. Crustaceans have been considered tolerant to ocean acidification because of their retained capacity to calcify during subnormal pH. However, we report here that significant immune suppression of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, occurs after a 4-month exposure to ocean acidification (OA) at a level predicted for the year 2100 (hypercapnic seawater with a pH lowered by 0.4 units). Experiments carried out at different temperatures (5, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18°C) demonstrated that the temperature within this range alone did not affect lobster immune responses. In the OA-treatment, hemocyte numbers were reduced by almost 50% and the phagocytic capacity of the remaining hemocytes was inhibited by 60%. The reduction in hemocyte numbers was not due to increased apoptosis in hematopoetic tissue. Cellular responses to stress were investigated through evaluating advanced glycation end products (AGE) and lipid oxidation in lobster hepatopancreata, and OA-treatment was shown to significantly increase AGEs', indicating stress-induced protein alterations. Furthermore, the extracellular pH of lobster hemolymph was reduced by approximately 0.2 units in the OA-treatment group, indicating either limited pH compensation or buffering capacity. The negative effects of OA-treatment on the nephropidae immune response and tissue homeostasis were more pronounced at higher temperatures (12-18°C versus 5°C), which may potentially affect disease severity and spread. Our results signify that ocean acidification may have adverse effects on the physiology of lobsters, which previously had been overlooked in studies of basic parameters such as lobster growth or calcification. PMID:22974540

  18. Simultaneous sampling of flow and odorants by crustaceans can aid searches within a turbulent plume.

    PubMed

    Pravin, Swapnil; Reidenbach, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and crayfish use dispersing odorant molecules to determine the location of predators, prey, potential mates and habitat. Odorant molecules diffuse in turbulent flows and are sensed by the olfactory organs of these animals, often using a flicking motion of their antennules. These antennules contain both chemosensory and mechanosensory sensilla, which enable them to detect both flow and odorants during a flick. To determine how simultaneous flow and odorant sampling can aid in search behavior, a 3-dimensional numerical model for the near-bed flow environment was created. A stream of odorant concentration was released into the flow creating a turbulent plume, and both temporally and spatially fluctuating velocity and odorant concentration were quantified. The plume characteristics show close resemblance to experimental measurements within a large laboratory flume. Results show that mean odorant concentration and it's intermittency, computed as dc/dt, increase towards the plume source, but the temporal and spatial rate of this increase is slow and suggests that long measurement times would be necessary to be useful for chemosensory guidance. Odorant fluxes measured transverse to the mean flow direction, quantified as the product of the instantaneous fluctuation in concentration and velocity, v'c', do show statistically distinct magnitude and directional information on either side of a plume centerline over integration times of <0.5 s. Aquatic animals typically have neural responses to odorant and velocity fields at rates between 50 and 500 ms, suggesting this simultaneous sampling of both flow and concentration in a turbulent plume can aid in source tracking on timescales relevant to aquatic animals. PMID:24300599

  19. The sophisticated visual system of a tiny Cambrian crustacean: analysis of a stalked fossil compound eye

    PubMed Central

    Schoenemann, Brigitte; Castellani, Christopher; Clarkson, Euan N. K.; Haug, Joachim T.; Maas, Andreas; Haug, Carolin; Waloszek, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Fossilized compound eyes from the Cambrian, isolated and three-dimensionally preserved, provide remarkable insights into the lifestyle and habitat of their owners. The tiny stalked compound eyes described here probably possessed too few facets to form a proper image, but they represent a sophisticated system for detecting moving objects. The eyes are preserved as almost solid, mace-shaped blocks of phosphate, in which the original positions of the rhabdoms in one specimen are retained as deep cavities. Analysis of the optical axes reveals four visual areas, each with different properties in acuity of vision. They are surveyed by lenses directed forwards, laterally, backwards and inwards, respectively. The most intriguing of these is the putatively inwardly orientated zone, where the optical axes, like those orientated to the front, interfere with axes of the other eye of the contralateral side. The result is a three-dimensional visual net that covers not only the front, but extends also far laterally to either side. Thus, a moving object could be perceived by a two-dimensional coordinate (which is formed by two axes of those facets, one of the left and one of the right eye, which are orientated towards the moving object) in a wide three-dimensional space. This compound eye system enables small arthropods equipped with an eye of low acuity to estimate velocity, size or distance of possible food items efficiently. The eyes are interpreted as having been derived from individuals of the early crustacean Henningsmoenicaris scutula pointing to the existence of highly efficiently developed eyes in the early evolutionary lineage leading towards the modern Crustacea. PMID:22048954

  20. Acute toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to sensitive freshwater insects, mollusks, and a crustacean.

    PubMed

    Soucek, D J; Dickinson, A

    2012-02-01

    Both point- and nonpoint-sources of pollution have contributed to increased inorganic nitrogen concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Although numerous studies have investigated the toxic effects of ammonia on freshwater species, relatively little work has been performed to characterize the acute toxicity of the other two common inorganic nitrogen species: nitrate and nitrite. In particular, to our knowledge, no published data exist on the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to North American freshwater bivalves (Mollusca) or stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera). We conducted acute (96-h) nitrate and nitrite toxicity tests with two stonefly species (Allocapnia vivipara and Amphinemura delosa), an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), two freshwater unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea and Megalonaias nervosa), a fingernail clam (Sphaerium simile), and a pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Overall, we did not observe a particularly wide degree of variation in sensitivity to nitrate, with median lethal concentrations ranging from 357 to 937 mg NO(3)-N/l; furthermore, no particular taxonomic group appeared to be more sensitive to nitrate than any other. In our nitrite tests, the two stoneflies tested were by far the most sensitive, and the three mollusks tested were the least sensitive. In contrast to what was observed in the nitrate tests, variation among species in sensitivity to nitrite spanned two orders of magnitude. Examination of the updated nitrite database, including previously published data, clearly showed that insects tended to be more sensitive than crustaceans, which were in turn more sensitive than mollusks. Although the toxic mechanism of nitrite is generally thought to be the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments into forms that cannot carry oxygen, our observed trend in sensitivity of broad taxonomic groups, along with information on respiratory pigments in those groups, suggests that some other yet unknown mechanism may be even more important. PMID:21877224

  1. Nucleic Acid Content in Crustacean Zooplankton: Bridging Metabolic and Stoichiometric Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although ‘fast-growth’ cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to ‘slow-growth’ copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories. PMID:24466118

  2. Regulation of the crab heartbeat by crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP): central and peripheral actions.

    PubMed

    Fort, Timothy J; García-Crescioni, Keyla; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen; Brezina, Vladimir; Miller, Mark W

    2007-05-01

    In regulating neurophysiological systems, neuromodulators exert multiple actions at multiple sites in such a way as to control the activity in an integrated manner. We are studying how this happens in a simple central pattern generator (CPG)-effector system, the heart of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. The rhythmic contractions of this heart are neurogenic, driven by rhythmic motor patterns generated by the cardiac ganglion (CG). In this study, we used anatomical and physiological methods to examine the sources and actions on the system of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP). Immunohistochemical localization revealed a plexus of CCAP-immunoreactive fibers in the pericardial organs (POs), neurohemal structures from which blood-borne neurohormones reach the heart. Combined backfill and immunohistochemical experiments indicated that the CCAP in the POs originated from a large contralateral neuron in each thoracic neuromere. In physiological experiments, we examined the actions of exogenous CCAP on the intact working heart, on the semi-intact heart in which we could record the motor patterns as well as the muscle contractions, and on the isolated CG. CCAP had strong positive inotropic and chronotropic effects. Dissection of these effects in terms of dose dependency, time course, and the preparation type in which they occurred suggested that they were produced by the interaction of three primary actions of CCAP exerted both on the heart muscle and on the CG. We conclude that CCAP released from the POs as a neurohormone regulates the crab heart by multiple actions on both the central and peripheral components of this model CPG-effector system. PMID:17303813

  3. Heterodimeric TALENs induce targeted heritable mutations in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Naitou, Akiko; Kato, Yasuhiko; Nakanishi, Takashi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are artificial nucleases harboring a customizable DNA-binding domain and a FokI nuclease domain. The high specificity of the DNA-binding domain and the ease of design have enabled researchers to use TALENs for targeted mutagenesis in various organisms. Here, we report the development of TALEN-dependent targeted gene disruption in the crustacean Daphnia magna, the emerging model for ecological and toxicological genomics. First, a reporter transgene DsRed2 (EF1?-1::DsRed2) was targeted. Using the Golden Gate method with a GoldyTALEN scaffold, we constructed homodimeric and heterodimeric TALENs containing wild-type and ELD/KKR FokI domains. mRNAs that coded for either the customized homodimeric or heterodimeric TALENs were injected into one-cell-stage embryos. The high mortality of embryos injected with homodimeric TALEN mRNAs prevented us from detecting mutations. In contrast, embryos injected with heterodimeric TALEN mRNAs survived and 78%-87% of the adults lost DsRed2 fluorescence in a large portion of cells throughout the body. In addition, these adults produced non-fluorescent progenies, all of which carried mutations at the dsRed2 locus. We also tested heterodimeric TALENs targeted for the endogenous eyeless gene and found that biallelic mutations could be transmitted through germ line cells at a rate of up to 22%. Both somatic and heritable mutagenesis efficiencies of TALENs were higher than those of the CRISPR/Cas9 system that we recently developed. These results suggest that the TALEN system may efficiently induce heritable mutations into the target genes, which will further contribute to the progress of functional genomics in D. magna. PMID:25681393

  4. An insect TEP in a crustacean is specific for cuticular tissues and involved in intestinal defense.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglin; Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to identify genes encoding thioester-containing proteins in the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, three different cDNAs were found. A phylogenetic analysis of these proteins indicates that they can be classified into two subfamilies: two alpha-2-macroglobulins (Pl-A2M1, Pl-A2M2) showing a close similarity to shrimp A2M, and one insect TEP-like protein (Pl-TEP). This is the first report of an insect TEP-like protein in a crustacean. Crayfish Pl-A2M1, Pl-A2M2 and Pl-TEP cDNAs encode proteins with 1480, 1586 or 1507 amino acids, respectively. Pl-A2M1, Pl-A2M2 and Pl-TEP have the basic domain structure and functionally important residues for each molecule, and their mRNA was detected in different parts of the body, suggesting that they may have different functions. Pl-A2M1 was mainly expressed in hemocytes and Pl-A2M2 was highly expressed in heart and nerve, while Pl-TEP was exclusively expressed in cuticular tissues such as gill and intestine. RNA interference of Pl-TEP in vivo resulted in that these animals were slightly less resistant when fed with the bacterium, Pseudomonas libanensis/gessardii. Furthermore, when TEP activity was blocked using methylamine followed by bacterial feeding, the animals were killed to a higher extent compared to a control group. Taken together, this indicates that Pl-TEP and/or Pl-A2M1, Pl-A2M2 may be important for the immune defense in crayfish intestine and function as a pattern recognition protein in crayfish cuticular tissues. PMID:22193393

  5. Comparative phylogeography of two marine species of crustacean: Recent divergence and expansion due to environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daizhen; Ding, Ge; Ge, Baoming; Zhang, Huabin; Tang, Boping; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-15

    Environmental changes, such as changes in the coastal topography due to Eurasian plate movements, climate oscillation during the Pleistocene, and alteration of ocean currents, have complicated the geographical structure of marine species and deepened their divergence between populations. As two widely distributed species of crustacean (Oratosquilla oratoria and Eriocheir japonica), weak differences were expected due to their high dispersal potential of planktonic larvae with ocean currents. However, results showed a significant genetic divergence between north of China and south of China in the study. In addition, the estimated north-south divergence time (27-30.5 Myr) of mantis shrimp was near the time of the Himalayan movement, and the China-Japan clade divergence time (10.5-11.9 Myr) of mitten crabs was also coincident with the time of the opening of the Sea of Japan. Thus, we hypothesized that environmental changes in the coastal topography contributed to the marine species divergence. Furthermore, based on phylogenetic analysis, network analysis and haplotype distribution, we surmised that mitten crabs originated from a population with the oldest haplotype (H6) and then divided into the north and south populations due to the recent Eurasian plate movements and ocean currents. And lineage of Japan originated from the north population for the opening of the Sea of Japan. While O. oratoria was guessed to originate from two separate populations in the China Sea. The results of "star-like" network, negative values in neutral test, and Tajima's D statistics of two marine species supported a recent rapid population expansion event after the Pleistocene glaciations. PMID:25106858

  6. Genome anatomy of the gastrointestinal pathogen, Vibrio parahaemolyticus of crustacean origin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an important human pathogen, is associated with gastroenteritis and transmitted through partially cooked seafood. It has become a major concern in the production and trade of marine food products. The prevalence of potentially virulent and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in raw seafood is of public health significance. Here we describe the genome sequence of a V. parahaemolyticus isolate of crustacean origin which was cultured from prawns in 2008 in Selangor, Malaysia (isolate PCV08-7). The next generation sequencing and analysis revealed that the genome of isolate PCV08-7 has closest similarity to that of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633. However, there are certain unique features of the PCV08-7 genome such as the absence of TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), and the presence of HU-alpha insertion. The genome of isolate PCV08-7 encodes a thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), an important virulence factor that classifies PCV08-7 isolate to be a serovariant of O3:K6 strain. Apart from these, we observed that there is certain pattern of genetic rearrangements that makes V. parahaemolyticus PCV08-7 a non-pandemic clone. We present detailed genome statistics and important genetic features of this bacterium and discuss how its survival, adaptation and virulence in marine and terrestrial hosts can be understood through the genomic blueprint and that the availability of genome sequence entailing this important Malaysian isolate would likely enhance our understanding of the epidemiology, evolution and transmission of foodborne Vibrios in Malaysia and elsewhere. PMID:24330647

  7. Susceptibility to infection and pathogenicity of White Spot Disease (WSD) in non-model crustacean host taxa from temperate regions.

    PubMed

    Bateman, K S; Tew, I; French, C; Hicks, R J; Martin, P; Munro, J; Stentiford, G D

    2012-07-01

    Despite almost two decades since its discovery, White Spot Disease (WSD) caused by White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still considered the most significant known pathogen impacting the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in tropical regions, the virus is also able to infect, cause disease and kill a wide range of other decapod crustacean hosts from temperate regions, including lobsters, crabs, crayfish and shrimp. For this reason, WSSV has recently been listed in European Community Council Directive 2006/88. Using principles laid down by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) we applied an array of diagnostic approaches to provide a definitive statement on the susceptibility to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection in seven ecologically or economically important crustacean species from Europe. We chose four marine species: Cancer pagurus, Homarus gammarus, Nephrops norvegicus and Carcinus maenas; one estuarine species, Eriocheir sinensis and two freshwater species, Austropotamobius pallipes and Pacifastacus leniusculus. Exposure trials based upon natural (feeding) and artificial (intra-muscular injection) routes of exposure to WSSV revealed universal susceptibility to WSSV infection in these hosts. However, the relative degree of susceptibility (measured by progression of infection to disease, and mortality) varied significantly between host species. In some instances (Type 1 hosts), pathogenesis mimicked that observed in penaeid shrimp hosts whereas in other examples (Types 2 and 3 hosts), infection did not readily progress to disease, even though hosts were considered as infected and susceptible according to accepted principles. Results arising from challenge studies are discussed in relation to the potential risk posed to non-target hosts by the inadvertent introduction of WSSV to European waters via trade. Furthermore, we highlight the potential for susceptible but relatively resistant hosts to serve as models to investigate natural mitigation strategies against WSSV in these hosts. We speculate that these non-model hosts may offer a unique insight into viral handling in crustaceans. PMID:22484233

  8. The gene encoding the p53-regulated inhibitor of cdks (pic1) is not expressed in the molt-4 leukemia-cell line with p53 truncated at the carboxyl-terminus, and harbors a nucleotide substitution at codon-31 in several other cancer cell-lines.

    PubMed

    Chow, V; Ang, W

    1995-04-01

    Entry into the cell cycle is governed by cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and CDK-inhibitors (CDKIs). The p53-regulated inhibitor of CDKs (PIC1) is a universal CDKI whose gene expression is directly induced by the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction revealed strong PIC1 gene expression in control MRC-5 human embryo lung cells, but relatively weaker bands in A549 lung carcinoma; Hep3B, Mahlavu, PLC/PRF/5 hepatocellular carcinoma; SiHa, CaSki, HeLa cervical carcinoma; T24 bladder carcinoma; MCF7 breast carcinoma; Raji Burkitt lymphoma; HT-1080 fibrosarcoma; and G-401 Wilms' tumor cell lines. These data are consistent with other results obtained by Northern and Western blot and immunoprecipitation techniques, indicating diminished PIC1 expression in cancer cells especially those harboring mutated p53, or human papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins which abrogate p53 activity. PIC1 gene expression was absent in the Molt-4 T-lymphoblastic leukemia cell line with a previously documented alternatively-spliced p53 transcript translating into p53 protein truncated at the carboxyl terminus. It is proposed that this aberrant p53 interferes with the binding of wild-type p53 and other transcription factors to the PIC1 promoter thereby abolishing PIC1 gene expression. This Molt-4 cell line could serve as a useful experimental system for studying the interaction between p53 and other cellular factors with the PIC1 gene. Single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct cycle DNA sequencing analyses demonstrated a PIC1 variant (with an AGC to AGA substitution at codon 31 culminating in a serine to arginine replacement) in Mahlavu, PLC/PRF/5, SiHa, A549 and Raji cell lines. The higher proportion of the PIC1 variant in cancer cell lines (5/13 or 38%) compared with normal individuals (14%), coupled with differences between the predicted secondary structures of the normal and variant PIC1 proteins merit further investigations to elucidate the biological significance of this variant. PMID:21556614

  9. Effects of exposing two non-target crustacean species, Asellus aquaticus L., and Gammarus fossarum Koch., to atrazine and imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Lukancic, Simon; Zibrat, Uros; Mezek, Tadej; Jerebic, Andreja; Simcic, Tatjana; Brancelj, Anton

    2010-01-01

    The physiological responses of two freshwater crustaceans, Asellus aquaticus L. and Gammarus fossarum Koch., following in vitro exposure to two pesticides were measured. Both species responded to short-term exposure with elevated levels of Respiration and/or lower levels of Electron Transport System (ETS) activity. 1 h exposure to concentrations of up to 10 mg L(-1) showed an effect in both test species. Laboratory tests confirmed that G. fossarum is more sensitive to short-term pesticide exposure than A. aquaticus. ETS/R ratio may be used as a quick predictor of effects on organisms exposed to pesticides. PMID:19795091

  10. Direct evidence for the function of crustacean insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG): total chemical synthesis of IAG.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hidekazu; Kubota, Nozomi; Hojo, Hironobu; Okada, Ayumi; Kotaka, Sayaka; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Ohira, Tsuyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Insulin-like androgenic gland factor (IAG) is presumed to be a sex differentiation factor so-called androgenic gland hormone (AGH) in decapod crustacean, although the function of IAG peptide has not yet been reported. In this study, we synthesized IAG from the prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus, and its function was assessed by an in vitro bioassay. As a result, IAG with the insulin-type disulfide bond arrangement showed biological activity, whereas its disulfide isomer did not. These results strongly suggest that the native IAG peptide has an insulin-type disulfide, and it is the decapod AGH. PMID:25270404

  11. Knickkopf protein protects and organizes chitin in the newly synthesized insect exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Specht, Charles A.; Moussian, Bernard; Boyle, Daniel L.; Park, Yoonseong; Kramer, Karl J.; Beeman, Richard W.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2011-01-01

    During each molting cycle of insect development, synthesis of new cuticle occurs concurrently with the partial degradation of the overlying old exoskeleton. Protection of the newly synthesized cuticle from molting fluid enzymes has long been attributed to the presence of an impermeable envelope layer that was thought to serve as a physical barrier, preventing molting fluid enzymes from accessing the new cuticle and thereby ensuring selective degradation of only the old one. In this study, using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, as a model insect species, we show that an entirely different and unexpected mechanism accounts for the selective action of chitinases and possibly other molting enzymes. The molting fluid enzyme chitinase, which degrades the matrix polysaccharide chitin, is not excluded from the newly synthesized cuticle as previously assumed. Instead, the new cuticle is protected from chitinase action by the T. castaneum Knickkopf (TcKnk) protein. TcKnk colocalizes with chitin in the new cuticle and organizes it into laminae. Down-regulation of TcKnk results in chitinase-dependent loss of chitin, severe molting defects, and lethality at all developmental stages. The conservation of Knickkopf across insect, crustacean, and nematode taxa suggests that its critical roles in the laminar ordering and protection of exoskeletal chitin may be common to all chitinous invertebrates. PMID:21930896

  12. carbon cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maryland Virtual High School

    Life on earth is based on carbon. Living things acquire carbon from their environment - from air, water, soil, and rock and from other living things - through processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and decomposition. The carbon cycle model is a representation of the movement of carbon from sources to sinks through chemical and physical transfers. The carbon cycle activity allows students to see the effect of fossil fuel burning on the carbon cycle.

  13. Molecular cloning of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) precursor from the X-organ and the identification of the neuropeptide from sinus gland of the Alaskan Tanner crab, Chionoecetes bairdi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sook Chung; Sarah Bembe; Sherry Tamone; Ebony Andrews; Heidy Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) secreted from sinus glands primarily elicits hyperglycaemia in crustaceans. CHH is particularly important for energy metabolism during environmental and physiological stress as animals switch to anaerobiosis. CHH has been purified from multiple brachyuran crab species to date, but not from the cold water Tanner crab, Chionoecetes bairdi, a species found in Alaskan coastal waters. The purpose

  14. Transglutaminase activity in the hematopoietic tissue of a crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, importance in hemocyte homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xionghui; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Background Transglutaminases (TGases) form a group of enzymes that have many different substrates and among the most well known are fibrin for Factor XIIIa and the clotting protein in crustaceans. We also found that TGase is an abundant protein in the hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells of crayfish and hence we have studied the possible function of this enzyme in hematopoiesis. Results TGase is one of the most abundant proteins in the Hpt and its mRNA expression as well as enzyme activity is very high in the Hpt cells, lesser in the semi-granular hemocytes and very low in the granular cells. In cultured hematopoietic tissues, high activity was present in cells in the centre of the tissue, whereas cells migrating out of the tissue had very low TGase activity. RNAi experiments using dsRNA for TGase completely knocked down the transcript and as a result the cell morphology was changed and the cells started to spread intensely. If astakine, a cytokine directly involved in hematopoiesis, was added the cells started to spread and adopt a morphology similar to that observed after RNAi of TGase. Astakine had no effect on TGase expression, but after a prolonged incubation for one week with this invertebrate cytokine, TGase activity inside and outside the cells was completely lost. Thus it seems as if astakine addition to the Hpt cells and RNAi of TGase in the cell culture will lead to the same results, i.e. loss of TGase activity in the cells and they start to differentiate and spread. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that TGase is important for keeping the Hpt cells in an undifferentiated stage inside the hematopoietic tissue and if expression of TGase mRNA is blocked the cells start to differentiate and spread. This shows a new function for transglutaminase in preventing hematopoietic stem cells from starting to differentiate and migrate into the hemolymph, whereas their proliferation is unaffected. Astakine is also important for the hematopoiesis, since it induces hemocyte synthesis in the Hpt but now we also show that it in some unknown way participates in the differentiation of the Hpt cells. PMID:18840279

  15. Characterization of an ovary-specific glutathione peroxidase from the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis and its role in crustacean reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long Tao; Chu, Ka Hou

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the corresponding scavenging system components especially glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are indispensible for normal development of the gonads. To investigate the function of GPx in crustaceans, we cloned and characterized a full length GPx (MeGPx) transcript in the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus ensis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MeGPx clustered with the GPx from mollusks and nematodes and shared much higher similarity with vertebrate GPx3 and GPx5 than with GPx1 or GPx2. Multiple sequence alignment further demonstrated that MeGPx is evolutionarily conserved among invertebrates, with common functionally important motifs. MeGPx was specifically expressed in shrimp ovaries, but not in other tissues studied, including testis. In situ hybridization showed that MeGPx was highly expressed in pre-vitellogenic and mid-vitellogenic oocytes, while no expression was detected in late-vitellogenic oocytes. Moreover, real time PCR showed high level expression of MeGPx in the early ovaries. Since active protein synthesis and deposition occurred in mid-vitellogenic oocytes, MeGPx might play a pivotal role in preventing oocytes from oxidative damage and balancing ROS production. The present findings on shrimp GPx provide insights on the regulation of ROS in the ovarian maturation process and the role of GPx in crustacean reproductive biology. PMID:19788927

  16. Seasonal and Spatial Patterns of an Epibenthic Decapod Crustacean Assemblage in North-west Atlantic Continental Shelf Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viscido, S. V.; Stearns, D. E.; Able, K. W.

    1997-09-01

    To examine seasonal and spatial patterns in a mobile marine assemblage, monthly samples were taken in triplicate with a 2-m beam trawl (6-mm mesh) at three separate stations (landward of the ridge, on the ridge top, and seaward of the ridge). The assemblage was of epibenthic decapod crustaceans, and was situated at a north-west Atlantic continental shelf, sandy ridge site. The assemblage was composed of nine species and was extremely variable over time and space. The sevenspine bay shrimp ( Crangon septemspinosa), the Atlantic rock crab ( Cancer irroratus), the spider crab ( Libinia emarginata) and the lady crab ( Ovalipes ocellatus) were the numerical dominants, comprising >98% of all decapods collected. Three of these species ( C. septemspinosa, C. irroratus, L. emarginata) exhibited marked spatial heterogeneity in abundance, with many fewer found on the ridge top than at either of the other two stations. Ovalipes ocellatuswas not as spatially variable. Crangonshowed two clear peaks, in spring and fall, as did Libinia, but neither appeared to use the site as a nursery area. Ovalipes ocellatusand C. irroratuseach showed a single peak of very small individuals in the summer and appeared to use this site for settlement. Komolgorov-Smirnov tests, analysis of variance and cluster analysis showed much less difference in assemblage structure between the landward and seaward stations than was demonstrated between either station and the ridge top. The presence of the sand ridge had a clear impact on the abundance and distribution of local decapod crustacean populations.

  17. Natural and synthetic chiral isoforms of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus: hyperglycemic activity and hemolymphatic clearance.

    PubMed

    Lebaupain, Florence; Boscameric, Maryse; Pilet, Eric; Soyez, Daniel; Kamech, Nédia

    2012-03-01

    In the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, as in several crustacean species, the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone is present as two isoforms differing by the chirality of the third residue, a phenylalanine. In the present work, isoforms synthesized full length by solid-phase peptide synthesis have been purified, refolded, the location of the disulfide bridges has been checked, their immunoreactivity against different antibodies have been analyzed and their hyperglycemic activity tested, to ensure the identity of the synthetic peptides with their natural homologs. Different parameters of the hyperglycemic activity of both isoforms were studied. In addition to a difference in the kinetics of hyperglycemia, already known from other studies, it was observed that the dose-response was different depending on the season where experiments were performed, the response being stronger in spring than in autumn, especially for the d-Phe containing isoform. A dosage method based on sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to measure hemolymphatic levels of the isoforms after spiking of the animals with one isoform or the other. It was found that hemolymphatic clearance was identical for both isoforms, indicating that their differential effect is not linked to their different lifetime in the hemolymph but may rather rely on other mechanisms such as their binding to different target tissues. PMID:22314080

  18. The secretory dynamics of the CHH-producing cell group in the eyestalk of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus , in the course of the day\\/night cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janine L. Gorgels-Kallen; Christina E. M. Voorter

    1985-01-01

    The secretory dynamics of the Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH)-producing cells in the eyestalk of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus were studied during the daily cycle (12 h light\\/12 h dark). The different secretory stages of individual cells were determined by means of immunocytochemistry combined with morphometric analysis at the light-microscopic level. The data obtained were correlated with the 24-h rhythmicity of

  19. Structure and phylogeny of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone and its precursor from a hydrothermal vent crustacean: the crab Bythograea thermydron 2 2 Abbreviations: CHH, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone; MALDI-TOF MS, matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry; RACE, rapid amplification of cDNA ends; RP-HPLC, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography; XO, X-organ; SG, sinus gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Yves Toullec; Joëlle Vinh; Jean-Pierre Le Caer; Bruce Shillito; Daniel Soyez

    2002-01-01

    The structure of a well-known neurohormone involved in homeostasis regulation and stress response, the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, was investigated in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent crab Bythograea thermydron. The neuropeptide was isolated from neurohemal organs (sinus glands) and its biological activity checked using an homologous bioassay. Partial amino acid sequence was established by a combination of Edman chemistry and mass spectrometry.

  20. Wilson Bull., 102(3), 1990, pp. 469-479 EFFECT OF LONG DAYS ON MOLT AND AUTUMN

    E-print Network

    ~ Abstract.-Dark-eyed Juncos (Bunco hyemalis) caught at their regular winter sites and then held outdoors OF SITE-FAITHFUL DARK-EYED JUNCOS HELD AT THEIR WINTER SITES VAL NOLAN JR. AND ELLEN D. KETTERSON physiological cycle. We caught juncos in winter on their perennial winter home ranges, held them there during

  1. Milankovitch Cycles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    [http://www.sciencecourseware.org/eec/GlobalWarming/Tutorials/Milankovitch/

    These animations depict the three major Milankovitch Cycles that impact global climate, visually demonstrating the definitions of eccentricity, obliquity, and precession, and their ranges of variation and timing on Earth.

  2. Natural Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Climate Central

    In this short video from ClimateCentral, host Jessica Harrop explains what evidence scientists have for claiming that recent global warming is caused by humans and is not just part of a natural cycle.

  3. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moorland School

    This site, from Moorland School in England, describes the rock cycle. Topics briefly discussed include rock formation, erosion, transportation, and deposition, plus various types of rocks. The page is directed towards a middle-school audience.

  4. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2007-03-21

    The Rock Cycle SciPack explores different kinds and categories of rocks, the major processes through which they form and the cyclical nature of the formation and transformation of rock materials. The focus is on topics supporting Standards and Benchmarks related to the rock cycle as part of the transfer and transformation of matter and energy in Earth's system as well as a sense of the time scales involved and how rocks provide information about their own development and the history of Earth.In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Rock Cycle: Categories by Process? List the three different types of rock. ? Make appropriate observations about rocks (e.g. describe rock composition and texture).? Make appropriate observations about the general environments in which the rocks formed.Rock Cycle: Environments of Formation? Realize that different rocks have specific origins, and that they are the product of any number of processes.? Identify the processes through which igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock form.? Explain the role of intermediary materials such as sediment and magma in the formation of different kinds of rock.? Provide an overarching description of the steps in the rock cycle, the formation of sedimentary rock, the re-forming of rock by heat and pressure, and the process by which re-formed rock can return to the surface.Rock Cycle: Cycling? Recognize the formation and transformation processes as part of a continuing cycle.? Identify that while the form and location of different rocks change over time, the amount of material and the distribution among the elements remains constant.? Explain the different processes or paths that each type of rock may take in the rock cycle.Rock Cycle: Earth's Autobiography? State the amount of time over which the rock cycle has been in operation (4 billion years rather than 40 million or 400 million).? Recognize that the processes at work in the present are the same as those at work in the distant past.? Describe how rock formations and characteristics can be used to determine how different rock formed, making appropriate interpretations about the source of the rock, history and processes, and the environment of formation.? Describe how rocks provide a history of the changing surface of Earth and its lifeforms.

  5. JOURNAL OF CRUSTACEAN BIOLOGY, 27(3): 417424, 2007 THE EFFECT OF FEMALES ON MALE-MALE COMPETITION IN THE ISOPOD,

    E-print Network

    Shuster, Stephen M.

    JOURNAL OF CRUSTACEAN BIOLOGY, 27(3): 417­424, 2007 THE EFFECT OF FEMALES ON MALE-MALE COMPETITION sculpta, a Gulf of California isopod, a-males usually defend aggregations of breeding females within, but interactions among individuals in these locations are poorly known. To investigate plasticity in male-male

  6. Muscular and hepatic pollution biomarkers in the fishes Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the crustacean Aristeus antennatus in the Blanes Submarine Canyon (NW Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Solé, Montserrat; Hambach, Bastian; Cortijo, Verónica; Huertas, David; Fernández, Pilar; Company, Joan B

    2009-07-01

    Submarine canyons are regarded as a sink for pollutants. In order to determine if this theory applied to deep-sea species from an important fishing ground (the Blanes submarine canyon) located in the NW Mediterranean, we sampled the commercial fish Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the crustacean Aristeus antennatus. Specimens were sampled inside and outside (in the open continental slope) the submarine canyon; both are regarded as potentially affected by exposure to different anthropogenic chemicals. Several pollution biomarkers in muscle (activity of cholinesterases) and liver/hepatopancreas (catalase, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase in fish or mixed function oxygenase (MFO)-related reductases in crustacean, and lipid peroxidation levels) were measured. Chemical analysis of the persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was also performed on the fish and crustacean muscle. Biomarker activities and levels were discussed in relation to pollutant exposure, habitat, and parameters including sex, size, and species. Biochemical responses and chemical analysis of PCBs evidenced interspecies differences as well as sex and size-related ones, mainly in A. antennatus. An indication of higher exposure to pollutants inside the canyon was observed, which was more clearly reflected in the fish than in the crustacean. However, further research is required to confirm this observation. PMID:18941829

  7. Long-term increase in crustacean zooplankton abundance in the southern Benguela upwelling region (1951–1996): bottom-up or top-down control?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans M. Verheye; Anthony J. Richardson

    1998-01-01

    803-807. Since 1951, zooplankton samples have been collected on the shelf along the west coast of South Africa, where pelagic fish recruit each year. Retrospective analysis of collections made during peak recruitment in austral autumn showed a significant increase in the abundance of planktonic crustaceans by two orders of magnitude (from 3.74#103 ind.m\\

  8. bottom crustaceans of the Seaof Azov and meth-the planktonic food web. Kiel. Meeresforsch. Son-ods for its determination. Oceanology 18: 388-derheft 5: l-29.

    E-print Network

    Notes 1099 bottom crustaceans of the Seaof Azov and meth- the planktonic food web. Kiel sample. Lipid content was proportional (Y= 0.99) to fish tissue dry weight over the range of 0.3-l 3 mg indicated that ~5% of the measured gravimetric weights was due to the in- clusion of nonlipid material

  9. Long-term development of the crustacean plankton in the Saidenbach Reservoir (Germany) – changes, causes, consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Horn

    2003-01-01

    The drinking water reservoir Saidenbach (Germany) has been investigated continuously from the year 1975 onwards. Since 1987, daphnids (Daphnia galeata) — an essential component in the cycle of matter and energy in the pelagic zone of reservoirs and lakes — became less and less abundant. Its total and relative biomass declined drastically and the exponential population growth began later in

  10. Absolute Consistency: Individual versus Population Variation in Annual-Cycle Schedules of a Long-Distance Migrant Bird

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Jesse R.; Battley, Phil F.; Potter, Murray A.

    2013-01-01

    Flexibility in scheduling varies throughout an organism’s annual cycle, reflecting relative temporal constraints and fitness consequences among life-history stages. Time-selection can act at different scales, either by limiting the range of alternative strategies in the population, or by increasing the precision of individual performance. We tracked individual bar-tailed godwits Limosa lapponica baueri for two full years (including direct observation during non-breeding seasons in New Zealand and geolocator tracking of round-trip migrations to Alaska) to present a full annual-cycle view of molt, breeding, and migration schedules. At both population and individual scales, temporal variation was greater in post-breeding than pre-breeding stages, and greater in molts than in movements, but schedules did not tighten across successive stages of migration toward the breeding grounds. In general, individual godwits were quite consistent in timing of events throughout the year, and repeatability of pre-breeding movements was particularly high (r?=?0.82–0.92). However, we demonstrate that r values misrepresent absolute consistency by confounding inter- and intra-individual variation; the biological significance of r values can only be understood when these are considered separately. By doing so, we show that some stages have considerable tolerance for alternative strategies within the population, whereas scheduling of northbound migratory movements was similar for all individuals. How time-selection simultaneously shapes both individual and population variation is central to understanding and predicting adaptive phenological responses to environmental change. PMID:23342168

  11. Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences- Department of Invertebrates-Ant'Phipoda: the Biodiversity Reference Centre for Antarctic Amphipod Crustaceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website features Ant'Phipoda: the Biodiversity Reference Centre for Antarctic Amphipod Crustaceans which is managed by the Laboratory of Carcinology, a research group at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. This Reference Centre "includes specialised databases, reference collections, and assists a network of contributing specialists (the Antarctic Ant'Phipodologist Network) who are involved in taxonomic revision of the Antarctic amphipod fauna, and the synthesis of its geographic and bathymetric distribution and bio-ecological traits." Decorated by a dancing Ant'Phipod, the homepage contains links to an Ant'Phipod Checklist (which is available for download as a pdf file), the Ant'Phipodologist Network, and Research Activities. Site visitors can also link to a photo gallery of great Amphipod pictures and a page of Amphipod links.

  12. Novel Protocol for the Chemical Synthesis of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone Analogues — An Efficient Experimental Tool for Studying Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Mosco, Alessandro; Zlatev, Vientsislav; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Pongor, Sándor; Campanella, Antonella; Zahariev, Sotir; Giulianini, Piero G.

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is present in many decapods in different isoforms, whose specific biological functions are still poorly understood. Here we report on the first chemical synthesis of three distinct isoforms of the cHH of Astacus leptodactylus carried out by solid phase peptide synthesis coupled to native chemical ligation. The synthetic 72 amino acid long peptide amides, containing L- or D-Phe3 and (Glp1, D-Phe3) were tested for their biological activity by means of homologous in vivo bioassays. The hyperglycemic activity of the D-isoforms was significantly higher than that of the L-isoform, while the presence of the N-terminal Glp residue had no influence on the peptide activity. The results show that the presence of D-Phe3 modifies the cHH functionality, contributing to the diversification of the hormone pool. PMID:22253873

  13. Novel protocol for the chemical synthesis of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone analogues--an efficient experimental tool for studying their functions.

    PubMed

    Mosco, Alessandro; Zlatev, Vientsislav; Guarnaccia, Corrado; Pongor, Sándor; Campanella, Antonella; Zahariev, Sotir; Giulianini, Piero G

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) is present in many decapods in different isoforms, whose specific biological functions are still poorly understood. Here we report on the first chemical synthesis of three distinct isoforms of the cHH of Astacus leptodactylus carried out by solid phase peptide synthesis coupled to native chemical ligation. The synthetic 72 amino acid long peptide amides, containing L- or D-Phe³ and (Glp¹, D-Phe³) were tested for their biological activity by means of homologous in vivo bioassays. The hyperglycemic activity of the D-isoforms was significantly higher than that of the L-isoform, while the presence of the N-terminal Glp residue had no influence on the peptide activity. The results show that the presence of D-Phe³ modifies the cHH functionality, contributing to the diversification of the hormone pool. PMID:22253873

  14. Exuviotrophic apostome ciliates from crustaceans of St. Andrew Bay, Florida, and a description of Gymnodinioides kozloffi n. sp.

    PubMed

    Landers, Stephen C

    2004-01-01

    Gymnodinioides kozloffi n. sp. is described from the eelgrass broken-back shrimp Hippolyte zostericola. The species is distinct from others in the apostome genus Gymnodinioides in that the trophont ciliature has a small group of kinetosomes located to the right of Kinety 9a, and Kinety 1 and 2 are divided. Other apostome morphologies are described from many decapod crustaceans from St. Andrew Bay, Florida, including Gymnodinioides inkystans, Hyalophysa chattoni, and variants of both H. chattoni and G. kozloffi. All of these apostome ciliates are exuviotrophic, found feeding on exuvial fluid within the exoskeleton of the host after ecdysis. The hosts surveyed for this study are the following: Callinectes sapidus, Eurypanopeus depressus, Hippolyte zostericola, Farfantepenaeus spp., Palaemonetes intermedius, Palaemon floridanus, Portunus spp., Tozeuma carolinense, and Sicyonia laevigata, which revealed a number of new host-apostome records. PMID:15666721

  15. Identification of a Divergent Environmental DNA Sequence Clade Using the Phylogeny of Gregarine Parasites (Apicomplexa) from Crustacean Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Rueckert, Sonja; Simdyanov, Timur G.; Aleoshin, Vladimir V.; Leander, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental SSU rDNA surveys have significantly improved our understanding of microeukaryotic diversity. Many of the sequences acquired using this approach are closely related to lineages previously characterized at both morphological and molecular levels, making interpretation of these data relatively straightforward. Some sequences, by contrast, appear to be phylogenetic orphans and are sometimes inferred to represent “novel lineages” of unknown cellular identity. Consequently, interpretation of environmental DNA surveys of cellular diversity rely on an adequately comprehensive database of DNA sequences derived from identified species. Several major taxa of microeukaryotes, however, are still very poorly represented in these databases, and this is especially true for diverse groups of single-celled parasites, such as gregarine apicomplexans. Methodology/Principal Findings This study attempts to address this paucity of DNA sequence data by characterizing four different gregarine species, isolated from the intestines of crustaceans, at both morphological and molecular levels: Thiriotia pugettiae sp. n. from the graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis), Cephaloidophora cf. communis from two different species of barnacles (Balanus glandula and B. balanus), Heliospora cf. longissima from two different species of freshwater amphipods (Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and E. vittatus), and Heliospora caprellae comb. n. from a skeleton shrimp (Caprella alaskana). SSU rDNA sequences were acquired from isolates of these gregarine species and added to a global apicomplexan alignment containing all major groups of gregarines characterized so far. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of these data demonstrated that all of the gregarines collected from crustacean hosts formed a very strongly supported clade with 48 previously unidentified environmental DNA sequences. Conclusions/Significance This expanded molecular phylogenetic context enabled us to establish a major clade of intestinal gregarine parasites and infer the cellular identities of several previously unidentified environmental SSU rDNA sequences, including several sequences that have formerly been discussed broadly in the literature as a suspected “novel” lineage of eukaryotes. PMID:21483868

  16. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    PubMed

    Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish) and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm). The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core) is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT) containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ?waaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ?waaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the proPO system and as virulence factors for this bacterium. PMID:21206752

  17. Tackling the Cytotoxic Effect of a Marine Polycyclic Quinone-Type Metabolite: Halenaquinone Induces Molt 4 Cells Apoptosis via Oxidative Stress Combined with the Inhibition of HDAC and Topoisomerase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Shou-Ping; Lee, Man-Gang; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Juan, Yung-Shun; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Du, Ying-Chi; Su, Jui-Hsin; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Juan-Cheng; Wu, Yang-Chang; Lu, Mei-Chin

    2015-01-01

    A marine polycyclic quinone-type metabolite, halenaquinone (HQ), was found to inhibit the proliferation of Molt 4, K562, MDA-MB-231 and DLD-1 cancer cell lines, with IC50 of 0.48, 0.18, 8.0 and 6.76 ?g/mL, respectively. It exhibited the most potent activity against leukemia Molt 4 cells. Accumulating evidence showed that HQ may act as a potent protein kinase inhibitor in cancer therapy. To fully understand the mechanism of HQ, we further explored the precise molecular targets in leukemia Molt 4 cells. We found that the use of HQ increased apoptosis by 26.23%–70.27% and caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by 17.15%–53.25% in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by Annexin-V/PI and JC-1 staining assays, respectively. Moreover, our findings indicated that the pretreatment of Molt 4 cells with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, diminished MMP disruption and apoptosis induced by HQ, suggesting that ROS overproduction plays a crucial rule in the cytotoxic activity of HQ. The results of a cell-free system assay indicated that HQ could act as an HDAC and topoisomerase catalytic inhibitor through the inhibition of pan-HDAC and topoisomerase II? expression, respectively. On the protein level, the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins p-Akt, NF?B, HDAC and Bcl-2, as well as hexokinase II was inhibited by the use of HQ. On the other hand, the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, PARP cleavage, caspase activation and cytochrome c release were increased after HQ treatment. Taken together, our results suggested that the antileukemic effect of HQ is ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis combined with the inhibitory effect on HDAC and topoisomerase activities. PMID:26006712

  18. Cycle Route

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-11-07

    If you're an avid cyclist or just a neophyte, you'll find this rather unique app most useful. Cycle Route can assist those with a passion for cycling plan out their route based on topography, elevation, main roads, and a range of other variables. Visitors just need to enter their origin and destination and they will be all set. The app returns a range of routes that users can take advantage of and there's also a mobile version as well. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

  19. Cycle Sequencing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents the cycle sequencing. The animation contains instructions on how to sequence a piece of DNA beginning with the raw materials needed, and details on the process: "Fluorescent dyes are added to the reactions, and a laser within an automated DNA sequencing machine is used to analyze the DNA fragments produced."

  20. Nitrogen Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary LeFever

    2007-01-01

    This publication provides a variety of resources. Some assist you in your content knowledge, some are actual lessons or activities, some are good graphic representations of both concepts and organisms of the nitrogen cycle, and some provide real data from current issues for you and your students to analyze and interpret.

  1. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Andrus

    2007-10-12

    4th Grade Science Learn all about the Water Cycle! The Water Cycle: Water Storage Learn about Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, and Collection! The Water Cycle Here are some activites to learn about the water cycle. Hydrologic Cycle ...

  2. Effects of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) replacement therapy on the programming of seasonal reproduction and postnuptial molt in thyroidectomized male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) exposed to long days.

    PubMed

    Reinert, B D; Wilson, F E

    1997-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that T3 (triiodothyronine) is the tissue-active "seasonality" hormone by determining whether T3 could mimic T4 (thyroxine) and program photostimulated thyroidectomized (THX) male American tree sparrows (Spizella arborea) for three components of seasonality (i.e., full-blown testicular growth, photorefractoriness, and postnuptial molt). Photosensitive males were radiothyroidectomized, transferred to long days 4 weeks later, and administered 14 daily injections (s.c.) of alkaline saline (V) containing 0.1, 1, or 10 micrograms T4 or T3. THX and thyroid-intact (THI) controls received only V. After 5 additional weeks on long days, all birds were tested for photosensitivity/photorefractoriness. Periodically during the experiment, primary flight feathers were scored for molt, and testis length was monitored by laparotomy. As an independent measure of reproductive (i.e., photosensitive vs. photorefractory) state, hypothalami collected at the end of the experiment were assayed for cGnRH-I (chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone I) content. Like THI controls, THX males administered 1 or 10 micrograms T4 exhibited full-blown testicular growth and then regression, initiated molt, and had low hypothalamic cGnRH-I, indicating that photostimulated birds that received mid- or high-dose T4 replacement therapy had been programmed for all three components of seasonality. On the other hand, both THX controls and THX males administered low-dose (0.1 microgram) T3 replacement therapy exhibited only modest testicular growth, signifying that neither group had been programmed for any component of seasonality. By contrast, photostimulated THX males that received 0.1 microgram T4, or 1 or 10 micrograms T3, were programmed for testicular growth, but not for photorefractoriness or molt. Collectively, these results show that subcutaneously administered T3 mimicked T4 imperfectly and suggest either that T3 does not program photostimulated male tree sparrows for photorefractoriness and postnuptial molt, or that T3 does not cross the blood-brain barrier as efficiently as does T4. PMID:9360316

  3. Stereoselective synthesis of (22R)- and (22S)-castasterone/ponasterone A hybrid compounds and evaluation of their molting hormone activity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Bunta; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Ogura, Takehiko; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2004-07-01

    Two stereoisomers of a castasterone/ponasterone A hybrid compound, the (20R,22R) and (20R,22S)-isomers of 2alpha,3alpha,20,22-tetrahydroxy-5alpha-cholestan-6-one, were synthesized stereoselectively and their binding activity to the ecdysteroid receptor was determined. From the concentration-response curve for the inhibition of the incorporation of tritiated ponasterone A into ecdysteroid receptor containing insect cells, the concentration (IC50) required to inhibit 50% of the incorporation of radioactivity into cells was evaluated. The IC50 values of the (22R)- and (22S)-isomers were determined to be 0.30 and 38.9 microM against Kc cells, respectively, indicating that the (22R)-isomer is about 100 times more potent than the corresponding (22S)-isomer. IC50 values of these compounds against lepidopteran Sf-9 cells were determined to be 0.36 and 12.9 microM, respectively. The molting hormonal effect was examined in a Chilo suppressalis integument system and the 50% effective concentration for the stimulation of N-acetylglucosamine incorporation into the cultured integument was determined to be 2.7 microM for the (22R)-isomer, while the (22S)-isomer was inactive. On the other hand, both isomers did not show brassinolide-like activity in the rice lamina inclination assay. PMID:15246778

  4. Molecular cloning of four cDNAs encoding prepro-crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the eyestalk of the red rock crab Cancer productus: Identification of two genetically encoded CHH isoforms and two putative post-translationally derived CHH variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Wei A. Hsu; John R. Weller; Andrew E. Christie; Horacio O. de la Iglesia

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the four known sinus gland (SG) isoforms of Cancer productus crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor-related peptide (Capr-CPRP I–IV) are differentially distributed in conserved patterns among individual crabs. This finding strongly supported the presence of multiple prepro-crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) transcripts in each crab, as well as the translation and processing of the encoded prepro-hormones. Whether these transcripts

  5. Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Through five lessons, students are introduced to all facets of the rock cycle. Topics include rock and mineral types, material stresses and weathering, geologic time and fossil formation, the Earth's crust and tectonic plates, and soil formation and composition. Lessons are presented in the context of the related impact on humans in the form of roadway and tunnel design and construction, natural disasters, environmental site assessment for building structures, and measurement instrumentation and tools. Hands-on activities include experiencing tensional, compressional and shear material stress by using only hand force to break bars of soap; preparing Jeopardy-type trivia questions/answers for a class game that reinforces students' understanding of rocks and the rock cycle; creating "fossils" using melted chocolate; working within design constraints to design and build a model tunnel through a clay mountain; and soil sampling by creating tools, obtaining soil cores, documenting a soil profile log, and analyzing the findings to make engineering predictions.

  6. Characterisation of integrated stress biomarkers in two deep-sea crustaceans, Aristeus antennatus and Nephrops norvegicus, from the NW fishing grounds of the Mediterranean sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mertixell Antó; Susana Arnau; Elisenda Buti; Verónica Cortijo; Elena Gutiérrez; Montserrat Solé

    2009-01-01

    Several biomarkers indicative of stress were characterised in the crustaceans Aristeus antennatus and Nephrops norvegicus sampled off the Barcelona coast (NW Mediterranean). The biomarkers selected were cholinesterase (ChE) activities in muscle; and catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), total glutathione peroxidase (t-GPX), DT-diaphorase (DT-D), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and carboxylesterases (CbEs) in hepatopancreas tissue. Lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and total protein yield (PY)

  7. Muscular and Hepatic Pollution Biomarkers in the Fishes Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the Crustacean Aristeus antennatus in the Blanes Submarine Canyon (NW Mediterranean)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat Solé; Bastian Hambach; Verónica Cortijo; David Huertas; Pilar Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Submarine canyons are regarded as a sink for pollutants. In order to determine if this theory applied to deep-sea species\\u000a from an important fishing ground (the Blanes submarine canyon) located in the NW Mediterranean, we sampled the commercial\\u000a fish Phycis blennoides and Micromesistius poutassou and the crustacean Aristeus antennatus. Specimens were sampled inside and outside (in the open continental slope)

  8. Localization of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) in the eyestalk of Homarus gammarus larvae by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guiomar Rotllant; Dominique De Kleijn; Mireille Charmantier-Daures; Guy Charmantier; François Van Herp

    1993-01-01

    This study deals with the localization of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) in the\\u000a eyestalk of larvae and postlarvae ofHomarus gammarus, by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. The CHH and GIH neuropeptides are located in the perikarya of neuroendocrine\\u000a cells belonging to the X-organ of the medulla terminalis, in their tract joining the sinus gland, and in

  9. Molecular cloning and differential expression pattern of two structural variants of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family from the mud crab Scylla olivacea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Wei Tsai; Su-Jung Chang; Hsin-Ju Wu; Hsin-Yi Shih; Chun-Hao Chen; Chi-Ying Lee

    2008-01-01

    Two full-length cDNA sequences encoding a crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) precursor were cloned from tissues of the mud crab Scylla olivacea. Sco-CHH (S. olivacea CHH) was cloned from eyestalk ganglia, whereas Sco-CHH-L (S. olivacea CHH-like peptide) was cloned from extra-eyestalk tissues (pericardial organ and thoracic ganglia). Each conceptually translated precursor is expected to be processed into a signal peptide, a

  10. Structural and functional comparisons and production of recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and CHH-like peptides from the mud crab Scylla olivacea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Chun Chang; Kuo-Wei Tsai; Nai-Wan Hsiao; Cheng-Yen Chang; Chih-Lung Lin; R. Douglas Watson; Chi-Ying Lee

    2010-01-01

    Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L (CHH-like peptide), two structural variants of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family identified in the mud crab (Scylla olivacea), are presumably alternatively spliced gene products. In this study, Sco-CHH and Sco-CHH-L were isolated from the tissues using high performance liquid chromatography. Identity of the native peptides was confirmed using mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of purified materials and of

  11. Two genetic variants of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the Australian crayfish, Cherax destructor: detection of chiral isoforms due to posttranslational modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Bulau; Iris Meisen; Barbara Reichwein-Roderburg; Jasna Peter-Katalini?; Rainer Keller

    2003-01-01

    From sinus glands of the Australian crayfish Cherax destructor, two genetic variants of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) were isolated by HPLC and fully characterized by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing. Both CHH A (8350.38Da) and CHH B (8370.34Da) consist of 72 amino acid residues, with pyroGlu as N-terminus and an amidated (Val-NH2) C-terminus. They differ in 14 residues (81%

  12. An antibody to recombinant crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone of Nephrops norvegicus cross-reacts with neuroendocrine organs of several taxa of malacostracan Crustacea.

    PubMed

    Giulianini, P G; Pandolfelli, N; Lorenzon, S; Ferrero, E A; Edomi, P

    2002-02-01

    The crustacean hyperglycaemic hormones (cHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides that play a central role in the physiology of crustaceans. A partial cDNA coding for cHH of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, was cloned; this cDNA was fused to glutathione- S-transferase (GST) to obtain a recombinant fusion protein that was used to raise a rabbit antiserum and to perform a biological assay. The specificity of the purified antibody was demonstrated by means of Western blotting. To validate the specificity of the purified antibody to the cHH of N. norvegicus and its cross-reactivity with other species, we performed standard immunocytochemistry of the eyestalk on: (1) paraffin sections of the decapod species N. norvegicus, Munida rugosa and Astacus leptodactylus and of the stomatopod Squilla mantis; (2) semithin resin sections of N. norvegicus and Palaemon elegans; (3) ultrathin sections of N. norvegicus sinus gland (transmission electron microscopy studies). The pattern of immunoreactivity shown by N. norvegicus eyestalk sections conforms to distribution, relative amount and ultrastructural features of cHH-containing neurons and nerve endings as reported in the previous literature. In all the crustacean species examined, the antibody marks precisely the X organ-sinus gland complex and unspecific staining is completely lacking. In addition, its specific cross-reaction by immunoprecipitation depletes shrimp eyestalk extract of hyperglycaemic activity in an in vivo bioassay. The results obtained show a cHH-specific molecular recognition despite the fact that the species tested belong to systematic groups increasingly remote in the phylogenetic tree. The antibody could be used for advancing our knowledge on cHH activity in a variety of crustacean species, e.g. for monitoring reproductive and stress conditions. PMID:11845331

  13. Mangroves as nursery sites: comparisons of the abundance and species composition of fish and crustaceans in mangroves and other nearshore habitats in tropical Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Robertson; N. C. Duke

    1987-01-01

    Daytime sampling of mangrove and seagrass (Halophila\\/Halodule community) habitats every 7 wk at Alligator Creek, Queensland, Australia, over a period of 13 mo (February 1985–February\\u000a 1986) using two types of seine net, revealed distinct mangrove and seagrass fish and crustacean faunas. Total abundance of\\u000a fish and relative abundance of small and large fish also varied between habitats and seasonally. Post-larval,

  14. Chronic toxicity of contaminated sediments on reproduction and histopathology of the crustacean Gammarus fossarum and relationship with the chemical contamination and in vitro effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edita Mazurová; Klára Hilscherová; Tereza Šídlová-Št?pánková; Heinz-R. Köhler; Rita Triebskorn; Dirk Jungmann; John P. Giesy; Lud?k Bláha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the sediment contaminants and the occurrence\\u000a of intersex in situ. Two of the studied sediments were from polluted sites with increased occurrence of intersex crustaceans\\u000a (Lake Pilnok, black coal mining area in the Czech Republic, inhabited by the crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus population with 18% of intersex; creek Lockwitzbach

  15. Cell lineage of the midline cells in the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana (Crustacea, Malacostraca) during formation and separation of the germ band

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Gerberding; G. Scholtz

    1999-01-01

    Cell lineages of identified midline cells were traced in the amphipod Orchestia\\u000a cavimana (Crustacea, Malacostraca) by in vivo labelling. Midline cells are a common phenomenon in the germ band of crustaceans and\\u000a insects. Studies in midline cells of Drosophila showed an origin from separate, paired anlagen and a differentiation into three types of cells. The in vivo labelling of\\u000a midline

  16. Diets of crustacean zooplankton, inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, in lakes with varying allochthonous dissolved organic carbon content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Kankaala; Sami Taipale; Lu Li; Roger I. Jones

    2010-01-01

    We used stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses to estimate the relative proportions of three putative food sources (1)\\u000a algae, (2) allochthonous organic matter (but including also heterotrophic bacteria and green-sulphur bacteria having similar\\u000a isotopic values) and (3) methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the diets of crustacean zooplankton in five small boreal lakes\\u000a representing a gradient of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

  17. Interactions of the crustacean nuclear receptors HR3 and E75 in the regulation of gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Baldwin, William S.; Li, Yangchun; Wallace, Andrew D.; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine signal transduction occurs through cascades that involve the action of both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent nuclear receptors. In insects, two such nuclear receptors are HR3 and E75 that interact to transduce signals initiated by ecdysteroids. We have cloned these nuclear receptors from the crustacean Daphnia pulex to assess their function as regulators of gene transcription in this ecologically and economically important group of organisms. Both nuclear receptors from D. pulex (DappuHR3 (group NR1F) and DappuE75 (group NR1D)) exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity to other NR1F and NR1D group members that is indicative of monomeric binding to the RORE (retinoid orphan receptor element). DappuE75 possesses key amino acid residues required for heme binding to the ligand binding domain. Next, we developed a gene transcription reporter assay containing a luciferase reporter gene driven by the RORE. DappuHR3, but not DappuE75, activated transcription of the luciferase gene in this system. Co-transfection experiments revealed that DappuE75 suppressed DappuHR3-dependent luciferase transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that DappuHR3 bound to the RORE. However, we found no evidence that DappuE75 similarly bound to the response element. These experiments further demonstrated that DappuE75 prevented DappuHR3 from binding to the response element. In conclusion, DappuHR3 functions as a transcriptional activator of genes regulated by the RORE and DappuE75 is a negative regulator of this activity. DappuE75 does not suppress the action of DappuHR3 by occupying the response element but presumably interacts directly with the DappuHR3 protein. Taken together with the previous demonstration that daphnid HR3 is highly induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone, these results support the premise that HR3 is a major component of ecdysteroid signaling in some crustaceans and is under the negative regulatory control of E75. PMID:20346363

  18. Effects of habitat structure on the epifaunal community in Mussismilia corals: does coral morphology influence the richness and abundance of associated crustacean fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Marcos M.; Neves, Elizabeth; Johnsson, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    Coral habitat structures increase abundance and richness of organisms by providing niches, easy access to resources and refuge from predators. Corals harbor a great variety of animals; the variation in coral species morphology contributes to the heterogeneity and complexity of habitat types. In this report, we studied the richness and abundance of crustaceans (Decapoda, Copepoda, Peracarida and Ostracoda) associated with three species of Mussismilia exhibiting different growth morphologies, in two different coral reefs of the Bahia state (Caramuanas and Boipeba-Moreré, Brazil). Mussismilia hispida is a massive coral; M. braziliensis also has a massive growth pattern, but forms a crevice in the basal area of the corallum; M. harttii has a meandroid pattern. PERMANOVA analysis suggests significant differences in associated fauna richness among Mussismilia species, with higher values for M. harttii, followed by M. braziliensis and later by M. hispida. The same trend was observed for density, except that the comparison of M. braziliensis and M. hispida did not show differences. Redundancy and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that almost all of the crustacean species were more associated with the M. harttii colonies that formed a group clearly separated from colonies of M. braziliensis and M. hispida. We also found that the internal volume of interpolyp space, only present in M. harttii, was the most important factor influencing richness and abundance of all analyzed orders of crustaceans.

  19. Moult cycle specific differential gene expression profiling of the crab Portunus pelagicus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Crustacean moulting is a complex process involving many regulatory pathways. A holistic approach to examine differential gene expression profiles of transcripts relevant to the moulting process, across all moult cycle stages, was used in this study. Custom cDNA microarrays were constructed for Portunus pelagicus. The printed arrays contained 5000 transcripts derived from both the whole organism, and from individual organs such as the brain, eyestalk, mandibular organ and Y-organ from all moult cycle stages. Results A total of 556 clones were sequenced from the cDNA libraries used to construct the arrays. These cDNAs represented 175 singletons and 62 contigs, resulting in 237 unique putative genes. The gene sequences were classified into the following biological functions: cuticular proteins associated with arthropod exoskeletons, farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FaMeT), proteins belonging to the hemocyanin gene family, lectins, proteins relevant to lipid metabolism, mitochondrial proteins, muscle related proteins, phenoloxidase activators and ribosomal proteins. Moult cycle-related differential expression patterns were observed for many transcripts. Of particular interest were those relating to the formation and hardening of the exoskeleton, and genes associated with cell respiration and energy metabolism. Conclusions The expression data presented here provide a chronological depiction of the molecular events associated with the biological changes that occur during the crustacean moult cycle. Tracing the temporal expression patterns of a large variety of transcripts involved in the moult cycle of P. pelagicus can provide a greater understanding of gene function, interaction, and regulation of both known and new genes with respect to the moulting process. PMID:21396120

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for the Isopod Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and Transferability in Terrestrial Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

  1. Qualitative and quantitative top-down mass spectral analysis of crustacean hyperglycemic hormones in response to feeding.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chenxi; Yu, Qing; Wang, Jingxin; Li, Lingjun

    2014-05-01

    An efficient pipeline for peptide discovery accelerates peptidomic analysis and facilitates a better understanding of the functional roles of neuropeptides. However, qualitative and quantitative analysis of large neuropeptides is challenging due to the bigger molecular sizes, multiple PTMs, and interference by homologous isoforms. Herein, we refined two methodologies in the pipeline for highly confident and efficient MS-based peptide discovery. For the qualitative analysis, the so-called "high resolution/accurate mass" measurement on Orbitrap mass spectrometers was integrated with computer-assisted homology search, which was successfully applied to decipher the substituted amino acid residues in large neuropeptides by referring to homologous sequences. For the quantitative analysis, a new isotopic labeling-assisted top-down MS strategy was developed, which enabled direct monitoring of the abundance changes of endogenous large neuropeptides. By using the refined peptide discovery pipeline, one novel crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) from the Dungeness crab sinus glands was confidently identified and de novo sequenced, and its relative abundance was quantified. Comparative analysis of CHHs in unfed and fed crabs revealed that the peptide abundance in the sinus glands was significantly increased after food intake, suggesting that the release of CHHs might be altered by feeding behavior. PMID:24532205

  2. Decapod crustacean larval communities in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean): Seasonal composition, horizontal and vertical distribution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Asvin P.; Dos Santos, Antonina; Balbín, Rosa; Alemany, Francisco; Massutí, Enric; Reglero, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Decapod crustaceans are the main target species of deep water bottom trawl fisheries in the Balearic Sea but little is known about their larval stages. This work focuses on the species composition of the decapod larval community, describing the main spatio-temporal assemblages and assessing their vertical distribution. Mesozooplankton sampling was carried out using depth-stratified sampling devices at two stations located over the shelf break and the mid slope, in the north-western and southern Mallorca in late autumn 2009 and summer 2010. Differences among decapod larvae communities, in terms of composition, adult's habitat such as pelagic or benthic, and distribution patterns were observed between seasons, areas and station. Results showed that for both seasons most species and developmental stages aggregated within the upper water column (above 75 m depth) and showed higher biodiversity in summer compared to late autumn. Most abundant species were pelagic prawns (e.g., Sergestidae) occurring in both seasons and areas. The larval assemblages' distributions were different between seasonal hydrographic scenarios and during situations of stratified and non-stratified water column. The vertical distribution patterns of different larval developmental stages in respect to the adult's habitat were analyzed in relation to environmental variables. Fluorescence had the highest explanatory power. Four clearly different vertical patterns were identified: two corresponding to late autumn, which were common for all the main larval groups and other two in summer, one corresponding to larvae of coastal benthic and the second to pelagic species larvae.

  3. Daphnia longicephala neuropeptides: morphological description of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and periviscerokinins in the Ctenodaphnia central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Linda C; Laforsch, Christian; Ioannidou, Ioanna; Herbert, Zsofia; Tollrian, Ralph

    2014-10-01

    The publication of the Daphnia genome has driven research in this ecologically relevant model organism in many directions. However, information on this organism's physiology and the relevant controlling factors is limited. In this regard, especially neuropeptides are important biochemical regulators that control a variety of cellular processes, which in combination influence physiological conditions and allow the adaptation of the internal physiological state to external conditions. Thus, neuropeptides are prime in understanding an organism's physiology. We here aimed to detect and describe the distribution of evolutionary conserved neuropeptides including the crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and peptides of the family periviscerokinins (PVKs) in the central nervous system and the periphery of the Daphnia longicephala head region. We were able to identify a large pair of CCAP immunoreactive cells within central nervous system. In addition, in the periphery we found CCAP immunoreactive cells in the epidermis of the head with processes indicating cuticular secretion. Furthermore, we were able to identify and describe a complex neuronal circuit of PVK neuropeptides in the central nervous system. The data obtained in this study will provide important background information for future investigations aiming to unravel the cellular, neuronal and physiological pathways in a highly adaptive organism such as Daphnia. PMID:25069697

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare and transferability in terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Isabelle; Valette, Victorien; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Armadillidium vulgare is a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea, Oniscidea) which harbors Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts. A. vulgare is the major model for the study of Wolbachia-mediated feminization of genetic males in crustaceans. As a consequence of their impact on host sex determination mechanisms, Wolbachia endosymbionts are thought to significantly influence A. vulgare evolution on various grounds, including population genetic structure, diversity and reproduction strategies. To provide molecular tools for examining these questions, we isolated microsatellite loci through 454 pyrosequencing of a repeat-enriched A. vulgare genomic library. We selected 14 markers and developed three polymorphic microsatellite multiplex kits. We tested the kits on two A. vulgare natural populations and found high genetic variation, thereby making it possible to investigate the impact of Wolbachia endosymbionts on A. vulgare nuclear variation at unprecedented resolution. In addition, we tested the transferability of these kits by cross-species amplification in five other terrestrial isopod species harboring Wolbachia endosymbionts. The microsatellite loci showed good transferability in particular in Armadillidium nasatum and Chaetophiloscia elongata, for which these markers represent promising tools for future genetic studies. PMID:24098543

  5. Status of selected bottomfish and crustacean species in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.A.; Dinnel, P.A.; Orensanz, J.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). School of Fisheries] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Exposure and possible adverse effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) at depth were studied between 1989 and 1991 on several species of crustaceans, molluscs, and finfish that are characterized by ontogenetic shifts in distribution from meroplanktonic larvae to benthic and demersal juveniles and adults. The authors approach was to search for (1) evidence of exposure to Exxon Valdez crude oil (EVC) at depth (generally between 20 to 150 m) and (2) measurable perturbations at both the individual and population levels. Primary species targeted were Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi), several pandalid shrimps (Pandalus platyceros, P. hypsinotus, P. borealis), flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon), and several bivalves including scallops (Chlamys rubida) and infaunal clams (Nuculana, Yoldia, and Macoma spp.). The survey design provided a comparison between variables measured in oiled bays around Knight Island and non-oiled bays at other locations within Prince William Sound. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of petrogenic origin were measured in all bays sampled in this study and levels of PAHs derived from EVC were elevated in the oiled bays following the spill, yet attenuated to less than 200 ng/g sediment by 1991. 95 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Identification and cloning of a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase from tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, and its transcription following pathogen infection and related to the molt stages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Fu; Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Cheng, Winton; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2010-09-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The 1321-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 564bp, a 69-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 688-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail and a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (188 aa) was 21.05kDa long with an estimated pI of 7.68. It contains a putative selenocysteine residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (190)TGA(192), and forms the active site with residues Glu(75) and Trp(143). Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that tiger shrimp GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx1, in accordance with those in Litopenaeus vannamei and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. GPx cDNA was synthesised in lymphoid organ, gills, heart, haemocytes, the hepatopancreas, muscles, and intestines. After injected with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the respiratory bursts of shrimp significantly increased in order to kill the pathogen, and induced increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and GPx, and regulation in the expression of cloned GPx mRNA to protect cells against damage from oxidation. The GPx expression significantly increased at stage D(0/1), and then gradually decreased until stage C suggesting that the cloned GPx might play a role in the molt regulation of shrimp. PMID:20399225

  7. The endocrine control of reproduction and molt in male and female emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri) and adelie (Pygoscelis adeliae) penguins. II. Annual changes in plasma levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Groscolas, R; Leloup, J

    1986-08-01

    Changes in plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels were studied during a breeding season and in more detail during the postbreeding molt in male and female emperor (Aptenodytes forsteri) and adelie (Pygoscelis adeliae) penguins under natural conditions in the Antarctic. During the 4-month natural fast that accompanies courtship and incubation in male emperors, plasma T4 and T3 levels were maintained around 11 and 0.6 ng/ml, respectively. In courting, fasting female emperors plasma T4 levels were maintained around 10 ng/ml for more than 1 month; plasma T3 levels were around 0.8 ng/ml but were markedly depressed (0.1 ng/ml) at the time of copulation although they increased again (2.2 ng/ml) at oviposition. During the 5-month period of chick rearing, plasma T3 (males and females) and T4 (females) were maintained at the same levels as during courtship and incubation, but plasma T4 levels in male emperors were slightly lower (7 ng/ml). Similar plasma T4 and T3 levels were observed in breeding adelie penguins. These results do not provide any convincing evidence for thyroid-gonadal interrelations in breeding penguins, but demonstrate their capacity to maintain plasma thyroid hormone levels during very prolonged natural fasts. During the heavy postnuptial molt when the birds were fasting, in both species and sexes, marked but separate peaks in plasma T4 and T3 levels occurred concurrently with the initial growth of the new feathers, and with the subsequent shedding of the old plumage, respectively. Peak plasma T4 levels were observed at the time of the emergence of the new feathers out of the skin, and peak plasma T3 levels were roughly concurrent with the maximum daily body weight loss. This is the first strong evidence that increases in plasma T4 and T3 levels are correlated with different stages of molt in a wild seabird. Increased plasma T4 but not T3 levels at the time of feather papilla eruption suggest that T4 is concerned with feather growth, but is not exclusive of a role of T3. Increased plasma T3 but not T4 levels during the reduction in thermal insulation in molting penguins suggest that this hormone rather than T4 might be active in energy metabolism in penguins. PMID:3781233

  8. Moult cycle-related changes in biological activity of moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in the crab, Carcinus maenas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sook Chung; Simon G. Webster

    2003-01-01

    neuropeptide biosynthesis, steady-state transcript levels of both neuropeptide mRNAs were measured by quantitative RT-PCR, and stored neuropeptide levels in the sinus gland were quantified during intermoult and premoult. The results show that the most important level of moult control lies within the signalling machinery of the target tissue, that expression and biosynthesis of both neuropeptides is con- stant during the

  9. The Nitrogen Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

    2006-10-06

    You are going to learn about the nitrogen cycle. After finishing these activities, you will be able to draw the nitrogen cycle and explain how human activity affects it. 1. Explore this website to learn some basic information about the nitrogen cycle. The Nitrogen Cycle 2. Discover additional information about the nitrogen cycle by looking at more websites. The Nitrogen Cycle: Of Microbes and Men Introduction to the Biosphere: The Nitrogen Cycle 3. Draw your own diagram ...

  10. Brain architecture in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae), a crustacean with a good aerial sense of smell

    PubMed Central

    Harzsch, Steffen; Hansson, Bill S

    2008-01-01

    Background During the evolutionary radiation of Crustacea, several lineages in this taxon convergently succeeded in meeting the physiological challenges connected to establishing a fully terrestrial life style. These physiological adaptations include the need for sensory organs of terrestrial species to function in air rather than in water. Previous behavioral and neuroethological studies have provided solid evidence that the land hermit crabs (Coenobitidae, Anomura) are a group of crustaceans that have evolved a good sense of aerial olfaction during the conquest of land. We wanted to study the central olfactory processing areas in the brains of these organisms and to that end analyzed the brain of Coenobita clypeatus (Herbst, 1791; Anomura, Coenobitidae), a fully terrestrial tropical hermit crab, by immunohistochemistry against synaptic proteins, serotonin, FMRFamide-related peptides, and glutamine synthetase. Results The primary olfactory centers in this species dominate the brain and are composed of many elongate olfactory glomeruli. The secondary olfactory centers that receive an input from olfactory projection neurons are almost equally large as the olfactory lobes and are organized into parallel neuropil lamellae. The architecture of the optic neuropils and those areas associated with antenna two suggest that C. clypeatus has visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusion In parallel to previous behavioral findings of a good sense of aerial olfaction in C. clypeatus, our results indicate that in fact their central olfactory pathway is most prominent, indicating that olfaction is a major sensory modality that these brains process. Interestingly, the secondary olfactory neuropils of insects, the mushroom bodies, also display a layered structure (vertical and medial lobes), superficially similar to the lamellae in the secondary olfactory centers of C. clypeatus. More detailed analyses with additional markers will be necessary to explore the question if these similarities have evolved convergently with the establishment of superb aerial olfactory abilities or if this design goes back to a shared principle in the common ancestor of Crustacea and Hexapoda. PMID:18590553

  11. Fatty acids in six small pelagic fish species and their crustacean prey from the mindanao sea, southern Philippines.

    PubMed

    Metillo, Ephrime Bicoy; Aspiras-Eya, Anna Arlene

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in human health and useful in the analysis of the marine food web, however information on tropical pelagic organisms is scarce. Six zooplanktivorous small pelagic fish species (Decapterus kurroides, Decapterus macarellus, Selar crumenophthalmus, Sardinella lemuru, Spratilloides gracilis and Stolephorus insularis) and four of their zooplanktonic crustacean prey [three sergestoid species (Acetes erythraeus, Acetes intermedius and Lucifer penicillifer) and one calanoid copepod (Acartia erythraea)] were collected from the Mindanao Sea, and their fatty acids were profiled. The resulting profiles revealed 17 fatty acids that were specific to certain species and 9 {myristic acid [C14:0], palmitic acid [C16:0], stearic acid [C18:0]; palmitoleic acid [C16:1], oleic acid [C18:1n9c], linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], linolenic acid [C18:3n3], eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [C20:5n3] and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [C22:6n3]} that were common to all species. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of fatty acids indicate a high similarity in profiles in all species, but separate fish and zooplankton clusters were obtained. Mackerel species (D. macarellus, D. kurroides and S. crumenophthalmus) had concentrations of total n-3 fatty acids that match those of their Acetes prey. The copepod A. erythraea and the sergestoid L. penicillifer exhibited the lowest values of the EPA:DHA ratio, which was most likely due to their phytoplanktivorous feeding habits, but the occurrence of the highest values of the ratio in Acetes suggests the inclusion of plant detritus in their diet. DHA values appear to affirm the trophic link among copepod, Lucifer, Acetes and mackerel species. PMID:25210591

  12. Is the resting rate of oxygen consumption of locomotor muscles in crustaceans limited by the low blood oxygenation strategy?

    PubMed

    Forgue, J; Legeay, A; Massabuau, J C

    2001-03-01

    Numerous water-breathers exhibit a gas-exchange regulation strategy that maintains O(2) partial pressure, P(O2), in the arterial blood within the range 1-3 kPa at rest during the daytime. In a night-active crustacean, we examined whether this could limit the rate of O(2 )consumption (M(O2)) of locomotor muscles and/or the whole body as part of a coordinated response to energy conservation. In the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus, we compared the in vitro relationship between the M(O2) of locomotor muscles as a function of the extracellular P(O2) and P(CO2) and in vivo circadian changes in blood gas tensions at various values of water P(O2). In vitro, the M(O2) of locomotor muscle, either at rest or when stimulated with CCCP, was O(2)-dependent up to an extracellular P(O2) of 8-10 kPa. In vivo, the existence of a night-time increase in arterial P(O2) of up to 4 kPa at water P(O2) values of 20 and 40 kPa was demonstrated, but an experimental increase in arterial P(O2) during the day did not lead to any rise in whole-body M(O2). This suggested that the low blood P(O2) in normoxia has no global limiting effect on daytime whole-body M(O2). The participation of blood O(2) status in shaping the circadian behaviour of crayfish is discussed. PMID:11171416

  13. THE WATER CYCLE/ CLOUDS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms.Brown

    2009-04-06

    Students will learn about the water cycle and how it works. You will explore many resources to find out many new factors about the water cycle. What is the water cycle? National water cycle Name the 4 water parts of the water cycle? Weather wonders Where are 3 places that the water cycle exists- What happens after condensation? animated water cycle Name 4 types of clouds? What is the highest level cloud called? Which cloud is associated with powerful thunderstorms? Cloud Types What do clouds have to do with the water cycle? National water cycle What is ...

  14. Toxicity of Selected Pharmaceuticals to the Anostracan Crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus - Comparison of Sublethal and Lethal Effect Levels with the 1h Rapidtoxkit and the 24h Thamnotoxkit Microbiotests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grzegorz Nalecz-Jawecki; Guido Persoone

    2006-01-01

    -  DOI: http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/10.1065\\/espr2006.01.005 \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background, Aims and Scope   In view of the limited amount of information on the potential hazard of the ever increasing amounts of drugs in surface waters\\u000a to aquatic biota, a study was undertaken to determine the effect levels of 28 selected pharmaceuticals to the crustacean test\\u000a species Thamnocephalus platyurus. The drugs belong to 5 different groups: non steroidal

  15. Combining Capillary Electrophoresis Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Stable Isotopic Labeling Techniques for Comparative Crustacean Peptidomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junhua; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Xiang, Feng; Zhang, Zichuan; Li, Lingjun

    2010-01-01

    Herein we describe a sensitive and straightforward off-line capillary electrophoresis (CE) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) interface in conjunction with stable isotopic labeling (SIL) technique for comparative neuropeptidomic analysis in crustacean model organisms. Two SIL schemes, including a binary H/D formaldehyde labeling technique and novel, laboratory-developed multiplexed dimethylated leucine-based isobaric tagging reagents, have been evaluated in these proof-of-concept experiments. We employ these isotopic labeling techniques in conjunction with CE-MALDI MS for quantitative peptidomic analyses of the pericardial organs isolated from two crustacean species, the European green crab Carcinus maenas and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Isotopically labeled peptide pairs are found to co-migrate in CE fractions and quantitative changes in relative abundances of peptide pairs are obtained by comparing peak intensities of respective peptide pairs. Several neuropeptide families exhibit changes in response to salinity stress, suggesting potential physiological functions of these signaling peptides. PMID:20334868

  16. A prominent requirement for single-minded and the ventral midline in patterning the dorsoventral axis of the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Vila, Mario A; Hannibal, Roberta L; Parchem, Ronald J; Liu, Paul Z; Patel, Nipam H

    2010-10-01

    In bilaterians, establishing the correct spatial positioning of structures along the dorsoventral (DV) axis is essential for proper embryonic development. Insects such as Drosophila rely on the Dorsal activity gradient and Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling to establish cell fates along the DV axis, leading to the distinction between tissues such as mesoderm, neurogenic ectoderm and dorsal ectoderm in the developing embryo. Subsequently, the ventral midline plays a more restricted role in DV patterning by establishing differential cell fates in adjacent regions of the neurogenic ectoderm. In this study, we examine the function of the ventral midline and the midline-associated gene single-minded (Ph-sim) in the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. Remarkably, we found that Ph-sim and the ventral midline play a central role in establishing proper fates along the entire DV axis in this animal; laser ablation of midline cells causes a failure to form neurogenic ectoderm and Ph-sim RNAi results in severely dorsalized embryos lacking both neurogenic ectoderm and the appendage-bearing lateral ectoderm. Furthermore, we hypothesize that this role of midline cells was present in the last common ancestor of crustaceans and insects. We predict that the transition to a Dorsal-dependent DV patterning system in the phylogenetically derived insect lineage leading to Drosophila has led to a more restricted role of the ventral midline in patterning the DV axis of these insects. PMID:20843860

  17. Multiple functions of the crustacean gill: osmotic/ionic regulation, acid-base balance, ammonia excretion, and bioaccumulation of toxic metals

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Raymond P.; Lucu, ?edomil; Onken, Horst; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean gill is a multi-functional organ, and it is the site of a number of physiological processes, including ion transport, which is the basis for hemolymph osmoregulation; acid-base balance; and ammonia excretion. The gill is also the site by which many toxic metals are taken up by aquatic crustaceans, and thus it plays an important role in the toxicology of these species. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of the mechanisms of osmotic and ionic regulation performed by the gill. The current concepts of the mechanisms of ion transport, the structural, biochemical, and molecular bases of systemic physiology, and the history of their development are discussed. The relationship between branchial ion transport and hemolymph acid-base regulation is also treated. In addition, the mechanisms of ammonia transport and excretion across the gill are discussed. And finally, the toxicology of heavy metal accumulation via the gill is reviewed in detail. PMID:23162474

  18. Essays on economic cycles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Groot de E. A

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Netherlands. It is remarkable that the lengths in years of the

  19. Cycling To Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Stan

    1999-01-01

    Encourages environmental and outdoor educators to promote bicycling. In the community and the curriculum, cycling connects environmental issues, health and fitness, law and citizenship, appropriate technology, and the joy of being outdoors. Describes the Ontario Cycling Association's cycling strategy and its four components: school cycling

  20. Molecular Approaches in Crustacean

    E-print Network

    Neigel, Joseph E.

    of higher organisms (Tautz 1989). When a microsatellite sequence is replicated, either "replication slippage of alleles that differ in length (Eisen 1999). Detection of microsatellite length variation distinct sizes, while homozygotes yield a single amplicon. The mutation rate for replication slippage can

  1. NJITMAGAZINE OF CRUSTACEANS,

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    to determine how physiological systems function. A crab's simple digestive system, says Farzan Nadim, associate in the central nervous system and what happens when those patterns become abnormal. Research into rhythmic neuron about 30 neurons involved in digestion, it is a good choice for studying the rhythmic pattern of fast

  2. Characterizing Diurnal and Seasonal Cycles in Monsoon Systems from TRMM and CEOP Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The CEOP Inter-Monsoon Study (CIMS) is one of the two main science drivers of CEOP that aims to (a) provide better understanding of fundamental physical processes in monsoon regions around the world, and (b) demonstrate the synergy and utility of CEOP data in providing a pathway for model physics evaluation and improvement. As the data collection phase for EOP-3 and EOP-4 is being completed, two full annual cycles (2003-2004) of research-quality data sets from satellites, reference sites, and model output location time series (MOLTS) have been processed and made available for data analyses and model validation studies. This article presents preliminary results of a CIMS study aimed at the characterization and intercomparison of all major monsoon systems. The CEOP reference site data proved its value in such exercises by being a powerful tool to cross-validate the TRMM data, and to intercompare with multi-model results in ongoing work. We use 6 years (1998-2003) of pentad CEOP/TRMM data with 2 deg x 2.5 deg. latitude-longitude grid, over the domain of interests to define the monsoon climatological diurnal and annual cycles for the East Asian Monsoon (EAM), the South Asian Monsoon (SAM), the West Africa Monsoon (WAM), the North America/Mexican Monsoon (NAM), the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) and the Australian Monsoon (AUM). As noted, the TRMM data used in the study were cross-validated using CEOP reference site data, where applicable. Results show that the observed diurnal cycle of rain peaked around late afternoon over monsoon land, and early morning over the oceans. The diurnal cycles in models tend to peak 2-3 hours earlier than observed. The seasonal cycles of the EAM and SAM show the strongest continentality, i.e, strong control by continental processes away from the ITCZ. The WAM, and the AUM shows the less continentality, i.e, strong control by the oceanic ITCZ.

  3. Characterizing diurnal and seasonal cycles in monsoon systems from TRMM and CEOP observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The CEOP Inter-Monsoon Study (CIMS) is one of the two main science drivers of CEOP that aims to (a) provide better understanding of fundamental physical processes in monsoon regions around the world, and (b) demonstrate the synergy and utility of CEOP data in providing a pathway for model physics evaluation and improvement. As the data collection phase for EOP-3 and EOP-4 is being completed, two full annual cycles (2003-2004) of research-quality data sets from satellites, reference sites, and model output location time series (MOLTS) have been processed and made available for data analyses and model validation studies. This article presents preliminary results of a CIMS study aimed at the characterization and intercomparison of all major monsoon systems. The CEOP reference site data proved its value in such exercises by being a powerful tool to cross-validate the TRMM data, and to intercompare with multi-model results in ongoing work. We use 6 years (1998-2003) of pentad CEOP/TRMM data with 2deg x 2.5deg latitude-longitude grid, over the domain of interests to define the monsoon climatological diurnal and annual cycles for the East Asian Monsoon (EAM), the South Asian Monsoon (SAM), the West Africa Monsoon (WAM), the North America/Mexican Monsoon (NAM), the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) and the Australian Monsoon (AUM). As noted, the TRMM data used in the study were cross-validated using CEOP reference site data, where applicable. Results show that the observed diurnal cycle of rain peaked around late afternoon over monsoon land, and early morning over the oceans. The diurnal cycles in models tend to peak 2-3 hours earlier than observed. The seasonal cycles of the EAM and SAM show the strongest continentality, i.e, strong control by continental processes away from the ITCZ. The WAM, and the AUM shows the less continentality, i.e, strong control by the oceanic ITCZ.

  4. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HIV life cycle. What is the connection between HIV medicines and the HIV life cycle? Without treatment, HIV infection gradually destroys ... the risk of HIV drug resistance . What is HIV drug resistance? Drug resistance is when HIV is ...

  5. Rock Cycle Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Use this interactive rock cycle animation to help you with your schoolwork! This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle.

  6. Edgeworth cycles revisited

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Joseph J.

    Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend ...

  7. From Monotonous Hop-and-Sink Swimming to Constant Gliding via Chaotic Motions in 3D: Is There Adaptive Behavior in Planktonic Micro-Crustaceans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickler, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    Planktonic micro-crustaceans, such as Daphnia, Copepod, and Cyclops, swim in the 3D environment of water and feed on suspended material, mostly algae and bacteria. Their mechanisms for swimming differ; some use their swimming legs to produce one hop per second resulting in a speed of one body-length per second, while others scan water volumes with their mouthparts and glide through the water column at 1 to 10 body-lengths per second. However, our observations show that these speeds are modulated. The question to be discussed will be whether or not these modulations show adaptive behavior taking food quality and food abundance as criteria for the swimming performances. Additionally, we investigated the degree these temporal motion patterns are dependant on the sizes, and therefore, on the Reynolds number of the animals.

  8. Ecdysone and the cell cycle: investigations in a mosquito cell line.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Ann M; Gerenday, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Cell lines provide a tool for investigating basic biological processes that underlie the complex interactions among the tissues and organs of an intact organism. We compare the evolution of insect and mammalian populations as they progress from diploid cell strains to continuous cell lines, and review the history of the well-characterized Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line, C7-10. Like Kc and S3 cells from Drosophila melanogaster, C7-10 cells are sensitive to the insect steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and express 20E-inducible proteins as well as the EcR and USP components of the ecdysteroid receptor. The decrease in growth associated with 20E treatment results in an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cycle, and a concomitant decrease in levels of cyclin A. In contrast, 20E induces a G2 arrest in a well-studied imaginal disc cell line from the moth, Plodia interpunctella. We hypothesize that 20E-mediated events associated with molting and metamorphosis include effects on regulatory proteins that modulate the mitotic cell cycle and that differences between the 20E response in diverse insect cell lines reflect an interplay between classical receptor-mediated effects on gene expression and non-classical effects on signaling pathways similar to those recently described for the vertebrate steroid hormone, estrogen. PMID:20303973

  9. The influence of sexual selection and predation on the mating and postcopulatory guarding behavior of stone crabs (Xanthidae, Menippe )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dara H. Wilber

    1989-01-01

    Postcopulatory mate guarding in crustaceans traditionally has been viewed as a behavioral mechanism that prevents predation on the soft post-molt female. This study tests the effects of sexual selection and predation on the postcopulatory guarding durations of male stone crabs, Menippe mercenaria, M. adina, and their hybrid. Male stone crabs were held with a pre-molt female, and either another adult

  10. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones of two cold water crab species, Chionoecetes opilio and C. japonicus: isolation of cDNA sequences and localization of CHH neuropeptide in eyestalk ganglia.

    PubMed

    Chung, J Sook; Ahn, I S; Yu, O H; Kim, D S

    2015-04-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is primarily known for its prototypical function in hyperglycemia which is induced by the release of CHH. The CHH release takes place as an adaptive response to the energy demands of the animals experiencing stressful environmental, physiological or behavioral conditions. Although >63 decapod CHH nucleotide sequences are known (GenBank), the majority of them is garnered from the species inhabiting shallow and warm water. In order to understand the adaptive role of CHH in Chionoecetes opilio and Chionoecetes japonicus inhabiting deep water environments, we first aimed for the isolation of the full-length cDNA sequence of CHH from the eyestalk ganglia of C. opilio (ChoCHH) and C. japonicus (ChjCHH) using degenerate PCR and 5' and 3' RACE. Cho- and ChjCHH cDNA sequences are identical in 5' UTR and ORF with 100% sequence identity of the putative 138aa of preproCHHs. The length of 3' UTR ChjCHH cDNA sequence is 39 nucleotides shorter than that of ChoCHH. This is the first report in decapod crustaceans that two different species have the identical sequence of CHH. ChoCHH expression increases during embryogenesis of C. opilio and is significantly higher in adult males and females. C. japonicus males have slightly higher ChjCHH expression than C. opilio males, but no statistical difference. In both species, the immunostaining intensity of CHH is stronger in the sinus gland than that of X-organ cells. Future studies will enable us to gain better understanding of the comparative metabolic physiology and endocrinology of cold, deep water species of Chionoecetes spp. PMID:25224573

  11. Discover the Water Cycle!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive tour of the water cycle allows students to follow a water molecule from a home's plumbing system as it follows different routes through the hydrologic cycle. Students learn about how water is used, treated, and returned to the natural environment where it can cycle through liquid, solid, and gas phases.

  12. What life? What cycle?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Zvegintzov; Staten Island

    1982-01-01

    The traditional system life cycle model does not portray the life of a system, nor is it a cycle. An alternative model is described that portrays the modification cycle of the system and the detailed activities of making a change. Implications are drawn for maintenance, development, and the education of software engineers.

  13. The Carbon Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elizabeth Sulzman

    This module covers the basics of the carbon cycle and research efforts that aim to integrate ecology and the earth sciences, and describes new methodologies being developed to explore the carbon cycle. The module is divided into the following sections: Overview, Exchanges between Reservoirs, Feedbacks in the Carbon Cycle, Implications for Global Climate, Questions and Discussion Topics, Glossary, and Suggested Reading.

  14. Reverse cycle heat pump

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harnish

    1977-01-01

    A reverse cycle heat pump is provided with a heat exchanger which provides refrigerant subcooling with no thermodynamic losses. The heat exchanger is arranged such that it is operative only during the heating cycle to permit optimum charging of the system and allow operation during the cooling cycle with no excess refrigerant in the system accumulator. The heat exchanger is

  15. The Rock Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Walls

    2011-01-30

    Create a poster about the rock cycle! Directions: Make a poster about the rock cycle. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about the rock cycle. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster ...

  16. The Wilson Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lynn Fichter

    This site provides an in-depth and interactive look at the Wilson Cycle in a nine-stage sequence. The Wilson Cycle explains the opening and closing of ocean basins and how certain landforms result; plate tectonics and the rock cycle play a large part in understanding these events. Boundary types are covered, and a series of cross-sections are given to fully explain the cycle. An interactive self-test is also available to assess how well the user understands the rock-cycle and rock types.

  17. Introduction to combined cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.

    Ideas and concepts underlying the technology of combined cycles including the scientific principles involved and the reasons these cycles are in fashion at the present time, are presented. A cycle is a steady flow process for conversion of heat energy into work, in which a working medium passes through a range of states, returning to its original state. Cycles for power production are the steam cycle, which is a closed cycle, and the gas turbine, which represents an open cycle. Combined cycle thermodynamic parameters, are discussed. The general arrangement of the plant is outlined and important features of their component parts described. The scope for future development is discussed. It is concluded that for the next few years the natural gas fired combined cycle will be the main type of plant installed for electricity generation and cogeneration. Whilst gas turbines may not increase substantially in unit size, there remains scope for further increase in firing temperature with consequent increase in cycle performance. However the larger global reserves of coal are providing an incentive to the development of plant for clean coal combustion using the inherent advantage of the combined cycle to attain high efficiencies.

  18. Population Bottlenecks during the Infectious Cycle of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Ryan O. M.; Bestor, Aaron; Štefka, Jan; Rosa, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a zoonotic pathogen whose maintenance in nature depends upon an infectious cycle that alternates between a tick vector and mammalian hosts. Lyme disease in humans results from transmission of B. burgdorferi by the bite of an infected tick. The population dynamics of B. burgdorferi throughout its natural infectious cycle are not well understood. We addressed this topic by assessing the colonization, dissemination and persistence of B. burgdorferi within and between the disparate mammalian and tick environments. To follow bacterial populations during infection, we generated seven isogenic but distinguishable B. burgdorferi clones, each with a unique sequence tag. These tags resulted in no phenotypic changes relative to wild type organisms, yet permitted highly sensitive and specific detection of individual clones by PCR. We followed the composition of the spirochete population throughout an experimental infectious cycle that was initiated with a mixed inoculum of all clones. We observed heterogeneity in the spirochete population disseminating within mice at very early time points, but all clones displayed the ability to colonize most mouse tissues by 3 weeks of infection. The complexity of clones subsequently declined as murine infection persisted. Larval ticks typically acquired a reduced and variable number of clones relative to what was present in infected mice at the time of tick feeding, and maintained the same spirochete population through the molt to nymphs. However, only a random subset of infectious spirochetes was transmitted to naïve mice when these ticks next fed. Our results clearly demonstrate that the spirochete population experiences stochastic bottlenecks during both acquisition and transmission by the tick vector, as well as during persistent infection of its murine host. The experimental system that we have developed can be used to further explore the forces that shape the population of this vector-borne bacterial pathogen throughout its infectious cycle. PMID:24979342

  19. The Life Cycle of the Tantulocarida (Crustacea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Boxshall; R. J. Lincoln

    1987-01-01

    Four new species of parasitic crustaceans belonging to the class Tantulocarida are described, two of which are placed in a new genus, Onceroxenus. Three of them parasitize deep-sea tanaids, the other, a deep sea asellote. Microdajus langi, originally classified as an epicaridean isopod, is recognized as a tantulocaridan. It is reported from Scottish waters for the first time and from

  20. Low cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. D. (editor); Kaisand, L. R. (editor); Halford, G. R. (editor); Leis, B. N. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume focus on various aspects of low cycle fatigue, including cyclic deformation, crack propagation, high-temperature low cycle fatigue, microstructural defects, multiaxial and variable amplitude loading, and life prediction. Papers are presented on the low cycle fatigue of some aluminum alloys, prediction of crack growth under creep-fatigue loading conditions, high-temperature low cycle fatigue behavior and lifetime prediction of a nickel-base ODS alloy, and an integrated approach to creep-fatigue life prediction. Other topics discussed include thermal fatigue testing of coated monocrystalline superalloys, low cycle fatigue of Al-Mg-Si alloys, and the effect of superimposed stresses at high frequency on low cycle fatigue.

  1. THE WATER CYCLE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2006-02-18

    DESK Standard: Understand the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Water Cycle Diagram DATES: You can begin this activity on October 16. You should complete it by October 20. OBJECTIVE: You have been learning about the water cycle in class. This activity gives you the chance to review some important vocabulary: evaporation condensation precipitation collection You will watch a short video and complete a water ...

  2. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This interactive diagram of the water cycle invites students to click on a part of the cycle to get information about streamflow, surface runoff, freshwater storage, ground-water discharge, ground-water storage, infiltration, precipitation, snowmelt, runoff to streams, springs, condensation, evaporation, transpiration, water in the atmosphere, ice and snow, and oceans. A summary of the water cycle on a single webpage is also available as text with pictures in about fifty languages, text only in thirteen languages, or diagram only.

  3. [Cycling in Zagreb].

    PubMed

    Matos, Stipan; Krapac, Ladislav; Krapac, Josip

    2007-01-01

    Cycling in Zagreb, as means of urban transport inside and outside the city, has a bright past, hazy presence but a promising future. Every day, aggressive citizens who lack urban traffic culture mistreat many cyclists but also many pedestrians. Sedentary way of living, unhealthy eating habits and inadequate recreation would surely be reduced if Zagreb had a network of cycling tracks (190 cm) or lanes (80 cm). Main city roads were constructed at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, the lack of cycling tracks is particularly evident in terms of missing connections between northern and southern parts of the city. Transportation of bikes in public vehicles, parking of bikes as well as cycling along the foot of the mountains Medvednica and Zumberacko gorje is not adequately organized. Better organization is necessary not only because of the present young generation but also because of the young who will shortly become citizens of the EU, where cycling is enormously popular. Cycling tourism is not known in Zagreb, partly due to inadequate roads. The surroundings of Zagreb are more suitable for cycling tourism and attractive brochures and tourist guides offer information to tourists on bikes. Professional, acrobatic and sports cycling do not have a tradition in Zagreb and in Croatia. The same holds true for recreational cycling and indoor exercise cycling. The authors discuss the impact of popularization of cycling using print and electronic media. The role of district and local self-government in the construction and improvement of traffic roads in Zagreb is very important. It is also significant for the implementation of legal regulations that must be obeyed by all traffic participants in order to protect cyclists, the most vulnerable group of traffic participants besides passengers. Multidisciplinary action of all benevolent experts would surely increase safety and pleasure of cycling in the city and its surroundings. This would also help reduce daily stress and improve the quality of living in the capital of Croatia. PMID:18949922

  4. Life Cycle of Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Johnson

    2011-04-07

    What is the life cycle of plants? First, look at pictures of Apple seeds , A Peach Seed , and Corn Seeds . Second, look at pictures of a Tomato Seedling , a Coconut Seedling , and Lettuce Seedlings . Third, look at pictures of Adult Palm Trees , Adult Rice Plants , and an Adult Grape Vine . Next, read about Seed Growth and How Seeds Start to Grow. After doing so, watch the Plant Life Cycle Video and fill out the Plant Life Cycle Organizer . ...

  5. The ENSO Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Climate Prediction Center.

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Centers for Environmental Predication (NCEP) have made available this excellent learning resource, the ENSO Cycle Website. Graphs, images, photographs, and brief summaries explicate topics such as the Mean state of the Ocean and Atmosphere across the Tropical Pacific, the ENSO Cycle, El Nino, La Nina, and the Evolution of the ENSO Cycle. Visitors can view spectacular photographs of wind gusts, localized thunderstorms and tornadoes, fires, and floods in the Climate Variability section.

  6. Butterfly Life Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie

    2009-10-22

    In this project we will be learning about the life cycle of a butterfly and how the caterpillar becomes to be a butterfly. WHAT IS THE LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY??? Subject: Science, Grade level:3rd and 4th Grade. Objective# 5-Describing life cycles of various animals to include incomplete and complete metamorphosis. In this project, I am going to show the students what an amazing and unique tranformation the a Caterpillar goes through and ...

  7. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Catherine Cramer

    2006-01-01

    The most important biochemical reactions for life in the ocean and on Earth are cellular respiration and photosynthesis. These two reactions play a central role in the carbon cycle. The ocean-based carbon cycle is highly relevant to today's students because of its key role in global warming. This experiment allows middle school students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth, explore experimental design, collect data, and draw a conclusion.

  8. The Carbon Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-04-27

    This Earth Observatory site contains detailed information on the carbon cycle of the Earth. It provides an explanation of the role of carbon in the geologic carbon cycle followed by a discussion of carbon in the life process, including photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon sinks on land and in the ocean are covered next, followed by the human role in the cycle. Lastly, the activity of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, (NASA), and that of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, (NOAA) in the exploration of the connection of the carbon cycle to weather and climate is covered.

  9. Nuclear fuel cycle costs

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1982-02-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel cycle costs are given for the pressurized water reactor once-through and fuel recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor system. These calculations show that fuel cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment.

  10. Molecular cloning of a putative crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) isoform from extra-eyestalk tissue of the blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus), and determination of temporal and spatial patterns of CHH gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junying Zheng; Hsiang-Yin Chen; Cheol Young Choi; Robert D. Roer; R. Douglas Watson

    2010-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a polypeptide neurohormone involved in regulation of multiple physiological processes. We report here the cloning from thoracic ganglia of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) a cDNA (CsCHH-2) encoding a putative CHH isoform (CsCHH-2). CsCHH-2 is structurally similar to a putative preproCHH (CsCHH-1) previously cloned from eyestalk ganglia of C. sapidus. The two preprohormones possess an

  11. High-Affinity Binding of Putative Moult-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) and Crustacean Hyperglycaemic Hormone (CHH) to Membrane-Bound Receptors on the Y-Organ of the Shore Crab Carcinus maenus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Webster

    1993-01-01

    Receptor-binding assays for putative moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) were developed to determine the distribution and characteristics of their receptors on crude membrane preparations of Carcinus maenus tissues. High-affinity, specific, displaceable and saturable binding of [125I]MIH indicative of receptor-ligand interaction was observed on Y-organ preparations. All tissues examined including the Y-organ specifically bound [125I]CHH, and, for this

  12. Amino acid sequence of the minor isomorph of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH-II) of the Mexican crayfish Procambarus bouvieri (Ortmann): Presence of a d-amino acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel B. Aguilar; Daniel Soyez; Rocco Falchetto; David Arnott; Jeffrey Shabanowitz; Donald F. Hunt; Alberto Huberman

    1995-01-01

    The primary structure of the neurohormone crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH-II) was determined by means of enzymatic digestions, manual Edman degradation, and mass spectrometry. CHH-II is a 72 residue peptide (molecular mass 8388 Da), with six cysteines forming three disulfide bridges that connect residues 7–43, 23–39, and 26–52. The peptide has blocked N- and C-termini, and lacks tryptophan, histidine, and methionine.

  13. Stable isotope ratios reveal food source of benthic fish and crustaceans along a gradient of trophic status in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Na; Shiao, Jen-Chieh; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Hsieh, Chih-hao

    2014-08-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) receives large quantities of particulate organic matter (POM) and inorganic nutrients transported from the Changjiang (Yangtze River), which have produced high productivity in the northwestern ECS. This study evaluated potential contributions of terrigenous POM (allochthonous food source) and nutrient-induced marine production (autochthonous source) to the ECS benthic ecosystem by analyzing stable isotopic compositions of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic crustaceans and fish. Benthic consumers exhibited ?13C values similar to those of their autochthonous food sources (i.e., phytoplankton and zooplankton), revealing their major reliance on marine production. In contrast, the ?13C values of benthic fish (-19.6‰ to -13.5‰) and crustaceans (-18.9‰ to -15.0‰) were much higher than that of terrigenous POM (-25.7‰), which generally accounted for less than 20% of the most fish diet. Phytoplankton and zooplankton generally exhibited higher ?13C values at eutrophic and highly productive inshore sites than at oligotrophic offshore sites. This enrichment of inshore ?13C values was mainly attributed to lower photosynthetic fractionation during algal blooms, an effect that was further enhanced during flood period of the Changjiang. The ?13C values of demersal fish assemblages were also significantly higher at inshore sites and decreased seaward. However, fish ?15N values and their estimated trophic levels showed relatively small spatial variation. The disproportionate variations in ?13C and ?15N values suggested that the enriched C isotopic signatures derived from an elevated ?13C baseline of the inshore food web instead of trophic enrichment of the isotopic ratios. The significantly positive correlations between concentrations of chlorophyll a and nutrients versus fish ?13C provided further evidence for the use of pelagic algal bloom materials by inshore consumers. The isotopic and oceanographic survey data suggested that inorganic nutrients discharged from the Changjiang River nourish benthic consumers in the ECS and play an important role in linking marine benthic ecosystems to local pelagic primary production as well as to the adjacent terrestrial watershed.

  14. Greedy Cycle Structures and Hamiltonian Cycles

    E-print Network

    West, Douglas B.

    vertices is Hamiltonian. · Extends to 3k + 1 vertices except for the Petersen graph (Zhu­Liu­Yu [1985 with at most 3k vertices is Hamiltonian. · Extends to 3k + 1 vertices except for the Petersen graph (Zhu­Liu graph (Zhu­Liu­Yu [1985], Bondy­Kouider [1988]). Goal: Prove it using Greedy Cycle Structure (Lu 1994

  15. The Cycle of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

    The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students? understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

  16. Family Life Cycle: 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Arthur J.

    1983-01-01

    Used data from a 1980 national sample survey to show differences in the timing of major family life-cycle events according to age, social and economic characteristics, and marital history. Results suggest that age generational differences, more than any other factor, influence timing of life-cycle events. (Author/JAC)

  17. Stirling-cycle refrigerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nakamura

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling-cycle refrigerator comprises a plurality of Stirling-cycle refrigerator units each having a displacer defining an expansion chamber, a piston defining a compression chamber, and a circuit including a heater and a cooler and interconnecting the expansion chamber and the compression chamber, and a heat exchanger shared by the circuits and disposed between the coolers and the heaters for effecting

  18. The carbon cycle revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  19. Earth's anthrobiogeochemical copper cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Rauch; T. E. Graedel

    2007-01-01

    An “anthrobiogeochemical” copper cycle, from Earth's core to the Moon, combining natural biogeochemical and human anthropogenic stocks and flows is derived for the mid-1990s. Although some aspects of the quantification have moderate to high uncertainty, the anthropogenic mining, manufacturing, and use flows (on the order of 104 Gg Cu\\/yr) clearly dominate the cycle. In contrast, the natural repositories of Earth's

  20. Teaching the Krebs Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a simple but rigorous treatment of the Krebs Cycle suitable for A-level Biology students. The importance of the addition of water molecules in various stages of the cycle is stressed as well as the removal of hydrogen atoms by the oxidizing enzymes. (JN)

  1. Human Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about the human water cycle, or how humans impact the water cycle by settling down in civilizations. Specifically, they learn how people obtain, use and dispose of water. Students also learn about shortages of treated, clean and safe water and learn about ways that engineers address this issue through water conservation and graywater recycling.

  2. Chapman Cycle Equilibrium Calculator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

    The Chapman Cycle Equilibrium Calculator solves for the equilibrium solution of the chemical reactions in the Chapman Cycle, assuming a solar flux equivalent to that at the top of the Earth's atmosphere. A Newton-Rhapson method is used to find the solution, which requires an initial guess as to the equilibrium solution.

  3. Measuring Cycling Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the basic mechanics of cycling with a simple reckoning of how much effort is needed from the cyclist. The work done by the cyclist is quantified when the ride is on the flat and also when pedaling uphill. Proves that by making use of the available gears on a mountain bike, cycling uphill can be accomplished without pain. (Author/ASK)

  4. Organic Rankine cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunn; M. E. Jr

    1978-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle systems are currently being developed for waste heat recovery systems from thermal power plants and industrial plants. DOE is supporting the development of three unique concepts of packaged Rankine cycle systems using different working fluids ranging from steam to Freon. The systems will recover the waste heat from the prime mover exhaust streams and convert it to

  5. Heterotrimeric G Protein Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anita Preininger (Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Department of Pharmacology)

    2004-02-03

    This animation shows the basic heterotrimeric G protein cycle and allows the user to then add three different regulators of the cycle, an RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) protein, a GDI (guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor) protein, or a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF).

  6. Rock Cycle Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The rock cycle is an ongoing process in which rock, driven by tectonic processes such as volcanoes and earthquakes, the surface processes of weathering and erosion, and compaction, is created, destroyed, and recycled. This interactive feature introduces viewers to the processes which come into play as rock proceeds through the various portions of the cycle.

  7. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  8. Urea Cycle Disease Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be delayed for months or years. Early in life, infants with urea cycle disorders develop toxic levels of ammonia build-up ... for the presence of a UCD. Amino acid analysis can be used to diagnose a specific urea cycle disorder. The amino acid arginine may be reduced ...

  9. Water Cycle Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The water cycle is Earth's natural mechanism for transporting and recycling water between the surface and the atmosphere. Through the processes of condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, transpiration, and evaporation, water continuously travels from the atmosphere to the ground and back again. In this animation from NASA, users can observe the steps of the water cycle. The segment is fifty-two seconds in length.

  10. Cycle Track Lessons Learned

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    · Provides space exclusively for bicycles · Separated from vehicle travel lanes, parking lanes and sidewalks: Google street view Airport Way · Two-way cycle track · Long, busy road with few cross-streets #12;Cycle tires ­ less danger of getting caught in tracks · Slower speeds #12;Cargo Bikes · Require more room

  11. Pyroelectric conversion cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.B.; Bruno, D.A.; Briscoe, J.M.

    1985-12-15

    The effect of the type of power cycle upon the amount of output electrical work for a pyroelectric converter has been measured. Output electrical energy densities are reported for ceramic lead zirconate modified with Sn/sup 4 +/ and Ti/sup 4 +/ in the execution of a variety of thermal-electrical cycles. The effect upon the energy density due to changes in the voltage cycle limits and changes in the load resistance were also studied. A conversion cycle which is an electric analog of the Ericsson cycle is shown to yield the largest output energy density (100 mJ/cm/sup 3/ for a 12.6 K temperature excursion and a 28-kV/cm electric field excursion).

  12. [Demography and population models of ticks of the genus Ixodes with long-term life cycles].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S

    2012-01-01

    The most important parameters necessary for the creation of population models for threehost species with long-term life cycles are discussed with an example of ticks Ixodes persulcatus and I. ricinus. In these species, specimens of the same biological age may belong to different age cohorts and their calendar age may differ by several months or even years. Accurate estimation of the calendar age of separate individuals is dofficult; it is based on the extrapolation by its possible biological age and by belonging to the certain age cohort of a natural population. Population models that can predict simultaneous abundance of activated hungry specimens of all the three developmental stages and probability of host-finding in hyngry ticks during questing period possess the prognostic value. Daily mortality of ticks of different developmental stages and phases of each stage (questing, feeding, preparation for molting, and diapause) must also be known. The abundance of questing hungry ticks in the ecosystem is determined by the balance between recruitment of the population with new individuals, their selection by hosts, dying of ticks from starvation, and consumption of ticks by predators. At present, unfortunately, only some of these parameters are known rather sufficiently. PMID:22834345

  13. A new method for early assessment of effects of exposing two non-target crustacean species, Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus fossarum, to pesticides, a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lukancic, Simon; Zibrat, Uros; Mezek, Tadej; Jerebic, Andreja; Simcic, Tatjana; Brancelj, Anton

    2010-05-01

    A reliable method is needed for assessing the condition of aquatic animals and their resistance to toxic pollutants. The physiological responses of two freshwater crustaceans, Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus fossarum, following in vitro exposure to two pesticides (atrazine and imidacloprid), were measured by a combination of electron transport system (ETS) activity and respiration (R). Short-term exposure concentrations were selected according to standard toxicity tests and ranged from 0.01 mg L(-1) to 10 mg L(-1). When pesticide concentration was greater than 1 mg l(- 1) (which is below the LC(50) [48 hours] determined for both species), A. aquaticus and G. fossarum responded to short-term exposure with elevated levels of R and/or lower levels of ETS activity. One hour exposure to concentrations of up to 10 mg L(-1) showed an effect in both test species. Laboratory tests confirmed that G. fossarum is more sensitive to short-term pesticide exposure than A. aquaticus. The combination of these two methods provides a useful and effective tool for assessing the general condition of aquatic animals. It also enables to determine toxic effects on freshwater biota of specific or combined pollutants. ETS/R ratio may be used as a quick predictor of effects on organisms exposed to pesticides and other stress factors such as changes in temperature, light, salinity, oxygen concentration and food. PMID:20203137

  14. Mixture effects of the nonylphenyl polyethoxylate, R-11 and the insecticide, imidacloprid on population growth rate and other parameters of the crustacean, Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue Dong; Culbert, Elizabeth; Hebert, Vince; Stark, John D

    2010-02-01

    The toxicity of the nonylphenol polyethoxylate, R-11 and the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid were evaluated on the crustacean, Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard. These compounds were evaluated separately and as a mixture because they are applied for pest control and may exist as a binary mixture in surface water. Acute mortality estimates (48h) were developed followed by population-level studies after chronic exposure. LC50s and 95% CL for R-11 and imidacloprid were 9241 (8521-9842)microg/l and 2.1 (1.1-3.4)microg/l, respectively. In the population study, C. dubia were exposed to concentrations equivalent to the acute LC25 for R-11 (8090microg/l) and imidacloprid (0.3microg/l) separately and as a mixture for 8d. The results of the chronic study indicated that R-11 had a greater impact on population parameters than imidacloprid and the mixture had a greater impact than either compound alone. For example, the total number of individuals at the end of the chronic study was 73%, 19%, and 6% of the control for imidacloprid, R-11, and the binary mixture, respectively. Additionally, exposure to R-11, imidacloprid, and the mixture resulted in 52%, 10%, and 91% reductions in population growth rate compared to the control, respectively. The results of this study indicate that when combined, R-11 and imidacloprid act in a more than additive manner. Therefore, it is important that their potential effects on aquatic organisms be evaluated together. PMID:19833391

  15. Sediment nickel bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine crustaceans of contrasting bioturbative behaviors--an evaluation of the SEM-AVS paradigm.

    PubMed

    Chandler, G Thomas; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R; He, Lijian; Washburn, Katherine M; Stewart, Emily R; Ferry, John L

    2014-11-01

    Robust sediment quality criteria require chemistry and toxicity data predictive of concentrations where population/community response should occur under known geochemical conditions. Understanding kinetic and geochemical effects on toxicant bioavailability is key, and these are influenced by infaunal sediment bioturbation. This study used fine-scale sediment and porewater measurement of contrasting infaunal effects on carbon-normalized SEM-AVS to evaluate safe or potentially toxic nickel concentrations in a high-binding Spartina saltmarsh sediment (4%TOC; 35-45 ?mol-S2-·g(-1)). Two crustaceans producing sharply contrasting bioturbation--the copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis and amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus--were cultured in oxic to anoxic sediments with SEM[Ni]-AVS, TOC, porewater [Ni], and porewater DOC measured weekly. From 180 to 750 ?g-Ni·g(-1) sediment, amphipod bioturbation reduced [AVS] and enhanced porewater [Ni]. Significant amphipod uptake, mortality, and growth-depression occurred at the higher sediment [Ni] even when [SEM-AVS]/foc suggested acceptable risk. Less bioturbative copepods produced higher AVS and porewater DOC but exhibited net population growth despite porewater [Ni] 1.3-1.7× their aqueous [Ni] LOEC. Copepod aqueous tests with/without dissolved organic matter showed significant aqueous DOC protection, which suggests porewater DOC attenuates sediment Ni toxicity. The SEM[Ni]-AVS relationship was predictive of acceptable risk for copepods at the important population-growth level. PMID:25313978

  16. Occurrence of L- and D-crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoforms in the eyestalk X-organ/sinus gland complex during the ontogeny of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Laetitia; Grousset, Evelyse; Charmantier, Guy; Spanings-Pierrot, Céline

    2004-09-01

    We studied the ontogeny of the eyestalk structure and of the L-CHH and d-Phe3-CHH synthesis in the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex by light microscopy and immunocytochemistry in the freshwater crustacean Astacus leptodactylus. The optic ganglia start to differentiate in embryos at EI 190 microm (EI: eye index; close to 410 microm at hatching). At EI 270 microm, the three medullae (externa, interna, and terminalis) and the lamina ganglionaris are present and are organized as in the adult eyestalk. The L-CHH was localized in perikarya of neuroendocrine cells, in their tracts, and in SG from the metanauplius stage to the adult. The d-Phe3-CHH was visualized in XO perikarya, in their tracts and in SG of embryos from EI 350 microm and in all later studied stages. Co-localization of both CHH stereoisomers always occurred in the d-Phe3-CHH-producing cells. These results show that the synthesis of CHH enantiomers starts during the embryonic life in A. leptodactylus, and that the d-isomer is synthesized later than its L-counterpart. We discuss the post-translational isomerization as a way to generate hormonal diversity and the putative relation between d-Phe3-CHH synthesis and the ability to osmoregulate, occurring late during the embryonic life of Astacus leptodactylus. PMID:15314080

  17. Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  18. Two Quantum Polytropic Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Hernández, L. A.; Morales-Serrano, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    In this work we follow the Bender et al paper [1] to study the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson polytropic cycles. In the context of the classical thermodynamics, the Stirling and Ericsson cycles correspond to reversible heat engines with two isothermal processes joined by two polytropic branches which occur in a device called regenerator. If this device is an ideal one, the efficiency of these cycles is the Carnot efficiency. Here, we introduce the quantum analogues of the Stirling and Ericsson cycles, the first one based on a double square potential well with a finite potential barrier, since in this system the tunnel effect could be the analogue to the regeneration classical process, therefore the isochoric quantum branches would really correspond to an internal energy storage, and the last one with an unknown system where the isobaric quantum processes don't induce changes in its quantum state. With these systems the quantum engines have cycles consisting of polytropic and isothermal quantum processes analogues to the corresponding classical processes. We show that in both cases the quantum cycles have an efficiency given by ?CQM = 1 - EC/EH, which is the same expression for the quantum analogue of the Carnot cycle studied by Bender.

  19. Applied physiology of cycling.

    PubMed

    Faria, I E

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long distance tempo cycling, will exploit both the anaerobic and aerobic systems. Strength training, to be effective, must be performed with the specific muscle groups used in cycling, and at specific angles of involvement. PMID:6390601

  20. Comparative life cycles and life histories of North American Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): lungworms from snakes and anurans.

    PubMed

    Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John

    2009-10-01

    The present study used experimental infections to compare the life cycles and life histories of 6 Rhabdias spp. infecting snakes and anurans. Free-living development of anuran lungworms was primarily limited to heterogonic reproduction, and females utilized matricidal endotoky exclusively, whereas snake lungworms primarily reproduced homogonically and, when heterogonic reproduction occurred, females used a combination of releasing eggs and matricidal endotoky. Infective snake lungworms survived for longer periods in fresh water compared to anuran worms. Infective anuran lungworms penetrated into the skin of frogs and toads; few infections resulted from per os infections. In contrast, snake lungworms were unable to penetrate skin; instead, infective juveniles penetrated into snake esophageal tissue during per os infections. Despite separate points of entry, anuran and snake lungworms both migrated and developed in the fascia, eventually penetrating into the body cavity of the host. Worms molted to adulthood inside the body cavity and subsequently penetrated into the host's lungs, where they fed on blood while becoming gravid. Adult lungworm survival varied among lungworm species, but, in general, snake lungworms were longer lived than anuran worms. Anuran lungworms were poorly suited for transmission via transport hosts, whereas snake lungworms were consistently capable of establishing infections using transport hosts. Overall, these observations suggest that snake and anuran lungworms have discrepant life cycles and life history strategies. PMID:19348516